c
= =
c
Therefore, 1 1
W
W W t
T T T T y
T T T T o
= =
Substituting the above and u u
=
=
or
2
4 4
;
t t
p p
kx kx
C u C u
o o
= =
Now:
( )
w
w
T
k h T T
y
 c
=

c
.
q
coduction
= q
convection
1/ 2
1/ 2
1
( ) ( )
4
4
w w
t
p
t p
h T T k T T
C u k
k kx
h k
C u x
o
=
 
 
= = =



\ .
\ .
( ) { }
0
0
=
c
c
=
}
y
y
T
dy T T u
dx
d t
o
o
( ) ( )
t p
W
t
W
C
k
T T dy
y
dx
d
T T u
t
o o
o
1
1
0
=
)
`


.

\

}
2
2. Glycerine at 30C flows past a 30cm square flat plate at a velocity of 1.5 m/s. The drag
force is measured as 10.98 N (for both sides of the plate). Calculate the heat transfer
coefficient for such a flow system. At 30C, properties of glycerine are:
3 2
1 2 5 8 / ; 2 . 4 5 5 / ; 0 . 0 0 0 5 0 / ;
0 . 2 6 8 / ; P r 5 3 8 0
p
k g m C k J k g K v m s
k W m K
= = =
= =
Solution:
Reynolds Analogy:
x
f
2/3
x
C
St Pr =
2
; where
x
x
p
h
St
C u
=
For one side of the plate:
2
2
1 2 2
2
10.98
61 /
2 2 0.3
2 61
0.0431
1258 1.52
x
w
w
f
F
N m
A
C
u
t
t
= = =
= = =
Substituting:
5
2/ 3
0.5 0.0431
7.015 10
5380
x
St
= =
Therefore:
5
5
2
7.015 10
7.015 10 1258 2445 1.5
323.68 /
x p
h C u
W m K
=
=
=
3. Atmospheric air at 25C flows over a plate at a velocity of 60 m/s. The plate of width 1m
and length 0.75m is maintained at a uniform temperature of 230C by independently
controlled, electrical strip heaters, each of which is 50mm long in the direction of the
airflow.
a) Determine at which heater does the flow undergo a transition from laminar to
turbulent flow.
b) Determine at which heater is the heat input a maximum
c) Determine the value of this heat input
d) Determine the heat input for the first heater
e) Determine the heat input for the first three heaters
f) Determine the heat input for the entire plate
3
Solution:
Given:
5
2 3
25 ; 230 ; 1 ; 0.75
60 / ; Heater length 0.05
( ) / 2 127.5 400
( )
1.0135 / ; 2.286 10 / . ;
3.365 10 / ; 0.8824 / ; Pr 0.688
w
f w
p
T C T C w m L m
u m s m
T T T C K
Rogers and Mayhewtables air gives
c kJ kgK kg ms
k W mK kg m
= = = =
= =
= + = ~
= =
= = =
a)
5
Re 5 10 /
c c
u x
= =
.
Substituting gives x
c
=0.216m
Since each heater is 0.05m, therefore transition to turbulent flow occurs at heater No.5
b) h
x
at 6
th
heater (turbulent flow) is highest, because at 5
th
heater h
x
is the average of the
laminar and turbulent flow values as shown in graph.
h
x
Laminar b.l
h
x
~ x
0.5
Turbulent b.l
h
x
~ x
0.2
Air u
= 60 m/s
T
= 25C
x
x = L
x
c
x
c
x
Heaters
1 2 3
4
c) To find h
x
over the 6
th
heater, find the h
x
at its midpoint, i.e. at x=0.275m.
d) Over first heater  laminar flow
1/ 2 1/ 3
2
.
0.664Re Pr
for 0.05 for laminar b.l. flow
: 134.1 /
134.1 (0.05 1)(205) 1375
x
x x
x
h x
average Nu
k
x L
Substituting h W m K
Q W
= =
= =
=
= =
e) Over first 3 heaters laminar flow
1/ 2 1/ 3
2
.
0.664Re Pr 2
3 0.05 0.15 :
77.5 /
77.5 (0.15 1)(205) 2383
L
L x x
x L
L
h x
Nu Nu
k
for x L m
h W m K
Q W
=
= = =
= = =
=
= =
f) Over the entire plate flow is laminarturbulent
0.8 1/ 3 .
0.8 1/ 3
0.8
(0.037Re 871) Pr
(mixed) laminarturbulent b.l. flow
(0.037Re 871) Pr ;
0.75 :
Re 98139 ; 109.3
. .(230 25) 16.81
L
L
L
L L
L L
L
h L
Average Nu
k
for
k
h
L
for x L m
h
Q h L kW
= =
=
= =
= =
= =
Note: for Part c, to be precise, apply
L
Nu equation for L= 5 x 0.05 and for L= 6 x 0.05 to get
L
h for each case.
Determine Q
1
for L = 0 to L = 0.25, and Q
2
for L = 0 to L = 0.30.
Then get Q
2
Q
1
.
The difference between this and our more convenient method is small.
0.8 1/ 3
0.8
1/ 3
2
.
0.0296Re Pr
.
0.0296 0.688 @ 0.275
140.6 /
.1(230 25) 1441
x
x x
x
x
x
h x
local Nu
k
for turbulent b l flow
u x k
h x
x
h W m K
Q h l W
= =
 
= =

\ .
=
= A =
5
4. A light breeze at 4.47 m/s blows across a metal building. The height of the building is
3.7m and the width is 6.1m. A net energy flux of 347 W/m
2
from the sun is absorbed in
the wall and subsequently dissipated to the surroundings by convection. Assuming that
the air is at 27C and 1 atmosphere, estimate the average temperature that the wall will
attain under equilibrium conditions.
Solution:
2
27 300 ; 6.1 ( 6.1 3.70)
4.47 / ; Constant 347 /
and ( ) / 2
are unknown and to be determined.
w f w
T C K L m area
u m s q W m
wall temperature T filmtemperature T T T
= = = =
= =
= +
5 2
3
Approach: / .
) 300
Properties of air at 300K:
1.846 10 / . ; 2.264 10 / ;
1.177 / ; Pr 0.707
1.177 4.47 6.1
Re
1.
f
L
Approximation assumption is reqd
i First assume T T K or any reasonable value
kg ms k W mK
kg m
u L
= =
= =
= =
= =
6 5
5
1.74 10 5 10
846 10
laminar  turbulent flow over flat wall
= >
x
Air u
= 4.47m/s
T
= 27C,
T
w
=?
q
w
=347 W/m
2
6
0.8 1/ 3 .
2
(0.037Re 871) Pr
above expression is valid for isothermal wall but is assumed
also valid for constant heat flux wall
10.68 /
. 347 ( ) .( 27)
59.5
L
L
L
L
L w
w
h L
average Nu
k
h W m K
q A A h A T
T C
= =
=
= =
=
) To improve accuracy, we may repeat calculations with
( ) / 2 (27 59.5) / 2
43.25 316.25
f w
ii
T T T
C K
= + = +
= =
5. Engine oil at the rate of 0.02 kg/s flows through a 3mm diameter tube, 30m long. The oil
has an inlet temperature of 60C, while the tube wall temperature is maintained at 100C
by a stream condensing on its outer surface.
a) Estimate the average heat transfer coefficient for the internal flow of oil.
b) Determine the outlet temperature of the oil.
Take the properties of engine oil to be: c
p
= 2131 J/kgK, = 852 kg/m
3
, v = 0.375x10
4
m
2
/s, k = 0.138 W/mK, Pr = 490.
Solution:
Tube flow, constant T
w
case (neglect entrance effects)
Properties of engine oil are given as : c
p
= 2131 J/kgK, = 852 kg/m
3
, v = 0.375x10
4
m
2
/s, k
= 0.138 W/mK, Pr = 490.
1 2
T
b1
=60
0
C T
b2
=?
T
w
=100C=const
d=0.003m
L=30m
Engine oil
=0.02 kg/s
T
b1
=60C
T
b2
=?
T
w
=const
7
7
w
2
4
Re
4 0.02 10
256.6 <2000
0.374 852 3
the flow is laminar
3.66 (const T case)
3.66 0.138
168.4 /
0.003
d
u d m
d
hd
Nu
k
h W m K
ut
t
= =
= =
= =
= =
2 1
2
2
0
Lecture notes ( )
exp .
100
0.003 30 168.4
exp
100 60 0.02 2131
86.9
p b b LMTD
i p
b
b
q mC T T hA T
T dL
h
T mC
T
T C
t
t
= = A
 
A
=


A
\ .
 
=

\ .
=
6. Water at 25C enters a tube of diameter 0.02 m at mass flow rate of 0.01 kg/s and is to be
heated to a temperature of 65C. The outside of the tube is wrapped with an electric
heating element that produces a uniform heat flux of 20 kW/m
2
over its entire length.
Determine the length of the tube required and the inner surface temperature of the tube at
the outlet. Determine the length of the tube required and the inner surface temperature of
the tube at the outlet if the flow rate of water is increased to 0.08kg/s. Comment on the
use of your equation to determine h.
T
b1
T
b2
q"=20 kW/m
2
Water
T
= 25 C
T
b1
=25 C
T
b2
=65 C
T
w
T
x
q"=const
From equation (8.23) in lecture notes:
8
Solution:
1 2
6
6
0.02 , 0.01 /
25 ; 65
(1/ 2)(25 65) 45
45 : from the tables for water
4181 / ; 594 10 /
0.638 / , Pr 3.89
4 4 0.01
Re
594 10 0.02
1071.6 2000
the fl
b b
b
p
d
d m m kg s
T C T C
T C
At C
c J kg C kg ms
k W mK
u d m
d
t t
= =
= =
= + =
= =
= =
= = =
= <
w
2
ow is laminar
4.36 for constant q
4.36 0.638 / 0.02 139 /
d
hd
Nu
k
h W m K
= =
= =
2
2
"
1
) ( )
20000 0.02 0.01 4181 40
1.331
) ( ) ;
( ) constant for constant q" tube flow
" 20000
( ) 143.8
139.08
143.8 65 208.8
p b b
w b
w b
w b
w
i q dL mC T T
L
L m
ii Q hA T T
T T
Q q
T T
hA h
T C
t
t
=
=
=
=
=
= = = =
= + =
0.8 0.4
0.8 0.4
2
) 0.08 / 8 0.01 /
Re 8 1071.6 8572.8 2000
flow is turbulent, Nu number eqn is
0.023Re Pr
Dittus &Boelter eqn for turbulent tube flow
0.638
(8572.8) (3.89) 0.023
0.02
1770 /
' 8 10
d
d d
iii m kg s kg s
hd
Nu
k
h
h W m K
L L
= =
= = >
= =
=
=
= =
2
' '
' '
.64
for the same entry and exit bulk temperatures
( )
" 20000 1770( )
' 11.3 65 76.3
w b
w b
w
m
Q hA T T
Q
q T T
A
T C
=
= = =
= + =
Much lower surface temp of the tube.
i.e. turbulent flow has higher h and hence higher convective heat transfer rate.