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Rough Guide to 3G and HSPA (Radio Part)
An Effort to Understand the Complexities of 3G/HSPA
Nandakumar Nair 10/24/2009 email@example.com
This rough guide is an effort to help RF engineers who are interested in learning the basic principles of 3G/HSPA and apply in their daily work.
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10
INTRODUCTION GENERAL CONCEPTS OF 3G/UMTS/WCDMA
3G : General Information UMTS Network Why do we need 3G? Is 2G not enough? What is the main difference between 3G and 2G? Why does 3G have less coverage compared to GSM900? Why is WCDMA called Wideband CDMA? What are the frequency bands used in 3G? QOS Classes in 3G What are the main services available (and used) in 3G/HSPA as of October 2009? Main difference in performance between R99 Packet and HSDPA
5 5 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8
3.1 3.2 3.3
TECHNICAL CONCEPTS OF 3G/UMTS/WCDMA
Noise Floor Pilot Ec/No, RSCP
9 9 9 10 10 10 11 12 13 14
3.4 Codes What is the difference between Scrambling, Spreading and Channelization Codes? 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Scrambling Codes Spreading Codes Spreading Factor Spreading and Processing Gain : What do they mean for us? Soft & Softer Handover
3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14
Power Control Achievable Speeds in 3G What factors affect the data rates available to a user? What are the main issues in a real 3G network? What is the difference between RAB and RB?
15 17 18 18 20
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6
HSDPA – Techniques HSDPA Channel Structure Advantages of HSDPA over R99 What is the maximum possible speed in HSDPA? Why is CQI important? Limiting factors of HSDPA
21 21 22 23 24 25
5.1 5.2 5.3
EUL – Techniques EUL - Channels Achievable Speeds in EUL
25 26 26
HSDPA & EUL
Resource Utilization in HSDPA and EUL Difference between HSDPA and EUL
7. 8. 9.
KPIS CAPACITY MANAGEMENT NETWORK ELEMENTS UTILIZATION
28 28 29 31
10. INTER-RAT & INTER-FREQUENCY HANDOVERS
10.1 10.2 10.3
Inter-RAT Handovers Inter-Frequency Handovers Compressed Mode
31 32 32
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4
WHAT NEXT AFTER HSPA?
HSPA+ MIMO Dual Carrier HSPA Continuous Packet Connectivity
33 34 34 35
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4
UE Categories Modulation Schemes SIB List UTRAN Protocols
37 38 39 39 40
Acknowledgements & References
Introduction This Rough Guide has been written with the objective of aiding those. This is not a big issue as UMTS-GSM handover is possible. Core Network details are not explained.1 3G : General Information UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Provides mainly Speech. 5 . All IP network (SAE) SAES Enhancements. R99 data and HS services 3GPP Releases Rel 99 Rel 5 Rel 6 Rel 7 Rel 8 Rel 9 Rel 10 3G UMTS HSDPA EUL HSPA + LTE. Prior knowledge will be helpful for deeper understanding of the material presented in this guide. usually UMTS and GSM/EDGE have a shared Core Network. 2. Generally UMTS networks are built up on existing GSM networks and both networks co-exist. WiMax and LTE/UMTS Interoperability LTE advanced 2. UMTS networks in general have lesser coverage due to the fact that most of them operate at higher frequency bands.2 UMTS Network UMTS can be considered as an evolution of GSM. only GSM is considered. While UMTS has its own radio access network known as UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network ). who already have some experience with 3G. Please note that only WCDMA is considered in this guide and for 2G. General Concepts of 3G/UMTS/WCDMA 2. Video. Most of the topics covered are Radio related.Rough Guide to 3G and HSPA 1.
Please note that the network below has a common core network for both 3G and 2G. Multiplexing of services with different QOS requirements on a single connection is possible with 3G. in addition to Speech traffic. 2G was mainly designed keeping in mind the requirements for Speech traffic. 3G has been developed mainly to cater to data services. Fig 1: UMTS/GSM Network 2.3 Why do we need 3G? Is 2G not enough? 3G gives much higher data rates compared to 2G. 6 .
we have different frequency bands. which gives them greater propagation capability.2. 2. 7 .Downlink (base station to mobile) 2110-2170 MHz Point to remember: Generally. operators are given 5MHz Carriers and can have one or more carriers depending on the operator requirements as well as frequency band availability. for uplink and downlink. which has only 1. UL – Uplink (mobile to base station) 1920-1980 MHz DL . which usually works at the 2GHz band. 2.6 Why is WCDMA called Wideband CDMA? WCDMA has a higher bandwidth of 5 MHz compared to IS-95(cdmaOne). Hence.25MHz.7 What are the frequency bands used in 3G? FDD – Frequency Division Duplexing is mainly used for UMTS. Lower frequency signals are attenuated less.5 Why does 3G have less coverage compared to GSM900? GSM900 works at a lower frequency band than 3G.4 What is the main difference between 3G and 2G? WCDMA 5MHz 1 Multipath diversity with rake receivers achieved with 5MHz bandwidth Load based Scheduling 1500Hz GSM 200kHz 1-18 Frequency Hopping Carrier Bandwidth Frequency Re-use Factor Frequency Diversity Packet Data Power Control Frequency Time Slot based Scheduling with GPRS 2Hz or lower 2.
In real networks.Packet Switching with 64kbps dedicated channel – Packet Switching with 128kbps dedicated channel – Packet Switching with 384kbps dedicated channel . We can easily say that an average HS user can get between 1100kbps to 2000kbps. an average HS subscriber gets around 5-8 times throughput.280kbps.2.Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream Interactive (Best Effort) .2 kbps dedicated channel – Video Telephony with 64kbps dedicated channel .Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream .9 What are the main services available (and used) in 3G/HSPA as of October 2009? Service CS12 CS64 PS64 PS128 PS384 HSDPA EUL – – Speech Service with 12. Interactive.Conversational pattern (stringent and low delay ) voice Streaming (Real Time) .10 Main difference in performance between R99 Packet and HSDPA R99 Packet service requires dedicated channels whereas HSDPA users have a shared channel Speeds of HSDPA are much higher compared to 3G(R99).8 QOS Classes in 3G CSIB – Conversational.whereas an average R99 user can get around 250.. Streaming.High Speed Downlink Packet Access – shared channel Enhanced Uplink 2. compared to an R99 data user. 8 .Request response pattern Background (Best Effort) -Destination is not expecting the data within a certain time -Preserve payload content web browsing -Preserve payload content emails Example of the application streaming video 2. Background Traffic Class Basic Features Conversational (Real Time) .
whereas too-strong pilots will lead to overshooting and interference. Ec/No = RSCP/RSSI 9 . 3. Only a receiver with knowledge of the correct PN (pseudorandom noise) sequence can detect the signal. defined on the pilot symbols. Ec2/No and Ec3/No and decide which pilot will be the best server. all these values depend on the configuration of the network. 3. No is the noise floor. Any other receiver will see only the noise. the better it is…. For example speeds of about 6Mbps was reported during random field tests in one of the networks in Kuwait. Please note that the existing receivers have rake receiver functionality which enables them to decode multiple pilots and use them accordingly based on their strength. Too-weak pilot will lead to coverage holes. Technical Concepts of 3G/UMTS/WCDMA 3.2 Pilot Pilot coverage decides the coverage boundary for a particular site.the mobile receiver will compare Ec1/No.1 Noise Floor Main idea of WCDMA is to spread the User signal over the whole band. which signifies all the signals (useful and interfering) present at the receiver side. For example: If there are 3 pilots present…. Hence the security is high. pushing the signal under the noise floor. Proper Pilot power planning is very important. RSCP : Received Signal Code Power is the received power on one code after despreading.3 Ec/No.Ofcourse. Introduction of higher capacity UEs as well as higher modulation schemes will further increase the HS throughputs. For example: A value of Ec/No= -8dB tells us that the spread signal is 8 dB below the noise floor Higher the Ec/No value. More details are provided in Handover and Pilot Pollution Sections. RSCP Ec/No signifies the level difference between received pilot signal and the overall noise floor. 3. Usually in urban areas Pilots have values between 27-30dBm. Point to remember : In real networks Pilot power normally varies between 27-33dBm.
10 . Downlink primary scrambling codes are used for cell separation. Secondary scrambling codes are not used.5 Scrambling Codes Downlink Scrambling Codes odes 3 types of scrambling codes are available in DL: primary. is allocated for each cell. One primary scrambling code.3. Alternative re scrambling codes can be used in compressed mode. Spreading and Channelization Codes? Spreading Code = Channelization Code Channelization Code/ Spreading Code DL – Separation of DL dedicated user channels UL – Separation of Data and Control channels from the same terminal Variable Depends on SF Scrambling Code DL – Separation of Cells (Sectors) UL – Separation of UEs Usage Length No: of Codes Fixed DL – 512 UL – Unlimited (Millions) Fig 2: Usage of Scrambling Codes and Channelization codes 3. secondary and alternative.4 Codes What is the difference between Scrambling.
Only the long ones are used.How many Scrambling Codes are available in DL? – 512 Uplink Scrambling Codes 2 types of scrambling codes are available in UL : long and short. then all the codes below and above on the same branch are unavailable for service. though due to multipath propagation. Fig 3: Code Tree for orthogonally spreading codes Example : Code management with the help of the code tree If code C2(0) in the Tree of orthogonal spreading codes (in the figure above) is allocated. 3. Basic rule is that codes are orthogonal. Uplink scrambling codes are used for separating the different UEs in the same cell. if they do not descend from an already used code. then: 11 . Resource manager keeps track of the codes allocated so that orthogonality of the code tree is preserved. If a code is used. RNC allocates the code. Channelization codes are managed with the help of a code-tree. Ideally they are orthogonal to each other. some orthogonality might be lost.6 Spreading Codes Downlink Spreading Codes (Channelization Codes) DL spreading codes differentiate the dedicated user connections/channels within one cell.
7 Spreading Factor Higher the bit rate of the data service. Continuous transmission is achieved with I/Q code multiplexing or by using parallel control and data channels. Service Spreading Factor Half Rate – AMR 256 Speech 128 CS64 32 PS64 32 PS128 16 PS384 8 HSDPA 16 Table giving DL spreading factors for different services Points to remember : Usually UL spreading factor for a service is half the value of that in the DL (when the RAB bearer rates are the same in both UL and DL). 3. lesser the spreading factor. For example: DL SF for speech(AMR12. All codes above it in the same branch to root become unavailable. C1(0) and C0(0) cannot be assigned to any user . Spreading codes of some channels (mainly Pilot and P-CCPCH) are fixed. C4(0). then. where as in UL. data and control channels are not time multiplexed in WCDMA.All codes below it in the same branch become unavailable. Spreading codes for all other downlink physical channels are allocated by the resource manager. starting with C3(0) and C3(1). it has a SF of 64. and so on.2) service is 128. that is. To avoid audible interference to audio devices in UL. Why should we avoid pulsed transmission in the UL? During the silent periods. A typical example is Power Control commands at 1.5KHz which can interfere with the telephony voice frequency band. C4(1). 12 . on the next level. only information for link maintenance purposes are needed in UL direction. C4(2) and C4(4).
but the baseband signal is hidden below the noise floor and hence difficult to detect 3) Effect of Narrow-band interference is reduced. with help of a spreading code 2) Overall noise floor rises. since only a small part of the signal will be affected and data can be recovered with effective techniques 4) Effect of Multipath fading is also reduced 5) Higher the bit rate of the service.48Mcps / 12. Point to remember : Spreading and despreading can be considered as a process of pushing the actual baseband signal below the noise floor and then retrieving it.84MHz). In GSM. the baseband signal is spread using a spreading code… By spreading. 1) Baseband signal is spread over the entire spectrum (3. the requirement is Rx Sig Level + Processing Gain > Eb/No Eg: PG for speech = 10 log ( 3.2Mbps) = 25dB Eb/No requirement for speech = 5dB (for good service) Rx sig level = 5 – 25 = -20dB (which implies that even if the received signal is 20 dB below the noise floor. Processing Gain = 10 log (chiprate / bit rate) To get a good service. lower the SF (Speech SF = 128. PS384 SF= 8) and lower the processing gain Despreading is done at the RX side. 13 . By despreading 1) We get the baseband signal back and gain from the processing gain. the C/I requirement is about 9-12dB.8 Spreading and Processing Gain : What do they mean for us? In WCDMA. the WCDMA receiver can detect the speech signal). This directly gives an advantage of about 20-25 dB for WCDMA.3.
UE continuously measures the neighbouring signals and compares the measurement results with specific handover thresholds set by the operator. There are 3 types of Soft Handover 1) Handover between sectors in the same site (Softer Handover) 2) Intra-RNC SHO 3) Inter-RNC SHO Majority of Soft handovers are usually Intra-RNC SHO. it is important to know Event 1a. UE sends a measurement report to the RNC. 1b. when certain thresholds are crossed. Events Mobile sends Measurement Report to RNC. RNC decides if the SHO should take place. 1c and 1d. For SHO. Soft Handover is also called MEHO – Mobile Evaluated Handover Active Set : Set of cells which are in soft handover. Advantages of SHO: 1) Seamless handover without disconnection of RAB 2) Macro diversity gain.achieved in both UL and DL due to the combining of signals from different cells 3) Better performance in areas where a single cell is not strong enough Disadvantages of SHO 1) Increased consumption of radio resource as one UE in SHO. While in connected mode. Event 1a : addition of a new cell to the Active Set Event 1b: deletion of a cell from the Active Set 14 .. When the threshold is exceeded. will use more than one radio link at a time Point to remember : SHO is kept in mind during the initial planning and ideally an overhead of 30-40% is assumed.9 Soft & Softer Handover Soft handover is the condition in which the UE is connected to more than one NodeB at the same time.3.
When the maximum number of steps in a preamble cycle is used. Power control in dedicated channels ensure that connection quality is maintained in terms of BLER (Block Error Rate) There are mainly 3 types of power control.Event 1c: replacement of weaker cell in Active Set by another stronger cell (not in the Active Set) Event 1d : replacement of best cell in Active Set by a stronger cell (from Active Set. A single UE can create problems with excessive transmission in the UL. 1) Open loop power control 2) Closed loop power control (Fast Power Control) 3) Outer loop power control Open Loop Power Control – When the UE accesses the system it first sends a preamble and waits for a response from the NodeB. is not obtained. The process of ramping up preamble power continues till either a response is obtained from the NodeB or the allowed number of preamble steps are used. Power control is done on both common and dedicated channels. Monitored Set or Detected Set) 3. So it is important to avoid excessive transmission in DL. Power control mechanism takes care of this.10 Power Control Main purpose of Power control mechanism is to 1) maintain the quality of service 2) minimize the transmitted power in both UL and DL In WCDMA. another preamble cycle is started. If this expected response. 15 . which in turn is limited by a maximum number of preamble cycles set by the operator. the UE transmits another preamble with slightly higher power. downlink transmitted power determines the interference and hence the air interface capacity. AI (Acquisition Indicator). Power control in common channels ensure that sufficient coverage is available to setup UE-originating and UE-terminating calls as well as data transfer on RACH and FACH.
Point to remember : Three parameters are controlled by the operator in the case of Open loop power control ( preamble step. then the SIR target is decreased. Based on the comparison. UE and BTS continuously compare the actual SIR of the received signal with a target SIR. For example: if the received BLER is not meeting the expected quality. Fig 4: Power Control Mechanism 16 . Closed Loop Power Control (Fast Power Control) – setting of TX power based on SIR target (in NodeB). Done with a frequency of 1500Hz. then the SIR target is increased and if the received BLER is higher than the expected quality. the SIR target for the Fast Power Control is increased or decreased. Based on the BLER. BTS/UE tells the UE/BTS to either increase or decrease the transmission power. by monitoring the BLER of the received signal. number of preamble steps in a preamble cycle and the number of preamble cycles). Outer Loop Power Control – setting of SIR target based on Frame quality (in RNC). Outer loop power control aims to provide the required quality in both UL and DL.
3 codes with SF4 gives the max possible data rate. data rate = 3 * 1.76 Mbps BUT.84Mcps / 8 ) = 480ksps ksps = kilo symbols per second Since R99 uses only QPSK. Data Rate = 480ksps = 960 * 2 bits = 1920kbps = 1. Net User Data == 384kbps (max possible) 17 . 1 symbol = 2 bits Hence.92Mbps = 5. Data Rate = Net User Data + Channel Code Redundancy + Control Data After taking out Channel Code Redundancy and Control data.11 Achievable Speeds in 3G How do we get the speed of 2Mbps for R99 ? Data Rate = Chip Rate / Spreading Factor In R99.84Mcps / 4 ) = 960ksps ksps = kilo symbols per second Since R99 uses only QPSK. SF for PS384 = 8 Data Rate for one SF4 code = (3. Data Rate = 480ksps = 480 * 2 bits = 960kbps BUT. Data Rate for one SF4 code = (3. Net User Data == 2Mbps (the above value is for one sector with one carrier) Point to remember : The code rate used in R99 is 1/3 Why do we have 384kbps as the max possible data for a single R99 Packet user in 3G? Currently PS384 is the highest RAB available in DL for R99 Packet users. Data Rate = Net User Data + Channel Code Redundancy + Control Data After taking out Channel Code Redundancy and Control data.3. 1 symbol = 2 bits Hence.92Mbps For 3 SF4 codes.
1 QPSK code at SF16 = 480kbps 1 16-QAM code at SF16 = 960kbps 1 64-QAM code at SF16 = 1440kbps For HSDPA after applying ¾ coding rate 1QPSK Code = 360kbps 1 16-QAM Code = 720kbps 1 64-QAM Code = 1080kbps 10 codes with 16QAM = 720 * 10 = 7200 kbps = 7.13 What are the main issues in a real 3G network? Pilot Pollution (Improper Pilot Power Planning) Main objective of Pilot planning is to have a dominant signal at a given place. since Soft handover will manage the situation. this is difficult to achieve.2Mbps 15 codes with 16QAM = 720 *15 = 10.2Mbps (max per cell or sector) Theoretical max of HSDPA with one carrier = 15 Codes * 1440kbps = 21. which is impossible in actual conditions) 3.8Mbps (max per cell or sector) 15 codes with 64QAM = 1080 *15 = 16. In practice.12 What factors affect the data rates available to a user? User position in the cell Interference from other users and neighbouring cells Number of subscribers accessing the same cell Speed of the customer (if he is mobile) 3.How do you calculate maximum possible speed in HSDPA? Using the formula (data rate = chiprate/spreading factor). 2 to 3 strong signals are still ok. But if you have more signals coming at the same place with more-or-less equal strength. then the UE gets confused and cannot correctly decode the 18 .6Mbps for a single carrier (assuming coding rate of 1.
19 . So the overall coverage of the cell shrinks. the new signal adds to the interference. Tilt and Azimuths optimization mainly used to avoid pilot pollution. to avoid any coverage gaps. Improper UEs Though not observed on a wide scale. this can be a problem. Overall throughput of the data user will be affected due to unnecessary handovers/cell changes. Soft handover does not take place and as a result Ec/No degrades. As a result the call drops when the new signal is about 15dB higher than the cells in the Active set. Points to remember: Strive to have ONE dominant Pilot signal at a given place. Cell Breathing With more and more users coming into a cell. Proper handover regions should be planned. Cell breathing is more of a planning issue and has to be considered at the planning stage itself. A malfunctioning UE can cause many problems like Demanding too much power from the base station In-efficient channel switching Excessive transmission of power in UL IRAT HO Parameter Definition Improper definitions can lead to un-necessary handover between 3G and 2g. In Ec/No. Missing Neighbour Definitions This can be observed on Field with Tems or any monitoring tool (as Detected Set). Power. Ec is good (as long as there is no pilot pollution). No is interference. the actual power available for services is lesser than the power available in an empty cell. This can be a problem especially for indoor customers using HSDPA or data services. When the UE is getting a strong signal which is not defined as a neighbour to the existing cells in the Active Set.signals due to low Useful Signal-to-Interference ratio (Ec/No) and hence the call gets dropped.
In actual practice. Improper allocation of priority can lead to bad handover decisions. the speed varies. Low Sites One major mistake RF planners did in the beginning was to install low sites for UMTS. 20 . low sites are generally problematic as they overshoot and contribute to Pilot Pollution. Operator can decide how to distribute HS and R99 traffic in different carriers. Down-tilting of low sites can lead to coverage holes…(we should keep in mind that down-tilting is an efficient way of reducing overshooting). 3. Point to remember: Greater the number of codes you reserve for HS. which implies that these codes are not available for other R99 services like Speech. it is better to have low sites with lower coverage areas. due to higher traffic. It is possible to give higher priority for some cells than to other cells. CS64 and PS. When there is a shortage of codes. which implies that 15 codes will be available solely for HS and no other services will be possible in that carrier.Prioritizing Neighbours More efficient handover can be achieved by proper prioritization of neighbours. and this varies from vendor to vendor. Multiple codes can be reserved for HSDPA at this SF level and depending on the number of codes available.14 What is the difference between RAB and RB? RAB – Radio Access Bearer – Link between UE and Core (Radio + Iub + Iu) RB – Radio Bearer – Link between UE and RNC (Radio + Iub) 4. HSDPA HSDPA has a fixed spreading factor of 16. There are different ways of code allocation for HSDPA. so as to make sure that chances for a handover is higher between certain cells. This parameter can also be used to avoid handover in certain locations between certain cells to some extent. Details are given in the section What is the maximum possible speed in HSDPA? Generally operators reserve 5 or 10 codes per carrier (out of the 15 available) for HSDPA service. lesser the resources available for R99 services. the operators can go for a second carrier. thinking mistakenly that since interference is to be avoided in UMTS. It is also possible to have a carrier fully allocated to HS.
2 HSDPA Channel Structure In addition to the new downlink shared channel HS-DSCH. Mainly they are HS-SCCH and HS-DPCCH. some control channels are also required for HSDPA. 21 . modulation technique) Fig 5: HSDPA Techniques 4.1 - HSDPA – Techniques Shared Channel Transmission (enabling one user to have more than one code) Shorter TTI (2ms) Higher Modulation Technique (16QAM ) Hybrid ARQ Retransmission Faster Scheduling based on Radio conditions Better Scheduling Techniques(code rate.4.
CQI SRB (Control signaling: RRC and NAS) in DL SRB and User data in UL HS-SCCH HS-DPCCH A-DCH DL UL UL and DL Table giving HSDPA Channels and related R99 Channels Fig 6: HSDPA Channels 4.3 - Advantages of HSDPA over R99 Faster Retransmission (due to control in NodeB).Channel HS – DSCH Direction DL Content User Data Control information to address UEs and information for decoding the transport block. leading to much lower RTT 22 . UEs can see upto 4 HS-SCCH ACK/NAK.
11 23 . hence higher throughputs Shorter TTIs. it was the preferred scheduler. the radio conditions also and tries to improve the overall cell throughput by giving slightly higher preference to users in better radio conditions. not much difference in overall cell throughput was observed between the two scheduling techniques and since Round Robin scheduling came free of charge.Fig 7: Retransmission methods in R99 and HSDPA As seen in the picture above.4 What is the maximum possible speed in HSDPA? Check section 3. in case of R99. 4. whereas in HSDPA. This leads to a great reduction in overall RTT (Round Trip Time) More codes used by a single user. Proportional fair scheduling takes into account. retransmission decision is taken in the RNC (RLC layer). Round Robin scheduling. the retransmission decision is taken in NodeB (MAChs layer). the users are in. with most vendors. In actual testing conditions. allocates resources to every user in a round robin manner regardless of the radio conditions. hence better response time and RTT 16QAM is not used in R99 Soft Combining of re-transmission Point to remember : There are mainly 2 types of scheduling in HSDPA – Round Robin and Proportional Fair.
indicates a low quality network and optimization is required. Higher the CQI. NodeB scheduler allocates resources to the UE.5 Why is CQI important? CQI is the feedback which the system receives from the UE and it mainly indicates the radio condition of the UE. better the network. Fig 8: Overall picture of how radio conditions affect HS Throughput and Power Requirement The figure above summarizes the tests conducted for a HS user in both bad and good radio conditions. An average CQI value of about 22 and above. the left side represents a user in bad radio condition and the right side represents a user in a good radio condition. In all the 3 graphs above. indicates a reasonably good network. 24 . Depending on the CQI values. CQI values less than 17.4.
UE Category 5. Channel Elements.6 Limiting factors of HSDPA Channelization Codes. In bad radio conditions. For higher order modulations to work. though he got almost the same throughput as the user in good radio condition. With R99. CQI values should be high. EUL should give higher throughputs and greater capacity than R99. we need to have upto 32 channel elements. Modulation Scheme. the user consumed much more power. Power. Hence in this case.A user in a very bad radio condition reports an average CQI of 14. For example: Assume that 4 users want to upload big amounts of data…(let us say. 32 CEs are saved by using EUL. whereas the same user in excellent radio conditions reported an average CQI of 26.4 to 2Mbps in EUL where as it is 384 kbps with R99. since each 384UL RAB requires 16 CEs. assuming that they are using 384 RAB in uplink. 5. - 4. Points to remember : It is very important to have a HS user in good radio conditions.1 - EUL – Techniques Hybrid ARQ with Soft Combining Fast Channel Dependent Scheduling Multi-code Transmission 25 . EUL Main idea of EUL is to effectively use the interference headroom available in the uplink. Overall. Simultaneous users. leading to increased capacity for the system. total CE requirement = 4 * 16 = 64 CEs. since higher throughputs can be achieved with lesser transmitted power. Currently achievable peak individual user throughputs are around 1. movies) If EUL is used.
Data rate per channel = 0. maximum rate = 0.2 EUL .96Mbps Since 2 channels (2 SF4) are possible. Data rate per channel = 3.Channels Fig 9: EUL Channel Structure 5.84/4 = 0.96 * 2 = 1.92Mbps 26 .3 Achievable Speeds in EUL Case 1: Assuming that the UE category available can support only upto 2 SF4.- Power Control Soft Handover 5.96Msps 1symbol = 1bit since BPSK is used in EUL So.
Channelization Codes and Channel Elements In EUL. HSDPA & EUL 6. we will be getting higher UL throughputs.1 Resource Utilization in HSDPA and EUL In HSDPA.46Mbps Point to remember: Above figure is the total bit rate achievable with EUL in one cell. If we have SF2 available.84/4 = 0.32Mbps Why is it NOT beneficial to have 16-QAM in EUL ? Since UL is interference limited: It is better not to have power-inefficient higher-order modulation schemes Cost effective design of UE power amplifier is possible with lower-order modulation schemes.76Mbps Realistically with ¾ coding Max EUL Data Rate = 5. 6. data rate at RLC level = 1. MAC-headers and L3 signaling.92Mbps Data rate per SF4 channel = 3. the shared resource is UL interference and Channel Elements 27 . since they have lesser PAR (Peak to Average Ratio) which in turn lead to lesser Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) generated by the UE. the shared resource is DL Transmission Power. CRC. Case 2: Assuming that the maximum channel capacity of 2SF2 + 2SF4 is available. when the maximum possible configuration is 2 * SF4 channels (and only BPSK is available).92) + (2*0.376Mbps Data rate at L1 (transport block level) = 1. Data rate per SF2 channel = 3.76 * ¾ = 4.96) = 5.After taking out all FEC.84/2 = 1.96Mbps Total data rate = (2*1.
IRAT handover Retainability – Mainly Voice and HS drops. channel element 28 . the user is downgraded from PS384 to PS128 or to PS64. Capacity Management Main purpose of capacity management is to provide sufficient QOS and coverage for users. Congestion Control tries to keep the usage of the system within reasonable limits. BLER for R99 (if needed) 8. Currently the practice is to monitor Minutes/Drop Traffic – Erlangs for Speech/CS64 services. If it has crossed a threshold.2 Difference between HSDPA and EUL Spreading Factor Soft Handover Power Control Modulation Scheme Link Adaptation HSDPA Fixed = 16 No (only A-DCH in SHO) No (Check RPA ) 16QAM & QPSK Rate Control EUL Variable from 256-2 Yes Yes BPSK Rate & Power Control 7. Data Volume for PS/HS services Integrity – CQI for HS. KPIs Accessibility – both RRC and RAB phases considered Mobility – Soft/softer handover (30-40%). By doing this.6. the system checks the used DL transmitted power. if there are 3 PS384 users in a cell and one of them moves into a bad signal area and requires more power to maintain the data rate. For example. Admission Control ensures that a new user will be connected only if there are enough resources available for him. Admission Control and Congestion Control are the two main mechanisms used for capacity management. depending on the available power.
Admission for speech and video calls have strict criteria. Network Elements Utilization This section gives a rough idea of the parameters to be monitored to calculate the utilization of different network elements 29 . Speech and video call users have higher priority over HS and PS users.utilization is also reduced from 16 to 8(PS128) or 4(PS64). Data services have easier admission policies. Congestion control is based on 3 parameters Downlink overload (when the downlink transmitted power is exceeding some threshold for a set period of time) Uplink overload (when RTWP –received total wideband power exceeds a threshold for a set period of time) DL HSDPA Overload (when total power. Resources Monitored for Load Control: Parameters monitored and used for capacity management are Downlink Transmitted Carrier Power Downlink Channelization Codes Uplink Received Total Wideband Power Interference No: of radio links in compressed mode No: of serving HS connections No: of serving connections No: of non-serving connections Node B Hardware Utilization (mainly Channel Elements) 9. which effectively means that more speech users can be accommodated. especially has a very lenient admission policy. which includes HS power exceeds a threshold for a set period of time) Point to remember: Generally congestion control comes into play before admission control. EUL. as connected users are allocated capacity based on availability and do not use other system resources. Speech/video call users are connected only if dedicated resources are available for them.
In most of the vendors.2 32 64 128 Channel Element Requirement 1 2 4 8 4 384 16 Sample Table for UL Channel Element Requirement Channelization Codes : With the introduction of HSPA. The tables below give sample CE requirements for different services. R99 services use CE when required. channelization codes have become a major limiting factor in terms of resource utilization. total number of NodeBs which can be connected to one RNC NodeB: Channel Elements. Code Tree. only the remaining codes are available for R99 services like Speech.2 32 Channel Element Requirement 1 32 16 64 128 2 4 8 8 384 Sample Table for DL Channel Element Requirement Spreading Factor 64 32 16 8 Bearer Data Rate (kbps) AMR 12. Different services have different requirement of CEs. CS64 and R99 Packet. HS requirements are not included in these tables. - Spreading Factor 128 Bearer Data Rate (kbps) AMR 12. Since atleast 5 to 10 codes are reserved for HS.- RNC: Total Traffic. 30 . ATM connectivity. there is a fixed allocation of CEs for HS services. vendors go for a second carrier in case of code congestion. as they are different for different vendors. Generally. DL Transmit Power Channel Elements are one of the major hardware resource in NodeB to be planned and monitored carefully. Simultaneous number of HS users.
assuming that we have enough resources like CEs and channelization codes. Assuming only voice users in the network. For example: If you have one STM1 link with 155Mbps. Channelization code is a cell level resource. In case2. Inter-RAT & Inter-Frequency Handovers 10. Iub: Proper planning should be done for VP/VC. Hence it is important to monitor the DL power consumption. Point to remember : Channel Element is a NodeB level resource. separate CIDs are needed for Control purpose also. Total possible subscribers in case 1 = 248 / 2 = 124 speech users Total possible subscribers in case 2 = 2480 / 2 = 1240 speech users So in case1. you have a total of 248 CIDs available… Case 2: If you assign 10 VCs. we have a limitation of 128 speech users due to the definition of VC. since each Voice user needs 2 CIDs. downlink is power limited. Please keep in mind that the each HS user require 3 CIDs. we have 10 times more speech users. with the same capacity available as in Case1. 10. Different methods are available. It is important to have proper parameters defined for Inter-RAT handovers (mainly UMTS-GSM). you can divide it into any number of VCs as you need. even when there was more than enough capacity (155Mbps). Further. Event 2d occurs when the 3G measured quality is below a certain threshold for a certain period of time and this triggers measurement on IRAT or Inter-Frequency (depending on 31 . you have 248 * 10 = 2480 CIDs available…. We have to keep in mind that Packet users require more power compared to Speech users. Case 1: If you assign just one VC.DL Transmit Power : In WCDMA.1 Inter-RAT Handovers (event 3a) Required since 3G coverage is generally less compared to 2G. One of the main limitations if you have AAL2 switching is the number of CIDs available per VC. We can say that Power == Capacity.
Once event 2d is triggered. then event3a occurs. when event 2d occurs. if the measured quality of 2G is above a certain threshold for a certain period of time. if the measured quality of the 2nd frequency is above a certain threshold for a certain period of time. Event 2d occurs when the measured quality is below a certain threshold for a certain period of time and this triggers measurement on IRAT or Inter-Frequency (depending on vendor). then event2b occurs. Actual IF HO is triggered by event 2b.2 Inter-Frequency Handovers (event 2b) Required when 2 or more frequencies are implemented in a network. Event 3a (IRAT HO) or Event 2b(IF HO) follows. For example: In Ericsson you have to set either IRAT or IF HO. Point to remember : Event 3a : 3G-2G HO Event 2b : Inter-Frequency HO Event 2f occurs when the measured quality is above a certain threshold for a certain period of time and this triggers the stopping of IRAT/Inter-Frequency measurements. Depending on the settings. No user data is lost as it is compressed in the time domain using one of the below 2 methods 32 . Certain idle periods are created in radio frames during which the UE can perform measurements on other frequencies. 10. 10. All ongoing HO attempts are aborted if DL Quality for both Ec/No and RSCP are good. Event6b. In some vendors both are possible. Once event 2d is triggered. where as in Nokia it is possible to have IRAT and IF handovers from the same carrier. Compressed mode measurements on the 2nd frequency start after event 2d. Compressed mode measurements on 2G start after event 2d.vendor). Actual 3G-2G handover is triggered by event 3a. occurs when the UL UE Tx power is below a certain threshold for a certain period of time. Event 6d occurs when the UL UE Tx power exceeds a certain threshold for a certain period of time. the system decides if IRAT or IF handover should take place .3 Compressed Mode Compressed mode mechanism enables the UE to carry out measurements on another frequency.
They are MIMO Higher Order Modulation (64QAM) Multi-carrier HSPA Continuous Packet Connectivity 33 .- Halving the spreading factor so that the same amount of data can be sent in half the time Higher layer scheduling in which layer2 restricts the high bit rate TFC (transport format combinations) so that the user throughput is reduced temporarily Points to remember : Currently. compressed mode is not used for HS-DSCH or EUL. It would be available soon. What next after HSPA? 11. Many techniques are specified in HSPA+ for improved performance.1 HSPA+ HSPA+ is a natural evolution to HSPA and can be considered as an upgrade to the existing HSPA system. Compressed mode can be used for both UL and DL (depending on UE capability) The transmission/reception gap is always 7 slots (out of the total 15 slots in a frame) Fig 10: Transmission Gaps created with Compressed Mode 11.
MAC-ehs which supports HS-DSCH transmission/reception in more than one cell served by the same Node-B New UE categories required (Categories 21 to 24) Anchor Carrier : Carrier with all physical channels (as shown below) Supplementary Carrier: Carrier with just HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH 34 . Higher Bandwidth available to a user = = Higher Throughput for the user Basic idea of DC-HSPA is to achieve better resource utilization by means of joint resource allocation and load balancing across the carriers. without the necessity for additional bandwidth or transmit power. 11. Some of the features for DC-HSPA are New MAC entity.HSPA aims to increase the available user data rates by merging 2 carriers of 5MHz each.3 Dual Carrier HSPA (also known as Dual Cell HSPA) DC.- Enhanced Cell_FACH Voice Over HSPA Below sections will give you a brief idea of some of these features.2 MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output involves using multiple antennas at both transmit and receive side which leads to significant increase in achievable throughputs. thus making available up to 10MHz carrier bandwidth for a user. Point to remember: HSPA+ Rel: 7 (MIMO) can theoretically support up to 28Mbps with a single 5MHz Carrier HSPA+ Rel: 8 (Higher Order Modulation + MIMO) can theoretically support up to 42Mbps with a single 5MHz carrier 11.
4 Continuous Packet Connectivity In future.2 Mbps 11. User can be assigned resources dynamically either on the anchor or on the supplementary carrier Point to remember : Theoretical DL throughputs achievable with DC-HSPA without MIMO is around 43. even if they are not doing anything for a majority of the time they are connected. data users are expected to stay connected for long times. 35 . CPC consists of two main features UE DTX/DRX and HS-SCCH-less operation. since a user can get all the code and power resources of both carriers in a single TTI Improved load sharing due to dynamic statistical multiplexing of users at connection management level Greater frequency selectivity and improved QOS due to joint scheduling. So it will be good to avoid unnecessary transmissions during these idle periods.Fig 11: DC-HSPA Channel Usage in the Multiplexed Carriers Advantages of DC-HSPA are Higher data rates possible compared to the 5MHz single carrier. so as to avoid interference and reduce system resource utilization.
Services like VoIP. 36 . when there is no data to be received in downlink. This leads to significant overhead due to the HS-SCCH control channel. the DL data channel. require transmission of lots of small packets in DL. resulting in increased uplink capacity UE DRX (discontinuous reception at UE) enables the UE to switch off their receivers. This also leads to reduced battery consumption. This leads to Reduced battery consumption Reduced interference. This involves blind decoding of up to 4 different formats of HS-DSCH.UE DTX (discontinuous transmission from UE) enables the UE to switch off continuous transmission of DPCCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel) when there is no information to be transmitted in the uplink. One solution to this problem is to remove HS-SCCH transmission completely for the first HARQ transmission.
16-QAM QPSK.4 MIMO MIMO MIMO MIMO DC DC DC DC DC + MIMO DC + MIMO DC + MIMO DC + MIMO Table giving UE categories for HSDPA 37 .6 84.9 35.4 27. 64-QAM QPSK. 16-QAM.1 UE Categories Knowledge of different categories of UEs available is essential to understand the achievable throughputs.97 0.8 1.76 0. 16-QAM.6 7.82 0. 16-QAM QPSK.4 27.9 1.12.76 0. 64-QAM QPSK. 16-QAM and 64QAM QPSK. data rate 0.2 23.98 Max.6 3.76 0. 16-QAM QPSK. 16-QAM. 16-QAM QPSK. 16-QAM QPSK.9 70. 16-QAM and 64QAM QPSK. 16-QAM QPSK. 16-QAM QPSK.8 3.76 0. Appendix 12. 64-QAM MIMO Dual Carrier Code rate required to achieve max. 64-QAM QPSK.2 10.76 0. Max.8 17.8 55.75 0.7 0.76 0. data rate [Mbit/s] 1.2 46.9 35.1 14.2 7.76 0.2 1. 64-QAM QPSK.3 42.3 42.76 0.2 1.6 21.4 0. number of HS-DSCH codes 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Modulation QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK only QPSK only QPSK.76 0. 16-QAM. 16-QAM.1 23.
Table giving UE categories for EUL 12.2 Modulation Schemes Fig : Constellation diagrams of different modulation schemes 38 .
Connected mode only Paging parameters. It contains parameters related to Cell Selection. Handover. Any parameter change in the system information is notified to all UEs in the cell by a paging message or by a system information change indication message. Timers and counters in Idle and Connected mode. Cell selection and reselection parameters Measurement management PLMN identity for GSM neighbors listed in SIB11. SIB Scheduling Information SIB Scheduling Information Paging parameters. Location and routing registration. 12. Cell and common channel configuration Power control on common channel Measurement management.4 UTRAN Protocols RRC : - Radio Resource Control Handles control plane signaling of Layer3 signaling between UEs and RNC NBAP : - NodeB Application Protocol (Iub) Signaling protocol responsible for the control of NodeB by RNC NBAP has two parts: C-NBAP and D-NBAP C-NBAP (Common NBAP) controls the overall functionality of the NodeB 39 . LA and RA updating URA identity list Cell selection and reselection parameters Cell selection and reselection parameters.12.3 SIB List System information is broadcast regularly to the UE on the BCCH. Reselection. System Information Blocks MIB SB1 SIB1 SIB2 SIB3 SIB4 SIB5 and SIB5bis SIB7 SIB11 SIB12 SIB18 Contents PLMN identity for serving cell. The table below list the different SIB messages available. Power Control etc.
Kuwait as well as Mobitel. Wataniya Telecom. Kuwait Mobitel. Iztok Saje. I would like to thank specially. Slovenia for the support extended to me. Santosh Tummala . especially Ericsson and NSN - 40 . Slovenia Material for this guide has been compiled from Author’s experience in 3G from year 2002 with Mobitel. Kuwait Wataniya Telecom. Kuwait WCDMA for UMTS by Harri Holma and Antti Toskala Internet (especially Wikepedia) White Paper – Dual Cell HSDPA and its Future Evolution .D-NBAP (Dedicated NBAP) controls radio links specific to UEs RANAP : - Radio Access Network Application Part (Iu) For signaling between Core Network( MSC or SGSN) and RNC RNSAP : - Radio Network System Application Part (Iur) Signaling protocol responsible for communication between RNCs Acknowledgements & References I would like to thank my colleagues at Wataniya Telecom. Slovenia and Wataniya Telecom. Amol Rajan Pradhan . Naveen Krishnapillai. Amin Sudhir Vasanth .Nomor Research GmbH Articles from different vendors. Kuwait Wataniya Telecom. Kuwait Wataniya Telecom.
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