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ME3122-2 Lab Forced Convection Heat Transfer

ME3122-2 Lab Forced Convection Heat Transfer

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Forced

Convection Heat Transfer

by Group

Date

1A

13-Sept-2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS

R AW D ATA

S AMPLE C ALCULATION

D ISCUSSION

10

C ONCLUSION

12

R AW D ATA

Table 1 Aluminum Sphere

Time (s)

Pressure head

(mm water)

Sphere

Temperature

(C)

Atmosphere

Temperature

(C)

16.631

128.824

23.161

0.000

0.000

30

15.836

113.350

23.362

-0.159

4.041

60

15.942

97.608

23.370

-0.351

8.081

90

15.749

86.231

23.212

-0.517

12.122

120

15.430

77.293

23.130

-0.670

16.163

150

14.779

69.664

23.166

-0.822

20.203

180

15.517

63.183

23.218

-0.973

24.244

210

15.015

57.524

23.390

-1.126

28.284

240

14.978

52.714

23.339

-1.278

32.325

270

15.342

48.606

23.224

-1.428

36.366

300

15.248

45.018

23.250

-1.581

40.406

330

16.394

41.911

23.209

-1.735

44.447

360

15.831

39.361

23.482

-1.883

48.488

390

14.814

37.135

23.413

-2.032

52.528

420

15.197

35.222

23.250

-2.181

56.569

450

14.735

33.576

23.329

-2.330

60.610

480

15.480

32.183

23.411

-2.475

64.650

510

15.935

31.068

23.476

-2.610

68.691

540

15.772

29.998

23.404

-2.758

72.732

Average

15.507

58.972

23.305

0.0

y = -0.0377x - 0.0454

R= 0.9995

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5

-2.0

-2.5

-3.0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

t / ro

Graph 1b Aluminum Sphere

140

y = -0.1621x + 102.75

R= 0.8655

Temperature (C)

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

Time (Sec)

Time (s)

Pressure head

(mm water)

Sphere

Temperature

(C)

Atmosphere

Temperature

(C)

16.089

136.267

23.577

0.000

0.000

30

15.192

123.162

23.428

-0.124

1.638

60

15.164

111.505

23.457

-0.248

3.276

90

15.405

101.353

23.413

-0.371

4.913

120

15.636

92.267

23.368

-0.495

6.551

150

15.555

84.140

23.499

-0.621

8.189

180

15.829

77.060

23.770

-0.746

9.827

210

15.841

70.734

23.700

-0.872

11.464

240

14.685

65.270

23.592

-0.995

13.102

270

15.386

60.441

23.569

-1.118

14.740

300

15.148

56.133

23.494

-1.242

16.378

330

15.058

52.326

23.508

-1.367

18.015

360

14.633

49.011

23.588

-1.490

19.653

390

15.325

46.116

23.464

-1.611

21.291

420

14.510

43.540

23.595

-1.732

22.929

450

14.899

41.276

23.574

-1.853

24.566

480

14.525

39.361

23.685

-1.968

26.204

510

14.330

37.592

23.797

-2.087

27.842

540

13.880

36.085

23.726

-2.201

29.480

570

14.504

34.761

23.535

-2.313

31.117

600

14.536

33.472

23.624

-2.436

32.755

630

14.400

32.461

23.792

-2.544

34.393

660

14.285

31.521

23.852

-2.656

36.031

690

14.507

30.705

23.948

-2.765

37.668

720

13.922

29.932

23.777

-2.881

39.306

Average

14.930

60.660

23.613

0.0

y = -0.0736x - 0.0224

R= 0.9996

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5

-2.0

-2.5

-3.0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

t / ro

Graph 2b Brass Sphere

140

y = -0.1316x + 108.04

R= 0.8662

Temperature (C)

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Time (Sec)

Time (s)

Pressure head

(mm water)

0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

360

390

420

450

480

510

540

570

600

630

660

690

720

750

780

810

840

870

900

930

960

990

1020

1050

1080

1110

1140

1170

1200

1230

1260

1290

1320

1350

Average

15.365

14.621

13.898

14.088

13.321

13.080

13.683

14.502

14.201

14.088

14.171

13.807

13.787

14.335

13.694

13.880

13.855

14.412

13.952

14.175

14.301

14.724

14.083

13.998

14.220

13.556

14.283

14.351

14.482

13.399

14.429

14.202

14.469

14.383

13.799

13.283

14.243

14.602

14.012

13.979

13.903

14.012

14.718

14.682

14.979

14.646

14.217

Sphere

Temperature

(C)

106.013

102.988

98.450

95.465

93.396

91.889

90.574

89.215

87.986

86.651

85.267

83.876

82.418

80.815

79.153

77.509

75.826

74.089

72.375

70.644

69.022

67.319

65.655

64.027

62.453

60.944

59.434

58.015

56.612

55.304

53.974

52.765

51.562

50.377

49.254

48.213

47.183

46.206

45.233

44.363

43.502

42.541

41.882

41.121

40.351

39.681

51.519

Atmosphere

Temperature

(C)

23.853

23.971

23.822

23.714

23.779

23.999

23.757

23.788

23.741

23.954

24.054

23.807

24.038

23.893

23.962

24.007

23.928

24.061

23.929

24.028

23.984

23.914

23.906

23.916

23.862

24.051

23.995

24.024

23.900

23.862

24.013

24.199

23.921

24.095

24.012

24.038

23.924

24.064

23.953

23.978

24.133

23.803

23.748

23.859

23.866

23.956

23.960

0.000

-0.038

-0.097

-0.138

-0.167

-0.189

-0.208

-0.229

-0.248

-0.269

-0.291

-0.314

-0.339

-0.367

-0.397

-0.427

-0.459

-0.493

-0.528

-0.564

-0.599

-0.638

-0.677

-0.717

-0.757

-0.797

-0.839

-0.879

-0.921

-0.962

-1.006

-1.047

-1.089

-1.133

-1.177

-1.219

-1.262

-1.305

-1.350

-1.392

-1.435

-1.485

-1.521

-1.565

-1.611

-1.652

0.000

0.007

0.015

0.022

0.029

0.036

0.044

0.051

0.058

0.066

0.073

0.080

0.088

0.095

0.102

0.109

0.117

0.124

0.131

0.139

0.146

0.153

0.161

0.168

0.175

0.182

0.190

0.197

0.204

0.212

0.219

0.226

0.233

0.241

0.248

0.255

0.263

0.270

0.277

0.285

0.292

0.299

0.306

0.314

0.321

0.328

0.0

y = -4.993x + 0.0632

R= 0.989

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1.0

-1.2

-1.4

-1.6

-1.8

0.04

0.08

0.12

0.16

0.2

0.24

0.28

0.32

t / ro

Graph 3b Teflon Sphere

120

y = -0.048x + 99.372

R= 0.987

Temperature (C)

100

80

60

40

20

0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400

Time (Sec)

S AMPLE C ALCULATION

1. Method 1: Lumped-heat-capacity method

Table 4 Calculation of convective heat transfer coefficient

Sphere Material

Gradient of curve

Biot Number

( )

Aluminum

Brass

Teflon

-0.0377

-0.0736

-4.993

0.0042

0.0082

0.555

Convective heat transfer

coefficient

2. Method 2

Table 5 Calculation of convective heat transfer coefficient

Sphere

Material

Aluminum

Brass

Teflon

Gradient of curve

-0.1621

-0.1316

-0.048

24.150

(

26.599

)

6.047

)

Sphere Material

Aluminum

Brass

Teflon

401.97

409.42

379.16

332.12

333.81

324.67

296.46

296.76

297.11

0.709

0.709

0.709

1.190

1.189

1.188

0.0155

0.0149

0.0142

15.99

15.70

15.32

51997

50958

49658

168.18

160.78

0.02597

0.02599

0.02602

88.15

87.43

83.68

169.71

Table 7 Calculation of convective heat transfer coefficient

Sphere Material

Aluminum

Brass

Teflon

401.97

409.42

379.16

332.12

333.81

324.67

296.46

296.76

297.11

Y axis

0.338

0.329

0.336

X axis

28.284

14.740

0.233

78

44

0.05

105.6

116.4

280.0

coefficient

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient, W/m2 K

Reynolds

Number

Method 1

Method 2

Method 3

Method 4

Aluminum

51997

103.55

86.21

88.15

105.6

Brass

50958

125.61

91.42

87.43

116.4

Teflon

49658

23.30

27.94

83.68

280.0

Spheres

D ISCUSSION

1. Compare the convective heat transfer coefficients of the methods 1, 2 and 4 with that

obtained from the method 3. Give a brief account on possible causes of the discrepancy

in the values of the heat transfer coefficient obtained from method #3.

Here is the comparison of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient with different calculation

methods:

280

Convection Coefficient

300

250

200

150

Method 1

Method 2

Method 3

Method 4

125.61

103.55

100

86.21 88.15

105.6

116.4

91.42 87.43

50

83.68

23.3 27.94

Aluminium

Brass

Teflon

For Method 1(lumped-heat-capacity method), the result for Aluminum and Brass sphere is

higher (17% ~ 42%) than Method 3, while the result for Teflon sphere is significantly different

(72%) from Method 3.

The transient heat transfer processes such as cooling of a solid sphere are normally

multidimensional in nature because the temperature within the body is a function of time and at

least one space dimension. However, approximate analysis can be obtained if the Biot number

( )

is small, under this condition, the variation of temperature with the spatial coordinates will

be negligibly small, such that the temperature can be taken as a function of time only. The

Lumped-heat-capacity type of analysis yields reasonable estimates when Biot number <0.1.

10

From Table 4 one can see that the Biot number for Aluminum and Brass sphere is much smaller

than 0.1, while for Teflon sphere, the Biot number is larger than 0.1, hence, the Lumped-heatcapacity method is not applicable for Teflon sphere and result in very large error.

Sphere Material

( )

Aluminum

Brass

Teflon

0.0042

0.0082

0.555

For Method 2, the result for Aluminum and Brass sphere is very close (2~5%) to Method 3,

while the result for Teflon sphere is significantly different (67%) from Method 3.

Method 2 has taken both convection and radiation into consideration, so the result is much closer

to Method 3 compare with Method 1.

For Method 4 (Heisler Chart), the result for Aluminum and Brass sphere is higher than

(20~33%) to Method 3, while the result for Teflon sphere is significantly higher (235%) than

Method 3. This is because the limitation of Heisler Chart as it doesnt have enough resolution

when the

smaller than Aluminum and Brass, which result in very small value in X-axis of Heisler Chart, so

that it is impossible to read an accurate Biot number from the chart, which directly affects the

calculation of convection coefficient.

For Method 3, the empirical relation (Whitaker) ignored some material properties like emissivity

and thermal diffusivity, and it also does not consider the radiation effect, which will introduce

some discrepancy in the result. For Method 3, it requires the following condition to be fulfilled so

that the empirical relation can be satisfied:

. From table 6, one can see that the P_r number is 0.709, which is in the marginal

condition; hence the method 3 calculation may not be very accurate in this case.

2. Comment on the values of heat transfer coefficients obtained from method 1, 2,

3 and 4.

Base on values of heat transfer coefficients obtained from method 1, 2, 3 and 4, here are the

comments:

1) Method1, only consider convection heat transfer and ignore radiation, so the convection

coefficient will be larger than actual value. And this method is not applicable when the

Biot number is larger than 0.1.

11

2) For Method 2, the Temperature vs. Time curve is non-linear, hence the

will not be a

constant value, but in the calculation, the nonlinearity of the curve is ignored, that will

introduce some discrepancy into calculation. Method 2 has taken both convection and

radiation into consideration, so the result is much closer to Method 3 compare with

Method 1.

3) For Method 3, the empirical relation (Whitaker) ignored some material properties like

emissivity and thermal diffusivity, and it also does not consider the radiation effect, which

will introduce some discrepancy in the result , that is the reason the convection coefficient

calculated by this method is very close for 3 very different materials.

4) For Method 4, the accuracy is depends on how user read the chart, for some material has

very low thermal diffusivity, the resolution of the chart is not enough, so it will create

huge error. It also does not consider the radiation effect, so the calculated convection

coefficient will be higher than actual value.

C ONCLUSION

After this experiment, I have gone through the different kinds of configuration and practical

analysis on forced convective heat transfer process. I have understand well of their fundamental

principle, properties, characteristic.

By analyzing between graph and practical approach, I have learned about the practical

limitations. I have learnt about the relationship between flow across the sphere and heat transfer

from the sphere as well.

As a summary, by going through this experiment, I had gained the required topical knowledge of

forced convective heat transfer process from the sphere.

12

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