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2 2 Logic

# 2 2 Logic

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06/16/2009

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# 2-2 Logic

In Geometry, a statement is any sentence that is true or false.

A “statement” cannot be true or false at the same time!

Every statement has a truth value. truth value: whether a statement is true or false. (Truth value is like a true/false question on a test)

In Geometry, a statement is usually assigned a letter. p: Tampa is a city in Florida. What is the truth value of statement p ? p is true

The negation of a statement has the opposite meaning, and automatically, the truth value is the opposite too. p: Tampa is a city in Florida. T.V.=True ~ p: Tampa is not a city in Florida. T.V.=False

~ is the symbol for negation

This “logic” bidness is like organizing common-sense thangs.
w: Lil’ Wayne has tattoos on his face Truth Value = TRUE

Lil’ does not have tattoos on ~w : Lil’ Wayne W ayne his face Sez Truth Value = FALSE
What is the negation of statement w ?

Two or more statements can be joined to form a compound statement. w: Lil’ Wayne has tattoos on his face. x: Lil’ Wayne is a rapper. Let’s combine statement w and statement x…

Lil’ Wayne has tattoos on his face AND Lil’ Wayne is a rapper.

We joined up the two statements with the word “AND”. In Geometry this is called a conjunction. w x = …has tattoos…AND…is a rapper. The symbol for conjunction

CONJUNCTION

means “AND”

conjunctions also have a truth value.

In a conjunction, all parts must be true for the whole thing to be true.
So, if one of the statements in a conjunction is FALSE, then the whole thing is FALSE!

Practice:
f: Mr. A’s room has a chalkboard g: The Carolina Panthers are in the Super Bowl this year. f g : Mr. A’s room has a chalkboard AND the Carolina Panthers are in the Super Bowl this year. The Table of Truth

f
TRUE

g
FALSE

f

g

FALSE

A disjuntion is a compound statement that uses the word “OR”. k: Mr. A wears glasses. m: Planet Earth is flat. k V m : Mr. A wears glasses OR Planet Earth is flat.

V is the symbol for Disjuntion

A disjunction only needs one of its statements to be true for the whole thing to be true. k: Mr. A wears glasses. m: Planet Earth is flat. k V m : Mr. A wears glasses OR Planet Earth is flat. The Table of Truth

k
TRUE

m
FALSE

kVm
TRUE

Disjunction

means or

TRUTH TABLES
If just the letters are given with no statements, you can still construct a truth table. If we are only given letters, we don’t know the Truth Values….therefore we construct A “Truth Table” which has ALL the true/false possibilities mapped out. Let’s try an example:

EXAMPLE: Draw a Truth table for the following compound statement: gVk Step 1: make a chart g k gVk with a column for each letter, and a TRUE TRUE TRUE column for the compound FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE statement.
FALSE FALSE FALSE Step 2: Write all combinations Step 3: Determine if the third of true/false underneath column is True or False from the letters. the combinations.

venn diagram

scribd
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