28 November 2012 2

Rebuild Your Life
Effective Communication Dr Ali Sajid, PhD, PEC,


Don’t curse the darkness light a candle Chinese Proverb .

Sharing of Resources "A candle loses nothing by Lighting another candle" .

If you have your sight. 7 . you are blessed. you are a thousand times blessed. If you have insight.

Always talk of “Hope. a wave of Positive word.”  Words are Energy use them in your favour!! . Belief. engulfs you. failure & problem.Words Are Energy  Never use words like defeats. Faith. raising your Energy Levels & Putting you in a “Winning Frame of Mind.”  When you use a Positive word. Victory & Success.

.To be conscious that you are ignorant is a great step to knowledge.Benjamin Disraeli .

I do and I understand." (Confucius 551-479 BC) . I see and I remember.Doing is Believing "I hear and I forget.

 "He who wishes to talk well must first think well.”  "When you speak." (Origin unknown) Communication . your speech should be better than your silence would have been.

“  (Catherine the Great. I blame softly.) . 1729-1796.New Style? "I praise loudly.

Test of Intellect "Whoever in debate quotes authority uses not intellect. but memory."  (Leonardo Da Vinci) .

" (Samuel Johnson.Good Writing "What is written without effort is in general read without pleasure.) .

Bad Attitude of Employee Don’t waste your time trying to change employees. Who have bad attitudes  Inn Pareen a Kaleesa koo Kaleesa say hatta doon .

"Great speakers are not born.Dale Carnegie "Perhaps you will forget tomorrow the kind words you say today. they're trained. but the recipient may cherish them over a lifetime." -.“ Dale Carnegie .

” --Chinese Proverb .Conversation with Wise Man “A single conversation with a wise man is better than ten years of study.

. not a judge.Stephen Covey .Light  Be a light.  Be a model. not a critic.

you will PAY.." -..Doug Firebaugh "Communication is really all anyone ever gets paid for ultimately.and if you cannot effectively communicate.if you plan on spending any time there...not get paid.Doug Firebaugh ." -........"Communication skills are the lifeblood of a successful life..

Fletcher Carney Of all the things you wear. little words of love."Little deeds of kindness. your expression is the most important . help to make earth happy like the heaven above." Julia A.

but also for what you do not say."You are not only responsible for what you say." – Martin Luther .

" . but their echoes are truly endless.Mother Theresa of Calcuta ."Kind words can be short and easy to speak.


Planning Organizing Management Process Leading Controlling Communication External Environment  Customers  Suppliers  Stockholders  Governments  Community  others Purpose & Function of Communication .

 Communication Is Becoming in Increasingly Important In Increased Globalization.  .  Communication Tech Offers New Opportunities of Communicate More Often & More Efficiently Than Ever Before.  Your Success.Mgrl Effectiveness Through Communication  You Spend Most of Your Time at Work Communicating. Diversity Workplace Specialization.Based on Strong Communication Skills.

& internet. videos. memos. conversations on lunch & on ceremonies & through walking around.  Promote Interpersonal Unity : Motivate people through speeches. Reports. . Managerial Function of Communication  Collect Information : Collect relevant info from conversations. phone calls. office memo. ( garmoo ghamoo ka lahoo zooq a yaqan say) .  Convey Info & Decision : To inside & outside org through speeches. letters. Managers have three basic jobs. press releases. databases. memos.

Toward Effective Communication Org goal Goals-related behavior Communication network objectives Communication activities Communication policies Relationship of Communication Factors to Org Goals .

informers.Mgr as nerve centre in Info Processing Network Manager as monitor Gathers external info (through liaison role) form contacts. & experts Manager as monitor Gathers internal info (through leader role) Form subordinates Manager as nerve center in information-processing network Mgr as disseminator Distributes information to subordinates Mgr as spokesperson . peers.

etc. • Established as both a social & individual need . sleeping.Need for Communication • Very strong in Human beings • Considered as a basic need. as in the case of eating.

Written Communication: letters. Mgrs often underestimate its importance. policy manuals.Interpersonal Communication Three Broad Types Oral. Hidden messages & can influence process & outcomes of face-to-face communication. & other documents used to share info in org. forms. Mgrs prefer face-to-face & telephone communication to written communication because it permits immediate feedback. Nonverbal Oral Communication: Consists of all forms of spoken info\ Most preferred type of communication used by mgrs. reports. Written. . Anything that sends message. Nonverbal Communication Involves all messages non language responses. memos.

” The Art of Leadership Max De Pree.The Importance of Communication Skills as Expressed by Business Authorities “Top executives from Fortune 500 companies rate communications skills as the most important quality for business leaders.” New York Times Business Section “There may be no single thing more important in our efforts to achieve meaningful work and fulfilling relationships than to learn and practice the art of communication. Author .

Production Manager Hewlett Packard. CA “The first thing the H R Department did was give me a writing book.” --Sam Reeves. Denver. IT Consultant AMS.Evidence of Communication Weakness in Business “I’m surprised how so many people struggle with communication. CO . San Diego.” --Michael Rook.

 Jeopardizes goodwill.  Poor writing costs even more since it  Waste Time. .Cost of Correspondence  One page business letter that took 10 minutes to dicate cost between $13.52 in 1996.60 and $20.  Wastes Effort.

you are communicating.) Communication is shared feelings/shared understanding. If you can honestly achieve that goal. .

How Much Is The Communicator Responsible?  60 Percent! .Who Is Responsible?  The Communicator.

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Think > listen > talk
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Why is communication important ?
• • • • • Inspires confidence Builds respect Helps make friends Reveals your ability to others Develops a distinct personality

28 November 2012

We need to improve communication... as
70 % of our communication efforts are:  misunderstood  misinterpreted  rejected  distorted or  not heard
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Communication in Organizations Chief Executive Officer Sales Manage r Legal Production Financal Enginering HR Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager Diagonal communication Horizontal or lateral communication Upward and downward communication Copy Rights Dr Sajid .

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Communication is a two-way process of giving and receiving info through one or more number of channels. .

Communication Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages .

Importance Of Communication  Organizational / Functional: greater info access & awareness  Improves coordination: reduces logical gaps  Encourages cooperation: helps bring everyone in th mainstream  Gives a direction: to tasks and activities  Morale and empowerment  Decision making aid  Speeds up orgal processes  Better focus on customer requirements  Generates a greater sense of orgal commitment & involvement  A Problem Solving Tool: by clarity. preciseness & feedback .

What needs to be communicated Information/data + Attitudes Values Moods Emotions .

lead.Communication is a process through which mgrs coordinate. & influence their subordinates. . Ability to communicate effectively – considered by most mgrs critical in determining managerial success.

writing. & use of symbolic gestures”.Ability involves broad array of activities. & Org change & Development also Entail Communication. managing & interpreting info. . “Reading. speech-making. Coordination. directly to basic mgt functions. listening. serving clients. Communication relates. Delegation.

Developing “Reward systems & interacting with subordinates” as part of Leading function etc – Impossible w/o some form of communication . Essential Tool for People Who Want to Stay in Touch With Rest of World.

& Taking corrective actions. Monitoring performance. . Pervasive part of virtually all managerial activates.Essential to: Establishing standards.

" -.Layne and Paul Cutright .The bridge between our separate realities is communication . To communicate is to relate. . .

Communication in Org  In Enterprises.from depts & people elsewhere org.frequently causing info overload. .  Short stoppage on fast-moving production line costly .lost output.  Getting info from mgrs’ superiors & subordinates . info must flow faster.  Need more relevant info.  Production Problems communicated quickly for corrective action  Info increased .  Necessary to have for effective decision making.

Communication skills can make or break career of org. .

Elements of Communication Encoding Perception & Interpretation Message Nonverbal Communication s Channel Communicator .

COMMUNICATION PROCESS Stimulus Filter Feedback Message Destination Medium .

Communication Process Social Context Sender Encodes Medium Feedback Decodes Receiver Noise Noise Basic Element in Communication Process .

Original Message Percentage of Understanding lost in communication 100 Percent Top mgt’s understanding 63 percent VP Understanding 56 percent General mgr’s understanding Average Information Loss 40 percent Division mgr’s understanding 30 percent Unit mgr’s understanding 20 percent Employee’s understanding Average Information Loss .

. FEEDBACK: Process of verifying messages & receiver’s attempts to ensure message be decoded is what sender really meant to convey.

 Meant To avoid communication failure as it provides preliminary info to sender. Through feedback. communication becomes dynamic. . two-way Process rather than just event.

Listening: Key to interrupting Mgr must avoidUnderstand subordinates & putting them on defensive. mgr should develop atmosphere of trust & confidence & Supportive Leadership Style. With de-emphasis on status. . To elicit honest feedback.

8. 4. Inaccurate. Sajid. 2. Clear. 7. General. Timely. Judgmental. 5. 3. 5. Specific. Intended to help the employee. 2. Intended to belittle the employee. Useful. 6. Descriptive. Not understandable. 4. Willingly heard by employee. 3. 8. 7. Dr. 6. Untimely. Makes the employee defensive. Ineffective Feedback 1. Valid. Inappropriate. Oct 2k8 .Characteristics of Effective & Ineffective Feedback Effective Feedback 1. Communication.

In addition to physical conditionsmake communication more difficultEmotional states can also create noise. Can cause distortion in sending & receiving of messages. .Noise Internal or external interference with or distraction form intended message.

. Some Basic Truths about Communication  Meanings sent are not always received. Symbols of communication imperfect. Meaning is in the mind.

Never-listening mgr will Seldom Get Objective View of Function of Org. .Elements of Good Talking  Voice Quality  Talking Style  Word Choice & Vocabulary  Listening: Key to Understand Rushed.

How to overcome Communication Roadblocks ? • Effective Listening • Reading body language • Effective Speaking • Skill Training .

The Process of Listening .

Types of Listening  Active vs. Negative  What Kind is it?     Appreciative Empathic Discriminative Analytical . Passive  Positive vs.

Effective Listening Behaviors that support effective listening Behaviors that hinder effective listening .

Effective Listening Behaviors that support effective listening • Maintaining relaxed body posture • Leaning slightly forward if sitting • Facing person squarely at eye level • Maintaining an open posture • Maintaining appropriate distance • Offering simple acknowledgements • Reflecting meaning (paraphrase) • Reflecting emotions • Using eye contact • Providing non-distracting environment .

put downs • Interrupting • Criticizing • Judging • Diagnosing • Giving advice/solutions • Changing the subject • Reassuring without acknowledgment .Effective Listening Behaviors that hinder effective listening • Acting distracted• No response • Invalidating response.

" (William Slater) .Importance of Listening "There is none so blind as those who will not listen.

“ (Sam Markewich.Test of Listening "If you don't agree with me it means you haven't been listening.) .

Most people never listen.When people talk. listen completely. Franklin Delano Roosevelt .

Every head is a world. speak them rather now instead." ---Cuban proverb "Do not save your loving speeches for your friends till they are dead." --. do not write them on their tombstones.Anna Cummins . but it's not that simple."Listening looks easy.

Time. . Empathy. & Concentration on communicator's messages are Prerequisites for understanding.

"Effective communications starts with listening.People want to be heard. want to be understood. want to be taken seriously." --Robert Gately .

& hard work  Often overestimated in effectiveness . patience motivation.Importance of Listening  Exists as first verbal skill people learn  Accounts for most of communication time  Ranks hi in business  Requires high in business  Requires clear thinking.

 Listening from our hearts.  It is holy a ministry of and waiting for the other to speak what is truly in their heart ." Kay Lindahl .  Speaking from the heart takes courage –  to risk & be vulnerable with another. Truly listening to someone is one of the greatest gifts we give to each other.

Nature of Listening  Sensing  Filtering  Remembering .

Norman Douglas "Silence is the training ground for the art of listening." -."How often could things be remedied by a word. How often is it left unspoken. .Linda Douty." -.

"Remember that silence is sometimes the best answer." .Dalai Lama .

"Responsible Listening is speaking we do to prove to the other person that we understand what his or her total message said. allows for no judgment of the other person's character. in this conversation. saves us from attacking & defending. Listening is suspension of judgmentsuntil we gain new info" Peter deLisser . Its only function is to present. what speaker meant at this moment.

The Listening Process  Begins with symbols . (c) conditioning  Entails Nervous system & filtering by the mind  Continues with search for ways to express meaning  Ends by sending message .entering receiver’s sensory world  Involves process of selective perception  Depends upon listener’s (a) sensory limitations. (b) degree of alertness.

focused Passive.More & Less Effective Listening Skills Active. laid back Pays attention Easily distracted Asks questions Asks no question Keeps open mind Has preconceptions Assimilates information Disregards information .

Non-listening Comparison of Non-listening & Active Listening      Orientation toward self Little use of mind (thinking) Lack of etiquette Inattention to principles of effect No consideration of alternate messages Little empathy Casual attention to meaning Emphasis on winning Little personal involvement Inattention to nonverbal communication Results in conflict Active Listening       Orientation toward others Significant use of mind Good application of etiquette Effective use of principles of effect Consideration of alternate messages Much empathy Intense attention to meaning Emphasis on understanding Much personal involvement Focus on nonverbal communication Results in rapport .

Improving Listening Ability      Commit to improve Focus attention Cultivate accuracy of filtering Concentrate on remembering Apply techniques .

too." --.Carolyn Coakley . so.  Just as the sources of the communication message should be trained in self-intra personal communication. should listeners know themselves. Our first responsibility as effective listeners is to understand ourselves as communicators.

The Ten Commandments of Listening           Stop talking Put talker at ease Show talker you want to listen Remove distractions Empathize with talker Be patient Hold your temper Go easy on argument and criticism Ask questions Stop talking .

Author -On Writing Well . Anyone who thinks clearly should be able to write clearly about any subject at all.” William Zinsser.“Writing is thinking on paper.

. & incorrect spelling. Common problems in written communications are that writers omit conclusion or bury it in report.Some Tips for Improving Written Communication Many people fall into habit of using technical jargon that can be understood only by experts in same field. & use poor grammar. are too wordy. ineffective sentence structure.

use charts. Use active verbs. Use short & familiar words Use personal pronouns (such as “you”) whenever appropriate. Give illustrations & examples. Use short sentences & paragraphs. as in “Mgr plan…” Avoid unnecessary words. .Some Tips for Improving Written Communication Use simple words & phrases.

Regulating info flow c. Follow up b.Enhance comm effectiveness for both sender & receiver – a.Orgl Skills Three orgl skills . . Regulating information flow –sender or receiver takes steps to ensure that overload does not occur. Following up simply involves checking at later time to be sure that message received & understood. Understanding richness of different media.

impede org processes.Managing Communication Within Diverse Orgs Communication permeates every org. Formal communication follows chain of command & is recognized as official. Some messages are clear effective. . some messages sent throughout org contain misinfo or secret info. Vertical Info: Flow of info both up & down chain of command. Involves exchange of message b/w two or more levels in org. others cause confusion & errors.

 The more elaborate our means of communication. the less we communicate. Kin Hubbard .

Flow of communication At the workplace * Upward From subordinates to superior * Downward From superiors to the subordinates * Lateral From one employee to another .

Types of communication Formal Informal .

"  Informal communication network: involves communication that follows the "grapevine.COMMUNICATION NETWORKS  Formal communication network : follows the hierarchical structure of the organization. or the "chain of command." .

Formal Communication HEAD Instructions and directives Information Managers Managers Workers Workers Workers Workers Efforts at coordination .

Official structure of an org.  Type of Communication Communicating among members of an org. .Formal Communication Channels.  A line-for formal channel for transmission. Informal communication channels.  Typically shown by org chart of any org.  A box -link in the Chain of Command. Formal communication channels.

.  Horizontal information flow.  Upward information flow.  Downward information flow.Formal Communication Channels.

DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION FLOW Downward communication flows from upper management down to the employees at lower ranks. Job instruction Ideology Information Feedback Upward communication is initiated by those at the lower levels of the organization positive timely support current policy .

Downward Communication  Flows from people at hi to lower levels in org hierarchy.  Directives -not understood or read.  Delays .frustrating . handbooks. pamphlets.  Esp. even grapevine. speeches. electronic news displays.  Info lost/distorted -comes down chain of command. .top mgrs insist info sent directly to person requiring it.  Memo. policy statements.  Downward flow of info through org.time-consuming. procedures.instructions. telephone.  Top mgt issuance of policies. letters.does not ensure communication.  Media for oral downward communication.  Feedback essential for finding out whether info perceived as intended. in org with “Authoritarian Atmosphere”. meetings. loudspeakers.

ombudsperson.  Counseling sessions.continues up hierarchy. .  Primarily nondirective .unfavorable news to bosses.grievance procedures.appeal . marketing info.transmit info. exit interviews.Upward Communication  From subordinates to superiors . Hindered by mgrs in communication chain .  Suggestion systems.filter messages . complaint Systems. what lower-level employees thinking.  Objective transmission of info essential for control. joint setting of objectives. practice open-door policy. oral Questionnaires.found in participative democratic orgs. Upper mgt needs to know production performance.  Grapevine. group meetings. financial data.

Originated in Sweden. .  Anheuser-Busch.  Companies established position for person .  Org climate influenced by upper mgt. GE.civil servant to investigate complaints about fed bureaucracy.Upward Communication  Ombudsman-.  Effective communication requires environment subordinates feel to communicate. Control Data.investigates employees’ concerns. suggesting workers trust person. McDonnell Douglas & AT&T few companies using ombudsperson in 1986.  Position provide “Valuable Upward Communication Link” front-page scandals & legal costs by grinning improprieties attention of appropriate person before problems. . creating free flow communication rests with superiors.

CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION Face to Face Interactive TV .high speed connections (two way) Video-Voice / Data Channel (one way) Telephone E-mail Personal written correspondence Formal written message Public speaking Data Reports Broadcast e.mails / reports .

Formal & Informal Commun networks in a Div of a Small Mnfg Company Department Manager Supervisor Supervisor Navy Solid Lines = Formal Network Coral Dashed Lines = Informal Network (at a moment in time. for they change often) .

.  Grapevine: Supplements formal channels.  Distortion: misunderstanding or communication errors at different communication links in the chain.  Fragmented info.  Flat structure & wide span of control. Less flexibility.  80% of info that travels around through grapevine is business related & 75_95% is accurate.  To reduce distortion reduce number of levels in the structure.  Informal channels increase as organization has closed formal channels.Formal Communication Channels.  Informal Communication Channels. (isolated).

Common Grapevine Chains Found in Org Gossip Chain (One person tells many) Cluster Chain (Many people tell few) .

COMMUNICATION PATTERNS Vertical: Downward • rationale for doing jobs • organization’s policies. co-workers. progress • unsolved problems requiring managerial assistanc • Suggestions and ideas • Subordinates’ feelings about jobs. the organization Horizontal • task coordination • information sharing • problem solving • conflict resolution • peer support . practices • performance appraisals • sense of mission Vertical: Upward • reports on work.


.  Communication in and out of an organization.  Devolution of responsibility. Types:  Formal contacts with outsiders  Informal contacts with outsiders.  Quality teams.External Communication Network.  Performance based reward system.  Suggestion schemes.  Special newsletters.

.Mgt by Wandering Around-Informal Commn Popular form of informal communication Basic idea -some mgrs keep in touch with what’s going on by wandering around & talking with people – immediate subordinates. or anyone else who is involved with company in some way. loading docks. customers. delivery people. he gets new ideas & has better feel for entire company. frequently visits kitchens. subordinates far down orgl hierarchy. Bill Marriott. & custodial work areas when-ever he tours Marriott hotel. Claims that by talking with employee throughout hotel.


Non-Verbal Communication:
People send messages to each other without talking. They communicate through facial expressions, head positions, arm and hand movements, body posture, positioning of legs & feet, and the way people use “space”

Body Language

• Interpreting body language is vital in any communication process • Observe the body movements and postures • Match the other person’s body language, if appropriate and if required.

Types of Nonverbal Communication
      Body Language Space Time Para language Color Layout and Design

Types of Nonverbal Communication: Kinesic behavior,-body motion such as gestures, facial expressions, eye behavior, touching,- Body movement. Physical characteristics- body shape, physique, posture, height, weight, hair, & skin color. Paralanguage- Voice quality, volume, speech rate, pitch, & laughing. Environment- Building & room design, furniture & interior decorating, light noise, & cleanliness. Time-Being late or early, keeping others waiting, & other relationships between time & status.

” Peering over tops of eyeglasses Pointing a finger Standing behind a desk & leaning palms down on it Holding jacket leaps while speaking .Reading Body Language Unspoken message “ I’m nervous Behavior Clearing throat Expelling air (such as “Whew!”) Placing hand over mouth while speaking Hurried cigarette smoking “I’m superior to you.

It easy to use May suffer form inaccuracies. 2. Inhibits feedback & interchange. Seldom time for thoughtful response. 2. Is more difficult & time consuming. . Leaves no permanent record. 2. Tends to be more accurate. 3. Provides record of communication. Promotes feedback & interchange. Disadvantages 1. 1. Written 1.Interpersonal Communication From Oral Advantages 1. 2.

. networks & activities.Communication Audit One way to improve communication in org is to conduct communication audit. Such audit is tool for examining communication policies. Organizational communication is viewed as group of communication factors related to organizational goals.

.Communication Audit One way to improve communication in org is to conduct communication audit. Organizational communication is viewed as group of communication factors related to organizational goals. networks & activities. Such audit is tool for examining communication policies.

Whiteboard software. The Internet Internet is a network of networks. Electronic meeting software. Video conferencing software. Network is a group of computers that are connected to share the information. . LAN-WAN. Group scheduling software.COMMUNICATING THORUGH TECHNOLOGY E-mail. Concept of a PAPERLESS ORGANIZATION.

Barriers to Effective Communication Despite its apparent simplicity. & communication problems -result. Barriers interfere with organizational excellence. info transmitted form one party to another -Distorted. Consequently. communication process rarely operates flawlessly. .

 Blocked steps become barriers. A management trainee with unusual new idea fails to speak up at meeting for fear of criticism.Communication -Barriers Process Barrier  Every Step in Communication process is necessary for effective communication. A Boluchi-speaking factory worker cannot get Sindahi-speaking supervisor to understand grievance about working conditions. . Encoding barrier.  Following situations: Sender barrier.

After getting no answer three times & busy signal twice. A restaurant mgr does not understand unfamiliar computer jargon during a sales presentation for laptop computers. customer concludes that a store’s consumer hot line is waste of time. Choosing appropriate medium is especially important for mgrs who must overcome physical barriers. failure of trainee ask any questions causes mgr to wonder if any real understanding what is being taken place. A mgr with a soft voice can reach hundreds of people by using a sound system. During on-the-job training. A mgr who is preoccupied with preparation of budget asks clerk to repeat earlier statement. Feedback barrier.Process Barriers Medium Barrier. Receiver barrier. Decoding Barrier. .

Thousand of miles between New York & Islamabad & time-zone difference can complicate communication in a global org. For example.Physical Barriers Sometimes physical object blocks effective communication. a Factory worker. . who wears ear protectors probably could not hear someone yelling : “Fire!” Distance is another physical barrier.

distrust of opposite sex. or lack of self-confidence . Psychological . People’s backgrounds. Words are indispensable. Mgrs in such fields as accounting. thought they can sometimes cause a great deal of trouble. & social barriers are probably responsible for more blocked communication than any other type of barrier. racial prejudice.Semantics is study of meaning of words. or advertising may become so accustomed to their own technical language that they forget that people outside their field may not understand them. computer science. Unexpected reactions or behavior by others may signal a semantic barrier.

Distrust can be result of inconsistent behavior by superior. become defensive. information to boss. . & distort information. In climate with forces. Threat & Fear Undermine communication. any message will be viewed with skepticism. In light of threats – whether real or imagined – people tend to tighten up. or it can be due to past experiences subordinate punished for honestly reporting unfavorable. but true.Distrust.

Inadequate knowledge Conflicting signals V E R B A L Differences in interpretations Differences in perception Language differences Inappropriate Use of expressions Inappropriate emotions N O N V E R B A L Ambiguity Distraction Polarization .

Message competition. Physical distraction.            Info overload. Lack of trust.Barriers Within Organizations. Unethical communication. Incorrect choice of medium. Inadequate structures. Differing status. Inefficient communication. Message complexity.  Media richness . Closed communication climate.

Mgr’s responsibility in disseminator role is to filter large volumes of info & distribute it appropriately. Info overloaded lead to: Failing to process or ignoring some of info. Withdrawing from info flow. Delaying processing of info until info overload abates. Lowering quality of info processing. Searching for people to help process some of info. .Info Overload Occurs when amount of info -process is exceeded. Processing info incorrectly.

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