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AE 305 HW-2
Group 11 28.11.2012 Ali Yıldırım-1747146 Durukan Tamkan-1747070 Elif Mehtap PELIT-1747039
k is the thermal conductivity. It is asked to find unsteady heat distribution of a turbine blade which is proposed to a hot environment due to hot gases in the combustor. .INTRODUCTION The homework problem is about visualizing the temperature distribution over a turbine which is divided into grids as: Unsteady temperature distribution of the body is described by its heat transfer equation as: The heat transfer equation is a partial differential equation and to solve this partial expression finite volume method is employed to understand temperature distribution. Some properties stated in the problem given as: The convective heat flux on the blade surface and in the cooling hole surfaces are given by: Where the chord of turbine blade L=10cm.
and not at nodes or surfaces. One advantage of the finite volume method over finite difference methods is that it does not require a structured mesh (although a structured mesh can also be used. Conservation law( in integral form): Conservation law( in differential form) is: Divergence theorem is . Finite volume methods are especially powerful on coarse nonuniform grids. Since the flux entering a given volume is identical to that leaving the adjacent volume. the values of the conserved variables are located within the volume element. the method based on the conservation laws.THEORY This method is used to calculate the values of the conserved variables averaged across the volume.) Finite difference method which is mainly based on the volume and flux integrals works in such a way and can be formulated as follows: volume integrals in a partial differential are converted to surface integrals by using divergence theorem and the terms obtained from integration become flux which enters to one cell after leaving the cell in its neighbourhood.
dt.1.mxn : Max number of nodes parameter (mxc=5001.Tbc(10) common /grad/ dTdx(mxc).mxn=3001) common /grid/ ncell.Read the input data and initialize the solution call INIT .mxc : Max number of cells c.mxc).for Nth boundary. Solution domain and unstructured domain is needed.dTdy(mxc) data mxstep.Tcell(mxc).neigh(3. Sample of the solution domain is as follows: Tbc(1)= 1200 Tbc(2)= 200 Tbc(3)= 200 Tbc(4)= 200 For the solution flux terms are based on cell averaged variables and the FORTRAN program is written as follows: c..0. It is assumed that constant temperature distribution for each triangular cell..1000/ dt.mxc).area(mxc) common /var/ time. > xy(2.iostep/7000.node(3.delTallow/0.mxn). Where: gives the fluxes at cell boundaries..nnode.01/ c.
Tbc(10) character fn*16 logical ok . do n = 1. ' Nstep.Output the final solution call TECout(nstep) stop 'FINE' end subroutine INIT parameter (mxc=5001.and.mxn=3001) common /grid/ ncell. nstep = 0 DO WHILE (nstep .area(mxc) common /var/ time.c..and..Start the solution loop delTmax = 1. delTallow) nstep = nstep + 1 time = time + dt c.ne. delTmax .Sweep all the cells and solve for T^n+1 delTmax = 0.ncell c.eq.iostep) ..Evaluate temperature gradients for each cell call GRADIENT c. mxstep ) > call TECout(nstep) ENDDO c. 0 .neigh(3..dt.gt.Output the intermediate solutions if( mod(nstep. > xy(2. delTmax) enddo print*.mxc).mxn). nstep .delT delTmax = max(abs(delT).node(3.nnode.mxc). Time..delTmax c..time. DelTmax :'.nstep.Evaluate temperature change for the cell delT = dt/area(n) * FLUX(n) Tcell(n) = Tcell(n) .lt. mxstep .Tcell(mxc).
n) n3 = node(3.Read the grid data fn='tblade.Initialize the solution Tic = 25.*) (no.n=1.(xy(i.n1))*(xy(1. fn..i=1.n1)) > (xy(2. ok ) then print*.n3)-xy(1. ' # of cells :'.3)...ncell print*.(node(i.n2)-xy(2.i=1.(neigh(i. ' Reading '.n=1.n1)) ) enddo c.Set Initial and Boundary Conditions Tbc(1)= 1200.fn open(5.ncell Tcell(n) = Tic .*) ncell.n).5*((xy(1.n3)-xy(2.ncell n1 = node(1.n1))*(xy(2.*) (no.nnode c.not.2).form='formatted') read(5. ' '. ' # of nodes :'.3).c.Compute cell areas do n = 1.n) area(n) = 0.n). do n =1.ncell) close(5) print*.dat' inquire(FILE=fn.EXIST=ok) if( .nnode read(5. c. Tbc(2)= 200.file=fn. Tbc(4)= 200.nnode) read(5. ' does not exist! \n\n' stop endif print*.n2)-xy(1.i=1.n). Tbc(3)= 200..n) n2 = node(2.
n2)-xy(2..mxc).gt.n2)-xy(1.dTdy(mxc) DO n = 1.n) if(ne .n1) dy = xy(2.5*(Tcell(n)+Tneigh) dTdx(n) = dTdx(n) + Tface*dy dTdy(n) = dTdy(n) .Tbc(10) common /grad/ dTdx(mxc). 3) then n2=node(nf+1.mxc).enddo call TECout(0) return end subroutine GRADIENT parameter (mxc=5001.neigh(3.n) endif dx = xy(1. do nf = 1.mxn=3001) common /grid/ ncell.area(mxc) common /var/ time.n1) ne = neigh(nf.dt.n) else n2=node(1.mxn).walls !.Tcell(mxc).n) if(nf .lt. 0) then Tneigh = Tcell(ne) else !.nnode.real neighbor Tneigh = Tbc(-ne) endif Tface = 0. dTdy(n) = 0..ncell dTdx(n) = 0.3 n1 = node(nf.Tface*dx enddo dTdx(n) = dTdx(n)/area(n) . > xy(2.node(3.
flux_y*dx) enddo FLUX = -alpha*FLUX return .5 else !.n2)-xy(2.node(3.n) if(ne .mxc).n1) dy = xy(2.n) if(nf .mxn=3001) common /grid/ ncell..Tcell(mxc). > xy(2.dTdy(mxc) data alpha /22.lt.real neighbor flux_x = (dTdx(n)+dTdx(ne))*0. 0) then !.nnode.n) else n2=node(1.gt..n) endif dx = xy(1.5 endif FLUX = FLUX + (flux_x*dy .neigh(3.mxn).dt.Tbc(10) common /grad/ dTdx(mxc).Sum surface fluxes over the cell faces do nf = 1.walls flux_x = dTdx(n)*0.area(mxc) common /var/ time. 3) then n2=node(nf+1.5 flux_y = (dTdy(n)+dTdy(ne))*0.n1) ne = neigh(nf.5E-6/ FLUX = 0.dTdy(n) = dTdy(n)/area(n) ENDDO return end function FLUX(n) parameter (mxc=5001..3 n1 = node(nf. c.mxc).n2)-xy(1.5 flux_y = dTdy(n)*0.
Tbc(10) real Tnode(mxn) integer npass(mxn) . > xy(2.nnode. "TEMPERATURE"'/. form='formatted') write(5. > ' ZONE N='.Tcell(mxc).100) nnode.file=fname.area(mxc) common /var/ time.' F=FEPOINT '.node(3.ncell write(5.mxc).nnode.5)') float(nstep)/100000 read(string.Set the output file name write(string. > xy(2.n).mxc).102) (node(1.Tcell(mxc).n=1.n).101) (xy(1.5)) 102 format (3(1x.n).area(mxc) common /var/ time.neigh(3.node(2..a5)') ext fname = 'temp-'//ext//'.mxn). I6.node(3.mxn).end subroutine TECout(nstep) parameter (mxc=5001...' E='.ext*5 c.mxn=3001) common /grid/ ncell. I6.n).dt.string*8..'(3x.e12.dt.' ET=triangle' ) 101 format (3(1x.i6)) return end subroutine TEMPNODE(Tnode) c.Evaluate average temperatures at nodes call TEMPNODE(Tnode) c.ncell) close(5) 100 format (' VARIABLES= "X". "Y".neigh(3.Tnode(n).mxn=3001) common /grid/ ncell.mxc).tec' c.node(3.n).xy(2.Tbc(10) real Tnode(mxn) character fname*32.Evaluate node temperatures by averaging the cell temperatures parameter (mxc=5001.mxc).Output the solution and the grid in TECPLOT format open(5.nnode) write(5.'(f8.n=1.
Find the contribution of cells to the node temperatures do n=1.. As we can see blade cooling hole is not enough to provide keep all blade cool.3 nn = node(nf.nnode Tnode(n)=Tnode(n)/npass(n) enddo return end RESULTS & DISCUSSION With one cooling hole We plotted the graph while our mx step 7000 and iostep 1000. This means we will get 7 temperature distributions with one initial state situation. While time is increasing. . Nevertheless we can say cooling hole is enough to keep their neighbor environment cool. npass(n) = 0 enddo c.Average the total node temperature with # of contributing cells do n=1..do n=1. blade is getting hotter from starting from aft.ncell do nf=1.nnode Tnode(n) = 0.n) Tnode(nn)=Tnode(nn)+Tcell(n) npass(nn)=npass(nn)+1 enddo enddo c.
When a second cooling hole is added temperature distributions are as follows: We changed the given blade. By adding all these information into blade. .It can be observed with considering the temperature scale that due to hot gases turbine blades gets hotter and firstly blade tips are effected. Secondly we changed the first hole’s place on coordinate system by changing x and y points of first hole. First hole has been kept constant to be able to add a second cooling hole onto turbine blade.d we obtained this illustration as shown in below.d file to put second cooling hole as follows.
Especially on the middle part of turbine blade temperature seems low if we compare with one cooling hole.mathematik. REFERENCES http://www. Steady State Temperature distribution After many step solution steady-state condition has been reached.uni-dortmund. In steady state temperature distrubition turbine blades seem in their neutral situation. In this case we couldn’t observe too much difference between one hole and double hole blades.de/~kuzmin/cfdintro/lecture5.With the second hole temperature distrubutions seems more uniform and the blade affected from hot gases less when the temperature scale is considered. Therefore. we can briefly say second cooling hole is usefull to keep temperature less in middle section. Then the temperature distrubition keeps its stability over the turbine blade surface.pdf Lecture notes .
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