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WORKING WITH AND LEADING PEOPLE

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ASSIGNMENT ON

WORKING WITH AND LEADING PEOPLE
Shaji Viswanathan Mcom, MBA(UK)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................... 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................................ 4 ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................... 4 BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................................ 4 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 5 TASK (1) RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND RETENTION PROCEDURES (LO1) ....... 5
Recruitment and selection .................................................................................................................................. 6 RETENTION OF EMPLOYEES ......................................................................................................................... 7 1a. documentations for recruitment and selection ........................................................................................... 8 1b. Legal requirements in recruitment and selection ........................................................................................ 9 Employment Protection Act 1978 ...................................................................................................................10 Sex Discrimination Act 1975 ............................................................................................................................10 Race relations Act1976......................................................................................................................................10

EQUAL PAY ACT 1978 ........................................................................................................................ 10
Disability Discrimination Act 1995 ............................................................................................................... 11

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Rehabilitation of offenders Act 1974 ............................................................................................................ 11

1C. METHODS OF SELECTION PROCESS ........................................................................... 11 1D. EVALUATION OF THE SELECTION PROCESS (TASK 1C) .................................. 12
Characteristics of General mental ability .....................................................................................................12 Advantages of General mental ability ...........................................................................................................12 Disadvantages of General mental ability ......................................................................................................12 Remedies to disadvantages .............................................................................................................................12 Characteristics OF STRUCTURED Interviews .............................................................................................12 Advantages of Structured Interviews ............................................................................................................13 Disadvantages of structured interviews .......................................................................................................13 Remedies ..............................................................................................................................................................13 Situational judgment tests ............................................................................................................................. 13 Characteristics of situational judgment tests .............................................................................................13 Advantages of Situational judgment tests ...................................................................................................13 Disadvantages of Situational judgment tests .............................................................................................14 Remedies ..............................................................................................................................................................14 Combinations ................................................................................................................................................... 14

TASK 2 STYLES AND IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP (LO2) .............................................. 14
2a. 2.b. 2.c skills, ATTRIBUTES, AND leadership styles ..................................................................... 16 2c. 2.d Motivation and approach to experts, new recruits and operatives. ................................... 17

TASK 3 .3.A.3.B WORK EFFECTIVELY IN A TEAM (LO3)............................................ 18
To avoid distructive and selfish group roles .............................................................................................. 18 3c. review OF the team ................................................................................................................................. 19

TASK 4 WORK AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS OF INDIVIDUALS (LO4) ................ 20
4a. monitoring and assessment of staff in Tech. Dept. ....................................................................... 21 4b. planning and assessing individual workers of the technical Department. ............................. 21 4c. critically evaluate the assessment process in 4b. ......................................................................... 22

RECOMENATIONS ................................................... ОШИБКА! ЗАКЛАДКА НЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА.

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CONCLUSION ............................................................ ОШИБКА! ЗАКЛАДКА НЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНА. BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................. 22 ARTICLE I. WORKS CITED ............................................................................................................. 22

ARTICLE II. IBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................. 23

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The management of “Dell” to dedicate this report and I would like to thanks not only appoint me in products and service technical department as a manager, but also the moral and financial support provided me during the research. In addition, the cooperation from the staff of technical department, administrative department, and H.R division for their interactive communication throughout the research gratefully acknowledged.

ABSTRACT This report provides an analysis and evaluation of the relevant recruitment, selection and retention procedures, and documentation of new recruits, besides that leadership styles and its impacts, leadership approaches, team working and its benefits and development needs of individuals in Dell. The result of observation and analysis of data shows that, all the procedures are above industrial average, except team working and development needs of individuals. All the supported data found in Appendixes. This report finds the future of company in its present position is positive and the areas of weakness needed remedial action by management. Recommendations includeImprove the team spirit of employees by personal and professional development. Motivate employees with more recreational facilities and incentives.

BACKGROUND Since 1984 Dell expanded to 180 countries with a team of 100,000 employees as a team worldwide and supplies 10,000 computer systems per day to their customers worldwide, It is

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more than a computer system per second and shows the importance of products and service technical department. The strategic framework of the products and services delivery system required a high efficient teamwork and professional qualified team members, besides that the leadership styles has impact on employees, with reference to those points the work carried out.

INTRODUCTION The human resource is the precious asset of successful organizations; the successful organizations are those implement plans correctly, besides that the planning process to be looks the future correctly and points out the courses of action to follow requires a systematic approach, due to that the human resource recruitment, selection and retention to carried out with proper attention. In order to verify the process the whole procedures made a verification and observation. The experience is knowledge and experienced employees are asset of the organization, it is truth that the organization spent its resources to train the employees aimed to get a long-term performance to achieve the perfectionism in the quality of the organization. Due to that to maintain the trained employees are vital, following this the retention and legal requirements to be considered to maintain the trained staff. In order to maintain them, there are the criteria of the impact of leadership styles, change in policies and practices may cause the terms of both employer and employee relations. The product and service technical department required a high volume of technical staff with a pleasant team spirit for the high volume of computer systems. In order to maintain a quality team, it is essential to verify the root cause reasons to make the employees pleasant.

Task (1) Recruitment, selection and retention procedures (LO1)
The HR practices in an organization emerged from the combination of business strategy and HR strategy. The proper HR practices make effective changes in human resource by competency, commitment, and flexibility, because of this there is dynamic change of increased productivity, quality of goods and services and it leads to financial performance and achievement of organizational objectives.(Armstrong, 2006)

FIG.1

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Recruitment and selection
Refers to Business dictionary, the recruitment is, ““The process of identifying and hiring the best-qualified candidate (from within or outside of an organization) for a job vacancy, in a most timely and cost effective manner”” (Business Dictionary,2012) The recruitment is the process of identifying suitable qualified person for the vacancy; it may from outside or inside selection of an organization with timely and cost effective. In other words, the selection of right qualified person for a matching job at right time with cost consideration. It is a process of attracting the qualified person for the exacting positions, the process begins with the position arises and ends with when it closed. The recruitment result is from a group of applicants and from there the right candidate will be select. It is a cycle and consists of many steps such as-

The requirement of staff varies in different departments and the job specification depend the necessity of the requirement reported by the line manager and each job has its own specification such as age, lender, background, subject,

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knowledge, experience. After analyzing the job requirement, the manager prepares the job description. The sourcing of candidate can done with through various methods such as advertising through different media likewise internet, dailies, job publications, professional publications, job centers, window advertisements, campus recruitments. The HR recruitment consultants also a major source, besides those employee referrals, word of mouth also helps to find a suitable candidate. The screening and filtering is a major and time-consuming process and it screened the complete data and selected the profiles that satisfy the job description and factors of filter. After that the direct interaction with the candidate through internet, face to face, phone, emails help the recruiter to understand the strengths, weaknesses, capabilities and inabilities. If the KSACS= TDR = JOB SUCCESS KSCS = knowledge, skills, abilities, cultural ground and strategy fit TDR= tasks, duties and responsibilities The short listed candidates called for interview with line managers and written tests conducted as per the policy of the organization. After that, it follows the Feedback from the interviewer, if the opinion is positive, the shorting and final interview with concerned reporting manager and HR department to finalize the terms agreements such as salary and all other incentive and benefits. The final steps to issuance of offer letter and the recruitment cycles ends with the joining of the recruited candidate and the HR manager should keep a backup plan for if the selected candidate not joined. RETENTION OF EMPLOYEES The head hunting and employee turnover increased in the competitive market by improvement of information technology, cheap communication channels, social network, and globalization. The employee turnover ratio represents the overall quality and culture of the organization. Undoubtedly, the employee turnover affects the productivity. Satisfied employees can change the productivity, Refers to the website – employee retention strategy, “”employee satisfaction shows positive results in bottom lines and customer loyalty””.

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The actual cost of employee turnover exceeds the normal numerically calculated figures and there is figures cant quantified, such as the unseen losses on productivity, customer satisfaction, reputation, and negative impacts among job seekers and morale of departing employee’s co-workers. Certainly, the organization follows certain strategies to maintain the retention. Refers to Mind Tree, there are certain research based strategies such as;  Avoid gimmicks like employee of the month, suggestions boxes, prizes or some other carrots.  Have an understandable approach by employees to ensure the basic cause of turnover and the potential for long-term change.  Customize not only all activities but also unique history of the organization, besides that consider the current practices, strategic objectives, unique challenges in the industry, competitive issues and shortage of talents.  Involvement of responsible to implement change with shared understanding.  Put together hands on action oriented approaches to move effectively.  Identify research proven strategies to put up employee loyalty and commitment.  Bring best practices in action to make healthy retention rate. Considering with the recruitment cost, training cost, lost production cost and lost sales cost, it is generally accepted that, to recognize the people are valuable and when recognize the problems of retention, evaluate the reason behind it and set goals for retention strategy , besides that adopt strategically managed retention policies. (Drake International, 2012)

1a. documentations for recruitment and selection
The recruitment and selection procedures carried out within the limits of legal requirements. The recruitments and selection should be transparent and the necessary procedures should follow the documentation. Refers to “Northumberland County Council”, the primary documentation used for “hiring staff, interviewing documentation, selection of staff “as follows: (government web site, 2012)

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1b. Legal requirements in recruitment and selection
The legal framework of recruitment and selection process includes the following:Data protection act and freedom of information legislation

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Equality act Discrimination of both direct and indirect Discrimination – “lawful” Liability What can ask and cant asks to candidates Equality and diversity policy Individual merit principle Good practice – personal questions The above legal requirements are in a wide sense and the Individual Act passed by the government mainly such as-

EMPLOYMENT PROTECTION ACT 1978
It defines the terms of the contract of employment and provides concerned parties names, besides that date of commencement of job, title of job, terms of payment, holidays, working hours, sick pay pension, termination of job, disciplinary and complaint procedures.

SEX DISCRIMINATION ACT 1975
The sex discrimination Act 1975 refers that, discriminate men and women in terms of employment is unlawful, the law provides equal terms and condition in selection process, offer of employment, dismissal, promotion, training and benefits. The sex discrimination Act1975 protect both sex from direct and indirect discrimination, such as treated one from opposite sex less favorably and indirect discrimination like an employer relate a condition to a candidate for a job vacancy that not relevant to that and suggest a particular sex would be acceptable.

RACE RELATIONS ACT1976
The Race Relation Act 1976 protects the discrimination of racial grounds, racial groups of color, race nationality, religion and ethnic origins. The Race Relations Act 1976 uses Both the direct and indirect sex discrimination.
EQUAL PAY ACT 1978

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The Equal Pay Act 1978 planned to prevent discrimination among men and women on the subject of payment in work such as same work paid the same pay as well as same terms and conditions.

DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION ACT 1995
This Act protects disabled people not to be discriminated when applying for a job as well as chance of interview and to provide a place of job accessible.

REHABILITATION OF OFFENDERS ACT 1974
This Act protect people from discrimination such as imprisonment more than 30 months may be erase, if the offender does not commit serious crime all through rehabilitation period. The age and length of conviction to be consider.

1c. methods of selection process
In a recent Article according to Scontrino - Powell in recent article (Scontrino Powell, 2012) suggested the following effective employee selection methods, such asGeneral mental ability Structural interviews Situational judgment tests Combinations of above This Article concluded with a comment as, ““There are countless tools, methods, and approaches to making good selection decisions. However, according to decades of applied organizational research the ones described above are the most successful, accessible methods for finding those diamonds in the rough. It is important to note that other valid methods were intentionally left out; Assessment Centers were not described because they are not a realistic approach for many jobs and organizations””. (Scontrino - Powell, 2012) Every method of selection process has its own merits and demerits, even if it is modern or traditional method, so it is better to use the universal employee selection tools most suitable based on the hiring strategy.

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1d. Evaluation of the selection process (task 1c)

CHARACTERISTICS OF GENERAL MENTAL ABILITY 1. General Mental ability GMA test predicts the future performance in all types of jobs including entry level to CEO in all types of industries. 2. It can perform in both computer tests and paper and pencil tests 3. It allows the organization to select the approach that fits test

ADVANTAGES OF GENERAL MENTAL ABILITY 1. The cognitive ability is universally connected with performance among all jobs and all levels. 2. Not required customization when using it for different jobs. 3. It is affordable, quick, easy and no special training required

DISADVANTAGES OF GENERAL MENTAL ABILITY 1. Adverse impact on selection of certain minority groups 2. It affect to locate demographic scores and hiring decisions REMEDIES TO DISADVANTAGES 1. Combining with other tests 2. Avoid advanced English language 3. Use “banding to establish scoring clusters 4. Alternative tests such as wonder lie, ravens or progressive matrices.

CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS 1. It is not a traditional method of interview like in structured or behaviorally interviews. 2. It asks predetermined series of job related questions 3. It records the responses scored using detailed criteria. 4. Interview panel of 2 to 3 trained managers conducting the interview 5. The ratings are comparing to decide the consistency

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6. If the response scored inconsistency, then the panel discuss their rationale and arrive in consensus

ADVANTAGES OF STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. It is good for predicting performance It reduces personal bias Evaluation based on organizational cultural and job specific dimensions It can be uses in any type of job and any level of job It replaces regular interviews

DISADVANTAGES OF STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS 1. Required experts guidance to prepare questionnaires 2. Interviewers required training REMEDIES Specialist services are available to conduct the test.

SITUATIONAL JUDGMENT TESTS

CHARACTERISTICS OF SITUATIONAL JUDGMENT TESTS
1. It is one of the good approaches for managerial and technical positions 2. It is defined as the multiple choice equivalent to structured interviews 3. Asking multiple questions for how approach different hypothetical situations. 4. Result shows how decisions made particular situations 5. It shows the ability of applicants response to complicated situation

ADVANTAGES OF SITUATIONAL JUDGMENT TESTS
1. Predicting future performance 2. Easy to administer and easy to test in computer or paper and pencil

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3. It obtains the idea of how one respond in different situations 4. It can recognize the areas of growth and development from present employees 5. The developed questions can use again

DISADVANTAGES OF SITUATIONAL JUDGMENT TESTS
1. It required thorough job analysis so it is costly and time consuming 2. It is not used universally , it is used for particular job and it is not valid for other positions

REMEDIES
To overcome the disadvantages it is better to avail the specialist service from the professionals.

COMBINATIONS
The validity of the hiring process higher, when combine more than one instrument or method. It improves the predictive validity of the process. If combine above any of three methods it is believed generally that, it is better than the traditional evaluating resumes and follow unstructured interviews or nonvalidated tests.

Task 2 Styles and impact of Leadership (LO2)
The leadership characteristics refers to (Beans, 2005), the four actions of a world class leader is, promoting change, realizing values, developing people, achieving results through stretching, empowering, sharing and coaching. FIG.2

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FIG.2. source. (Beans, 2005)

Refers to (newlink-Big Dog, Little Dog and Knowledge Jump, 1995)””Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Kurt Lewis (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and established three major leadership styles. The three major styles of leadership are (U.S. Army Handbook, 1973)””. The good leader is always cautious about to use the three styles of leadership. Plainly, the leadership has an impact on people. The three styles of leadership are- FIG.4 1. Autocratic or authoritarian 2. Democratic or participative 3. Delegative or Free reign Fig.4

(nwlink-Big Dog, Little Dog and Knowledge Jump, 1995)

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2a. 2.b. 2.c skills, ATTRIBUTES, AND leadership styles
The difference between leader and manager is that, manager has subordinates and the leader has followers, so the managing and leading consists in the leadership level and manager level. It is reflected in how they motivating people with the aspects of authority and responsibility. The manager instructs the people to do things, but the manager also a subordinate and the manager solves problems. However, the leaders have followers and do not have subordinates when they are leading. To summarize this, the following table FIG.5 gives a clear picture. (“”Source. changingminds.org””)

FIG.5

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2c. 2.d Motivation and approach to experts, new recruits and operatives.

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Motivating employees will make dynamic changes in their productivity and commitment. Humans are not machines and the approaches to all levels of management should be following with motivational factors. An ideal manager can motivate subordinates in different ways by providing:Basis rights Fair pay and fair employment policies Psychological needs and prevent dissatisfaction Participative style of management Let to participate in problem solving Job enrichment Satisfying needs Rewards and incentives Keep job itself as a motivational factor

Task 3 .3.a.3.b Work effectively in a Team (LO3) Plainly, the group leader can take a leading role in teamwork and generate team and team spirit. The team leader must possess the team working skills, otherwise to develop the skills. The team leader should be self-motivated and be an encourager, compromiser, leader, clarifier and recorder, besides that in elaborate, he should considerHelp group members to compromise different view points Introduce new ideas Decide criteria and stick on it No emotional argument Be optimistic and look positive side Well organized and time keeping Consider others ideas Argue with logic Suggest new ways Consider all possibilities Involve with the team Support and praise members Expand others opinion Compromise when required Cool minded and spokesperson for the result Clarify others contributions Motivate group.

TO AVOID DISTRUCTIVE AND SELFISH GROUP ROLES

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Autocratic manner to interrupt other members Avoid show offs Sudden change of topic when others are not ready Aggressiveness- not showing respect to others and negative comments. Refusing focus on the task or group problems Critic nature to avoid others ideas, always see the negative side to arguments and not suggest alternatives. Seek sympathy from others Self- confessor – such as uses the group for self praising Clown mentality of not showing interest in subject. The Fig.6 below explains the Teamwork. (kent university, 2012)

FIG6

(kent university, 2012)
3c. review OF the team Refers to Nato Otan e-notes, the review of the team effectiveness can measure through different models. The academicians developed different tools, but the universally accepted one is CTFL(Command Team Effectiveness). The model selected here the cited model of Tannenbaum, beard and Salas 1992 by Nato Otan. FIG.7(Nato Otan, 2012).

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With the team work experience in Dell was satisfactory and the team perform well in and the above explained crieterias met by the group leaders and members, The corrective steps mentioned in the recommendations.

FIG.7

Task 4 Work and development needs of individuals (LO4) Refers to Mind Tools, ““Clearly, some training needs will be universal, and will apply to many, if not all, of your team members. However, everyone on your team is unique; they have different skills, different levels of understanding, and different responsibilities and objectives. Therefore, training and development shouldn't follow a "one size fits all"” (Mind Tools, 2012)

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4a. monitoring and assessment of staff in Tech. Dept. The tool used to measure the performance of the employees in technical department was KPIs – Key Performance Indicators.

Based on the KPIs tool, the necessary steps taken and this time consuming process forwarded to clerical wing for further processing to get accurate results.

4b. planning and assessing individual workers of the technical Department.

To understand the development needs of individuals and provide development in skills, the following steps considered. Reviewed the peoples job description Meet the team members

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Observation to be made at work Collect additional data Analyze and prepare new data Take action steps 4c. critically evaluate the assessment process in 4b. As a manager in technical division and working with the team and observation, it is realized that; 20% of the employees not matching their profile with the job description Necessary corrective steps to taken for their skill development.

Recommendations
Improve the team spirit of employees by personal and professional development. Motivate employees with more recreational facilities and incentives.

CONCLUSION
To recapitulate, strategical approach required in every functional area of the organization, as well as when dealing with humans, it is better adopt psychological and scientific approaches to deal the human problems. Because human being is the base of all the changes, the changes comes from their brains, so it is vital that handle the most powerful thing carefully.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ARTICLE I.

WORKS CITED

Balanced Score Card Institute. (1997-2012, October 10). balanced score card.org. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from http://www.balancedscorecard.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=D%2bEwibKKLeA%3d&tabid=58 Beans, M. (2005, novomber 3). forio.com. Retrieved october 30, 2012, from forio's forum: http://forio.com/resources/article/what-is-leadership/ Drake International. (2012, OCTOBER 29). Drake International. london, hamilton, U.K. Retrieved OCTOBER 29, 2012, from DREKE INTERNATIONAL.

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government web site. (2012, october 29). northumberland. Retrieved october 29, 2012, from northumberland county council: http://www.northumberland.gov.uk/default.aspx?page=3288 kent university. (2012, october 30). Career and Employment Services. Retrieved october 30, 2012, from kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/teamwork.htm: http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/teamwork.htm Mind Tools. (2012, october 30). mind tools. Retrieved october 30, 2012, from mind tools: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_06.htm Nato Otan. (2012, OCTOBER 30). NATO. Retrieved october 30, 2012, from Nato Otan: http://ftp.rta.nato.int/public//PubFullText/RTO/TR/RTO-TR-HFM-087///TR-HFM-087-04.pdf newlink-Big Dog, Little Dog and Knowledge Jump. (1995, july 13). nwlink. Retrieved october 30, 2012, from Big Dog, Little Dog and Knowledge Jump: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html Scontrino - Powell. (2012, July 18). scontrino-powell.com. Retrieved October 30, 2012, from scontrino-powell.com, website: http://www.scontrino-powell.com/2012/the-most-effective-to-employee-selection-methods/

ARTICLE II.

IBLIOGRAPHY

Armstrong, M. (2008). Strategic HRM: The key to Improved Business Performance. London: CIPD. Iain Nixon, K. S. (2006, Jyly). Work-based learning. Heslington, York YO10 5BR, Unitrd Kingdom. INC., G. S. (2012, October 12). Strategy at the Speed of Change. Retrieved October 12, 2012, from GRYPHON SYSTEMS INC.: http://www.gryphonsystems.com/gsi-home.shtml IPCC. (2012, October 15). IPCC. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Integrated Panel On Climate Change: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch2s2-3-2.html Kelly, P. a. (1978). Technological Innovation: A Critical Review of Current Knowledge. In P. a. Kelly, A Critical Review of Current Knowledge. San Francisco: San Francisco Press. Kotter, J. R. (2006). Our Iceberg is Melting. In J. R. Kotter, Changing And Succeeding Under Any Conditions. Massachusetts, U.S.A: Hardward Business School Press. Morris, L. (2012, october 17). Innovation Metrics. Retrieved october 17, 2012, from innovation labs website: http://www.innovationtools.com/PDF/measuring_innovation.pdf

APPENDIXES