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7
th
Semester  Final Year EEE
UNIT I FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRIC DRIVES 9
Advantage of Electric Drives – Parts and choice of Electrical Drives – Status of DC and AC
drives – Torquespeed characteristics of motor and load – Selection of Motor power
rating – Thermal model of motor for heating and cooling – Classes of duty cycle –
Determination of motor rating – Control of Electric drives – Modes of operation – Speed
control and drive classifications – Closed loop control of drives.
UNIT II CONVERTER / CHOPPER FED DC MOTOR DRIVE 9
Steady state and transient analysis of the single and three phase fully controlled
converter fed separately excited D.C motor drive – Continuous and discontinuous
conduction mode – Multiquadrant operation – Converter control – Chopperfed D.C drive
– Steadystate analysis – Block diagram of closed loop dc drive.
UNIT III INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 9
Analysis and performance of threephase induction motor – Operation with unbalanced
source voltage, singlephasing and unbalanced rotor impedance – Starting – Braking –
Transient analysis – Stator voltage control –Adjustable frequency control of VSI and CSI
fed induction motor – Static rotor resistance control – Slippower recovery drives – Open
loop V/f control – Principle of vector control – Vector control of induction motor – Block
diagram of closed loop drive.
UNIT IV SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVES 9
Open loop V/f control and selfcontrol of CSI and VSI fed synchronous motor
Cycloconverter fed synchronous motor – Microprocessor based synchronous motor
control –Marginal angle control and power factor control – Permanent magnet (PM)
synchronous motor – vector control of PM Synchronous Motor (PMSM).
UNIT V BLDC, STEPPER AND SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR DRIVES 9
Brushless DC motor drives and its applications – Variable reluctance and permanent
magnet stepper motor Drives – Operation and control of switched reluctance motor –
Applications, modern trends in industrial drive.
Total: 45
TEXT BOOKS
1. Bimal K. Bose, “Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives”, Pearson Education, 2002.
2. Dubey, G.K., “Fundamentals of Electrical Drives”, 2nd Edition, Narosa Publishing
House, 2001.
REFERENCES
1. Pillai, S.K., “A First Course on Electrical Drives”, Wiley Eastern Limited, 1993.
2. Krishnan, R., “Electric Motor and Drives Modelling, Analysis and Control”, Prentice
Hall of India, 2001.
UNIT I FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRIC DRIVES
Advantage of Electric Drives – Parts and choice of Electrical Drives – Status of DC and AC
drives – Torquespeed characteristics of motor and load – Selection of Motor power
rating – Thermal model of motor for heating and cooling – Classes of duty cycle –
Determination of motor rating – Control of Electric drives – Modes of operation – Speed
control and drive classifications – Closed loop control of drives.
Drive:
Drive is a system which supplies mechanical energy for motion control.
Electric Drive:
An electric drive is a system that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy.
Applications of Electric Drives:
1. Transportation Systems
2. Rolling Mills
3. Paper Mills
4. Textile Mills
5. Machine Tools
6. Fans and Pumps
7. Robots
8. Washing Machines etc.
Block Diagram of Electric Drive:
Sources:
• Mostly Single and Three phase 50Hz supply is used base on the power
requirements.
• When 50Hz Supply is used, maximum of 3000 RPM can only be obtained. For
increased speed, higher frequency supply is required.
• For low and medium power ratings: 400V used.
• For Higher power ratings: 3.3kV, 6.6kV, 11kV and higher voltages are used.
• Some drives are powered from battery and even solar powered drives are also
used. But these drives are not economical and having restrictions.
• Type of motor used is independent of the supply available.
Power Modulator:
• The switches within the converter are controlled by the modulator which
determines which switches should be on, and for what time interval, normally on
a microsecond timescale. An example is the Pulse Width Modulator that realizes
a required pulse width at a given carrier frequency of a few kHz.
• The power modulators are classified as follows:
o Converters
AC to DC Converters – Variable DC Voltage
AC Voltage Regulators – Variable AC Voltage
Choppers – Variable DC Voltage
Inverters
i. Stepped wave inverter – Variable Frequency Fixed Voltage
ii. PWM Inverter – Variable Frequency Variable Voltage
Cycloconverters – Variable Frequency and Variable Voltage
Source Power Modulator Load
Control Unit
Motor
Sensing Unit
Input Command
o Variable impedances: Variable resistors are commonly used for the
control and dynamic breaking of low cost AC and DC drives. In high power
applications, liquid rheostats are employed to get stepless variation of
resistance. Two step (full and zero) inductors are employed for limiting
starting current of AC motors.
o Switching Circuits:
Switching operations are performed by high power electromagnetic
relays. Now a day, thyrister switches are used.
Switching operations are required for the following:
i. For changing motor connections to change its quadrant of
operation
ii. For changing motor circuit parameters in discrete steps for
automatic starting and braking control
iii. For operating motors and drives according to predetermined
sequence
iv. To provide interlocking to prevent maloperation and
v. To disconnect motor when abnormal operating conditions
occur.
Control Unit:
• Controls for a power modulator are provided in the control unit.
• The control unit, typically a digital signal processor (DSP), or microcontroller
contains a number of software based control loops which control, for example,
the currents in the converter and machine.
• In addition torque, speed and shaft angle control loops may be present within this
module. Shown in the diagram are the various sensor signals which form the key
inputs to the controller together with a number of user setpoints (not shown in
the diagram). The output of the controller is a set of control parameters which
are used by the modulator.
Motors:
• DC Mots:
o Shunt, series, compound and permanent magnet motors
• Induction motors:
o Squirrel cage, slip ring and linear induction motors
• Synchronous Motors:
o Wound field and permanent magnet motors
• For variable speed operations, DC motors are preferred. The development of solid
state devices helps to use AC motors in variable speed applications.
• Because of numerous advantages of AC motors, AC drives have succeeded DC
drives in a number of variable speed applications.
Advantages of Electric Drives:
1. They have flexible control characteristics.
2. They are available in wide range of torque, speed and power.
3. Electric motors have high efficiency, low no load losses and considerable short
time overloading capacity.
4. They are adoptable to almost any operating conditions such as explosive
environment, submerged, vertical mountings and so on.
5. They do not pollute the environment.
6. Can operate in all the four quadrants of speed torque plane.
7. They can be started instantly and can immediately be fully loaded.
Choice of Electrical drives:
Selection of electrical drive depends on number of factors such as,
1. Steady state operation requirements:
• Nature of speed torque characteristics
• Speed regulation
• Speed range
• Efficiency
• Duty cycle
• Quadrants of operation
• Ratings
2. Transient operation requirements:
• Acceleration and deceleration
• Starting
• Braking and reversing performance
3. Requirements related to the source:
• Types and capacity of the source
• Magnitude of voltage
• Voltage fluctuations
• Power factor
• Harmonics and effect on other loads
4. Capital, running and maintenance needs, life.
5. Space and weight restrictions if any.
6. Environment and location.
7. Reliability.
Status of AC and DC drives:
• Previously induction and synchronous motors were only preferred for constant
speed and DC motors were dominated in variable speed applications.
• The development of thyristors in 1960s brought the induction motor widely in to
variable speed applications with increased efficiency and equivalent performance
compared to DC drives. It was expected that the efficient induction motor may
occupy the place of DC drives in variable speed applications.
• But the expectation prohibited by the following reasons:
i. The cost of converters and controllers made the induction motor drive
expensive than those of DC drive.
ii. The control technology of DC drives was well established than the new
technology of AC drives.
iii. AC drives were not reliable than DC drives.
iv. Implementation of the developed digital and VLSI design were helpful in
improving the performance of AC drive and the same led to improvements
in DC drives.
• Use of recent developments in power electronics have resulted into reduction in
cost, simplified controller, increased efficiency and reliable performance of AC
drives.
• Even nowadays, in between widely used variable speed DC drives, induction
motors are used in low to high power ranges and synchronous motor drives are
used in medium and very high power applications.
• The permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) and brushless DC (BLDC)
motors are replacing DC servomotors for fractional HP range.
Fundamental Torque Equations:
Motors are coupled to the load with transmission system. During rotation of motor shaft,
the load may rotator or may undergo translational motion. The speed of the load may
differ from that of the motor and the speed and motion of the different parts of the load
may also differ. But the motor load system is conveniently discussed with the following
representation:
Let,
J – Moment of inertia of the motorload system referred to the motor shaft (kgm
2
)
ωm  Instantaneous angular velocity of motor shaft (rad/sec)
T Instantaneous value of developed motor torque (Nm)
Tl Instantaneous value of load torque (Opposing torque including friction and
windage) referred to motor shaft (Nm)
By the fundamental torque equation,
( )
dt
dJ
dt
d
J J
dt
d
T T
m
m
m l
ω
ω
ω + · · − (1)
The above equation is applicable to variable inertia drives used in mine winders,
industrial robots etc., but for constant inertia,
0 ·
dt
dJ
Then,
) 2 (
ω
ω
→ + ·
· −
l
m
m
l
T
dt
d
J T
dt
d
J T T
From equation (2), it is clear that the torque developed by the motor (T) is counter
balanced by the load torque (Tl) and a dynamic torque J(dωm/dt). The term J(dωm/dt) is
called dynamic torque because it is present only during the transient operations.
Acceleration and deceleration of the drive depends on the values of T and Tl. For
acceleration, T> Tl and for deceleration, T< Tl.During acceleration, the motor torque not
only overcome the load torque but it supplies to dynamic torque J(dωm/dt) to overcome
drive inertia.
In drives with larger inertia, like electric trains, motor torque must exceed the load
torque by a large amount in order to get sufficient acceleration. When fast transient
response required, motor torque should be maintained at larger rate and the system
should be designed with lowest inertia.
The energy associated with dynamic torque is stored as kinetic energy assists the
motor torque T and maintains drive motion.
Components of Load Torque:
• Friction torque, (Tf), results from relative motion between surfaces, and it is
found in bearings, lead screws, gearboxes, slideways, etc.
• Windage torque,(Tw), is caused by the rotating components setting up air (or
other fluid) movement, and is proportional to the square of the speed.
• Load torque,(Tl) required by the application.
Loads with rotational motion:
ω
m
• The motor is driving two loads. One load is directly driven and other is a through
gear with ‘n’ and ‘n1’ teeth.
• Let,
o J0 – Moment of inertia of motor and directly coupled load
o ωm – Speed of the motor
o Tl0 – Torque of the directly coupled load
o J1 – Moment of inertia of load coupled through gear
o ωm1 – Speed of the load coupled through gear
o Tl1 – Torque of the load coupled through gear
• Now,
Ratio Tooth Gear a
n
n
m
m
,
ω
ω
1
1
1
· ·
• Neglecting transmission losses, the kinetic energy due to equivalent inertia must
be same as the kinetic energy of various moving parts. Thus,
1 0
2
2
1
1
2
2
0
2
1 1
2
0
2
., .
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
J J J e i
J J J
J J J
m
m
m
m
m m m
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
+ ·
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω ω ω
• Power at the loads and motor must be same. If transmission efficiency of the
gears be η 1, then
Motor
Load T
l0
Load T
l1
ω
m
ω
m
ω
m1
n
n
1
(a) Loads with Rotational Motion
1
1 1
0
η
ω
ω ω
m l
m l m l
T
T T + ·
where Tl is the total equivalent torque referred to motor shaft.
Then,
1
1
1 0
1
1 1
0
η
ω η
ω
l
l l
m
m l
l l
T
a T T
T
T T
+ ·
+ ·
• If in additional load directly coupled to the motor with inertia J0 there are m other
loads with moment of inertias J1,J2,.....,Jm and gear ratios of a1,a2,.....,am then
m m
J a J a J a J J
2
2
2
2 1
2
1 0
.......... + + + + ·
and
m
lm
m
l l
l l
T
a
T
a
T
a T T
η η η
+ + + + + · .......
2
2
2
1
1
1 0
• If the load is driven by belt drive instead of gears, then, neglecting slippage, the
equivalent inertia and torque can be obtained from the above equations by
considering a1,a2,.....,am each to be the ratios of diameters of wheels driven by
motor to the diameters of wheels mounted on the load shaft.
Loads with Translational Motion:
• The motor is driving two loads. One load is directly driven and other is a through
a transmission system which is converting rotational motion in to linear motion.
• Let,
o J0 – Moment of inertia of motor and directly coupled load
o ωm – Speed of the motor
o Tl0 – Torque of the directly coupled load
o M1 Mass of the load with translational motion(kg)
o v1 – Velocity of the load with translational motion (m/sec)
Motor
Load T
l0
ω
m
ω
m
v
1
(b) Loads with Translational Motion
Rotational to Linear
motion Transmission
Mass M
1
Force F
1
o F1 – Force of the load with translational motion (N)
• Neglecting transmission losses, the kinetic energy due to equivalent inertia must
be same as the kinetic energy of various moving parts. Thus,
2
1
1 0
2
2
1
1
2
2
0
2
11 1
2
0
2
., .
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
+ ·
m
m m
m
m m
v
M J J e i
v
M J J
v M J J
ω
ω ω
ω
ω ω
• Similarly, power at the motor and load should be same, thus if efficiency of
transmission be η 1, then
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
+ ·
m
l l
m l m l
v F
T T
v F
T T
ω η
η
ω ω
1
1
1
0
1
1 1
0
where Tl is the total equivalent torque referred to motor shaft.
• If in addition to one load directly coupled to the motor shaft, there are ‘m’ other
loads with translational motion with velocities v1,v2,…..,vm and M1,M2,…..,Mm,
respectively, then
2 2
2
2
2
1
1 0
.........
,
_
¸
¸
+ +
,
_
¸
¸
+
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
m
m
m
m m
v
M
v
M
v
M J J
ω ω ω
and
,
_
¸
¸
+ +
,
_
¸
¸
+
,
_
¸
¸
+ ·
m
m
m
m
m m
l l
v F v F v F
T T
ω η ω η ω η
..... ..........
2
2
2 1
1
1
0
Torque Speed Characteristics of Electrical Motors:
• The main advantage of electrical drives is that their wide range of speed
variation. They are explained below:
• Synchronous or Reluctance motor:
o They exhibit constant speed characteristics as shown in curve I.
o At steady state conditions, these motors operate at constant speed
irrespective of the value of load torque.
• DC Shunt/Separately excited motor:
o The characteristic curve II shows that the speed is slightly reduced when
the load torque increases.
• DC Series Motor:
o The speed is high at light load and low at heavy loading condition as
shown in the curve III.
• Induction Motors:
o They exhibit complex characteristics as shown in curve IV.
o During steady state, they operate at the linear proportion of speed torque
characteristic, which resembles the characteristic of a DC shunt motor.
o The maximum developed torque of induction motors is limited to Tmax.
• In electric drive applications, the selection of the motor should match with the
required performance of the loads. For example, the synchronous motor is
probably the best option for the constant speed applications. Other motors, such
as induction or DC shunt motors can also be used in constant speed applications,
provided that feedback circuits are used to compensate for the change in speed
when load torque changes.
Selection of Motor Power Rating:
• Selection of power rating is important to achieve economy with reliability.
• Improper selection of motor power rating results extra initial cost and extra loss
of energy du tot operation below rated power makes the choice uneconomical.
• Furthermore, induction and synchronous motors operate at a low power factor
when operating below the rated power.
• During operation of the machine, heat is produced due to losses and temperature
rises. An amount of developed heat is dissipated into the atmosphere. When the
dissipation of heat is equal to the developed heat, then it is said to be equilibrium
condition. Motor temperature then reaches a steady state value.
• Steady state temperature depends on power loss, which in turn depends on the
output power of the machine. Since temperature rise has a direct relation with
the output power, it is termed thermal loading on the machine.
• Steady state temperature varies in different parts of the machine. It is usually
high is the windings because loss density in conductors is high and dissipation is
slow; sind the conductors which are wrapped in insulating material are partly
embedded in slots and thus are not directly exposed to the cooling air.
• Insulating materials have lowest temperature limit. They are classified based on
temperature limit as follows:
Insulation Class Temperature ( in
0
C)
γ 90
A 105
E 120
B 130
F 155
H 180
C >180
• Motor rating should be selected in such a way that the insulation temperature
never exceeds the prescribed limit; otherwise it loses its thermal stability.
• It is simple to calculate the motor power rating of the motor which operate at
a constant power and speed. But most loads operate at variable power and
speed at different applications.
Thermal model of Motor for Heating and Cooling:
• It is difficult to predict the heat flow and temperature rise inside an electrical
motor because of its complex geometry and heterogeneous materials.
• Assuming nearly equal thermal conductivity in all the materials (i.e, assuming
homogeneous), simple thermal model can be obtained. It helps us to select the
motor for a particular application.
• Let the homogeneous body machine has following parameters at time t:
p1 – Heat developed (W)
p2 – Heat dissipated to the cooling medium (W)
W – Weight of the active parts of the machine (kg)
h – Specific heat (Joules/kg/
0
C)
A – Cooling Surface (m
2
)
d – Coefficient of heat transfer or specific heat dissipation (Joule/sec/
m
2
/
0
C)
θ  Mean temperature rise (
0
C)
During a change in time dt, the temperature rises to dθ . Since,
Heat absorbed in the machine = Heat developed – Heat dissipated to atmosphere
or Wh dθ = p1 dt  p2 dt (1)
Since p2= θ dA (2)
Using (1) and (2) we get,
) 3 ( θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
1
1
2 1
→ − ·
− ·
− ·
D p
dt
d
C
dA p
dt
d
Wh
p p
dt
d
Wh
where, Thermal capacity of the machine, C=Wh (Watts/
0
C) (4) and heat
dissipation constant, D=dA (Watts/
0
C) (5). The first differential equation of the
equation (3) is,
) 6 ( θ θ
θ
τ /
) / /( 1
→ + ·
+ ·
−
−
t
ss
D C t
Ke
Ke
D
p
where, θ ss=(p1/D) → (7) and τ = (C/D) → (8)
The value of K is obtained by substituting t=0 in (6). When the initial temperature
rise is θ 1,
θ =θ ss(1e
t/τ
)+θ 1e
t/τ
→ (9)
where, τ  Heating (or Thermal) time constant of the machine.
When t=∞ in equation (9), θ =θ ss. Thus θ ss is the steady state temperature
when the machine is continuously heated by the power p1. Up to this temperature
all the heat produced by the machine is dissipated to the surrounding medium.
• Let the load on the machine be removed after reaching temperature θ 2,. Heat
loss will reduce to a small value p1’ and cooling operation of the motor will begin.
Let the new value of heat dissipation constant be D’. If time is measured from the
instant the load is removed, then
) 10 ( θ
θ
' '
1
→ − · D p
dt
d
C
Solving (10) with the initial condition θ =θ 2 at t=0, we have
) 11 ( θ 1 θ θ
' '
τ
2
τ
'
ss
→ +
,
_
¸
¸
− ·
− − t t
e e
where, steady state temperature for new conditions of operation, θ ’ss=(p’1/D’) →
(12) and Cooling (or Thermal) time constant of the machine, τ ’ = (C/D’) →
(13).
If the motor were disconnected from the supply during cooling then p’1=0 gives
θ ’ss=0, suggesting that the final temperature attained by the motor will be
ambient temperature. Therefore equation (11) becomes,
) 14 ( θ θ
'
τ
2
→ ·
−t
e
• Equations (9) and (14) suggest both heating time constant τ and cooling time
constant τ ’ based on respective heat dissipation constants D and D’, which in
turn depend on the velocity of the cooling air.
• In self cooled motors, fans are mounted at the shaft and hence the velocity of the
air varies with the speed, thus varying cooling time constant τ ’. Cooling time
constant at standstill is much larger than when running. Therefore, in high
performance, medium and high power variable speed drives, motor is always
provided with separate forced cooling, so that motor cooling be independent of
speed.
• The above figure shows the variation of motor temperature rise with time during
heating and cooling. Thermal time constants of a motor are far larger than
electrical and mechanical time constants. While electrical and mechanical time
constants have typical ranges of 1 to 100ms and 10ms to 10s, the thermal time
constants may vary from 10 min to couple of hours.
Classes of Motor Duty:
1. Continuous Duty:
θ
t
0
Heating
Cooling
Heating and Cooling Curves
It denotes the motor operation at a constant load torque for duration long enough
for the motor temperature to reach steady state value. This duty cycle is
characterized by constant motor losses. Ex: Paper mill drives, Compressors,
Conveyers, centrifugal pumps and fans.
2. Short Time Duty:
The operation of the drive is less than the heating time constant in this case and
the machine is allowed to cool to ambient temperature before to operate again.
In this case, the machine can be overloaded to permissible limit. Ex: Crane
drives, drives for house hold appliances, turning bridges, valve drives etc.
3. Intermittent Periodic Duty:
It consists of periodic duty cycles, each consists of a period of running at a
constant load and a rest period. Neither the period of operation is sufficient to
raise the temperature to a steady state value, nor the rest period long enough for
the machine to cool off to ambient temperature. Ex: Pressing, Cutting and drilling
machines etc.
4. Intermittent periodic duty with starting:
In this case, the heating during starting cannot be ignored. It consists of a period
of starting, a period of operation at constant load and a rest period being too
short for the respective steady state temperature to be attained. Ex: Metal
Cutting and drilling tool drives, drives for fork lift trucks, mine hoist etc.
5. Intermittent periodic duty with starting and braking:
In this case, the heating during starting and braking cannot be ignored. It
consists of a period of starting, a period of operation at constant load, a braking
period with electrical braking and a rest period; with operating and a rest periods
being too short for the respective steady state temperature to be attained. Ex:
Billet mill drive, manipulator drive, ingot buggy drive, schrewdown mechanism of
blooming mill etc.
6. Continuous duty with intermittent periodic loading:
It consists of a period of running at constant load and a period of running at no
load, with normal voltage. The no load period is too short for the respective
steady state temperature to be attained. Ex: Pressing, Cutting, shearing and
drilling machine drives etc.
7. Continuous duty with starting and braking:
It consists of a period of starting, a period of running at a constant load and a
period of electric braking without rest period. Ex: Blooming Mill.
8. Continuous duty with periodic speed changes:
It consists of a period of running at one load and speed, and another period of
running at different speed and load; again both operating periods are too short
for respective steady state temperatures to be attained. There is no period of
rest.
Determination of Motor Rating:
For calculation of motor rating, the duty cycles can be mainly classified in to,
1. Continuous duty
2. Fluctuating loads
3. Short time and intermittent duty
1. Continuous Duty:
A motor with next higher power rating compared with the maximum power demand
is selected with consideration of the following factors:
o Motor and load speeds
o Starting torque of the motor
o Ability of the motor to withstand normal disturbances of the power supply
o Transient and steady state reserve torque capacity of the motor
2. Fluctuating and Intermittent loads:
This method can be employed for Intermittent Periodic Duty and Continuous duty
with periodic speed changes. It is based on approximation that the actual variable
motor current can be replaced by an equivalent Ieq which produces same losses in the
motor as actual current.
Motor losses = Constant losses+ Copper loss.
For fluctuating loads with n value of motor currents I1,I2,…,In for durations t1,t2,…,tn
respectively, the equivalent current Ieq is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
n
n n c c c
eq c
t t t
t R I p t R I p t R I p
R I p
+ + +
+ + + + + +
· +
.......
.....
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
1 2
or
( ) ( )
n
n n
n
n c
eq c
t t t
R t I t I t I
t t t
t t t p
R I p
+ + +
+ + +
+
+ + +
+ + +
· +
.......
.......
.......
.......
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
2 1
2 1 2
or
( )
n
n n
eq
t t t
t I t I t I
I
+ + +
+ + +
·
.......
.......
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
If the current varies smoothly over a period T can be written as,
∫
·
T
eq
dt i
T
I
/
0
2
1
DC Motor:
This motor can be allowed to carry larger (2 to 3.5 times) than the rated current for
a short duration. This is known as short time overload capacity of the motor.
Ratio of maximum allowable current (short time overload capacity) to rated current
be denoted by λ . Then
rated
I
I
max
≥ λ
If the above condition is not satisfied, then the motor current rating is calculated
from
λ
max
I
I
rated
≥
Induction and Synchronous Motor:
• For stable operation of induction and synchronous motors, the maximum load
torque should be within the breakdown torque.
• In normal design of induction motors, the ratio of breakdown to rated torque
varies from 1.65 to 3 and for synchronous motors 2 to 2.25. Then the rating can
be selected by
λ
max
T
T
rated
≥
• When the load has high pulses, selection of motor rating based on this will be too
large. Load equalization is made by mounting flywheel on the shaft.
• When torque is directly proportional to current, then
( )
n
n n
eq
t t t
t T t T t T
T
+ + +
+ + +
·
.......
.......
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
When the motor operates at constant speed, its power will be directly
proportional to torque. Therefore,
( )
n
n n
eq
t t t
t P t P t P
P
+ + +
+ + +
·
.......
.......
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
Control of Electrical drives:
Four Quadrants of operation:
The following conventions govern the power flow analysis of the electric drive systems:
i. When the torque and speed of the machine are in the same direction, then the
machine is operating as a motor (consume electric energy from the source and
delivers mechanical power to the load).
ii. If the speed and torque of the machine are in the opposite directions, the
machine is acting as a generator (consume mechanical energy from load and
delivers electric power to the load).
1
st
Quadrant (Forward Motoring):
• The torque and speed of the motor are in the same direction. Of course, the load
torque is opposite to the machine torque.
• The electrical machine in this case is operating as a motor. The flow of power is
from the machine to the load.
2
nd
Quadrant (Forward Braking):
• The speed direction is unchanged while the direction of the torque is reversed.
• Since the load torque direction is in the same direction of speed, the mechanical
load is delivering power to the machine.
• The machine then receives mechanical energy, converting it in to electrical
energy and returning it back to the electric source. The electric machine is thus
acting as a generator.
3
rd
Quadrant (Reverse Motoring):
• Compared to the first quadrant, the system speed and torque are reversed in the
third quadrant.
• Since the torque and speed of the machine are in the same direction, the power
flow is from the machine to the load. The machine is therefore acting as a motor
rotating in the reverse direction to the speed of the first quadrant.
• Bidirectional grinding machine is the good example of the 1
st
and 3
rd
quadrant
operation. The direction of the load torque of the grinding load is reversed when
the speed is reversed (3
rd
quadrant). A horizontal conveyor belt is another
example of this type of operation.
4
th
Quadrant (Reverse Braking):
• The torques remains unchanged as compared to the first quadrant. The speed,
however, changes the direction.
• From the load perspective, the load torque and the speed are in the same
direction. Hence the power flow is from the load to the machine.
• The machine is in this case acting as generator delivering the electric power to
the source.
• The first and fourth quadrant of operation can be explained with the elevator.
When the elevator is going upward or downward, the direction of the load torque
remains unchanged but the direction of the speed only reversed.
Any electric drive system operates in more than one quadrant. In fact, most versatile
systems operate in all the four quadrants. The converters of these systems must be
designed to allow the electric power to flow in both directions.
Modes of Operation:
• Operation in all four quadrants of the speedtorque plane can be achieved: motor
and generator (braking) operation in both rotational directions.
• The direction of the armature current is changed for reversing the torque
direction
An electric drive operates in three modes:
i. Steady state
ii. Acceleration including starting
iii. Deceleration including stopping
• The steady state operation is realized by adjusting the speed torque characteristic
such that the motor and load torques are equal at that speed. When the torque
opposes motion, the motor works as motor in quadrant I and III.
• The active load can reverse its sign and assist the motion in some cases like
lowering of loaded hoist. For such a case, the steady state can be obtained by
adding mechanical brake which will produce a torque in a direction oppose the
motion.
• Drive operates in quadrant II and IV depends on the direction of rotation.
• Acceleration and deceleration modes are transient operations. Drive operates in
acceleration whenever an increase in its speed is required. For this speedtorque
curve is changed so that the motor torque exceeds the load torque. The time
taken for a given change in speed depends on inertia of motor load system and
the amount by which motor torque exceeds the load torque.
• Motor operation in deceleration mode is required when a decrease in its speed is
required. Deceleration occurs when load torque exceeds the motor torque.
Whenever the reducing the motor torque to zero does not provide enough
ω
m
ω
m2
ω
m1
T
T
l
2
1
Principle of Speed Control
deceleration, mechanical brakes may be provided. Alternatively, electrical braking
may be employed.
Speed Control and Drive Classifications:
• Drives where the motor runs at nearly fixed speed are known as constant speed
or single speed drives. Multispeed drives are those which operate at
discrete speed settings.
• Drives needing step less change in speed and multispeed drives are called
variable speed drives.
• When a number of motors are fed from a common converter, or when a load is
driven by more than one motor, the drive is called as multimotor drive.
• Speed range of a variable speed drive depends on the application. In some
applications, it can be from rated speed to 10% of rated speed. In some
applications, speed control above rated speed is also desired, and the ratio of
maximum to minimum speed can be as high as 200. There are also applications
where the speed range is as low as from rated speed to 80% of rated speed.
• A variable speed drive is called constant torque drive if the drive’s maximum
torque capability does not change with a change in speed setting. The
corresponding mode of operation is called constant torque mode.
• It must be noted that the term ‘constant torque’ refers to maximum torque
capability of the drive and not to the actual output torque, which may vary from
no load to full load torque. Constant power drive and constant power mode are
defined in the same way.
• In ideal case, the motor speed should be remains constant as the load torque is
changed from no load to full load. But in practical case, the speed drops with the
increase in load torque. Quality of a speed control system is measured in terms of
speed regulation.
% 100
Speed load Full
Speed load Full  Speed load No
Regulation Speed × ·
• If the open loop control fails to provide the desired speed regulation, drive is
operated as closed loop speed control system.
ClosedLoop Control of Drives:
Feedback loops in an electrical drive may be provided to satisfy one or more of the
following requirements:
i. Protection
ii. Immediate Speed response
iii. Improvement in steady state accuracy
1. Current – limit Control:
• This method limits converter and motor current below a safe limit during
transient operations. It has a current feedback loop with a threshold logic circuit.
• As long as the current is within a set maximum value, feedback loop does not
affect the operation of the drive.
• During transient period, feedback forces the increase of current beyond the set
value to the set value and become inactive. Further the operation repeats in
every transient condition. Thus the current fluctuate around the set value.
• When the operation close to the steady state point, current will not have a
tendency to cross the maximum value, consequently, feedback loop will have no
effect on the drive operation.
2. Closed loop torque control:
• This technique mainly used in battery operated vehicles, rail cars and electric
trains.
• Driver presses the accelerator to set torque reference T*. Because of feedback,
the actual torque T follows the reference T*.
• Speed feedback loop is present through the driver. By giving appropriate pressure
on the accelerator, driver adjusts the speed depending on traffic, road condition,
car condition etc.
3. Closed loop speed control:
• Above figure shows the widely used closed loop speed control method in electrical
drives. It consists of inner current loop and outer speed loop.

Threshold logic
circuit
Contoller Converter
Current Sensor
Motor Load
I
max
0
I
I
f
V*
+

Torque
Contoller
Converter
Torque Sensor
Motor Load
T
T*
+
Δω
m

+

Speed
Contoller
Current
Sensor
Motor Load
ω
m
+
ω
m
*
Converter
Current
Controller
Speed
Sensor
I*
I
Current
Limiter
Current
Limiter
• Current loop controls the converter and motor currents to safe limit and hence
the torque. Inner current loop also reduces the effect on performance of any non
linearity present in convertermotor system.
• An increase in speed reference ω m* produce a positive error Δω m. Speed error is
processed through a speed controller and applied to current limiter which
saturates even for a small speed corresponding to the maximum allowable
current.
• Drive accelerates at the maximum allowable current. When close to the desired
speed, limiter desaturates. Steady state is reached at the desired speed and at
current for which motor torque is equal to the load torque.
• A decrease in speed reference ω m* produce a negative speed error. Current
limiter saturates and sets current reference for inner current loop at a value
corresponding to maximum allowable current. Consequently, drive decelerates in
braking mode at maximum allowable current. When close to the required speed,
current limiter desaturates. The operation is transferred from braking to
motoring. Drive then settles at a desired speed and at a current for which motor
torque equal to the load torque.
• Current and speed controllers may consists of PI, PD or PID controller depending
on steady state accuracy and transient response requirements.
UNIT II CONVERTER / CHOPPER FED DC MOTOR DRIVE
Steady state and transient analysis of the single and three phase fully controlled
converter fed separately excited D.C motor drive – Continuous and discontinuous
conduction mode – Multiquadrant operation – Converter control – Chopperfed D.C drive
– Steadystate analysis – Block diagram of closed loop dc drive.
Single Phase fully controlled rectifier control of DC separately excited motor:
Fig.1(a) shows the separately excited DC motor fed from fully controlled rectifier. The ac
input voltage is given by vs=Vmsinω t.
• In a cycle of voltage, thyristors Q1 and Q2 are given gate signals from α to π ,
and thyristors Q3 and Q4 are given gate signals from (π +α ) to 2π .
• When the armature current doesn’t flow continuously, the motor is said to
operate in discontinuous conduction. When the current flows continuously, the
conduction is said to be continuous.
Discontinuous Conduction:
(a)
(c)
(b)
Fig.1.(a).Single phase fully controlled rectifier fed DC
separately excited motor
Fig.1.(b). Discontinuous conduction waveform
Fig.1.(c). Continuous conduction waveform
• In this mode, the current starts flowing with the turnon of thyristors Q1 and Q2 at
ω t=α . Motor connected to the source and its terminal voltage equals vs. The
current, which flows against both Vc and source voltage after ω t=π , falls to zero
at θ .
• Due to the absence of current Q1 and Q2 turnoff. Motor terminal voltage is now
equal to its induced voltage Vc. When thyristors Q3 and Q4 are fired at (π +α ),
next cycle of the motor terminal voltage vd starts.
• In a cycle of motor terminal voltage vd, the drive operates in two intervals:
o Duty interval (α≤ ω t ≤ θ ) when motor is connected to the source and
vd=vs.
o Zero current interval (θ ≤ ω t ≤ π +α ) when id=0 and va=Vc.
• Drive operation can be described by the equations:
) 2 ( 0
) 1 ( , sin
→ + ≤ ≤ · ·
→ ≤ ≤ · + + ·
α π ω θ
θ ω α ω
t for i and V v
t for t V V
dt
di
L Ri v
d c d
m c
d
d d
Solution of Eq.(2) has two components:
1. Due to the AC source (Vm/Z)sin(ω tφ ), and
2. Due to back EMF (Vc/R)
Each of these components has in turn a transient component. Let these be
represented by a single exponent K1e
t/τ a
, then
) 3 ( ) sin( ) (
/
1
→ ≤ ≤ + − − ·
−
θ ω α φ ω ω
τ
t for e K
R
V
t
Z
V
t i
a
t c m
d
where,
) constant time circuit Armature ( ) 5 ( tan
) 4 ( ) (
1
2 2
R
L
and
R
L
L R Z
a
· →
,
_
¸
¸
·
→ + ·
−
τ
ω
φ
ω
Constant K1 can be evaluated subjecting eq.(3) to the initial condition id(α )=0.
Substituting value of K1 so obtained in Eq.(3) gives
( )
[ ]
( )
[ ] ) 6 ( , 1 ) sin( ) sin( ) (
cot cot
→ ≤ ≤ − − − − − ·
− − − −
θ ω α φ α φ ω ω
φ α ω φ α ω
t for e
R
V
e t
Z
V
t i
t c t m
d
Since id(θ )=0,
( )
) 7 ( 0 ) sin( ) sin(
cot
→ ·
1
]
1
¸
− − + − −
− − φ α θ
φ α φ θ e
Z
V
R
V
R
V
Z
V
m c c m
‘θ ’ can be evaluated by iterative solution of eq.(7).
Since voltage drop across the armature inductance due to DC component of armature
current is zero.
Vd=Vc+IdR.
Plug reversal and plug braking:
Because the rotor always tries to catch up with the rotating Weld, it can be
reversed rapidly simply by interchanging any two of the supply leads. The changeover is
usually obtained by having two separate 3pole contactors, one for forward and one for
reverse. This procedure is known as plug reversal or plugging, and is illustrated in
Figure.
The motor is initially assumed to be running light (and therefore with a very small
positive slip) as indicated by point A on the dotted torque– speed curve in Figure (a).
Two of the supply leads are then reversed, thereby reversing the direction of the field,
and bringing the mirrorimage torque–speed curve shown by the solid line into play. The
slip of the motor immediately after reversal is approximately 2, as shown by point B on
the solid curve. The torque is thus negative, and the motor decelerates, the speed
passing through zero at point C and then rising in the reverse direction before settling at
point D, just below the synchronous speed.
The speed–time curve is shown in Figure (b). We can see that the deceleration
(i.e. the gradient of the speed–time graph) reaches a maximum as the motor passes
through the peak torque (pullout) point, but thereafter the final speed is approached
gradually, as the torque tapers down to point D.
Very rapid reversal is possible using plugging; for example a 1 kW motor will
typically reverse from full speed in under 1 s. But large cage motors can only be plugged
if the supply can withstand the very high currents involved, which are even larger than
when starting from rest.
Frequent plugging will also cause serious overheating, because each reversal
involves the ‘dumping’ of four times the stored kinetic energy as heat in the windings.
Plugging can also be used to stop the rotor quickly, but obviously it is then necessary to
disconnect the supply when the rotor comes to rest, otherwise it will runup to speed in
reverse. A shaftmounted reverse rotation detector is therefore used to trip out the
reverse contactor when the speed reaches zero.
It should be noted that, whereas, in the regenerative mode (discussed in the
previous section) the slip was negative, allowing mechanical energy from the load to be
converted to electrical energy and fed back to the mains, plugging is a wholly dissipative
process in which all the kinetic energy ends up as heat in the motor.
Injection braking
This is the most widely used method of electrical braking. When the ‘stop’ button
is pressed, the 3phase supply is interrupted, and a d.c. current is fed into the stator via
two of its terminals. The d.c. supply is usually obtained from a rectifier fed via a low
voltage highcurrent transformer.
(c)
It is known that the speed of rotation of the airgap field is directly proportional
to the supply frequency, so it should be clear that since d.c.is effectively zero frequency,
the airgap field will be stationary. Also known that the rotor always tries to run at the
same speed as the field. So, if the field is stationary, and the rotor is not, a braking
torque will be exerted. A typical torque–speed curve for braking a cage motor is shown
in Figure (c), from which we see that the braking (negative) torque falls to zero as the
rotor comes to rest.
This is in line with what we would expect, since there will be induced currents in
the rotor (and hence torque) only when the rotor is ‘cutting’ the flux. As with plugging,
injection (or dynamic) braking is a dissipative process, all the kinetic energy being
turned into heat inside the motor.
VSI Controlled Induction Motor Drives:
B
C
E
B
C
E
B
C
E
B
C
E
B
C
E
B
C
E
M
V
d
T
r1
T
r3
T
r5
T
r4
T
r6
T
r2
A B
C
Induction Motor
• VSI can be operated as a stepped wave inverter or PWM inverter.
• In stepped wave inverter, transistors are switched on in the sequence of their
numbers with a time difference of T/6 and each transistor is kept ON for duration
of T/2, where T is the time period of one cycle.
• Frequency is varied by varying T and output voltage is varied by varying DC input
voltage.
• When the input is DC, a chopper circuit can be used between the supply and
inverter.
• When the input supply is AC, controlled rectifier converts AC to DC and feeds to
the inverter. A large electrolytic capacitor is connected in DC link to make inverter
operation independent of rectifier and to filter out harmonics in DC link voltage.
• The RMS value of the fundamental phase voltage,
d
V V
π
2
·
The torque for a given speed can be calculated by considering only fundamental
component.
• Drawbacks of stepped wave inverter drives:
o Large harmonics in lower frequency operations
o Low frequency harmonics increases the motor losses at all speeds and
causing derating of the motor.
o Motor develops pulsating torques due to 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, and 13
th
harmonics
which cause jerky motion of the rotor at low speeds.
o Harmonic content in motor current increases at low speeds. The machine
saturates at light loads at low speeds due to high V/f ratio. These two
effects overheat the machine at low speeds, thus limiting lowest speed to
around 40% of base speed.
• The PWM inverter overcomes all the above drawbacks. And also no additional
arrangement is required variation of DC voltage, hence inverter can be directly
connected when the supply is DC and through a diode rectifier when the supply is
AC.
• The fundamental component in the output phase voltage of PWM is
2 2
d
V
m V ·
where mModulation index
Braking of VSI induction motor drive:
• The power input to the motor is
φ cos 3
s in
VI P ·
where,
V  Fundamental component of the motor phase voltage
Is  Fundamental component of the motor phase current
φ  Phase angle between V and Is.
• In motoring operation, φ >90
o
, therefore Pin is positive i.e., power flows from the
inverter to the machine.
• A reduction in frequency makes the synchronous speed less than the rotor speed
and the relative speed between the rotor conductors and air gap rotating field
reverses.
• The reverse of rotating field reverses the rotor induced emf, rotor current and
component of stator current which balances the rotor ampere turns.
• Consequently, angle φ becomes greater than 90
o
and power flow reverses. The
machine works as generator feeding power into the inverter, which in turn feeds
power into dc link by reversing the dc link current Id.
• Regenerative braking is obtained when the power flowing from the inverter to the
DC link is usefully utilized and dynamic braking is obtained when it is wasted in a
resistance.
CSI Induction Motor Drives:
• CSI fed induction motors have an advantage over the VSI fed induction motor
that it is having very good control of electromagnetic torque and drive dynamics
because the torque is directly proportional to the current.
• Current Source variable frequency supplies are realized by Auto Sequentially
Commutated Inverter (ASCI) or current regulated inverter drives.
• Diodes D1D6 and Capacitors C1C6 provide commutation of thyristors T1T6, which
are fired with a phase difference of 60
o
in sequence of their numbers.
• Inverter behaves as a current source due to the presence of large inductance DC
link.
π
2π
I
dc
0
i
A
ω t
i
A
i
A
Ld
• The fundamental component of motor phase current is
dc s
I I
π
6
·
• The torque is controlled by varying dc link current Idc by changing the value of Vr
for a given speed.
• The maximum value of dc output voltage of fullycontrolled rectifier is chosen so
that the motor terminal voltage saturates at rated value.
• The major advantage of CSI is its reliability. In case of VSI, a commutation failure
will cause two devices in the same leg to conduct. This connects conducting
devices directly across the supply. Consequently, current through the devices
suddenly rises to dangerous values. Expensive high speed semiconductor fuses
are required to protect the devices.
• In CSI, conduction of two devices in the same leg does not lead to sudden rise of
current through them due to the presence of a large inductance Ld. This allows
time for commutation to take place and normal operation to get restored in
subsequent cycles.
• As seen in figure, the motor current rise and fall are very fast. These rapid rise
and fall through the leakage inductance causes large voltage spikes. Therefore, a
motor with low leakage inductance is used.
• The commutation capacitances C1C6 reduce the voltage spikes by reducing the
rate of rise and fall of the current. Large value of capacitors is required to
sufficiently reduce the voltage spikes. Large range of capacitors reduces the
frequency and hence the speed of the drive.
• Due to large value of capacitors and inductors, the CSI drive is expensive and has
more weight and volume.
Regenerative Braking and Multiquadrant operation:
• When inverter frequency is reduced to make synchronous speed less than motor
speed, machine works as a generator.
• Power flows from machine to DC link and DC link voltage Vr reverses. The power
supplied to DC link will be transferred to ac supply and regenerative braking will
take place. Thus, no additional equipment is required for regenerative braking of
CSI drive.
• Change of phase sequence of CSI will provide motoring and braking operations in
the reverse direction.
Static Rotor Resistance Control of Induction Motor:
• The AC voltage induced in the rotor circuit is rectified and given to the parallel
combination of the resistance R and the switching transistor Tr.
• The effective value of the resistance R can be changed by the duty ratio of the
transistor, which in turn varies the rotor circuit resistance.
• The inductance Ld is added to reduce the harmonics and discontinuity in the dc
link current Id.
• The rotor current is shown in fig without ripple. The rms rotor current will be
I
d
2π ω t π
0
I
r
d r
I I
3
2
·
• Resistance between A and B will be zero when transistor is ON and it will be R
when it is OFF. Therefore, the average value of resistance between the terminals
is given by
RAB=(1δ )R
where δ is the duty ratio of the transistor.
• Power consumed by RAB is given by,
( ) δ − · · 1
2 2
R I R I P
d AB d AB
Power consumed per phase is ( )
2
1 5 . 0
3
r
AB
I R
P
δ − ·
The above equation suggests that the rotor circuit resistance per phase is
increased by 0.5 (1 δ ) R. Thus, total rotor circuit resistance per phase will now
be RrT=Rr+0.5 (1 δ ) R.
Slip Power Recovery Schemes:
Scherbius Drive:
• The slip power is dissipated in the external resistance and leads to poor efficiency
of the drive.
• The slip frequency power is converted to DC voltage – converted to line
frequency. That frequency is pumped back to the ac source.
• The inductor smoothens the ripples in the rectified DC voltage.
• The phase controlled bridge1 with a firing angle less than 90
0
is allowed to
function as a controlled rectifier and bridge 2 with a firing angle more than 90
0
is
allowed to function as a line commutated inverter which offers subsynchronous
motor control.
• The power flow is from Rotor Bridge 1 to bridge 2 – transformer – AC supply.
• If bridge 1 is made to work as a line commutated inverter with a firing angle of
more than 90
0
and bridge 2 as a controlled rectifier with a firing angle less than
90
0
. It offers super synchronous motor control power flow is from ac supply
transformerbridge 2 – bridge 1 – rotor circuit – motor becomes doubly fed motor
in this mode.
• Near synchronous speed, slip frequency emfs are insufficient for natural
commutation of thyristors.
• The difficulty can be overcome using forced commutation.
Static Kramer Drive:
• Rotor power is converted in to DC by a diode bridge as shown in figure. The DC
power now fed to dc motor mechanically coupled with the induction motor.
• Torque supplied to the motor is the sum of torque developed by the induction
motor and dc motor.
• Speed control can be obtained by controlling field current of DC motor.
• Speed control is possible from synchronous speed to around half of synchronous
speed. When larger speed range is required, Diode Bridge is replaced by a
thyristor bridge.
• The relationship between Vd1 and speed can be altered by controlling firing angle
of thyristor rectifier. Speed can now be controlled up to standstill.
Open loop V/f Control:
• The above figure shows the implementation of the constant V/f control strategy in
open loop.
• This type of variable speed drive is used in low performance applications where
precise speed control is not necessary.
• The frequency command fsn* is enforced in the inverter and corresponding DC link
voltage is controlled through the front end converter. The offset voltage, Von, is
added to the voltage proportional to the frequency, and they are multiplied by
2.22 to obtain the dc link voltage.
• Some problems associated with the open loop drive are listed below:
o The speed of the motor cannot be controlled precisely, because the rotor
speed will be less than the synchronous speed. Note that the stator
frequency, and hence the synchronous speed, is the only variable
controlled in this drive.
o The slip speed, being the difference between the synchronous and
electrical rotor speed cannot be maintained the rotor speed is not
measured in this drive scheme. This can lead to operation in the unstable
region of the torque speed characteristics.
o The effect discussed in the above point can make the stator currents
exceed rated current by many times, thus endangering the inverter
converter combination.
Vector Control of Induction motor drive:
Principle of Vector Control:
Let the rotor flux linkage λ r is at θ f (field angle) from a stationary reference. The three
stator currents can be transformed in to q and d axes currents in the synchronous
reference frames by using the transformation
( ) 1
3
2
cos
3
2
cos cos
3
2
sin
3
2
sin sin
3
2
→
1
1
1
]
1
¸
1
1
1
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
+
,
_
¸
¸
−
,
_
¸
¸
+
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
1
]
1
¸
cs
bs
as
f f f
f f f
e
ds
e
qs
i
i
i
i
i
π
θ
π
θ θ
π
θ
π
θ θ
from which the stator current phasor, is, is derived as
( ) ( ) ( ) 2
2 2
→ + ·
e
ds
e
qs s
i i i
and the stator phasor angle is
( ) 3 tan
1
→
,
_
¸
¸
·
−
e
ds
e
qs
s
i
i
θ
where,
e
qs
i
and
e
ds
i are the q and d axes currents in the synchronous reference frames
that are obtained by projecting the stator current phasor on the q and d axes
respectively.
The current is produces the rotor flux λ r and the torque Te.
if is the field producing component and iT is the torque producing component.
i.e, λ r α if → (4) and Teα λ r iT → (5)
Since the relative speed with respect to that of the rotor field is zero in steady state.
Therefore, if and iT have only dc components and are ideal for use as control variables;
the bandwidth of the computational control circuits will have no effect on the processing
of these dc signals.
Crucial to the implementation of vector control, then, is the acquiring of the
instantaneous rotor flux phasor position, f
θ
. This field angle can be written as
( ) 6 → + ·
sl r f
θ θ θ
where
r
θ is the rotor position and
sl
θ
is the slip angle.
The field angle can be written in terms of speeds as,
( ) ( )
∫ ∫
→ · + · 7 dt dt
s sl r f
ω ω ω θ
Vector control schemes are classified as,
i. Direct Vector Control – Field angle is calculated using terminal voltages and
currents.
ii. Indirect Vector Control – Field angle is obtained using rotor position
measurement and partial estimation with only machine parameters
Implementation of Vector Control in induction motors:
Vector control is the most popular control technique of AC induction motors. In special
reference frames, the expression for the electromagnetic torque of the smoothairgap
machine is similar to the expression for the torque of the separately excited DC machine.
In the case of induction machines, the control is usually performed in the reference
frame (dq) attached to the rotor flux space vector. That’s why the implementation of
vector control requires information on the modulus and the space angle (position) of the
rotor flux space vector. The stator currents of the induction machine are separated into
flux and torqueproducing components by utilizing transformation to the dq coordinate
system, whose direct axis (d) is aligned with the rotor flux space vector. That means
that the qaxis component of the rotor flux space vector is always zero:
0 0 · ·
rq rq
dt
d
and ψ ψ
To perform vector control, follow these steps:
i. Measure the motor quantities (phase voltages and currents)
ii. Transform them to the 2phase system (α ,β) using a Clarke transformation
iii. Calculate the rotor flux space vector magnitude and position angle
iv. Transform stator currents to the dq coordinate system using a Park transformation
v. The stator current torque (isq) and flux (isd) producing components are separately
controlled
vi. The output stator voltage space vector is calculated using the decoupling block
vii. An inverse Park transformation transforms the stator voltage space vector back from the
dq coordinate system to the 2phase system fixed with the stator
viii. Using the space vector modulation, the output 3phase voltage is generated
The components isα and isβ, calculated with a Clarke transformation, are attached to the
stator reference frame α and β. In vector control, all quantities must be expressed in the
same reference frame. The stator reference frame is not suitable for the control process.
The space vector is is rotating at a rate equal to the angular frequency of the phase
currents. The components isα and isβ
depend on time and speed. These components can
be transformed from the stator reference frame to the dq reference frame rotating at
the same speed as the angular frequency of the phase currents. The isd and isq
components do not then depend on time and speed. The component isd is called the
direct axis component (the fluxproducing component) and isq is called the quadrature
axis component (the torqueproducing component). They are time invariant; flux and
torque control with them is easy.
Knowledge of the rotor flux space vector magnitude and position is key information for
AC induction motor vector control. With the rotor magnetic flux space vector, the
rotational coordinate system (dq) can be established. There are several methods for
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obtaining the rotor magnetic flux space vector. The flux model implemented here utilizes
monitored rotor speed and stator voltages and currents. It is calculated in the stationary
reference frame (α, β) attached to the stator. The error in the calculated value of the
rotor flux, influenced by the changes in temperature, is negligible for this rotor flux
model.
For purposes of the rotor fluxoriented vector control, the directaxis stator current isd
(the rotor fluxproducing component) and the quadrature axis stator current isq (the
torque producing component) must be controlled independently. However, the equations
of the stator voltage components are coupled. The direct axis component vsd also
depends on isd and the quadrature axis component vsq also depends on isq. The stator
voltage components vsd and vsq cannot be considered as decoupled control variables for
the rotor flux and electromagnetic torque. The stator currents isd and isq can only be
independently controlled (decoupled control) if the stator voltage
equations are decoupled and controlling the terminal voltages of the induction motor
indirectly controls the stator current components isd and isq.
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