POLITENESS STRATEGIES USED IN JAVANESE WEDDING CEREMONY

A Thesis

Submitted to the English Applied Linguistics Study Program In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Magister Humaniora

By: IKA AGUSTINA Registration Number : 809111032

ENGLISH APPLIED LINGUISTICS STUDY PROGRAM POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN 2012

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, the writer would like to start off by thanking Allah SWT, the most gracious and the most merciful for blessing her to write this thesis. This study is concerned with Politeness Strategies used in Javanese ceremony. This study is submitted to Post Graduate School of State University of Medan in partial fulfillment of the final academic requirements to obtain the degree of Magister of Humaniora from English Applied Linguistics. In writing this thesis, the writer faced a lot of difficulty, trouble and without any help from the following people, it was impossible for her to finish this thesis. Therefore, the writer would like to thank all the people mentioned below. The writer expresses her greater gratitude to Prof. Dr. Sumarsih, M.Pd., as her first adviser for her valuable guidance, criticism, consultations and supports and Prof. Dr. Busmin Gurning, M.Pd., as her second adviser for his valuable corrections and advices in finishing this thesis. She also expresses her gratitude to Director of Post Graduate School, Head and Secretary of English Applied Linguistics Study Program of State University of Medan, all lectures who have equipped her during the times of lecturing and finishing this thesis Special thanks are expressed to Prof. Amrin saragih, M.A., Ph.D., Prof. Tina Mariany, M.A., Ph.D., Dr. Eddy Setia, M.Ed., TESP., as her reviewers and examiners, for the valuable input to improve the thesis.

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A very special gratitude is given for her beloved parents; Mr. Mahyudin and Mrs. Asni, her beloved sisters and brothers; Mrs. Sri Wahyuni, Mrs. Dewi Maharani, Mrs. Fatimah, Mrs. Latifah Hanum, Mr. M. Ridwan, Mr. Mahruzar for their sincere prayer, love and supports in moral and material during her academic year in completing her study. May Allah SWT always bless them. Then, thanks to Mrs. Dina Wagiani who had welcomed and given her chance to observe the party who was celebrated by her and his families, and also thanks to the Javanese speakers who have participated as source of data in this thesis. Finally, she would like to thanks to her classmates and anyone who cannot be mentioned here for giving support in finishing this thesis. The writer realizes that every work has the weaknesses; hence she hopes the good critics and suggestions for the perfection of this thesis. And hopefully her thesis is useful for the readers.

Medan,

April 2012

The writer,

IKA AGUSTINA Registration Number: 809111032

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Ika: Politeness Strategies Used in Javanese Wedding Ceremony. State University of Medan. They endeavor to maintain social harmony and solidarity between bride‘s family and bridegroom‘s family during wedding ceremony.95% and off-record was 3.16%. The data were taken from observation using audio visual recorder in Javanese wedding ceremony of Dina Wagiani and Oman Syahputra especially in some events which were Peningsetan (17th March 2012). Kecamatan Medan Marelan. so there was no distance between them. English Applied Linguistics Study Program. This thesis deals with Politeness Strategies Used in Javanese Wedding Ceremony.ABSTRACT Agustina.68%. Bald on record.21%. negative politeness was 8. The approach used in this study are based on Politeness theory by Brown and Levinson (1987). Postgraduate School. Positive politeness. It was used because Javanese people try to satisfy the hearer and avoid conflicts with other people. Midodaremi (14th April 2012). This study employed descriptive qualitative design. Panggih (15th April 2012) dan Sungkeman (15th April 2012) that are held in Medan located at Jl. Kelurahan Rengas Pulau. iii . The objectives of the study were to identify types of Politeness strategies and the pattern of strategies used in Javanese wedding ceremony. The finding showed that all the types of Politeness strategies were applied in Javanese wedding ceremony. bald. 2012. A Thesis. Negative politeness and Off-record strategy. The percentage of positive politeness was 54. Marelan II Pasar IV. The most dominant type of politeness strategies used was positive politeness strategy. The data were the transcriptions of recorded observation and interview.on record was 33. They also applied it to make both families get closer each other.

Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa semua jenis strategi Kesantunan diterapkan dalam upacara pernikahan suku Jawa. Data dalam penelitian ini adalah hasil rekaman dari observasi dan wawancara yang dilakukan oleh si peneliti.95% and off-record sebesar 3. Ika: Politeness Strategies Used in Javanese Wedding Ceremony. Data diambil dari observasi dengan menggunakan perekam audio visual dalam upacara pernikahan suku Jawa. Positif.ABSTRAK Agustina.21%. Alasan lainnya adalah untuk mempererat hubungan kedua keluarga sehingga tidak ada jarak diantara mereka. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini didasarkan pada teori kesantunan Brown & Levinson (1987). Itu digunakan karena suku Jawa selalu berusaha untuk menyenangkan lawan bicaranya dan ingin menghindari konflik dengan orang lain. Penggunaan positive politeness sebesar 54. bald. Penelitian ini menggunakan design deskriptif kualitatif. Bald on record. Marelan II Pasar IV. Tesis ini berkenaan dengan Strategi Kesantunan yang digunakan dalam upacara pernikahan suku Jawa.16%. dan Off record. English Applied Linguistics Study Program. Postgraduate School. iv . Panggih (15 April 2012) Dan sungkeman (April 15 2012) yang diselenggarakan di Medan yang terletak di Jl.68%. State University of Medan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi jenis strategi kesantunan dan bentuk strategi yang digunakan dalam upacara pernikahan suku Jawa. Negatif. Midodaremi (14 April 2012). Kecamatan Medan Marelan. A Thesis. 2012. Strategi kesantunan yang paling sering digunakan dalam upacara pernikahan suku Jawa adalah strategi kesantunan positif. negative politeness sebesar 8. Kelurahan Rengas Pulau. Mereka berusaha untuk menjaga keharmonisan sosial dan solidaritas diantara kedua keluarga selama acara pernikahan berlangsung. Dina Wagiani dan Oman Syahputra terutama dalam beberapa acara yaitu Peningsetan (17 Maret 2012).on record sebesar 33.

........................................1...................3 The Objectives of the Study ........................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ..............................1..................2 Perlocutionary Acts .....5 The Significance of the Study ................................................................. 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2................................................................ v LIST OF TABLES ...... i ABSTRACT .........................................................1 The Background of the Study .......... 8 2... 10 2.......... iii ABSTRAK ......................4 The Scope of the Study ........................................ 6 1.................. ix LIST OF APPENDICES ..1 Locutionary Acts ...........................................................................1..............2 The Problems of the Study ..................... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................1............. 9 2.. 6 1...... x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.......1 Kinds of Speech Acts ................. 10 v ...............1............................................................ 6 1........................... Speech Acts ......................................... 1 1.............1................. 9 2........3 Examples of Perlocutionary Acts ........................................1..............................................1.............................................................................................

2.....1.............2..................... 48 2............................................................... 13 2.......... 38 2..... 11 2.................... 35 2.......................... 26 2.............5...........................1 Bald on-Record Strategy ..................4 Illocutionary Acts......5..............7 Midodaremi...... 45 2.......... 43 2......... 17 2................5.....................5.........................5 Siraman ................................2.........5..........................2..................2........................ 20 2....5.........10 Wiji Dadi .............2................5.....2 Politeness .............1...1 Lamaran ........................................ 24 2............................6 Ngerik ...5..............5.............................9 Panggih or Temu.................11 Kacar Kucur or Tampah Kaya ...................................3 Tarub Decoration ................5...1 Politeness Strategies ................... 42 2........ 43 2...............................5.................5 Javanese Wedding Ceremony . 24 2............. 42 2..1.....4 Javanese Politeness Strategies .......................................2....2 Types of Politeness Strategies . 48 2........ 49 vi ................................ 40 2........................ 28 2...................... 39 2..................1............. 41 2......................2....2.....2 Peningsetan or Srah-Srahan ...........................3 Negative Politeness Strategy........................4 Nyantri .........2.... 45 2............................2 Positive Politeness Strategy .......................8 Ijab ....5..3 Javanese Speech Acts ....... 30 2...............12 Dahar Klimah or Dahar Kembul .......5 Types of Illocutionary Acts .........4 Off-Record Strategy . 29 2..2....

.....................................................6 The Previous Relevant Studies .........1...7 Conceptual Framework .......................... 56 3.............4 Occurrence of Politeness Strategies in Expressive ...........................5 Occurrence of Politeness Strategies in vii ....... 53 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD 3.....3 The Instruments of the Research .................2 The Source of the Data....................................1.... 50 2...............................5.......1 The Description of Data ...........................5.....3 Occurrence of Politeness Strategies in Commisives .................. 58 3....... 68 4.1....................... 50 2.....1....................................1........................4 The Techniques of Analyzing the Data...................................................5 Thrustworthiness of the Study ........................2..2 Occurrence of Politeness Strategies in Directives .............14 Sungkeman ....... 65 4.............. 69 4............ 58 3.............13 Mertui ...................... 55 3.............................. 61 4...................................... 60 4.............................. 49 2........... 59 CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 4................1 Occurrence of Politeness Strategies in Representatives ....................................................................1 The Design of the Research ...

.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 73 4. 81 5.. 83 APPENDICES...............................4 Discussion ............1 Conclusions ........................ 75 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.............................84 -149 viii .........................................................................................................3 The Findings ...............................Declaratives ... 72 4...................................1.6 The Total of Politeness Strategies ............................................................................................ 74 4..... 82 REFERENCES ...........2 Suggestions ..

1 4.2 4. The Percentages of Politeness Strategies in Reprentatives ............... The Percentages of Politeness Strategies In Declaratives .....3 4..........6 Observation Sheet .... The Percentages of Politeness Strategies in Expressives ...........................5 4......... The Percentages of Politeness Strategies in Commisives ..........1 4.................. The Percentages of Politeness Strategies in Directives ..................... Page 57 61 65 68 69 72 73 ix .. The Total of Politeness Strategies ..........................4 4........LISTS OF TABLES Table 3.

.............................. The Data of the Informants ................................................................... 118 8.............................................................................................. 5... 126 9....................................................................................................... 148 x .................................... 137 10.................. Realization of Types of Politeness Strategies In Midodaremi Event .................... 6.... 3........... Transcript of Utterances in Peningsetan ................... 143 11................................LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix 1................................. Realization of Types of Politeness Strategies In Panggih Event .............................. Page 86 92 96 Transcript of Utterances in Panggih ................................ 7............................................... 101 Transcript of Utterances in Sungkeman ... 2.... 104 Interview transcripts ............ Transcript of Utterances in Midodaremi . 4........................ 106 Realization of Types of Politeness Strategies In Peningsetan Event ..... Realization of Types of Politeness Strategies In Sungkeman Event ..... The Picture of Wedding Ceremony ......

Many ethnic groups. resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions. particularly in Kalimantan and Papua. Malay. Abangan belief. Confucianism and Islam. The largest ethnic group in Indonesia is the Javanese who make up 40% of the total population (Kuntjara. Examples of cultural fusion include the fusion of Islam with Hindu in Javanese. 1 . Indonesia is central along ancient trading routes between the Far East and the Middle East. According to the head of BPS (Central Bureau of Statistics). Heriawan (2010). Most of the local languages belong to Austronesian language family. The Javanese are concentrated on the island of Java but millions have migrated to other islands throughout the archipelago. there are 1. and the fusion of Hinduism and animism in Kaharingan. Buddhism.1 The Background of the Study Indonesia is a multicultural country.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. particularly in Papua. The Sundanese. others could be cited. 2001).128 ethnics in Indonesia from Sabang to Marauke. the fusion of Hinduism. and Madurese are the next largest groups in the country. The result is a complex cultural mixture very different from the original indigenous cultures. including Hinduism. Buddhism and animism in Budha. The Culture of Indonesia has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. speak Papuan languages. have only hundreds of members. although a significant number. all strong in the major trading cities.

namely: tata krama. as a good Javanese. Javanese people are greatly influenced by some concepts which are well rooted in the Javanese culture. The division and classification of ethnic groups in Indonesia is not rigid and in some case are unclear as the result of migrations. Finally. the member of larger Javanese people. The same case also with Baduy people that share soo much similarity with Sundanese people that can be considered as belongs to the same ethnic group. for example some may agree that Bantenese and Cirebonese are belongs to different ethnic group with their own distinct dialect. The phrase tata krama culturally means a good conduct or etiquette. According to Poedjosoedarmo (1979). most notably Hokkien and Hakka. humbling oneself while exalting others. Some of these Indonesians of Chinese descent speak various Chinese dialects.2 The Chinese Indonesian population makes up a little less than 1% of the total Indonesian population according to the 2000 census. Javanese is most politically dominant ethnic group which has strong culture. and being able to catch the hidden meaning)”. The example of hybrid ethnicity is Betawi people. however another might consider them as Javanese sub-ethnic. also cultural and lingusitic influences. and tanggap ing sasmita (the language styles. one should also have a sense of tanggap ing sasmita which can be . This concept dictates the Javanese to be low profile. The term andhap-asor in Javanese means humbling oneself while exalting the others. the result of mixture of different ethnicities in Indonesia also with Arab and Chinese since the era of colonial Batavia (Jakarta). andhap-asor. ―In their daily lives.

announcements. It is also used by persons of lower status to persons of higher status. kula ajeng tanglet. such as youngsters to elder people or subordinates to bosses. “Eh. It is also the official style for public speeches. nèng ndi?‟ (Ngoko).3 translated as the ability to read between the lines. dalem badhé nyuwun pirsa. griyoné mas Budi niku. For Javanese speakers. teng pundi?”(Madya). ―There are basically three speech levels in Javanese‖. It is also used by persons of higher status to persons of lower status. etc. such as elders to younger people or bosses to subordinates. "middle". (1) Ngoko (or even spelled as Ngaka) is informal speech. grammatical rules and even prosody. An example of the context where one would use madya is an interaction between strangers on the street. Javanese speech varies depending on social context. as the hearer we will know style based on the diction they use. and social status of the hearer. For examples. Nuwun sèwu. or registers. These styles are. It is used between persons of the same status who do not wish to be informal. where one wants to be neither too formal nor too informal. used between friends and close relatives. It means that a speaker may express his/her idea indirectly to the speaker. aku arep takon. omahé Budi kuwi. wonten pundi?‖(Krama). (2) Madya is the intermediary form between Ngoko and krama. It is considered less polite or it may hurt the addressee‘s feelings if it is delivered directly. and (3) Krama is the polite and formal style. Indonesian is . Each style employs its own vocabulary. “Nuwun sèwu. When Javanese speak. age. According to Poedjosoedarmo (1979). dalemipun mas Budi punika. The term is from Sanskrit madya. The style that Javanese use in speaking is usually based on social situation. yielding three distinct styles.

It is a way of reaching . and Sungkeman. Midodaremi Ceremony. One of specific cultural aspects of Javanese is wedding ceremony. Ngerik Ceremony. Madya and Krama as a strategy of showing positive politeness. there are some events in Javanese wedding ceremony which are Lamaran. a listener and signaling system or the language itself (Clark & Clark. According to Agus & Astri (2009) in their research. Panggih or Temu. Dahar Klimah or Dahar Kembul. It involves three elements. Kacar Kucur or Tampa Kaya. Wiji Dadi. Mertui. which are. Javanese use indirectness and pretence as strategies of showing negative politeness. Javanese employs higher speech levels.4 a relatively flexible means of communication that does not indicate levels of formality and lacks ethnic identification (Errington 1988:8). Communication is the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another. Tarub Decoration. Nyantri.record strategy in that ceremony. That‘s why the researcher wanted to investigate the use of politeness in Javanese wedding ceremony to prove whether Javanese use four politeness which are bald –on record. it shows that most Javanese use positive politeness dominantly in their daily conversation. In places like Java. Based on those researches. 1977: 23). Siraman Ceremony. negative strategy and off. Another research done by Sukarno (2010) asserts that Javanese use positive politeness dominantly in daily conversations. a speaker. A sincere and mutual love between a woman and a man should end in marriage. According to Negoro (1997: 16). the marriage occur due to the decision by a loving couple. positive strategy. Peningsetan or Srah-Srahan. Ijab Ceremony .

facts. Annisa. Javanese usually use positive politeness in formal situation. 2009. if one is polite and friendly. Communication is the structure on which human relations are built. It is agreed that the politeness is attributed with those strategies. Brown & Levinson's (1987) divide four types of politeness strategies. bald on record strategy. ethnic groups. The goal of communication often affects our behavior. and Javanese use indirectness and pretence as strategies of showing negative politeness. But in fact. Wedding traditions and customs vary greatly across among cultures. most Javanese use positive politeness dominantly in daily conversation. feelings. negative politeness and off. and social classes. It means that there is possibility that not all strategies will be used in Javanese wedding ceremony. based on some researches about politeness strategies in Javanese (Agus & Astri. For example. The main reason why the researcher wanted to investigate politeness strategies used in Javanese wedding ceremony was because she wants to prove . religions. have poor relations. positive politeness. thought.5 others by transmitting ideas. chances are the other party will in turn behave in similar way. As the previous explanation. They seldom use other politeness strategies in daily conversation. One‘s behavior during communication also affects others behavior and human relations. 2009). A wedding is the ceremony in which two persons are united in marriage or a similar institution. and values. People who communicate politely following the guidelines for human relations tend to have good human relations. That‘s why the situation in wedding ceremony is very formal and holy.record indirect strategy. while those who do not. countries.

positive strategy. The main aspects to be observed were the speech acts in illocutionary act.2 The Problems of the Study In relation to the background.4 The Scope of the Study This study attempt to investigate the politeness strategies used in some events of Javanese wedding ceremony which were peningsetan. positive politeness. 1. the objectives of the study were: 1) to describe the politeness strategies used in Javanese wedding ceremony 2) to explain the pattern of strategies used in Javanese wedding ceremony 3) to elaborate reasons the pattern used as it is.6 whether Javanese use four politeness strategies which are bald –on record. negative strategy and off.3 The Objectives of the Study In relation to the problems. midodaremi. 1. what politeness strategies they use in that event. 1) What types of politeness strategies are used in Javanese wedding ceremony? 2) What is the pattern of strategies used in Javanese wedding ceremony? 3) Why is the pattern used as it is? 1. . negative politeness. panggih. the problems were formulated as the following. whether they tend to use the bald on record strategy. and sungkeman.record strategy in that ceremony.

Practically. the research findings were expected to enrich the theories of linguistic politeness strategies. specifically the spoken language in Javanese community. especially wedding ceremony and for those who want to be the performer or actor in Javanese wedding ceremony. Theoretically. offer. The data resources were taken in wedding ceremony of Dina Wagiani and Oman Syahputra especially in some events which were Peningsetan (17th March 2012).5 The Significance of the Study The findings of the study were expected to be significantly relevant theoretical and practical aspects. question. held in Medan located at Jl. hopefully it is useful as guidance for those who are interested in Javanese culture. This contribution is in turn give tentative framework for a comprehensive analysis of politeness. Midodaremi (14th April 2012). Kecamatan Medan Marelan. since this research focused on Javanese native speakers in expressing statement. Marelan II Pasar IV. This study is useful to provide the information of what politeness strategies used by Javanese in wedding ceremony. The findings were expected also for teachers and lecturers who want to apply the politeness strategies which are used by Javanese . apologize. 1. Panggih (15th April 2012) and Sungkeman (15th April 2012). etc.7 and off-record indirect strategy. Kelurahan Rengas Pulau.

but it is equivalent to the action and the distinction between constative and performative utterances. you seem to be performing the speech act of 'promising. As an act of communication. If you say. but s/he must also try to convey an intention. I'll be there at six. s/he must not only intend to inform other people that there's a fly in his/her soup. asking for another soup to 8 .1 Speech acts One of the most important theories of speech acts was introduced by a British philosopher Austin (1962).' Leech (1983:17) asserts that in general. We can define a speech act as the action performed by a speaker with an utterance. Kess (1992:153) asserts when people speak. you are not just speaking. To communicate is to express a certain attitude. speech acts is an act of communication.CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2. and the type of speech acts being performed as corresponds to the type of attitude being expressing a desire and apology expresses regret. in a technical sense but also convey their attention. Perhaps. He says that the study of speech acts is the study how people do things with utterance. Austin (1962) gives explicitly recognized to the social that many utterances do not communicate information. a speech acts will succeed if the audience identifies in accordance with the speaker's intention and the attitude being expressed. they do not only transfer information. For example: "there's a fly in my soup!" If one expresses an utterance like the example.

(2) Perlocutionary acts. syllable. An utterance is any stretch of talk by one person before and after which there is silent on the part of that person. word.1 Kinds of Speech Acts Austin (1962) classifies speech acts into.9 replace the former one. 2. Allan (1986:55) asserts that utterance is the product of speech acts performed by a speaker to a hearer in a given context. phrases and sentences from a language. and (3) Illocutionary acts. From a speech acts point of view.1. such "hello" and "hi". It has a physical form and exists at some locations in space and time. or even a single word.1. a stewardess as a speaker is thereby performing Locutionary act of saying that the plane will take off in there minutes. And what is said about the notice that the stewardess is saying. of a piece of language. the content of her locution act is not fully determine by the word she is using. such a sequence of sentences a single phrase. this is the act of saying something. Thus speech act is the common study of pragmatics and each utterance/ conversation has meaning. (1) Locutionary acts.1 Locutionary Acts Locutionary acts are simply the acts of uttering sounds. An utterance is the use by a particular speaker on a particular speaker occasion. Each of which will be elaborated as follows.1. what one does in saying it. Another specific example. . 2.

1. b) Perlocutionary acts seem to involve the effect of utterance and the illocutionary action the thoughts. It is not performed perlocutionary act of convincing someone that Mel Gibson is the best actor in Hollywood. feeling. If speaker says "the plane will take off in three minutes" the speaker intends to be performing the perlocutionary acts of causing passengers to believe that the plane is about to take off and getting them to be ready in their seats.2 Perlocutionary Acts Perlocutionary acts are the acts to perform the intention of producing further effect on the hearer (Austin.1. Perlocutionary acts are performed by means of illocutionary acts.1. Thus perlocutionary acts can be represented as an illocutionary act of the speaker plus its effect on the hearer. although they have some similarities in some ways in performing the act. 1962:178). Semuane bakal apik-apik wae (Don‘t .1.3 Examples of Perlocutionary Acts Some examples of perlocutionary acts are: a) Persuading "ojo kuwatir! Ikut wae karo aku. a) Perlocutionary acts are not performed by uttering explicit performative sentence. To make it easy to understand about the definition of perlocutionary acts that makes them different from illocutionary acts. 2. Perlocutionary acts are different from illocutionary acts. and actions of the hearer.10 2.

agreements.1. the speaker gets the hearer to be impressed. An Illocutionary acts is part of the speaker's strategy in meaningfully using language. the speaker gets the hearer to be inspired. c) Impressing " koyo ngopo abote aku sanggup nindak ake (how hard it is. carry out by speaker making an utterance is act viewing in terms of the utterance significance with in a conventional system of social interaction.1. the speaker brings the hearer to learn or know that she or he is persuaded to join them. d) Inspiring "dadilah tulodo kang becik tumrapno wong bebrayan ( be a good person inspiring other couples) By uttering this utterance. Austin (1962) equally assigns . everything is gonna be ok)" By uttering that utterance. the speaker offers the utterance as a particular sort of interactional move. Illocutionary acts is when the speaker have intended his utterance to constitute an act of praises. b) Convincing "percoyo wae karo kulo yo (Believe me)"! By uttering this utterance. the speaker brings the hearer to learn or know that she or he is being convinced. critics.11 worry. Illocutionary acts.4 Illocutionary Acts Austin (1962:171) points out that illocutionary acts are performed in saying something. I can do it)" By uttering this utterance. 2. just join with me.

condoling. etc. communication can go on. Furthermore. It can be concluded . complain and suggestion that someone should close the window. Illocutionary acts is very important that the other art of speech act because the illocutionary itself is the central to linguistic communication and defined by social convention. From the above explanation.12 the illocutionary acts as a part of speech acts in which they defined the illocutionary performed in uttering or saying something. We form an utterance with some kinds of functions in mind. challenging. naming. whereby the speaker asserts suggests. as a warning to someone about to enter. complaining. such as accosting. apologizing. greeting. Example: "its cold here" This sentence could be uttered as an assertion. recommending. admitting. mostly we don't just produce well-formed utterances with no purpose. Cruse (1978:159) asserts that an Illocutionary acts is a complete speech act made in a typical utterance that consists of the delivery of the propositional content of the utterance (including references and predicates) and a particular illocutionary force. promising. congratulating. illocutionary definition can be concluded as important act in producing an utterance because the illocutionary itself gives main purpose of an utterance. as a whole range of other things. and no doubt. Austin (1962) explains that in communication. The illocutionary is performed via a cobmmunicative force of utterance. accusing. thanking. offering. declining. Whereas the upshot of these illocutionary acts are understanding on the part of audience. By the illocutionary acts. demand and promises.

believing. 2.13 that illocutionary acts are communicative if the speaker's illocutionary intention is recognized by the hearer and the attitude being expressed. 2000:94). speaker asserting. a) Representatives Representative is a type of illocutionary acts which describe or expresses something about true event in the world (Finch. denying. describing. Mutar to continue our talking a .5 Types of Illocutionary Acts Finch (2000:94-97) describes that there are five types of illocutionary acts as elaborate in the following. conveys. concluding. Representatives is speech acts that commit a speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. In other words. it is carried out when speaker utters statement to the hearer and his or her statement must mention about something that is real and exist in this world. affirming. informing. reporting.1. claiming.1. statement. predicting. Examples: 1) "Aku dueni opo seng di karep ake kaujud kembang mayang utowo kembang monco warno" (I have kembar mayang or kembang monco warno that you want) 2) “Kulo minongko wakil bapak Mutar kanggoh neruskeh opo seng di omongkeh eng dino kepungkur masalah jejodohan anakku Ormansyah Putra karo nak ayu Dina wagiani” (I‘m a representative of Mr. A Representative can be uttered in form of asserting.

instructing. questioning. my daughter) c) Commisives Commisive is a type of illocutionary acts to commits oneself to do something in the future like promising. begging.14 few days ago about our son marriage ―Ormansyah Putra‖ with the pretty girl. guaranteeing. 2000:96). admonishing. Dina Wagiani) 3) " Sak iki keluarga lanang teko nang omah keluarga wedok" (family of the man come to the girl‘s house) b) Directives Directive is a type of illocutionary acts which makes the hearer do something by requesting. drink and eat this food!) 2) "Jam piro sesok temu pengantene. challenging. inviting. insisting and pleading. mom? 3) "Nduk. swearing. mak?” (what time will temu penganten be held tomorrow. warning. forbidding. urging. swearing. excusing. offering. advising. monggoh!" (Please. dismissing. warning (Finch. suggesting. commanding. In other words. 2000:95). ordering. offering. Directives is speech acts that are to cause the hearer to take a particular action Examples: 1) "Di sumanggaake di ombeh lan di pangan panganan iki. agreeing. volunteering (Finch. . apik-apiklah kue dadi bojone” (be a good wife. permitting.

joy.g. condole. like. opo seng mamak saranke mau. pardon and excuses. welcoming. In other words. as the man‘s family.15 Examples: 1) “ Lantaran wes intok dino seng dipileh kanggoh keluarga kine. praise. Mutar for coming and giving so many presents) 2) "kulo sak rombongan jalok pangapuro karo Bapak Somen" ( we all want to apologize to Mr Somen) . forgive. matur nuhun karo bapak Mutar seng susah-susah teko wenehi anteran sak monoakehe" (Alhamdullilah. Examples: 1) "Alhamdullillah. thank. apologizing. aku inget‖ ( Yes mom. I‘ll do it) 3) ―Iyo mak. congratulate. mulo kulo soko calon keluarga besan setuju lan tetap melu opo seng arep dilaksanake” (Because the girl‘s family already decided the day. sorrow and congratulating (Finch. condoling. thanks to Mr. I‘ll remember your suggestion) d) Expressives Expressive is a type of illocutionary acts to the express the speaker's feeling like thanking. e. we agree and follow what to do) 2) ― Koyo ngopo abote aku sanggup” (how hard it is. dislike. expressives is speech acts that express the speaker's attitudes and emotions towards the proposition. Expressives make known the speaker‘s psychological attitude to a presupposed state of affairs. blame. 2000:97). complaining.

and blessing (Finch. dismiss. Declarations is speech acts that change the reality in accord with the proposition of the declaration.g. divorce (in Islam). pronouncing someone guilty or pronouncing someone husband and wife. the world is in some way no longer the same after they have been said. 14th April 2012 at 10. excommunicate. bidding.00 pagi" ( Ijab kabul will be held on Saturday. baptisms. name. declare (at cricet). For example. open (e. 2000:97). bid (at auction). an exhibition). Examples: 1) "Ijab kabul meniko bade katindakaken ing sasi besar dintenipun Sabtu pon enjang tanggal 14 April 2012 saatipun jam 10. That is to say.16 3) "Raos bingah ing manah kulo sak sampunipun mireng katerangan saking nak ayu Dina Wagiani" (I‘m so happy to hear the explanation from the pretty girl. the wedding party will be held on 15th April 2012) 3) " Ing wanci meniko kulo bade bangun bebrayan" ( I‘m married now) . marrying. consecrate.00 AM) 2) ―Insya Allah acara resepsi bade katindakaken minggu tanggal 15 April 2012” (Insya Allah. resign. like declaring war. christen. Dina Wagiani) e) Declaratives (Declaration) Declarative is a type of illocutionary acts which brings the effect to change the state affairs in the world. sentence (in court).

since any kind of linguistic action termed a face threatening act (FTA) may occur. It is the expression of the speaker's intention to mitigate face threats carried by certain face threatening acts toward another. 2003:6). Politeness theory asserts that some speech acts threaten other's face needs. 1990). . Being polite therefore consist of attempting to save face.cultural matter and is crucially reflected in language. Brown & Levinson's theory (1987) is that face is constantly at risk. First the famous approach on the politeness theory is formulated by Brown & Levinson (1987) and termed the face saving view (Fraser. Politeness is a part of Pragmatics. In this case politeness can be understood as a basis to the production of social order and recondition of interaction. free from imposition of left alone. Consequently. Politeness mean acting so as to take account of the feelings of others and includes both with positive face (the wish to be approved) and negative face (the wish to be unimpeded. According to Brown & Levinson (1987:1). Politeness refers to socio. It can be regarded a speaker design messages to protect face and achieve other goals as well (Chen.2 Politeness Politeness is the expression of the speaker's intention to mitigate face threats carried by certain face threatening acts toward another (Mills. which has relational dimension to the interlocutor's face. 1989).17 2. An individual‘s linguistic competence consists of grammatical competence and pragmatic competence (Thomas. A further assumption. such face threatening acts need to be counterbalanced by appropriate doses of politeness.

if we want to know the politeness of a speaker‘s utterance. . One definition of politeness is related to manners and etiquette. It is culturally defined phenomenon and what is considered polite in one culture can often be quite rude or simply strange in another. the cultural knowledge such as politeness and linguistics knowledge explicit and implicitly. and! or correct social behavior. it does not mean it becomes impolite to another occasion. The ability to comprehend and produce a communicative includes one's knowledge about the social distance. where politeness is defined as having or showing good manners. The goal of politeness is to make all the parties relaxed and comfortable with one another. Communication clearly depends on not only recognizing the meaning of words in an utterance but recognizing what speakers mean by their utterances.18 1983:92). Thus if someone say something politely. In line with this. social status between the speakers involved. Wardhaugh (1986) asserts that politeness itself is socially prescribed. consideration for others. According to Yule (1996:112). In other word. As illustrated by Longman dictionary of contemporary English. we also have to study the meaning of the utterance. at the same time comfortable situation occurred. the study of what speakers mean or "speakers meaning" called pragmatics. Although it is important to be polite to a certain person or occasion. the speaker meaning deals with the utterance in communication. these culturally defined standards at times may be manipulated to conflict shame on designed party.

A speaker has to follow the performance of face threatening act (FTA). regardless of social distance between speaker and the addressee. Generosity. Politeness refers to whatever means are employed to display consideration for one's addressee's feelings (or face). Each maxim goes in pairs with scales such as: a) Cost.benefit scale: Representing the cost or benefit of an act to speaker and hearer b) Optionally scale: Indicates the degree of choice permitted to speaker and hearer by a specific linguistic act. thus Brown & Levinson (1987:60) underlined four super strategies or general behavior patterns as following: 1) Do the FTA without redressive action baldly on record. Modesty. Agreement.19 Furthermore Grundy (1995:151) defines "politeness" as the term used to describe the extent to which actions. and sympathy. 2) Do the FTA with redressive action positive politeness. c) Indirectness scale: Indicating the amount of inference required of the hearer in order to establish the intended speaker meaning. Tack. perception of how they should be performed. d) Authority scale: Representing the status relationship between speaker and hearer. e) Social distance scale: Indicates the degree of familiarity between speaker and hearer. Approbation. match addresses. . Related to this statement Leech's (1983) politeness principle consists of six maxim. including the way things are said.

or wiping your mouth on the serviette rather than on the back of your hand". 4) Do the FTA record. For linguists. According to George Yule (1996: 60). Furthermore Brown & Levinson (1987) identifies the three elements to be considered in doing this face threatening acts. In this case. or etiquette. the social distance (D) of the speaker and addressee. Politeness strategies are used to formulate messages in order to save the hearer‘s face when face-threatening acts are inevitable or desired.2. 2. Holmes (1986) asserts that being linguistically polite is often a matter of selecting linguistic forms which expressed the appropriate degree of social distance or which recognize relevant status or power differences. the relative power (P) between them and the absolute ranking of imposition (R) in particular culture. as in the idea of `polite social behavior'. politeness becomes the main factor in selecting utterances or sentences appropriately in life of society.20 3) Do the FTA with redressive action negative politeness. politeness does not refer to the social rules of behavior such as letting people go first through the door. 1987). within a . Brown & Levinson (1987:62) clarify that politeness is one important issue in speech acts because it is regarded as a universal phenomenon in language use. it is possible to treat politeness as a fixed concept. as Cutting notes (2002:44 original emphasis).1 Politeness Strategies Politeness strategies are ways to convey the utterances as polite as possible (Brown & Levinson.

Brown & Levinson (1987: 66) define face as the public self. 1994). it can be assumed that politeness is related to such norms and principles exist in the society at large. Within an interaction. (Ting-Toomey. material possessions. how ―ritual equilibrium‖ is maintained and restored. orally accepted or given agreements in the context of international business and describes how various societies differ in each of these areas. and legally documented vs. what and how face is projected and maintained. and sympathetic toward others. generous. especially in the Japanese interaction. what avoidance strategies are utilized when face is threatened. the keynote.21 culture. Politeness. friendship. can then be defined as the means employed to show awareness of another person's . It refers to that emotional and social sense of self that everyone has and expects everyone else recognize. Some of these might include being tactful. Even they have different opinions and even during the argument.image that every member want to claim for himself. however. As in Japanese. It is also possible to specify a number of different general principles for being polite in social interaction within a particular culture. 2003). The values attached to time. etc. in an interaction. In order to describe it. we need the concept of face. there is a more narrowly specified type of politeness at work. Harmony is one of the unique characteristics. space. harmony is said to be a key concept to understand the Japanese culture (Shigemitsu. modest. Cultural values play a role in determining what participants do in verbal interaction. Therefore. Japanese participants try to maintain harmonious atmosphere as possible.

22 face. Using insult term is the example of the threatening the hearer's positive face which wants to be liked or appreciated by others. Bucky. Mr. In this sense. The first example is the formal one because the hearer/ interlocutor is the speaker's teacher. it will threaten the . The second example is the informal one because the hearer/ interlocutor is the speaker's friend. the example of the threatening the negative face is generating order or a request. An FTA means act that threatens the positive and negative face of the hearer. it is seen that the form shows the distance the relationship between the speaker and the hearer/ interlocutor. but can I talk to you for a minute?" 2) The friend's question to the same individual: "Hey. According to Brown & Levinson (1987) politeness strategies are strategies used to avoid or minimize the FTA (Face Threatening Act) that a speaker makes. but the sentences are used in different ways. politeness can be accomplished in situations of social distance or closeness. it is seen that the meanings of both sentences are the same. From the sentence. Showing awareness for another person's face when that order seems socially distant is often described in terms of respect or deference. Examples: 1) Student's question to his teacher: "Excuse me. Moreover. Showing the equivalent awareness when the other is socially close is often described in term friendliness or solidarity. got a minute?" From the two examples. Buckingham. It shows that the informal form indicates the intimacy between the speaker and the hearer/ interlocutor.

and maintaining that "self -steem" in public or in private situations. such cooperation being based on the mutual vulnerability of face. Since face is understood in terms of wants to be fulfilled by others and it is someone's interest to constantly monitor and attend to face in interaction. In general. and rights to non-distraction—in other words. personal preserves. we have to minimize it by applying the politeness strategies. On the one hand. freedom of action and freedom from imposition. the positive face consists of the self-image or ‗personality‘ (crucially including the desire that this self-image be appreciated and approved of) claimed by interactants (Brown and Levinson. Meanwhile. Negative face is the want to be unimpeded in one's actions which is the basic claim to territories. we have the negative face. That is why. It can be concluded that normally everyone's face depends on someone else's being maintained. speakers cooperate in maintaining face in interaction. . Face is maintained by the audience not by the speakers. In line with that. and consists in two related aspects. the following is the assumption of Brown & Levinson about "face". if we do not want to threaten someone's positive or negative face.23 hearer's negative face which expects to have freedom of action (can do what he/she likes to do). universal but culturally elaborated construct. ‗Face‘ is the public self-image that every member wants to claim for himself. Face. They are then developed in order to save the hearer's face. 1987: 61). refers to the respect that an individual has for him/ herself. on the other hand.

― may I borrow your car tomorrow? She would be going bald on record because the request to borrow B‘s car is unambiguous. Bald on Record. This theory then encompasses the social constraint which the speaker is faced with the interaction. According to Brown and Levinson (1987: 73) Bald on record is a direct politeness strategy which contains no repressive particle to soften the Face greatening Act (FTA). unless the situations maximum efficiency or urgency. 2. 1987: 73). and Off Record Strategy. In performing a face threatening acts. 2. or makes the hearer feel a bit uncomfortable. The prime reason for bald. For example.2 Types of Politeness Strategies Brown & Levinson outline four main types of politeness strategies. The detail explanation will be described as following. Bald onRecord Strategy is a strategy to minimize threats to addressee's "face" or to reduce the impact of the FTA's.2. the speaker will decide to minimize the possible face threat.on record usage in whenever S (speaker) wants to do the FTA with the maximum efficiency more .1 Bald on-Record Strategy The term ‗ Bald on record‘ is used when an expression has ―one unambiguously‘ attributable intention with which witnesses would concur‖ (Brown and Levinson. if person A wanted to borrow person B‘s car and said.24 Face threatening acts is another focus on the theory of Brown & Levinson (1987:70) threatens the speaker's or the hearer's positive or negative face. embarrasses. Negative Politeness.2. Positive Politeness.2. It risk to shock.

.25 than satisfy H's (hearer) face. such as close friends and family). redress would actually decrease the communicated urgency. These fall into two classes: 1) Cases of non. so no face redress is necessary.on record usage in different circumstances. This type of strategy speaks in conformity with Grice's Maxim (Grice.minimalization of the face threat. In Bald on-record. or make them feel a bit uncomfortable. because S can have different motivates for his want to do the FTA with maximum efficiency. even to any degree. However. and are very comfortable in their environment. this type of strategy is commonly found with people who know each other very well. Examples: "Help! (An Emergency) "Your pants are on fire!" From those examples above. it can be seen that the speaker does not care about the hearer and they used in this cases of urgency or desperation. embarrass them. 1987) as quoted in Brown & Levinson (1987:94). Actually these maxims are an intuitive characterization of conversational principle that would constitute guidelines for achieving maximally efficient communication. he will choose the bald on record strategy. Directs imperatives stand out a clear examples of this type of strategy. the speaker will most likely shock the person to whom they are speaking to. In this type the maximum efficiency is very important and this is mutually known to both S and H. In cases of great urgency or desperation. There are different kinds of bald.

101). or similarity between the wants of the speaker and addressee (1987: 63.2 Positive Politeness Strategy Brown & Levinson (1987: 85) state that ―Positive Politeness Strategy (PPS) is a strategy of speaking which is used a kind of metaphorical extension of intimacy to imply common ground or sharing of wants to a limited extent even between strangers who perceive themselves: for the purpose of interaction‖. (2) farewells. 2. thus.26 2) Cases of FTA. Examples: "Come in" (welcoming). positive politeness expresses either a general appreciation of the addressee‘s wants. where expressions of interest and . where S insists that H may transgress on his face by taking his leave. positive face reflects the desire to have one‘s possessions. It can be seen from both examples above. and achievements desired by a socially or situationally relevant class of others. where S insists that H may impose on S's negative face. The second sentence can be used as an offer. where S insists that H may impose on his negative face. It thus reproduces the characteristics of conversational interaction among intimates. and (3) offers.record usage. It is oriented to H's face.2.2. The first sentence can be used as an invitation to the hearer which feels reluctant so that the hearer will feel less reluctant because of the invitation. goals. According to Brown and Levinson. "Sit down here‖ (offering) This strategy is oriented to H's face. It is usually used in (1) welcoming (or postgreetings).oriented bald-on.

Positive politeness is a comunicative way of building solidarity. or where people in the given social situation know each other fairly well. The speakers respect a person's need to be liked and understood. where the speaker in using them indicates that he/she wants to come closer to the hearer. Brown and Levinson note that it is this identification with intimate language that gives positive politeness its redressive force.27 approval. understanding and cooperation (Brown & Levinson (1987: 85). But for some reasons positive politeness strategy are usable not only for FTA redress. seeking agreement. his perennial desire that his wants should be thought of a desirable. joking. Positive politeness strategies include statements of . Positive politeness strategies include compliments. Typically. shared knowledge and desires. and expressions of sympathy. speaker asserts that he wants at least some of hearer's wants. The speakers and addressee like to be cooperators. claiming reflexivity of goals. in general as a kind of social accelerator. It usually tries to minimize the distance between them by expressing friendliness and solid interest in the hearer's need to be respected (minimize the FTA). In other words. claiming reciprocity. showing the other is liked and seen as desirable. since such strategies are used ‗‗as a kind of metaphorical extension of intimacy‘‘ which functions as ‗‗a kind of social accelerator‘‘ by means of which the speaker signals his or her desire to ‗‗come closer‘‘ to the hearer . Positive Politeness is usually seen in groups of friends. Redress consist in partially satisfying that desire by communicating that someone's own wants. Redress directed to the addressee's positive face. and reciprocity of obligations are routinely exchanged .

that‘s a great suit you have on! Is it new? By the way. To do the FTA given above using positive politeness. This makes the hearer not take it seriously when the speaker does an FTA.28 friendship. Therefore.2. In other words. ―Hey. Positive politeness is used as a kind of metaphorical extension of intimacy. 2. 1978: 108). It is used by speaker to give impression that he/she wants H's or in wants or in other words. and intruding on their space. which similar to positive politeness. for example. these automatically assume that there might be some social distance or awkwardness in the situation.2.3 Negative Politeness Strategy According to Brown & Levinson (1987: 75) Negative Politeness Strategies are kind of strategy which repressive action addressed to the addressee's negative face: his want to have his freedom of action unhindered and his attention unimpeded. By asking about person B‘s suit. Negative politeness is specific and focused. Negative Politeness strategies are the strategy to assume that you may be imposing on the hearer. tomorrow?‖ (addapted from Brown & Levinson. complements. the suit. S wants H's face to be satisfied. It is also used to get closer to the hearer. It is heart of respect behavior. The speakers in this case asserts unwillingness to impinge on . person A would be showing that she is interested in something that person B presumably finds desirable. It performs function of minimizing the particular imposition that the FTA unavoidable effects. positive politeness is used as a kind of social acceleration. may I borrow your car. solidarity. person A might say.

if person A wanted to borrow person B‘s car and said. the speaker applies `hedge' (would you please) to soften the utterance and `give deference' (Mr.2.29 addressee. ― I need to pick up my friend at the airport tomorrow. She would be going off record because there is no explicit request. The threat is the speaker asks the hearer to close the door. if a speaker wants to do FTA but in the same time wants to avoid the responsibly for doing it. Tailor?" We can see in that example that the speaker is threatening the hearer's negative face which wants to have freedom of action.record and leave it up the addressee to decide how to interpret it. Thus.Record Strategy The term ―off record‖ is used when an expression can have ―more than one unambiguously attributable intention‖ (Brown & Levinson 1978: 74).Record Indirect Strategy is the strategy can be done in such way that is not possible to attribute only one clear communication intention to be act. Off. To minimize the threat. The idea is that the more serious act. In doing off. actually Face Threatening Acts is not stated explicitly but only implied.2. but I dont have a car. For example. Brown & Levinson (1987) proposed a formula to calculate the seriousness of the face threatening act in each situation. . The actor leaves him/herself an "out" by providing him/herself with number of defensible interpretation of his act.4 Off. he can do off. For instance: "Would you close the door. Mr. 2. Taylor) to show his/ her respect to the hearer.record.

3 Javanese Speech Acts According to H. A strategy will be polite to the extent that is appropriate is a specific context of interaction. It is usually in the form of declarative sentence. there are two basic rules that are most determined in shaping the patterns of social intercourse in the Javanese community. So that the hearer might respond like this. Politeness is considered to be pervasive. quoted by Magnins-Suseno (1984). it is believed that different situations or discourse types require different form of social relations. the speaker wants the hearer to interpret what the speaker means that is he/ she wants to borrow a pen from the hearer. "I went to school in hurry".numbered strategies are seen as more polite than their lower. the strategies reflect the type of social relationship in terms of power. In this strategy.30 the higher number of the strategy chosen by the speaker. and imposition established among participants on each particular occasion. 2. Off record can be called as an indirect way of saying something which may cause a face damaging interpretation. "Do you need a pen?" the response from the hearer means that the hearer is being cooperative and the speaker has shown himself or not being forceful. social distance affect. judging that one strategy is more than another is completely unwise. for instead. Higher. However. Furthermore. "I forgot to bring a pen".numbered counterparts. Two basic rules which Magnis-Suseno calls . present in all discourse type and instead of dealing with more or less polite individual or discourses. Geertz.

it is almost impossible to conduct politeness in Javanese without comprehending and applying those cultural concepts. as it applies to tata krama. to conduct the andhap-asor in Javanese means humbling oneself while exalting the others. one will not denigrate the interlocutor and praise him/herself. when Javanese people behave impolitely. This concept dictates the Javanese to be low profile. Thus. humbling oneself while exalting others. According to Poedjosoedarmo (1979) there are three concepts of Javanese cultures. s/he will be considered impolite. “the forms and the politeness strategies used in Javanese are really bound by the Javanese concepts ‖. As a Javanese. for instance when a young man passes in front of his grandparents without asking permission and bowing down his body. and being able to catch the hidden meaning). are the principle of kerukunan (harmony) and that of hormat (respect). Therefore. The former refers to the duty of each and every member of the community to endeavor to maintain social harmony. he will be credited as an impolite man or one who does not know tata krama.31 principles. This term is lexically composed of two words andhap ‗low‘ and asor ‗humble‘. The next concept of the Javanese culture is andhap-asor. s/he may get the . and the latter refers to the responsibility of all community members to show respect to others on every occasion in accordance with their status and standing in the community. andhap-asor. If s/he breaks this rule. tata krama. According to Sukarno (2010: 70) in his research. As a result. and tanggap ing sasmita (the language styles. The phrase tata krama culturally means a good conduct or etiquette.

It is considered less polite or it may hurt the addressee‘s feelings if it is delivered directly. The term is from Sanskrit madya. In Javanese. It means that a speaker may express his/her idea indirectly to the speaker. An example of the context where one would use madya is an interaction between strangers on the street. Finally. where one wants to be neither too formal nor too informal. one should also have a sense of tanggap ing sasmita which can be translated as the ability to read between the lines. according to Grice. Hence. "middle". or suggested is distinct from what the speaker said. Grice (1981) introduced the term ‗implicature‘ for the case in which what the speaker meant. these two concepts have behave politely or to know tata krama. According to Poedjosoedarmo (1979). and (3) Krama is the polite and formal style. implied. It is used between persons of the same status who do not wish to be informal. it is not always necessary for the speaker to express his/her feeling directly because of the culture of having tanggap ing sasmita „a good eeling‟ or implicature. such as elders to younger people or bosses to subordinates. used between friends and close relatives. These styles are. (2) Madya is the intermediary form between Ngoko and krama.32 social sanction. and being polite also means one should have a sense of andhap-asor. (1) Ngoko (or even spelled as Ngaka) is informal speech. as a good Javanese. ―There are basically three speech levels in Javanese‖. These speech levels indicate the attitude of the speaker toward the addressee. It is also used by persons of higher status to persons of lower status. It is also the official style for public speeches. .

But when one speaks of someone else with a higher status or to whom one wants to be respectful. Mutar and he wants to talk about the marriage plan of Ormansyah Putra with the pretty girl. etc. there are also ―meta-style‖ word-the honorifics and humulifics. It is also used by persons of lower status to persons of higher status.33 announcements. social position and other factor. . such as youngsters to elder people or subordinates to bosses. but when talking to the parens they must use both krama inggil and krama andhap Below some examples are provided to explain the speech act in Javanese. For example. (The speaker informs people that he is a representative of Mr. Dina Wagiani) 2) ―kulo arek ning omah pak Suratno jalok Kembar Mayang‖ I will go to Suratno‘s house to take Kembar Mayang. When one talks about oneself. honorific terms are used. Mutar to continue our talking a few days ago about our son marriage ―Ormansyah Putra‖ with Dina Wagiani. children often use the Ngoko style. one has to be humble. Status is defined by age. I‘m a representative of Mr. a) Representative (Statement) 1) “Kulo minongko wakil bapak Mutar kanggoh neruskeh opo seng di omongkeh eng dino kepungkur masalah jejodohan anakku Ormansyah Putra karo nak ayu Dina wagiani”. In addition. The humilific words are called krama andhap words while the honorific word are called krama inggil words.

lan seng eseh joko‖. . Insya Allah arep tak tindak ake ‖ (promising) ―Yes.34 (The speaker informs someone that he wants to go to Suratno‘s house to take Kembar Mayang) b) Dirrectives 1) ―Seng gowo kembar mayang utowo kembang monco warno iku kuduh bocah seng eseh gadis. (Request) ―This kembar mayang or kembang Monco warno must be brought by unmarried girl and unmarried man‖. I‘ll agree with you‖ (The speaker agrees with someone decision) d) Expressive 1) ―Kulo sak rombongan ngaturke panuwun karo Bapak Somen” (thanking) ― We all express our thanks to Mr Somen‖. eat this food‖! (The speaker asks someone to eat the foods served) c) Commisives 1) ―Iyo. insya Allah I‘ll do it ‖ (The speaker makes a promise that he will do it) 2) ―Yen mengkono kulo manut wae― (agreeing) ― Ok. (The speaker asks that the kembar mayang must be brought by unmarried girl and unmarried man) 2) ―monggoh. di pangan panganan iki! ―Please.

politeness may carry a positive connotation and hence an implication that less politeness tends towards "rudeness" and is thus undesirable. the wedding party will be held on 15th April 2012‖ (the speaker declares to someone that the wedding party will be held on 15th April 2012) 2. All humans living in groups have culture. Yet. In everyday language. According to Morand (1996).4 Javanese Politeness Strategies According to Jiang (2000). it is worth reemphasizing that politeness is value-free. the total way of life of a group of society.35 (The speaker says thanks to Mr Somen ) 2) ―Kulo jalok pangapuro karo bapak Mutar mbok menowo kulo ono kesalahan ” ― I apologize to Mr Mutar if I have any mistake‖ (the speaker says sorry to Mr Mutar for any mistake that he does) e) Declaratives 1) ―Tak nikahke anakku karo sampean‖ (declare) ―I marry you with my daughter‖ (He declares to someone that he marry her daughter to him) 2) Insya Allah acara resepsi bade katindakaken minggu tanggal 15 April 2012” ―Insya Allah. there are no ―inferior‖ or ―superior‖ culture and cultures are formed to meet human needs. in contrast. the . In nature the sense and value ―politeness‖ have something to do with culture.

―aku jalok seng gowo kembar mayam utowo kembang monco warno iku kuduh bocah seng eseh gadis. Hence. lan seng eseh . The idea behind these cultural norms relates to the fact that Javanese must get the rasa 'feeling' of what people are saying. These indirectness and pretence strategies are used to show negative politeness. it is entirely inappropriate to draw any judgmental conclusions based on this. to minimize the face. the maker of Kembar Mayang allows him to take it. Then.threatening acts. formal or informal. Madya and Krama as a strategy of showing positive politeness.36 model of politeness discussed shows the cultural relativity of normative levels of politeness. Such fallacious assumptions would clearly be labeled as ethnocentric by anthropologists. Javanese employs higher speech levels. even though when the elders or superiors are being a referent or the third person in the conversation. Javanese use indirectness and pretence as strategies of showing negative politeness. which are. This shows that Javanese people are expected to show their respect to elders or superiors in any situations. When one culture is more or less polite than another. one culture's standards are no better or worse than another's. According to Agus & Astri (2009) in their research. These higher speech levels are used to show respect to elders or superiors as they are the targets of positive politeness. For example politeness stategies through speech acts in Javanese are: a) Bald On-record Strategy The girl‘s father come to the maker of Kembar Mayang to have it because he need it to be used in wedding ceremony . and says. that is.

37 joko ( I want the people who will bring kembar mayang or kembang monco warno are still virgin and unmarried)‖ . but I just wanted to ask you. d) Off-record strategy ―Pak. nggone turu mungnunggu intok ngampil ujute kembar mayang utowo kasebut . aku gor arek tekon opo aku iso jalok Kembar Mayang iki? (I‘m sorry to bother you. The utterance is possitive politeness strategy because the speaker tries to minimize the distance between them by expressing friendliness and solid interest in the hearer's need to be respected (minimize the FTA). iso aku jalok Kembar Mayang iki?. b) Possitive Politeness Strategy ”Ngene pak. The utterace said above is bald on-record strategy because it minimize threats to addressee‘s face. awan lan bengi. It is also used to get closer to the hearer. Therefore. karna iku aku lungo rene arep jalok iku Pak. c) Negative politeness strategy ―Amit nek ngaggu. wong-wong kabeh ngomong nang kene cuma Bapak seng dueni Kembar Mayang. The speaker most likely shocks the listener. embarrasses him or make him feel a bit uncomfortable. these automatically assume that there might be some social distance or awkwardness in the situation. could I have this Kembar Mayang?)‖ this utterance is negative politeness strategy because it assume that you may be imposing on the hearer and intruding on their space. di tangisi karo anakku nganti betah nggone ngeleh. Piye Pak.

She would take care of the make up and dressings of the bride and bridegroom. The loving couple should inform their parents accordingly and several steps should be taken to prepare the wedding. a traditional make up woman who should lead the complete set of the whole ceremonies is very important. In this strategy. a Javanese always stays close to the family. the marriage occurred due to the decision by a loving couple. It is off-record Strategy because it can have ―more than one unambiguously attributable intention. doesn‘t want to eat and sleep because of her enthusiasm to have Kembar Mayang or Kembang Monco Warno).38 kembang mocowarno" (Sir. It could happen due to the wish of their parents. So that the hearer might respond like this. In that event. different kind of offerings. the role of a Pemaes. Family solidarity is of prime important. my daughter always cry all day. 2. Up to now. A Javanese proverb says: "'Tresno jalaran saka kulino" means "love grows when you are get used to each other". It is indirect request. "Do you need Kembar Mayang?" the response from the hearer means that the hearer is being cooperative and the speaker has shown himself or not being forceful. In places like Java. This is a matter of principle since the ancient time. different kind of .5 Javanese Wedding Ceremony A sincere and mutual love between a woman and a man should end in marriage. A complete Javanese wedding ceremony has several complicated traditional rituals. the speaker wants the hearer to interpret what the speaker means that is he wants to have Kembar Mayang from the hearer.

5. Usually. They should fix convenient and good days of wedding procedures which must be followed such as Peningsetan (traditional engagement). Every marriage pattern differs in make up and dresses for the bride and bridegroom. Nowadays. It should be decided also what kind of marriage pattern is chosen. 2. There are a lot of . among other Paes Ageng (great make up) or Kesatrian (knight's make up which is simpler). the Panggih and other traditional rituals. Midodaremi. Ngerik. Tarub Decoration.1 Lamaran The parents of the man should send an envoy or envoys to the parents of the woman. there are some events in Javanese wedding ceremony. Dahar Klimah. Midodaremi (ceremony in the eve of the wedding day). Negoro (1997). In that case. Siraman (holy bathing). Nyantri. ornaments and equipment necessary for a wedding party. The parents of the couple should approve the planned marriage. It should be decided also what kind of dresses the parents should wear. service of a Pemaes is of top priority. for practical reason. Ijab. the parents of both sides could talk directly. Mertui and Sungkumen. the parents of the woman have a greater role as they are the ones who organize the ceremony. A complete traditional Javanese wedding ceremony is involving several kind of activities. Wiji Dadi. Panggih . They are Lamaran. Siraman. what kind of Batik pattern and shirt/coat design. According to Suryo S. A well qualified Pemaes could lend complete wedding dress. proposing that their son is willing to marry their daughter. which color etc. Kacar Kucur. Peningsetan.39 ceremonies during the event etc.

.2 Peningsetan or Srah-Srahan Peningsetan derives from the word singset means to tie up. wishing happiness and the best things in life such as the patterns of sidoluhur. salt. It is a commitment that a marriage should be implemented. c) Kebaya d) White waist sash for women as a sign of a strong willingness. wishing a good health. she should take care the ritual offerings and lead the ritual ceremonies.40 Pemaes. Then the family of the man (only women) visit the girl in the attractively decorated wedding room. b) Several Batik cloths with different patterns. The parents should become "in-laws". e) Some fruits. sidomukti etc. wishing for a safety. They bring some gifts as follow: a) A set of Suruh Ayu (Suruh: betel leaf. The family of the man give some items to the parents of the woman. f) Rice. Ayu: beautiful). the family of the girl visit the parents and the family of the girl. It must be made sure the engagement of a Pemaes long time before the wedding. betel leaves with the necessary supplement. She should be entrusted to make up the bride and bridegroom and dress them properly. sugar. In this occasion both sides of families should make acquintance to each other in a more relax atmosphere. they have also a tight schedule. On the peningsetan occasion. 2. but favorite Pemaes. the families of both sides have agreed.5. cooking oil etc symbolizing the basic foodstuffs need in life.

on the gate must be hung bleketepe. c) A cengkir Gading (young yellow coconuts) meant: The couple loves each other decisively and should always take care of each other. dishes. rice cones. a) 2 Banana Trees with stem of ripe bananas meant: The husband could be a good leader of the family in the society and could also live well and happy everywhere.5. flowers. 2. jamu (herbal medicine). dadap srep. On top of this. tempe (a kind of tofu) coconut sugar etc. lantern. the gate of the house must be decorated with Tarub consisting of different Tuwuhan (plants and leaves). meant: the couple should grow strongly to protect the family.3 Tarub Decoration Usually one day before the wedding party. different kind of fruits. d) Different fresh leaves such as of beringin (banyan) mojo-koro. The . b) A pair of Tebu Wulung / Reddish sugar cane meant : They build the family whole heartedly. different kind of drinks. alangalang.41 g) A set of ring for the couple. Before the installation of Tarub and Bleketepe. always be in safety. a contribution for the wedding ceremony. a special Sajen offerings must be made. cookies. with symbolic meanings as the following. buffalo meat. in good terms within the environment they live. h) Some money. ornaments made from plaited coconut leaves to drive out evil spirits and as a sign that a wedding ceremony takes place in this house. coconuts. It consist among other of: Bananas.

in the . an envoy of his parents tells the host and the hostess that he hands over the man to the responsibility of the host and the hostess. After the visitors left the house. the man is allowed to enter the house but not the wedding room. While his family is inside the house. During that time he is only given a glass of water. He may eat only after midnight. Before his family left the house. The Siraman ceremony usually should be organized one day prior to the Ijab and Panggih rituals.4 Nyantri In fact the man come together with his family. This called Nyantri.42 sajen (offering) has symbolic meaning to get blessings from the ancestors and as a means of protection against evil spirits. under the Tarub decoration. but he is not entitled to enter the house.5 Siraman Siraman means to take a bath. kitchen. considering that tomorrow he should be dressed and prepared for Ijab and other wedding ceremonies. the envoy further says that the man is not going back home. he sits in the veranda of the house accompanied by some friends or relatives. 2. It is a lesson that he must be able to resist hunger and temptation. in the street nearby the house etc. The sajen should be placed in several places where the process of ceremonies take place such in the bathroom. gate.5.5. Nyantri is done on purpose for safety and practical reason. and he is not allowed to smoke. The parents of the girl should arrange his lodging. 2. The Siraman in the wedding ritual is meant to clean the couple‘s bodies as well as their souls.

6 Ngerik After the Siraman. The sajen for Ngerik is the same with the sajen for Siraman. The steps of Ngerik Practice : The Pemaes should carefully and skilfully doing her make up of the bride. 2. Siraman of the girl should be conducted in her parents' residence and for the man. The Pameas cleans her face and neck and start to make up. she would have a prosperous life and adored by other people. the bride should be dressed with Kebaya (woman shirt) and Batik cloth designed of Sidomukti or Sidoasih symbolizing. The face should be make up in accordance with the marriage pattern. The girl and the man should be bathe by seven people of their each family . At the end. The girl is . the bride sits in the wedding room. The Pemaes should dry her hair by using towel and smoke of perfumed powder (Ratus) should be passed her hair. For pratical reason all sajen for siraman brought to the wedding room and function as the offering for Ngerik Ritual. Ngerik means to save unnessarary hairs on her face by using a Razor.5. Midodaremi is derived from the word Widodari means goddess.43 afternoon. When the hair is drying.7 Midodaremi This ceremony takes place in the eve of Ijab and Panggih ceremonies.5. 2. it is conducted in his parents house. it is combed backside and strongly tied up in gelung hairdo style.

and made to sit very still in the centre of the house for about five hours. which symbolise their virginity. which is why brides look so beautiful on their wedding-days. It is believed that an angel enters her. Sajen/offering for Midodaremi: a) Rice cooked with coconut milk b) Well cooked cock (Ingkung) c) Vegetable sauces d) Flowers e) Tea and coffee without sugar f) Drink from young coconut meat with coconut sugar g) Latern which is lighted h) Bananas i) Flowers in water bowl j) A baked glutinous rice. She has to stay up in the room the whole evening from 6.00 p. she is in her husband's responsibility. all of them are women. The bride's parents should feed her for the last time because of from tomorrow. The family of the man and her very close friends should also visit her for a while. Two each are bought for the boy and girl.m. bread . While she is seated. her father performs the ritual of purchasing large decorations made up of various plants called the 'Kembang mayang'.44 dressed in simple clothes. to midnight accompanied by some elder women giving her useful advice. The mother places two of these by her daughter and the evening is over.

Ijab ceremony is the most important requirement to legalize a marriage. 2. Budha. The bride is represented by her 'wali' (her legal guardian under Islamic law). The family and guests could eat it.9 Panggih or Temu The wonderful and mystical sound of Javanese music gamelan instruments accompanies a traditional sacred Panggih or Temu (means meeting) between a beautifully make up bride with her handsome bridegroom in front of a house decorated with "Tarub" plant decoration. wearing shining brilliant and golden jewelries and special dress for this . Christian and Catholic. Ijab is led by the government's religious officer who has the authority to legitimise and register marriages. traditional ceremonies of panggih etc and a reception should follow to complete the whole wedding ceremonies. Hindu. The bride with traditionally make up with special gelungan (hairdo). After the Ijab.45 k) Cigar and pipe made of papaya leave The offering foods could be taken out of the room at midnight.5. Panggih is the meeting of the bride and groom and is conducted immediately after the Ijab / religious marriage and the civil registration.5. Nowadays. Whatever religion they confess.8 Ijab As it has been described above. they are wearing traditional dresses. The implementation of Ijab is in accordance with the religion of the couple. the state recognizes five existing religions: Islam. 2.

a) Ornament like mountain. the happy party takes place in the house of the bride's parents. Kembar Mayang is a kind of bouqet made of different kind of leaves mainly coconut leaves and others stuck into a banana trunk. A women from the bridegroom family walks forward and gives a Sangggan. about one meter of height. Two elderly women or two young boys bringing two Kembar Mayang. The bride accompanied by two elderly women on the right and left side walk her out of the bridal room. The bridegroom also wears special dress for this ceremony. Preceding the bride are two young girls. The couple have to appear in their best. a bouquet ornament. A mountain is high and big. Her parents and close relatives walk behind her. experience and patience. (a gift in the form of banana fruits and flowers put in a winnowing tray covered with banana leaves) to the mother of the bride. the bridegroom accompanied by his close relatives (but not his parents who are not allowed to present during the ritual traditional ceremony) arrive in the house of the bride's parents and stop in the gate of the house. . At a time set for this occasion. The bride's parent are the ones who organize the marriage ceremony. they are treated and honored by those who present in this wedding party as King and Queen of the day.46 occasion. symbolizing a man should have a lot of knowledge. As a traditional rule. as a sign of appreciation to the hostess of the ceremony. kembar mayang ornament was the wish of King Kresna during the marriage between Princess Sembadra and Harjuna of Pandawa family. It is indeed a very beautiful decoration with a broad symbolic meaning. According to wayang kulit (shadow puppet) story. each bring a fan.

the Kembar Mayang are brought outside the house and thrown out in a crossroad nearby the house. During the Panggih ceremony. d) Ornaments like umbrella. clever and wise. Used to beautify the bouquet and against evil deeds. quick in thinking and taking decisions to safe the family. meant to protect from evil spirits. meant they must be the protector of the family and society. h) i) Kruton Leaves. e) Ornaments like grasshopper. depicting all evil spirits should not disturb the ceremony in the house and its surrounding area. meant they should have a high life motivation. must be always optimistic with strong desire to build a good life. These herbs could cure infection and other desease. c) Ornaments like whips. they use to protect from evil spirits. meant the couple should not be easily desperate. symbolizing the couple should always have a clear mind and calmness to solve any problems. k) Patra manggala flowers. The couple should always protect strongly the family and other human beings. f) g) Ornaments like bird. A pair of . depicting the couple's carefulness in life. The leaves could be used as a cold compress to lower fever. Beringin leaves. Dadap srep Leaves.47 b) Ornaments like Keris. meant they should be energitic. (calm down the feeling and cool down the head) j) Dlingo Bengle.

10 Wiji Dadi The bridegroom crash an egg with his right foot and then washed by the bride using water mixed with several kinds of flowers. betel leaves have power to chase away bad spirits. it should be proved that the couple is really the genuine persons not a ghost or other person who pretends to be the bride or the bridegroom.48 Kembar Mayang put in the right and left side of the couple's chair during reception as a decoration.5. Kembar Mayang used only if the couple were unmarried before. They do it eagerly and happily and also everyone is smiling happily. 2.11 Kacar Kucur or Tampa Kaya With the help of the Pemaes. The couple approaching each other. rice. peanuts. the couple walk arm in arm or more precisely holding each other with their little finger to the site of Kacar Kucur or Tampa Kaya ritual in a chair in front of the house's Krobongan. The bridegroom gives to the bride some soybeans. when they are about three meters facing each other. The bride then is meeting the bridegroom. they stop to start with Ritual of Balangan Suruh.5. dlingo bengle herbs. corns. It depicts that the bridegroom is ready to become a responsible father and the bride should faithfully serve her husband. 2. flowers and . According to ancient belief. yellow rice. By throwing betel leaves to others. It depicts that the husband should give all his income to his wife. throwing to each other seven small bundles of betel leaves with lime inside tied with white yarn.

tempe. The Pemaes as a leader of the ceremony gives a plate and a napkin to the bride and yellow rice. The bride shall eat first and then the bridegroom.5. the quantity of coins must be even.5. the place where these rituals conducted is decorated with krobongan like ornaments.12 Dahar Klimah or Dahar Kembul They are eating together. They walk together to the place of ceremony. after that they drink sweet tea. Nowadays. as many houses have no krobongan room. soybean.13 Mertui The bride's parents pick up the parents of the bridegroom in front of the house. The ritual depicts the couple should use and enjoy their belongings together. The same if this party is held in a hotel or public building. feeding each other. The parents of the bride sit in right side of the couple. She should be a good careful housewife. The bride carefully receives these gifts in a small white cloth. The mothers walk infront.49 coins of different values. . in front of the room stand two wooden statues called Loro Blonyo. sliced fried meat (abon) and chicken's liver. This is symbolzing prosperity. the fathers accompanied from behind. The parents of the bridegroom should be seated in the left side of the couple. dishes such as fried eggs. The bridegroom makes three small balls of rice and dishes with his right hand. Krobongan or Petanen is a special room located in the centre of Dalem Javanese joglo house. 2. above an old mat which is put on her lap. 2.

and tanggap ing sasmita (the language styles.6 The Previous Relevant Studies Here.5. The red drawing in the Sindur with its curved edges would like to say that life is like a river winds thru the mountains. During the Sungkeman. It tries to examine the reflection of some concepts of Javanese cultures such as: tata krama. but those observations which had been conducted by other researcher have different subject what going to be conducted by me. the Pemaes takes out the Keris from the bridegroom. and being able to catch the hidden meaning). And those studies are: 1) The Reflection of the Javanese Cultural Concepts in the Politeness of Javanese This study was conducted by Sukarno (2010).14 Sungkeman The couple should kneel and asks a blessing from their parents. The approaches used in this study are based on politeness . andhap-asor. It should be noted that the couple's parents are wearing the same design of Batik Truntum meaning the couple should always have enough fortune for a living and they are wearing also Sindur as waist sash. there are some data presented as the result of observation which has been done by the previous researcher in the area of politeness. humbling oneself while exalting others. The parents are escorting the newlywed to walk in the real life to build a strong family.50 2. After Sungkeman. the bridegroom wears again his Keris. 2. First to the parents of the bride. then to the parents of the bridegroom.

In this data drawn from voice mail messages in a legal setting. it is almost impossible to conduct politeness in Javanese without comprehending and applying those cultural concepts. this study proves that the forms and the politeness strategies used in Javanese are really bound by the Javanese concepts. It focused on the types of politeness that used by the Javanese people in expressing politeness in daily conversation. Grice (1975. that women in talk with same-sex peers use a large number of positive-politeness strategies while men in analogous situations do not. But in some speech acts such as in refresentatives and expressives.g. they do not use negative and off-record strategies. Leech (1983). Negative strategy also do not occur in declaratives 3) The medium is the message: politeness strategies in men‘s and women‘s voice mail messages This research was done by Pamela Hobbs (2003). they do not use off-record strategies. and that women are more likely to apologize. soften criticism or express thanks than men. male speakers‘ use of . Finally. e. The finding shows that Javanese use all kinds of politeness strategies and dominantly use positive politeness in daily conversation. and Lakoff (1973. 2) Politeness strategies used by Javanese The research was done by Annisa (2009).51 theory. 1990). Researchers have reported that women pay more compliments than men. As a result. Brown and Levinson (1987). In Commisives. 1981).

an ethnographic investigation of naturally occurring apologies and politeness strategies in Cuernavaca Spanish was accomplished. Wagner (1996). The finding indicated that the French native speakers use all kinds of politeness strategies and they tend to use positive politeness strategy in expressing their apology. It employed qualitative design which aim at describing the politeness strategies and expressions of apology which are used by French native speakers. Based upon a theoretical framework of politeness and face-threatening acts (FTAs). Mexico This analysis was done by Lisa C. the basic strategies and sub-strategies .and Negative-Politeness Strategies: Apologizing in the Speech Community of Cuernavaca. and the two speakers who used the greatest number of politeness markers in individual messages were both men.‘s (1989) Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Project Coding Manual for Apologies and a corpus of (200) naturally occurring apology events. 5) Positive. Using a modified version of Blum-Kulka et al. and only by attorneys. Factors which may play a role in explaining these findings include the one-sided nature of voice mail communications and the fact that the data were generated in a legal setting and that seven of the eleven speakers were attorneys. positive politeness strategies were used almost exclusively by male speakers. Moreover. 4) Politeness strategies in apologizing by French native speakers The research was done by Tanjung (2008).52 politeness markers was roughly equal to that of women‘s.

Results from this investigation dispel Brown and Levinson‘s claim that negative politeness is the universally preferred approach for doing facework. and Off Record Strategy.and negative-politeness strategies within the apology acts were noted. and it is advocated that additional investigations of (FTAs) and politeness using culturally-sensitive models of interaction be used. including the way things are said. regardless of social distance between speaker and the addressee. Positive Politeness. Both positive. This study . 2. Politeness strategies are used to formulate messages in order to save the hearer‘s face when facethreatening acts are inevitable or desired.53 used by members of the Cuernavaca speech community to apologize for a wide range of offenses were identified and discussed.cultural matter and is crucially reflected in language. Politeness refers to whatever means are employed to display consideration for one's addressee's feelings (or face). 1987). Politeness is used to describe the extent to which actions.7 Conceptual Framework Politeness refers to socio. Negative Politeness. match addresses. perception of how they should be performed. Finally. Politeness strategies are ways to convey the utterances as polite as possible (Brown & Levinson. the findings from this sample were compared with the findings of previously conducted studies on apologizing and politeness in other varieties of Spanish. There are four types of politeness strategies which are Bald on Record.

54 investigated the types of politeness strategies used in Javanese wedding ceremony especially in some events which were Peningsetan. Midodaremi. The main aspects which were observed were the politeness strategies they use in illocutionary act in those events . Panggih dan Sungkeman.

It is empirical. which was basically interpretative research to purposefully select informants either documents or visual materials that might be the best answer to the research problem. Descriptive qualitative design is one of which the researcher takes a part in the observation. each in a unique set of contexts. what they see more than what they feel. Stake (2010) asserts that (1) qualitative research is experiential. 1982). Its contexts are described in detail. (3) It is personalistic. It makes the point that each place and time has uniqueness that works against generalization. frames of reference. working to understand individual perceptions. as the direct source of data and the researcher is the key instrument (Bogdan & Biklen. It is oriented to objects and activities. there‘s preference for 55 . And often issues are emic (emerging from the people) more than ethic (brought by researchers).CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD 3. It seeks people‘s points of view. Even in interpretations. to neither intervene nor arrange in order to get data. It emphasizes observations by participants. Its reporting provides the reader of the report with a vicarious experience. It is in tune with the view that reality is a human construction. It strives to be naturalistic. It was choosen due to qualitative research has the natural setting. (2) It is situational. It is field oriented. It means that it is empathic. value commitments.1 The Design of the Research This study applied descriptive qualitative design.

The researchers are ethical. Bogdan & Biklen (1982) asserts that descriptive means the data collected are in the form of words rather than numbers. but the researcher is more like loosely schedule traveler than the other. The data were taken from people who utter in that events. The data were taken from observation using audio visual recorder in wedding ceremony of Dina Wagiani and Oman Syahputra especially in some events which are Peningsetan (17th March 2012). disdaining grand constructs. Kelurahan Rengas Pulau. Descriptive qualitative design tries to analyze the data with all of their richness as closely as possible to the form in which they were recorded and transcribed. but a detailed set of procedure is not formed prior to data collection. This design will be used to find speech acts and politeness strategies used in Javanese wedding ceremony. The researcher is often the main research instrument.56 natural language. Panggih (15th April 2012) and Sungkeman (15th April 2012) that are held in Medan located at Jl.2 The Source of the Data The data were the transcriptions of recorded observation and interview. and the written result of the research contains quotation from the data to illustrate and substantiate the presentation. In other words. Midodaremi (14th April 2012). In a qualitative research a researcher usually does not have fixed schedule of what to be done. 3. Kecamatan Medan Marelan. the researcher enters the research with some idea about what s/he will do. The utterances were . avoiding intrusion and risk to human subjects. Marelan II Pasar IV.

.....................57 analyzed and classified based on types of illucotionary acts and politeness strategies as in the following observation sheet.. ............... ....... .. 14th April 2012 Panggih 15th April 2012 Sungkeman 15th April 2012 Directives ............. ...... ...... .. .........record .........Off.....Negative politeness ............... ... ...... ... .. ......Positive politeness .. ........ ...1 Observation Sheet No Illucotionary acts Politeness Strategies Javanese Wedding Ceremony Peningsetan Midodaremi 17th March 2012 1 Representatives 2 Bald -on record Positive politeness Negative politeness Off.. .... .... ................. .....Positive politeness ....... ... .Positive politeness .............. . ..Negative politeness .. ....... ............Bald -on record ...... .... .......... .. . ...... ..record ....... .........Negative politeness ..Off....... .... .... .............................. ...... ..................... . ........... .... .. .. ........................... ....... .............. ........................ . ............... . 4 .......... ... .......... ...... ......... ........ .. ..Bald -on record ..........record Expressives ... .. 3 ...................Bald -on record ...... .... Table 3......record Commisives ....... ...... ......... ... ....................... ....... ............................ . .................. ............ . .Positive politeness ..............Off. ................Off.................. 5 ........ . ... ............................record Declaratives .......... ............Bald -on record ....... ............... ... ......Negative politeness ..........

(a) transcribe the data from the tape recorder. . The data from observation were analyzed through the following steps.3 The Instrument of Data Collection The instruments of data collection were (1) participant observation and (2) interview.58 3. (c) verify the reason why the politeness strategy is used dominantly. The reseacher recorded the speakers‘ utterance that occured in Javanese wedding ceremony and transcribed the results of the recording. She also interviewed the participants to know the reasons why they applied the strategies. The data from the interview were analyzed through the following steps. It is due to qualitative research is naturalistic. Miles and Huberman (1984:21-25) point out that the procedures are. Bogdan and Biklen (1992:2) say that in depth interview and participant observation are common ways in qualitative research.4 The Techniques of Analyzing the Data The data were analyzed through two procedures. and (d) conclude the data. (b) classify the data. The second procedure was analyzed with reference to Miles and Huberman analysis. (a) data reduction. The first procedure of data collection was observation. 3. the first analysis is during data collection and the second is after data collection. (b) data display and (c) verification and conclusion. such as identification the kinds of illucotionary acts and politeness strategies used in Javanese Wedding Ceremony. All the data were collected then clasiffied based on the types of illucotionary acts and politeness strategies used by them.

Thirdly. at least. This is intended to create overlapping and therefore cross-validating data in the study of the politeness strategies used in Javanese wedding ceremony. 1985). space. which form the major data collection strategies for much qualitative research. Multiple data gathering were conducted to get the data valid.59 3. and documents. The technique which was applied to establish the trustworthiness of the data was triangulation. The aim of trustworthiness in a qualitative inquiry is to support the argument that the inquiry‘s findings are ―worth paying attention to‖ (Lincoln & Guba. observations. Shenton (2004) asserts that triangulation may involve the use of different methods. trustworthiness of a research study is important to evaluate its worth. such as observations and interviews. do not contradict it. methodological triangulation involves using more than one method to gather data. such as interviews. Firstly.5 Trustworthiness of the Study In qualitative research. and person. data triangulation involves time. This study used methodological triangulation. Secondly. Fourthly. focus groups and individual interviews. . Denzin (1994) identifies four basic types of triangulation. theory triangulation involves using more than one theoretical scheme in the interpretation of the phenomena. investigator triangulation involves multiple researchers in an investigation. especially observation. questionnaires. Triangulation is typically perceived to be a strategy for improving the validity of the data. Miles and Hubermen (1984) says that triangulation is supposed to support a finding by showing that independent measures of it agree with it or.

10 on pages 115-144. The data analysis can be seen as follows: 60 . Midodaremi (14th April 2012). in Midodaremi was enclosed in the appendix 3 on pages 96-100.1 The Data Analysis The data were taken from observation using audio visual recorder in Javanese wedding ceremony of Dina Wagiani and Oman Syahputra especially in Peningsetan (17th March 2012). The transcription of utterances in Peningsetan was enclosed in the appendix 2 on pages 92-95. the researcher analyzed the data by classifying politeness strategies in illucotionary acts applied by Javanese during wedding ceremony. and the transcription of utterances in Sungkeman was enclosed in the appendix 4 on pages 104-105. then the data were accumulated to obtain the dominant type of politeness strategies in illocutionary acts during the process of Javanese wedding ceremony.CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 4. The realizations of types of politeness strategies in illucotionary acts applied in Peningsetan event until Sungkeman were enclosed in the appendices 7. The researcher calculates each politeness strategy occurred in each illucotionary act. After the data were analyzed. Panggih (15th April 2012) and Sungkeman (15th April 2012). After writing the transcriptions.1. in Panggih was enclosed in the appendix 3 on pages 101-103.

36% 18.1. so that there was no misunderstanding among them.36% 100% The reason why Javanese speakers used bald – on record were to make short conversations and to make the informations clear. ladies and gentlemen? Do you still have any question? Bridegroom‘s side: ora eneng mene (No more question) The coversation above shows us that when bride‘s side asked whether bridegroom‘s side still had any question or not.1 The Occurance of Politeness Strategies in Representatives Table 4. Bride‘s side: Piye iki bapak-bapak ibu-ibu sak rombongan? Opo masih eneng seng arep di takoni meneh?(How is it. They wanted the hearer get the point of what they talked about directly. they answered baldly on record ‗ora .record strategy Number 15 16 8 5 44 Percent (%) 34.61 4.1 The Percentages of Politeness Strategies in Reprentatives No 1 2 3 4 Total Types of Politeness Strategies Bald – on record strategy Positive politeness Negative politenes Off.18% 11.09% 36. For example. As we know that wedding ceremony is a very holy occasion. so it is very important to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation between the bride‘s side and the bridegroom‘s side when they inform or describe something each other.

rich.00 A. They notice of aspects of hearer‘s condition (noticeable changes. They tried to satisfy the hearer with the information they said. and handsome.00 A.62 eneng meneh‘. remarkable possessions.M) 8) Wong berumah tangga itu. mom) 6) Iyo. the positive politeness was the dominant type of politeness strategy. They answered such that to inform that there would be no more question from bridegroom‘s side.M) 7) Ditemukenya jam 11. Other examples of Bald-on record strategy in representatives: 1) Mau sore yayuk wes mangan ( I‘ve eaten this afternoon) 2) Pengene aku intok seng apik. The javanese speakers used this type to show that the speakers and the hearers have a good relationship. pesawate kan nyampek medan jam 10. abot sanggane (It‘s hard housekeeping) 9) Bidan penganten ne wes teko (The traditional bridal beautician is here) 10) Wawak arep ngias kamare desek (Aunt wants to decorate this bedroom) to set up In representatives. For example: “Bapak ibu sak .00 (The plane will arrive in Medan at 10. anything which looks as though hearer would want speaker to notice and approve of it). 3) Iki aku sek nganggo inai (I‘m using henna now) 4) Lantaran aku isik warek (I‘m full) 5) Ora selero aku mangan mak (I don‘t want to eat.00 (They will be met at 11. koyo. raine pun ganteng ( I want to get a man who is good.

Javanese speakers used negative politeness because they didn‘t want to presume and coerce H. Mas (older brother). It deals with question no make discussion to turn the attention to hedges. For examples: “Yen menkono. I think what we talk is enought sir). . Ibu/Mak/Mbok (mother). Wawak (aunt/uncle older than one‘s parent).63 rombongan. Mutar to continue our talking a few days ago about our son marriage ―Ormansyah Putra‖ with the pretty girl. there are drinks and foods here for relieving thirst and hunger) Another way S used to show that S and H have a good relationship was by using in. Dina Wagiani). It‘s used to modify the force of speech act. second person singular ‗you‘ (kowe/sampeyan/panjenengan). Pak‖ (Such being the case. They used it because the speakers and the hearers had the superior in wedding ceremony. word or phrase that modifiers the degree of membership of a predicate or noun phrase in a set. iki wes eneng ombenan lan panganan sak enenge kanggo ngilanake roso ngelak lan ngeleh” (Ladies and gentlements. third person singular ‗he/she‘ (deweke/ piyambakipun/ panjenenganipun). For examples: ―kulo minongko wakil bapak Mutar kanggoh neruskeh opo seng di omongkeh eng dino kepungkur masalah jejodohan anakku Ormansyah Putra karo nak ayu Dina Wagiani” (I‘m a representative of Mr. Mbak/Yayuk (older sister). Other address form in Javanese include generic names and kindship terms like Bapak/ Ibu (Mr/Mrs). A hedge is a particle.group identity markers. This include in–group usage of address forms Some address form used in Javanese wedding ceremony to convey such in-group membership include first person singular ‗I‘ (kulo/ dalam). kulo pikir seng diomongin wes paripurno. Bapak/ Bopo (father).

there were some ways of performing off record by Javanese. because the use of off-record may cause a face damaging interpretation. In the case of a criticism. ora eneng lah waktune (all people here are director. and in the case of a compliment. The occurrences of negative politeness in Javanese wedding ceremony were low. or admission. It wasn‘t appropriate in wedding ceremony. so they don‘t have a lot of time). The third way was speaker understates what he/ she actually wanted to say. For example. The first was presuppose in which speaker forces hearer to search for the relevance of the presupposed prior event. That‘s why the occurrences of off-record politeness in Javanese wedding ceremony were low. Off – record was used because the S wanted to make the H relaxed and make the situation less formal. Javanese seldom used it to avoid misinterpretation. Wong nang kene podo direktur kabeh. For example. . It may redress advice or criticisms. For example. “Istilah ne.64 The examples above show the speaker was not taking full responsibility for the truth of his utterance. ora mlayu gunung dikejar dek”. Off-record strategy was the lowest strategy used to describe or inform something to other people in Javanese wedding ceremony. The second way was be ironic by saying the opposite of what he means. he/ she avoid the upper points. It happened because they seldom used these strategies in formal situation like in wedding ceremony to avoid missundertanding and conflicts with other people. However. again a violations of quality so that speaker can indirectly convey his intended meaning. If there were clues that his intended meaning is being conveyed indirectly. Based on analysis. speaker avoid the lower points of the scale.

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―Kegandengan bab kui, mulo kulo marengi bantuan ka‟ujud paribasan tiker elek, kain sak suek terus sak gengem beras, kelopo sewawar, duit seperak, minongkoh syarat lan tak jarok bisa keterimo marang bapak Somen kalau bungaheng ati”(In this time, I want to give some presents such as an ugly mat, a piece of cloth, then rice, coconut, a cent of money as requirements and I hope Mr. Somen accepts those happily). The last way was speaker used methaphor to make hearer interpret his or her intended meaning by him/ herself. For example; “Sebab ono paribahasa “sak susah-susaheng ngaangon seribu kerbo, esek lebih susah momong anak wedok siji, tumrab kebecian kanggoh keluargo”.

4.1.2 The Occurance of Politeness Strategies in Directives Table 4.2 The Percentages of Politeness Strategies in Directives No 1 2 3 4 Total Types of Politeness Strategies Bald – on record strategy Positive strategy Negative strategy Off- record strategy Number 23 38 7 2 70 Percent (%) 32.86% 54.28% 10% 2.86% 100%

In directives, the Javanese speakers used bald-on record strategy because of great urgency or desperation. They wanted the hearers fell shocked and do or response what speakers said directly. They spoke as if maximum efficiency were

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very important. For example: “Opo seng di golek i pak?”. in that question, the S want to know what the H look for. Sometime, in case of great urgency or desperation, Javanese speaker used bald on record where S‘s wanted to satify H‘s face was small, either because S was powerful and didn‘t fear retaliation, or non- cooperation from H. For example; “Seng apik yo dek!‖. The S asked her cousin to apply henna nicely on her hand. The dominant type of politeness strategy used in directives during Javanese wedding ceremony was positive strategy. The reason why Javenese applied it was because they wanted to make hearers feel comfortable so that they would be willing to do what speakers want without any pressure. For Javanese culture, they are expected to use polite language when they want to request or order something to people who have different in age, culture, and social status. That‘s why they have to be as polite as possible. For example: “Sakdoronge ayok bareng-bareng muji syukur “Alhamdullillah, karo tuhan yang moho suci lan maohi pengasih, lan penyayang seng wes wenei kenikmatan karo kulo lan kue kabeh mulo ing wektu iki iso ngompol nang omae bapak Somen”. Based on the example above, the way the S did in performing positive politeness was by including himself and the hearer as part of the act. He used an inclusive ‗we‘ form when he really meant ‗you or me‘, to call upon the cooperate asumption and thereby redress FTAs. In Javanese culture, the second person plural pronoun ‗we‘ of address is an honorific form to singular respected or distant alters. To show their possitive politeness in directive, they also use other address forms such as ‗nduk‘ (daughter), ‗mamak‘ (mother), ‗yayuk‘ (older sister), ‗abang‘ ( older

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brother), ‗dek‘ (younger sister). As a symbol of honor, they used ‗raden mas‘ to address the bridegroom and ‗kesumaning ayu‘ to address the bride. For example: “Nduk, rene mamak dulangi desek yo kue, wes bengi ngene orong mangan juga (my sweat heart, here I feed you because you don‘t eat yet). When the S asks a question, request or order, he also gives a reason why he wants to ask or request. The occurrence of negative politeness in directives was low. Javanese speakers seldom applied this strategy during wedding ceremony to avoid social distance or awkwardness in the situation. The example of negative politeness; ―Sak banjure, opo sampek kene masih eneng seng arep di takoni, Pak? (then, is still there any question, Sir?”. We can see in that example that the S was threatening the H‘s negative face which wanted to have freedom of action. The threat was the S asked the H to stop the conversations indirectly. The speaker used ‗give deference‘ (Sir) to show his/ her respect to the hearer. The percentage of off-record strategy in directive was the lowest strategy. Off-record was used because they wanted the hearers to interpret what the speakers meant. Javanese used satire to request to younger people. They used indirectness and pretence in asking because they were ashamed to ask directly. The use of offrecord may cause a misinterpretation. That‘s why the occurrences of off-record politeness in Javanese wedding ceremony were low. For example; “Ngene pak, awan lan bengi, di tangisi karo anakku Dina Wagiani nganti betah nggone ngeleh, nggone turu mungnunggu intok ngampil ujute kembar mayang utowo kasebut kembang mocowarno sak kembaran. Mulo, aku kedarangan mengupati opo seng di jalok karo anakku kui” (Sir, my daughter always cry all day, doesn‘t want to eat

4.3 The Occurance of Politeness Strategies in Commisives Table 4. I‘ll agree with you) However.1. I try to find what my daughter wants).63% 100% The Javanese used bald -on record in commisives because they wanted to promise and agree with Hs‘ opinions directly.00 AM).37% 52. Hearer : ―yen mengkono kulo manut wae” ( Ok.00 pagi” (Ijab kabul will be held on Saturday. During wedding ceremony.68 and sleep because of her enthusiasm to have Kembar Mayang or Kembang Monco Warno. Insya Allah ijab kabul meniko bade katindakaken ing sasi besar dintenipun Sabtu pon enjang tanggal 14 April 2012 saatipun jam 10. 14th April 2012 at 10.record strategy Number 9 10 19 Percent (%) 47. positive politeness was the dominant type. They didn‘t speak a lot to save time. Javanese used this strategy to stress his agreement with H and therefore . The example below shows that H expressed his agreement to the S briefly ‗yen mengkono kulo manut wae‟.3 The Percentages of Politeness Strategies in Commisives No 1 2 3 4 Total Types of Politeness Strategies Bald – on record strategy Positive strategy Negative strategy Off. For example: Speaker : “Iyo.

The researcher also found that in promising someone. Negative politeness and off-record strategies didn‘t occur in commisives during Javanese wedding ceremony. That‘s why they use ‗insyaallah‘.4 The Occurance of Politeness Strategies in Expressives Table 4. ―Injih buk. Insyaallah aku tindaake” (Yes. “Lantaran wes intok dino seng dipileh kanggoh keluarga kine. mulo kulo soko calon keluarga besan setuju lan tetap melu opo seng arep dilaksanake” (Because the girl‘s family already decided the day.1.67% 68. They‘re not appropriate to be used in that occasion. Javanese speakers didn‘t use off-record strategies to avoid ambigious meaning of the utterances. as the man‘s family. Javanese mixed their language with Arabic ‗insyaallah‘ to show their religion identity as moslem. For example. For example.69 to satisfy H‘s desire to be ‗right‘ or to be corroborated in his opinions.record strategy Number 12 31 2 45 Percent (%) 26.4 The Percentages of Politeness Strategies in Expressives No 1 2 3 4 Total Types of Politeness Strategies Bald – on record strategy Positive strategy Negative strategy Off.89% 4. we agree and follow what to do) Javanese also used this strategy to satisfy the hearers‘ wants by promising them. I‘ll do it).44% 100% . 4. insya Allah. They worried if they couldn‘t keep their promise.

―Wa‟allaikum salam. they showed . they attempt to show their respect and their simpathy of what the hearers did. matur nuhun karo bapak Sumen seng susah-susah teko wenehi anteran sak monoakehe. and praising. they seem really regreet to their guilty and attempt to be closer with addressee. Javanese used these stategies to welcome. to excuse. “kulo nuwun.. ‗Alhamdullillah. tindak tanduk lan kabeh kekurangan ngngone nindaake acoro panggih temanten iki”. “Matur nuwun” (thank you) 3. In thanking. For examples: 1. assalamualaikum) 2. to thank and to praise of god.. thanks and praise of God because they attempt to make hearers feel much respected. This nicely illustrates the way in which respect for face involves mutual orientation. they showed their entreaties.g.g. This use of bald on record was oriented to face. in praising of god. In excusing. In welcoming. thanking. e. The second sentence can be used as an offer e. In apologizing. ―Nangen sak durunge aku jalok ijin bok menowo ono kesalahan.. It as an invitation to the hearer which feels reluctant so that the hearer will feel less reluctant because of the invitation.70 Javanese applied bald-on record to express their feeling clearly and directly. so that each participant attempts to foresee what the other participant is attempting to foresee. assalamualaikum” (excuse me. During the process of wedding ceremony. It described the very polite attitude. Then. The Javanese implied this strategy in expressing apology. ―Amin. e. kulo sak kluarga ora bisa wenehi pinwales‟.amin” (may it be so) Positive politeness was the dominant type of politeness strategy used in expressives. monggoh Pak!.g..

.g. ―Alhamdullillah. It‘s used to apologize for doing an FTA. The use of negative politeness was very low. the most gracious and the most merciful for blessing me and you all so that we can meet in the house of Mr.71 their faithfulness to Allah. It occured because of her want to have her fredom of action unhindered and her attention unimpeded. For instance. “Mamak iki kok ngono sih ngomonge‖ (You shouldn‘t say like that. mom) . It‘s not appropriate to be used in that occasion because it may cause misinterpretation of someone‘s feeling. e. For instance. Somen). However. However. Javanese didin‘t use off-record strategy in expressives during the process of Javanese wedding ceremony. ―hanangeng sak durunge kulo jalok maaf mbok menowoh mengkoh ono kesalahan toto kromo enggoh neh ngomong‖ (I want to applologize if there is a mistake in my speaking). Javanese seldom used it during wedding ceremony because it‘s not polite in their culture. This strategy was also used to express the S‘s dislike. The S indicated his reluctance to impinge on H‘s negative face and thereby partially redress that impingement. karo tuhan yang moho suci lan maohi pengasih. lan penyayang seng wes wenei kenikmatan karo kulo lan kue kabeh mulo ing wektu iki iso ngompol nang omae bapak Somen” (Alhamdullillah to Allah.

when Pameas represented the Bride saying “ Kakang mas sembah bekti kulo katur dumateng panjenengan ingkang bade kulo suwitani”.5 The Occurance of Politeness Strategies in Declaratives Table 4.record strategy Number 4 8 12 Percent (%) 33. Positive politeness was the dominant type of politeness strategy when Javanese declare something during wedding ceremony. Insya Allah ijab kabul meniko bade katindakaken ing sasi besar dintenipun Sabtu pon enjang tanggal 14 April 2012 . ―Iyo.1. The answer declares briefly that he accept bride‘s respect. the respond was “ tak tompo bektimu sebagai garwoku. It‘s applied to save time.72 4. They tried to minimize the distance between them by expressing friendliness and solid interest in the hearers‘ need to be respected. It is used because they avoid the hearers to be shocked with the declaration. For example.67% 100% Bald -on record strategy was used in cases of non-minimization of the face threatening acts. nimas” (I accept your respect as my wife).33% 66. For example. In this case. Javanese wanted to declare something briefly to keep maximum efficiency.5 The Percentages of Politeness Strategies in Declaratives No 1 2 3 4 Total Types of Politeness Strategies Bald – on record strategy Positive strategy Negative strategy Off.

6 The Total of Politeness Strategies No 1 2 3 4 Total Types of Politeness Strategies Bald – on record strategy Positive strategy Negative strategy Off.6 The Total of Politeness Strategies Table 4.95% 3. Positive politeness was the domintant type of Politeness strategies in all of speech acts during Peningsetan.record strategy Number 63 103 17 7 190 Percent (%) 33.00 AM).73 saatipun jam 10. Panggih and Sungkeman.00 pagi” (Ijab kabul will be held on Saturday. Negative strategy was not used by Javanese speaker in Declaratives during the process of Javanese wedding ceremony to maintain harmony between bride‘s family and bridegroom‘s family. Midodaremi. They endeavor to maintain social harmony . 14th April 2012 at 10.68% 100% The participants of Javanese wedding ceremony applied all the types of Politeness strategies. 4. Javanese didn‘t use off-record to avoid ambiguity and obscurity which may cause a conflict between both families.1.21% 8.16% 54. It‘s used because Javanese people always try to satisfy the hearer and avoid conflicts with other people.

The participants of Javanese wedding ceremony used all politeness strategies which are bald-on record. 2. 4. they used all of politeness strategies. negative politeness and offrecord strategies. In commisives and declaratives. The most dominant type of politeness strategies used was positive politeness strategy. 1. They seldom used off-record to avoid ambiguity and obscurity which may cause a conflict between both families. in refresentatives and directives. even to any degree. Whenever S wants to do the FTA with maximum efficiency more than he want to satisfy H‘s face. he will choose the bald –on record strategy. positive politeness. They also applied it to get closer to the hearer so there was no distance relationship between them. . they didn‘t apply negative politeness and off-record.2 The findings After analyzing the use of Politeness strategies in Javanese wedding ceremony. In applying speech acts during Javanese wedding ceremony. they didn‘t apply offrecord.74 between bride‘s family and bridegroom‘s family during wedding ceremony. however. the participants didn‘t use all politeness strategies. Then. In expressives. they used bald on record to keep maximum efficiency and save the time. Javanese speakers seldom applied negative politeness to avoid social distance or awkwardness between both famillies in the situation. the finding were as the following.

Panggih and Sungkeman event. especially in Peningsetan. The using of all politeness strategies in Javanese wedding ceremony. For example. It means that bride and bridegroom are regarded with respect as a king and a queen. and Off Record Strategy. there are four types of politeness strategies which are Bald on Record. the researcher can disscuss on: 1. then to address the bride. in their utterances. The use of address forms has a superior meaning.75 3. Then. bridegroom. to utter some speech acts. Javanese speakers seldom applied negative politeness to avoid social distance or awkwardness in the situation. Positive politeness was used because they endeavor to maintain social harmony and solidarity between bride‘s family and bridegroom‘s family and avoid conflicts with them.3 Discussion After describing all the data found from the field. During javanese weddding ceremony. Javanese applied all . Midodaremi. bride‘s kin and bridegroom‘ kin use some address forms as symbol of honor. Positive Politeness. In Javanese wedding ceremony. Javanese apply politeness strategy during wedding ceremony for some reasons. 4. they use ‗kesumaning ayu‘. They seldom used off-record to avoid ambiguity and obscurity which may cause a conflict between both families. According to Brown and Levinson (1987). they use as a symbol of honor which is addressed to the ‗raden bagus‘. Negative Politeness. they used bald on record to keep maximum efficiency and save the time.

The first is by using hedge. Positive politeness was the dominant type of politeness stategies used in those events. In Javanese culture. ‗yayuk‘ (older sister). the second person plural pronoun ‗we‘ of address is an honorific form to singular respected or distant alters. The way of performing bald-on record is by showing maximum efficiency or great urgency or desperation. to excuse. It‘s used to modify the force of speech act. Another use of bald on record is oriented to face.group identity markers. The second way is S tries to show that S and H have a good relationship by using in. to call upon the cooperate asumption and thereby redress FTAs. As a symbol of honor.76 types of politeness strategies. There are some ways in applying positive politeness by Javanese. to thank and to praise of god They are some ways of performing negative politeness. word or phrases those modifiers the degree of membership of a predicate or noun phrase in a set. The second one was bald-on record. They notice of aspects of hearer‘s condition (noticeable changes. Then negative politeness and off-record were the lowest. He uses an inclusive ‗we‘ form when he really meant ‗you or me‘. ‗dek‘ (younger sister). Another way is Javanese used this strategy to stress his agreement with H and therefore to satisfy H‘s desire to be ‗right‘ or to be corroborated in his opinions. anything which looks as though hearer would want speaker to notice and approve of it). It deals with question no make discussion to turn the attention to hedges. To show their possitive politeness in directive. Javanese used these stategies to welcome. The . ‗bopo‘ (father). they also use other address forms such as ‗nduk‘ (daughter). ‗kakanda‘ ( older brother). remarkable possessions. A hedge is a particle. they used ‗raden mas‘ to address the bridegroom and ‗kesumaning ayu‘ to address the bride.

it‘s not appropriate to use negative and off-record when you promise. If there were clues that his intended meaning is being conveyed indirectly. The second way is be ironic by saying the opposite of what he means.record strategies were not used by them in Declaratives. There is no occurrence of negative politeness and off-record in some speech acts. speaker avoids the lower points of the scale. The third way is speaker understates what he/ she actually wanted to say. they didn‘t use negative politeness and off-record strategies. When Javanese uttered representatives and directives. Negative strategy is not used by Javanese speaker in . In expressives. or agree with somebody because it seems that you‘re not sure whether you can keep your promise. or whether you really agree with them so that it may cause a conflict between bride‘s kin and bridegroom‘s kin. The threat was the S asked the H to stop the conversations indirectly. negative strategy and off. they didn‘t use off-record strategy because it may cause misinterpretation of someone‘s feeling. There are some ways of performing off record by Javanese. he/ she avoid the upper points. In wedding ceremony. again a violations of quality so that speaker can indirectly convey his intended meaning. and in the case of a compliment. Then. However. or admission. swear. In commisives. The first is presuppose in which speaker forces hearer to search for the relevance of the presupposed prior event. 2. In the case of a criticism. they used all types of politeness strategies. The speaker used ‗give deference‘ (Sir) to show his/ her respect to the hearer.77 second way is S threatens the H‘s negative face which wanted to have freedom of action.

The Javanese cite marriage as ideal examples of the value of 'Harmony'. They used bald on record to . so there was no distance between them. That‘s why Javanese usually can interact and communicate easely with other ethnics. The pattern of the politeness strategies used in Javanese are really influenced by the Javanese concepts such as: tata krama. humbling oneself while exalting others. andhap-asor. They also applied it to make both families get closer each other. The amount of hard work and expense that go into holding such a ceremony would be backbreaking without the cooperation of kin and neighbours. and being able to catch the hidden meaning). 3. and tanggap ing sasmita (the language styles. combine into a group. 'harmony' thus serves the purpose both of individual material needs and social integration. It means that Javanese interact with each other. not just for the sake of group solidarity. It can be said that politeness of Javanese people is influenced by their culture. which Geertz translates as 'traditionalised cooperation'.78 Declaratives during the process of Javanese wedding ceremony to maintain harmony between bride‘s family and bridegroom‘s family and they didn‘t use off-record to avoid ambiguity and obscurity which may cause a conflict between both families. They endeavor to maintain social harmony and solidarity in community especially between both families. There are some reasons of using politeness strategies Positive politeness was used because Javanese people always try to satisfy the hearer and avoid conflicts with other people. but their own material interests as well.

the fact is nowadays. As we know that. namely Ngoko. Javanese speakers seldom applied negative politeness during wedding ceremony to avoid social distance or awkwardness in the occasion. some Javanese speakers in Medan use Ngoko in wedding ceremony. based on Javanese culture. However. By contrast. such as elders to younger people or bosses to subordinates. the researcher found that the reason why Javanese in Medan use Ngoko is because they want to make all people undertand they say. they use of Ngoko now is not to show the impoliteness but to show intimacy or solidarity. Most of Javanese in Medan also switch or mix their language use from Javanese to Indonesia and from Javanese to Arabic. there are basically three speech levels in Javanese (Poedjosoedarmo. Ngoko is simplier to be understood than Krama or Madya. uneducated or impolite. It belong to the priyayi. They seldom used off-record to avoid ambiguity and obscurity which may cause a conflict between both families.79 keep maximum efficiency and save the time. The choice of Ngoko style would be regarded as rude. Krama is not appropriate to be used again nowadays especially in Medan. 1979). The result of interview recorded from participants. There is a deviation about the use of Javanese speech levels in Javanese society especially in Medan. Madya and krama. the elite Javanese group or Kraton people and oldest people in Java. 4. Ngoko is lower level of Javanese speech that is used between friends and close relatives and by persons of higher status to persons of lower status. The reason is .

or sentences used when people talk. national ceremonies. Thus the hierarchical social level can still be revealed through the choice of words. Codeswitching from Javanese to Arabic is used to show their religion identity as a moslem and to represent their obedience to God. and when talking to strangers or other Indonesians who are not close. Indeed it is difficult to find Javanese people nowadays especially in Medan who speak pure Javanese in their communication. phrases. conferences. The daily interaction is more often conducted in a mixture of Indonesian and Javanese. offices. . with Indonesian being used on more formal occasions such as in classrooms.80 because people have more freedom in expressing themselves in Indonesian than when they have to use Javanese.

They endeavor to maintain social harmony and solidarity between them during wedding ceremony. They also applied it to make both families get closer each other. 1) All politeness strategies were used in Javanese wedding ceremony. In commisives and declaratives. 81 . the conclusions were stated as the following. It was used because Javanese people always try to satisfy the hearer and avoid conflicts with other people. bride‘s kin and bridegroom‘ kin use some address forms as symbol of honor. 3) Negative politeness and off-record strategies were not used in some speech acts which Javanese utteranced. they didn‘t apply negative politeness and off-record. Based on the analysis. In applying some speech acts.record strategies. they didn‘t apply offrecord.CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5. positive politeness. 2) The most dominant type of politeness strategies used in Javanese wedding ceremony was positive politeness strategy. negative politeness and off.1 Conclusions The study concernced on politeness strategies used by the participants of the Javanese wedding ceremony which aim at describing the utterances used by the people who involve in that ceremony. They were bald-on record. so there was no distance between them. In expressives.

and tanggap ing sasmita (the language styles. humbling oneself while exalting others. It means that Javanese always try to be polite in speaking with other people. to compare Javanese with other regional cultures 2) Futher research needs to be conducted to different cultural ceremony to enrich the researchers and the reader knowledge in the field of politeness strategies. and being able to catch the hidden meaning). So. especially Javanese culture. andhap-asor. 3) The forms and the politeness strategies used in Javanese are really influenced by the Javanese concepts such as: tata krama. suggestions are offered as the following.82 5. 1) It is suggested that lecturers of sociolinguistics should give attention not only to foreign cultures but also to the cultures of vernacular.2 Suggestions In relation to the conclusions. . It is suggested that we can adopt the use of politeness strategies that Javanese use.

V & Clark. Cambridge Mass: Havard University Press.S. Bogdan. Psychology and language. 2009. 1962. Pragmatics and discourse: A Research Book for Students. Unpublished M. 1989. 2002. Handbook of qualitative research. Brown. B.htm. Chen. Austin. Clark. J.REFERENCES Agus. 1978. How to do things with words. Politeness strategies used by Javanese.com/agus/agus1. S. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geertz.A. A. Allan. 1987. S. Linguistics terms & concept. Annisa. Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press. E. 83 . The religion of Java. Structure and style in Javanese: A semiotic view of Linguistic etiquette. J.Hum Thesis. Harcourt Brace: Jovanich publishers. Cruse. 2000. H. & Astri A. L. Cutting. & Levinson. computational linguistics. 2011 on http://buletin. Politeness. W. Y. C. Boston: Allan and Bacon. Medan: English Applied Linguistic Study Program. Oxford text books in linguistics semantic analysis. Denzin. Browsed on December 5. C. 1977. an introduction to psycholinguistics. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.1960. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. & Lincoln. 1986. P. J. R. Qualitative research for education (2nd ed). London: Macmillan Press Ltd. N. (1988). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. National Tsing Hua University. Oxford: Oxford University Press.tripod. Errington. Functional uncertainty and topicalization. (Develops the distinction between performative and constative utterances into the first systematic account of speech acts).. S. State University of Medan. 2009. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.H. London: Longman. 1994. Face threatening act. G. Fraser. some universal in language usage. 1990. Lingustic politeness in Javanese. & Biklen. Finch. 1982.K. Meaning in language: an Introduction to semantics and pragmatics.

E. A. H. Positive. Morand. Grundy. ELT Journal Volume 54/4. Lincoln. 2010.. London: Longman. (2003). Kess. Principles of pragmatics.jpnn. 1992. J. Cambridge. Studies in the way of words. Magnis-Suseno.M. Mexico. G. Kuntjara. P. . 1996. The relationship between culture and language. 1986. D. Beverly Hills. S. 2001. S. Holmes. Suku Bangsa di Indonesia. Etika Jawa : sebuah analisa falsafah tentang kebijaksanaan hidup Jawa.84 Grice. 1984. Browsed on 9th May. & Huberman.: Harvard University Press.php?mib=berita. Doing pragmatics. & Cuba. New York: E. Mass. 328-334: Oxford University Press. Naturalistic inquiry. Gender in Javanese Indonesian. J. An Introduction to sociolinguistics. G. Wagner. Journal of Pragmatics 35 (2003) 243–262. International Journal of Organizational Analysis. Politeness as a universal variable in cross-cultural managerial communication. 1995.. 1985. Esther. 1983.com/index. Heriawan.detail&id=57455 Hobbs. Gender and politeness. 1996. Amsterdam: Benyamin Publishing Press.B. R. Psycholinguistics and study of natural language. Y. W. California: Sage Publication. Mexico: University of Louisville. Jiang. CA: Sage Mills. Surabaya: Petra Christian University Leech. Longman: London and New York. Arnold. P. The medium is the message: politeness strategies in men‟s and women‟s voice mail messages. on http://www. Lisa C. A. 1987. 2003. Bowling Green Miles. F. 1984. Jakarta : PT Gramedia. 2000. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Qualitative data analysis. M.and negative-politeness strategies: apologizing in the speech community of Cuernavaca.

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Negoro, S.S. 1997. Traditional Javanese wedding ceremony. Browsed on December 15, 2001 on http://jagadkejawen.com/en/ritual/traditionaljavanese-wedding-ceremonies. Poedjsoedarma, S. 1979. Tingkat tutur bahasa Jawa. Jakarta : Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa. Shenton, K. A. 2004. Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for Information 22 (2004) 63–75 63. IOS Press. Shigemitsu, Y. (2003). ‗An Argument Culture and Harmonious Culture: Tactics in Talk Exchanges‟. Journal of Academic Report. Vol. 25. Tokyo Institute of Polytechnics. Stake, E. R. 2010. Qualitative research: studying how things work. USA: The Guilford Press. Sukarno. 2010. The reflection of the Javanese cultural concepts in the politeness of Javanese. Journal, Volume 12 No 1 (2010). English Department, Faculty of Letters, Jember University. Tanjung, N. K. 2008. Politeness strategies in apologizing by French native speakers. Unpublished M.Hum Thesis. Medan: English Applied Linguistic Study Program, State University of Medan. Ting-Toomey, S. and Cocroft, B. K. (1994). Facework in Japan and the United States. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18, 469–506 Thomas, J. 1983. Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. New York: Basil Blackwell. Wardhaugh, R. 1986. An introduction to sociolinguistics. New York: Basil Blackwell. Yule, G. 1998. Pragmatics. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

APPENDICES

Appendix 1. The Picture of Javanese Wedding Ceremony Oman Syahputra and Dina Wagiani

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Picture 1 Peningsetan

Picture 2 Tarub Decoration

88 Picture 3 Midodaremi Picture 4 Ijab Kabul .

89 Picture 5 Panggih or Temu penganten Picture 6 Wiji Dadi .

90 Picture 7 Kacar Kucur or Tampa Kaya Picture 8 Dahar Klimah or Dahar Kembul .

91 Picture 9 Mertui Picture 10 Sungkeman .

lan penyayang seng wes wenei kenikmatan karo kulo lan kue kabeh mulo ing wektu iki iso ngompol nang omae bapak Somen. mulo kulo marengi bantuan ka‘ujud paribasan tiker elek. Transcript of Utterances in Peningsetan Ucapan pihak lanang: Assallamualaikum wr. wa ala ali muhammad. mulo kulo soko calon keluarga besan setuju lan tetap melu opo seng arep dilaksanake. 92 . Mugo –mugo Seng gone ngumpul iki tetep intuk berkat lan kaijinane. hanangeng sak durunge kulo jalok maaf mbok menowoh mengkoh ono kesalahan toto kromo enggoh neh ngomong. minongkoh syarat lan tak jarok bisa keterimo marang bapak Somen kalau bungaheng ati. Wong-wong tuo seng bener-bener tak hormati lan porolawu seng dimuliake . ―Permisi. Lantaran wes intok dino seng dipileh kanggoh keluarga kine. kelopo sewawar. karo tuhan yang moho suci lan maohi pengasih. Mugo –mugo akehing kirim syalawat nan salam kanggo lan desan keikhlasan kulo lan kue kabeh tetep intuk salfaateh ing dunyo nanti ing akhirat.Appendix 2. Ora lali wenei syalawat lan salam karo nabi kito salalaahwaallahisalam. duit seperak. Kulo minongko wakil bapak Mutar kanggoh neruskeh opo seng di omongkeh eng dino kepungkur masalah jejodohan anakku Ormansyah Putra karo nak ayu Dina wagiani. Monggoh diterimo. Kegandengan bab kui. Sakdoronge ayok bareng-bareng muji syukur ― alhamdullillah. kain sak suek terus sak gengem beras. poro sahabat lan pengikute ―allahumasolliallah muhammad. pak?‖. wb. sak kluargo. Jalok ijin ngomong karo wong-wong tuo seng bener tak hormati lan poro lawuh seng dimuliake.

Jawaban pihak wedok: ―Iyo. kulo sak kluarga ora bisa wenehi piwales. masih eneng seng arep di takoni. yen mengkono kulo manut wae. matur nuhun karo bapak Mutar seng susah-susah teko wenehi anteran sak monoakehe. Amin-amin y rabbal alamin‖. Sebab ono paribasan ―sak susah-susaheng ngaangon seribu kerbo. Kepi‘e pak?‖. tumrab kebecian kanggoh keluargo. Tanggapan pihak lanang: ―Iyo.00 pagi. hanangeng kulo pasrahke karo allah stw yang moho agung wenehi piwales kan akeh sopo peparenging bapak Mutar sekuarga. esek lebih susah momong anak wedok siji. Sak banjure Insya Allah acara resepsi bade katindakaken minggu tanggal 15 April 2012. sak banjure jalok katerangan kiro-kiro kapan lan wektune seng arep nindaake ijab kabul anak-anak kito kui?. matur nuwom. Insya Allah ijab kabul meniko bade katindakaken ing sasi besar dintenipun Sabtu pon enjang tanggal 14 April 2012 saatipun jam 10. Pak? ― Tanggapan pihak lanang: ―Piye iki bapak-bapak ibu-ibu sak rombongan? Opo masih eneng seng arep di takoni meneh?‖. opo sampek kene.mugo acarane biso kasembadan seng apik. Mugo-mugo kabeh seng arep di tindake bisoo kasembadan. luberono kanugerahan di hadohake songko bebolo‖. . Jawaban pihak wedok: ―Amin ya rabbal alamin. Sak banjure. mugo. Tanggapan pihak lanang: ―Matur nuwum podo-podo.93 Jawaban pihak wedok: ―Alhamdullillah.

Sang uwese ngombeh lan mangan kue.94 Sak rombongan : ―ora eneng‖. hanamung kulo pasrah ke karo Gusti Kang Moho Agung mugo wenehi piwales sak akeh-akehe kabeh peparenge Bapak Somen. Pihak wedok : ―Yo wes pak. mulo pihak lanang ngomong : ―Kulo sak rombongan ngaturke panuwun karo Bapak Somen. nek memang wes jelas. iki wes eneng ombenan lan panganan sak enenge kanggo ngilanake roso ngelak lan ngeleh. Jawaban pihak lanang: ― jelas―(Sak rombongan). ―Yen menkono. Rehdene wes cukup suwih enggone ngumpul iki kulo sak rombongan jalok pamet sebab isih akeh kewajiban seng arep di tindaake lan sak baline kulo sak rombongan tansah kendad panjalok ku. Semono ugo kulo jalok pangestu mugo -mugo kulo sak rombongan selamet nganti omae dewe-dewe. Wes ora eneng lagi seng arep di takoni neng pihak lanang‖. monggoh‖. nggonku ngomong mbok menowoh ono kesalahan tindak tanduk nggonku ngomong . lan kulo sak rombongan rumongsoh ora biso wenehi piwales kabeh pepareng soko Bapak Somen . Mugo-mogo mengko acoro resepsine biso kasembadan di adohnoh sambikolo. mulo di sumanggaake di ombeh lan di pangan. Kulo sak rombongan wes disambut kanti bungaheng manah lan wes di wenehi sesuguhan panganan seng enak. Mbok menowo cokop sak mene. Pak. Bapak ibu sak rombongan. kulo pikir seng diomongin wes paripurno. Tanggapan pihak wedok: ―Wes jelas kan Pak? Buk?‖.

Wassalamualaikum Wr. Akhirukalam. Kulo jalok pangapuro mbok menowo ono kekurangane nggone pareng sambutan jagongan lan sesuguhan. kulo jalok karo bapak al –ustad H. Semonggoh‖. kulo sak kaluargo ugo ngaturake panuwun sek akeh-akehe karo keluargo Bapak Mutar sak rombongan.Wb‖. Mangun. . Mbok menowoh wes paripurno enggoheh ngomong lan kanggoh berkaheng ketemon iki.95 kulo jalok pangapuro karo Gusti Kang Moho Agung lan poro wong tuo sak kabehe. Pihak wedok: ―Sami sami pak. gelem mimpin dungo selamet.

Transcript of Utterances in Midodaremi Tebus kembar mayang Bapak Somen: ― Kulo nuwun. opo panjenangan kuat sebab sarate abot. kulo kedarangan mengupati opo seng di jalok karo anakku kui. opo iki seng di jenengke kampung Marelan Pak? ― seng dueni kembar mayang: ― nek ora kleru iki kampung Marelan pak.Pak ? 96 . awan lan bengi. assalamuallaikum ― seng dueni kembar mayang: ―wa‘alaikumsallam. banyu suci.Appendix 3. kepiye pak? Bapak Somen: ―iyo . lan duit seket ewu. Mulo. pa ngorepan. monggo Pak!‖ Pak somen : ―Arep takon. seng dueni kembar mayang: ― yo ngono kulo dueni opo seng di karep ake kaujud kembang mayang utowo kembang monco warno sak kembaran. anangeng kui duek‘e raden komo joyo lan dewi ratih. ― Kepiye pak? panjenengan sagah . abot-abote di sambat sebuti anak seng tak tresnani lulusing batin ― seng dueni kembar mayang: ―iyo. di tangisi karo anakku Dina Wagiani nganti betah nggone ngeleh. yen mengkono sarate keranjang pengareng-ngareng isen-isene kabeh pepanengan ing jagad royo. nggone turu mungnunggu intok ngampil ujute kembar mayang utowo kasebut kembang mocowarno sak kembaran. koyo ngopo abote kulo sanggup. Opo seng di golek i pak‖ Pak Somen: ― ngene pak.

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Pak Somen: ― ya, iki tak wenekno sarate, monggoh di terimo? Bebonananipun Kaujud : - Kranjang isen - isenipun Kambil, gedang Rojo ,beras ,kuweh,bedak pengilo,sisir,jarum,pisau ,bunga rampe dan kain putih - Kutuk - Degan - Uang seng dueni kembar mayang: ― ya, yen mengkono kembar mayang utowo kembang monco warno kui tak wenekno mugo-mugo penjaloke Dina Wagiani iku kaleksanan. Lan, kulo jalok seng gowo kembar mayam utowo kembang monco warno iku kuduh bocah seng eseh gadis, lan seng eseh joko. Sakteruse mogo-mugo, mengko nank ayu Dina Wagiani, ka‘apit poro widodari ing acoro panggih kemanten Pak Somen: ―iyo, Insha Allah arep tak tindak ake. Matur nuwun‖

Ing wengi iki

Ing ndalu midodareni poro sanak kadang kaluargo Bapak

Somen sampun makempal wonten ndalemipun Bapak Somen. Dina‘s cousin : ―Yuk, iki wes dadi inai‘e, arek di enggeh sak iki opo mengko bengi?‖ Dina : ―Iyo dek, makasih ya. sak iki wae lah‖.

Dina‘s cousin : ―Wes mangan yuk? Mangan desek wae, mengko ora repot‖.

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Dina

: ―Mau sore yayuk wes mangan. Ora opo-opo sak iki wae nganggene‖.

Dina‘s cousin : ―Yo wes kalau ngono, aku enggoke yo sak iki yo?‖. Dina : ―Iyo. Seng apik ya dek!. ati-ati yo, ojo belepotan‖.

Dina‘s cousin : ―Iyo yuk‖ Dina : ―Mengko elek kan aku isin‖.

Dina‘s cousin : ―yuk, kepiye perasaan riko, deg-deg kan ora?‖ Dina : ―Ya iyo lah, iki kan sekali sak umur oripku dek. Ya, doake ae moga moga sesok lancar –lancar, ora eneng halangan opo-opo‖. Dina‘s cousin : ―Aku pun arep ngusul golek bojo juga yuk. Doake yo yuk, men aku cepet intok jodoh. Golek jodoh seng kepiye ya yuk? Pengene aku intok seng apik, koyo, raine pun ganteng‖. Dina : ―Sabar ae, mengko nemu iku riko, dek. Istilah ne, ―ora mlayu gunung dikejar‖ dek. Nek wes jodohne, ora di golek‘i pun, mengko teko‖. Dina‘s cousin : ―Amin,,,amin..Kepiye yuk kok riko iso intok jodoh seng apik kek abang iku?‖ Dina: : ―Yo wes mengko kue tak goleke seng kek ngono, nek memang kue gelem‖. Dina‘s cousin : ―Golekkan sek apik lah yuk‖ Dina : ―Iyo‖

Dina‘s mother : ―Nduk, rene mamak dulangi desek yo kue, wes bengi ngene orong mangan juga‖.

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Dina

: ―Iyo mak,, iki aku sek nganggo inai. Yo wes Mak, tapi sak iti wae ya mak. Lantaran aku isik warek. Ora selero aku mangan mak‖.

Dina‘s mother : ―Iyo, sak iti wae‖. Dina : ―Oh ya mak,,wes di jokok opo orong mak kembar mayange?‖

Dina‘s mother : ―Iyo ewes lah, mau kan bapakmu seng rono‖ Dina : ―Jam piro sesok temu pengantene mak?‖

Dina‘s mother : ―Ditemukenya jam 11.00. Dadi wes ditemuke, langsung marhaban. Dadi rampunge iku sak orong zuhur. Nah wes iku, kan ora eneng masalah meneh, nerimok tamu pun enak‖. Dina : ―Sesok, dadi ora mak wak atik teko? Ngomonge kan wak atik arep teko?‖ Dina‘s mother : ―Iyo, pesawate kan nyampek medan jam 10.00. kiro-kiro paling jam 11 san lah de‘e nyampek rene‖. Dina : ―Oh,,,, bareng sopo wak atik ma?‖

Dina‘s mother : ―Wak atik wae lah,ongkose larang tenan, ora eneng lah duite‖. Dina : ―Iyo lah mak, aku pun ngerti. Wes gelem teko ae de‘e, wes syukur alhamdulillah kan. Oh iyo mak, si putra nandi mak? Wes mangan orong ya? Kasihan tenan de‘e, dari awan wes bantu-bantu‖. Dina‘s mother : ―Iku de‘e di luar ngomong-ngomong karo bapakmu lan poro wong –wong tuo. wong-wong seng arep kenduri pun masih sitik seng teko, Dadi kendurine orong iso lah di mulai. Wong nang kene podo direktur kabeh, podo ora eneng lah waktune‖.

Dina : ―Iyo wak. aku jalok sek adekku mindahin iki‖. Dina : ―Oh wes dek. Pameas Dina Pameas : ―Wes rampung kan? Wawak arep ngias kamare desek‖. abot sanggane. Dina‘s sister : ―Iyo yuk‖. Oya. Tolong yo disingkirke desek nduk barang-barang seng ora penting ben kamare enggak semak‖. : ―Wes wak‖. Dina‘s sister : ―iyo‖. langgeng sampek tuo‖. apik-apik lah kue dadi bojone mengko. .. harus di musyawarake karo wong tuwo. opo seng mamak saranke mau. aku pun pengene rumah tangga ku apik-apik wae mak. jadi baru jam saiki iso teko nang kene. Dek tolongin yayuk yo angkatin barang iki‖. Dina‘s sister : ―Uda selesai yuk? bidan penganten ne wes teko‖. sedilok neh pasti teko‖. Ikulah kata-kata wong tuwo seng kue harus inget. Kok sui tenan tekone wak? : ―Wawak tadi eneng kerjaan nang kawinanne uwong nduk. Wong berumah tangga itu. meridhoi rumah tanggamu Dina : ―Iyo mak. suruh masuk ae‖. Nak kue enggak sabarsabar. asal eneng masalah opopun. Mugo-mugo gusti allah. hancur semuane.100 Dina : ―Mamak iki kok ngono sih ngomonge. Dina : ―Makasih yo dek‖. seng akur –akur wae rumah tanggamu. ojo gaduh-gaduh kue karo bojomu. Lah iki pun masih jam piro loh mak. Dina‘s mother : ―Nduk. ya abis lah. aku inget.

Disini hajat bapak dan ibu menikahkan dan mengawinkan putrinya Dina Wagiani dengan Oman Syahputra.Appendix 4. Bapak-bapak utawi Ibu-ibu lan poro rawuh seng kinurmatan kulo minongko wakili bapak Somen arek nindaake acoro panggih temanten tumrappe kabudayan Jowo.Waala ali Muhammad ―. ‗Allahusholiala Muhamad . tindak tanduk lan kabeh kekurangan ngngone nindaake acoro panggih temanten iki. marilah kita panjatkan puji dan syukur ke khodirat Allah SWT hingga kita bisa sama-sama hadir di kediaman Bapak Somen dan ibu Tumini sekeluarga.Wb Pertama-tama. nangen sak durunge kulo jalok ijin bok menowo ono kesalahan. Saya harap Bapak atau ibu dapat memakluminya. Tidak lupa kirim sholawat dan salam kepada Kanjeng Nabi Rasul Muhammad SAW. Transcript of Utterances in Panggih Dipimpin oleh Bidan Temanten: Assalamualaikum Wr. para keluarga. sanak famili dan para pengikutnya. 101 . yo kui raden bagus Ormansyah Putra daup karoh kesumaning ayu Dina Wagiani. Selanjutnya saya akan melaksanakan acara temu penganten dalam bahasa Jawa. Rehdene wes ditindaake nggone metang-metung dino seng wes dipilih nggone arep daup ake putro lan putrine seng wes wektune bangun bebrayan . Poro wong tuo seng di tuake seng bener-bener tak bekteni lan poro rawuh seng di muliaake .

mugi-mugi pinaringo kanugrahan semanteno ugi poro sanak kadang tansyah derek mangayu bagio dumateng sri penganten kekalih ngenipun bebrayan mugi-mugi sageto dados kaluargo ingkang atut runtut ngantos kaken-keken lan ninen-ninen kaseksenono poro bapak ibu lan sedayanipun.102 Bissmillahirohman irohhim.kacang kawak isih luwih kawak Sri penganten kekalih kaseksen Gusti kang moho welas lan asih kairing poro widodari sak keti kurang siji kang jangkepi sri penganten ugi kaseksen poro Nabi ugo poro wali . minongko perlambang bektinipun kang garwo tumrap pemimpin kaluargo Saksampunipun penganten putri mbasuh sukunipun penganten kkulong. Pengantin putri mbasuh utawi nyuci suku tengen pengantin kkulong.― meniko minongko simbul pecahipun tigan pramilo pecahipun pamikiran penganten kekalih lan mitayani hangrampungi gawe ―.‖ Sak lajengipun pengantin kkulong nggandeng astanipun penganten putri mlampah ngiteri kaen panjang kaping tigo kairing kembang moncowarno sak kembaran. Acoro sepisan Balangan sirih temanten kekalih minongko perlambang yento temanten kekalih sami sami nampi katresnan kang saktuhu. Sak sampunipun mlampah ngiteri kaen panjang kaping tigo katindakaken njih meniko : Suku tengen ki penganten mijak tigan wonten sak jeruning lumpang kaapit alu. Penganten putri ngendiko ― . ―Kacar kucur tunggal sedapur yen bengi tunggal sekasur njih meniko daupipun Si penganten raden bagus Oman Syahputra putranipun bapak Mutar kalian kesumaning ayu Dina Wagiani putrinipun bapak Somen. Dele kawak .

Aklajengipun. ora liwat tampanono Tresnanipun kakang nimas ?‖ ―Bapak –bapak lan ibu –ibu ugi poro rawuh ingkang minulyo pangih temanten meniko kairing njih meniko kembar mayang utawi kembang moncowarno sak kembaran meniko minongko perlambang utawi sinebat kalfataru‖. Pengantin kkulong sinambi tangan kekalih naling bahu pengantin putri lan Paring wansulan ―tak tompo bektumu sebagai garwoku nimas.103 Kakang mas sembah bekti kulo katur dumateng panjenengan ingkang bade kulo suwitani. . Kang pungkasan Sri Penganten dipun gendong kalian bopo biyung kajujukaken wontening kursi Dampar kencono.

buk.Appendix 5. Ing wanci meniko kulo bade bangun bebrayan. pramilo kulo suwun idhi palilahipun sarto pandonganipun supados genipun kulo bebrayan tansyah atut runtut ngantos nini hamintuno ― Orang tua Pengantin wanita : ―Ger Anakku sak kloron. 104 . Sungkeman pengantin kepada orang tua dari pihak wanita : Bapak ibu. Transcript of Utterances in Sungkeman Dipimpin oleh Bidan Temanten: Bapak. sebentar lagi penganten akan melaksanakan acara sungkeman yaitu penganten lelaki dan putri memberikan penghormatan kepada kedua orang tua mereka..bapak lan ibu. Mung welingku ger ojo kendat anggomu caket lan nyenyuwun marang Gusti Kang gawe urip mulo ojo lali ngonmu nindak ake sholat Limang wektu yo ngger ― Penganten: ―Injih .ibu semua. Insyaallah kulo tindaake. Mugo-mugo nggonmu bebrayan ing tembe winengkuo karahayon lan dadilah tulodo kang becik tumrapno wong bebrayan. Sakderengipun sungkeman ki pengantin paring kendi dumateng pengantin putri isinipun arto lan sadoyo polowijo minongko perlambang yento pemimpin kaluargo ingkang batos pangpojiwo lan pawestri meniko minongko pendaringane kaluargo. Matur nuwun Bapak lan ibu‖. Ora liwat pangestuku tampanono yo ngger. Kang putro ngaturaken sembah bekti lan panuwun kang tanpo pepindah Sabab Bapak lan Ibu sampun ngulowentah kang putro wiwit alit ngantos akhir dewoso. Bapak lan ibu tansyah kendat nggone nyeyuwun marang Gusti kang akaryo jagat. Sembah bektimu wes tak tompo.

Ampunkanlah dosa-dosaku yang telah lalu baik yang disengaja maupun yang tak disengaja. ampuni aku romo bilamana ada kesalahan maupun kehilafanku‖. Insyaallah kami akan berusaha menjadi keluargo shakina. Doakanlah kami mudah-mudahan dipanjangkan jodoh kami. mawadah lan warahma‖. Ampuni aku bu. Ibu lan romo. Mugo-mugo kalian iso jadi keluargo shakina. mawadah lan warahma. . dimurahkanlah rezeki kami lan dikaruniakanlah kami anak-anak yang baik lan soleh. bapak lan ibu wes ngerestui kalian berdua. Orang tua Pengantin pria : ―Anakku tercinta. Bapak lan ibu sebage wong tuo hanya iso doake seng terbaek buat kalian. Penganten : ―Matur nuwun Bapak lan ibu atas doane.105 Sungkeman pengantin kepada orang tua dari pihak pria : ―Restuilah aku anakmu ini romo lan ibu.

yen wong –wong kene arep ngelamar. Bapak kan nang kene dianggep sesepuh seng ngerti selukbeluk‘e adat jowo. Jadi. biasane Bapak yang dijalok‘i tolong gae wakili. nek seng ngomong teko pihak besane iku sesepuh seng usiane luwih tuo lan status sosialnya duwor. madya. Iku tergantung podo usia lan status sosiale de‘e. hanteran. dan kromo. madya atau kromo? Informant : Kadang kudu disesuaike karo keluargo besane.Appendix 6. Dadi. mewakili orang 106 . yo Bapak iki seng di jalok kanggoh mewakili. biasanya bahasa apa yang Bapak gunakan setiap mewakilkan orang? Pake ngoko. Interview transcripts Interview with Mr Poniman on 20th March 2012 Writer : Maaf sebelumnya pak saya meminta waktu bapak sedikit untuk interview mengenai keikutsertaan Bapak dalam proses pernikahannya bang Oman anaknya pak Mutar khususnya dalam acara peningsetannya. yo biasane kulo ngomonge nganggoh bosoh Jowo halus. ngoko. krama atau Madya. Writer : Kita kan tahu Pak kalau bahasa Jawa itu ada 3 levelnya. wes teko biyen. utowo arep rembukan karo pihak besan ngenai pernikahan anak‘e. Informant Writer : Oh iyo ora opo-opo takon wae seng arep ditakonke : Bapak uda berapa kali pak diminta berbicara dalam proses pernikahan adat jawa? Informant : Yo wes sering tenan lah.

Dadi. Informant : Yo koyok Bapak omong mau. gitu ya pak. orang-orang jawa di Medan tidak tahu itu. kalau dari pihak besan tidak ngerti bahasa jawa krama. kadang kulo delok desek boso seng de‘ene kanggoh.107 tapi. Yen. waktu acara hantaran waktu itu gimana cara bapak menyerahkan barang-barang hantaran kepihak wanita. kudu nganggoh ngoko gae hormati lawan bicarane. Karna seperti yang kita tahu sekarang. kita dianggep orah sopan. arep ngomong karo uwong seng levele podo karo kita. yo kita kudu nganggoh boso ngoko. Writer : Jadi gimana pak. Yen pihak de‘ene gawe ngoko. Yen de‘e ngomong karo uwong seng derajate duwur koyok de‘ene. yo de‘ene nganggo kromo.Contohne yen kita asale dari level ngisor. Writer Informant : Itu memang sudah keharusan ya pak? : Yo sakbenere yen kita ngikutin adat jowo yo panceng kudu ngono. Seng penting kita kudu nyesuaike ae karo sopo kita ngomong. de‘e orah oleh nganggoh kromo. kita kudu makhlum. Yen orah ngono. Tapi yen kita arep ngomong karo seng levele duwur. yo kita kudu nganggoh madya utowo kromo. yo kita gawe ngoko ae. Yen panceng keluargo si besan ora ngerti boso Jowo. Writer : Oh. Yen wong koyo arep ngomong karo wong bioso. oh ya pak. . Sebab saiki orah kabe wong Jowo iso boso Jowo. deweke mulai omongane nganggoh ngoko yo kulo kudu jawab gae ngoko jugo. yo kita gawe bahasa indonesia ae ben luwe enak.

ben pihak kono ngroso di hargai. Writer : Seperti yang saya liat . solidaritas antoro kedua belah pihak. Kita kan arep nyatukan rong keluargo seng bedo gone ikatan perkawinan. Contohnya waktu bapak menerahkan barang-barang . Writer : Oh ya pak. Dalam sambutan kuwi. yo kito anggaplah keluargo de‘e iku koyok sedulur dewe ben de‘ene iso terbuka ngutarake maksudte sesuai keinginane. sepertinya acaranya itu kekeluargaan sekali ya pak? Informant : Yo kudu ngono. Dadi. yen orah ono gotong royong seng apik. Dadi mengko iso nimbulke kesungkanan karo masing-masing pihak kanggo ngutarakne maksudte. saat itu Bapak juga beberapa kali menggunakan pribahasa atau kalimat berkonotasi tertentu untuk mengutarakan maksud bapak. Bapak ngucapin kata sambutan desek ke keluargo wedok ben sopan. seng penting iku kita iso nyiptake keharmonisan. kerukunan.108 Informant : Sebelum nyerahke barang-barang hantaran iku. Kanggoh ngadakne acara perkawinan. yo mengko iso susah. Yen mengkoh ngomonge terlalu formal. dadi ben hubungan iku makin cerek. Bapak ngutarakke maksud kedatangan keluargo kene nang omahe Pak Somen. Pihak keluargo lanang pingine turut membantu keperluane keluargone wong wedok. ben kabeh pihak iso podo bantu kelancaran acarane. wedine iku makin gawe jarak antara pihak keluargo wedok lan keluargo lanang.

ada saya perhatikan bapak itu menjawab secara langsung pertanyaan dari pihak wanita itu dengan singkat. jadi maksudnya itu hanya untuk mempersingkat waktu ya Pak dan mereka pun uda paham soal itu. Seng penting. duit seperak. seingat saya pak somen itu ternyata telah menentukan tanggalnya. Kita kan wes eroh yen waktune iku terbatas. tegas dan tanpa basa-basi. itu kenapa ya pak? Informant : Oh.109 srah-srahan. kami ora ngroso keabotan. dan lain –lain. iku cuman dinggoh nyegerkan suasana aye ben iso nyantai. Yo Bapak pengene wong iku nafsirke dewe maksudte Bapak. kalau boleh tahu. Dadi wajar yen enek omongan seng orah perluh diomongne panjang lebar gae ngirit wektu. . Bapak yakin pasti wong iku eroh maksudku. Bapak bilang bahwa hantarannya berupa tiker elek. begitu ya pak. Writer : Oh. Writer : Oh. Apakah menurut Bapak itu sedikit tidak sopan pak? Informant : Yo orah.tujuh ae. yen enek iso dibantu. pada saat bapak menanyakan tentang kapan rencana tanggal pernikahannya. Writer : Dalam beberapa kalimat juga. Kami pingine keluargo wedok seneng dadi ora masalah soal tanggal iku. Tanggal piro ae yo kami setujuh. kami pasti bantu. Apakah dari pihak keluarga pria nya merasa keberatan pak atas penetapan tanggal itu? Informant : Ora. ora terlalu tegang. nah. karna acara srah-srahane iku dienek‘ne bengi. dadi pihak lanang nyerahke putusane karo pihak wedok ae. Pestane kan diadane neng oma‘e seng wedok.

Paling-paling. nek wong iku enggak suka. nang berboso sehari-hari pun kita kuduh sopan ben tercipta penguripan seng dame. rukun karo wong-wong laene. Matur nuwun pak atas informasinya Informant : Sami-sami . wong situasine koyok ngono. Wong jowo kuduh sopan nek ngomong karo wong. kalau begitu terimah kasih ya pak atas waktu yang bapak luangkan untuk interview ini. wong iku ngomonge secara enggak langsung. Writer : Oh. Ora nang acara perkawinan ae. dadi ora mungkin nek wong iku iso terangterangan nunjukke ketidaksopanane.110 Informant : Yo ngono.

Ijab. Ngerik. Tapi kalau Tarub Decoration. Peningsetan.111 Interview with Mrs Misiem on 20th March 2012 Writer Informant Writer : Sudah berapa lama wak. Writer Informant : Jadi wak pada saat malam midodaremi itu apa tugas wawak? : Malam iku yo wawak ngerikin bulu halus di keninge seng wedok gae persiapan acara temu pengantin. ada beberapa tahapan dalam pernikahan adat jawa. Midodaremi. : Seperti yang kita tahu nih wak. Wiji Dadi. Kacar Kucur. Siraman. Para gadis nyiapin inai untuk si penganten. Yo enggak wawak ae yang repot. Writer : kenapa wak pada saat malam midodaremi itu pengantin wanitanya tidak diperbolehkan tidur wak sampai jam 12 malam? . Mertui and Sungkumen. kluarga si wedok juga repot ngurusin kembar mayam gae acara panggih penganten. iku semuane pasti wawak yang ngurus. wes hampir 25 tahun. Panggih . Nyantri. Pokok‘e dari mulai malam sebelum pesta sampek pestane berakhir wawak lah yang ngurusin keperluane si penganten dan mimpin acara adate. skalian ngiyas kamar mantene sama ngiyas pelaminane. Dahar Klimah. Ngerik. Tarub Decoration. Siraman. Wawak diikutsertakan dalam tahapan yang mana saja wak? Informant : Kalau lamaran dan peningsetan itu orah butuh bantuan wawak. panggih sampek Sungkumen. wawak jadi bidan manten? : Yo wes lama tenan. dari mulai Lamaran. pokokne sampek pestane slesai . Midodaremi.

Manukan artine Bahwa pengantin memiliki semangat mencari kehidupan siang dan Malam. Makane kadang kalau kita delok pengantin wedok di pelaminan. raine lebih cantik dari biasane. Jadi. Makane seng gowo kembar mayam iku waktu acara nemokkan yo uduk seng masih gadis atau perjaka. bidadari teko nang omah‘e si penganten wedok gae berkahi si wedok ben mengko waktu acara pestane. Isi dari kembar mayam punya arti dan harapan sendiri. Apa sih wak pentingnya kembar mayang itu? Informant : Kembar mayam diperluin pas acara temu penganten. Writer : Wak. si wedok iso kelihatan cantik koyok bidadari dari langit. Pecutan artine penganten bersemangat dan bersikap sungguh-sungguh menjalankan segala kewajiban berumah tangga . yang terakhir iku Walangan . pada malam midodaremi saya liat Bapak Somen menebus Kembar mayang dari si pembuatnya. Keris artine penganten dapat mempunyai ketajaman pemikiran.112 Informant : Menurut kepercayaane wong jowo. iku melambangkan keperjakaan dan keperawanan si penganten seng artine si penganten bukan istri ataupun suami wong lain. si wedok ora ole turuh sebelum jam 12. Anak gedang rojo artine kalau penganten menjadi raja sehari semalam maka didampingi bidadari empat puluh bidadari. waktu malam midodaremi iku. contohne Janur kuning yang artinya bijaksanalah penganten berdua. Godong andong artine tolak bala yaitu penganten dijauhkan dari segala mala petaka.

Writer : Ya wak. jadi memang acarane kudu sakrar sambil diiringi musik jawa. Writer : Wak. Penganten Pria di . Itu apa menunjukkan kesantunan orang jawa juga ya wak? Informant : Yo pastilah. Contohnya untuk menyebut nama pengantin pria dan wanita.113 artine berumah tangga itu banyak cobaan dan rintangan jadi si penganten harus dapat berpikir dengan baik dan bijaksana. Apa memang adat jawa itu seperti itu. Sesudah ijab kabul. apa ucapan semua dukun manten dalam mimpin acara temu penganten itu selalu sama? Informant : Yo orah lah. Dukun manten kan eneng ciri khasne masing-masing. waktu acara panggih nya si Dina.. kesumaning ayu dan lain-lain. iku tergantung dukun mantenne masing-masing. raden bagus. Informant : Yo uduk ngono.. nimas. Writer : Wak. Writer Informant : Apa saja yang wawak lakukan dalam acara panggih itu wak? : Yo wawak mengarahkan dan memimpin tata cara seng harus dijalanin penganten pria dan penganten wanitane. acara panggih itu umpamane nemokkan si raja dan ratu. saya liat banyak sekali kata-kata keratonnya. wawak menggunakan. Bahasane pun kebanyakan bahasa Jowo Kromo biar suasana adat Jowone itu lebih terasa. iku kan nunjukke bahwasane kita sangat menghargai mereka dan menganggep mereka iku koyok raja dan ratu dalam pesta iku. kakang mas. saya liat itu acaranya sakrar sekali ya wak. penganten dirias nganggoh pakean kesatria.

Writer Informant : Wak. jalannya si penganten diiringi musik Kebo Giro.114 ungsikan agak jauh dan diiring bapak ibunya dan didampingi oleh sanak saudara. Kacar Kucur. Lalu dilanjutin acara temu penganten dipintu masuk teratak. matur nuwon ya atas informasinya : Yo. Nah masingmasing penganten diapit karo wong seng gowo kembar mayang. abis iku lah berlanjut acara Wiji Dadi. sama-sama . Mertui and Sungkumen. Dahar Klimah.

saya ingin menanyakan tentang acara peningsetan atah srahsrahan yang bapak adakan atas pernikahan anak Bapak si Dina. pasti kita rembukan meneh. Kalaupun waktu iku Bapak Mutar ora setujuh. Dadi. Bapak roso situasine apik tenan. yo Bapak jawab podo karo opo seng Bapak pingine. Bapak roso wong iku ora keberatan karo tanggal kuwi sebab memang wes dari awal mereka nyerahke keputusane karo keluargo kene. Writer : Pada saat itu kan ada pembicaraan tentang tanggal pernikahannya pak. Penyampean Bapak kan cukup sopan lan ora maksa sama sekali. Dadi waktu pihak lanang nakoke. Tapi . sak benere tanggal kuwi ngerupakan kesepakatan pihak kene.115 Interview with Mr Somen on 21st March 2012 Writer : Pak. Bapak roso keluargo kono cukup ngargai keluargo Bapak. Gimana menurut bapak tentang situasi pada waktu itu Pak? Informant : Oh. apa tanggal itu sudah disepakati secara bersama sebelumnya dengan pihak keluargo pria pak? Informant : Oh. nganterke hantaran seng akeh lan iso ngikuti opo kepinginane pihak kene. Sak durunge Bapak wes ngutarake yen kami pengen acarane dilaksanake tanggal semono. Writer Informant : Apakah bapak rasa itu tidak melangkahi keluargo pria pak? : Bapak roso Bapak ora ngelangkahi keluargo wong iku. Pihak lanang sopan tenan nang omahku. Nyatane pihak lanange yo setujuh ae.

Bisa bapak ceritakan kenapa Bapak tidak meminta secara langsung aja Pak? Informant : Oh. Saya liat ada keunikan dalam proses pengambilan kembar mayamnya. saya ingin menanyakan tentang malam midodaremi. iku kan cuman untuk indahin boso ae. Perkawinan iku ora cuman yatukke lanang lan wedok ae.116 nyatane yo keluargo Pak Mutar setujuh ae. kami nyambute anget koyok dolor dewe. kudu seng esek gadis utowo perjoko. Informant : Iyo. Dari awal Bapak Mutar teko nangoma kene. jadi seiso mungkin keluargo kene ngusahain deketin diri karo pihak lanang dengan tetep jogo kesantunan. yo dituruti ae lah. memang wes adate ngono kok. Writer : Oh begitu ya pak. . waktu itu saya kan juga sempat melihat Bapak sewaktu meminta kembar mayam kepada si pembuatnya. iku artine de‘e ora mempersalahke. Bapak roso cukup kekeluargaan. tapi juga nyatukke keluargone. gimana pak kira-kira menurut bapak pembicaraan waktu acara itu sudah cukup kekeluargaan ya Pak. Teko biyen Bapak pun wes ngerti soal iku. Seng gowo pun ora iso sembarangan. Writer : Bagaimana pak dengan syarat yang diminta bapak itu untuk nebus kembar mayangnya? apa bapak merasa keberatan? Informant : Yo orah. dadi ora jadi masalah meneh. Ben Bapak iku nafsirke dewe kepingine aku. Sebab memang Bapak butuh. Writer : Sekarang. De‘e wes eroh nya iku maksudte. Kami pingine rong belah pihak iso jadi dolor seng apik.

117 Writer : Selama proses pernikahan itu berlangsung. Writer : Pak terima kasih atas waktu yang bapak luangkan untuk interview ini. Matur nuwun ya Pak. Iku cuman bentuk ketaatan kita karo allah ae. Apakah hal itu sudah tradisi Pak? Informant : Sak benere iku uduk tradisi. jadi iku iso nunjukan identitas kita sebagai muslim. Sebab memang okeh wong jowo seng agamane islam. ora opo-opo . sering sekali ya Pak ditemukan pengunaan bahasa Arab yang dibarengi bahasa bahasa Jawa. Informant : Yo.

2) Kegandengan bab kui.Appendix 7. mulo kulo marengi bantuan ka‘ujud √ paribasan tiker elek. kelopo sewawar. kain sak suek terus sak gengem beras. kulo pikir seng √ √ √ 118 . duit seperak. Realization of Types of Politeness Strategies In Peningsetan Event No Speech Acts Type of Politeness Strategies Bald -on record Strategy 1 Representatives 1) Kulo minongko wakil bapak √ Positive Strategy Negative Strategy Offrecord Strategy Mutar kanggoh neruskeh opo seng di omongkeh eng dino kepungkur masalah jejodohan anakku Ormansyah Putra karo nak ayu Dina wagiani. 3) ora eneng 4) wes jelas 5) Yen menkono. minongkoh syarat lan tak jarok bisa keterimo marang bapak sarwidi kalau bungaheng ati.

esek lebih susah momong anak wedok siji. Jalok ijin ngomong karo wong-wong tuo seng bener tak hormati lan poro lawuh seng dimuliake. 2 Directives 1) Permisi.119 diomongin wes paripurno. Pak 6) Wes ora eneng lagi seng arep di takoni neng pihak lanang. iki wes eneng ombenan lan panganan sak enenge kanggo ngilanake roso ngelak lan ngeleh 9) Sebab ono paribahasa ―sak susahsusaheng ngaangon seribu kerbo. 2) Sakdoronge ayok bareng-bareng muji syukur ―alhamdullillah. tumrab kebecian √ √ √ √ kanggoh keluargo. 7) Yo wes pak. nek memang wes jelas 8) Bapak ibu sak rombongan. karo tuhan yang moho suci lan maohi pengasih. lan penyayang seng √ √ .

3) Ora lali wenei syalawat lan salam karo nabi kito sak lan √ salalaahwaallahisalam. pengikute muhammad. opo sampek kene masih eneng seng arep di takoni. Muhammad‖ 4) Monggoh diterimo. pak? poro sahabat ―Allahumasolliallah wa ala ali √ √ 5) Sak banjure jalok katerangan kiro-kiro kapan lan wektune seng arep nindaake ijab kabul anakanak kito kui? 6) Sak banjure.120 wes wenei kenikmatan karo kulo lan kue kabeh mulo ing wektu iki iso ngompol nang omae bapak Somen. kluargo. Pak? 7) Piye iki bapak-bapak ibu-ibu sak rombongan? Opo masih eneng seng arep di takoni meneh? 8) Wes jelas kan Pak? Buk? √ √ √ .

3 Commisives 1) Lantaran wes intok dino seng dipileh kanggoh keluarga kine. Mangun gelem mimpin dungo selamet.121 9) Mulo di sumanggaake di ombeh lan di pangan. monggoh. 13) Semono ugo kulo jalok pangestu mugo-mugo kulo sak rombongan selamet nganti omae dewe-dewe. mulo kulo soko calon keluarga √ tansah kendad √ . Semonggoh. 11) Kepi‘e pak? 12) Rehdene wes cukup suwih √ √ √ enggone ngumpul iki kulo sak rombongan jalok pamet sebab isih akeh kewajiban seng arep di tindaake lan sak baline kulo sak rombongan panjalok ku. kulo jalok karo bapak al –ustad H. 10) Mbok menowoh wes paripurno enggoheh ngomong lan kanggoh berkaheng ketemon iki.

122

besan setuju lan tetap melu opo seng arep dilaksanake. 2) yen mengkono kulo manut wae 4 Expressives 1) Assallamualaikum wr. Wb 2) Alhamdullillah, karo tuhan yang moho suci lan maohi pengasih, lan penyayang seng wes wenei kenikmatan karo kulo lan kue kabeh mulo ing wektu iki iso ngompol Somen. 3) Mugo –mugo Seng gone ngumpul iki tetep intuk berkat lan √ nang omae bapak √ √ √

kaijinane. 4) Mugo –mugo akehing kirim √

syalawat nan salam kanggo lan desan keikhlasan kulo lan kue kabeh tetep intuk salfaateh ing dunyo nanti ing akhirat. 5) Wong-wong tuo seng bener-bener tak hormati lan porolawu seng dimuliake . √

123

6) hanangeng sak durunge kulo jalok maaf mbok menowoh

mengkoh ono kesalahan toto kromo enggoh neh ngomong 7) Alhamdullillah, matur nuhun karo bapak Mutar seng susah-susah teko wenehi anteran sak √

monoakehe, kulo sak kluarga ora bisa wenehi piwales 8) Hanangeng kulo pasrahke karo Allah swt yang moho agung wenehi piwales kan akeh sopo peparenging bapak Mutar √

sekuarga, amin-amin y rabbal alamin 9) matur nuwum podo-podo 10) Iyo, matur nuwom 11) Kulo sak rombongan √ √ √

ngaturke panuwun karo Bapak Somen. 12) Kulo sak rombongan wes √

disambut kanti bungaheng manah lan wes di wenehi sesuguhan

124

panganan seng enak, lan kulo sak rombongan rumongsoh ora biso wenehi piwales kabeh pepareng soko Bapak Somen , hanamung kulo pasrah ke karo Gusti Kang Moho Agung mugo wenehi

piwales sak akeh-akehe kabeh peparenge Bapak Somen. 13) Mugo-mogo mengko acoro √

resepsine biso kasembadan di adohnoh sambikolo. 14) Mugo-mugo kabeh seng arep di tindake luberono bisoo kasembadan, di √

kanugerahan

hadohake songko bebolo 15) Amin ya rabbal alamin, mugomugo acarane biso kasembadan seng apik 16) Mbok menowo cokop sak mene, nggonku ngomong mbok √ √

menowoh ono kesalahan tindak tanduk nggonku ngomong kulo jalok pangapuro karo Gusti Kang

18) Sami kaluargo sami pak. Insya Allah ijab kabul √ meniko bade katindakaken ing sasi besar dintenipun Sabtu pon enjang tanggal 14 April 2012 saatipun jam 10. 5 Declaratives 1) Iyo. 17) Akhirukalam.Wassalamualaikum Wr.00 pagi √ 2) Sak banjure insya Allah acara resepsi bade katindakaken minggu tanggal 15 April 2012 . 19) Kulo jalok pangapuro mbok menowo nggone ono pareng kekurangane sambutan √ jagongan lan sesuguhan.Wb‖.125 Moho Agung lan poro wong tuo sak kabehe. ugo kulo sak √ √ Ngaturake panuwun sek akeh-akehe karo keluargo Bapak Mutar sak rombongan.

. Realization of Types of Politeness Strategies In Midodaremi Event No Speech Acts Type of Politeness Strategies Bald -on record Strategy 1 Representatives 1) nek ora kleru. pa ngorepan. Rojo bedak √ pengilo. lan duit seket ewu.beras . yen mengkono sarate √ keranjang pengareng-ngareng isen-isene kabeh pepanengan ing jagad royo. 4) Bebonananipun Kaujud : Kranjang isen – isenipun Kambil. 2) yo ngono aku dueni opo seng di karep ake kaujud kembang mayang utowo kembang √ √ Positive Strategy Negative Strategy Offrecord Strategy monco warno sak kembaran 3) iyo.Appendix 8. jarum. gedang kuweh. iki kampung Marelan pak. 126 . pisau. banyu suci. sisir.

ora di golek‘i pun.127 bunga putih Kutuk Degan Uang rampe an kain √ 5) Mau sore yayuk wes mangan 6) Pengene aku intok seng apik. ―ora mlayu gunung dikejar‖ dek. mengko teko 9) iki aku sek nganggo inai 10) Lantaran aku isik warek 11) Ora selero aku mangan mak 12) Iyo ewes lah. langsung marhaban. 8) Nek wes jodohne. raine pun ganteng 7) Istilah ne. mau kan √ √ √ √ √ √ √ bapakmu seng rono 13) Ditemukenya jam 11. 16) Nah wes iku. koyo. kan ora eneng √ √ √ √ . 15) dadi rampunge iku sak orong zuhur.00 14) Dadi wes ditemuke.

ora eneng lah waktune.128 masalah meneh.00. ongkose larang tenan. Dadi kendurine orong iso lah di mulai. 18) kiro-kiro paling jam 11 san lah de‘e nyampek rene. 24) Lah iki pun masih jam piro loh mak. ora eneng lah duite 20) Kasihan tenan de‘e. sedilok neh pasti √ . 19) Wak atik wae lah. nerimok tamu pun enak. dari awan wes bantu-bantu 21) Iku de‘e di luar ngomongngomong karo bapakmu lan poro wong –wong tuo 22) Wong-wong seng arep √ √ √ √ √ √ √ kenduri pun masih sitik seng teko. 23) Wong nang kene podo direktur kabeh. pesawate kan nyampek medan jam 10. 17) Iyo.

awan lan bengi. 29) Wes wak 2 Directives 1) Arep takon. abot sanggane.129 teko 25) Wong berumah tangga itu. di tangisi karo anakku Dina √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Wagiani nganti betah nggone ngeleh. opo iki seng di jenengke kampung Marelan Pak? 2) Opo seng di golek i pak? 3) ngene pak. jadi baru jam saiki iso teko nang kene 27) Bidan penganten ne wes teko 28) Wawak arep ngias kamare desek. 26) Wawak tadi eneng kerjaan nang kawinanne uwong nduk. nggone turu mungnunggu intok ngampil ujute kembar mayang utowo .

arep di enggeh sak iki opo mengko bengi? 9) sak iki wae lah. opo panjenangan kuat sebab sarate abot. monggoh di terimo? 7) Lan aku jalok seng gowo kembar mayam utowo √ √ kembang monco warno iku kuduh bocah seng eseh gadis. kepiye pak? 5) Kepiye pak? panjenengan √ √ sagah. lan seng eseh joko. 8) Yuk. 10) Wes mangan yuk? √ √ √ .130 kasebut kembang mocowarno sak kembaran. iki tak wenekno sarate. iki wes dadi inai‘e. aku opo kedarangan mengupati seng di jalok karo anakku kui. Mulo. Pak? 6) ya. 4) anangeng kui duek‘e raden komo joyo lan dewi ratih.

22) Kepiye yuk kok riko iso intok jodoh seng apik kek abang iku. 20) Golek jodoh seng kepiye ya yuk? 21) Sabar ae.? √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ . mengko nemu iku riko. ojo belepotan 16) Mengko elek kan aku isin 17) yuk.131 11) Mangan desek wae. 19) Doake yo yuk. deg-deg kan ora? 18) Ya. aku enggoke yo sak iki yo? 14) Seng apik ya dek 15) ati-ati yo. men aku cepet intok jodoh. dek. mengko ora repot. 12) Ora opo-opo sak iki wae nganggene 13) Yo wes kalau ngono. kepiye perasaan riko. ora eneng halangan opo-opo. doake ae moga moga sesok lancar –lancar.

wes di jokok opo orong mak kembar mayange? 27) Jam piro sesok temu √ √ √ √ √ pengantene mak? 28) Nduk. seng akur – akur wae rumah tanggamu 29) asal eneng masalah opopun. wes bengi ngene orong mangan juga.132 23) Golekkan sek apik ya yuk 24) Nduk. 25) Yo wes Mak. tapi sak iti wae ya mak 26) Oh ya mak.. harus di musyawarake karo wong tuwo. hancur semuane 32) Ikulah kata-kata wong tuwo seng kue harus inget 33) Sesok. dadi ora mak wak atik √ √ √ √ √ √ . 30) ojo gaduh-gaduh kue karo bojomu 31) Nak kue enggak sabar-sabar. apik-apik lah kue dadi bojone mengko. rene mamak dulangi desek yo kue.. ya abis lah.

koyo ngopo abote aku sanggup. abot-abote di sambat sebuti anak seng tak tresnani lulusing batin 2) iyo... bareng sopo wak atik ma? 35) Oh iyo mak. si putra nandi mak? 36) Wes mangan orong ya? 37) Uda selesai yuk? 38) Oh wes dek.133 teko? Ngomonge kan wak atik arep teko? 34) Oh. suruh masuk ae 39) Wes rampung kan? 40) Kok sui tenan tekone wak? 41) Tolong yo disingkirke desek nduk barang-barang seng ora penting ben kamare enggak semak 42) Dek tolongin yayuk yo √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ angkatin barang iki‖. Insha Allah arep tak √ √ .. 3 Commisives 1) iyo .

monggo. 9) Iyo yuk 10) Iyo lah mak. 12) Iyo yuk 13) Iyo wak.134 tindak ake 3) Iyo 4) Yo wes mengko kue tak goleke seng kek ngono. aku inget. opo seng mamak saranke mau. sak iti wae 8) Iyo mak. √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ . aku jalok sek adekku mindahin iki 14) Iyo 4 Expressives 1) Kulonuwun. 5) Iyo 6) Iyo mak 7) Iyo. aku pun ngerti 11) aku pun pengene rumah tangga ku apik-apik wae mak. assalammualaikum 2) Wa‘allaikum salam. nek memang kue gelem. langgeng sampek tuo.

. wes syukur alhamdulillah kan 9) Mamak iki kok ngono sih ngomonge 10) 5 Makasih yo dek √ √ √ Declaratives 1) Ya.amin 6) Sakteruse mogo-mugo. Dina poro √ √ √ √ mengko nank ayu Wagiani.135 Pak! 3) Matur nuwun 4) Iyo dek.. ka‘apit widodari ing acoro panggih kemanten 7) Mugo-mugo meridhoi gusti allah. √ rumah tanggamu meridhoi rumah tanggamu 8) Wes gelem teko ae de‘e. makasih ya 5) Amin. yen mengkono kembar mayang utowo kembang √ monco warno kui tak wenekno mugo-mugo penjaloke Dina Wagiani iku kaleksanan .

136 2) Ya iyo lah. √ √ . 3) Aku pun arep ngusul golek bojo juga yuk. iki kan sekali sak umur oripku dek.

Appendix 9. Realization of Types of Politeness Strategies In Panggih Event No Speech Acts Bald -on record Strategy 1 Representatives 1) Bapak-bapak utowo Ibu-ibu lan poro rawuh seng √ Type of Politeness Strategies Positive Strategy Negative Strategy Off.record Strategy kinurmatan wakili bapak aku minongko Somen arek nindaake acoro panggih temanten tumrappe kabudayan jowo 2) Acoro sepisan Balangan sirih temanten kekalih minongko perlambang yento temanten kekalih sami sami nampi √ katresnan kang saktuhu 3) meniko pecahipun pecahipun minongko tigan simbul pramilo pamikiran √ penganten kekalih lan mitayani hangrampungi gawe 137 .

para keluarga. 3) Saya harap Bapak atau ibu dapat memakluminya. sanak famili dan para pengikutnya. 2) Tidak lupa kirim sholawat dan salam kepada Kanjeng Nabi Rasul Muhammad SAW.Waala ali √ kakung nggandeng astanipun .138 4) minongko perlambang √ bektinipun kang garwo tumrap pemimpin kaluargo 2 Directives 1) Pertama-tama. 4) Aklajengipun kekalih salaman 5) Sak lajengipun pengantin √ temanten √ √ ‗Allahusholiala . marilah kita √ panjatkan puji dan syukur ke khodirat Allah SWT hingga kita bisa sama-sama hadir di kediaman Bapak Somen dan ibu Tumini sekeluarga. Muhamad Muhammad ―.

139 penganten putri mlampah ngiteri kaen panjang kaping tigo kairing kembang moncowarno sak kembaran 6) Suku tengen ki penganten mijak tigan wonten sak √ jeruning lumpang kaapit alu 7) Pengantin putri mbasuh utawi nyuci suku tengen pengantin kakung 8) Pengantin kakung sinambi √ √ tangan kekalih naling bahu pengantin putri lan Paring wansulan 9) ora liwat tampanono √ tresnanipun kakang nimas 10) Aklajengipun. 3 Commisives . pungkasan Sri Kang Penganten √ dipun gendong kalian bopo biyung kajujukaken wontening kursi Dampar kencono.

2) Nangen sak durunge aku jalok ijin bok menowo ono √ √ kesalahan.Wb. tindak tanduk lan kabeh kekurangan ngngone nindaake temanten iki 3) Poro wong tuo seng di tuake seng bener-bener tak bekteni lan poro rawuh seng di √ acoro panggih muliaake 4) Bissmillahirohman irrohhim 5 Declaratives 1) Disini hajat bapak dan ibu menikahkan dan √ √ mengawinkan putrinya Dina Wagiani Syahputra.140 1) Kakang mas kulo katur sembah bekti dumateng √ panjenengan ingkang bade kulo suwitani 4 Expressives 1) Assalamualaikum Wr. dengan Oman √ .

yo kui raden bagus Ormansyah Putra daup karoh kesumaning ayu Dina Wagiani 4) Kacar kucur tunggal sedapur yen bengi tunggal sekasur njih meniko daupipun Si penganten raden bagus √ Oman Syahputra putranipun bapak Sumen ayu kalian Dina kesumaning Wagiani putrinipun bapak Somen 5) Dele kawak . 3) Rehdene wes saya acara akan temu bahasa dalam ditindaake √ nggone metang-metung dino seng wes dipilih nggone arep daup ake putro lan putrine seng wes wektune bangun bebrayan .141 2) Selanjutnya melaksanakan penganten Jawa.kacang kawak √ .

6) tak tompo bektimu sebagai garwoku.142 isih luwih kawak Sri penganten kekalih kaseksen Gusti kang moho welas lan asih kairing poro widodari sak keti kurang siji kang jangkepi sri penganten ugi kaseksen poro Nabi ugo poro wali . nimas √ .mugi-mugi pinaringo kanugrahan semanteno ugi poro sanak kadang tansyah derek dumateng mangayu sri bagio penganten kekalih ngenipun bebrayan mugi-mugi sageto dados kaluargo ingkang atut runtut ngantos kaken-keken lan ninen-ninen poro bapak kaseksenono ibu lan sedayanipun.

ibu semua. penganten melaksanakan sungkeman sebentar lagi akan acara yaitu √ Positive Strategy Negative Strategy Offrecord Strategy penganten lelaki dan putri memberikan penghormatan kepada kedua orang tua mereka. 2) Sakderengipun sungkeman ki pengantin paring kendi dumateng pengantin putri isinipun arto lan sadoyo polowijo perlambang pemimpin minongko yento kaluargo √ 143 .bapak lan ibu.143 Appendix 10. Realization of Types of Politeness Strategies In Sungkeman Event No Speech Acts Type of Politeness Strategies Bald -on record Strategy 1 Representatives 1) Bapak.

5) Doakanlah mudahan kami mudah√ √ dipanjangkan jodoh kami. dimurahkanlah rezeki kami lan 144 . 2) lan becik bebrayan 3) Mung welingku ger ojo √ dadilah tulodo kang wong √ tumrapno kendat anggomu caket lan nyenyuwun marang Gusti Kang gawe urip mulo ojo lali ngonmu nindak ake sholat Limang wektu yo ngger 4) Restuilah aku anakmu ini romo lan ibu.144 ingkang batos pangpojiwo lan pawestri meniko minongko kaluargo. 2 Directives 1) Ora liwat pendaringane pangestuku √ tampanono yo ngger.

warahma. 3 Commisives 1) Injih buk.145 dikaruniakanlah kami anakanak yang baik lan soleh. Kang putro ngaturaken sembah bekti lan panuwun kang tanpo pepindah Sabab Bapak lan Ibu sampun ngulowentah kang putro wiwit dewoso. 4 Expressives 1) Bapak ibu. √ alit √ mawadah lan ngantos akhir 2) pramilo kulo suwun idhi palilahipun pandonganipun genipun kulo sarto supados bebrayan tansyah atut runtut ngantos nini hamintuno 145 . Insyaallah aku tindaake 2) Insyaallah kami akan √ √ berusaha menjadi keluargo shakina.

√ √ Sembah bektimu wes tak tompo 7) Anakku tercinta.146 3) Bapak lan ibu tansyah √ kendat nggone nyeyuwun marang Gusti kang akaryo jagat 4) Mugo-mugo bebrayan ing nggonmu tembe √ winengkuo karahayon 5) Injih . matur nuwun Bapak lan ibu 6) Ger Anakku sak kloron. bapak lan ibu wes ngerestui kalian berdua. Ampunkanlah dosa-dosaku yang telah lalu baik yang disengaja maupun yang tak disengaja. 9) Ampuni aku bu. 8) Ibu lan romo. ampuni aku romo bilamana ada √ √ √ kesalahan maupun kehilafan ku 146 .

mawadah lan warahma‖. 11) Mugo-mugo kalian iso jadi keluargo shakina.147 10) Bapak lan ibu sebage wong tuo hanya iso doake seng terbaek buat kalian. 12) Matur nuwun Bapak lan ibu atas doane 5 Declaratives 1) Ing wanci meniko kulo bade bangun bebrayan √ √ √ √ 147 .

Pantai labu. Marelan II Pasar IV Timur No. The Data of the Informants The data of four informants can be completely mentioned as the following. Nama : Somen Place/ Date of Birth : Marelan. Marelan-Medan : Bride‘s father 2. 11 Medan : The Speaker of Javanese Wedding Ceremony 148 . 45B. Nama : Misiem Place/ Date of Birth : Medan. 13th September 1953 Occupation Religion Address Role : Farmer : Moslem : Jl. 1. Dusun Suka Damai .148 Appendix 11. Nama : Poniman Place/ Date of Birth : Lubuk Pakam.Deliserdang : The Speaker of Groom‘s side in Peningsetan Event 3. Marelan I Komplek Panggon Indah No. 06th February 1957 Occupation Religion Address Role : Teacher : Moslem : Jl. 20th August 1956 Occupation Religion Address Role : Traditional Bridal Beautician (Dukun Manten) : Moslem : Jl.

Marelan II Pasar IV Timur No. Nama : Dina Wagiani Place/ Date of Birth : Marelan. 05th July 1989 Occupation Religion Address Role : Employee : Moslem : Jl.149 4. Marelan-Medan : Bride 149 . 45B.

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