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The Enlightenment

Revolution in intellectual activity changed Europeans view of government and society

Definition
Enlightenment
An intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems. Used the Scientific Method to answer questions.

Philosophes

Social thinkers of the Enlightenment Believed. . . .


Reason
Truth could be discovered through reason or logical thinking.

Nature
What was natural was also good and reasonable

Happiness
Rejected only happiness occurred in the hereafter, urged people to find happiness on Earth.

Progress
Society and humankind can improve

Liberty
Called for all people to get the liberties the English people had from the Glorious Revolution and the English Bill of Rights.

Thomas Hobbes
Levianthan
All are born selfish & wicked
Fight amongst ourselves Life would be lonely, poor, nasty, brutish, and short

War. . . influences

Social Contract
To live a better life, people hand over their rights to a stronger person to be the leader. An absolute ruler In return the leader promises law and order.

John Locke
Everyone born with a Blank Slate
Can learn from experiences and improve

Born with three rights


Life Liberty property

The purpose of government


To protect rights If it doesnt people have the right to overthrow the government.

Francois Marie Arouet


Used the Pen Name

Bad Boy

Voltaire
Very influential Wrote over 70 books
Used satire Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech

Made powerful enemies Went to jail twice and then exiled

I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.

A study of Liberties
Montesquieu
On the Spirit of Laws Power, should be a check to power.
Great Britainbest government Separation of Powers
Executive Legislative Judicial

Rousseau
Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. The Social Contract
Creating a society was a contract between free peoples and their government. A legitimate government came from the consent of the governed.

Beccaria
Laws should preserve social order Governments should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Speedy trial Punishment should fit the crime NO torture No capital punishment

Mary Astell

Womens Rights

A serious Proposal to the Ladies


Called for education of women Used Enlightenment arguments to criticize the unequal relationship between men and women.
If absolute sovereignty be not necessary in a state, how comes it to be so in a family? . . .If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves?

Mary Wollstonecraft
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Argued that woman needed to educated to become virtuous and useful. Urged women to enter male-dominated fields such as medicine and politics.

Enlightenment Graph Go to Ms. Carrs Webpage entitled Enlightenment or click here and fill in the blanks.

Legacy
Influenced others to bring about change A more secular outlook
Started to question teachings of the church

Importance of the individual


Encouraged people to use their own reason and logic to determine