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**Many-body quantum theory in condensed matter physics
**

Henrik Bruus and Karsten Flensberg

Ørsted Laboratory, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen Mikroelektronik Centret, Technical University of Denmark

Copenhagen, 15 August 2002

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Preface

Preface for the 2001 edition

This introduction to quantum ﬁeld theory in condensed matter physics has emerged from our courses for graduate and advanced undergraduate students at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, held between the fall of 1999 and the spring of 2001. We have gone through the pain of writing these notes, because we felt the pedagogical need for a book which aimed at putting an emphasis on the physical contents and applications of the rather involved mathematical machinery of quantum ﬁeld theory without loosing mathematical rigor. We hope we have succeeded at least to some extend in reaching this goal. We would like to thank the students who put up with the ﬁrst versions of this book and for their enumerable and valuable comments and suggestions. We are particularly grateful to the students of Many-particle Physics I & II, the academic year 2000-2001, and to Niels Asger Mortensen and Brian Møller Andersen for careful proof reading. Naturally, we are solely responsible for the hopefully few remaining errors and typos. During the work on this book H.B. was supported by the Danish Natural Science Research Council through Ole Rømer Grant No. 9600548.

Ørsted Laboratory, Niels Bohr Institute 1 September, 2001

Karsten Flensberg Henrik Bruus

**Preface for the 2002 edition
**

After running the course in the academic year 2001-2002 our students came up with more corrections and comments so that we felt a new edition was appropriate. We would like to thank our ever enthusiastic students for their valuable help in improving this book.

Karsten Flensberg Ørsted Laboratory Niels Bohr Institute

Henrik Bruus Mikroelektronik Centret Technical University of Denmark

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iv

PREFACE

Contents

List of symbols 1 First and second quantization 1.1 First quantization, single-particle systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 First quantization, many-particle systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Permutation symmetry and indistinguishability . . . . . 1.2.2 The single-particle states as basis states . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Operators in ﬁrst quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Second quantization, basic concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 The occupation number representation . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 The boson creation and annihilation operators . . . . . 1.3.3 The fermion creation and annihilation operators . . . . 1.3.4 The general form for second quantization operators . . . 1.3.5 Change of basis in second quantization . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.6 Quantum ﬁeld operators and their Fourier transforms . 1.4 Second quantization, speciﬁc operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 The harmonic oscillator in second quantization . . . . . 1.4.2 The electromagnetic ﬁeld in second quantization . . . . 1.4.3 Operators for kinetic energy, spin, density, and current . 1.4.4 The Coulomb interaction in second quantization . . . . 1.4.5 Basis states for systems with diﬀerent kinds of particles 1.5 Second quantization and statistical mechanics . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 The distribution function for non-interacting fermions . 1.5.2 Distribution functions for non-interacting bosons . . . . 1.6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The electron gas 2.1 The non-interacting electron gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Bloch theory of electrons in a static ion lattice . . . . 2.1.2 Non-interacting electrons in the jellium model . . . . . 2.1.3 Non-interacting electrons at ﬁnite temperature . . . . 2.2 Electron interactions in perturbation theory . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Electron interactions in 1st order perturbation theory v xii 1 2 4 5 6 7 9 10 10 13 14 16 17 18 18 19 21 23 24 25 28 29 29 31 32 33 35 38 39 41

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vi 2.2.2 Electron interactions in 2nd order perturbation theory . Electron gases in 3, 2, 1, and 0 dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 3D electron gases: metals and semiconductors . . . . . . 2.3.2 2D electron gases: GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructures . 2.3.3 1D electron gases: carbon nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4 0D electron gases: quantum dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 45 46 48 49 51 52 53 53 56 59 61 63 64 65 68 69 71 73 73 75 78 78 81 85 87 87 88 88 91 91 93 95 95 98 100 102 104 104

2.3

3 Phonons; coupling to electrons 3.1 Jellium oscillations and Einstein phonons . . . . . 3.2 Electron-phonon interaction and the sound velocity 3.3 Lattice vibrations and phonons in 1D . . . . . . . 3.4 Acoustical and optical phonons in 3D . . . . . . . 3.5 The speciﬁc heat of solids in the Debye model . . . 3.6 Electron-phonon interaction in the lattice model . 3.7 Electron-phonon interaction in the jellium model . 3.8 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4 Mean ﬁeld theory 4.1 The art of mean ﬁeld theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Hartree–Fock approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Broken symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Ferromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 The Heisenberg model of ionic ferromagnets . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 The Stoner model of metallic ferromagnets . . . . . . . . 4.5 Superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Breaking of global gauge symmetry and its consequences . 4.5.2 Microscopic theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Time evolution pictures 5.1 The Schr¨dinger picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o 5.2 The Heisenberg picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 The interaction picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Time-evolution in linear response . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Time dependent creation and annihilation operators 5.6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6 Linear response theory 6.1 The general Kubo formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Kubo formula for conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Kubo formula for conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Kubo formula for the dielectric function . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Dielectric function for translation-invariant system . . 6.4.2 Relation between dielectric function and conductivity

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CONTENTS 6.5

vii

Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 . 108 . 111 . 112 . 113 . 113 . 115 . 116 . 116 . 120 . 121 . 121 . 123 . 124 . 125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 127 128 131 132 132 134 135 136 137 137 141 141 144 145 145 147 147 149 150 151 153 153 153 153

7 Transport in mesoscopic systems 7.1 The S-matrix and scattering states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 Unitarity of the S-matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.2 Time-reversal symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Conductance and transmission coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 The Landauer-B¨ttiker formula, heuristic derivation . . . . u 7.2.2 The Landauer-B¨ttiker formula, linear response derivation . u 7.3 Electron wave guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Quantum point contact and conductance quantization . . . 7.3.2 Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Disordered mesoscopic systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Statistics of quantum conductance, random matrix theory . 7.4.2 Weak localization in mesoscopic systems . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Universal conductance ﬂuctuations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Green’s functions 8.1 “Classical” Green’s functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Green’s function for the one-particle Schr¨dinger equation o 8.3 Single-particle Green’s functions of many-body systems . 8.3.1 Green’s function of translation-invariant systems . 8.3.2 Green’s function of free electrons . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.3 The Lehmann representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.4 The spectral function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.5 Broadening of the spectral function . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Measuring the single-particle spectral function . . . . . . 8.4.1 Tunneling spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.2 Optical spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Two-particle correlation functions of many-body systems . 8.6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Equation of motion theory 9.1 The single-particle Green’s function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 Non-interacting particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Anderson’s model for magnetic impurities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.1 The equation of motion for the Anderson model . . . . . . . . 9.2.2 Mean-ﬁeld approximation for the Anderson model . . . . . . . 9.2.3 Solving the Anderson model and comparison with experiments 9.2.4 Coulomb blockade and the Anderson model . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.5 Further correlations in the Anderson model: Kondo eﬀect . . . 9.3 The two-particle correlation function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1 The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) . . . . . . . . . . .

. 157 . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . 11 Feynman diagrams and external potentials 11. . . 181 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 . . . . . . . . . .5 Equation of motion . . . .1 The perturbation series for G . .3.5. .1 Feynman diagrams for the impurity scattering .6. . . . . .2 Feynman rules for the numerator of G(b. . 163 . 10. . . 165 . . 10. . . 167 . . . . . . 12. . . . .3 Single-particle Matsubara Green’s function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Advanced functions . . . . .4 The self-consistent Born approximation and beyond 11. . .3 The cancellation of disconnected Feynman diagrams 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . 12. . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fourier transform of Matsubara Green’s functions . . . . . 11. . 10. . 199 199 199 201 201 202 203 205 206 208 209 209 210 211 10 Imaginary time Green’s functions 10. . . 12. . . . . . .2 Summations over functions with known branch cuts . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Connection between Matsubara and retarded functions . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . 177 . . 10. . . 168 . 164 . .6. . . . .4 Self-energy and Dyson’s equation . . . . . . .1 Matsubara Green’s function for non-interacting particles 10. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3. . . . . . 161 . . . . 10.1 The Hartree self-energy diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . .7 Example: polarizability of free electrons . 12. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 . . . . . .5. . .6 Summary and outlook . . . .3 The pair-bubble self-energy diagram . 12. . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Feynman diagrams and pair interactions 12. . . . . . . .3 The Feynman rules for pair interactions . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 . . . . . . . a) . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . 197 . .5 The Feynman rules in Fourier space . . . . . 156 . .5. . . . . . . . .7 Summary and outlook . 190 . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Wick’s theorem . . .4 CONTENTS Summary and outlook .4 Evaluation of Matsubara sums .5 Self-energy for impurity scattered electrons . . . . . . . .2 Elastic scattering and Matsubara frequencies .2 1st order Born approximation . . . . a) . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . 161 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 164 . . . . . 184 . 190 . .1 Deﬁnitions of Matsubara Green’s functions . . . 12. . .2 inﬁnite perturbation series!Matsubara Green’s function . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 .8 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Examples of how to evaluate Feynman diagrams . . . . . . . 12. 179 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii 9. . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . 174 177 .1 Non-interacting particles in external potentials . . . 11. . . . . .1 Summations over functions with simple poles . . . . . 193 . .4 Impurity self-average .3 Random impurities in disordered metals . . 10. . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . .3 The full Born approximation . . . . .3. .2 The Fock self-energy diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lowest order approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Feynman rules for the denominator of G(b. 194 . . . . . . .

. 13. . . . . . . . 13. . . . . .4. . .1 Vertex corrections and dressed Green’s functions . . .2 Dynamical screening . . . . 213 . . . .1 Renormalization of the single particle Green’s function 14. . . . . 231 233 . . . . .5 The Cooper instability and Feynman diagrams . . . . .4 The dielectric function and screening . . . . . . . . .2. 14. . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . 245 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . 13. . . . . . 14. .3. . 245 . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . .3 The ground state energy of the electron gas . . . . . . . . .1 Static screening . . . . 251 . . . .1. . . .1.2. . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 . .1 Finite life time of the quasiparticles . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Combining Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . 251 . . . 14.2 Imaginary part of the single particle Green’s function 14. . 13. . . . 13. . . . . . .5 Combined RPA and Born approximation . 237 . 238 . .1 The self-energy in the random phase approximation . . . . . . . . .2 Jellium phonons and the eﬀective electron-electron interaction 16. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Semi-classical treatment of screening and plasmons . . . . . . . 243 . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . 284 . .3 The conductivity in the ﬁrst Born approximation . . . . 240 . . 220 . .5. . . . . . . . 14. . 228 . . . .2 Landau damping . . . . 16 Green’s functions and phonons 16. . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 . .1 The density dependence of self-energy diagrams 13. . . . . .1 Calculation of the pair-bubble .1 The quasiparticle concept and conserved quantities . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . 279 . . ix 213 . 16. . .3 Mass renormalization? . . 220 . 276 . 16. . . .4. . 223 . . . . 280 . . . . . . . . . . . .3 RPA resummation of the self-energy . . . . .1 The Green’s function for free phonons . . . . . 233 .CONTENTS 13 The interacting electron gas 13. . . . . . . . . 230 . . .1 Adiabatic continuity . . . 238 . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .4. . . . . . . .3. . . .2 Electron-phonon interaction and Feynman diagrams . . . . . . . .1 Plasma oscillations and plasmons . . . . . .2 The conductivity in terms of a general vertex function 15. . . .6 Summary and outlook . . . 15 Impurity scattering and conductivity 15. . . .5 Plasma oscillations and Landau damping . .4 The weak localization correction to the conductivity . . . . . . . . . . 218 . . . . . . 14 Fermi liquid theory 14. . . . . . . . . .3 Semi-classical transport equation . . . . . 215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . 15. . . . 227 . . . .4 Phonon renormalization by electron screening in RPA .5. . . . 253 254 259 261 264 273 . . . . .1 Migdal’s theorem . . 14. . . . 248 . . . . . 14. .2 The renormalized Coulomb interaction in RPA . .2. . . . 16. . . . . . . . . 217 . .2 The electron-hole pair interpretation of RPA . . . .5 Outlook and summary . 279 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .2 The divergence number of self-energy diagrams 13. . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . .4 Microscopic basis of the Fermi liquid theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 . 235 . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .8 Experimental realizations of Luttinger liquid physics . . . . . . .2 First look at interacting electrons in one dimension . . . . . . . .5 Translation invariant systems . . . . . . . . 18. .1 One-dimensional transmission line analog . . . . . . . . .2 Bosonization of Tomonaga model-Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .spinless case . . . 18. . . . . A. . . 288 . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . 18. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . states . . .2 Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Real space formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Green’s functions . 18. . . . 287 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x 17 Superconductivity 17. . . . . . . . . A Fourier transformations A. . 287 . . . . . . . . 17. . . . .8. . 18. . . . 18. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 18.3 Diagonalization of bosonized Hamiltonian . 288 . . . . . . . . . .1 The Cooper instability . . . . . . . 18. . 17. . . . . .4 Experimental consequences of the BCS 17. . . . . . . . . 288 . .3. . . . .1 Introduction . . 17. . . . . .3 BCS theory with Green’s functions . . .1 Tunneling density of states .1 Continuous functions in a ﬁnite region . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Interacting one dimensional electron system . 18 1D electron gases and Luttinger liquids 18. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . .5 Electron operators in bosonized form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . .3 Time and frequency Fourier transforms . . . . . . . . . . . 288 . . . .2 speciﬁc heat . . . . . .6 Tunneling into spinless Luttinger liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Luttinger-Tomonaga model . . .7 What is a Luttinger liquid? . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Continuous functions in an inﬁnite region A. . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Josephson eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Some useful rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .4 Luttinger liquid with spin . . . B Exercises C Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Tunneling into the end of Luttinger liquid . . . . . . . . 18. . . . .3. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 291 291 292 292 292 293 295 326 . CONTENTS 287 . . . . . .1 Edge states in the fractional quantum Hall eﬀect 18. .2 The BCS groundstate . .

c† ν R CAB (t. Sec. 8.4 15.1 Sec. Sec. phonon) amplitudes of wavefunctions to the right magnetic ﬁeld annihilation operator for particle (fermion. A(k.1 10. electron) annihilation/creation operators (state ν) retarded correlation function between A and B (time) advanced correlation function between A and B (time) retarded current-current correlation function (frequency) Matsubara correlation function Cooperon in the Matsubara domain Cooperon in the real time domain speciﬁc heat for ions (constant volume) xi Deﬁnition Sec. ω).3 Chap.3. ω). 1 Chap. 7.4 Sec. 6.1 Sec. a† ν a± n a0 A(r. 8. ikn + iqn ) C R (Q.4 Sec. A† b b† b± n B c c† cν . t) A(ν. (2. 5.1 Eq. ω) A(r. ε) ion CV Meaning operator ♥ in the interaction picture time derivative of ♥ Dirac ket notation for a quantum state ν Dirac bra notation for an adjoint quantum state ν vacuum state annihilation operator for particle (fermion or boson) creation operator for particle (fermion or boson) annihilation/creation operators (state ν) amplitudes of wavefunctions to the left Bohr radius electromagnetic vector potential spectral function in frequency domain (state ν) spectral function (real space. Sec. A0 (k. Sec. 16. 7.4 Sec. Sec.1 15.2 Sec.4. ikn .1 6.2. ε. electron) creation operator for particle (fermion.4 .3. 1 Sec.3 10.3. 1.List of symbols Symbol ˆ ♥ ˙ ♥ |ν ν| |0 a a† a ν . ω) A. Fourier space) spectral function for free particles phonon annihilation and creation operator annihilation operator for particle (boson. t ) R (ω) CII CAB C(Q. 8. ω) A0 (r. t ) A CAB (t. phonon) creation operator for particle (boson.36) Sec.

rt ) DR (q. 2nd order perturbation Rydberg energy dispersion relation for BCS quasiparticles energy variable the dielectric constant of vacuum dispersion relation energy of quantum state ν Fermi energy phonon polarization vector dielectric function in real space dielectric function in Fourier space free energy the ﬁlled Fermi sea N -particle quantum state electric potential external electric potential induced electric potential wavefunctions with diﬀerent normalizations wavefunctions in the left and right leads electron-phonon coupling constant (lattice model) electron-phonon coupling constant (jellium model) conductance Deﬁnition Eq. (3. (7. t) E E (1) E (2) E0 Ek ε εk εν εF ε(rt.20) Sec. (2. (1.1 . ω) D(rτ. φ± RnE gqλ gq G kλ 0 LIST OF SYMBOLS Meaning density of states (including spin degeneracy for electrons) Dirac delta function retarded phonon propagator retarded phonon propagator (Fourier space) Matsubara phonon propagator Matsubara phonon propagator (Fourier space) retarded many particle Green’s function phonon dynamical matrix superconducting orderparameter elementary charge electron interaction strength electric ﬁeld total energy of the electron gas interaction energy of the electron gas.4 Sec.4) Eq. 16 Chap. t) φext φind ˜ φ.36) Eq. φ ± φLnE . rτ ) D(q.5 Eq.58b) Eq. (1. 6. (4.4 Sec. 7. 1. (4. 6.31) Eq.xii Symbol d( ) δ(r) DR (rt. 3. 16 Chap. 16 Eq. iqn ) DR (νt. 1st order perturbation interaction energy of the electron gas.11) Chap.64) Eq.4) Sec. ω) F |FS φ(r. rt ) ε(k. (9.101) Eq. (2. 16 Chap.9b) Sec. ν t ) Dαβ (r) ∆k e e2 0 E(r.

3 Sec.3 Sec. 10.1 Sec. (15. r t ) 0 GR (rt.LIST OF SYMBOLS Symbol G(rt. r t ) G< (rt.5 Sec.3 Sec.3 Sec. (8.3. ν τ ) G(1.1 Sec. ikn ) (n) G0 G(k. 15.1 Sec. 8.3. 12. free particles) Matsubara Green’s function (free particles ) n-particle Green’s function (free particles) Matsubara Green’s function (Fourier space) Matsubara Green’s function ({ν} basis. r t ) 0 GA (rt. 8. r t ) G> (rt.3 Sec.3. 8. k + q ) Γ0.2 Sec. free particles) Matsubara Green’s function (Fourier space.2 Sec.32) Sec. r t ) GR (k. 8. 6.3. 1 ) ˜ ˜ G(k.1 Eq. 10.3. 8.3 Eq. 8. 8.x H H0 H Hext Hint Hph η I Ie Meaning Green’s function for the Schr¨dinger equation o unperturbed Green’s function for Schr¨dingers eq.1 Sec. r t ) GR (rt. r t ) GA (rt. 10.3 Sec. ω) 0 G< (rt. 6. γ RA Γ ˜ ˜ ˜ Γx (k.3 Sec.3 Sec.3. 10.3 xiii Deﬁnition Sec. ikn ) γ.3 Sec. four vector notation) free (undressed) vertex function a general Hamiltonian unperturbed part of an Hamiltonian perturbative part of an Hamiltonian external potential part of an Hamiltonian interaction part of an Hamiltonian phonon part of an Hamiltonian positive inﬁnitisimal current operator (particle current) electrical current (charge current) Sec.3. r σ τ ) G(ντ.1 Sec. ω) GR (k. r σ τ ) G0 (ντ. r t ) 0 G> (rt.1 Sec.1 Sec. o free lesser Green’s function free grater Green’s function free advanced Green’s function free retarded Green’s function free retarded Green’s function (Fourier space) lesser Green’s function greater Green’s function advanced Green’s function retarded Green’s function (real space) retarded Green’s function in Fourier space retarded Green’s function (Fourier space) retarded single-particle Green’s function ({ν} basis) Matsubara Green’s function (real space) Matsubara Green’s function ({ν} basis) Matsubara Green’s function (real space four-vectors) Matsubara Green’s function (four-momentum notation) Matsubara Green’s function (real space.3. r t ) 0 GR (k. 10. ikn ) G(ν. 8. ν t ) G(rστ.3 Sec. 8. ikn ) G0 (ν. free particles) Matsubara Green’s function ({ν} basis.1 Sec. 8. k ) G0 (rστ.3 Sec.20b) . 8. 10. 8. frequency domain) scalar vertex function imaginary part of self-energy vertex function (x-component. 8. 10. 11. ν τ ) G0 (k. 10.3 Sec. 10. r t ) G0 (rt.6 Sec. ω) GR (νt.

1 Sec.4. iωn ) Π0 (q.17) Sec.99a) Eq.34) .99a) Eq. (1. t) Jij kn kF k Meaning current density operator current density operator.1 0 φ L λF Λirr m m∗ µ µ n nF (ε) nB (ε) nimp N Nimp ν ω ωq ωn Ω p pn ΠR (rt.1 Sec. (12.xiv Symbol Jσ (r) ∆ Jσ (r) A Jσ (r) Jσ (q) Je (r. 14.5. r t ) αβ ΠR (q. (6. ω) αβ Παβ (q. 1. 4. 1. (1. 15 Eq. 10 Sec.2 Chap.5.5 Eq. diamagnetic term current density operator (momentum space) electric current density operator interaction strength in the Heisenberg model Matsubara frequency (fermions) Fermi wave number general momentum or wave vector variable mean free path or scattering length mean free path (ﬁrst Born approximation) phase breaking mean free path inelastic scattering length normalization length or system size in 1D Fermi wave length irreducible four-point function mass (electrons and general particles) eﬀective interaction renormalized mass chemical potential general quantum number label particle density Fermi-Dirac distribution function Bose-Einstein distribution function impurity density number of particles number of impurities general quantum number label frequency variable phonon dispersion relation Matsubara frequency thermodynamic potential general momentum or wave number variable Matsubara frequency (fermion) retarded current-current correlation function retarded current-current correlation function Matsubara current-current correlation function free pair-bubble diagram LIST OF SYMBOLS Deﬁnition Eq. iqn ) in Eq. paramagnetic term current density operator.99a) Sec.26) Chap. (15. (1. 1.4.

6 Sec. 4.2 Sec. τk uj u(R0 ) uk U ˆ U (t. 1. 12.10) Sec. 7. t ) ˆ U (τ. 7.1 Eq.2 . 12. 7.5. (2.96) Eq. (1. τ ) Meaning general momentum variable Matsubara frequency (bosons) general space variable reﬂection matrix coming from left reﬂection matrix coming from right electron gas density parameter density matrix unperturbed density matrix particle density operator (real space) particle density opetor (momentum space) entropy scattering matrix general spin index conductivity tensor retarded self-energy (Fourier space) Matsubara self-energy impurity scattering self-energy ﬁrst Born approximation full Born approximation self-consistent Born approximation general electron self-energy general electron self-energy Fock self-energy Hartree self-energy pair-bubble self-energy RPA electron self-energy general time variable tranmission matrix coming from left transmission matrix coming from right kinetic energy general imaginary time variable transport scattering time life-time in the ﬁrst Born approximation ion displacement (1D) ion displacement (3D) BCS coherence factor general unitary matrix real time-evolution operator.3 11. ikn ) Σk Σ1BA k ΣFBA k ΣSCBA k Σ(l.5.39) Sec.1 11. j) Σσ (k. interaction picture Deﬁnition xv Sec. 7.1 Sec. ikn ) σ ΣH (k. ikn ) σ ΣP (k. Sec.LIST OF SYMBOLS Symbol q qn r r r rs ρ ρ0 ρσ (r) ρσ (q) S S σ σαβ (rt. Sec. Sec.5 Eq. interaction picture imaginary time-evolution operator. 11. (13. 7. 12. ikn ) σ ΣRPA (k.6 Sec.4 Sec.5. ikn ) ΣF (k.1 Sec.37) Sec.1 Eq.6 Eq. ikn ) σ t t t T τ τ tr τ0 .96) Sec. ω) Σ(q.5. (14. (1. 6. r t ) ΣR (q.1 Sec.5 11.

2 BCS coherence factor general single impurity potential Coulomb interaction combined Coulomb and phonon-mediated interaction normalization volume pair interaction Hamiltonian general pair interaction Coulomb interaction RPA-screened Coulomb interaction εk − µ εν − µ Matsubara charge-charge correlation function RPA Matsubara charge-charge correlation function irreducible Matsubara charge-charge correlation function free retarded charge-charge correlation function free Matsubara charge-charge correlation function retarded charge-charge correlation function retarded charge-charge correlation function (Fourier) transverse wavefunction single-particle wave function. W (q) W RPA ξk ξν χ(q.4 Eq. iqn ) χirr (q. . r t ) χR (q.2 Sec. 13. 13.4 Sec. 1. quantum number ν single-particle scattering states n-particle wave function (ﬁrst quantization) quantum ﬁeld annihilation operator quantum ﬁeld creation operator Heaviside’s step function Sec. iqn ) χ0 (rt. ω) χn (y) ψν (r) ± ψnE ψ(r1 . (1.1 Sec. .6 Sec.5.xvi Symbol vk V (r).3. 7.39) Sec.4 Sec. V (q) V (r). 13. . (6. 7. 13.3. r2 . V (q) Veﬀ V W W (r). 1.1 Sec.4 Sec. . iqn ) χRPA (q. 13. rn ) Ψσ (r) Ψ† (r) σ θ(x) Meaning LIST OF SYMBOLS Deﬁnition Sec. r t ) χ0 (q. W (q) W (r).6 Eq.2 Sec. 4. iqn ) χR (rt. 13.12) .

1928). The scale factors are denoted the eigenvalues of the operator. the original form of quantum mechanics is denoted ﬁrst quantization. By convention. It is a fundamental theorem of Hilbert space theory that the set of all eigenvectors of any given Hermitian operator forms a complete basis set of the Hilbert space. be it ﬁrst or second quantization. and one therefore mostly deals with normalized state vectors. The starting point is the notion of quantum states and the observables of the system under consideration. 1927). By measurement of the type B the quantum state can be prepared to be in an eigenstate |φβ of the operator B. while quantum ﬁeld theory is formulated in the language of second quantization. quantum physics ﬁrst dealt only with the quantization of the motion of particles leaving the electromagnetic ﬁeld classical. Only the inclusion of gravitation stands out as an unsolved problem in fundamental quantum theory. hence the name quantum mechanics (Heisenberg. resulting in the development of quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum ﬁeld theory (QFT) in general. and that all observables are represented by Hermitian operators acting on that space. from the study of elementary particles on the sub-nucleonic scale to the study of neutron stars and other astrophysical objects on the cosmological scale. Regardless of the representation. It has successfully been applied to explain phenomena ranging over many orders of magnitude. certain basic concepts are always present in the formulation of quantum theory. If one in this state measures the dynamical variable associated with the operator A. one cannot in general predict the outcome with 1 . Any given Hermitian operator A has a number of eigenstates |ψα that up to a real scale factor α is left invariant by the action of the operator. Schr¨dinger. and even the particles themselves got represented by quantized ﬁelds (Jordan and Wigner. Historically. This state can also be expressed as a superposition of eigenstates |ψα of the operator A as |φβ = α |ψα Cαβ . In general the eigenstates |ψα and |φβ of two diﬀerent Hermitian operators A and B are not the same.Chapter 1 First and second quantization Quantum theory is the most complete microscopic theory we have today describing the physics of energy and matter. Parallel state vectors represent the same physical state. Later also the electromagnetic ﬁeld was o quantized (Dirac. and Dirac 1925-26). Quantum theory postulates that all quantum states are represented by state vectors in a Hilbert space. A|ψα = α|ψα .

1 First quantization. the norm squared of |ψ is given by ψ|ψ . moving in an external electromagnetic ﬁeld described by the potentials ϕ(r. Merzbacher. The state function (also denoted the wave function) and the ket are related by 1 ψk. ↑ . The corresponding Hamiltonian is H= 1 2m 2 r i + eA(r. through Schr¨dinger’s equation o i ∂t |ψ(t) = H|ψ(t) . However. The time evolution of a state vector |ψ(t) is governed by the central operator in quantum mechanics. and use standard geometrical terminology. This introduction is not complete in all details. (1. t) − eϕ(r. and |ψ and |φ are said to be orthogonal if ψ|φ = 0. In this chapter we will brieﬂy review standard ﬁrst quantization for one and manyparticle systems. This non-causal element of quantum theory is also known as the collapse of the wavefunction. For more complete reviews the reader is refereed to the textbooks by Dirac. ψ|φ between adjoint “bra” states ψ| and “ket” states |φ . “bra(c)kets”. the Hamiltonian H (the operator associated with the total energy of the system).g. t). Landau and Lifshitz. It is only described in probabilistic terms. and Dzyaloshinskii. A further connection between the direct and the adjoint Hilbert space is given by the relation ψ|φ = φ|ψ ∗ . or Shankar. by the inner product of the position bra r| with the state ket.2 CHAPTER 1. single-particle systems For simplicity consider a non-relativistic particle. If {|ψα } is an orthonormal basis of the Hilbert space. (1. between collapse events the time evolution of quantum states is perfectly deterministic. For a given operator A the adjoint operator A† is deﬁned by demanding ψ|A† |φ = φ|A|ψ ∗ for any |ψ and |φ . and Abrikosov. Using the Dirac notation the state ket can be written as |ψk. t).3) i. The probability of having any given |ψα as the outcome is given as the absolute square |Cαβ |2 of the associated expansion coeﬃcient. σ is not always a useful starting point for calculations.2) An eigenstate describing a free spin-up electron travelling inside a box of volume V can be written as a product of a propagating plane wave and a spin-up spinor. (1. which also leads to the deﬁnition of adjoint operators.1) Each state vector |ψ is associated with an adjoint state vector (|ψ )† ≡ ψ|. e. where electrons orbiting a point-like positively . Gorkov. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION certainty. and we refer the interested reader to the textbooks by Mahan. 1.↑ = |k. σ = √V eik·r χσ (free particle orbital). One can form inner products. For example in atomic physics.σ (r) = r|k.e. say an electron with charge −e. then the above mentioned expansion coeﬃcient Cαβ is found by forming inner products: Cαβ = ψα |φβ . Based on this we will introduce second quantization. where one simply lists the relevant quantum numbers in the ket. t) and A(r. The plane wave representation |k. Fetter and Walecka.

1. The completeness of a basis state as well as the normalization of the state vectors play a central role in quantum theory. σ). charged nucleus are considered. ky . kz . Loosely speaking the normalization condition means that with probability unity a particle in a given quantum state ψν (r) must be somewhere in space: dr |ψν (r)|2 = 1. In general a complete set of quantum numbers is denoted ν . m. Recall that r|n. kz .m (θ. .m (θ. σ . σ = Rnl (r)Yl. 1. l.4) where Rnl (r) is a radial Coulomb function with n−l nodes. 0. A third example is an electron moving in a constant magnetic ﬁeld B = B ez . where n is an integer. or in the Dirac notation: 1 = dr ν|r r|ν = ν| ( dr |r r|) |ν . ky . ky . σ). σ are much more useful.1: The probability density | r|ψν |2 in the xy plane for (a) any plane wave ν = (kx . m. Recall that r|n.5) where = /eB is the magnetic length and Hn is the normalized Hermite polynomial of order n associated with the harmonic oscillator potential induced by the magnetic ﬁeld. σ). φ) is a spherical harmonic representing angular momentum l with a z component m.7) . kz . From this we conclude dr |r r| = 1. Examples of each of these three types of electron orbitals are shown in Fig. (1. 2. σ) each yielding a state function of the form ψν (r) = r|ν . FIRST QUANTIZATION. (b) the hydrogen orbital ν = (4. 0. the completeness of a set of basis states ψν (r) means that if a particle is in some state ψ(r) it must be found with probability unity within the orbitals of the basis 2 set: ν | ν|ψ | = 1. ky . . ky .6) Similarly. l.1. (1. ky . and we conclude |ν ν| = 1. while Yl. and σ the spin variable. which in the Landau gauge A = xB ey leads to the Landau eigenstates |n. and ν = (n. and (c) the Landau orbital ν = (3. The three examples given above corresponds to ν = (kx . (1. σ = Hn (x/ −ky )e− 2 (x/ 1 −ky )2 √ 1 Ly Lz ei(ky y+kz z) χσ (Landau orbital). l. φ)χσ (hydrogen orbital). ky (kz ) is the y (z) component of k.1. the hydrogenic eigenstates |n. SINGLE-PARTICLE SYSTEMS ¢ ¤ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ 3 Figure 1. ν (1. σ). kz . σ). m. kz . Again using the Dirac notation we ﬁnd 1 = ν ψ|ν ν|ψ = ψ| ( ν |ν ν|) |ψ . ν = (n.

rN ) in j=1 the 3N −dimensional conﬁguration space. for x > 0. (1. (1. (1. i. (1. electrons.n = 1. .↓ n=0 Ly dky −∞ 2π ∞ Lz dkz . say. . As for one particle this N -particle state function is interpreted as a probability amplitude such that its absolute square is related to a probability: The probability for ﬁnding the N particles N in the 3N −dimensional volume N drj 2 j=1 (1.9) In the mathematical formulation of quantum theory we shall often encounter the following special functions. . which can be expressed as ψ(r) = ν ψν (r) ∗ dr ψν (r )ψ(r ) or r|ψ = ν r|ν ν|ψ . (1. to the N -particle state function ψ(r1 . FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION We shall often use the completeness relation Eq. rN )| drj = surrounding the point (r1 . In that case the symbol ν is to be interpreted as a combination of both summations and integrations. and Lz .10) Dirac’s delta-function δ(r) for continuous variables. δ(r) = 0. for k = n. Ly .n for discrete variables. r2 .12) 1.5) with Landau orbitals in a box with side lengths Lx . .13) |ψ(r1 . 0. while dr δ(r) = 1. r2 . Kronecker’s delta-function δk.2 First quantization.e. for k = n. . . . . three more assumptions are added to the basic assumptions deﬁning quantum theory. For example in the case in Eq.11) and Heaviside’s step-function θ(x) for continuous variables. A simple example is the expansion of a state function in a given basis: ψ(r) = r|ψ = r|1|ψ = r| ( ν |ν ν|) |ψ = ν r|ν ν|ψ .4 CHAPTER 1.7). for x < 0. for r = 0. we have ∞ = ν σ=↑. which (neglecting the spin degree of freedom for the time being) is a complex wave function in 3-dimensional space. The ﬁrst assumption is the natural extension of the single-particle state function ψ(r). 1. (1. . . a system containing N identical particles. which is a complex function in the 3N -dimensional conﬁguration space. r2 .8) It should be noted that the quantum label ν can contain both discrete and continuous quantum numbers. rN ). δk. −∞ 2π ∞ (1. . θ(x) = 0. many-particle systems When turning to N -particle systems. . .

rj . . Not even in principle is it possible to mark a particle without inﬂuencing its physical state. charge and spin. . rk . From the indistinguishability of particles follows that if two coordinates in an N particle state function are interchanged the same physical state results. rj . rk . .. . It thus explains the periodic table of the elements. (1. and it has been introduced due to overwhelming experimental evidence. .. . . Such exotic beasts are called anyons . MANY-PARTICLE SYSTEMS 5 1. 1 This discrete permutation symmetry is always obeyed. . If the same two coordinates then are interchanged a second time.g. are in principle indistinguishable. . . the so-called bosons and fermions1 : ψ(r1 . rN ) = −ψ(r1 . rN ) (bosons). i. . rk . rN ) = λψ(r1 .15a) (1.. . .15b) The importance of the assumption of indistinguishability of particles in quantum physics cannot be exaggerated. rk . . . . rj . .. .e. . . .1 Permutation symmetry and indistinguishability A fundamental diﬀerence between classical and quantum mechanics concerns the concept of indistinguishability of identical particles. For fermions it immediately leads to the Pauli exclusion principle stating that two fermions cannot occupy the same state. . .. . rN ). . . ... ... For bosons the assumption is necessary to understand Planck’s radiation law for the electromagnetic ﬁeld. Thus in principle each particle in a group of identical particles can be identiﬁed. rk . we end with the exact same state function. . rk .. rN ) = +ψ(r1 . It furthermore plays a fundamental role in the studies of the nature of stars and of the scattering processes in high energy physics.. . . .. and moreover it follows its own continuous path in phase space. . their wavefunctions will rapidly spread out and overlap with one another. and spectacular phenomena like Bose–Einstein condensation. some quasiparticles in 2D exhibit any phase eiφ . and worse. upon adiabatic interchange. a colored spot on a billiard ball) without inﬂuencing its behavior. . . if a number of identical particles are brought to the same region in space. and consequently the starting point in our understanding of atomic physics.. ψ(r1 . . (1. rN ) = λ2 ψ(r1 . . In classical mechanics each particle can be equipped with an identifying marker (e.. condensed matter physics and chemistry. . because if in Eq. (1. . . rj . superﬂuidity and laser light. However. rN ) (fermions). a so-called Berry phase.. . . . rj . . . . rk . rj . .14) and we conclude that λ2 = 1 or λ = ±1. .. . thereby soon render it impossible to say which particle is where..15b) we let rj = rk then ψ = 0 follows. ψ(r1 . and the corresponding state function can at most diﬀer from the original one by a simple prefactor λ. . . .1. Only two species of particles are thus possible in quantum physics. . . This is not so in quantum mechanics. rj . . .2.. The second fundamental assumption for N -particle systems is therefore that identical particles. particles characterized by the same quantum numbers such as mass. FIRST QUANTIZATION. .2.

. . (1.18) leads to ψ(˜1 . . ν ∗ dr ψν (r)ψν (r) = δν. r2 ..17) r This can be inverted by multiplying with ψν1 (˜1 ) and summing over ν1 . FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION 1. . . . . . . .. . rN ) = r ν1 ψν1 (˜1 )Aν1 (r2 .6 CHAPTER 1. .. .21) hidden in the coefﬁcients Aν1 .21) where Aν1 .ν2 ψν1 (˜1 )ψν2 (˜2 )Aν1 . (1...ν2 (r3 . . .νN . . rN ) we form the (N − 1)-particle function Aν1 (r2 . .ν . . . we know from the discussion on indistinguishability that physically it is not a useful basis since the coordinates have to appear in a symmetric way. . . The symmetry requirements from Eqs.16) Starting from an arbitrary N -particle state ψ(r1 . rN ) by projecting onto the basis state ψν1 (r1 ): Aν1 (r2 . . .νN Aν1 . Even though the product states N ψνj (rj ) in a mathematical sense form a perfectly j=1 valid basis for the N -particle Hilbert space. .. rN ) from Aν1 (r2 . . .. r2 .νN ψν1 (r1 )ψν2 (r2 ) . ... . ψνN (rN ) of single-particle state functions is obtained by ..ν2 . which upon insertion into Eq. ψνN (rN ).ν2 .2 The single-particle states as basis states We now show that the basis states for the N -particle system can be built from any complete orthonormal single-particle basis {ψν (r)}... . rN ). (1.. .20) Continuing all the way through ˜N (and then writing r instead of ˜) we end up with r r ψ(r1 .19) Like before. . . . rN ) = ν1 .ν2 (r3 . rN ) ≡ ∗ dr2 ψν2 (r2 )Aν1 (r2 . . (1. . (1.18) Now deﬁne analogously Aν1 . . . rN ). (1. . ∗ ψν (r )ψν (r) = δ(r − r ). . . (1. .. we can invert this expression to give Aν1 in terms of Aν1 . rN ). . . . . r r (1.νN is just a complex number... .ν2 . . .2. . . .ν2 (r3 . rN ): Aν1 . rN ) ≡ ∗ dr1 ψν1 (r1 )ψ(r1 . ˜2 . A physical meaningful basis bringing the N coordinates on equal footing in the products ψν1 (r1 )ψν2 (r2 ) . . . r (1. which therefore ought to be explicitly incorporated in the basis states. . rN ) = r r ν1 . r3 . ψ(˜1 . Thus any N -particle state function can be written as a (rather complicated) linear superposition of product states containing N factors of single-particle basis states. No physical perturbation can ever break the fundamental fermion or boson symmetry. rN ). .15b) are in Eq.15a) and (1.

e.24) Here SN is the group of the N ! permutations p on the set of N coordinates3 . . . . and sign(p). @ 1 A . .νN ˆ Bν1 .. . a so-called permanent. ψνN (rN ). .. ψ(r1 . . used in the Slater determinant. (1. .ν2 . . 0 or 1 for fermions and between 0 and N for bosons. . . 3 + 2 − 3 − 1 + 2 + 1 − √1 .and 2 Note that to obtain a normalized state on the right hand side in Eq.21) gets replaced by the following. ... i. . . .. @ 3 A .. ... MANY-PARTICLE SYSTEMS 7 ˆ applying the bosonic symmetrization operator S+ or the fermionic anti-symmetrization ˆ− deﬁned by the following determinants and permanent:2 operator S N ˆ S± j=1 ψνj (rj ) = ψν1 (r1 ) ψν2 (r1 ) . . is the sign of the permutation p. . ψν1 (rN ) . . . ψνN (rN ) + ψν1 (r1 ) ψν2 (r1 ) . ψν2 (rN ) = . j=1 (1. (1... N ψνj (rp(j) ) . . the Pauli principle.e.... p∈SN ψνN (r1 ) ψνN (r2 ) . r2 . which in physics are denoted Slater determinants.1. ψν2 (rN ) = . . |νN }. . N ψνj (rp(j) ) sign(p). where the new expansion coeﬃcients Bν1 . ψν1 (rN ) . . . @ 3 A . . .νN S± ψν1 (r1 )ψν2 (r2 ) . . .2. 1 (and thus nν ! = 1) so here the prefactor reduces to 3 For0 = 1 we 0 3 have.3 Operators in ﬁrst quantization We now turn to the third assumption needed to complete the quantum theory of N particle systems. . N! nν ! √1 N! . ψν1 (r2 ) ψν2 (r2 ) . @ 2 A : . . . . . Note how in the fermion case νj = νk leads to ψ = 0.. .and few-particle operators deﬁned for single. . ψνN (rN ) − ψν1 (r1 ) ψν2 (r1 ) . ψν1 (r2 ) ψν2 (r2 ) . ± . . rN ) = ν1 .22) a prefactor Q ν 1 √ must be inserted..ν2 . . . @ 1 A . 8N 1 0 1 9 1 1 2 2 3 3 < = S3 = @ 2 A ... . ψν1 (rN ) ψν2 (rN ) . . .1 0 signs 0 the1 0 with the 1 of permutations as subscripts. .. (1. . . |ν2 .νN are completely symmetric in their ν-indices. ψν1 (r2 ) ψν2 (r2 ) . . j=1 (1..2. For fermions nν = 0. 1. The fermion case involves ordinary determinants. i. p∈SN ψνN (r1 ) ψνN (r2 ) . .25) We need not worry about the precise relation between the two sets of coeﬃcients A and B since we are not going to use it. ψνN (rN ) where nν is the number of times the state |ν appears in the set {|ν1 . . Using the symmetrized basis states the expansion in Eq. . FIRST QUANTIZATION.22) ψνN (r1 ) ψνN (r2 ) . (1. It states that single. . .23) while the boson case involves a sign-less determinant.

31) where Vνc νd .νn |ψνn (r1 ) . Let us begin with one-particle operators deﬁned on single-particle states described by the coordinate rj . i. In this course we will only work with one.30) ∗ ∗ drj drk ψνc (rj )ψνd (rk )V (rj −rk )ψνa (rj )ψνb (rk ). j.νb Tνb νa |ψνb (rj ) ψνa (rj )|. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION few-particle states remain unchanged when acting on N -particle states.32) . (1. ∗ drj ψνb (rj ) T (rj . . For a two-particle sys0 tem described by the coordinates rj and rk in the |ν -representation with basis states |ψνa (rj ) |ψνb (rk ) we have the usual deﬁnition of Vjk : Vjk = νa νb νc νd j k Vνc νd . (1.g.26) (1. takes the following form in the r |ν -representation for a single-particle system: 2 Tj where Tνb νa = νa .k=j (1. introduce the operator of the total interaction energy Vtot .27) = ψνa (rj ).νa νb = In the N -particle system we must again take the symmetric combination of the coordinates. say e. We move on to discuss symmetric two-particle operators Vjk . A given local one-particle operator Tj = T (rj . |ψνn (rN ) . It is straight forward to extend j this result to the proper symmetrized basis states. . j 1 N Here the Kronecker delta comes from νa |νnj = δνa .and two-particle operators.e.νn .28) and the action of Ttot on a simple product state is Ttot |ψνn (r1 ) |ψνn (r2 ) . rj ) (1. In an N -particle system all N particle coordinates must appear in a symmetrical way. N Ttot = j=1 Tj .νa νb |ψνc (rj ) |ψνd (rk ) ψνa (rj )| ψνb (rk )| (1. rj ). |ψνn (rN ) 1 2 N (1. N Vtot = j>k Vjk 1 = 2 N Vjk .29) N = j=1 νa νb Tνb νa δνa . hence the proper kinetic energy operator in this case must be the total (symmetric) kinetic energy operator Ttot associated with all the coordinates.8 CHAPTER 1. . the kinetic ~ energy operator − 2m 2j or an external potential V (rj ). . |ψνb (rj ) . . . such as the Coulomb e2 1 interaction V (rj − rk ) = 4π |r −r | between a pair of electrons.

As we shall see.3 Second quantization. BASIC CONCEPTS ¢ £ 9 Figure 1. 1. 2 HHe = − 2m 2 1 − Ze2 1 4π 0 r1 2 + − 2m This Hamiltonian consists of four one-particle operators and one two-particle operator. 2. basic concepts Many-particle physics is formulated in terms of the so-called second quantization representation also known by the more descriptive name occupation number representation.2 that determinants or permanent of single-particle states form a basis for the Hilbert space of N -particle states. |ψνc (rj ) . . |ψνn (rN ) . . 4π 0 |r1 − r2 | (1. The starting point of this formalism is the notion of indistinguishability of particles discussed in Sec. . 0. Vtot acts as follows: Vtot |ψνn (r1 ) |ψνn (r2 ) .2: The position vectors of the two electrons orbiting the helium nucleus and the single-particle probability density P (r1 ) = dr2 1 |ψν1 (r1 )ψν2 (r2 )+ψν2 (r1 )ψν1 (r2 )|2 for the 2 symmetric two-particle state based on the single-particle orbitals |ν1 = |(3.νn δνb .33) Tj + 1 2 N Vjk . SECOND QUANTIZATION.νa νb δνa .3. 0. ↑) and |ν2 = |(4. which in a simple form neglecting spin interactions can be thought of as two electrons with coordinates r = r1 and r = r2 orbiting around a nucleus with charge Z = +2 at r = 0. j=k (1.1 combined with the observation in Sec. Compare with the single orbital |(4. see also Fig. 2. 1. j=k νa νb νc νd j k 1 N A typical Hamiltonian for an N -particle system thus takes the form N H = Ttot + Vtot = j=1 A speciﬁc example is the Hamiltonian for the helium atom.34) 2 2 − Ze2 1 4π 0 r2 + e2 1 . .νn |ψνn (r1 ) . . |ψνd (rk ) . ↓) depicted in Fig. 1. . |ψνn (rN ) 1 2 N = 1 2 N Vνc νd .1(b). 1.35) .2.1. 1.2. ¢ £ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ £ ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¥ ¤ (1. 2. .2. . quantum theory can be formulated in terms of occupation numbers of these single-particle states. ↓) . 1.

(bosons).3. = B+ (nνj ) | .38) nνj = 0. The only non-zero matrix elements of b† j are nνj+1|b† j |nνj . (1. . . . b† j | . It is clear from the form S± ψνn (r1 )ψνn (r2 ) . . . where FN = span{|nν1 . . . ψνn (rN ) of the 1 2 N basis states in Eq. . states containing a diﬀerent number of particles are deﬁned to be orthogonal. 2.1 some of the fermionic and bosonic basis states in the occupation number representation are shown.39) where B+ (nνj ) is a normalization constant to be determined. . (1. while for bosons it can be any non-negative number. . nνj .37) nνj |nνj = nνj |nνj . nνj−1 . Given the occupation number operator it is natural to introduce the creation operator b† j that raises the occupation ν number in the state |νj by 1. .. The adjoint of b† j is found by complex conjugation as nνj + 1|b† j |nνj ∗ = ν ν † † † † nνj |(bνj ) |nνj +1 . . . |ν3 . 1. ν (1. It can be deﬁned as F = F0 ⊕ F1 ⊕ F2 ⊕ . Consequently. . In Table. nνj+1 . . .3. | j nνj = N }. nν2 . and as eigenvalues have the number nνj of particles occupying the state νj . N −particle basis states : |nν1 . the ordering being of paramount ˆ importance for fermions. . which lowers the occupation number of state |νj by 1. . . The space spanned by the occupation number basis is denoted the Fock space F. . where for brevity we only explicitly write the occupation ν ν number for νj . . This simpliﬁcation is achieved with the occupation number representation. nνj+1 . . 1 (fermions) (1. nνj + 1.40) . (1. . nν2 . . . . .23). nνj+1 . . . j nνj = N. . nνj−1 .1 The occupation number representation The ﬁrst step in deﬁning the occupation number representation is to choose any ordered and complete single-particle basis {|ν1 . (1. Naturally.36) It is therefore natural to deﬁne occupation number operators nνj which as eigenstates have ˆ the basis states |nνj . nνj−1 . . |ν2 .10 CHAPTER 1. . nνj+1 . . . . = B− (nνj ) | .}. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION 1. Note how by virtue of the direct sum. nνj − 1. nν3 . (1. It must somehow be simpler to formulate a representation where one just counts how many particles there are in each orbital |ν . .25) that in each term only the occupied single-particle states |νnj play a role. . nνj−1 . 0. 1. (1. nνj . . This will be answered in the next section. The basis states for an N -particle system in the occupation number representation are obtained simply by listing the occupation numbers of each basis state. . the question arises how to connect the occupation number basis Eq.2 The boson creation and annihilation operators To connect ﬁrst and second quantization we ﬁrst treat bosons. ˆ We shall show later that for fermions nνj can be 0 or 1. 1. . . . bνj | . one deﬁnes the annihilation operator bνj ≡ (bνj ) .36) with the ﬁrst quantization basis Eq. .

. However. 0. . . . nν2 . ν ν [bνj .. 1. .. . Let us proceed by investigating the properties of b† j and bνj further... B] = 0 ⇒ BA = AB. 0. 0.. |2. . |0. boson basis states |nν1 . = | . . 0. valid for the state |0 . . |0. B] for two operators A and B is deﬁned as [A. 1. . 0. . . . 1. .. ν (1. 0.. .. . . But since ν † ∗ = 0|b |1 . . . 0. 0. . . . .1. |1. |1. . |0. . it also follows that b | . .. 0. . . . 0. . 0. .νk . = | . 11 The creation and annihilation operators b† j and bνj are the fundamental operators in the ν occupation number formalism. 0. .. . . |1. . . . . . .41) We demand further that if j = k then bνj and b† k commute. . 0. i. N 0 1 2 . 0. 0. |1.. b† k ] = δνj . . . 0. bνk ] = 0. = 0. . 0. 0. 1. .e. . . .. . . B+ (0) = 1. if j = k we must ν be careful. B− (0) = 0. 0. ν ν ν we have [bνj . ..42) By deﬁnition b† and bν are not Hermitian. 1. |0. 1. so that [A. |0. 1. nν3 . . . SECOND QUANTIZATION. 2. 1.1: Some occupation number basis states for N -particle systems. |0. 1.. The commutator [A. 0. . 0. . |0. We also have the freedom to normalize the operators by demanding b† j | . 0.. . 1. |0. [bνj . . . . 0. . b† k ] = 0. . 1. . . 1. . |1. . 0. 0. (1. . 0. the product b† bν is. we deﬁne the operator algebra for the bosonic creation and annihilation operators by the following three commutation relations: [b† j . ν also to be valid as an operator identity in general. 1. i. 0. As we will demonstrate later any operator can be expressed in terms of them. 1. . . Since bosons ν are symmetric in the single-particle state index νj we of course demand that b† j and b† k ν ν must commute. . . . . . i. 0. b† j ] |0 = |0 . . |1. 0..e. |0. . B (1) = 1. and hence by Hermitian conjugation that also bνj and bνk commute.e. . . 0. However. . . . . . 1. . . 1. 0. 0. . 0... . 0. .3. i. 0.. |1.42) we show below that this operator in fact is the .e. . . |0. . . 2. 0. . . We assume this commutation relation. BASIC CONCEPTS Table 1. . . 1. . 1|bνj |0 − νj νj It is clear that bνj and b† j do not commute: bνj b† j |0 = |0 while b† j bνj |0 = 0. 0. . and by ν ν using the operator algebra Eq.. . 1. nν3 . fermion basis states |nν1 . 0. . B] ≡ AB − BA. 0. ... nν2 . 0.. . (1. 0. . and we calculate the consequences of this assumption. |0. 0. It is evident that since an unoccupied state can not be emptied further we must demand bνj | . 1. 0. . N 0 1 2 . . In summary. |0. 0.. . . . .

while bν eventually ν hits |0 and annihilates it yielding 0.44) i. ν If λ0 is not a non-negative integer this lowering process can continue until a negative eigenvalue is encountered. Now choose a particular λ0 and study bν |φλ0 . b† n |0 .45) (1. Firstly. Note that b† can act indeﬁnitely. but this violates the condition λ0 > 0. Writing |φλ = |nν we have shown that b† bν |nν = nν |nν and ν bν |nν ∝ |nν − 1 . b† bν |nν = nν |nν .46b) (b† |nν ν )= nν |bν b† |nν ν = nν + 1.e.42) leads immediately to the following ˆ two very important commutation relations: [b† bν . for any state |φ we note that φ|b† bν |φ is the norm of the state bν |φ and hence ν a positive real number (unless |φ = |0 for which bν |0 = 0). Eq. . 2. The normalization factors for b† and bν are found from ν ν bν |nν b† |nν ν Hence we arrive at b† bν = nν .Figure 1. § ¦ ¢ ¥ £ ¢ ¤ £ ¢¨© © ¨ ¨© ¨© ¨© © ¨ © ¨ ¨© ¨© ¢ ¡ = (bν |nν )† (bν |nν ) = nν |b† bν |nν = nν .e. Analogously. .. 1. and we conclude that λ = n = 0. occupation number operator nν .43) Secondly. bν |φλ0 is also an eigenstate of b† bν . b† |nν ∝ |nν + 1 . . 2.46a) (1. r r r ν ν ν 1 2 N 1 2 N where both sides contain N -particle state-kets completely symmetric in the single-particle state index νnj . we ﬁnd that (b† bν )b† |nν = (n + 1)b† |nν . . ˆ S+ |ψνn (˜1 ) |ψνn (˜2 ) . (b† )nν |0 = nν ! |nν . . FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION (1. Let |φλ be any eigenstate of b† bν . . nν = 0. bν ] = −bν ν [b† bν . (1. .49) . i. but with the eigenvalue reduced by 1 to (λ0 − 1). ν = (b† |nν ν ) † 12 CHAPTER 1.48) ν ν 2 2 and we can therefore identify the ﬁrst and second quantized basis states. ν ν ν (1. (1. ˆ ν bν |nν = √ nν |nν − 1 . . ν ν We ﬁnd that (b† bν )bν |φλ0 = (bν b† − 1)bν |φλ0 = bν (b† bν − 1)|φλ0 = bν (λ0 − 1)|φλ0 .47) ν √ √ b† |nν = nν + 1 |nν + 1 . b† ] = b† . . ν ν ν (1.3: The action of the bosonic creation operator b† and adjoint annihilation operator ν bν in the occupation number space. . 1. (1. ν ν ν i. |ψνn (˜N ) = b† n b† n . b† bν |φλ = λ|φλ with λ > 0. (1.e.

{cνj . ν ν {cνj .54) is (c† j )2 = 0. . . . (1. ν (cνj )2 = 0. nνj +1. . . . . = | . .51) But to maintain the fundamental fermionic antisymmetry upon exchange of orbitals apparent in Eq. also the order of the occupied states has a meaning. . . . . . . . . respectively. nνj−1 . . we have {cνj . nνk = 1. 0. and by using the operator ν algebra Eq. . But since ν 1|c† j |0 ∗ = 0|cνj |1 it follows that cνj | . nνj . . nνj = 1. if j = k we again must ν be careful. . . . nνj+1 . 0. . nνj+1 . so that {A. . nνj = 1. = | . However. nνj −1.55) Now. i. nνk = 1. . (1. . ν ν ν i.e. . (1. . . . cν ] = −cν ν [c† cν . . . ν ν ν (1. 1.3.3. C− (0) = 0. (1. It is evident that since an unoccupied state can not be emptied further we must demand cνj | . . nνj+1 . . c† j } |0 = |0 . nνj . nνj+1 . c† ] = c† . . nνj−1 . . . .23) it is in the fermionic case not suﬃcient just to list the occupation numbers of the states. . . . C− (1) = 1. nνj−1 . . We also have the freedom to normalize the operators by demanding c† j | . . . . c† k } = 0. = C− (nνj ) | . . SECOND QUANTIZATION. . now denoted c† j and cνj . In analogy with Eq. . as for bosons we introduce the Hermitian operator c† cν . . we deﬁne the operator algebra for the fermionic creation and annihilation operators by the following three anticommutation relations: {c† j . .56) so that c† and cν steps the eigenvalues of c† cν up and down by one. c† k } = δνj .53) For j = k we also demand that cνj and c† k anti-commute. We assume this anti-commutation relation to be valid as ν an operator identity and calculate the consequences. The anti-commutator {A. B} = 0 ⇒ BA = −AB. . . .54) we show below that this operator in fact is the occupation number operator nν . ν (1. . C+ (0) = 1. . 1. . . .43) we ﬁnd ˆ [c† cν . .3 The fermion creation and annihilation operators Also for fermions it is natural to introduce creation and annihilation operators. so that ν ν ν ν ν ν . . (1. . i. 0.e. .1.52) and consequently we must have that c† j and c† k anti-commute.νk . . (1. . being the Hermitian adjoint of each other: ν c† j | . . . . . We must therefore demand | . .50) (1. nνj−1 . In summary. . . From ν ν Eqs. . = C+ (nνj ) | . ν It is clear that cνj and c† j do not anti-commute: cνj c† j |0 = |0 while c† j cνj |0 = 0. . = 0. and hence by Hermitian ν ν conjugation that also cνj and cνk anti-commute. cνk } = 0. . (1. B} ≡ AB + BA. . ν cνj | .54) and (1. . .55) we have (c† cν )2 = c† (cν c† )cν = c† (1 − c† cν )cν = c† cν . (1.e. i. BASIC CONCEPTS 13 1. . = −| . . B} for two operators A and B is deﬁned as {A.e. (1.54) An immediate consequence of the anti-commutation relations Eq.

and c† cν thus only has 0 and 1 as eigenvalues leading to a simple ν ν ν normalization for c† and cν . . . (1.3. ν i. . . ν (1. ˆ ν cν |0 = 0. ν and we can readily identify the ﬁrst and second quantized basis states. .e.4 The general form for second quantization operators In second quantization all operators can be expressed in terms of the fundamental creation and annihilation operators deﬁned in the previous two sections. We have p > 0 since otherwise both sides would yield zero. In this equation we then act with the bosonic symmetrization operator S+ on both sides.29) and (1. say. nν = 0. we have ν c† cν = nν . ˆ r S− |ψνn (˜1 ) |ψνn (˜2 ) . we would like to reinsert the operator b† nj at site nj on the right. . Utilizing that Ttot and S+ commute and invoking the basis state identity Eq. . (1. ν cν |1 = |0 . p times leading to a contribution (b† )p |0 . This rewriting of the ﬁrst quantized operators in Eqs. (1.57) (1. c† n |0 . c† cν |nν = nν |nν . on the left hand side.49) we obtain N site nj Ttot b† n . c† cν (c† cν − 1) = 0. .Figure 1. b† n |0 . .58) c† |0 = |1 . r r ν ν ν 1 2 N 1 2 N where both sides contain normalized N -particle state-kets completely anti-symmetric in the single-particle state index νnj in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.33) into their second quantized form is achieved by using the basis state identities Eqs. In summary. Note that both c† and cν can act at most ν twice before annihilating a state completely. To do this we focus on the state ν ≡ νnj . let us ﬁrst consider the single-particle operator Ttot from Eq. the state ν may appear.νn b† n . b† b .60) . Originally. On the right hand ν ¥¦ ¦ ¥ ¨ ¢ ¤ £© §¦ ¥ ©¥§¦ ¨ ¢ ¡ Tνb νa νa νb j=1 j 14 CHAPTER 1. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION (1.59) δνa . . 1 c† |1 = 0. |ψνn (˜N ) = c† n c† n .49) and (1. (1. 1. To ν make the kets on the two sides of the equation look alike.59) linking the two representations. ν ν ν 1 N (1.4: The action of the fermionic creation operator c† and the adjoint annihilation ν operator cν in the occupation number space. b† n |0 = ν ν 1 N where on the right hand side of the equation the operator b† b stands on the site nj .29) acting on a bosonic N -particle system. For simplicity.

which is extremely £ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¨ ¦ § ¦ £ © ¡ ¨ ¦ § ¦ ¥ £ ¢ ¡ (1. The dashed and wiggled lines represent the transition amplitudes for the one. ν ν ν 1 N Since this result is valid for any basis state b† n1 .64) . and we arrive at the simple result Ttot b† n . ν ν p p νb ν (1. the p operators b† can be redistributed to their original places as they appear on ν the left hand side of Eq. and a similar reasoning can be made for the fermion case (see Exercise 1.63) (1. (1.5: A graphical representation of the one.61) Now. . b† n |0 ν ν 1 N = a.and two-particle operators in second quantization: Ttot = νi . ν 1 Vνi νj . (1.and two-particle operators in second quantization. SECOND QUANTIZATION. b† nN |0 . . side the corresponding contribution has changed into b† b (b† )p−1 |0 . If we let a† denote either a boson operator b† or a fermion operator c† we can state the general form for one.1) when the necessary care is taken regarding the sign appearing from the anti-commutators in this case. Note the order of the indices. Operators in second quantization are thus composed of linear combinations of products of creation and annihilation operators weighted by the appropriate matrix elements of the operator calculated in ﬁrst quantization.5 a graphical representation of these fundamental operator expressions is shown. 1. b† n |0 .42). It is straightforward to generalize this result to two-particle (or any-number-of-particle) operators acting on boson states.48) as b† b (b† )p−1 |0 = b† b ν ν ν 1 † 1 † bν bν (b† )p−1 |0 = b b (b† )p |0 .3. respectively.νj Tνi νj a† i aνj .νn yields p identical j contributions cancelling the factor 1/p in Eq. ν ν 2νν i j Vtot = νk νl In Fig. The sum over j together with δνa .νk νl a† i a† j aνl aνk . .b Tνb νa b† b bνa b† n . (1.47) and (1. (1. This is then rewritten ν ν by use of Eqs.62) (1. .61). BASIC CONCEPTS £ ¢ ¡ £ ¤ ¡ £ ¤ ¡ 15 Figure 1.1.and two-particle processes contained in the operators. .60). it is actually an operator ν ν † identity stating Ttot = ij Tνi νj bνi bνj . The incoming and outgoing arrows represent initial and ﬁnal states. .

. Firstly. In this section we give the general transformation rules which are to be exploited throughout this course.} and {|ψµ1 . .67) follows from applying the ﬁrst quantization single-particle ˆ result Eq. (1.67) The general validity of Eq. νnN ˜ ψµn |ψνn N N ∗ † aνn N |0 . a† 2 ]± = a ˜µ νj νk ˜ ˜ ψµ1 |ψνj ψµ2 |ψνk ∗ [aνj .66) to the N -particle ﬁrst quantized basis states S± |ψνn .31). (1. that the basis transformation preserves the bosonic or fermionic particle statistics. ψνn leading to 1 N a† n a† n . The ﬁrst quantization matrix element can be read as a transition induced from the initial state |νk νl to the ﬁnal state |νi νj . The matrix elements are all in the simple non-symmetrized form of ν Eq.68) The transformation rules Eq. From the completeness condition Eq.16 CHAPTER 1. . |ψν2 . FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION important in the case of two-particle fermion operators. a† aµ = ˜µ ˜ µ µ νj νk ˜ ˜ ψνj |ψµ ψµ |ψνk a† j aνk = ν νj νk ψνj |ψνk a† j aνk = ν νj a† j aνj . (1.6): a† = ˜µ ν ˜ ψµ |ψν ∗ a† . ˜ ˜ Let {|ψν1 . a† n |0 = ˜µ ˜µ ˜µ 1 2 N ˜ ψµn |ψνn νn1 1 1 ∗ † aνn 1 . . |ψµ2 . |νi νj = a† i a† j |0 ..69) ˜ ˜ ψµ1 |ψνj ψνj |ψµ2 = δµ1 . (1. (1. .65) ν ν Note how all the permutation symmetry properties are taken care of by the operator algebra of a† and aν . = and secondly. (1. (1.66) In the case of single-particle systems we deﬁne quite naturally creation operators a† and ˜µ a† corresponding to the two basis sets. (1. 1.67) lead to two very desirable results. while the ﬁnal state is created by ﬁrst creating state |νj and then state |νi : |0 = aνl aνk |νk νl . that it leaves the total number of particles unchanged. . ν (1. In second quantization the initial state is annihilated by ﬁrst annihilating state |νk and then state |νl . (1.µ2 .66) that a† |0 = ˜µ ν ˜ ˜ |ψµ = ν ψµ |ψν ∗ a† |0 . ν aµ = ˜ ν ˜ ψµ |ψν aν .} be two diﬀerent complete and ordered single-particle basis sets. [˜µ1 .3. . . .5 Change of basis in second quantization Diﬀerent quantum operators are most naturally expressed in diﬀerent representations making basis changes a central issue in quantum physics. and ﬁnd directly from Eq..70) . (1.νk = νj νk νj (1. which guides us to the transformation rules for creation and ν annihilation operators (see also Fig.7) we have the basic transformation law for single-particle states: ˜ |ψµ = ν ˜ |ψν ψν |ψµ = ν ˜ ψµ |ψν ∗ |ψν . . a† k ]± ν ˜ ˜ ψµ1 |ψνj ψνk |ψµ2 δνj . 1.

72b) = dr Ψ† (r)Tr Ψ(r).3. (1. Ψ† (r2 )] = δ(r1 − r2 ). (1.6: The transformation rules for annihilation operators aν and aµ upon change of ˜˜ ˜ } = {|˜ }.67) ˜µ Ψ† (r) ≡ ν r|ψν ∗ a† = ν ν ∗ ψν (r) a† . i.3. as a kind of waves. In some sense the quantum ﬁeld operators express the essence of the wave/particle duality in quantum physics. {Ψ(r1 ). namely the real space representation leading to the deﬁnition of quantum ﬁeld operators. The introduction of quantum ﬁeld operators makes it easy to write down operators in the real space representation.63) one obtains T = νi νj ∗ dr ψνi (r)Tr ψνj (r) a† i aνj ν ∗ ψνi (r)a† i Tr ν νi νj = dr ψνj (r)aνj So in the real space representation. SECOND QUANTIZATION. denote a† by Ψ† (r) we obtain from Eq.1.73) .71) to the second quantized single-particle operator Eq. using quantum ﬁeld operators. (1.72a) (1. Ψ† (r2 )} = δ(r1 − r2 ). Loosely speaking. By applying the deﬁnition Eq. basis between {|ψν } = {|ν } and {|ψµ µ 1. but on the other hand they exhibit the commutator properties associated with particles. 1.69) it is straight forward to calculate the following fundamental commutator and anti-commutator. [Ψ(r1 ). ν Ψ(r) ≡ ν ∗ Note that Ψ† (r) and Ψ(r) are second quantization operators. On the one hand they are deﬁned as ﬁelds.5 let the transformed basis set {|ψµ } be the continuous set of position kets {|r } and. second quantization operators have a form analogous to ﬁrst quantization matrix elements. Ψ† (r) is the sum of all possible ways to add a particle to the system at position r through any of the basis states ψν (r). (1. (1. suppressing the spin index. If we in ˜ Sec.3.6 Quantum ﬁeld operators and their Fourier transforms In particular one second quantization representation requires special attention. ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨ § ¥ ¢£ ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ! r|ψν aν = ν ¤¥ ¢£ § ¥ ¢ £ © ¨ § ¥ ¦ ¢£ ¡ ψν (r) aν . BASIC CONCEPTS 17 Figure 1. i.e.e.71) boson ﬁelds fermion ﬁelds. while the coeﬃcients ψν (r) and ψν (r) are ordinary ﬁrst quantization wavefunctions. (1. From Eq. (1. Since Ψ† (r) and Ψ(r) are second quantization operators deﬁned in every point in space they are called quantum ﬁeld operators.

x] = i .4 Second quantization. Mnemotechnically. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION Finally. +i a ≡ √ / 2 2 ⇒ (1. one can think of a as being √ the (1/ 2-normalized) complex number formed by the real part x/ and the imaginary part p/( / ). 2 (1.71) the |ψν basis with the momentum basis |k yields 1 Ψ† (r) = √ V e−ik·r a† . H. a† ≡ √ −i / 2 2 where x is given in units of the harmonic oscillator length = /mω and p in units of the harmonic oscillator momentum / . By inspection it can be veriﬁed that the following operators do the job.18 CHAPTER 1. as we shall see during the course. From Eq.42). when working with homogeneous systems it is often desirable to transform between the real space and the momentum representations. k k 1 Ψ(r) = √ V eik·r ak . (1. while a† is found as the adjoint operator to a. H= 1 2 1 p + mω 2 x2 .74) The inverse expressions are obtained by multiplying by e±iq·r and integrating over r. Substituting in Eq. 1 aq = √ V dr e−iq·r Ψ(r). to perform a Fourier transformation.77) we obtain the Hamiltonian. (1. 1 a† = √ q V dr eiq·r Ψ† (r). (1. i. speciﬁc operators In this section we will use the general second quantization formalism to derive some expressions for speciﬁc second quantization operators that we are going to use repeatedly in this course. 1. 2m 2 [p. and the eigenstates |n : H = ω a† a + 1 2 (a† )n and |n = √ |0 .77) i 1 x p p ≡ √ (a† − a). (1.4. 1 p 1 x x ≡ √ (a† + a). (1.78) The excitation of the harmonic oscillator can thus be interpreted as ﬁlling the oscillator with bosonic quanta created by the operator a† .75) 1. k (1.1 The harmonic oscillator in second quantization The one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in ﬁrst quantization is characterized by two conjugate variables appearing in the Hamiltonian: the position x and the momentum p. If we as a . This picture is particularly useful in the studies of the photon and phonon ﬁelds.76) This can be rewritten in second quantization by identifying two operators a† and a satisfying the basic boson commutation relations Eq.e. n! with H|n = ω n + 1 |n .

4. ±1. 1.4.80) are seen to be uk. and we have B = ×A 2 E = −∂t A ·A = 0 1 2 A − 2 ∂t A = 0. . In most of the applications in this course we shall.λ (r. and the associated concept of photons play a crucial role in the theory of interactions between matter and light. (1. λ = 1. 2. (1. . c (1. ωk = ck V λ 2π nx = 0. 2. The creation operator can also be used to generate the speciﬁc form of the eigenfunctions ψn (x) of the oscillator starting from the groundstate wavefunction ψ0 (x): (a† )n 1 ψn (x) = x|n = x| √ |0 = √ n! n! p x x| √ − i ~ √ 2 2 n |0 = √ 1 x 2n n! − d dx n ψ0 (x). t) of the wave equation Eq. (same for y and L nx . 2. SECOND QUANTIZATION. The dispersion law is ωk = kc and the two-fold polarization of the ﬁeld is described by polarization vectors λ . treat the electromagnetic ﬁeld classically.λ (r.81) . SPECIFIC OPERATORS 19 Figure 1.80) We assume periodic boundary conditions for A enclosed in a huge box taken to be a cube √ of volume V and hence side length L = 3 V. . in which case A is denoted the radiation ﬁeld. Note that the width of the wave function is n|x2 |n = n + 1/2 . z). The quantum nature of the radiation ﬁeld. These are then quantized. |n .2 The electromagnetic ﬁeld in second quantization Historically. t) = kx = 1 √ ei(k·r−ωk t) . 1. λ = 1. use the squareroot of the expectation value of x2 = 2 (a† a† + a† a + aa† + aa)/2. the transversality condition ·A = 0 is chosen. In the free ﬁeld case the electromagnetic ﬁeld is completely determined by the vector potential A(r. and 9 quanta in the oscillator state. The quantization of the electromagnetic ﬁeld is based on the observation that the eigenmodes of the classical ﬁeld can be thought of as a collection of harmonic oscillators. as sketched in Fig. Thus the width of the oscillator wavefunction scales roughly with the squareroot of the number of quanta in the oscillator. however. Normally. we ﬁnd n|x2 |n = n + 1/2 . the electromagnetic ﬁeld was the ﬁrst example of second quantization (Dirac. measure of the amplitude of the oscillator in the state with n quanta. 1927).7. ±2. The normalized eigenmodes uk.1.7: The probability density | r|n |2 for n = 0. t) in a speciﬁc gauge.79) 1. (1.

k.λ 2 2|Ak. Using Eq. (1. 2 . the time dependence for the real and imaginary parts are seen to be ˙ AR = +ωk AI k.λ √ I k. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION The set { 1 . H= 1 2 dr 2 0 |E| + 1 |B|2 µ0 = 1 2 0 2 dr (ωk |A|2 + c2 k 2 |A|2 ) = 2 0 ωk dr |A|2 .λ ).λ |2 = 4 0 ωk 1 2 |AR |2 + |AI |2 .λ (1.λ k.λ = AR + iAI for the k. The ﬁeld A takes only real values and hence it has a Fourier expansion of the form 1 A(r.λ and Pk. using Parceval’s theorem and the notation Ak.2 λ.λ ≡ 2 0 AR k.λ ei(k·r−ωk t) + A∗ e−i(k·r−ωk t) k. and introducing the second quantized Bose operators a† for each k.λ = −ωk Qk. Pk.86) This ends the proof that the radiation ﬁeld A can thought of as a collection of harmonic oscillator eigenmodes.e. (1.82) where Ak. = Qk.λ ).λ Qk.λ k.λ k.λ are therefore introduced: 1 2 H= P 2 + ωk Q2 k. a† ] = 1.85) From Eqs. (1. k.λ Pk.λ 2 ˙ ˙ ⇒ Q = Pk.λ .λ 2ωk 2 (1. i.λ k.λ (1.λ ∂H ∂H ˙ ˙ and AI are conjugate variables: ∂AR = −4 0 ωk AI and ∂AI = +4 0 ωk AR .λ are the complex expansion coeﬃcients.λ e−iωk t .λ .λ + ).λ k.λ k.λ ] = i ωk Q = k.λ k.λ normalized conjugate variables Qk.84) and (1. we have H= 2 0 ωk k. [ak.λ (1.λ .87) . k/k} forms a right-handed orthonormal basis set.λ k λ=1. Pk. (1. Quantization is now obtained by imposing the usual condition on the commutator of the variables. Proper k. k.λ real and imaginary part of the coeﬃcients.λ . where each mode are characterized by the conjugate variable Qk.λ and Pk.λ ∂H ∂H ˙ ˙ = −Pk.λ k. Qk. which is simply the ﬁeld energy known from electromagnetism.85) it thus follows that.λ .λ ˙ AI = −ωk AR . (1.λ k. Ak.λ ≡ 2ωk 0 Ak.λ . up to some normalization constants.λ (t) = Ak.λ k. AR k.λ k.λ quantized oscillator: 1 H= ωk (a† ak.84) If in Eq.82) we merge the time dependence with the coeﬃcients.20 CHAPTER 1.λ (a† + ak. We now turn to the Hamiltonian H of the system. k.λ 2 k.80) we can express H in terms of the radiation ﬁeld A.λ = i(a† − ak.λ √ k. t) = √ V Ak.λ ⇒ [Pk.λ 2 k.83) In Fourier space.λ ∂Pk. ∂Qk.

λ in terms of Pk.k δσ . particle density.σ 2 k2 2m a† ak. (1.90b) Its second quantized forms with spin indices follow directly from Eqs.λ = AR + iAI → √ + i √ k.82) our ﬁnal result is: 1 A(r. SPECIFIC OPERATORS 21 To obtain the ﬁnal expression for A in second quantization we simply express Ak. In ﬁrst quantization it has the representations 2 δσ .1. 2m r 2 k2 k σ |T |kσ = δk .63) and (1.σ σ = − real space representation. Considering inﬁnitesimal variations δA we get δH = H(A + δA) − H(A) = −qv·δA = −q dr J·δA.λ : k. we study the kinetic energy operator T .λ and Qk.91) The second equality can also be proven directly by inserting Ψ† (r) and Ψ(r) from Eq.90a) (1.λ ei(k·r−ωk t) + a† e−i(k·r−ωk t) k. and particle current density.92) r σ 2m σ i Next. k. .σ . (1. (1. density.λ 2 0 ωk a† .73) T = k. the Pauli matrices s= 4 In ﬁrst quantization it is given by 1 0 0 −1 2 τ. with τ = 0 1 1 0 . (1. momentum representation. spin. For particles with charge q a magnetic ﬁeld can be included in the expression for the kinetic energy by substituting the canonical momentum p with the kinetic momentum4 p − qA. SECOND QUANTIZATION. (1. .σ 2 2m dr Ψ† (r) σ σ 2 r Ψσ (r) .74).λ λ. 0 −i i 0 .λ k. an expression used to ﬁnd J.89) 1. since this by the 2 Euler-Lagrange equations yields the Lorentz force. we treat the spin operator s for electrons. (1.λ (1. p) = p·v − L(r. and current In the following we establish the second quantization representation of the four important single-particle operators associated with kinetic energy. v) = 2 mv 2 + V = 2m (pR− qA)2 + V . (1. 2m 2 Tr.4.λ Pk.λ . and A∗ → k.4. 2 1 TA = dr Ψ† (r) − qA Ψσ (r). t) = √ V ak. k λ=1. which in turn is expressed in terms of a† and ak.λ Qk. First.σ = − k. which is independent of spin and hence diagonal in the spin indices.88) Substituting this into the expansion Eq.σ .93) In analytical mechanics A enters through the Lagrangian: L = 1 mv 2 − V + qv·A.λ 2 0 2ωk = 0 2 0 ωk ak.2 2 0 ωk (1. But then p = ∂L/∂v = mv + qA.λ .3 Operators for kinetic energy. and via a Legendre 1 1 transform we get H(r.λ Ak. spin.

By partial integration this is shifted to Ψ† (r). (1. µσ µ σσ (1.97) We use this expression with H given by the kinetic energy Eq. 2m (1. By analytical mechanics it is found that variations δH in the Hamiltonian function due to variations δA in the vector potential is given by δH = −q dr J·δA (1.92). It is related to the particle density operator ρ(r) through the continuity equation ∂t ρ + ·J = 0. The fourth and last operator to be treated is the particle current density operator J(r). τ z )|σ c† cµσ . σ σ (1. In ﬁrst quantization the fundamental interpretation of the wave function ψµ.98) . given by the vector potential A. and obtain with fermion operators the following vector expression. This allows us in a simple way to take the magnetic ﬁeld.22 CHAPTER 1. s= µσµ σ µ | σ |s|σ |µ c† σ cµσ = µ 2 σ |(τ x . −Ψ† (r) 2mi [ ·A + A· ]Ψσ (r) + 2m A2 Ψ† (r)Ψσ (r). This relationship can be used to actually deﬁne J. (1. see Eq. (1.σ (r) = dr ψµ.94b) We then turn to the particle density operator ρ(r).σ (r ). But expanding the square in Eq. (1.75) the momentum representation of this is found to be ρσ (r) = 1 V † ei(k−k )·r ak σ akσ = kk 1 V e−iq·r a† k+qσ akσ = kq 1 V a† ak+qσ kσ q k eiq·r .σ (r)|2 which can also ∗ be written as ρµ. However. into account.92) and writing only the A dependent terms of q2 q~ the integrand.σ (r) = |ψµ. (1. (1. τ y . µ↓ µ↑ µ (1.σ (r) gives us ρµ. and thus the density operator for spin σ is given by ρσ (r) = δ(r − r). and we obtain H=T+ σ dr q A· 2mi Ψ† (r) Ψσ (r) − Ψ† (r) σ σ Ψσ (r) + q2 2 † A Ψσ (r)Ψσ (r) . |ν = |µ |σ . In second quantization this combined with Eq. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION To obtain the second quantized operator we pull out the spin index explicitly in the basis kets. we shall take a more general approach based on analytical mechanics.92) and the associated footnote.63) yields ρσ (r) = dr Ψ† (r )δ(r − r)Ψσ (r ) = Ψ† (r)Ψσ (r).95) From Eq.94a) with components sx = 2 (c† cµ↑ + c† cµ↓ ) sy = i µ↑ µ↓ µ 2 (c† cµ↑ − c† cµ↓ ) sz = µ↑ µ↓ µ 2 (c† cµ↑ − c† cµ↓ ).σ (r )δ(r − r)ψµ.96) where the momentum transfer q = k − k has been introduced. Variations due to a varying parameter are calculated as derivatives if the parameter appears as a simple factor. reveals one term where σ σ is acting on A.

k4 σ2 |V |k1 σ1 . σ paramagnetic : Jσ (r) = 2mi Ψ† (r) σ Ψσ (r) − (1. (1.99c) diamagnetic : JA (r) = − σ q A(r)Ψ† (r)Ψσ (r).σ .73) we can go directly from Eq. σ and ψk. σ m The momentum representation of J is found in complete analogy with that of ρ Jσ (r) = mV 1 (k + q)eiq·r a† ak+q. |r2 − r1 | σ1 1 σ2 2 σ2 2 σ1 1 (1. kσ 2 JA (r) = σ −q A(r) mV eiq·r a† ak+q.64) to the following quantum ﬁeld operator form of V : V (r2 − r1 ) = 1 2σ dr1 dr2 e2 0 Ψ† (r )Ψ† (r )Ψ (r )Ψ (r ).σ . Using the same reasoning that led from Eq. SPECIFIC OPERATORS 23 The variations of Eq. k |r2 − r1 | Since r2 − r1 is the relevant variable for the interaction. kσ kq kq (1. SECOND QUANTIZATION.99a) Ψ† (r) Ψσ (r) .2. 1.4 The Coulomb interaction in second quantization The Coulomb interaction operator V is a two-particle operator not involving spin and thus diagonal in the spin indices of the particles. (1. The two terms in the current density operator are denoted the paramagnetic and the diamagnetic term. k4 σ2 without ﬂipping any spin. (1.4. We can interpret the Coulomb matrix element as describing a transition from an initial state |k1 σ1 . (1.100) The expression for J in an arbitrary basis is treated in Exercise 1.101) 1 σ2 Here we have introduced the abbreviation e2 = e2 /4π 0 . and we obtain V = 1 2σ 1 2σ k3 σ1 . (1. (1.We can also write the Coulomb 0 interaction directly in the momentum basis by using Eq.98) be performed as derivatives and J is immediately read oﬀ as the prefactor to δA.4.σ (r) = √V eik·r χσ . (1.64) with 1 |ν = |k.102) 1 σ2 k1 k2 k3 k4 = 1 σ2 k1 k2 k3 k4 e2 0 V2 dr1 dr2 ei(k1 ·r1 +k2 ·r2 −k3 ·r1 −k4 ·r2 ) † ak3 σ1 a† 4 σ2 ak2 σ2 ak1 σ1 .99b) σ (1.31) and Eq. the exponential is rewritten as . k2 σ2 to a ﬁnal state |k3 σ1 .1. respectively: Jσ (r) = Jσ (r) + JA (r). J and JA .63) to Eq. k2 σ2 a† 3 σ1 a† 4 σ2 ak2 σ2 ak1 σ1 k k (1. (1.97) can in Eq.

ei[(k1 −k3 )·r1 +(k2 −k4 )·r2 ] = ei(k1 −k3 +k2 −k4 )·r1 ei(k2 −k4 )·(r2 −r1 ) leaving us with two integrals. 1. Another example is electrons interacting with the photon ﬁeld.8: A graphical representation of the Coulomb interaction in second quantization. σ1 and |k2 .4. σ2 . We study this system in Chap. For the two decoupled 5 e0 r 2 k We show in Exercise 1. Let us for simplicity just study two diﬀerent kinds of particles. 3. 1. Vq ≡ dr e2 iq·r 4πe2 0 e = 20 . Let the ﬁrst kind of particles be described by the Hamiltonian H1 and a complete set of basis states {|ν }. (1.8. The starting point is the case where the two kinds of particles do not interact with each other. k k (1. In this course one important example of such a system is the fermionic electrons in a metal interacting with the bosonic lattice vibrations (phonons). The momenta k3 and k4 of the ﬁnal states can now be written as k3 = k1 + q and k4 = k2 − q. r q (1.24 CHAPTER 1.103) follows by setting ks = 0. Here. 2. which with the deﬁnitions q ≡ k2 − k4 and r ≡ r2 − r1 become dr1 ei(k1 −k3 +q)·r1 = V δk3 . we just show a graphical representation of the operator. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION Figure 1. Under momentum and spin conservation the incoming states |k1 . The result is Vq s = 4πe0 2 q 2 +ks 2 e −ks r from which Eq. Here we will brieﬂy clarify how to construct the basis set for such composed systems in general. The ﬁnal second quantized form of the Coulomb interaction in momentum space is V = 1 2V Vq a† 1 +qσ1 a† 2 −qσ2 ak2 σ2 ak1 σ1 . ¥ © £¤ © ¡ § ¥ © £¤ © ¡ ! ¥ ¢ £¤ ¨¦ ¢ ¡ § ¥ ¢ £¤ ¢ ¡ .k1 +q .5 Basis states for systems with diﬀerent kinds of particles In the previous sections we have derived diﬀerent fermion and boson operators. σ1 and |k2 − q.104) σ1 σ2 k1 k2 q We shall study this operator thoroughly in Sec. Likewise we have H2 and {|µ } for the second kind of particles. in Fig. The arguments are easily generalized to include more complicated systems.103) These integrals express the Fourier transform of the Coulomb interaction5 and the explicit momentum conservation obeyed by the interaction. But so far we have not treated systems where diﬀerent kinds of particles are coupled.2 in connection with the interacting electron gas. σ2 are with probability amplitude Vq scattered into the outgoing states |k1 + q.5 how to calculate the Fourier transform Vq s of the Yukawa potential V ks (r) = k .

nµl . . . nνj . . . (1. The natural deﬁnition of basis states is the outer product states written as |ψ = |ψ (1) |ψ (2) = |nν1 .108) 1. . Suppose we are interested in some small system connected to the outside world. . nν2 . i. |nµ1 . Nq1 λ1 . where N (E) is the number of states with an energy less than E. (1. . A basis state |ψ in this representation has the form: |ψ = |nk1 σ1 . . . . . . . .105b) When a coupling H12 between the two system is introduced. Based on the ergodicity assumption it is natural to conjecture that the probability for a subsystem to have a deﬁnite energy Es is proportional to the number of ways that the subsystem can have that energy. . . nk2 σ2 .106) In the last line all the occupation numbers are simply listed within the same ket but the two groups are separated by a semicolon. ET = Es + Er . nν2 . . e. nν2 . . . . . . nνj . (1. nν2 . because of the randomness of the system all of the available phase space is covered. . with a given total energy E. . .3). The electronic basis states are the plane wave orbitals |kσ of Eq. Let us call the energy of the small system Es and that of the reservoir Er . . nµ2 . nµl . . The time it takes for the system to visit all of the phase is the ergodicity time. . .g. . . . (1. . nµ1 .107) As a concrete example we can write down the basis states for interacting electrons and photons in the momentum representation.5 Second quantization and statistical mechanics The basic assumption of statistical mechanics is the ergodicity assumption. Nql λl . . . . which is assumed to be smaller than typical time scales of the observation.e. Nq2 λ2 . = |nµ1 . The density of states is deﬁned as d(E) = dN (E)/dE. We let nkσ and Nqλ denote the occupation numbers for electrons and photons. . . = |nν1 . It states that as time evolves a system assume all possible states complying with the given external constraints. while the small system and the reservoir have the densities of states ds (Es ) and dr (Er ). they constitute a closed system with total energy ET . nµ2 . . the so-called reservoir. nkj σj . SECOND QUANTIZATION AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS systems an example of separate occupation number basis sets is |ψ (1) |ψ (2) 25 = |nν1 . . nµ2 . . . A general state |Φ can of course be any superposition of the basis states: |Φ = {νj }{µl } C{νj }. . . . taken as a whole. . . We denote the density of states of the total system at a given total energy d(ET ). nµl . . . . (1. nµ1 . . . . . . . nµj . respectively. .{µl } |nν1 .105a) (1. we need to enlarge the Hilbert space. . .5. nνj . . . In other words. . . . . and assume that. . . . . . . . .81). nµ2 . and the photon states are |qλ given in Eq. . . (1. nνj . .1.

we do not expect this probability to be dependent on the size of the reservoir.114) Z= s (1. nothing should happen to the state of the small system. as we have seen.e. Using the basis states |ν deﬁned by H|ν = Eν |ν . But because the energy is only deﬁned up to an additive constant. Z where β is the inverse temperature. it can thus only depend on the diﬀerence Es − Es . Therefore the only meaningful interpretation of Eq. This means that if we consider the ratio of two probabilities P (Es ) dr (ET − Es ) = .114) is that the sum of states runs over eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. (1. the states s are. the total density of states is dominated by that of the reservoir and hence d(ET ) ≈ dr (ET ). and where the normalization factor. i.111) When we sum over states. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION respectively. (1. if we make it smaller by cutting it in half by some wall. P (Es ) dr (ET − Es ) is P (E) ∝ e−βE . provided of course that it is still much smaller than the new reservoir. Z. From the assumption about the probability being proportional to the number of states. P (Es ) dr (ET − Es ) (1.115) . we must sum over a set of states which cover the entire space of possible states.26 CHAPTER 1. Also for a quantum system it is not clear what is meant by the energy of a given state. In conclusion: from statistical mechanics we know that both for classical and a quantum mechanical systems which are connected to a heat bath the probability for a given state s with energy Es to be occupied is given by the Boltzmann distribution 1 (1. Since for a given small energy interval ∆E the number of states in the reservoir is much larger than the number states in smaller subsystem. the basis set that we use to compute the energy must be a complete set.e. and it is therefore an advantage to have a form which is independent of the choice of basis states.113) P (Es ) = exp(−βEs ).109) Now. (1. i. we have for the probability for the subsystem to have energy Es that P (Es ) ∝ dr (ET − Es ) ∆E. For a quantum system with many particles. in general quite complicated to write down. (1. (1. is the partition function exp(−βEs ). The only function P (E) that satisﬁes the condition dr (ET − Es ) P (Es ) = = f (Es − Es ). unless of course it is an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian.112) We have thus arrived at the famous Boltzmann or Gibbs distribution which of course should be normalized.110) it must only depend on the energies Es and Es and neither on the total energy ET nor on dr . β = 1/kB T .

119) where the trace now includes states with any number of particles.6 This is of course true whatever formalism we use to evaluate the trace. the result obtained from the canonical ensemble is carried over to the grand canonical ensemble by the substitution H → H − µN . we include the term µN in the Hamiltonian. For the canonical ensemble the trace is however restricted to run over states with a given number of particles. where N is the particle number operator. In this book we shall for brevity write H in both cases. The corresponding density matrix ρG and partition function ZG are deﬁned as: ρG ≡ e−β(H−µN ) . since the sum over states is identiﬁed with the trace operation. i. so the reader must always carefully check whether H refers to the canonical or to the grand canonical ensemble. it is useful to introduce the Hamiltonian HG corresponding to the grand canonical ensemble.e.118) are basis-independent expressions. (1. ρ ≡ e−βH = ν |ν e−βEν ν|. then in the transformed basis U |ν we have tU ν = Tr UAU−1 = Tr AU−1 U = Tr [A] = tν . 6 . i.114) for the partition function as Z= ν ν|ρ|ν = Tr[ρ]. For the grand canonical ensemble the number of particles is not conserved.117) Likewise. SECOND QUANTIZATION AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS 27 it is now quite natural to introduce the so-called density matrix operator ρ corresponding to the classical Boltzmann factor e−βE . (1. Following the elementary deﬁnition we have A = 1 Z ν|A|ν e−βEν = ν 1 Tr[ρA] Tr[ρA] = . the symbol H is often used instead of HG for the grand canonical Hamiltonian.120) Unfortunately. For example the free energy F ≡ U − Remember that if tν = Tr [A] is the trace of A in the basis |ν . Here we have used that the trace is invariant under cyclic permutation. (1. The small system is allowed to exchange particles with the reservoir while keeping its average particle number constant. the thermal average of any quantum operator A is easily expressed using the density matrix ρ.e. In ﬁrst quantization the trace runs over for example the determinant basis. Basically. This ought not cause any problems. and we introduce a chemical potential µ of the reservoir to accommodate this constraint. HG ≡ H − µN. (1. Z Tr[ρ] (1. (1.5.117) and (1. which in second quantization translates to the Fock space of the corresponding quantum numbers.118) Eqs. since most of the times we are working in the grand canonical ensemble.1.116) We can thus write the expression Eq. Likewise. Tr [ABC] = Tr [BCA]. ZG = Tr[ρG ]. They are more than merely normalization factors. The partition functions are fundamental quantities in statistical mechanics. (1.

for H 0 = Tr[ρ0 H] . respectively: Z = e−βF ZG = e −βΩ (1.3.125) We shall study the properties of the Fermi–Dirac distribution in Sec.28 CHAPTER 1. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION T S.126) For small excitation energies εk varies around µ whereas ξk varies around 0. (1. 2.5. (1. Tr[ρ0 ] (1. and the thermodynamic potential Ω ≡ U − T S − µN . This is reﬂected in the single-particle energy variable. The proper Hamiltonian is therefore HG = H − µN . Recall that F = U − T S = H − T S.121b) Let us now study the free energy. From Eq. which is minimal when the entropy is maximal. H0 . The average occupation nF (εk ) is therefore Tr[ρG nk ] = Tr[ρG ] nk e−β(nk εk −µnk ) nk =0. (1. important in the grand canonical ensemble. The state can contain either 0 or 1 electron.124) This inequality ensures that by minimizing the free energy calculated from the approximate Hamiltonian. important in the canonical ensemble.121a) . we shall use the principle of minimizing the free energy.1 The distribution function for non-interacting fermions As the temperature is raised from zero in a system of non-interacting fermions the occupation number for the individual energy eigenstates begins to ﬂuctuate rather than being constantly 0 or constantly 1.123) where both H example 0 and S0 are calculated in the approximation ρ ≈ ρ0 = exp(−βH0 ). This is based on the following inequality F ≤ H 0 − T S0 . we are guaranteed to make the best possible approximation based on the trial Hamiltonian. Using the grand canonical ensemble we can derive the famous Fermi–Dirac distribution nF (ε). (1. Note that the Fermi–Dirac distribution is deﬁned in the grand canonical ensemble. .1. are directly related to Z and ZG . 4.125) we see that the natural single-particle energy variable is not εk but rather ξk given by ξk ≡ εk − µ (1.1 = 0 + e−β(εk −µ) 1 = β(ε −µ) .122) In various approximation schemes. 1. −β(εk −µ) 1+e e k +1 (1. for example the mean ﬁeld approximation in Chap. Consider the electron state |kσ with energy εk .1 nF (εk ) = e−β(nk εk −µnk ) nk =0.

. 1.64) and Fig. 1. perhaps after some measure of acquaintance. (1. Eqs. Again using the grand canonical ensemble we derive the equally famous Bose–Einstein distribution nB (ε). In Sec. nk = e−β(εk −µ) .42)). Consider a bosonic state characterized by its fundamental energy εk . . . and we got a ﬁrst glimpse of how second quantization leads to a formulation of quantum physics in terms of creation and annihilation of particles and ﬁeld quanta. 1. However. With an answer to that question we can proceed with the very interesting but also rather diﬃcult studies of the full time dependent dynamics of many-particle quantum systems. In fact. First in Chap.63) and (1. It is derived like its fermionic counterpart. (1. 2. so for pedagogical reasons we have chosen to start from the usual ﬁrst quantization representation.54)).and two-particle operators.6 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have introduced second quantization. 1.1. the representation of quantum mechanics we are going to use throughout this course. . . In the following three chapters we shall get more acquainted with second quantization through studies of simpliﬁed stationary problems for non-interacting systems or systems where a given particle only interacts with the mean ﬁeld of the other particles. b† and bν in the bosonic case (see Eq. The basic concepts are the occupation number basis states and the fundamental creation and annihilation operators.5. (1. for very small occupation numbers.5.4 we presented a number of speciﬁc examples of second quantization operators.6. In the grand canonical ensemble the average occupation number nB (εk ) is found by writing λk = e−β(εk −µ) and d 1 using the formulas ∞ nλn = λ dλ ∞ λn and ∞ λn = 1−λ : n=0 n=0 n=0 ∞ nk e−β(nk εk −µnk ) nB (εk ) = nk =0 ∞ λk = d dλk ∞ ∞ nk =0 n λkk λkk = n e nk =0 −β(nk εk −µnk ) nk =0 λk (1−λk )2 1 1−λk = 1 e β(εk −µ) −1 . (1. the Fermi–Dirac distribution nF (ε). students usually learn basic quantum theory in ﬁrst quantization. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 29 1. The intricate permutation symmetries are manifestly ensured by the basic (anti-)commutator relations of these fundamental operators. The occupation number of the state can be any non-negative integer nk = 0.127) The Bose–Einstein distribution diﬀers from the Fermi–Dirac distribution by having −1 in the denominator instead of +1.2 Distribution functions for non-interacting bosons Next we ﬁnd the distribution function for non-interacting bosons. 5 will the question be raised of how to treat time evolution in second quantization. this main result appears so simple and intuitively clear that one could choose to deﬁne quantum theory directly in second quantization rather than going the cumbersome way from ﬁrst to second quantization. where the particular particle statistics is not felt very strongly. and c† and cν in the fermionic case (see ν ν Eq. The main result of the chapter is the derivation of the general form of one. Both distributions converge towards the classical Maxwell– Boltzmann distribution.

FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION .30 CHAPTER 1.

The main emphasis will be on the non-interacting electron gas. and ﬁnally. The ions are unchanged during the process where they end up by forming a periodic lattice. The nucleus with its core electrons is denoted an ion. 1.Figure 2. but historically this system played a major role as testing ground for the development of quantum ﬁeld theory. semiconductors.1: A sketch showing N free atoms merging into a metal. The ion mass is denoted M . This is The electron gas Chapter 2 free atoms a solid 31 valence electrons (mass m. 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Not only is this system a model of the solids that surrounds us. In this chapter we shall study the basic properties of this system using the formalism of time-independent second quantization as developed in Chap. charge +Ze) core electrons nuclei . The valence electrons are freed from their host atoms and form an electron gas holding the ionic lattice together. and if the atom has Z valence electrons the charge of the ion is +Ze. Any atom in a metal consists of three parts: the positively charged heavy nucleus at the center. and insulators. are often free to move away from their respective host atoms forming a gas of electrons swirling around among the ions. To a large extend the inner degrees of freedom of the ions do not play a signiﬁcant role leaving the center of mass coordinates Rj and total spin Sj of the ions as the only dynamical variables. charge -e) ions (mass M.

In this course we will not plunge into such full ﬂedged ab initio calculations.1 The non-interacting electron gas We ﬁrst study the lattice model and the jellium model in the case of no electron-electron interaction. . hence no factor 2 . The other approximation scheme. and the Coulomb interaction between the two systems.32 CHAPTER 2. |r1 − r2 | σ2 (2. magnons (spin waves). Later in Sec. the equilibrium positions Rj of the ions in the lattice. plasmons (collective electronic charge density waves). 2. The Hamiltonian H of the system is written as the sum of kinetic and potential energy of the ionic system and the electronic system treated independently. In principle it is possible in ab initio calculations to minimize the energy of the system and ﬁnd the crystal structure and lattice parameters. THE ELECTRON GAS true for the alkali metals.2) dR1 dR2 Ψ† (R1 )Ψ† (R2 ) ion ion dr Ψ† (r) − σ 2 Z 2 e2 0 Ψ (R2 )Ψion (R1 ). The individual terms are easily written down in second quantization: Tion + Vion−ion = dR Ψ† (R) − ion 1 + 2 Tel + Vel−el = σ 2 (2. electron-hole excitations (single-particle excitations). Fortunately. the so-called jellium model. is in fact an ab initio calculation. continuous and homogeneous ﬂuid.2 we attempt to include this interaction. ion At zero temperature the ground state of the system is a periodic ion lattice hold together by the cohesive forces of the surrounding electron gas.e. 2. |R − r| ion Note that no double counting is involved in Vel−ion since two diﬀerent types of ﬁelds. lattice parameters and elasticity constants as input to the theory. most electronic and phononic properties of the system can be derived with good accuracy from the Hamiltonian describing the ion jellium combined with the electron gas. i.1.1) 2M 2 R Ψion (R) (2.4) 2m 2 r Ψσ (r) + Vel−ion = 1 2σ dr1 dr2 Ψ† 1 (r1 )Ψ† 2 (r2 ) σ σ 1 σ2 drdR Ψ† (r)Ψ† (R) σ ion σ (−Ze2 ) 0 Ψ (R)Ψσ (r). the ion ’jellium’. and from there calculate the electronic and phononic properties. H = (Tion + Vion−ion ) + (Tel + Vel−el ) + Vel−ion . One is the phenomenological lattice approach. We take the experimental determination of the crystal structure. Ψ† (r) σ 1 and Ψ† (R) are involved. Two approximation schemes will be used instead. From the obtained ground state one can then study the various excitations of the system: phonons (ion vibrations). etc.3) e2 0 Ψ (r2 )Ψσ1 (r1 ). 2. |R1 − R2 | ion (2. The formation of a metal from N independent atoms is sketched in Fig. where however the discrete nature of the ionic system is approximated by a positively charged.

Thus we can drop all the phonon related terms of the Hamiltonian. b3 } in RL are deﬁned as b1 = 2π a2 × a3 . RL. b2 . and their interaction with both the static part of the lattice. and Vel−ion in the original Hamiltonian Eq. The non-interacting part of the phonon ﬁeld is described by a Hamiltonian Hph . It is useful to introduce the reciprocal lattice. The latter term must be there since a vibrating ion is giving rise to a vibrating electrical potential inﬂuencing the electrons. At ﬁnite temperature the ions can vibrate around their equilibrium positions with the total electric ﬁeld acting as the restoring force. (2.2 we study when this is reasonable) one arrives at the Hamiltonian HBloch used in Bloch’s theory of non-interacting electrons moving in a static. 2. a1 · a2 × a3 b2 = 2π a3 × a1 . (2.1) into H = (Elatt + Hph ) + (Tel + Vel−el ) + (Vel−latt + Vel−ph ).1. the electrons are described by their kinetic energy Tel . (2. (2. in RS deﬁned by RL = G ∈ RS eiG ·R = 1 ⇒ G = m1 b1 + m2 b2 + m3 b3 . i. a3 · a1 × a2 (2. RS.9) . (2. n3 ∈ Z. a3 }: R = n1 a1 + n2 a2 + n3 a3 . m2 .6) To solve the corresponding Schr¨dinger equation. 3. also known as the reciprocal space.1). 1. Vel−latt . Vion−ion .e. Let the static ion lattice be described by the ionic equilibrium positions R in terms of the lattice basis vectors {a1 . their mutual interaction Vel−el . Vel−ph .5) At zero temperature the ions are not vibrating except for their quantum mechanical zero point motion. (2. and later the phonon problem.8) where the basis vectors {b1 .2) giving rise to the concept of phonons. n1 . n2 . X-ray experiments show that the equilibrium positions of the ions form a periodic lattice. This lattice has an energy Elatt and an electrical potential Vel−latt associated with it.7) Working with periodic lattices it is often convenient to Fourier transform from the direct space to k-space. Thus the Hamiltonian for the phenomenological lattice model changes H of Eq. the phonons. THE NON-INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS 33 2.2. a2 . As will be demonstrated in Chap.4. m3 ∈ Z. these vibrations can be described in terms of quantized harmonic oscillators (much like the photon ﬁeld of Sec. m1 . periodic ion lattice: HBloch = Tel + Vel−latt (r). we have o to understand the Fourier transform of periodic functions.1 Bloch theory of electrons in a static ion lattice Let us ﬁrst consider the phenomenological lattice model. Vel−latt (r + R) = Vel−latt (r) for any lattice vector R. both originating from a combination of Tion . If one furthermore neglects the electron-electron interaction (in Sec. Finally. a2 · a3 × a1 b3 = 2π a1 × a2 . and the vibrating part.1.

(2. We get [H. n is the band index.10) VG eiG ·r .15) HBloch ψnkσ = εnk ψnkσ . TR ] = 0 ⇒ TR ψ = λR ψ for an eigenstate ψ. and thus we end with Bloch’s theorem1 : k ∈ FBZ. unk (r + R) = unk (r). Applying TP after TR leads to λP λR = λP+R ⇒ λR = eik·R ⇒ ψnk (r) = unk (r)eik·r .34 CHAPTER 2.g. THE ELECTRON GAS An important concept is the ﬁrst Brillouin zone. (2. for all R ⇔ V (r) = G ∈RL The solution of the Schr¨dinger equation HBloch ψ = Eψ can be found in the plane wave o basis |kσ . e. for all G = 0 ⇓ ∀q. (2. (2.11) the function unk (r) is periodic in the lattice. while any k outside FBZ does not give rise to a new set of equations.13) 1 V cG G (nk) eik·r χσ ≡ unk (r) eik·r χσ . which separates in spatial part eik·r and a spin part χσ .k +G ck . Using vectors k ∈ FBZ. with TR f (r) ≡ f (r+R). An alternative derivation of Bloch’s theorem with emphasis on the group theoretic aspects builds on the translation operator TR . (2. (2.13) for ck couples to an inﬁnite. deﬁned as all k in RS lying closer to G = 0 than to any other reciprocal lattice vector G = 0. but o countable. ψnkσ (r) = unk (r)eik·r χσ . where n ∈ N. (2. 1 ¥ §¦ ¢ ¥ ¤ £¡ ¨¦ FBZ = k ∈ RS |k| < |k − G|.14) . i. ∃G ∈ RL : q = k + G. The corresponding eigenfunctions ψnkσ are given by: ψnkσ (r) = 1 V ck+G ei(G +k)·r χσ = G (n) According to Eq. any wavevector q ∈ RS can be decomposed (the ﬁgure shows the FBZ for a 2D square lattice): The Fourier transform of any function periodic in the lattice is as follows: V (r + R) = V (r).e. ∃k ∈ FBZ.k + G VG δk. FBZ. (2. each Schr¨dinger equation of the form Eq. χ↑ = 1 : 0 ψσ (r) ≡ 1 V ck eik ·r χσ ⇒ kσ|HBloch |ψσ = k k so the Schr¨dinger equation for a given k is o ck εk + G We see that any given coeﬃcient ck only couples to other coeﬃcients of the form ck+G .12) VG ck−G = E ck . Each such inﬁnite family of equations has exactly one representative k ∈ FBZ.11) εk δk. The inﬁnite family of equations generated by a given k ∈ FBZ gives rise to a discrete spectrum of eigenenergies εnk . number of similar equations for ck−G .

e. which are therefore of major interest to study. (b) The Bloch bands viewed as a break-up of the parabolic free electron band in Brillouin zones (the extended zone scheme. when no confusion is possible.3. static positive charge density. Also the jellium model results in plane wave solutions. The eigenfunctions are seen to be plane waves modulated by a periodic function unk (r) having the same periodicity as the lattice. in H of Eq.g. If we concentrate on the homogeneous part of the electron gas. ¨ © ¦ ¥§ ¢ ¤ ¥¦ ¨ © ¢ £ ¨ © ¦¥ ¢ ¡ . and we simply end up with Hjel = Tel . discard the part of Vel−el that leads to inhomogeneities. to begin with.2. (2. and Lz and volume V = Lx Ly Lz the single-particle basis states are the simple plane wave solutions to the free particle Schr¨dinger equation o 2 For a derivation of the eﬀective mass approximation see e. +Zρjel . (a) The parabolic energy band for free electrons. The periodic potential. i. Ly .2: Bloch’s theorem illustrated for a 1D lattice with lattice constant a.1. k ∈ RS). We shall use this so-called eﬀective mass approximation throughout this course:2 1 ik·r ψnkσ → √V e χσ The eﬀective mass (2. In the jellium model the ion charges are imagined to be smeared out to form a homogeneous and. k ∈ FBZ). the ion jellium. 2. 2. In other words.1) we have Vion−ion + Vel−el + Vel−ion = 0.16) : m → m∗ approximation k unrestricted.1. so it is most natural to displace all the energy branches into the FBZ (the reduced zone scheme. In the following. we notice that this part together with the ion jellium forms a completely charge neutral system.2 Non-interacting electrons in the jellium model In the eﬀective mass approximation of the lattice model the electron eigenstates are plane waves. For many applications it turns out that the Bloch electrons described by ψnkσ (r) can be approximated by plane waves if at the same time the electronic mass m is changed into a material dependent eﬀective mass m∗ . present in a real lattice becomes the constant potential Vel−jel as sketched in Fig. (2. (c) All wavevectors are equivalent to those in the FBZ. m∗ is often simply written as m. THE NON-INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS 35 Figure 2. Kittel or Ashcroft and Mermin.17) For a box with side lengths Lx . Vel−latt .

(2. where εk1 ≤ εk2 ≤ εk3 ≤ .21) The ground state for N electrons at zero temperature is denoted the Fermi sea or the Fermi sphere |FS . |FS ≡ c† N/2 ↑ c† N/2 ↓ . . (2. x 2m kσ V V = Lx Ly Lz . . εF . present in a real lattice. λF = (2. z) = 0 and ψ(L. kF m Vel-latt Vel-jel Figure 2. y. It is obtained by ﬁlling up the N states with the lowest possible energy. since the former gives current carrying eigenstates well suited for the description of transport phenomena. ↓ . and with this basis we obtain Hjel in second quantization: Hjel = σ dr Ψ† (r) − σ 2 2 2m Ψσ (r) = kσ 2 k2 2m c† ckσ . y.23) kF = . ↑ . . while the latter yield standing waves carrying no current. k k k k k k (2. The single-particle basis states are thus 2π kx = Lx nx (same for y and z) 2 k2 1 ik·r Hjel ψkσ = ψ . z) = 0 (likewise for the y and z directions).18) n = 0. |k2 . y. ↓ |k2 . y. (2. . z) = ψ(0. ±2. ±1.3: A sketch showing the periodic potential. Associated with εF is the Fermi wavenumber kF . y.19) 3 2π 2π 2π Note how the quantization of k means that one state ﬁlls a volume Lx Ly Lz = (2π) in V k-space. ψkσ (r) = √ e χσ .20) For the further analysis in second quantization it is natural to order the single-particle 2 k2 states ψkσ (r) = |kσ according to their energies εk = ~2m in ascending order. |k1 . and the Fermi velocity vF : k 2π 1 2mεF . z) and ψ (L. . from which we obtain the following important rule of great practical value: → k V (2π)3 dk . . . ))))))))))))) )))))))))))) ))))))))) 23023023023023023023023023023023023023002302302302302302302302302302302302300230230230230230230230230230 1010101010101010101010101001010101010101010101010100101010101010101010 0000000000000123)0000000000000123)0000000000123) ¡ '( ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ # ¡¨ ! ¦¡¦ ¡¤ ¡¡ ¡ §¨¡ ¡ ¡ %& © ¡ ¨ !"¡ ¡ £¤¤ #$ ¡ ¡¡ ¡©© ¡§§¨ ¥¥¦¡¥¥¦ ¡££¤ © § £ 0 L 0 L ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¡¡ ¢ . We prefer the periodic boundary conditions rather than the Dirichlet boundary conditions ψ(0. and the imagined smeared out potential Vel−jel of the jellium model. . THE ELECTRON GAS with periodic boundary conditions ψ(L. y. . c† 2 ↑ c† 2 ↓ c† 1 ↑ c† 1 ↓ |0 . z) = ψ (0. z) (likewise for the y and z directions). . kσ (2. Vel−latt . .36 CHAPTER 2. |k1 . vF = F . the Fermi wave length λF .22) The energy of the topmost occupied state is denoted the Fermi energy. ↑ .

(2. Hall measurements yield the electron density of copper4 . (2.1. A sketch of |FS in energy.57×106 m/s = 0.and k-space is shown in Fig. As a ﬁrst exercise we calculate the relation between the macroscopic quantity n = N/V. 0). ky .4: Two aspects of |FS in k-space. the Fermi wavenumber. 3π 2 F (2. n = 8.26) This formula allows us to obtain the values of the microscopic parameters kF . and vF . In A monovalent Cu one electron thus occupies a volume (2×10−10 m)3 . Filled and empty circles represent occupied and unoccupied states.46 nm 3 4 εF = 7. and εF and kF are indicated. THE NON-INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS 37 ¤ £¢ ¡ ¡ ¨¦ ¥§ ¡¢ ¢© © ¤ ¡ . and n ≈ 1029 m−3 follows. The inter-atomic distances are typically 2 ˚. 2. 0.24) The matrix element is easily evaluated.26) it thus follows that for copper kF = 13.Figure 2. since nkσ |FS = |FS for |k| < kF and 0 otherwise. and from Eqs.4. To the right the occupation of the states is shown in the plane k = (kx . ˆ N = FS|N |FS = FS| kσ nkσ |FS = σ V (2π)3 dk FS|nkσ |FS . (2. respectively. and the microscopic quantity kF . This is written in terms of the theta function3 N= σ V (2π)3 dk θ(kF −|k|) FS|FS = 2V (2π)3 kF 0 dk k 2 1 2π d(cos θ) −1 0 dφ 1 = V 3 k .03 eV = 81600 K vF = 1.27) θ(x) = 1 for x > 0 and θ(x) = 0 for x < 0 The density can also be estimated as follows. the density. To the left the dispersion relation εk is plotted along the line k = (kx . 0). ¡¤ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ 2.23) and (2. εF .005 c. (2.6 nm−1 λF = 0. The Fermi sphere is shown as a circle with radius kF . Thus in |FS all states with εk < εF or |k| < kF are occupied and the rest are unoccupied.47×1028 m−3 .25) and we arrive at the extremely important formula: 3 kF = 3π 2 n.

(2. 2. and the density of states per volume d(ε) = D(ε)/V = dn .32) .26) and (2. since the system consists of N electrons each with an energy 0 < εk < εF . As temperature is raised from zero the occupation number is given by the Fermi-Dirac distribution nF (εk ).38 CHAPTER 2. for ε > 0. which we shall return to shortly. 1 (2. ∆N = D(ε)∆ε. 1 2 dN V D(ε) = = 2 dε 2π 2m 2 3 2 ε 2 θ(ε).003. In the following we shall for example demonstrate how in terms of D(ε) to calculate the particle number. Note that to be able to see any eﬀects of the temperature in Fig.5.28) it can be expressed in terms of n: 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 E (0) = kF = (3π 2 ) 3 n 3 . We move on to calculate the ground state energy E (0) : E (0) = = FS|Hjel |FS = kσ 2 k2 2m 1 FS|nkσ |FS = 2 2π 2 V (2π)3 2m dk k 2 θ(kF − |k|) (2. By Eqs. thus the low temperature limit of nF (εk ) is of importance: nF (εk ) = 1 e β(εk −µ) +1 T →0 −→ θ(µ − εk ). (2.3 Non-interacting electrons at ﬁnite temperature Finally.125). − ∂nF β 1 = −→ δ(µ − εk ).5. The kinetic energy per particle becomes an important quantity when we in the next section begin to study the Coulomb interaction. (1.26) we ﬁnd 2 εF = 2m kF = 2 2 2m (3π ) n 2 2 3 2 3 ⇒ 1 n(ε) = 2 3π 2m 2 3 2 ε 2 . E (0) = dε ε D(ε).31) The density of states is a very useful function. 5π 2 2m F 5 In the last equation we again used Eq. dε Again using Eq. The result is reasonable. and even though the Fermi velocity is large it is still less than a percent of the velocity of light. we study some basic temperature dependencies. see Eq. N 5 2m 5 2m (2. 2.28) 2V (2π)3 2m 2 kF 0 dk k 4 d(cos θ) −1 0 dφ 1 = V 2 5 3 k = N εF . and we need not invoke relativistic considerations. kT is set to 0. (2.26). 2. Room temperature yields kT /εF ≈ 0. N = dε D(ε).1. 3 (2.03 εF corresponding to T ≈ 2400 K. THE ELECTRON GAS Note that the Fermi energy corresponds to an extremely high temperature. and the total energy.29) The next concept to be introduced for the non-interacting electron gas is the density of states D(ε) = dN .30) and from this dn 1 d(ε) = = 2 dε 2π 2m 2 3 2 ε θ(ε). before turning to the problem of the Coulomb interaction. 2 β ∂εk 4 cosh [ (εk − µ)] T →0 2 (2. The main characteristics of this function is shown in Fig. counting the number ∆N of states in the energy interval ∆ε around dε the energy ε.

which is indicated by ¦¥ ¡ © ©¨¦ 0) ( ' ¡ § ¥ ¦¥ ¡ © §¦ ¥ © !" £ #$% £ &$% ¦¥ ¢ ¡ © ¨¦ ¥ ¡ © § £¤ .2. At T = 0 the chemical potential µ is identical to εF .27) is around 80000 K for metals.3) into account. its derivative − ∂ε F . The electronic degrees of freedom are simply ’frozen’ in.5: The Fermi-Dirac distribution nF (εk ). Now we have at hand an explanation of the old paradox in thermodynamics.. the natural single-particle energy variable in these fundamental expressions actually is ξk = εk − µ and not εk itself. shown at the temperature kT = 0. The Fermi sphere is not destroyed by heating. Only at temperatures comparable to εF they begin to play a major role. which in k-space (see Eqs. nF (εk )d(εk ). (2.1.2 Electron interactions in perturbation theory We now apply standard perturbation theory to take the inhomogeneous part of the electron-electron interaction Vel−el of Eq. as mentioned in Sec.2. has already been taken into account in the jellium model to cancel the homogeneous positive background. As we shall see in Sec. This rather high value is chosen to have a clearly observable deviation from the T = 0 case. only the states within 2kT of εF are actually aﬀected.103) and (1. 1. corresponding to T = 2400 K in metals. it is only slightly smeared. But in fact µ varies slightly with temperature.1 this picture is not true for semiconductors.. 2. (1.5.104)) corresponds to a vanishing wavevector q = 0. (2. we ﬁnd that even at the melting temperature of metals only a very limited number ∆N of electrons are aﬀected by thermal ﬂuctuations. ELECTRON INTERACTIONS IN PERTURBATION THEORY 39 Figure 2. which is indicated by the dashed lines.3. as to why only the ionic vibrational degrees of freedom contribute signiﬁcantly to the speciﬁc heat of solids. where the electron density is much smaller than in metals. A careful analysis based on the so-called Sommerfeld expansion combined with the fact that the number of electrons does not change with temperature yields ∞ ∂n n(T = 0) = n(T ) = 0 dε d(ε)f (ε) ⇒ µ(T ) = εF 1− π2 12 kT εF 2 + .33) Because εF according to Eq. and more precisely we have ∆N/N = 6kT /εF (≈ 10−3 at room temperature). Note that. The homogeneous part. 2. We thus exclude the q = 0 term in the following sums. (2. Indeed.03 εF . and its product with k the density of states.

we approach the problem from this limit in the following analysis.29).053 nm.40 a prime: Vel−el = 1 2V k1 k2 q σ1 σ2 CHAPTER 2. We begin the perturbation treatment by establishing the relevant length scale and energy scale for the problem of interacting charges. Writing E0 as the sum of kinetic energy p2 /2m and potential energy −e2 /a0 . and the dimensionless measure rs of the average inter-electronic distance in the electron gas is introduced as the radius in a sphere containing exactly one electron: 4π 1 3π 2 (rs a0 )3 = = 3 3 n kF ⇒ a 0 kF = 9π 4 1 3 −1 rs ⇒ rs = 9π 4 1 3 1 .6 eV. So we ﬁnd that 0 1 Epot n3 ∝ 2 = n− 3 Ekin n3 1 n→∞ −→ 0.36) 2a0 Here we have also introduced the energy unit 1 Ry often encountered in atomic physics as deﬁning a natural energy scale. (2. E0 = − e2 0 = 13. but already in second order the calculation collapses due to divergent integrals. The ground state is a spherical symmetric s-wave with a radius denoted the Bohr radius a0 and an energy E0 . This is to be compared to the typical 1 ¯ ¯ potential energy of particles with a mean distance d. 2 ∂E0 ∂a0 = 0. (2. the direct use of this interaction with the tools developed so far becomes the story of the rise and fall of simple minded perturbation theory. The following considerations may be helpful mnemotechnically.35) revealing the following perhaps somewhat counter intuitive fact: the importance of the electron-electron interacting diminishes as the density of the electron gas increases. It turns out that to get rid of these divergences the more powerful tools of quantum ﬁeld theory must be invoked. THE ELECTRON GAS 4πe2 † 0 c c† c c .37) . The prototypical example is of course the hydrogen atom. (2. we arrive at E0 = 0 found either by minimization. The typical length scale a0 yields a typical momentum p = /a0 . 2a0 1 Ry = 2ma0 2 ~2 − e2 . Due to the Pauli exclusion principle the kinetic energy simply becomes the dominant energy scale in the interacting electron gas at high densities. a 0 kF (2. Epot e2 /d ∝ n 3 . where a single electron orbits a proton. The key to the answer lies in the density dependence of the kinetic energy 2 Ekin = E (0) /N ∝ n 3 displayed in Eq. Consequently. A natural question arises: under which circumstances can the non-interacting electron gas actually serve as a starting point for a perturbation expansion in the interaction potential. The ﬁrst order calculation works well and good physical conclusions can be drawn.6 eV.34) However. as we shall see. or by using the virial theorem Ekin = − 1 Epot : 2 e2 0 = −13. q 2 k1 +qσ1 k2 −qσ2 k2 σ2 k1 σ1 (2. But let us see how we arrive at these conclusions. Lengths are naturally measured in units a0 . The values of a and E0 are 0 0 a0 a0 = me2 0 = 0.

The k.k2 σ1 . k k 2 q e2 −2 2.k1 +q δσ1 . θq . The ﬁrst order energy E (1) is found by the standard perturbation theory procedure: ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ I ¡¡ ¡F Q VD ¡¡ ¡ H ¡¡ ¡I G ¡¡ ¡P P ¡¡ ¡UE G ¡¡ ¡F TH ¡¡ ¡ FI ¡¡ ¡ D ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥I ¤¥¥¤¥Q DH¤¥¥¤¥ HG¤¥¥¤¥GF¤¥¥¤¥PE D¤¥¥¤¥E F¤¥¥¤¥C H¤¥¥¤¥ I¤¥¥¤¥D ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡B ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡A ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡R ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ R ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ B¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ A¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ 02 ) ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡1 4 ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡R ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡)4( ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ )#"#" ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡S6'&'& ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡5 ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ) ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ %$$% ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡0!! ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ 2) ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ 1 ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ 076)(5 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥2 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥984 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥1 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥674 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥) 3¤¤(@¤¤¤5¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥2 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥089 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥1 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥706 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ) (5 2.6: The two possible processes in ﬁrst order perturbation theory for two states |k1 σ1 and |k2 σ2 in the Fermi sea. FS|c† 1 +qσ1 c† 2 −qσ2 ck2 σ2 ck1 σ1 |FS = δk2 . 2a0 s rs (2. These possibilities are sketched in Fig. the two annihilation operators can only give a non-zero result if both |k1 | < kF and |k2 | < kF . For q = 0 we therefore end with 2.k1 +q δσ1 . Second. 2. Also the geometry for the k-integration is shown for an arbitrary but ﬁxed value of q. φq ) and (k.σ2 2 3 4πe2 0 FS|c† 1 +qσ1 c† 2 −qσ2 ck2 σ2 ck1 σ1 |FS . = −δk2 . φk ) are employed. First note.σ2 FS|nk1 +qσ1 nk1 σ1 |FS k1 . that the integral is independent of the direction of q 1 2π so that −1 d(cos θq ) 0 dφq = 4π. The direct process having q = 0 is already taken into account in the homogeneous part.where q = 0 leads to k1 + q = k1 .σ2 FS|c† 1 +qσ1 c† 1 σ1 ck1 +qσ1 ck1 σ1 |FS k k k k FS|Vel−el |FS E (1) 1 = = N N 2VN (a k )2 31 2 2 31 E (0) 3 9π = kF = (a0 e2 ) 0 F = 0 2 N 52m 52 a0 5 4 Electron interactions in 1st order perturbation theory q = −δk2 . First. only for 0 < q < 2kF does the theta function (2. the factor FS| demands that the two creation operators bring us back to |FS . ELECTRON INTERACTIONS IN PERTURBATION THEORY B A 9hg ( 5 ( 8g U H D Sf5 C F T e ¢aHbQE dc E F Q ¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£ F ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£V7¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£¨¨©©¨©¨¨©¨©©¨¨©¨©©¨©¨© ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£¨¨©©¨©¨¨©¨©©¨¨©¨©©¨©¨©I ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£¨¨©©¨©¨¨©¨©©¨¨©¨©©¨©¨©Q D¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£¨¨©©¨©¨¨©¨©©¨¨©¨©©¨©¨©H ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£P ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£E ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£V F¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£H¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£I¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£D ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£ ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£ ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ B `8 £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ 5£¢£¢¢£¢££¢£¦¦§§¨©¦§¨¨©¨©©¨© 4£¢£¢¢£¢££¢£¦¦§§¨©¦§¨¨©¨©©¨© £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£¦¦§§¨©¦§¨¨©¨©©¨© £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£¦¦§§¨©¦§¨¨©¨©©¨© £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£5 £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ ¢¢¢¢¢ A ¢B Y¢0¢A £¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ £¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£¦§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦¦§¦§§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦§ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£¦§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦¦§¦§§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦§ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£¦§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦¦§¦§§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦§ £¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£¦§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦¦§¦§§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦§ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£X¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£W ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ Rewriting the energy E (0) of the non-interacting electron gas to these units we obtain: Figure 2.2.38) 41 .40) (2. and polar coordinates (q.and q-sum are converted into integrals.21 0 r ≈ 2 Ry. thus either q = 0 (but that is excluded from Vel−el ) or k2 = k1 + q and σ2 = σ1 .k1 +q δσ1 .2.1 This constitutes the zero’th order energy in our perturbation calculation.6.σ2 θ(kF −|k1 +q|)θ(kF −|k1 |). Since only one k-vector appears we now drop the index 1. hence only the exchange process contributes to Vel−el . θk . which results in a simple anticommutator yielding the occupation number operators with a minus in front. Second.39) The matrix element is evaluated as follows.

and twice V/(2π)3 for the conversions of k.29 eV = −0. 2 for symmetry.42) 2π rs The ﬁnal result for the ﬁrst order perturbation theory is thus the simple expression E N −→ E (0) + E (1) = N 2. and is calculated by noting that q/2kF < cos θk < 1.43) rs →0 This result shows that the electron gas is stable when the repulsive Coulomb interaction is turned on. However. is the explanation of why the Fermi surface is not destroyed by the strong Coulomb interaction between the electrons. The geometry of this volume is sketched in Fig. 2. (2.211 0.83.083 Ry = −1.e. The negative exchange energy overcomes the positive kinetic energy. We found before that thermal smearing occurs but is rather insigniﬁcant compared to the huge Fermi energy. and that for a given cos θk we have q/(2 cos θk ) < k < kF . The direct “classical” Coulomb interaction does not take this into account and is therefore over-estimating the energy.095 Ry = −1. which we are going to study later in the course. . No external conﬁnement potential is needed to hold the electron gas in the ion ∗ jellium together. or inter-particle distance rs . (2.3 eV.44) We note that the negative binding energy is due to the exchange energy of the Coulomb interaction. There exists an optimal density n∗ . i. 2π for φk . (2. The last variable is free: 0 < φk < 2π. since only one electron at a time can be at a given point in space. E∗ N E N = −0. 4π for q-angles. For a given ﬁxed value of q the rest of the integral is just the overlap volume between two spheres of radius kF displaced by q. Physically this can be interpreted as an eﬀect of the Pauli exclusion principle: the electrons are forced to avoid each other. The equilibrium situation is obtained from ∂ (0) + E (1) ) = 0. now we have learned that the interaction energy per particle is ≈ 1. and we can compare the result with experiment: ∂rs (E ∗ rs = 4.6. (2.41) where the prefactors are a factor 2 for spin.42 CHAPTER 2. One of the great results of quantum ﬁeld theory. THE ELECTRON GAS product give a non-zero result. One may wonder what happens to the Fermi sphere as the interaction is turned on.916 ≈− Ry. We thus get E (1) 4πe2 V 0 =− 2(4π) N 2VN (2π)3 2kF 0 dq q2 2(2π) q2 1 q 2k F d(cos θk ) V (2π)3 kF q 2 cos θk dk k 2 . εF ≈ 7 eV.13 eV (1st order perturbation theory) (experiment on Na) rs = 3.96. The integral is elementary and results in k 3 E (1) e2 V kF 4 e2 e2 =− 0 = − 0 (a0 kF ) F = − 0 N 2 N 2π 3 2a0 2π 3 n 2a0 9π 4 1 3 1 rs 3 0. smaller than but certainly comparable to εF . and the exchange part corrects for this by being negative. which minimizes the energy and furthermore yields an energy E ∗ < 0.916 − 2 rs rs Ry.and q-sums to integrals.

Only two types of processes are possible: the direct and the exchange process. From such an intermediate state. and then later learn how to deal correctly with the inﬁnities occurring in the calculations.2 Electron interactions in 2nd order perturbation theory One may try to improve on the ﬁrst order result by going to second order perturbation theory. Here we can only reveal what goes wrong. (2. ELECTRON INTERACTIONS IN PERTURBATION THEORY Figure 2. E (0) − Eν (2.7: (a) The energy per particle E/N of the 3D electron gas in ﬁrst order perturbation theory Eq. energy E/N = E 2.8 this combined with the momentum conserving Coulomb interaction yields intermediate states where two particles are injected out of the Fermi sphere.45) |ν =|FS where all the intermediate states |ν must be diﬀerent from |FS .43) as a function of the dimensionless inter-particle distance rs .83 with an ionization ∗ /N = −1. According to second order perturbation theory E (2) is given by 1 E (2) = N N FS|Vel−el |ν ν|Vel−el |FS . 2. the result is disastrous.29 eV. (2.46) k k To restore |FS the same momentum transfer q must be involved in both ν|Vel−el |FS and FS|Vel−el |ν . As sketched in Fig. Due ∗ to the exchange interaction the electron gas is stable at rs = rs = 4.2.2. For the direct process the constraint |ν = |FS leads to |ν = θ(|k1+q|−kF )θ(|k2−q|−kF )θ(kF−|k1 |)θ(kF−|k2 |)c† 1 +qσ1 c† 2 −qσ2 ck2 σ2 ck1 σ1 |FS . However. and writing Vq = Edir = (2) 4πe2 0 q2 we ﬁnd 1 V2 q k1 σ1 k2 σ2 1 ( 2 Vq )2 θ(|k1 +q|−kF )θ(|k2 −q|−kF )θ(kF −|k1 |)θ(kF −|k2 |). |FS is restored by putting the excited electrons back into the holes they left behind.47) E (0) − Eν § © §¨¥¦¤£ £¤ ¢ ¡ 43 . We now proceed to show that the direct interaction process gives a divergent con(2) tribution Edir to E (2) due to the singular behavior of the Coulomb interaction at small momentum transfers q.2. (2. The matrix elements diverge without giving hope for a simple cure.

and 0 dimensions Edir ∝ 2 Vq ∝ k1 (2) 1 q4 E0 − Eν ∝ k2 + k2 − (k1 + q)2 − (k2 − q)2 ∝ q 1 2 . THE ELECTRON GAS 1 = ln(q) q q→0 0 ∝ ∞. Figure 2.48b) (2.8: The two possible processes in second order perturbation theory for two states |k1 σ1 and |k2 σ2 in the Fermi sea.48a) (2. 2. and 1D. which is possible using the full machinery of quantum ﬁeld theory to be developed in the coming chapters. But as will become clear.The exchange process does not lead to a divergence since in this case the momentum 2 transfer in the excitation part is q. 13. but in the relaxation part it is k2 − k1 − q. The direct process gives a divergent contribution to E/N while the exchange process gives a ﬁnite contribution. Thus Vq −2 for q → 0. θ(|k1 +q|−kF )θ(kF −|k1 |) ∝ q. . To work in various dimensions is a good opportunity to test ones understanding of the basic principles of the physics of electron gases. this is not just an academic exercise. which is less singular than V 2 ∝ q −4 . . In fact. ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ H P C G F I D E G H C ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ H P C G F I D E G H C ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ IHUE T F S E ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ G F E D BC ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ )¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ( ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ @A ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ @A ££££££££££££££££ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ &&'' 5 $%%$ 4 03 ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡5 4 73 ) R ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ( ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££75 4 73 ) 95 0 4 03 ) ( ££££££££££££££££ ( ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ !! !! ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ 5 4 "##" 7823 ) Q5 4 ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ( ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ 0123 ) ( 75 4 ¥¤¥¤ 7823 ) 65 0 4 §¦§¦ ©¨¨© ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ( ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ 0123 ££££££££££££££££ )( 2. q→0 (2. Electron gases at reduced dimensionality is of increasing experimental importance. is replaced by Vq Vk2 −k1 −q ∝ q q This divergent behavior of second order perturbation theory is a nasty surprise.49) . 2D. 0 dq q 2 1 1 qq= q4 q (2) 0 dq CHAPTER 2. as we shall see in Chap. The only hope for rescue lies in regularization of the divergent behavior by taking higher order perturbation terms into account.3 from which we obtain The contribution from small values of q to Edir is found by noting that Electron gases in 3. 44 We end this chapter on the electron gas by mentioning a few experimental realizations of electron gases in 3D.48c) (2. it turns out that one has to consider perturbation theory to inﬁnite order. 1. We know that physically the energy of the electron gas must be ﬁnite.

semiconductors. In the metallic case εF lies in the middle of a band.3. In an insulator εF is at the top of a band. 5 ∂ε !©¨ ©¨ § ¦ ¥ ¢ £ 2. i. Both currents are integrals over FBZ of gradients of periodic functions and therefore FBZ (2π)3 ~ ∂k zero. 2. and hence the inability of insulators to conduct electronic thermal and electrical currents. Semiconductors are insulators at T = 0. for the thermal current Jth = 2 k∈FBZ V εk vk = 2 R dk 1 ∂(εk ) . Therefore one ﬁnds eﬀective masses m∗ . and consequently nF (εk ) → e−(εk −µ)/kB T . 1. AND 0 DIMENSIONS 45 ©¨©¨ § £ ¦ ¥ £¤¢ ¡ . A semiconductor. (b) A generic bandstructure for an insulator or a semiconductor. 2. the so-called ﬁlled valence band. Likewise. This is not possible for small external ﬁelds. the distance up to the unoccupied conduction band. the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. the so-called conduction band. and any however small external ﬁeld can excite the system and give rise to a signiﬁcant response. ELECTRON GASES IN 3.e. Consequently there is no energy gap between the last occupied level and the ﬁrst unoccupied level. on the other hand. The system can only be excited by providing suﬃcient energy for the electrons to overcome the energy band gap Egap between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the next empty band. and ﬁlled bands does not carry any electrical or thermal current5 . such that at room temperature a suﬃcient number of electrons are excited thermally up into the conduction band to yield a signiﬁcant conductivity. but their band gap Egap is relatively small. The important parameter is the position of the Fermi energy εF relative to the bands as sketched in Fig. 2. The current density R P P 1 dk 1 ∂εk 1 is J = 2 k∈FBZ V vk = 2 FBZ (2π)3 ~ ∂k . see 1 k Transport properties are tightly connected to the electron velocity vk = ~ ∂k . typically less than 2 eV. is normally described as a classical gas since for energies εk in the conduction band we have εk−µ > Egap /2 kB T .Figure 2.1 3D electron gases: metals and semiconductors Bloch’s theory of non-interacting electrons moving in a periodic lattice provides an explanation for the existence of metals. The Fermi level εF lies at the top of the valence band resulting in possible excitations energies of at least Egap . The Fermi level εF lies in the middle of a band resulting in arbitrarily small possible excitations energies.3. and band insulators. We emphasize that at room temperature the electron gas in a metal is a degenerate Fermi gas since kB T εF .9: (a) A generic bandstructure for a metal. Finally. we note that in a typical metal most of the electron states at the Fermi surface are far away from the regions in k-space where the free electron dispersion relation is strongly distorted by the periodic lattice.9.

conduction electrons are provided. However. which then accumulate on the GaAs side of the interface due to the energy gain. and one ﬁnds strongly modiﬁed eﬀective masses. The ionized Si donors left in the Ga1−x Alx As provide an electrostatic energy that grows with an increasing number of transferred electrons. For x = 0.16). At T = 0 there are of course no free carriers in any of the conduction bands for pure semiconductor systems. which by wet etching has gotten a device geometry imprinted in its surface.46 CHAPTER 2. The interface between the GaAs and the Ga1−x Alx As semiconductor crystals in the GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructure can be grown with mono-atomic-layer precision in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) machines.3 the conduction band in Ga1−x Alx As is 300 meV higher than the one in GaAs. Hence the electrons in the former conduction band can gain energy by moving to the latter. In the latter system one can obtain extremely long mean free paths (more than 10 µm). the key component in integrated electronic circuits. and the more resent realization being in the gallium-arsenide/gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As) heterostructures. THE ELECTRON GAS Figure 2. which is technologically important for high-speed electronics.3. all the electron states contributing to the transport properties in a semiconductor are close to these regions in k-space. close to the vacuum mass m. In Fig.2 2D electron gases: GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructures For the past three decades it has been possible to fabricate 2D electron gases at semiconductor interfaces. the ﬁrst realization being inversion layers in the celebrated silicon MOSFETs. Niels Bohr Institute. typically m∗ ≈ 0. 2. 2. Eq. but by doping the Ga1−x Alx As with Si. (2. not all donor electrons will be transferred.10: (a) A picture of a GaAs-device fabricated at the Ørsted Laboratory. The metal contacts and wires are seen attached to the GaAs structure.10 a picture of an actual device is shown as well as a sketch of the various layers in a GaAs heterostructure. At some point the energy gained by § (21 ¡ ¡ 0( ¨ § © '& % ) § ¢ § $ # ©" " ! ¡ ¢ § ¡ © ¡ ¡ § ¨ §© § © ¡ ¨ § ¦ ¦¥ ¤ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ . In contrast. (b) A sketch showing the diﬀerent layers in the semiconductor structure as well as some surface gates deﬁning the geometry of the device. and which is essential for the basic research of many quantum eﬀects in condensed matter physics.1 m. This is because the two semiconductor crystals have nearly the same crystal structure leading to a stress-free interface. The main diﬀerence between the two semiconductor crystals is the values of the bottom of the conduction band.

(2. The wavefunctions ζn (z) and eigenvalues of the lowest three electron eigenstates in the triangular well. see Fig.50) where ζn (z) is the nth eigenfunction of the triangular well having the eigenenergy εn .6 eV m∗ l0 ≈ 20 meV. E = 0 at the ’top lid’. The charge density outside this capacitor is zero. A (2. while the conduction electrons at the GaAs/GaAlAs interface forms the other plate. The electrical ﬁeld E at the interface is then found simply by forming a cylindrical Gauss box with its axis along the z direction and one circular ’bottom lid’ at the interface and the other ’top lid’ deep into the GaAs. We consider the positively charged layer of the ionized Si donors as one plate of a plate capacitor. Note the triangular well forming at the interface. The conduction band is not ﬂat due to the curvature induced by the charge densities. The well is so narrow that a signiﬁcant size-quantization is obtained. as calculated from Poisson’s equation: 2 V = −e2 n3D / ∗ . AND 0 DIMENSIONS 47 Figure 2. 2 The signiﬁcance of this quantization energy is the following. The key point to notice is the formation of the almost triangular quantum well at the GaAs side of the interface.2. This is sketched in Fig. which yields l ≈ 5 nm. where we have used the Bohr radius a0 of Eq. Only the z direction is quantized leaving the x and y direction unaltered.067m. Thus at the interface E = en/ ∗ . 1 ψkσ (r) = √ eikx x eiky y eikz z χσ V −→ 1 ψkx ky n σ (r) = √ eikx x eiky y ζn (z) χσ .11. Due to the triangular well the 3D free electron wavefunction is modiﬁed. transferring electrons to the GaAs layer is balanced by the growth in electrostatic energy. All the contributions stems from the ’bottom lid’. 2. and © 8 £ § ¡ © § § % ¥ !¡ %& ' ¡¨% ¥ ¡! " %& $ # ¡ £ ! £ ¢ ¡ §8¥¦ 3 1 270 6 ( £¡ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¦¦ ¥¥ 1¤ 33 1 215200 4) (( ¦¤ ¥ ¡¢ .11: The conduction band in a GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure. 2. m∗ = 0. Without performing the full calculation we can get a grasp of the order of magnitude by the following estimate. and typically n = 3 × 1015 m−2 .3.36) to bring in atomic units. and since for the reason of charge neutrality. 2. yielding zero from the side of the cylindrical box. ELECTRON GASES IN 3. 1.11 where the resulting conduction band in equilibrium is shown as function of the position z perpendicular to the interface. n being the 2D electron density at the interface. The typical length scale l for the width of the triangular well is found by balancing the ∗/ 1 ~2 0 a0 potential energy and the kinetic quantum energy: eEl = m∗ l2 ⇒ l3 = 4π m∗ /m n . From this we get the typical quantization energy ∆E due to the triangular well: 2 m a ∆E = 13. since for symmetry reasons E must be perpendicular to the z axis. The experimental input for GaAs is ∗ = 13 0 .

l. The highest occupied state has the energy E0 + εF while the lowest unoccupied state has the energy E1 . (2.n.e. kF 2 = 2πn ⇒ εF ≈ 10 meV. in the x direction.n = 2m∗ 2 2 kx + ky + ε n . THE ELECTRON GAS εkx .3. i. The electrons are strongly bound to the surface of the cylinder in quantum states arising from the original π-bonds of the graphite system. ∆R ≈ 0. We brieﬂy sketch how this comes about. resulting in a radial ~2 R conﬁnement energy E0 ∼ 2m∆R2 ∼ 10 eV. We therefore end up with a total energy R φ εkx . 2m (2. The corresponding conﬁnement φ ~2 energy is En ∼ 2mλ2 ∼ 1 eV n. and depending on the speciﬁc way the cylinder is rolled up the nanotubes are either metallic. a metallic nanotube is a nearly ideal 1D wire. y.l = E0 + En + 2 2 kx . in the azimuthal angle coordinate φ. The carbon nanotube can be viewed as a normal graphite sheet rolled up into a cylinder with a radius R0 ≈ 2 nm and a length more than a thousand times R0 . r. 2.3 1D electron gases: carbon nanotubes Since the mid-nineties a new research ﬁeld has developed involving studies of the cylindrically shaped carbon based molecule.51) where we have given the 2D version of the fundamental relation between kF and n (see Exercise 2. Likewise.n. These long and thin carbon molecules have some extraordinary material characteristics. If this is not provided the system has eﬀectively lost one spatial degree of freedom and is dynamically a 2D system.σ (r) = √ eikx x Rnl (r) Yl (φ) χσ . since the perimeter must contain an integer number of electron wavelengths λn . There are no severe constraints along the cylinder axis. 2D systems do indeed exist in reality.12.26) for the 3D case). semiconducting or insulating. In the same dynamical sense as the GaAs heterostructure is a 2D metal sheet. ζ0 (z). i. φ) wavefunctions: 1 ψkσ (r) = √ eikx x eiky y eikz z χσ V −→ 1 ψkx . n i. 2. two of the three spatial degrees of freedom are frozen in. The cylindrical symmetry of the nanotube makes it natural to change the basis functions from the 3D (x. λn = 2πR0 /n < 2 nm. L (2. i.e.e.53) . and we arrive at our conclusion: At temperatures T 100 K all occupied electron states have the same orbital in the z direction.4 and compare to Eq.1 nm. the so-called carbon nanotube. z) plane waves to cylindrical (x. (2. see Fig. The diﬀerence is E1 − (E0 + εF ) = ∆E − εF ≈ 10 meV ≈ 100 K.52) This is of course more than just a mathematical transformation. This means that the extension ∆R of the radial wave function Rnl (r) around the mean value R0 is of atomic scale. Any changes of this orbital requires an excitation energy of at least 10 meV. there is a strong conﬁnement.48 the total energy for all three spatial directions is 2 CHAPTER 2. This means that theoretical studies of 2D electron gases is far from an academic exercise.ky . They are believed to be the strongest material in the world.e.

2. 0) band (the position of εF for the metallic case) to the bottom of the (n. for example by using the device shown in Fig. The nanotubes is one of only a couple of systems exhibiting a nearly ideal 1D behavior. (b) A carbon nanotube molecule is formed by rolling up a graphite sheet into a cylindrical geometry. This has been realized experimentally in the so-called quantum dot systems.12: (a) Carbon atoms forming a sheet of graphite with a characteristic hexagonal lattice. 1) band: 1 φ φ ∆E = (E1 − E0 ) ≈ 1 eV ∼ 12000 K.54) Thus at room temperature the only available degree of freedom is the axial one described by the continuous quantum number kx and the associated plan waves eikx x .3. 2. l) = (0. with a considerable gap ∆E from the center of the (n. showing a bundle of carbon nanotubes placed across a gap between two metal electrodes. 2.2. A simpliﬁed model of a quantum dot is studied in Exercise 8. This section will be expanded in the next edition of these notes. Not only are the nanotube very interesting from an experimental point of view. . 1.4 0D electron gases: quantum dots Naturally one can think of conﬁning the electrons in all three spatial dimensions. l) = (0. also from a pure theoretical point of view do they play an important role. AND 0 DIMENSIONS ¢ ¤ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ 49 Figure 2. 2 (2.3. thereby connecting them and allowing for electrical measurements on single molecules. Niels Bohr Institute. In particular that makes the nanotubes a key testing ground for the diagonizable so-called Luttinger liquid model.10(b).4. (c) An atomic force micrograph taken at the Ørsted Laboratory. ELECTRON GASES IN 3. a central quantum model for describing interacting electrons in 1D.

THE ELECTRON GAS .50 CHAPTER 2.

Chapter 3 Phonons. they are bosons according to the results of Sec.4. And more surprising may be the fact that the electron-phonon coupling is the cause of conventional superconductivity. and electrical resistivity of solids. 1.1: Three types of oscillations in metals. The quantized vibrations are denoted phonons. These vibrations are well described by harmonic oscillators and therefore we can employ the results from Sec.1. the Bose-Einstein distribution nB (ε) given in Eq. speciﬁc heat. The restoring force is the long range Coulomb interaction.127). acoustic phonons). (c) Fast electronic plasma oscillations in a static ionic lattice (electronic plasma oscillations). Moreover. (1. (a) Slow ionic density oscillations in a static electron gas (ion plasma oscillations). (b) slow ion oscillations followed by the electron gas (sound waves. The restoring force is the compressibility of the disturbed electron gas.1. 1. a name pointing to the connection between sound waves and lattice vibrations. they naturally occur at ﬁnite temperature. Since phonons basically are harmonic oscillators. so we will therefore often need the thermal distribution function for bosons. 3. The ions will be treated using two models: the jellium model.1 to achieve the second quantized form of the corresponding Hamiltonian. ¢ ¤ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ Figure 3. Phonons play are fundamental role in our understanding of sound. where the ions are represented by a smeared-out continuous positive background. and the lattice model. 51 . In the following sections we shall study the three types of matter oscillation sketched in Fig. where the ions oscillate around their equilibrium positions forming a regular crystal lattice. elasticity. coupling to electrons In this chapter we study the basic properties of ionic vibrations.4. The restoring force is the long range Coulomb interaction. The grayscale represent the electron density and the dots the ions.

3. PHONONS. This force equation is supplemented by the continuity ion equation. (3. Hence.3) are not a ion very good description of solids.52 CHAPTER 3. COUPLING TO ELECTRONS 3.5. 3. the Einstein phonons (also denoted optical phonons. and a model like this was proposed ion by Einstein in 1906 as the ﬁrst attempt to explain the decrease of heat capacity CV of solids as a function of decreasing temperature (see Sec. ion since the velocity v is already a small quantity. we obtain linear equations of motion with solutions of the form ρion (r.e. 3. To fully understand how the optical Einstein phonons get renormalized to become the acoustic Debye phonons requires the full machinery of quantum ﬁeld theory. i.1) A non-zero δρion corresponds to a charge density Ze δρion and hence is associated with an electric ﬁeld E obeying ·E= Ze 0 δρion ⇒ ·f = Z 2 e2 ρ0 ion 0 δρion . t) = δρion (r) e−iΩt . t) = ρ0 + δρion (r) e−iΩt . . and ion ρel = Zρ0 that of the homogeneous electron gas. where vs is the sound velocity. Diﬀerentiating this with respect to time and using Newton’s second law f = M ρion ∂t v we obtain Ze2 ρel .2) In the second equation we have introduced the force density f .4) These quantized ion oscillations are denoted phonons. We begin as depicted in Fig. Note that the origin of the ionic plasma frequency is the long-range Coulomb interaction. If we study the limit of small harmonic deviations from equilibrium δρion (r. Let ρ0 be the particle density of the ion jellium. which all have the same frequency Ω.3) Ω is the ionic plasma frequency. which to ﬁrst order in δρion becomes ∂t δρion +ρ0 ·v = 0. 3. 3. the second quantization formalism leads to the following phonon Hamiltonian: 2 ∂t δρion + 1 M ·f =0 ⇒ Ω2 δρion = Z 2 e2 ρ0 ion δρion ⇒ 0M Ω= Z 2 e2 ρ0 ion = 0M Hph = q Ω b† bq + q 1 . 2 (3. which entered the analysis through the Maxwell equation · E = Zeδρion / 0 . 3. ion (3.3 and 3.1b and in Sec. which to ﬁrst order in δρion becomes f = Zeρion E ≈ Zeρ0 E. the exact behavior is described by the Debye-model incorporating phonons with a photon-like dispersion ωq = vs q. Although it is correct that CV decreases at low temperature. 0M (3. see Sec. These Debye phonons are also denoted acoustical phonons due to their relation to sound propagation.5). The ionic oscillations in the continuous jellium model are thus described by harmonic oscillators. This is explained in details in Secs. However. we keep ρel ﬁxed. ∂t ρion + ·(ρion v) = 0.1(a) by ion studying oscillations in the smeared out ion density while neglecting the electron dynamics. instead of the Einstein dispersion ωq = Ω.1 Jellium oscillations and Einstein phonons Our ﬁrst encounter with phonons will be those arising from a semiclassical treatment of the charge neutral jellium system.2. but we hint at the solution of the problem in Fig.

an ordinary macroscopic phenomenon as sound propagation is deeply rooted in quantum physics. 3. This gives an estimate for vs . Consequently one would expect the electrons to follow the motion of the ions adiabatically and thereby always maintaining local charge neutrality and thus lowering the high ionic plasma frequency Ω. Since the equilibrium system is periodic with the lattice spacing a it is natural .1b. and to illustrate its correctness we now use it to estimate the sound velocity in metals. which is due to long-range charge Coulomb forces from the charge imbalance.5) which for typical numbers yields vs 3000 m/s as found experimentally. The Hamiltonian is simply the sum of the kinetic energy of the ions and the potential energy of the springs. The equilibrium position 0 of the j’th ion is denoted Rj . while the ion momentum pj and the displacement uj are canonical variables: N Hph = j=1 1 2 1 p + K(uj − uj−1 )2 . 3. while 2 the potential energy density associated with the restoring force must be related to the density dependent energy content of the compressed electron gas.j2 . 0 0 The lattice spacing is denoted a = Rj − Rj−1 . of the order 3 ρel εF . vs = Zm v . ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION AND THE SOUND VELOCITY 53 3. The surroundings somehow provide the restoring force. This setup is shown in Fig. while its displacement away from this position is denoted uj . so we have L = N a. Surprisingly. uN +1 = u1 . 2M j 2 [pj1 . 5 In a stationary state these two energy densities must be of the same order of magnitude. which in a more detailed treatment (see Exercise 3.e. in which the ions can execute small oscillatory motion around their equilibrium positions. (3.4) is expressed by the Bohm-Staver formula. 2 The kinetic energy density associated with a sound wave is of the order 1 M vs ρion . the ions are much heavier.3. This situation is depicted in Fig. 3M F (3.3 Lattice vibrations and phonons in 1D Even though we are not yet able to demonstrate how to turn the optical ion plasma oscillations into acoustical phonons. we can nevertheless learn a lot from simply postulating the existence of a periodic ion lattice (as observed in nature). and much slower. Note how this estimate builds on classical considerations of the ionic motion while using the quantum result for the energy content of a degenerate electron gas. uj2 ] = i δj1 .2. We begin by a simple one dimensional quantum mechanical model consisting of a 1D box of length L containing N ions of mass M each interacting with its two neighbors through a linear force ﬁeld (a spring) with the force constant K. i.2.2 Electron-phonon interaction and the sound velocity Compared to the light and very mobile valence electrons. 3. more than a factor of 104 .6) As for the photon model and the jellium model we impose periodic boundary conditions.

k∈FBZ N j=1 0 T UQV QV T RQV SRQV $ ¡$ ¡" " ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ CD 78 $ GH !" EF #¡ ¡ ¡#$ ¡!" ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ AB ¡ ¡ 9@ ¡ #¡# ¡! ! ¡ ¡ ¡ T PQU I S R PQ I PQ I ` T R PQ I `X`XY`X` ¡¨ ¨ ¦ ¡¦ ¤ ¡¤ ¡ 56 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡§¨ §¨ 12 ¦ )0 ¥¡ ¡¥¦ ¤ '( £¡ ¡£¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ %& ¡ WXWXYWXW ¡ ¡§ § ¥ ¡¥ W ¡£ £ e−ikRj . . (1. .54 CHAPTER 3.2: A 1D lattice of ions with mass M . . (3. the hermiticity of pj and the deﬁnition ¡ 34 ©¡© ¡ ©¡© eikRj . M 2 [pk1 . L a N (3. a a a ∆k = 2π 2π 1 = .8) 0 i δk1 .8) into Eq. PHONONS. Instead we combine uk and pk in the deﬁnition of the annihilation and This looks almost like the Hamiltonian for a set of harmonic oscillators except for some annoying details concerning k and −k. COUPLING TO ELECTRONS Figure 3. (3. Note that while pj in real space is a nice Hermitian operator. The equilibrium positions shown in the top row are 0 denoted Rj .9) .77) to form creation and annihilation operators. 2M k −k 2 ωk = K ka 2 sin . In fact. we will not use this pair in analogy with x and p in Eq. (3. to solve the problem in k-space by performing a discrete Fourier transform. while the displacements shown in the bottom row are denoted uj .7) The Fourier transforms of the conjugate variables are: pj 1 ≡√ N pk eikRj . . and a nearest neighbor linear force coupling of strength K. 0 δk. − + N ∆k . (3. k∈FBZ N j=1 0 uj 1 ≡√ N uk eikRj . The reason is that the Hamiltonian in the present case contains products like pk p−k and not p2 as in k the original case.0 = By straight forward insertion of Eq. − + 2∆k. in reciprocal space. FBZ. (3. also the present system of N ions forming a periodic lattice leads to a ﬁrst Brillouin zone. In analogy with electrons moving in a periodic lattice.0 = j 1 N 1 N 1 pk ≡ √ N pj e−ikRj .−k2 . pk in k-space is not self-adjoint. 0 1 uk ≡ √ N uj e−ikRj .9) tells us k that uk and p−k form a pair of conjugate variables. By Fourier transformation the N ion coordinates becomes N wave vectors in FBZ: FBZ = − π π π + ∆k. Although the commutator in Eq. uk2 ] = of the Fourier transform lead to p† = p−k . k∈FBZ N j=1 0 δR0 .6) we ﬁnd H= k 1 1 2 p p + M ωk uk u−k . lattice constant a.

3. Again by direct insertion it is readily veriﬁed that Hph = k −k ωk b† bk + k 1 . b† 2 ] = δk1 . (3. These came about as a consequence of breaking the translational invariance of the system by introducing a periodic lattice. one can determine the value of the free parameter K. 3. LATTICE VIBRATIONS AND PHONONS IN 1D 55 Figure 3. the unit cell is doubled to hold two ions. the concept of phonon branches must be introduced. (b) As in (a) but now substituting every second ion of mass M1 with one of mass M2 (white disks) resulting in two ions per unit cell and a doubling of the lattice constant. To the left is shown the extended zone scheme.11) does in fact bring about the acoustical phonons.9) that ωk −→ k→0 K M ak. 2 −k i √ (b† − bk ). 3. (c) As in (a) but now with the addition of mass M2 ions in between the mass M1 ions resulting in two ions per unit cell. the force constant in the model. 2 [bk1 . It is analogous to the Bloch bands for electrons. Their dispersion relation is shown in Fig.3. so upon measuring the value of it.3(a).k2 . The quantized oscillations are denoted phonons.10) Note how both the oscillator frequency ωk = ω−k and the oscillator length k = depends on the wavenumber k. creation operators bk and b† : −k bk ≡ b† −k ≡ p 1 uk √ +i k . but the same lattice constant as in (a). so our solution Eq. The sound K velocity is found to be vs = M a. 2 −k k k = M ωk . Instead the new lattice constant is 2a. (3. Now we break the discrete translational invariance given by the lattice constant a. Hence the original BZ is halved in size and the original dispersion curve Fig. (3.11) This is ﬁnally the canonical form of a Hamiltonian describing a set of independent harmonic oscillators in second quantization. It is seen from Eq.3(a) is broken into sections. / k 2 k p 1 uk √ −i k . If. and to the right the reduced zone scheme.3(b). as shown in Fig. / k 2 k uk ≡ pk ≡ k√ 1 † (b + bk ). k (3.3.3: The phonon dispersion relation for three diﬀerent 1D lattices. In 0 ¡ ¡( ¡© ¡ © ¡ '& !%# 0 '& 0 ¡ )( ¡ '& ¡ # !$ 0 ¡ §¨¡§¨ ¥¦¡( ¥ ¡ ¡£ ¢ £¤ '& # !" . (a) A system with lattice constant a and one ion of mass M1 (black disks) per unit cell.

The N appearing above. in Eq. 1 j N U ≈ U0 + 1 2 uα (R0 ) 1 R0 R0 1 2 αβ ∂uα (R0 ) 1 ∂2U ∂uβ (R0 ) 2 uβ (R0 ). since no states can be lost. 2 u =0 Note that nothing has been assumed about the range of the potential. should be interpreted as the number of unit cells rather than the number of ions. . so we have Nion = pN . . It may very well go much beyond the nearest neighbor case studied in the 1D case. The central object in ¦ ¦ (3. so to excite these phonons high energies are required. α = x.13) . • and ◦. For acoustical phonons the size of the displacement of neighboring ions diﬀers only slightly and the sign of it is the same. b† 2 λ2 ] = δk1 . 3. e. . The generalization to p ions per unit cell is straight forward. The upper band never approaches zero energy.56 ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ CHAPTER 3. analogous to the band index n for Bloch electrons is introduced to label the diﬀerent branches.4 for the case of a two-ion unit cell. whereas for optical phonons the sign of the displacement alternates between the two types of ions. per unit cell. In fact they can be excited by light.4: (a) An acoustical and (b) an optical phonon having the same wave length for a 1D system with two ions. y.11) is changed into Hph = kλ ωkλ b† bkλ + kλ 1 .3(b) we of course ﬁnd two branches. 3.8).12) (3. PHONONS. while in the optical case they oscillate π radians out of phase. (3.λ2 . (3. COUPLING TO ELECTRONS ¥ ¤ ¢ £ Figure 3. so they are known as optical phonons. We treat the general case of any monatomic Bravais lattice.4 Acoustical and optical phonons in 3D The fundamental principles for constructing the second quantized phonon ﬁelds established for the 1D case carries over to the 3D case almost unchanged. The lower branch resembles the original dispersion so it corresponds to acoustic phonons. and one ﬁnds the appearance of 1 acoustic branch and (p-1) optical branches. The most notable diﬀerence is the appearance in 3D of polarization in analogy to what we have already seen for the photon ﬁeld. z.k2 δλ1 . u(R0 )]. 2 [bk1 λ1 . . the reduced zone scheme in Fig. The starting point of the analysis is a second order Taylor expansion j in uα (R0 ) of the potential energy U [u(R0 ). A branch index λ. k 3. and in the general case the Hamiltonian Eq.g. In the acoustical case the two types of ions oscillate in phase. The ionic equilibrium positions are denoted R0 and the displacements by u(R0 ) with components j j uα (R0 ). The origin of the energy diﬀerence between an acoustical and an optical phonon at the same wave length is sketched in Fig.

u =0 Dαβ (k) = R Dαβ (R) e−ik·R .3 }. that diagonalizes D(k).e.λ .14) The discrete Fourier transform in 3D is a straight forward generalization of the one in 1D. k. λ.0 j = 1 N eik·Rj . 2.20) The ﬁrst follows from the interchangeability of the order of the diﬀerentiation in Eq. but arbitrary.14). i.18) We seek simple harmonic solutions to the problem and ﬁnd u(R0 . (3. The third follows from inversion symmetry 1 2 R always present in monatomic Bravais lattices. D(−R0 ) = D(R0 ). The second follows from the fact that U = 0 if all the displacements are the same.1 . The classical equation of motions for the ions are simply M uα (R0 ) = − ¨ 1 ∂U ∂uα (R0 ) 1 ⇒ ¨ 1 −M u(R0 ) = R0 2 D(R0 −R0 ) u(R0 ). R D(R0 ) = 0. (3. k. (3. k∈FBZ N j=1 0 f (R0 ) e−ik·Rj .17) . e j=1 −ik·R0 j Due to the lattice periodicity Dαβ (R0 − R0 ) depends only on the diﬀerence between any 1 2 two ion positions. hence diagonalizable in an orthonormal basis. they are eigenvectors: D(k) 1 kλ = Kkλ kλ . λ = 1. kλ · kλ = δλ.16) Using these symmetries in connection with D(k) we obtain D(k) = R0 D(R0 ) e−ik·R = 1 2 D(R0 ) e R0 ik·R0 0 1 2 +e D(R0 ) e−ik·R + R0 −ik·R0 R0 0 D(−R0 ) eik·R D(R0 ) sin2 0 = − 2 = −2 R0 1 k·R0 (3.2 . . 3. (3. the so-called dynamical matrix D(k) with components Dαβ (k): Dαβ (R0 −R0 ) = 1 2 ∂2U ∂uα (R0 ) ∂uβ (R0 ) 1 2 . j 0 δ R0 .3.15) . t) ∝ ei(k·R 0 −ωt) ⇒ M ω 2 = D(k) .4. 2 Thus D(k) is real and symmetric. k∈FBZ N 0 δk. 2 1 2 (3. The D-matrix has the following three symmetry properties1 D(R0 ) t 0 = D(R0 ). (3. ACOUSTICAL AND OPTICAL PHONONS IN 3D the theory is the force strength matrix ∂2U ∂uα ∂uβ 57 (generalizing K from the 1D case) and its Fourier transform.0 1 = N (3. and for an arbitrary function f (R0 ) we have j 1 f (R0 ) ≡ √ j N 1 f (k) = √ N f (k) eik·Rj . because P P then 0 = R1 R2 d · D(R0 −R0 ) · d = N d · [ 0 D(R0 )] · d. the so-called polarization vectors. say d.19) Since D(k) is a real symmetric matrix there exists for any value of k an orthonormal basis set of vectors { k.

58

¢ ¡

**CHAPTER 3. PHONONS; COUPLING TO ELECTRONS
**

¥ ¤ ¢ £

Figure 3.5: (a) Three examples of polarization in phonon modes: transverse, longitudinal and general. (b) A generic phonon spectrum for a system with 3 ions in the unit cell. The 9 modes divides into 3 acoustical and 6 optical modes. We have now found the classical eigenmodes ukλ of the 3D lattice vibrations characterized by the wavevector k and the polarization vector kλ : M ω2 = Kkλ ⇒ ukλ (R0 , t) = ei(k·R

0 −ω kλ t)

kλ

kλ

kλ

,

ωkλ ≡

Kkλ . M

**Using as in Eq. (3.10) the now familiar second quantization procedure of harmonic oscillators we obtain ukλ ≡ Hph =
**

kλ kλ √

1 b† + bk,λ 2 −k,λ ωkλ b† bkλ + kλ

kλ ,

kλ

≡

M ωkλ

,

1 , 2

[bkλ , b† λ ] = δk,k δλ,λ . k

Now, what about acoustical and optical phonons in 3D? It is clear from Eq. (3.17) that D(k) ∝ k 2 for k → 0, so the same holds true for its eigenvalues Kkλ . The dispersion relation in Eq. (3.19) therefore becomes ωkλ = vλ (θk , φk ) k, which describes an acoustical phonon with a sound velocity vλ (θk , φk ) in general depending on both the direction of k and the polarization λ. As in 1D the number of ions in the unit cell can be augmented from 1 to p. In that case it can be shown that of the resulting 3p modes 3 are acoustical and 3(p−1) optical modes. The acoustical modes are appearing because it is always possible to construct modes where all the ions have been given nearly the same displacement resulting in an arbitrarily low energy cost associated with such a deformation of the lattice. In Fig. 3.5 is shown the phonon modes for a unit cell with three ions. A 3D lattice with N unit cells each containing p ions, each of which can oscillate in 3 directions, is described by 3pN modes. In terms of phonon modes we end up with 3p so-called phonon branches ωkλ , which for each branch index λ are deﬁned in N discrete points in k-space. Thus in 3D the index λ contains information on both which polarization and which of the acoustical or optical modes we are dealing with.

¦

(3.21)

(3.22) (3.23)

3.5. THE SPECIFIC HEAT OF SOLIDS IN THE DEBYE MODEL

59

3.5

The speciﬁc heat of solids in the Debye model

Debye’s phonon model is a simple model, which describes the temperature dependence of the heat capacitance CV = ∂E of solids exceedingly well, although it contains just one ∂T material dependent free parameter. The phonon spectrum Fig. 3.5(b) in the reduced zone scheme has 3p branches. In Fig. 3.6(a) is shown the acoustic and optical phonon branch in the extended zone scheme for a 1D chain with two ions per unit cell. Note how the optical branch appears as an extension of the acoustical branch. In d dimensions a reasonable average of the spectrum can be obtained by representing all the phonon branches in the reduced zone scheme with d acoustical branches in the extended zone scheme, each with a linear dispersion relation ωkλ = vλ k. Furthermore, since we will use the model to calculate the speciﬁc heat by averaging over all modes, we can even employ a suitable average vD out the polarization dependent velocities vλ and use the same linear dispersion relation for all acoustical branches, ωkλ ≡ vD k ⇒ ε = vD k. (3.24)

Even though we have deformed the phonon spectrum we may not change the number of phonon modes. In the 3D Debye model we have 3Nion modes, in the form of 3 acoustic branches each with Nion allowed wavevectors, where Nion is the number of ions in the lattice. Since we are using periodic boundary conditions the counting of the allowed phonon wavevectors is equivalent to that of Sec. 2.1.2 for plane wave electron states, i.e. Nion = [V/(2π)3 ]×[volume in k-space]. Since the Debye spectrum Eq. (3.24) is isotropic in k-space, the Debye phonon modes must occupy a sphere in this space, i.e. all modes with |k| < kD , where kD is denoted the Debye wave number determined by Nion = V 4 3 πk . (2π)3 3 D (3.25)

Inserting kD into Eq. (3.24) yields the characteristic Debye energy, ωD and hence the characteristic Debye temperature TD : ωD ≡ kB TD ≡ vD kD ⇒ 6π 2 Nion ( vD )3 = V (kB TD )3 . (3.26)

Continuing the analogy with the electron case the density of phonon states Dph (ε) is found by combining Eq. (3.24) and Eq. (3.25) and multiplying by 3 for the number of acoustic branches, Nion (ε) = V 1 ε3 2 ( v )3 6π D ⇒ Dph (ε) = 3 dNion (ε) V 1 = 2 ε2 , dε 2π ( vD )3 0 < ε < kB TD .

(3.27) The energy Eion (T ) of the vibrating lattice is now easily computed using the Bose-Einstein distribution function nB (ε) Eq. (1.127) for the bosonic phonons: Eion (T ) =

kB TD 0

dε εDph (ε)nB (ε) =

V 3 2 ( v )3 2π D

kB TD 0

dε

ε3 . eβε − 1

(3.28)

60

CHAPTER 3. PHONONS; COUPLING TO ELECTRONS

Figure 3.6: (a) The linear Debye approximation to the phonon spectrum with the Debye wave vector kD shown. (b) Comparison between experiment and the Debye model of heat capacitance applied for lead, silver, aluminum, and diamond.

ion It is now straight forward to obtain CV from Eq. (3.28) by diﬀerentiation: ion CV (T ) =

∂Eion T = 9Nion kB ∂T TD

3 0

TD /T

dx

x 4 ex , (ex − 1)2

(3.29)

where the integrand is rendered dimensionless by introducing TD from Eq. (3.26). Note that TD is the only free parameter in the Debye model of heat capacitance; vD dropped out of the calculation. Note also how the model reproduces the classical Dulong-Petit value in the high temperature limit, where all oscillators are thermally excited. In the low temperature limits the oscillators “freeze out” and the heat capacitance drops as T 3 ,

ion CV (T ) −→ T TD

T 12π 4 Nion kB 5 TD

3

,

ion CV (T ) −→ 3Nion kB . T TD

(3.30)

In Fig. 3.6(b) the Debye model is compared to experiment. A remarkable agreement is obtained over the wide temperature range from 10 K to 1000 K after ﬁtting TD for each of the widely diﬀerent materials lead, aluminum, silver and diamond. We end this section by a historical remark. The very ﬁrst published application of quantum theory to a condensed matter problem was in fact Einstein’s work from 1906, reproduced in Fig. 3.7(a), explaining the main features of Weber’s 1875 measurements on diamond. In analogy with Planck’s quantization of the oscillators related to the black body radiation, Einstein quantized the oscillators corresponding to the lattice vibrations, assuming that all oscillators had the same frequency ωE . So instead of Eq. (3.27), Einstein E employed the much simpler Dion (ε) = δ(ε − ωE ), which immediately leads to

ion,E CV (T ) = 3Nion kB

TE T

2

eTE /T , (eTE /T − 1)2

TE ≡ ωE /kB .

(3.31)

While this theory also gives the classical result 3Nion kB in the high temperature limit, ion it exaggerates the decrease of CV at low temperatures by predicting an exponential suppression. In Fig. 3.7(b) is shown a comparison of Debye’s and Einstein’s models. Nowadays, Einstein’s formula is still in use, since it provides a fairly accurate description of the optical phonons which in many cases have a reasonably ﬂat dispersion relation.

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3.6. ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION IN THE LATTICE MODEL

61

Figure 3.7: (a) The ﬁrst application of quantum theory to condensed matter physics. Einstein’s 1906 theory of heat capacitance of solids. The theory is compared to Weber’s 1875 measurements on diamond. (b) A comparison between Debye’s and Einstein’s model.

3.6

Electron-phonon interaction in the lattice model

In Chap. 2 we mentioned that in the lattice model the electron-ion interaction splits in two terms, one arising from the static lattice and the other from the ionic vibrations, Vel−ion = Vel−latt + Vel−ph . The former has already been dealt with in the HBloch , so in this section the task is to derive the explicit second quantized form of the latter. Regarding the basis states for the combined electron and phonon system we are now in the situation discussed in Sec. 1.4.5. We will simply use the product states given in Eq. (1.108). Our point of departure is the simple expression for the Coulomb energy of an electron density in the electric potential Vion (r − Rj ) of an ion placed at the position Rj ,

N

Vel−ion =

dr (−e)ρel (r)

j=1

Vion (r − Rj ).

As before the actual ion coordinates are given by Rj = R0 + uj , where R0 are the ionic j j equilibrium positions, i.e. the static periodic lattice, and where uj denotes the lattice vibrations. The respective contributions from these two sets of coordinates are separated by a Taylor expansion, Vion (r − Rj ) ≈ Vion (r − R0 ) − r Vion (r − R0 ) · uj , note the sign j j of the second term, and we obtain

N N

Vel−ion =

dr (−e)ρel (r)

j=1

Vion (r−R0 )− j

dr (−e)ρel (r)

j=1

0 r Vion (r−Rj )·uj .

The ﬁrst term is the one entering HBloch in Eq. (2.6), while the second is the electronphonon interaction, also sketched in Fig. 3.8, Vel−ph = dr ρel (r)

j

e uj ·

r Vion (r

− R0 ) . j

Vel−ph is readily deﬁned in real space, but a lot easier to use in k-space, so we will proceed

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(3.32) (3.33) (3.34)

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62

CHAPTER 3. PHONONS; COUPLING TO ELECTRONS

Figure 3.8: (a) Being in an eigenstate a Bloch electron moves through a perfect lattice without being scattered. (b) A displaced ion results in an electric dipole relative to the perfect background, and this can scatter Bloch electrons from |k, σ to |k , σ . by Fourier transforming it. Let us begin with the ionic part, the u · V -term. The Fourier transform of uj is given in Eq. (3.22), where we note that the phonon wavevector k is 1 restricted to the Brillouin zone k ∈ FBZ. Deﬁning Vion (r) = V p Vp eip·r , we see that r simply brings down a factor ip. To facilitate comparison to the phonon wavevector k we decompose p as in Eq. (2.10): p = q + G, where q ∈ FBZ and G ∈ RL. All in all we have

r Vion (r

− R0 ) = j uj =

1 V

i(q + G)Vq+G ei(q+G )·(r−Rj ) ,

q∈FBZ G ∈RL kλ √ bk,λ + b† −k,λ 2 kλ

1 √ N

j

k∈FBZ λ

**These expressions, together with e uj ·
**

j r Vel (r

**eik·Rj = N δk,0 , and multiplying by e, lead to
**

i(q+G )·r gq,G ,λ bq,λ + b† , −q,λ e q∈FBZ G ∈RL,λ

− R0 ) = j

1 V

**where we have introduced the phonon coupling strength gq,G ,λ given by gq,G ,λ = ie N (q + G)· 2M ωqλ
**

qλ

The ﬁnal result, Vel−ph , is now obtained by inserting the Fourier representation of the 1 electron density, ρel (r) = V kpσ e−ip·r c† k+pσ ckσ , derived in Eq. (1.96), together with Eq. (3.37) into Eq. (3.34), and utilizing dr eik·r = Vδk,0 : Vel−ph = 1 V

† gq,G ,λ c† k+q+G ,σ ckσ bq,λ + b−q,λ . kσ qλ G

The interpretation of this formula is quite simple. Under momentum conservation (but only up to an undetermined reciprocal lattice vector due to the periodicity of the lattice) and spin conservation the electrons can be scattered from any initial state |k, σ el to the ﬁnal state |k + q + G, σ el either by absorbing a phonon from the state |qλ ph or by emitting a phonon into the state | − qλ ph . A graphical representation of this fundamental process is shown in Fig. 3.9.

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0

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(3.35) (3.36)

eik·Rj .

0

(3.37)

Vq+G .

(3.38)

(3.39)

3.7. ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION IN THE JELLIUM MODEL

63

Figure 3.9: A graphical representation of the fundamental electron-phonon coupling. The electron states are represented by the straight lines, the phonon states by curly spring-like lines, and the coupling strength by a dot. To the left the electron is scattered by absorbing a phonon, to the right by emitting a phonon. The normal processes, i.e. processes where per deﬁnition G = 0, often tend to dominate over the so-called umklapp processes, where G = 0, so in the following we shall completely neglect the latter.2 Moreover, we shall treat only isotropic media, where qλ is either parallel to or perpendicular to q, i.e. q· qλ in gq,G =0,λ is only non-zero for longitudinally polarized phonons. So in the Isotropic case for Normal phonon processes we have

IN Vel−ph =

1 V

**† gq,λ c† k+q,σ ckσ bq,λ + b−q,λ . kσ qλl
**

l l l

Finally, the most signiﬁcant physics of the electron-phonon coupling can often be extracted from considering just the acoustical modes. Due to their low energies they are excited signiﬁcantly more than the high energy optical phonons at temperatures lower than the Debye temperature. Thus in the Isotropic case for Normal Acoustical phonon processes only the longitudinal acoustical branch enters and we have

INA Vel−ph =

1 V

† gq c† k+q,σ ckσ bq + b−q . kσ q

1 If we for ions with charge +Ze approximate Vq by a Yukawa potential, Vq = Ze q2 +k2 (see s 0 Exercise 1.5), the explicit form of the coupling constant gq is particularly simple:

gq = i

Ze2

0

q2

q 2 + ks

N . 2M ωq

3.7

Electron-phonon interaction in the jellium model

Finally, we return to the case of Einstein phonons in the jellium model treated in Sec. 3.1. The electron-phonon interaction in this case is derived in analogy with the that of normal

There are mainly two reasons why the umklapp processes often can be neglected: (1) Vq+G is small due to the 1/(q + G )2 dependence, and (2) At low temperatures the phase space available for umklapp processes is small.

2

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(3.40) (3.41) (3.42)

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64

CHAPTER 3. PHONONS; COUPLING TO ELECTRONS

lattice phonons in the isotropic case, Eq. (3.41). If we as in Sec. 3.1 neglect the weak dispersion of the Einstein phonons and simply assume that they all vibrate with the ion plasma frequency Ω of Eq. (3.3), the result for N vibrating ions in the volume V is

jel Vel−ph =

1 V

† jel gq c† k+q,σ ckσ bq + b−q , kσ q

(3.43)

with

jel gq = i

Ze2 1 0 q

N . 2M Ω

(3.44)

3.8

Summary and outlook

In this chapter we have derived the second quantized form of the Hamiltonian of the isolated phonon system and the electron-phonon coupling. The solution of the phonon problem actually constitutes our ﬁrst solution of a real interacting many-particle system, each ion is coupled to its neighbors. Also the treatment of the electron-phonon coupling marks an important step forward: here we dealt for the ﬁrst time with the coupling between to diﬀerent kinds of particles, electrons and phonons. The electron-phonon coupling is a very important mechanism in condensed matter systems. It is the cause of a large part of electrical resistivity in metals and semiconductors, and it also plays a major role in studies of heat transport. In Exercise 3.1 and Exercise 3.2 give a ﬁrst hint at how the electron-phonon coupling leads to a scattering or relaxation time for electrons. We shall return to the electron-phonon coupling in Chap. 16, and there see the ﬁrst hint of the remarkable interplay between electrons and phonons that lies at the heart of the understanding of conventional superconductivity. The very successful microscopic theory of superconductivity, the so-called BCS theory, is based on the electron-phonon scattering, even the simple form given in Eqs. (3.41) and (3.42) suﬃces to cause superconductivity.

4. The mean ﬁelds are chosen as those which minimize the free energy. due to these correlation eﬀects there is a suppressed density in the neighborhood of every electron. which in turn ensure that the method is consistent. the electron gas. and one talks about a “correlation hole”. Left box shows the real physical system where the interaction leads to correlation between the particle motions. 1 suﬃces. Upon performing the mean ﬁeld approximation we can neglect the detailed dynamics and the time-independent second quantization method described in Chap.1. To the right are the interactions felt by the black particle replaced by an average interaction due to the average density of the white particles.g. which means that the eﬀect of the other particles is included as a mean density (or mean ﬁeld). Nevertheless. This is clearly the case for a system of charged particles interacting by Coulomb forces. or in other words the particles motions become correlated. which is soluble. such as e.1: Illustration of the mean ﬁeld idea. not fully including the correlations. This approximation scheme is called “mean ﬁeld theory”. leaving an eﬀective single particle problem. gives a good physical model. There exist numerous examples of the success of the mean ﬁeld method and its ability Figure 4. There we expect the probability to ﬁnd two electrons in close proximity to be small due to the strong repulsive interaction.Chapter 4 Mean ﬁeld theory The physics of interacting particles is often very complicated because the motions of the individual particles depend on the position of all the others. Consequently. 65 £ ¤£ £ £ £ £ ££ £ £ ¢ ¡ . in spite of this complicated problem there are a number of cases where a more crude treatment. as we shall see shortly. In these cases it suﬃces to include correlations “on the average”. This idea is illustrated in Fig.

In order to do so we deﬁne the deviation operators dνν = a† aν − a† aν . a† aν and b† bµ .1c) Vint = νν . 1 .3) where VMF = νν .66 CHAPTER 4. and thus the original many-body problem has been reduced to a single-particle problem.3) is neglected. described by operators aν and bµ . In terms of the new basis P † the Hamiltonian then becomes H = i αi i αi .1b) (4. ν µ Now suppose that we expect. kk Uik hkk Uk j = δij i . µ (4. H0 = ν a ξν a† aν + ν µ b ξµ b† bµ . MEAN FIELD THEORY to explain various physical phenomena.µµ Vνµ.ν µ a† aν b† bµ + b† bµ a† aν ν µ µ ν − νν . It is then ν µ ν µ natural to use this deviation as a small parameter and perform an expansion. Now since h is a hermitian matrix there exists a transformation. αi = j Uij aj .2a) (4. based on physical arguments. and { i } are thus the eigenvalues of h. The Hamiltonian is H = H0 + Vint . H = H0 + VMF + νν .µµ Vνµ. In this chapter. First we consider a system with two kinds of particles. respectively.µµ Vνµ. (4. such that h is diagonal.2b) b† bµ µ − b† bµ µ . (4. which gives neglected in mean ﬁeld (4. we shall discuss a few examples from condensed matter physics .1a). ν ν eµµ = and insert them into (4. that the density operators a† aν and b† bµ deviate only little from their average values.µµ Vνµ. Let us assume that only interactions between diﬀerent kind of particles are important. write H P P as H = ij a† hij aj .5) The mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian HMF contains only single-particle operators.1a) (4. (4.1 To see that a single-particle problem or a quadratic Hamiltonian can always be diagonalized. and the interaction Vint is approximated by the mean ﬁeld interaction VMF resulting in the so-called mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian HMF given by HMF = H0 + VMF . with i P † U being a unitary matrix. which in principle is always soluble.4) µ Because dνν and eµµ are assumed to be small the second term in Eq. (4.ν µ dνν eµµ .ν µ a† aν ν b† bµ .ν µ a† b† bµ aν . but before going to speciﬁc examples let us discuss the mathematical structure of the mean ﬁeld theory.

ν µ b† bµ µ MF − nb ¯ µµ .10) Eq. (4. which themselves depend on n Next we turn to the alternative route.9) where ZMF is the mean ﬁeld partition function given by ZMF = Tr e−βHMF . 1. i.9) and the similar one for nb are called the self-consistency equations (because na ¯ ¯ b are given in terms of H a and nb ). and n ¯ ¯ ¯ MF and ZMF .6) then the mean ﬁeld approximation is given by A coupled to the mean ﬁeld of B plus B coupled to the mean ﬁeld of A and ﬁnally to avoid double counting subtracted by the MF product of the mean ﬁelds (such that HAB = A B ): MF HAB = A B + A B − A B . Using the expression for the free energy given in Sec. This means for na (and similarly for nb ) that ¯ ¯ na ≡ a† aν ¯ νν ν MF = 1 ZMF Tr e−βHMF a† aν ν . (4. Method 1: The average is to be determined self-consistently. we get 0= d d 1 FMF = − ln ZMF d¯ a nνν d¯ a nνν β 1 d = Tr e−βHMF a HMF ZMF d¯ νν n 1 Tr e−βHMF Vνµ.8a) (4. (4. (4. ¯ νν ν nb ¯ µµ ≡ b† bµ µ .7) The question is however how to ﬁnd the averages a† aν and b† bµ . . Thus the two methods are equivalent. There are two µ ν possible routes which in fact are equivalent. (4.4) we can formulate the mean ﬁeld procedure in a diﬀerent way: If we have an interaction term involving two operators A and B given by a product of the two HAB = AB.67 Looking at Eq.8b) using the new mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian.9).ν µ b† bµ − nb = ¯ µµ µ ZMF µµ = µµ Vνµ. (4.11) This should hold for any pair (ν. the same answer should come out. Similarly by minimizing with respect to nb ¯ ¯ we get Eq. (4. (4. (4.5. Method 2: Use the nνν that minimizes the free energy FMF of the mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian.e. when calculating the averages na ≡ a† aν . ν ) and hence the last parenthesis has to vanish and we arrive at the self-consistency equation for nb .

(4. one must provide some physical insight to reduce the number of mean ﬁeld parameters. (4. HMF = HMF + HMF . This is in essence the approximation done in the mean ﬁeld approach.9) gives a recipe on how to ﬁnd which averages are important.1 The art of mean ﬁeld theory In practice one has to assume something about the averages a† aν and b† bµ because ν µ even though (4. there are simply too many possible combinations.12). Therefore. one has ν either chosen the wrong mean ﬁeld parameter. If it is not small. Here “less important” should be quantiﬁed by checking the validity of the mean ﬁeld approximation.12) which is equivalent to assuming that the a and b particles are uncorrelated2 . For a system of particles described by operators c and c† .µ ν a† aν ν b† bµ . Often symmetry arguments can help reducing the number of parameters. which gives N 2 coupled non-linear equations. With modern computers one can treat hundreds of particles in this way. but for a condensed matter system.µµ Vνµ. which of course is only tractable for small systems. 4. MEAN FIELD THEORY We can gain some more understanding of the physical content of the mean ﬁeld approximation if we look at average interaction energy Vint .3) as a perturbation. we then have c† ck = k 1 V dr dr e−ik ·r eik·r Ψ† (r)Ψ(r ) . Suppose for example that the Hamiltonian that we are interested in has translational symmetry. it is out of the question. and then compare the result to a† aν . (4. That is. using the neglected term in (4. . the average factorizes exactly as in Eq.ν µ a† aν ν MF b† bµ µ MF .14) The mean ﬁeld approach hence provides a consistent and physically sensible method to study interacting systems where correlations are less important. Vint ≈ νν . A natural approximation would be to evaluate the expectation value of a and b operator separately. one should check that d indeed is small by calculating d .68 CHAPTER 4. such that momentum space is a natural choice. µ (4. Suppose we have N diﬀerent quantum numbers.13) ZMF Because the mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian can be separated into a part containing only aa b operators and a part containing only b-operators.µµ Vνµ.15) 2 Remember from usual statistics that the correlation function between two stochastic quantities X and Y is deﬁned by XY − X Y . then there are in principle N 2 diﬀerent combinations. To see this let us evaluate Vint using the mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian Tr e−βHMF Vint . or the method simply fails and other tools more adequate to deal with the problem at hand must be applied. and we get Vint MF = 1 Vint MF = νν . (4.

k . H0 = ν (4. Here we go on to formulate the method for like particles.µµ Vint = The basic idea behind the mean ﬁeld theory was that the operator ρµµ = c† cµ . (4.ν µ c† c† cµ cν . r ). We therefore use the same strategy as in the introduction and write the four operators in the interaction term in terms of a deviation from the average value c† c† cµ − c† cµ ν µ µ cν + c† cν c† cµ . ν µ (4. HARTREE–FOCK APPROXIMATION It is natural to assume that the system is homogeneous. µ (4. Instead it has a lower and more restricted symmetry. r ) = h(r + R. namely that Ψ† (r)Ψ(r ) = h(r. Instead we should have started by assuming Eq. h(r. ν µ νν . For the interaction term in Eq. Thus the choice of the proper mean ﬁeld parameters requires physical motivation about which possible states one expects.4. which means Ψ† (r)Ψ(r ) = f (r − r ) ⇒ c† ck = nk δk. (4.18c) ξν c† cν . For most of the combinations νν the average ρνν is zero. because in some cases the symmetry of the system is lower than that of the Hamiltonian.1a) we use the approximation to replace a† aν and b† bµ by their average values plus small ν µ corrections. For example if the system spontaneously orders into a state with a spatial density variation.18b) (4.2. like a wave formation then the average Ψ† (r)Ψ(r ) is not function of the r − r only.2 Hartree–Fock approximation Above we discussed the mean ﬁeld theory for interactions between diﬀerent particles.17) with R being a lattice vector. called the Hartree–Fock approximation. where R · Q = 2π. however. r + R) (4. The kind of crystal structure of course exists in Nature and when it happens we talk about phenomena with broken symmetry. For interactions between identical particles this. does not exhaust the possibilities and only includes the so-called Hartree term and now we discuss the more general approximation scheme. 4. k 69 (4. It is important to realize that this solution cannot be found if we assumed Eq. Suppose we have a system of interacting particles described by the Hamiltonian H = H0 + Vint . ν 1 2 Vνµ. (4.19) is large only when the average ρµµ is non-zero.18a) (4.17) leading to the possibility of c† ck+Q being k ﬁnite.16) from line one.20) .16) This assumption about homogeneity is however not always true.

MEAN FIELD THEORY If the quantum number ν is diﬀerent from µ we can commute cν with the parenthesis. (4.ν µ nνν nµµ .21) ν If we neglect the ﬁrst term. this is not the full result because here the operators labelled by µ and ν represent identical. With this assumption we again write c† cν as ν its average value plus a deviation.24) Consider now the example of a homogeneous electron gas which is translation invariant. Again we emphasize that the Hartree–Fock approximation depends crucially on what averages we assume to be ﬁnite. To derive the mean ﬁeld contribution from this possibility we thus ν have to ﬁrst replace c† cµ by its average value and following the principle in Eq.25b) The second term is the interaction with the average electron charge. (4. µ ) to be diﬀerent kinds of particles and used the formula from the previous section. kσ (4. ν ) and (µ. and these assumptions must be based on physical knowledge or clever guess-work. However.ν µ nνµ c† cν − ¯ µ 1 2 Vνµ. The third term is the exchange correction. This is true except in a set of measure zero. (4. we have arrived at the Hartree approximation for interactions Hartree Vint = 1 2 Vνµ. (4. In deriving Eq.ν µ nνν c† cµ − ¯ µ 1 2 Vνµ. which means that the expectation value c† ck is diagonal.25a) V (0) − δσσ V (k − k ) nk σ . V (k − k )nk σ .23) ¯ ¯ The ﬁnal mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian within the Hartree–Fock approximation is Fock Hartree H HF = H0 + Vint + Vint (4.70 CHAPTER 4. indistinguishable particles and there is therefore one combination we is missed be the Hartree approximation. (4. which gives c† cν − c† cν ν ν c† cµ − c† cµ µ µ + c† cν c† cµ + c† cµ c† cν − c† cµ ν µ µ ν µ c† cν .ν µ nνµ nµν . This new term appears because the product of four operators in Eq. (4.ν µ nµν c† cµ + ¯ ν 1 2 Vνµ.18c) also gives a large contribution when c† cµ is ﬁnite.104).ν µ nµµ c† cν + ¯ ν 1 2 Vνµ. The result is H HF = kσ HF ξk = ξk + kσ HF ξk c† ckσ . kσ = ξk + V (0)N − (4.25b) we assumed for example that the spin . We can now read oﬀ the k corresponding Hartree–Fock Hamiltonian.1 from Eq.7) ν do the same with the combination c† cν . The mean ﬁeld result for the Fock term thus µ becomes Fock Vint = − 1 2 Vνµ.22) ¯ ¯ This is the same result we would get if we considered the operators with (ν. namely the so-called exchange or Fock term. (1. As explained in Chap. which is proportional to the deviation squared. see Exercise 4. 2 in condensed matter systems it is normally cancelled out by an equally large term due to the positively charged ionic background.

with wave vector Q.4. BROKEN SYMMETRY 71 Figure 4. 4.27) . This fact we can use to “prove” the unphysical result that a density wave can never exist. which indeed happens in some cases. rotational symmetry in real space or in spin space) there exists an operator which reﬂects this symmetry and therefore commutes with the Hamiltonian (e. translational symmetry. and the system is in a state of large symmetry.g.3. translation operator.26) (4. Since the operator and the Hamiltonian commute according to the theory of Hermitian operators a common set of eigenstates exists. kσ ¡ (4. Even though the total potential is still symmetric the system will reside only in one well due to the macroscopically large energy barrier and thus the state of the system has “lower symmetry” than the potential.3 Broken symmetry Mean ﬁeld theory is often used to study phase transitions and thus changes of symmetry. which implies that c† ck↓ = c† ck↑ . Consider for example the case of a liquid of particles where the Hamiltonian of course has translational symmetry. means that the Fourier transform of the density operator ρ(Q) = kσ c† ck+Qσ . symmetry is also maintained.g. 4. Below the critical point a two well potential develops and the system has to choose one of the two possibilities. For a given Hamiltonian with some symmetry (e.2: The energetics of a phase transition. [H. The total momentum operator is thus a conserved quantity and it is given by P= kσ k c† ckσ . If we allow them k↓ k↑ to be diﬀerent we have the possibility of obtaining a ferromagnetic solution. It can be written as T = exp(iR · P). This is discussed in Sec. T (R)] = 0. rotation operator in real space or spin space).2. A density wave. Here T (R) is an operator which displaces all particle coordinates by the amount R. where P is the total momentum operator. |P . which means that the translational operator T (R) commutes with Hamiltonian. kσ We can now choose an orthogonal basis of states with deﬁnite total momentum.4. Above the critical point the eﬀective potential has a well-deﬁned minimum at the symmetry point.

This is often illustrated by the double barrier model of phase transitions shown in Fig.2. also discussed in Sec.5. MEAN FIELD THEORY Order parameter physical density wave magnetization population of k = 0 state pair condensate Order parameter mathematical k c† ck+Q k c† ck↑ − c† ck↓ k↑ k↓ a† k=0 ck↑ c−k↓ k Table 4. 4. In order to arrive at the new phase in a calculation and to avoid the paradox in Eq. 1. In those cases where many states of the system are degenerate but separated by large energy barriers. but c† ck+Qσ = kσ 1 Z e−βEP P c† ck+Qσ P = 0. In the mean ﬁeld approach the trick is to include the order parameter in the choice of ﬁnite mean ﬁelds and. they are eﬀectively decoupled due to the large energy barrier it takes to melt and then recrystallize into a new state with a shifted reference (or direction of magnetization). kσ P (4.1. We are therefore forced to refrain from the fundamental ergodicity postulate of statistical mechanics. (4. has a ﬁnite expectation value. of course. Next we study in some detail examples of symmetry breaking phenomena and their corresponding order parameters.28). . In the same way. it does not make sense to include them on equal footing in the statistical average as in Eq. superconductivity. we could “prove” that magnetism. show that the resulting mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian leads to a self-consistent ﬁnite result. The quantity which signals that a phase transition has occurred is called the order parameter.28) because they correspond to macroscopically totally diﬀerent conﬁgurations. and other well-known physical phenomena cannot happen. We have therek fore reached the senseless result that crystals do not exist. one has to built in the possibility of the new phase into the theory.28) because c† ck+Q |P has momentum P − Q and is thus orthogonal to |P . Typical examples are listed in Table 4. What is wrong? The proof above breaks down if the sum of states in the thermodynamical average is restricted. and built into the description that the phase space of the system falls into physically separated sections. Even though crystals with diﬀerent spatial reference points (or ferromagnets with magnetization in diﬀerent directions) have formally the same energy. (4. When at some critical temperature the thermodynamical state of the system develops a non-zero expectation value of some macroscopic quantity which has a symmetry lower than the original Hamiltonian it is called spontaneous breaking of symmetry.1: Typical examples of spontaneous symmetry breakings and their corresponding order parameters.72 Phenomena crystal ferromagnet Bose-Einstein condensate superconductor CHAPTER 4.

it is energetically favorable to for the spins to be parallel. It reads H = −2 ij Jij Si · Sj . it is immensely complicated and cannot be solved in general. As the model Hamiltonian stands. is only non-zero for nearest neighbors Jij = J0 if i and j are neighbors.3. the spins form a collective state with a ﬁnite macroscopic moment along one direction. (4. where Si is the spin operator for the ion on site i and Jij is the strength of the interaction. The model discussed here includes interactions between adjacent spins only.4. (4. as in Fig. Here we will not go into the details of this interaction but simply give the eﬀective Hamiltonian3 . 0 otherwise.3: The left ﬁgure shows the Heisenberg model in the disordered state where there is no preferred direction for spins. the spins tend to become antiparallel whereas for J > 0. as shown in the right panel.31) . It depends only on the distance between the ions. The interaction is generally short ranged and we truncate it so that it. It means the Hamiltonian describing the important degrees of freedom on the relevant low energy scale. the spins of the individual ions being strongly correlated. although simple looking. 4. Here we consider only the ferromagnetic case. & % $0 % & () '¡"&% $ # ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ "! £ ¡ ¡¡ £ £¡ £ £ £¡£¡£ £ ¥ §¥ ¢¡ ¤ ¥ ¨ ¦ ¢ ¡ ¥ £ © © © ¢ ¡ ¥© §¥ (4. known as the Heisenberg model for interaction between spins in a crystal. However. FERROMAGNETISM 73 Figure 4. J > 0.1 Ferromagnetism The Heisenberg model of ionic ferromagnets In ionic magnetic crystals the interaction between the magnetic ions is due to the exchange interactions originating from the Coulomb interactions. 4. The mean ﬁeld decomposition then gives H ≈ HMF = −2 ij Jij Si · Sj − 2 ij Jij Si · Sj + 2 ij 3 The term “eﬀective Hamiltonian” has a well-deﬁned meaning. between the magnetic moment of the ions on sites i and j. while the latter to the ferromagnetic case.4. it is a good example where a mean ﬁeld solution gives an easy and also physical correct answer. shown in the middle.29) Jij Si · Sj . The ﬁrst case corresponds to the antiferromagnetic case.4 4.30) We immediately see that if J < 0. while in the ferromagnetic state.4.

i.e.32) and the magnetic moment m (which by assumption is equal for all sites) felt by each spin thus becomes m=2 Jij Sz ez = 2nJ0 Sz ez .36) It is evident from an expansion for small α. (4.34) is now diagonal in the site index and hence easily solved. 4 . Suppose for simplicity that the ions have spin S = 2 . 2 The self-consistency equation is found by minimizing the free energy ∂FMF 1 ∂ =− ln ZMF = −N ∂m β ∂m eβm − e−βm eβm + e−βm +N m = 0. and thus we can determine the critical temperature Tc where the magnetism disappears.74 CHAPTER 4.37) that there is no solution for b < 1. With this simpliﬁcation the mean ﬁeld partition function is ZMF = eβm + e−βm N eβN m Sz = eβm + e−βm eβm 2 /2nJ 0 N . From symmetry arguments we would then expect that the expectation value of this is zero. Sz = ± 1 . 3 (4. If we choose the z axis along the direction of the magnetization our mean ﬁeld assumption is Si = Sz ez . But had we reasons to believe that an antiferromagnetic solution (where the spins point in opposite direction on even and odd sites) was relevant (if Jij < 0). where d is the dimension. we would have to assume that also this symmetry was broken. because of the translational symmetry we expect it to be independent of position coordinate i. MEAN FIELD THEORY Here Si is the average spin at site i. (4. But since this is not the right answer we have to assume that the symmetry is broken.35) with one term for each possible spin projection. (4. allow for Si to be non-zero. Furthermore. (4. nJ0 b = nJ0 β. Here N is the number of sites and 1 m = |m|.33) j where n is the number of neighbors. α= m . For a square lattice it is n = 2d.4 So we assume a ﬁnite but spatial independent average spin polarization. The mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian HMF = −2 i m · Si + mN Sz . nJ0 which has a solution given by the transcendental equation α = tanh (bα) . by the condition bc = 1 and hence kB Tc = nJ0 . 1 α ≈ bα − (bα)3 . (4. because all directions are equivalent.

4. Tc = nJ0 . Eq. At T = 0 where t = ∞ the solution is α = 1 and hence m ≈ nJ0 m = nJ0 . 4. The resulting temperature dependence of the magnetization is shown to the right. This is simply because the spins are not localized. The interaction between two particles in those orbitals is stronger than between electrons occupying the more spread out s or p orbitals and hence give a larger correlation between electrons. At temperatures larger than the critical temperature.4. α ≈ T −T 3 CC . k kq.g. for small α we ﬁnd the solution for the magnetization. in transition metals where the conduction bands are formed by the narrower d or f orbitals. Since the short range of the interaction is important it is relevant to study a model. The solution is shown in Fig.36) numerically. FERROMAGNETISM 75 Figure 4. corresponding to b = nJ0 /T < 1 there is no solution and hence no ferromagnetic moment. Furthermore. Metallic magnetism happens e. T 1 b valid close to Tc .4.4. the so-called Hubbard model. where this physical fact is reﬂected in a simple but extreme manner: the Coulomb interaction between electrons is taken to be point-like in real space and hence constant in momentum space.4: Left two panels show the graphical solution of the mean ﬁeld equation for the Heisenberg model. Typical metals where correlations between conduction band electrons are important are Fe and Ni.38) ¦ ¥¡ ¤ ¢£ ¡ ©¡ § ¨ ¦ ¥¡ ¤ ¢£ ¡ . (4. which of course is a simple task.σσ We now use the Hartree–Fock approximation scheme on this model but search for a ferromagnetic solution by allowing for the expectation values to depend on the direction of 3(b − 1)/b ⇒ (4. (4. 4. For the functional form of the magnetization in the entire range of temperature one must solve Eq. Hhub = kσ ξk c† ckσ + kσ U 2V † c† k+qσ ck −qσ ck σ ckσ .2 The Stoner model of metallic ferromagnets In magnets where the electrons both generate the magnetic moments and also form conduction bands the Heisenberg model cannot explain the magnetism. For b > 1 a solution exists.36) .

23).47) . MEAN FIELD THEORY c† ck ↓ = δkk nk↓ . (4.39) and the mean ﬁeld interaction Hamiltonian becomes MF Vint = U V † c† k+qσ ck −qσ ck σ ckσ − k kqσσ U V † c† k+qσ ck σ ck −qσ ckσ k kqσσ U − 2V † † c† k+qσ ckσ ck −qσ ck σ − ck+qσ ck σ k kqσσ c† −qσ ckσ k . (4. which gives the self-consistency equations 1 1 MF nσ = ¯ c† ckσ M F = nF (ξkσ ). ¯ (4. n = n↑ + n↓ . and of course a similar equation for spin down.45) ~ = µ. ¯ 2m 2mU n1/3 (3π 2 )2/3 2 (6π)2/3 n↓ ¯ 2/3 + U n↑ = µ. ¯σ (4.39) we obtain MF Vint = U kσσ c† ckσ [¯ σ − nσ δσσ ] − U V n ¯ kσ σσ nσ nσ + U V ¯ ¯ σ n2 . ¯ ¯ ¯ (4.76 the spin. The two equations 2/3 2 2 2m Deﬁne the variables.44) kσ V V k k We obtain at zero temperature n↑ = ¯ where are 2 2 ¯ 2m kF ↑ +U n↓ 2 k2 dk θ µ− − U n↓ ¯ (2π)3 2m = 1 3 k .40) 1 The factor 2 disappeared because there are two terms as in Eqs.41) where the spin densities have been deﬁned as nσ = ¯ 1 V c† ckσ . (4. kσ k (4. ¯ ¯ ¯¯ The mean ﬁeld solution is found by minimization. ¯ k↑ CHAPTER 4. 6π 2 F ↑ (4. Using our mean ﬁeld assumptions Eq.43b) M ξkσF = ξk + U (n↑ + n↓ − nσ ) = ξk + U nσ .46) ζ= n↑ − n↓ ¯ ¯ n ¯ . γ= . The mean ﬁeld parameters are c† ck ↑ = δkk nk↑ . ¯σ σ (4. (6π)2/3 n↑ ¯ + U n↓ = µ.42) The full mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian is now given by HMF = kσ MF ξkσ c† ckσ − kσ UV 2 nσ nσ + ¯ ¯ σσ UV 2 n2 . ¯ k↓ (4. (4.22) and (4.43a) (4.

if the interaction is short-range. This 765 &' % ! # 2 )§ ¨)1 § 0 4 3 8 9 ¥¤¢£ ¡ 76 5 ' & % $! "! # 2 )§ ¨)1 § 0 ) ¨ ( 8 9 ¥¤¢£ ¡ 76 5 8 ¨© § ¦ 9 ¥¤¢£ ¡ . the stronger the interaction the larger the polarization. The possibility for a magnetic solution can be traced back to the spin-dependent energies Eq. Thus the interaction energy is lowered by having a polarized ground state.48) γζ = (1 + ζ)2/3 − (1 − ζ)2/3 . This resulted from two things: the short rang interaction and the exchange term. Then by subtracting the self-consistency conditions (4. they cannot interact. The polarization is thus a function of the interaction strength. The competition between the potential and the kinetic energy contributions is what gives rise to the phase transition.4. The Stoner model provides a clear physical picture for how the exchange interactions induce a ferromagnetic phase transition in a metal with strong on-site interactions. The Stoner model gives a reasonable account of metallic magnets and it is also capable of qualitatively explaining the properties of excitations in the spin polarized states.46). This expression has three types of solutions: γ< 4 3 4 3 : Isotropic solution: ζ = 0 Normal state (4. we get n↑ ¯ 2/3 − n↓ ¯ 2/3 = 2mU 2 (6π)−2/3 n↑ − n↓ .49) < γ < 22/3 : Partial polarization: 0 < ζ < 1 Weak ferromagnet γ> 22/3 : Full polarization ζ = 1 Strong ferromagnet The diﬀerent solutions are sketched in Fig. (4.4. which on the other hand for a ﬁxed density costs kinetic energy. whereas the energy does not depend on the occupation of the same spin direction. One can understand this simply from the Pauli principle which ensures that electrons with the same spin never occupy the same spatial orbital and therefore.5. (4.43a). This leaves interactions between opposite spin as the only possibility.5: The three possible solutions of the Stoner model. 4. where it is clear that the mean ﬁeld energy of a given spin direction depends on the occupation of the opposite spin direction. FERROMAGNETISM 77 Figure 4.

and it exhibits perfect diamagnetism (called Meissner eﬀect). the number of particles is conserved.g. Both the new type of phase and the appearance of an excitation gap are explained by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieﬀer (BCS) theory from 1957. In that case a broken SO(3) symmetry means that the expectation value S is not invariant under the rotation. e. which in its spirit is very much like the Hartree–Fock theory presented above. but this is not a problem here where we discuss only superconductors connected to electron reservoirs.5 Superconductivity One of the most striking examples of symmetry breaking is the superconducting phase transition.5. It is probably the most successful theory in condensed matter physics and it has found application in other branches of physics as well.2. but it is also clear that a constant phase cannot have any measurable eﬀect because all expectation values are given by the absolute square . because it will change the direction of the magnetization. While it is clear why the ﬁnite expectation S gives a magnetization in the case of a ferromagnet. which is of the form cν cν . e. 4. to explain the stability of nuclei with an even number of nucleons and also in the standard model of high-energy physics. namely loss of global gauge invariance.g. it is not so clear why broken symmetry in the superconducting case leads to a system without resistance. In this section. the relevant symmetry is the global gauge symmetry. Schematically the analogies between superconductors and ferromagnets are as shown in Table 4. which therefore has a global SO(3) symmetry. which means that we can give all electrons the same extra constant phase and still leave the Hamiltonian invariant. Of course. These astonishing phenomena result from the superconducting state having a new form of symmetry breaking. we give a short introduction to the BCS theory. We have argued that the superconducting state is sensitive to a change of global phase.1 Breaking of global gauge symmetry and its consequences Let us start by understanding what kind of broken symmetry could give rise to a superconducting state. Besides the superconductivity itself and the Meissner eﬀect superconductors show a number of other characteristics. 4. which result from the appearance of a gap in the excitation spectrum.78 CHAPTER 4. Below the critical temperature the metal which turns superconducting has no resistance what so ever. which means that magnetic ﬁelds are totally expelled from the interior of the material. is that all spins can be rotated by some angle without changing the Hamiltonian. As was said above. In the same way the phase rotation also changes the superconducting order parameter. distinct single particle properties. The analog to this in the case of a ferromagnet. MEAN FIELD THEORY is however outside the scope of this section and the interested reader should consult for example the book by Yosida. The order parameter for the superconductor thus involves an expectation value of two annihilation operators. It is a mean ﬁeld theory but with a quite unusual mean ﬁeld and therefore we begin by discussing the nature of the superconducting phase.

For any other non-superconducting system it would not make sense to talk about a quantum mechanical phase diﬀerence over macroscopic distances. Ψ(r)]U −1 = iΨ(r)δ r − r . Let us therefore assume that we ascribe a phase to the superconducting state which depends on position. Ψ (r) = U Ψ (r)U ˜† † −1 dr ρ(r)ϕ (r) Ψ(r) exp −i dr ρ(r)ϕ (r) (4.52) (See also Eq. simply because quantum coherence is destroyed by all sorts of scattering events on rather short length scales. ϕ (r). (4. U would have disappeared all together. maybe of the order of 10 nm or less in metals.5. 5 which is derived in the same way. such that it takes a macroscopic distance to see any signiﬁcant changes in ϕ (r). is the density operator ρ (r) = Ψ† (r) Ψ (r)) because it has the following properties when applied to quantum ﬁeld operators ˜ Ψ(r) = U Ψ(r)U −1 = exp i = Ψ(r) exp (−iϕ (r)) . we learned above that when dealing with systems with broken .51b) = Ψ (r) exp (iϕ (r)) . † These equations follow from the diﬀerential equation (together with the boundary condi˜ tion Ψϕ=0 = Ψ) δ ˜ ˜ Ψ(r) = iU [ρ(r ). However. of the wave function. However. To argue that the superconducting state depends on phase diﬀerences over macroscopic distances is therefore very unusual and tells us that superconductivity is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon. (4.51a) (4. superconductor cν → cν eiϕ ⇒ H → H Broken symmetry: 0 = cν cν → cν cν e2iϕ 79 Global SO(3). ferromagnet S → US ⇒ H → H Broken symmetry: 0 = S → U S Table 4. δϕ (r ) (4. In order to study the consequences of the phase change let us introduce a unitary transformation which changes the phase U = exp i dr ρ(r)ϕ (r) .50) (recall that ρ. phase gradients can have an eﬀect.53) Note here that if we had used the cyclic properties of the trace.24) in Chap.) If we transform the density operator and calculate the transformed partition function. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY Global U (1) gauge symmetry.2: The analogy between the broken symmetries of a superconductor and a ferromagnet. we get ˜ ˜ Z = Tr U e−βH U −1 = Tr e−β H . but varies extremely slowly. (5.4.

The kinetic part reads ˜ H= 1 2me dr Ψ (r)e dr Ψ (r) † † iϕ(r) 2 i i + eA e−iϕ(r) Ψ(r) 2 1 = 2me =H− + eA − 2 ϕ(r) Ψ(r). meaning a dissipationless current5 . the simple minded derivation presented here assumes that all electrons participates. MEAN FIELD THEORY symmetry. We obtain δF = − J(r) + ρ(r) ϕ(r) = 0. However. It is clear from (4. the so-called superﬂuid. due to the lack of gauge invariance. as we have argued. The transformation only changes in the kinetic energy term of the Hamiltonian. (4. even in equilibrium. me (4.4. The superconductivity is. the sum-over-states has to be restricted so that the cyclic properties does not necessarily hold. What we have done so far is to show that if a phase gradient is imposed on a system. In the normal state of metals a current is always associated with a non-equilibrium state. but as long as this cost is smaller than the alternative which is to go out of the superconducting state. only involve the electron density operator ρ(r) which according to (4. where the energy is assumed to depend on phase diﬀerences on a macroscopic scale. and then the superconductor goes into the normal state. The critical current is reached when the energies are equal.54) that the energy doesn’t depend on ϕ itself. (4.56) should only be the electrons participating in the superconducting condensate. 5 . (4.54) dr ϕ(r) · J(r)+ 2me dr ρ(r)( ϕ(r))2 . The claim above was that contrary to the non-superconducting state in the superconductor the phase is a macroscopic quantity. because both the Coulomb interaction term. the impurity scattering term.56) The meaning of this result is that by forcing a phase gradient onto the system it minimizes its energy by carrying a current even in thermodynamical equilibrium.80 CHAPTER 4.3. the current carrying state is chosen.55) δ ϕ me and hence the energy is minimized if it carries a current. and in fact gapless superconductors do exist. Let us therefore minimize the free energy with respect to the phase in order to ﬁnd the condition for the lowest free energy. where the last step closely follows the derivation of the current operator in Sec. given by J= ρ0 ϕ. Of course there is an energy cost for the system to carry the current. where energy is constantly dissipated from the driving source and absorbed in the conductor.51) is unchanged under the phase shift transformation. and the phonon coupling term. 1. it should be noted that the appearance of the excitation gap is not the reason for the superconductivity itself. Finally. it unavoidably leads to the conclusion that the system will carry a dissipationless current in order to minimize the energy cost of the phase gradient. but only on the gradient of ϕ. In reality the electron density appearing in Eq. This we have anticipated by the symbol Tr which means that the trace is restricted due to the spontaneous symmetry breaking.

5. Furthermore. The Cooper pair is thus a bound state ∗ of an electron in state ψν (r) and an electron in state ψν (r) or in the homogeneous case electrons in state k and −k. only in 1956 Cooper showed that the Fermi surface of the normal metal state was unstable towards formation of bound pairs of electrons (see Chap. This happens for energy exchanges of order the Debye energy. This trace is felt by the other electrons as an attractive interaction.4. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 81 4. The BCS eﬀective Hamiltonian model is ξk c† ckσ + Vkk c† c† c−k ↓ ck ↑ .e. Also the idea that the superconductivity was somehow similar to Bose-Einstein condensation. Because the typical energy exchange due to the attractive interaction is the Debye energy. The interaction includes only pair interactions and the remaining interaction is supposed to be included in ξk via a Hartree–Fock term. i.57) HBCS = kσ k↑ −k↓ kσ kk where Vkk is the coupling strength which is only non-zero for states with energy ξk within ξF ±ωD and furthermore constant and negative. with the bosons being electron pairs. attractive. had been tried and in fact was the underlying idea of London’s theory in 1935. We deﬁne a Cooper pair operator bk = ck↓ c−k↑ . 3 for metals is much smaller than the Fermi energy. . These two physical inputs led BCS to suggest the following remarkably successful model Hamiltonian to explain the superconducting state. were the principles fully understood. in this range. the critical temperatures found in “conventional” low superconductors are in most cases less than 10 K and never more than 30 K. The origin of the attractive interaction can intuitively be thought of in the following way: when an electron propagates through the crystal it attracts the positive ions and thus eﬀectively creates a positive trace behind it. ωD EF .5.2 Microscopic theory The understanding that superconductivity was closely related to the electron-phonon coupling was clear from the early 1950’ies when for example the isotope eﬀect was discovered. It turns out that this eﬀective interaction is most important for electrons occupying time reversed states and in fact they can form a bound state which is the Cooper pair. (4. It therefore seems that a new energy scale is generated and we shall indeed see that this is the case. ωD . which as we saw in Chap. 3. one would naively expect that the energy scale for the superconducting transition temperature would be of the order ωD /k. In Chap. 16). ωD . However. Here we give an outline of the main principles in the BCS theory. This is however far from the truth because while ωD /k is typically of the order of several hundred kelvin. Vkk = −V0 . from the Cooper instability we know that the phonon-mediated interaction tends to pair electrons with opposite spin and momentum. Subsequently in 1957 when the superconducting state was derived using a variational wavefunction by BCS. 16 we will see that the phonon mediated electron-electron interaction (derived from the electron-phonon interaction found in Sec.6) in fact has a range in frequency and momentum space where it is negative.

82 CHAPTER 4. The BCS mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian is derived in full analogy with Hartree–Fock mean ﬁeld theory described above MF HBCS = kσ ξk c† ckσ − kσ k ∆k c† c† k↑ −k↓ Vkk c† c† k↑ −k↓ ck ↓ c−k ↑ . kk − k ∆∗ ck↓ c−k↑ k + (4. |vk |2 = 1 2 1− ξk Ek . MEAN FIELD THEORY The mean ﬁeld assumption made by BCS. (4. For this purpose it is convenient to write the Hamiltonian in matrix notation MF HBCS = k c† c−k↓ k↑ ξk + k ξk ∆k ∆∗ −ξk k ck↑ c† −k↓ + = k Vkk c† c† k↑ −k↓ ck ↓ c−k ↑ .58a) (4. (4. we ﬁnd the following solution for u. we introduce the unitary transformation Bk = γk↑ † γ−k↓ = U−1 Ak .63) (4.64) 2 ˜ ξk + |∆k |2 = −Ek . E and E |uk |2 = Ek = 1 2 1+ ξk Ek . (4. k Uk = uk −vk ∗ vk u∗ k .61) which diagonalizes the problem if † Uk Hk Uk = Ek 0 ˜ 0 Ek . Hk = ξk ∆k ∆∗ −ξk k . is that the pair operator has a ﬁnite expectation value and that it varies only little from its average value. (4. It is however somewhat unusual in that terms like c† c† and cc appear.58b) ∆k = − kk Vkk c−k ↓ ck ↑ The mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian is quadratic in electron operators and should be readily solvable.60) To bring the Hamiltonian into a diagonal form. v and the energies. The way to solve it is by a so-called Bogoliubov transformation. + constant. .59) kk † Ak Hk Ak where Ak = ck↑ c† −k↓ .62) ˜ After some algebra. (4.

Using Eqs. which is here bk . and (4.5. The self-consistent solution is found from Eq. the so-called gap equation.61) we have the transformations from old to new operators γk↑ † γ−k↓ = u∗ vk k ∗ −vk uk ck↑ c† −k↓ ⇔ ck↑ c† −k↓ = uk −vk ∗ vk u∗ k γk↑ † γ−k↓ . Vkk † † u∗ vk γ−k ↓ γ−k ↓ − vk u∗ γk ↑ γk ↑ k k =− k Vkk u∗ vk [1 − 2nF (Ek )] .69) . This rather unusual particle appears because of the lack of particle conservation in the mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian.66) As is evident from the new Hamiltonian and the solution in Eq. From (4. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 83 The new fermion operators that diagonalize the Hamiltonian are called bogoliubons and they are superpositions of electrons and holes. k (4.67) where we used in the last step that according to the Hamiltonian Eq. (4.66) the bogoliubons are free fermions and therefore their distribution function is the usual Fermi-Dirac distribution. (4.63). The excitation gap has a number of important consequences. Now using the approximation that Vkk is ﬁnite only for ξk . 2 = V0 d(EF ) ωD 0 dξ tanh β ξ 2 + |∆|2 /2 ξ 2 + |∆|2 . and that ωD EF .58b). (4. (4. (4. (4.4. ξk ∈ [−ωD . The mean ﬁeld parameter provides an energy gap. Vkk k † u∗ γ−k ↓ − vk γk ↑ k † u∗ γk ↑ + vk γ−k ↓ k =− =− k . (4.64) there are no fermion excitations possible with energy less than |∆|. Above in the general section on mean ﬁeld theory we saw that this procedure is equivalent to minimizing the free energy with respect to the mean ﬁeld parameter. which is why it is called the superconducting gap.68) |∆| = V0 2 2E −ωD and the gap |∆| is determined by the integral equation. ωD ]. (4. There are two diﬀerent bogoliubons inherited from the two fold spin degeneracy. (4. we get |∆| d(EF ) ωD dξ [1 − 2nF (E)] .64) we ﬁnd ∆k = − k Vkk c−k ↓ ck ↑ . by calculating the expectation value of the right hand side using the diagonalized Hamiltonian. such that the density of states is constant in the energy interval in question.61).65) and the Hamiltonian is in terms of the new bogoliubons MF HBCS = k † † Ek γk↑ γk↑ + γk↓ γk↓ + constant.

71). we show the temperature dependence of the gap together with measured values. ∆0 . sinh (2/V0 d(EF )) (4. 4. but there are many others but the reader is referred to the many very good books on superconductivity.71) ωD 0 dξ 1 ξ2 + ∆2 0 = sinh−1 because in metals V0 d(EF ) is typical a very small number.70) 2ωD .72) This is in very good agreement with experimental ﬁndings. is found from 2 = V0 d(EF ) ⇓ ∆0 = ωD ≈ 2ωD e−2/V0 d(EF ) . (4. ωD . Combining (4.72).6: Measured values of the gap parameter for three diﬀerent metals compared to the BCS predictions.84 CHAPTER 4. This is just one of the successes of the BCS theory. which can be solved numerically. see Fig. The right table shows the measured value of the ratio between twice the gap at zero temperature and critical temperature. kTC (4. (4.70) and (4. determined from tunneling measurements. ∆2 0 ¦ ¤§ ¡ A 3@ 8 94 876 5 34 2 ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¤¥ . The theoretical BCS value is given in Eq. This strong renormalization is what generates the new scale.13ωD e−2/V0 d(EF ) . we get the BCS prediction that the ratio of gap to critical temperature is 2∆0 = 3. In Fig.6.6(b).5. Both the gap and the critical temperature are thus reduced by the exponential factor exp (−1/V0 d(EF )) as compared to the bare energy scale of the interaction. 4. where the ratio typically range between 3 and 4.53. ωD exp (−2/V0 d(EF )). To the left the temperature dependence is shown as it follows from the BCS gap equation in Eq. At zero temperature the gap.69) together with experimental values. MEAN FIELD THEORY Figure 4. The critical temperature is found by setting ∆ = 0 in the integral and one ﬁnds approximately kTC = 1. as we foresaw in "$ 10 ) & ( ' " # &¥© % $ "# ! © ¡ £ ¢ ¥ ¨ (4.

8. 4.6 Summary and outlook Mean ﬁeld theories are widely used to study phase transitions in matter and also in e. at least those that has to do with static properties. Tinkham and de Gennes to learn about superconductivity. Note that the interaction strength appears in a non-perturbative fashion in this expression. It is not possible by perturbation expansions to cross a phase transition line.6. The RPA result will later be derived later based on a more rigorous quantum ﬁeld theoretical approach in Chap. atomic physics to compute the energetics of a ﬁnite size systems. Also for the time-dependent case Hartree–Fock type approximations will be invoked. all spins point in the same direction. We have seen examples of this in the case of magnets and superconductors. Once again we see that there is no automatic way to predict the phase diagram of a given physical system.4. and one must rely on a combination of technical skill and most importantly physical intuition. e. because the two states have no analytic connection. where the important concept of symmetry breaking was introduced. This is in fact a general feature of phase transitions. The mean ﬁeld approximation is in many cases suﬃcient to understand the important physical features. and the books by Schrieﬀer.5. This tells us that the result could never have been derived using perturbation theory in the interaction. Of course we have not covered the vast ﬁelds of both magnetism and superconductivity in detail and the interested reader should consult the book by Yosida to learn more about magnetism. no matter how many orders where included. 12. The BCS theory has provided an excellent model for the behavior of low temperature superconductors. for the so-called Random Phase Approximation treatment of the dielectric function in Sec. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 85 the discussion above. because the function exp (−1/x) has no Taylor expansion at x = 0. .g.g.g. It is however not clear to what extend the theory can be used to explain the superconductivity of high temperature superconductors and other exotic superconducting materials. e. In the remaining part of this course we shall deal with the dynamical properties of many-particle systems. This is still a very active and interesting area of research. It means that the state of the system choose to have a lower symmetry that the original Hamiltonian.

86 CHAPTER 4. MEAN FIELD THEORY .

∞ f (B) = n=0 f (n) (0) n B .Chapter 5 Time evolution pictures Using the second quantization procedure.1) In the following we will measure the energy in units of frequency.2) The Schr¨dinger picture o operators : A. instant processes at a single time t = 0.1 The Schr¨dinger picture o The Schr¨dinger picture is useful when dealing with a time-independent Hamiltonian H. With this notation we can summarize the Schr¨dinger picture with its states |ψ(t) and operators A as: o |ψ(t) = e−iHt |ψ0 . ∂t H = 0. does not depend on time. But how does one then treat the general case of time dependence in second quantization? That question will be addressed in this chapter. These representations are used in the following chapters to develop general methods for treating many-particle systems. or “pictures”: the Schr¨dinger picture. The state vectors |ψ(t) does depend on time. i (5. At the end of the calculations one can easily convert frequencies back to energies. 5. we have so far only treated energy eigenstates with a trivial time dependence eiω t . such that drops out of the time-evolution equations: ε/ → ε and H/ → H. and the o interaction picture. states : (5. and their time evolution is governed by Schr¨dinger’s equation.e. the Heisenberg picture. To interpret the operator e−iHt we recall that a function f (B) of any operator B is deﬁned by the Taylor expansion of f . where time evolution is discussed using three representations. n! (5. H. o i. may or may not depend on time. o The time-independence of H leads to a simple formal solution: i ∂t |ψ(t) = H |ψ(t) ⇒ |ψ(t) = e− ~ Ht |ψ0 . and systems where interactions are approximated by time-independent mean ﬁeld theory.3) 87 . Any other operator A may or may not depend on time.

the total time derivative of A in the Heisenberg picture is denoted with a dot. leaving the state vectors |ψ0 time independent. In the general case of time-dependent Hamiltonians.2) we obtain the identity ψ (t)|A|ψ(t) = ψ0 |eiHt Ae−iHt |ψ0 ≡ ψ0 |A(t)|ψ0 . while the explicit time derivative of the original Schr¨dinger operator is denoted ∂t A: o ˙ A(t) = eiHt iHA − iAH + ∂t A e−iHt ⇒ ˙ A(t) = i H. |ψ0 ≡ eiHt |ψ(t) .3 The interaction picture The third and last representation. If the matrix elements of any operator between any two states are identical in the two representations. Since H is time independent. is perturbed by some. but time-dependent operators A(t). (5. it may o sometimes be preferable to collect all time dependencies in the operators and work with time-independent state vectors. We can do that using the Heisenberg picture. Both the Schr¨dinger and the Heisenberg picture require a time-independent Hamilo tonian. The important equation of motion governing the time evolution of A(t) is easily established.88 CHAPTER 5. 5. with known energy eigenstates |n0 . H = H0 + V (t). ˙ A. is introduced to deal with the situation where a system described by a time-independent Hamiltonian H0 .6) where X(t) always means eiHt Xe−iHt for any symbol X. with H0 |n0 = εn0 |n0 . The Hamiltonian H remains time-independent in the Heisenberg picture. TIME EVOLUTION PICTURES While the Schr¨dinger picture is quite useful for time-independent operators A. interaction V (t). possibly time-dependent. then the two representations are fully equivalent.2 The Heisenberg picture The central idea behind the Heisenberg picture is to obtain a representation where all the time dependence is transferred to the operators. we have to switch to the interaction picture. A(t). Note how carefully the order of the operators is kept during the calculation. As before the original operator A may be time dependent. (5. (5. (5. By using Eq. in particular for X = ∂t A.4) Thus we see that the correspondence between the Heisenberg picture with time-independent state vectors |ψ0 . 5. A(t) + (∂t A)(t). the interaction picture. and the Schr¨dinger picture is given o by the unitary transformation operator exp(iHt).7) . (5. states : iHt −iHt . In this way an explicit time-dependence of A is taken into account.5) The Heisenberg picture operators : A(t) ≡ e A e H does not depend on time.

10). time dependence due to H0 . in the nonperturbed case. t0 ) which also only depends on V (t).8) ˆ ≡ eiH0 t A e−iH0 t . (5. then one can think of Eq.8) is reduced to ˆ ˆ ˆ i∂t |ψ (t) = V (t) |ψ (t) . t0 ) eiH0 t0 e−iHt0 |ψ0 By integration of this diﬀerential equation we get the integral equation 1 ˆ U (t. This is obtained by using only H0 . (5. in the interaction picture both ˆ ˆ the state vectors |ψ (t) and the operators A(t) depend on time. The ﬁrst hint of the usefulness of the interaction picture comes from calculating the ˆ time derivative of |ψ (t) using the deﬁnition Eq. If V (t) is a weak perturbation. t0 ). t0 ).8) as a way to pull out the fast. operators : A(t) H0 does not depend on time. (5. As a result. but trivial. states : The interaction picture (5. (5. (5. t0 ) = eiH0 t e−iH(t−t0 ) e−iH0 t0 . not the full H. leaving states that vary only slowly in time due to V (t). U (t.5). and we obtain: ⇒ ˆ ˆ ˆ i∂t U (t. an explicit form for U (t. i.12) ˆ ˆ ˆ From this we observe that U −1 = U † .11) naturally ˆ implies the boundary condition U (t0 . (5. (5. (5. The interaction picture and the Heisenberg picture coincide when V = 0. ˆ U (t0 . i.5. (5. We remark that Eq. (5.11).3.9) which by Eq. This means that in the interaction picture ˆ the time evolution of a state |ψ (t0 ) from time t0 to t must be given in terms of a unitary ˆ (t. The deﬁning equations for the interaction picture are ˆ |ψ (t) ≡ eiH0 t |ψ(t) .e.11) is inserted in Eq. t0 ) = 1. THE INTERACTION PICTURE 89 The key idea behind the interaction picture is to separate the trivial time evolution due to H0 from the intricate one due to V (t). U is indeed a unitary operator.10) ˆ The resulting Schr¨dinger equation for |ψ (t) thus contains explicit reference only to the o ˆ interaction part V (t) of the full Hamiltonian H.14) .8): ˆ i∂t |ψ (t) = i∂t eiH0 t |ψ(t) + eiH0 t i∂t |ψ(t) = eiH0 t (−H0 + H)|ψ(t) . t0 ) is completely determined by ˆ ˆ operator U ˆ ˆ ˆ |ψ (t) = U (t. t0 ) = 1 + i t t0 ˆ ˆ dt V (t ) U (t .11) ˆ When V and thus H are time-independent. t0 ) is obtained by ˆ (t) = eiH0 t |ψ(t) = eiH0 t e−iHt |ψ and |ψ (t0 ) = eiH0 t0 e−iHt0 |ψ into ˆ inserting |ψ 0 0 Eq. ˆ In the general case with a time-dependent V (t) we must rely on the diﬀerential equation appearing when Eq.e. (5. in the unitary transformation Eq. t0 ) = 1.. (5. (5.13) ˆ eiH0 t e−iHt |ψ0 = U (t. (5. ˆ U (t. t0 ) |ψ (t0 ) . t0 ) = V (t) U (t.

. A graphical sketch of the contents of the formula is given in Fig. This expression for U (t. (5. .90 CHAPTER 5. .2): ∞ ˆ U (t. it is therefore one of the central equations in quantum ﬁeld theory. t0 ) is the starting point for inﬁnite order perturbation theory and for introducing the concept of Feynman diagrams. we obtain the ﬁnal compact form (see also Exercise 5. t0 ) = 1. In n-th order. Consider for example the second order term. Using the time ordering operator. .17) θ(tp(1) − tp(2) ) θ(tp(2) − tp(3) ) . 5. θ(tp(n−1) − tp(n) ). .15) Note that in the iteration the ordering of all operators is carefully kept.1.18) ˆ Note the similarity with a usual time evolution factor e−iε t . . . t0 ) = n=0 1 1 n! i n t t0 t dt1 . Time ordering is easily generalˆ ized to higher order terms. . . (5. all n! permutations 1 p ∈ Sn of the n times tj are involved. V (tn ) = Tt e Rt t0 dt ˆ V (t ) . and we deﬁne ˆ ˆ ˆ Tt [V (t1 )V (t2 ) . V (tp(n) ) × (5. V (tn )] ≡ p∈Sn ˆ ˆ ˆ V (tp(1) )V (tp(2) ) . A more compact form is obtained by the following rewriting. . t0 −i ˆ ˆ dtn Tt V (t1 ) .16) where we have introduced the time ordering operator Tt . . t0 ) starting from U (t . . The solution is 1 ˆ U (t. 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ For n = 3 we have Tt [V (t1 )V (t2 )V (t3 )] = ˆ (t1 )V (t2 )V (t3 )θ(t1 −t2 )θ(t2 −t3 )+V (t1 )V (t3 )V (t2 )θ(t1 −t3 )θ(t3 −t2 )+V (t2 )V (t3 )V (t1 )θ(t2 −t3 )θ(t3 −t1 )+ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ V ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ V (t2 )V (t1 )V (t3 )θ(t2 −t1 )θ(t1 −t3 )+ V (t3 )V (t1 )V (t2 )θ(t3 −t1 )θ(t1 −t2 )+ V (t3 )V (t2 )V (t1 )θ(t3 −t2 )θ(t2 −t1 ). t0 ) = 1 + i t t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) + 1 i2 t t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) t1 t0 ˆ dt2 V (t2 ) + . . where n factors V (tj ) appear. paying special attention to the dummy variables t1 and t2 : t t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) 1 = 2 = = ≡ 1 2 1 2 1 2 t t0 t t0 t t0 t t0 t1 t0 ˆ dt2 V (t2 ) t1 t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) t 1 ˆ dt2 V (t2 ) + 2 t t0 ˆ dt2 V (t2 ) t t0 t2 t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) t dt1 dt1 dt1 1 ˆ ˆ dt2 V (t1 )V (t2 )θ(t1 − t2 ) + 2 t0 t t0 t t0 dt2 t0 ˆ ˆ dt1 V (t2 )V (t1 )θ(t2 − t1 ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ dt2 V (t1 )V (t2 )θ(t1 − t2 ) + V (t2 )V (t1 )θ(t2 − t1 ) ˆ ˆ dt2 Tt [V (t1 )V (t2 )]. TIME EVOLUTION PICTURES ˆ ˆ which we can solve iteratively for U (t. (5.

As in Sec. .5.5): a† (t) ≡ eiHt a† e−iHt . TIME-EVOLUTION IN LINEAR RESPONSE 91 ˆ Figure 5. aν ] are not simple. a† (t2 )]F. which happen during the evolution from time t0 to time t.3. scattering events V . is applicable to a wide range of physical problems. as we shall see in the following chapters. 5. Eq. The sum phase factors due to V ˆ contains contributions from processes with 0. .5 Time dependent creation and annihilation operators It is of fundamental interest to study how the basic creation and annihilation operators a† and aν evolve in time given some set of basis states {|ν } for a time-independent ν Hamiltonian H. a† 2 (t2 )]F. a† ] and [H. . ν ν aν (t) ≡ e iHt In the case of a general time-independent Hamiltonian with complicated interaction terms.4 Time-evolution in linear response ˆ In many applications the perturbation V (t) is weak compared to H0 . .20b) .4 these operators can be taken to be either bosonic or fermionic. Let us ﬁrst apply the deﬁnition of the Heisenberg picture. t0 ) by the ﬁrst order approximation justiﬁed to approximate U 1 ˆ U (t.1: The time evolution operator U (t. 2. and consequently the fundamental ν (anti-)commutator [aν (t1 ). t0 ) ≈ 1 + i t t0 This simple time evolution operator forms the basis for the Kubo formula in linear response theory.19) (5. which. the commutators [H.20a) (5. 1.B involving two diﬀerent times t1 and t2 cannot be ν given in a simple closed form: [aν1 (t1 ). 1. t0 ) can be viewed as the sum of additional ˆ on top of the trivial phase factors arising from H0 .21) ¥£ ¥£ ¥£ ¥£ ¦ £ ¢ ¦ £ ¢ ¦ £ ¢ ¦ £ ¢ § ¨¦ ¥ £ ¤ £ ¢ ¡ ¦ £¢ ¦ £¢ ! !! " £ £ £ £ © ˆ dt V (t ). 3.4.B = ν eiHt1 aν1 e−iH(t1 −t2 ) a† 2 e−iHt2 ± eiHt2 a† 2 e−iH(t2 −t1 ) aν1 e−iHt1 ν ν = ?? (5. It can therefore be ˆ (t. aν e −iHt (5. 5. (5.

TIME EVOLUTION PICTURES No further reduction is possible in the general case. which are valid for any set of operators. Eq. so |ˆ(t) ν 2 = eiεν t e−i(1+γ)εν t |ν = e−iγεν t |ν . (5. the full Hamiltonian H is also diagonalized in the same basis.27) where H0 is diagonalized in the basis {|ν } with the eigenenergies εν . . Let us however try to treat γH0 as a perturbation V to H0 . calculating (anti-)commutators like Eq.B = e−iεν1 (t1 −t2 ) δν1 . as we shall see in the following chapters.24) = −iεν aν (t).92 CHAPTER 5. C} − {A. is straightforward:2 aν (t) = i[H. ν ν (5. aν (t)] ˙ = ieiHt = −iεν e ν iHt = ieiHt [H.22) The equation of motion. ν (5.8) we then obtain |ˆ(t) = eiεν t |ν(t) .ν2 .4). Assume that H = H0 + γH0 . a† 2 (t2 )]F. C] = A[B. By integration we obtain aν (t) = e−iεν t aν .6).21) can be evaluated directly: [aν1 (t1 ). C]B and [AB. Note that the ﬁrst identity is particularly useful for bosonic operators and the second for fermionic operators (see Exercise 5.3. but with the eigenenergies (1 + γ)ε. In fact. H= ν εν a† aν . aν e−iHt ν aν e −iHt εν −δν. But let us investigate some simple cases to get a grasp of the time evolution pictures.29) We are using the identities [AB. Obviously. which by Hermitian conjugation leads to a† (t) = e+iεν t a† . C] = A{B. ν (5.28) But we actually know the time evolution of the Schr¨dinger state on the right-hand side o of the equation. (5. 5. (5. From Eq. We can also gain some insight into the interaction picture by a trivial extension of the simple model. C}B.26) For the diagonal Hamiltonian the time evolution is thus seen to be given by trivial phase factors e±iε t . (5. Consider ﬁrst a time-independent Hamiltonian H which is diagonal in the |ν -basis. γ 1. C] + [A. aν ]e−iHt = ieiHt ν εν a† aν .23) (5. ν (5.25) In this very simple case the basic (anti-)commutator Eq. and then use the interaction picture of Sec. (5.ν aν e−iHt (5.21) is the problem in many-particle physics. (5.

t0 ) describing the evolution of an interaction picture state |ψ (t0 ) at time t0 to |ψ (t) ˆ at time t.18). we brieﬂy point to the complications that arise when the interaction is given by a time-independent operator V not diagonal in the same basis as H0 . of interacting many-particle systems. when we are trying to study the full time dependence. ν The problem in this more general case is evident.19) forms the basis of the widely used linear response theory and the associated Kubo formalism. where H0 is a time-independent Hamiltonian with known eigenstates. (5.5). (5. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 93 Here we clearly see that the fast Schr¨dinger time dependence given by the phase factor o iεν t . eleven. for the time evolution operator ˆ ˆ ˆ U (t. We have derived an explicit expression. (5. and we do not know the time evolution of the three-operator product a† 1 +ν2 −ν (t) aν2 (t) aν1 (t). is replaced in the interaction picture by the slow phase factor eiγεν t . Consider for example the Coulomb-like interaction written symbolically as H = H0 + V = ν εν a† aν + ν ν1 ν2 q Vq a† 1 +q a† 2 −q aν2 aν1 . . The reader can e try to obtain Eq. and how its linearized form Eq. Which picture to use depends on the problem at hand. Finally.6. The ﬁrst two pictures rely on a time-independent Hamiltonian H. (5. etc. Finally. Eq. ν ν (5. operators.30) The equation of motion for aν (t) is: aν (t) = i[H. The equation of motion for the single operator aν (t) contains terms with both one and three operators.6 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have introduced the fundamental representations used in the description of time evolution in many-particle systems: the Schr¨dinger picture. while the interaction picture involves a timedependent Hamiltonian H of the form H = H0 + V (t). by studying the basic creation and annihilation operators we have gotten a ﬁrst glimpse of the problems we are facing.5. 5. or equivalently the full dynamics. (5. We shall see in the following chapters how the operator U (t.2). nine.29) directly from Eq. and the interaction picture. aν (t) aν2 (t) aν1 (t) ν ν (5.18). t0 ) plays an important role in the formulation of inﬁnite order perturbation theory and the introduction of Feynman diagrams. the o Heisenberg picture. (5. Eq. This feature is then repeated over and over again generating a never-ending sequence of products containing seven. If we write ν down the equation of motion for this three-operator product we discover that terms are generated involving ﬁve operator products.8).31) = −iεν aν (t) + i ν1 ν2 (Vν2 −ν − Vν−ν1 )a† 1 +ν2 −ν (t) aν2 (t) aν1 (t). (5. aν (t)] ˙ = −iεν aν (t) + i ν1 ν2 q Vq a† 1 +q (t) a† 2 −q (t). In the following chapters we will learn various approximate methods to deal with this problem. Eq. Eq.

94

CHAPTER 5. TIME EVOLUTION PICTURES

Chapter 6

**Linear response theory
**

Linear response theory is an extremely widely used concept in all branches of physics. It simply states that the response to a weak external perturbation is proportional to the perturbation, and therefore all one needs to understand is the proportionality constant. Below we derive the general formula for the linear response of a quantum system exerted by a perturbation. The physical question we ask is thus: supposing some perturbation H , what is the measured consequence for an observable quantity, A. In other words, what is A to linear order in H ? Among the numerous applications of the linear response formula, one can mention charge and spin susceptibilities of e.g. electron systems due to external electric or magnetic ﬁelds. Responses to external mechanical forces or vibrations can also be calculated using the very same formula. Here we utilize the formalism to derive a general expression for the electrical conductivity and brieﬂy mention other applications.

6.1

The general Kubo formula

Consider a quantum system described by the (time independent) Hamiltonian H0 in thermodynamic equilibrium. According to Sec. 1.5 this means that an expectation value of a physical quantity, described by the operator A, can be evaluated as A = 1 1 Tr [ρ0 A] = Z0 Z0

−βH0

n|A|n e−βEn ,

n

(6.1a) (6.1b)

ρ0 = e

=

n

|n n|e−βEn ,

where ρ0 is the density operator and Z0 =Tr[ρ0 ] is the partition function. Here as in Sec. 1.5, we write the density operator in terms of a complete set of eigenstates, {|n }, of the Hamiltonian, H0 , with eigenenergies {En }. Suppose now that at some time, t = t0 , an external perturbation is applied to the system, driving it out of equilibrium. The perturbation is described by an additional time dependent term in the Hamiltonian H(t) = H0 + H (t)θ(t − t0 ). 95 (6.2)

96

CHAPTER 6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY

Figure 6.1: Illustration of the linear response theory. At times before t0 the system is in equilibrium, after which the perturbation is turned on. The system is now evolving according to the new Hamiltonian and is in a non-equilibrium state. The Kubo formula relates the expectation value δ A non−eq in the non-equilibrium state to a equilibrium expectation ˆ ˆ value · · · eq of the more complicated time-dependent commutator [A(t), H (t )]. We emphasize that H0 is the Hamiltonian describing the system before the perturbation was applied, see Fig. 6.1 for an illustration. Now we wish to ﬁnd the expectation value of the operator A at times t greater than t0 . In order to do so we must ﬁnd the time evolution of the density matrix or equivalently the time evolution of the eigenstates of the unperturbed Hamiltonian. Once we know the |n(t) , we can obtain A(t) as A(t) = ρ(t) =

n

1 Z0

n(t)|A|n(t) e−βEn =

n

1 Tr [ρ(t)A] , Z0

|n(t) n(t)|e−βEn .

The philosophy behind this expression is as follows. The initial states of the system are distributed according to the usual Boltzmann distribution e−βE0n /Z0 . At later times the system is described by the same distribution of states but the states are now timedependent and they have evolved according to the new Hamiltonian. The time dependence of the states |n(t) is of course governed by the Schr¨dinger equation o i∂t |n(t) = H(t)|n(t) . (6.4)

Since H is to be regarded as a small perturbation, it is convenient to utilize the interaction picture representation |ˆ (t) introduced in Sec. 5.3. The time dependence in this n representation is given by ˆ |n(t) = e−iH0 t |ˆ (t) = e−iH0 t U (t, t0 )|ˆ (t0 ) , n n where by deﬁnition |ˆ (t0 ) = eiH0 t0 |n(t0 ) = |n . n (6.5)

¡

' @ 9 4 H F ' ¡ D (% G F ¡ E C3 B5@ 9 8 6 7 6 53 2 1 D 2 A 4

¦ § §© ¨ § ¦ ¤ ! ¢¡ "

(6.3a) (6.3b)

0 & ¥ § ) © (& § © ¦ $ ¨ # £ ' % ¦ § §© ¨ § ¦ ¥£ ¤ ¢ P5@ 9 53 2 3 I 4

**6.1. THE GENERAL KUBO FORMULA
**

t

97

ˆ ˆ To linear order in H , Eq. (5.19) states that U (t, t0 ) = 1 − i t0 dt H (t ). Inserting this into (6.3a), one obtains the expectation value of A up to linear order in the perturbation

t

A(t) = A = A

0−i

dt

t0 t

1 Z0

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ e−βEn n(t0 )|A(t)H (t ) − H (t )A(t)|n(t0 )

n

0

−i

t0

ˆ ˆ dt [A(t), H (t )] 0 .

(6.6)

The brackets 0 mean an equilibrium average with respect to the Hamiltonian H0 . This is in fact a remarkable and very useful result, because the inherently non-equilibrium quantity A(t) has been expressed as a correlation function of the system in equilibrium. The physical reason for this is that the interaction between excitations created in the non-equilibrium state is an eﬀect to second order in the weak perturbation, and hence not included in linear response. The correlation function that appears in Eq. (6.6), is called a retarded correlation function, and for later reference we rewrite the linear response result as

∞

δ A(t) ≡ A(t) − A where

0

=

t0

R dt CAH (t, t )e−η(t−t ) ,

(6.7)

R CAH (t, t ) = −iθ(t − t )

ˆ ˆ A(t), H (t )

0

.

(6.8)

This is the famous Kubo formula which expresses the linear response to a perturbation, H . We have added a very important detail here: the factor e−η(t−t ) , with an inﬁnitesimal positive parameter η, has been included to force the response at time t due to the inﬂuence of H at time t to decay when t t . In the end of a calculation we must therefore take + . For physical reasons the (retarded) eﬀect of a perturbation must of the limit η → 0 course decrease in time. You can think of the situation that one often has for diﬀerential equations with two solutions: one which increases exponentially with time (physically not acceptable) and one which decreases exponentially with time; the factor e−η(t−t ) is there to pick out the physically relevant solution by introducing an artiﬁcial relaxation mechanism. Kubo formula in the frequency domain It is often convenient to express the response to an external disturbance in the frequency domain. Let us therefore write the perturbation in terms of its Fourier components H (t) =

R such that CAH becomes R CAH (t, t ) = ∞ −∞

dω −iωt e Hω , 2π

(6.9)

dω −iωt R e CAHω (t − t ), 2π

(6.10)

98

CHAPTER 6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY

ˆ ˆ because [A(t), Hω (t )] 0 only depends on the diﬀerence between t and t , which can easily be proven using the deﬁnition of the expectation value. When inserted into the Kubo formula, one gets (after setting t0 = −∞, because we are not interested in the transient behavior)

∞ ∞

δ A(t) =

−∞ ∞

dt

−∞

dω −iωt −i(ω+iη)(t −t) R e e CAHω (t − t ) 2π (6.11)

=

−∞

dω −iωt R e CAHω (ω), 2π

**and therefore the ﬁnal result reads in frequency domain
**

R δ Aω = CAHω (ω), R CAHω (ω) = ∞ R dteiωt e−ηt CAHω (t).

(6.12a) (6.12b)

−∞

Note again that the inﬁnitesimal η is incorporated in order to ensure the correct physical result, namely that the retarded response function decays at large times.

6.2

Kubo formula for conductivity

Consider a system of charged particles, electrons say, which is subjected to an external electromagnetic ﬁeld. The electromagnetic ﬁeld induces a current, and the conductivity is the linear response coeﬃcient. In the general case the conductivity may be non-local in both time and space, such that the electric current Je at some point r at time t depends on the electric ﬁeld at points r at times t

α Je (r, t) =

dt

dr

β

σ αβ (rt, r t ) E β (r , t )

(6.13)

where σ αβ (r, r ; t, t ) is the conductivity tensor which describes the current response in direction eα to an applied electric ﬁeld in direction eβ . ˆ ˆ The electric ﬁeld E is given by the electric potential φext and the vector potential Aext E(r, t) = −

r φext (r, t)

− ∂t Aext (r, t).

(6.14)

The current density operator of charged particles in the presence of an electromagnetic ﬁeld was given in Chap. 1. For simplicity we assume only one kind of particles, electrons say, but generalization to more kinds of charge carrying particles is straightforward by simple addition of more current components.1 For electrons Je = −e J . The perturbing term in the Hamiltonian due to the external electromagnetic ﬁeld is given by the coupling

P With more carriers the operator for the electrical current becomes Je (r) = i qi Ji (r), where qi are the charges of the diﬀerent carriers. Note that in this case the currents of the individual species are not necessarily independent.

1

6.2. KUBO FORMULA FOR CONDUCTIVITY

99

of the electrons to the scalar potential and the vector potential. To linear order in the external potential Hext = −e dr ρ(r)φext (r, t) + e dr J(r) · Aext (r, t), (6.15)

where the latter term was explained in Sec. 1.4.3. Let A0 denote the vector potential in the equilibrium, i.e. prior to the onset of the perturbation Aext , and let A denote the total vector potential. Then we have A = A0 +Aext , (6.16)

Again according to Sec. 1.4.3, the current operator has two components, the diamagnetic term and the paramagnetic term J(r) = J (r) + e A(r)ρ(r), m (6.17)

In order to simplify the expressions, we can choose a gauge where the external electrical potential is zero, φext = 0. This is always possible by a suitable choice of A(r, t) as you can see in Eq. (6.14). The ﬁnal result should of course not depend on the choice of gauge. The conductivity is most easily expressed in the frequency domain, and therefore we Fourier transform the perturbation. Since ∂t becomes −iω in the frequency domain we have Aext (r, ω) = (1/iω)Eext (r, ω), and therefore the external perturbation in Eq. (6.15) becomes in the Fourier domain Hext,ω = e iω dr J(r) · Eext (r, ω). (6.18)

In order to exploit the frequency domain formulation of linear response we want to write the deﬁnition of the conductivity tensor in Eq. (6.13) in frequency domain. Because we are only considering linear response the conductivity tensor is a property of the equilibrium system and can thus only depend on time diﬀerences σ αβ (rt, r t ) = σ αβ (r, r , t − t ). The frequency transform of Eq. (6.13) is therefore simply that of a convolution and hence

α Je (r, ω) =

dr

β

σ αβ (r, r , ω) E β (r , ω).

(6.19)

Now since Eq. (6.18) is already linear in the external potential Eext and since we are e only interested in the linear response, we can replace J in Eq. (6.18) by J0 = J + m A0 ρ, thus neglecting the term proportional to Eext · Aext . Eq. (6.18) is therefore replaced by Hext,ω = e iω dr J0 (r) · Eext (r, ω). (6.20)

To ﬁnd the expectation value of the current we write J(r, ω) = J0 (r, ω) + e Aext (r, ω)ρ(r) . m (6.21)

100

CHAPTER 6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY

For the last term in Eq. (6.21) we use that to linear order in Aext the expectation value can be evaluated in the equilibrium state e e Aext (r, ω)ρ(r) = Aext (r, ω) ρ(r) m m

0

=

e Eext (r, ω) ρ(r) 0 . iω

(6.22)

For the ﬁrst term in Eq. (6.21) we use the general Kubo formula in Eq. (6.7). Since the equilibrium state does not carry any current, i.e. J0 0 = 0, we conclude that J0 = δ J0 . In frequency domain we should use the results Eq. (6.12a) and substitute J0 (r) for the operator “A”, and Hext,ω for “Hω ”, which leads to J0 (r, ω) = CR0 (r)Hext,ω (ω). Collecting J things we now have J(r, ω) = CR0 (r)Hext,ω (ω) + J Writing out the ﬁrst term CR0 (r)Hext,ω (ω) = J dr

β

e ρ(r) 0 Aext (r,ω). m e β E (r , ω). iω

(6.23)

CR (r)J β (r ) (ω) J

0 0

(6.24)

Comparing with the deﬁnition of the non-local conductivity in Eq. (6.19), we can now collect the two contributions to the conductivity tensor. The ﬁrst term comes from Eq. (6.24) and it is seen to of the same form as (6.12a), in particular the response is non-local in space. In contrast, the second term in Eq. (6.22) stemming from the diamagnetic part of the current operator is local in space. Now collecting the two terms and using that Je = −e J , we ﬁnally arrive at the linear response formula for the conductivity tensor σ αβ (r, r , ω) = ie2 n(r) ie2 R Παβ (r, r , ω) + δ(r − r )δαβ , ω iωm (6.25)

R where we have used the symbol ΠR = CJ0 J0 for the retarded current-current correlation function. In the time domain it is given by R ΠR (r, r , t − t ) = CJ α (r)J β (r ) (t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) αβ

0 0

ˆα ˆβ J0 (r, t), J0 (r , t )

0

.

(6.26)

Finding the conductivity of a given system has thus been reduced to ﬁnding the retarded current-current correlation function. This formula will be used extensively in Chap. 14.

6.3

Kubo formula for conductance

The conductivity σ is the proportionality coeﬃcient between the electric ﬁeld E and the current density J, and it is an intrinsic property of a material. The conductance on the other hand is the proportionality coeﬃcient between the current I through a sample and the voltage V applied to it, i.e. a sample speciﬁc quantity. The conductance G is deﬁned by the usual Ohm’s law I = GV. (6.27)

which.2: The principle of a conductance measurement. For samples which are inhomogeneous such that this simple relation is not applicable.29) ˆ ˆ dξ ξ · σ(ξ. r . aξ .2. is a sample-speciﬁc quantity. ω = 0)E(r ). The current I is Ie = = ˆ daξ ξ · Je (ξ.28) where L is the length of the sample. If ¡ § § © §¨ ¦ ¥£ ¤ ¢ . In order to get the dc-response we should the limit ω → 0 of this expression. ω = 0) · ξ E(ξ ).3. and it is convenient to choose an equipotential surface and to deﬁne a coordinate system (ξ. aξ . one must use the Kubo formula for conductance rather than that for conductivity. In the Kubo formula derivation we use a coordinate system given by the equipotential lines. and W the area of the cross-section. Because of current conservation we can of course choose any cross section. whereby a local description is inadequate.6. Here we are interested in the DC-response only (or in frequencies where the corresponding wave length is much longer than the sample size). In this coordinate system the electric ﬁeld is directed ˆ ˆ along the ξ-direction. (6. ξ . aξ ) = daξ daξ daξ ˆ dr ξ · σ(r. which together with use of current conservation allows a simple derivation. KUBO FORMULA FOR CONDUCTANCE 101 Figure 6. E(r) = ξE(ξ). see Figure 6. in contrast to the conductivity. ˆ where ξ is a unit vector normal to the surface element daξ and σ is the conductivity tensor. For a material where the conductivity can be assumed to be local in space one can ﬁnd the conductance of a speciﬁc sample by the relation G= W σ. aξ ). One example is the so-called mesoscopic conductors. The current passing through the sample is equal to the integrated current density through a cross-section. which are systems smaller than a typical thermalization or equilibration length. where ξ is a coordinate parallel to the ﬁeld line and where aξ are coordinates on the plane perpendicular to the ξ-direction. L (6.

32) where the current operator I denote the current through an arbitrary cross section along the sample. and we ﬁnally arrive at the for linear response formula for the conductance G = lim ie2 R CII (ω). The total potential is the sum of the external one and the potential created by the induced polarization. This in turn aﬀects the measurements.30) ω→0 R where CI(ξ)I(ξ ) is the correlation function between total currents. 6. (6.29) we see that what determines the dc-current is the real part of the ﬁrst term in Eq. I(t )] . (6. ω→0 ω (6. Consequently the function in side the square brackets in Eq. ext 0 2 1 φ =− ρ ind ε0 e.31) R Here CII is the retarded current-current function. When such a system is subjected to an external electromagnetic perturbation the charge is redistributed and the system gets polarized.102 CHAPTER 6. φtot . since the conductance function G(ξ.25) and hence the retarded correlation function of the current densities. and measure the resulting total potential. The typical experiment is to exert an external potential. This simpliﬁcation is the reason for choosing the skew coordinate system deﬁned by the ﬁeld lines.33) Alternatively to working with the potentials we can work with electric ﬁelds or charges. φext . (6.ind . In the time domain it is R ˆ ˆ CII (t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) [I(t).30) cannot depend on ξ. Furthermore. the conductance can instead be written as Ie (ξ) = lim dξ Re ie2 R C (ω) E(ξ ) ≡ ω I(ξ)I(ξ ) dξ G(ξ.ext . LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY we furthermore take the real part of (6. Because of current conservation the dc-current may be calculated at any point ξ and thus the result cannot depend on ξ. φtot = φext + φind . ξ )E(ξ ). (6. The charges are related to the potentials through a set of Poisson equations 2 φtot = − ε1 ρe. We can therefore perform the integration over ξ which is just the voltage diﬀerence V = dξ E(ξ ) = φ(−∞)−φ(∞). φind . ξ ) can be shown to be a symmetric function is cannot depend on ξ either. one is often interested in the dielectric properties of the system.tot 0 2φ = − ε1 ρe.4 Kubo formula for the dielectric function When dealing with systems containing charged particles. Since the total particle current at the coordinate ξ is given by ˆ I(ξ) = daξ ξ · J. as for example the electron gas. and in particular the linear response properties. (6.34) ρtot = ρext + ρind . (6.

t) = ρe (r. r t ). t) = dr t0 R dt Cρe ρe (rt. r t )e−η(t−t ) φext (r . i. t) = φext (r. is called the polarizability function and it is e an important function which we will encounter many times.42) In electrodynamics the permittivity is deﬁned as the proportionality constant between the electric displacement ﬁeld. KUBO FORMULA FOR THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION 103 and likewise for electric ﬁelds. where ρ as deﬁned in Chap. t) = dr dr dt ε−1 (rt.39) R Cρe ρe (rt. and the electric ﬁeld.6. (6.40) φtot (r. while Etot is the E-ﬁeld . ρe (r . t ). D = ε0 Eext . or rather its inverse ε−1 (rt.eind (r ). (6. t ). Etot .e. t ). (6. t) 0 = 0) as ∞ ρe.ind (r. (6. r t ) φext (r .37) The induced charge density follows from linear response theory (if we assume that the system is charge neutral in equilibrium. (6. t ). Once the induced charge is known the potential follows from the Coulomb interaction Vc (r − r ) = 1/( 0 |r − r |) as φind (r) = and hence ∞ dr Vc (r − r ) ρe.36b) Our present task is to ﬁnd the dielectric function ε(rt. t) + dr dr t0 dt Vc (r − r )χR (r t.4. (6.41) From this expression we read oﬀ the inverse of the dielectric function as ε−1 (rt. 1 deﬁnes particle densities. ρ ˆ e The charge-charge correlation function. also called the relative permittivity ε φtot = ε−1 φext . t )] 0 .38) (6. r t ) = δ(r − r )δ(t − t ) + 2 dr Vc (r − r )χR (r t. r t ) assuming linear response theory and for this purpose the induced potential is needed. t). D = εE. in reality the permittivity is non-local both in time and space and the general relations between the total and the external potentials are φtot (r.e. r t ) ≡ χR (rt. D. i.2 However. · E = ρe /ε0 . Eext plays the role of the D-ﬁeld. Eext . χR . r t ) φext (r . r t ) φtot (r .36a) (6. dt ε(rt. (6. Here we have used the symbols ρe for the charge density. which are related to the corresponding charges by a set of Gauss laws. ρe (r.35) which is well-known from classical electrodynamics. t). and Eind . r t ). r t ) = −iθ(t − t ) [ˆe (r. The external perturbation is represented as the following term to the Hamiltonian H = dr ρe (r) φext (r. t) = φext (r. In the present formulation. The ratio between the external and the total potential is the dielectric response function.

the conductivity tensor is diagonal. (6. r t ) = χR (r − r . ω). The dielectric function expressed in Eq.45) So if we know the conductivity we can ﬁnd the dielectric response and vice versa. ω)qφext (q. (6. with the dielectric function being ε−1 (q.e.5 Summary and outlook We have developed a general method for calculating the response to weak perturbations. ω)φtot (q. ω)φext (q. ω) = 0.ω) = ε(q. χR (rt. ω) φext (q. 6. but often we must use some approximation to compute the polarizability. ω). ω). Here we consider again the translational-invariant case.44) or φext (q. ω (6. and using the deﬁnition of conductivity J(q.4.4. using Eq.47) Finally. e (6.46) (6. is widely used because many experimental . t − t ). ω) . called linear response theory. ω) = 1 − i q2 Vc (q)σ(q. (6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY which ends our derivation. This method. (continuity equation). ω) = σ(q. ω) = 1 + Vc (q)χR (q.43) 6.44) and knowing that for a homogeneous system.36) have the form of convolutions. In later chapters we will make extensive use of the dielectric function ε and the polarizability χ.42) includes all correlation eﬀects. and the continuity equation.ω) = ε−1 (q. ω). ω)Eext (q. e (6. −iωρ(q. ω). After Fourier transformation they become products φtot (q.104 CHAPTER 6. ω) = ωχR (q. and one should therefore expect that they were related. ω) = −iσ(q. i. and therefore the problem is considerably simpliﬁed by going to frequency and momentum space. (6. we arrive at the relation ε−1 (q. ω) + iq · J(q. and of course they are. This formula also tells us what information about the interactions within a given system can be extracted from measurements of the dielectric properties. 6. ω)qφext (q.2 Relation between dielectric function and conductivity Both ε and σ give the response of a system to an applied electromagnetic ﬁeld. we obtain −iq · σ(q.1 Dielectric function for translation-invariant system In the translation-invariant case the polarizability can only depend on the diﬀerences of the arguments. ω) = ωρe (q.48) (6. where both Eqs.

and one can think of this as probing the individual excitations of the systems. These two will be used later in Chaps. In the case of conductivity we saw that it was the current-current correlation function. when discussing tunneling current between two conductors. The general formula is a correlation function of the quantity that we measure and the quantity to which the weak external perturbation couples. Also in the next chapter we will make use of the linear response result.5. .6. Because the perturbation is weak it is not necessary to include interactions between these excitations. and the dielectric response reduces to a charge-charge correlation. 12 and 14. In this regime the lack of equilibrium is not important. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 105 investigations are done in the linear response regime.

106 CHAPTER 6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY .

7. When interactions are important another rich ﬁeld of physics appears. by electrostatic conﬁnement of two dimensional electron gases (see e. . This even happens at room temperature. 14. the elastic mean free path. the length scales for these system are related as a0 λF <L< in . and the phenomena that we discuss in the following all rely on quantum eﬀects. By coherent we mean that the quantum mechanical coherence length is longer than the sample size. 2. the Fermi wave length of the electron. the atomic in Bohr radius. However. 0 φ (7.2).g. The important length scales are the coherence length φ . 107 . λF ≈ a0 . They are all clear manifestations of the wave propagation of electrons through the structures. but this we will have to study at some other time. the energy relaxation length. λF . The ﬁeld of mesoscopic transport is interesting in that it combines physics on many length scales.3. typically the range from 50 mK to 4 K. L.1) Metallic systems are more diﬃcult to bring into the mesoscopic regime because of their small Fermi wave length. The physics of mesoscopic systems is a vast ﬁeld. Sec. 0 . whereas the more high-tech devices based on semiconductor nanostructures only show quantum eﬀects at low temperatures (see e. and of course the sample size.g. a0 . there is one relatively simple experiment involving a narrow metallic wire where the conductance as a clear signature of quantum transport decreases in pronounced steps of size 2e2 /h as the wire is stretched and pulled apart. Fig.g. e.2).Chapter 7 Transport in mesoscopic systems In this chapter we give an introduction to electronic transport in mesoscopic structures and it is our ﬁrst in-depth use of the Kubo formalism. and we shall concentrate on the Landauer-B¨ttiker single-particle approach u to conductance of small nanometer-sized coherent systems. At low temperatures. This chapter deals with the physics of quantum transport which can be understood by invoking the Fermi liquid picture of non-interacting electrons to be discussed in Chap. Typical mesoscopic structures that we have mind are those which are fabricated on semiconductor chips.

it is more natural to label the states in terms of their energy E rather than as usual their k values. (L). (7. y) = η . The contact is thus required to be reﬂectionless. y ∈ [0. The quantum number ±1 represents right and left moving states with wavenumber kn (E) = 2m(E − εn )/ 2 .2e) e±ikn (E)x χn (y). TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 7. since the reservoir is a macroscopic conductor.2d) (7. y) αn. Furthermore. mesoscopic region (M). it is assumed that the left and right leads are perfect straight segments with hard walls.2b) (7. The system is divided into ﬁve regions: left reservoir.E m η = ±1. . that they are identical as in the ﬁgure. By mesoscopic we mean that the size L of the sample region between the two reservoirs is much smaller than the energy relaxation length in . 7.1 The S-matrix and scattering states We consider a mesoscopic sample connected to electron reservoirs in the form of macroscopic metal contacts. we can safely assume that electrons entering the reservoir will be thermalized at the temperature and chemical potential of the contact before returning to the mesoscopic sample. m αn.108 CHAPTER 7. The wavefunctions φ± have been normalized in a particular manner so that they all carry the same absolute probability current in a given cross section: W 0 dy φη (x.3) Because of this normalization. and right reservoir. . This implies that we can consider the electron motion to be quantum mechanically coherent in this region. much larger than the entrance to the mesoscopic region. . . but in practice we can introduce a cut-oﬀ at some large value N without aﬀecting the lowest occupied states. y) ∈ L. Here χn denote the transverse wavefunction and W is the width of the leads. N πn 2m W 2 2 2m 2 kn + εn . y) = LnE φ± (x. the Hamiltonian and the eigenstates with energy E in the leads are given by HL = HR = φ± (x. In the following we solve for the eigenstates in a geometry similar to Fig. φ .1. (x. W ] otherwise. (x. and furthermore that the system is two-dimensional. 1 2 2m py . (7. right lead (R). left lead. In this case. W W 2 n = 1. y) = RnE χn (y) = E= 1 kn (E) 1 kn (E) 1 2 2m px + ∞.E ∗ px η φ (x. e±ikn (E)x χn (y). Fig. 2. The transformation from a discrete to a continuous ˜ set of energy levels looks a bit diﬀerent in the two cases. In principle n can be any positive integer. For simplicity.1 illustrates how a contact formed as a “horn” can give a reﬂectionless contact. 7. πny 2 sin . εn = . In the following φk means a state . and the phase breaking length.2c) (7. y) ∈ R.2a) (7.

y). y) + ψM. (x. The eigenfunctions in the middle region. in the middle region M . y). a feature particular of one dimension. y) + − − + + (7. a+ . All we will need is the transmission coeﬃcients. φk = eikx / L. which in vector form are written n n as a+ = (a+ . M . (7. y) ∈ L. but fortunately we need not specify the wavefunction in the complicated region. 2π dE/dk ∞ 0 = m 2π 2 dE φk |A|φk .E (x. . y) = n bn φRn. (x. ˜ ˜ φk |A|φk → L k>0 ∞ 0 ∞ dk ˜ ˜ φk |A|φk 2π = 0 ∞ = 0 dk k φk |A|φk 2π dE k φk |A|φk . When solving the Schr¨dinger equation.5) ψE (x. the system is separated in three regions: L. √ √ ˜ with the usual normalization. ∝ k. that the quantization of the conductance in units of the universal conductance quantum e2 /h is due to the cancellation of the velocity. The wave function is written as a superposition of incoming and outgoing wave at the two entrances. ∝ dk/dE.E (x. are in general not easy to ﬁnd. (x. y). n bn φRn. by the density of states. R o and M . and some unknown complicated function φM.E .4) As we shall see in detail later. relating incoming and outgoing electron waves.E (x.1: The geometry considered in the derivation of the Landauer formula.E (x. y) ∈ R. THE S-MATRIX AND SCATTERING STATES 109 L Left reservoir M mesoscopic sample R b+ bRight reservoir a+ a- Perfect lead with N channels Perfect lead with N channels Figure 7.7. y) ∈ M. Let us therefore introduce the so-called scattering matrix or S-matrix formalism. As usual the wavefunction and its 1 2 . where a± and b± are some unknown sets of coeﬃcients. n an φLn. .) and similarly for a− and b± . We can therefore write an eigenstate as − − + + n an φLn. A given eigenstate with energy E is some linear combination of φ± and φ± in the RnE LnE leads L and R. . while φk = eikx / k.1. Two reﬂectionless contacts each with N channels connect to a mesoscopic region.E (x.

. which are states with an incoming wave in one particular lead state. to incoming waves.E (L. y). A particular useful way of representing the n n linear dependence is through the so-called scattering matrix. {a± } and {b± }.E in the middle region this condition gives 4 × N linearly independent equations to determine a± and b± . . dy χn (y) ∂x ψM (x. − − (x. y) ∈ L. where the superscript ± refers to the direction from which the incoming wave comes. Similarly the element rnn gives the amplitude for being reﬂected back into the left lead in state n. and in the minus direction (an electron incoming from the right hand side) − + φRn.E (x. . φ+ and φ− . (7. For a given ψM. cin = (0. (x.110 CHAPTER 7. .E (x. i. (7.E (0. or S-matrix. y) ∈ M. ψnE (x.).E (x. These equations are n n a+ + a− = n n b+ eikn (E)L + b− e−ikn (E)L = n n a+ − a− = n n b+ eikn (E)L − b− e−ikn (E)L = n n kn (E) kn (E) 1 i kn (E) 1 i kn (E) dy χn (y)ψM. y) = n tn n φRn . y). y) ∈ L. In the plus direction (an incoming wave from the left) the scattering states are + − φLn. We now deﬁne the so-called scattering states. L R L R cout ≡ a− b+ = r t t r a+ b− ≡S a+ b− ≡ S cin . . y) x=L Fortunately. . (7. y). + + (x.E (x. y) + n rn n φRn . 0. which relates the amplitudes of outgoing waves. y) ∈ R. dy χn (y) ∂x ψM. y) = n tn n φLn .10) .e. y). y). (x.E (x. we suppress this dependence in the notation. dy χn (y)ψM. .7) Here we have deﬁned the important S-matrix to be a matrix of size 2N × 2N with the N × N reﬂection and transmission matrices as block elements S= r t t r . we will not have to solve such a system of equations unless we want an exact expression for the wavefunction.8) Here the matrix element tnn represents the transmission amplitude for an incoming wave from the left in state n to be transmitted into state n on the right hand side. y) ∈ M. 0. y). The amplitude for transmission in the opposite direction is given by tnn . The scattering states are denoted ψ ± . φ− and φ+ .9) ψnE (x. Most of the time. (7. ? (x.E (x. ? (x. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS derivative must be continuous. y) ∈ R. The coeﬃcients of the scattering matrix are of course energy dependent.E (x. y) x=0 . 1. It is merely written down in order to illustrate the linear dependence of the coeﬃcients. y) + n rn n φLn .

W I(x) = 0 dy Ψ∗ (x. where φ+ = (φ+ . let us look at some properties of the S-matrix.1E L. The current through a cross section for a given state is.1. in (7.99b). i.16) .e. (7. .1E L. . φ+ . the continuity equation gives ∂x J = −ρ = 0.E L. THE S-MATRIX AND SCATTERING STATES 111 The wavefunction in the scattering region is not speciﬁed. I(x) cannot depend on x. For a stationary state.E obtain IR (x) = m −|b− |2 + ta+ + r b− 2 . † ⇔ 1 = r † r + t† t = r † r + t † t . it must be unitary. (7. i. This we do because we will need the currents later on anyway.). and that we can get from the S-matrix. ← (7.11) and hence S† = S−1 .E (7. ↔ Jx = ↔ → 2mi ∂x − ∂x .E L.14) where the arrows indicate to which side the diﬀerential operators are acting. φ− . Eq. cf. . 0 = r† t + t† r = t † r + r † t.e.) and φ− = (φ− . In the same way for R we L.1.13) We also show the unitarity in a bit more explicit way by calculating the currents on the left and right hand sides of the system. From the unitarity follows some properties of r and t. b− ). S−1 = S† . because to ﬁnd the conductance all we need is the transmission probabilities of electrons. y)Jx Ψ(x. 0 = rt† + t r † = tr† +r t † . . . (1.7. First calculate the current in region L W IL (x) = = 0 dy a+ · φ+ + a− · φ− L. y). . which we will make use of below: S† S = 1 and furthermore SS† = 1 ⇔ 1 = r r † +tt† = rr + t t † . ˙ i. 7. Let us compute I(x) for a state with incoming coeﬃcients cin = (a+ .2E L.1 Unitarity of the S-matrix Before we calculate the transport properties of a mesoscopic system. This is a consequence of probability current conservation.15) m .e. The incoming electron ﬂux n |cin |2 = |cin |2 must equal the outgoing ﬂux n |cout |2 = |cout |2 and therefore c† cout = c† cin out in ⇒ c† (1 − S† S) cin = 0.E |a+ |2 − ra+ + t b− 2 ∗ ↔ Jx a+ · φ+ + a− · φ− L.2E L.E L. .12) (7. First of all. an eigenstate with energy E.

and outgoing wave functions are cnew = c∗ . because complex conjugation reverses the direction of propagation. which is a −B B solution for −B. This has some important consequences for the statistics of S-matrices in disordered systems.20) In case of time-reversal symmetry.18) ∗ Now. we have cnew = S−B cnew out in which shows that S−B S∗ = 1 B ⇒ S∗ = S† −B B ⇒ SB = ST . the new in.19) or in short: if ΨB (r) is a solution so is Ψ∗ (r). Since out out in in Ψnew is a solution for −B. (7. because if Ψ(r. −t).12) and hence S is unitary. We can therefore construct new eigen−B states by complex conjugation followed by reversal of the magnetic ﬁeld. −B (7. and in this case the Schr¨dinger equation is o 2 HB ΨB (r) = − 2m r e +i A 2 + V (r) ΨB (r) = E ΨB (r).2 Time-reversal symmetry Time-reversal symmetry means that H = H ∗ . which can be seen experimentally by studying transport with and without an applied magnetic ﬁeld. t) is a solution to the Shr¨dinger equation so is Ψ∗ (r. 7.17b) † (−1 + r † r )b+ + a+ t† t a+ − 2 Re[ a+ † † From the continuity equation we know that the current on the two sides must be equal. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS m m (1 − r† r) · a+ − b− † t †t † b− − 2 Re[ a+ † † r t b− ] t r b− ] .21) ⇒ c* = S−B c∗ = S−B S∗ c* . S = ST . In that case the scattering matrix is not only unitary o it is also symmetric. then we can make a new eigenstate by Ψnew (r) = Ψ∗ (r). However. IL = IR . in out B in (7. since HB = H−B we see that HB ΨB (r) = E ΨB (r) ⇔ ∗ H−B Ψ∗ (r) = E Ψ∗ (r). (7. This will be of importance when we look at disordered systems below. cout φout ). (7.17a) (7. the scattering matrix therefore has an additional symmetry besides being unitary: it is also a symmetric matrix.1. . Suppose we have an eigenstate which is a linear combination of incoming and outgoing waves ΨB (r) = (cin φin .112 or more detailed IL = IR = a+ b+ † CHAPTER 7. A non-zero magnetic ﬁeld B = × A breaks time-reversal symmetry. −B −B (7. and cnew = c∗ . and we obtain Eq.

The linear response result shows that indeed the ﬁrst method gave the right answer. one could get in doubt if the Pauli principle is treated correctly. However. and consequently electrons originating from. There a particular smooth interface between the two reservoirs ensures that Tn changes in a well-controlled manner between 0 and 1. the celebrated Landauer-B¨ttiker formula. This probability is Tn = t† t nn . since the mesoscopic region is deﬁned to be phase coherent. the left reservoir maintain their distribution function equal to that of that reservoir.2 Conductance and transmission coeﬃcients Next we calculate the conductance. the probability that an electron in a given incoming state. heuristic derivation u We argued above that if the reservoirs are much wider than the mesoscopic region and its leads. namely in the ﬂuctuations of conductance. These ﬂuctuations are universal in the sense that they have an amplitude of the order e2 /h independent of the average conductance. (7. This will be done in two diﬀerent ways: ﬁrst we will argue on physical grounds that the population of the scattering state is given by the equilibrium distribution function of the reservoir. at least in the linear response limit. Furthermore.e. n Tn = n Tn . Thus all electrons entering from the contacts are distributed according to the FermiDirac distribution nF of the given reservoirs. So we can write Eq. i. we ﬁnd the same result.3. This is discussed in Sec. say.22) where Tn are the eigenvalues of the matrix t† t. which allows us to calculate the current directly. n. This is in fact what happens for the quantum point contact. The number of quanta will be the number of channels connecting the two sides.4. fortunately. The answer we ﬁnd. CONDUCTANCE AND TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS 113 7. since Tn is a number between 0 and 1 one expect this quantization to show up only for some special geometries where Tn is either 0 or 1. 7. This should not be confused with the transmission probabilities.e. which is discussed below in Sec. but when summing over all incoming states n we in fact get. by the sum of transmission probabilities G= 2e2 h Tn = n 2e2 Tr[t† t]. h (7.e. Therefore it is natural to express the occupation of the scattering ± eigenstates ψnε by two diﬀerent distribution functions f ± and the chemical potentials µL/R . i.2. However. then we can assume reﬂectionless transmission from the leads to the reservoirs. and.22) in terms of Tn or Tn as we please.2. Secondly. i. the electrons entering the reservoir from the sample are thermalized before returning.1. 7.7. ends up on the other side.3. there are other examples where the conductance quantum e2 /h shows up. 7. we calculate the conductance using linear response theory. The Landauer-B¨ttiker formula tells us that the conductance of a mesoscopic sample u is quantized in units of 2e2 /h. is very simple and u physically sensible: the conductance of a mesoscopic sample is given by the sum of all the transmission possibilities a given electron has. While the ﬁrst method is more physically appealing. no energy relaxation takes place there.1 The Landauer-B¨ ttiker formula.

(7. (7. (7. then leads to Tr[t † t ] =Tr[t† t]. . the current is therefore simply I= e 2π ∞ − Ink = − dE n 0 t† t nn nF (E − µL ) − t † t nn nF (E − µR ) .23) Now it is a simple matter to calculate the current through the mesoscopic system. it is automatically also occupied in the other. the next section is devoted to a derivation of Eq. Because of current conservation. but at low voltages V and temperatures T we can assume Tn to be energy independent and the integral can be done. The unitarity condition Eq. Once a state is occupied in one lead.17a) and (7. and the current can be written as I= e 2π ∞ 0 dE Tr t† tE E nF (E − µL ) − nF (E − µR ) .4).28) In Eq. we Taylor expand around µ and ﬁnd after integration From spin I= 2 e2 V Tr t† tE E h ⇒ G= 2e2 2e2 Tr t† t = h h Tn . we have stressed the energy dependence of the transmission matrix. (7. we can calculate it in either of the regions L.28). (7. (7. as one would normally do in a Boltzmann equation. Naturally.17b) +) = δ − by substituting (a n nn for a state moving in the positive direction and (b )n = δnn for a state moving in the negative direction. but rather about the thermal population of eigenmodes. CHAPTER 7. (7.27) The sum over diagonal elements of t† t is nothing but the trace. we choose to do so in the perfect leads L or R where the wavefunctions are known.27) for current relies on the fact that the scattering states are eigenstates of the system. where µ is the equilibrium electrochemical potential. (7. (7. (7. Let us look at the current in the left lead: I = IL = e nk ± The currents carried by a scattering state ψnε can be read oﬀ from Eqs. which means that we should not include any kind of blocking factors (1 − nF ) to ensure that the ﬁnal state is empty. R.24) m 1 − r† r nn = m t† t nn . In order to dismiss any concern about this point. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS f + (ε) = nF (ε − µL ). For |eV | = |µR −µL | µ. (7.29) This is the famous Landauer-B¨ttiker formula. n (7.13).114 of the relevant reservoirs. The expression Eq.26) m m nn nn Transforming to an energy integral as in Eq. Thus we are not talking about a scattering event from one reservoir to the other.25) t †t = −1 + r † r . We get + Ink = ˜− ˜+ Ink f + (Enk ) + Ink f − (Enk ) . or M . 6. Here we have assumed that the spin u degrees of freedom are degenerate which gives rise to a simple factor of two.22) from ﬁrst principles using the linear response formalism of Chap. If they are not degenerate the trace must also include a trace over the spin degrees of freedom. f − (ε) = nF (ε − µR ). (7.

(7. y) ∂ x − ∂ x ψλ (x. → ← (7. (7.) In second quantization the current operator is given by I(x) = λλ jλλ (x) c† cλ . and that jλλ (x ) = (jλ λ (x ))∗ . Changing the sum over eigenstates to integrals over energy. the conductance becomes G(0) = −2 e2 π m 2π 2 2 nn . CONDUCTANCE AND TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS 115 7. which means that the quantum number λ is speciﬁed by λ = {E. We start by calculating the commutator in Eq.31) expressing the conductance G in terms of the currentcurrent correlation function. (6. n.31) (7.2 The Landauer-B¨ ttiker formula.2. y).7. (7. η = ±}.2. ( ω + iη + Eλ − Eλ ) F 2e2 Im ω (7. (Again we consider the spin degenerate case which is the reason for the factor of two. I(x. 0) 0 = νν jνν (x ) λλ jλλ (x )ei(Eλ −Eλ )t/~ c† cλ . and where jλλ is a matrix element of the current operator. one has G(0) = −2 e2 π λλ |jλλ (x )|2 − ∂nF (Eλ ) ∂Eλ δ (Eλ − Eλ ) .30) where the current operator I(x) due to current conservation can be evaluated at any cross section x in the perfect leads.32) jλλ (x) = 2mi where we choose {ψλ } as a set of eigenstates. ω → 0.ηη |jnηEF . (7. 0)] 0 . G(ω) = − 2e2 Im ω ∞ −∞ dt ei(ω+iη)t (−i)Θ(t) [I(x. I(x .e. rendering G independent of x. (7. We will of course use the scattering states that we found above as our basis. t). t). linear response derivation u Our starting point is Eq.30) I(x .35) m dE. λ ∗ dy ψλ (x.n η EF (x )|2 . Inserting this |jλλ (x )|2 n (Eλ ) − nF (Eλ ) .33) where we used that c† cλ λ into Eq.30) yields G(ω) = − 0 = δλλ nF (Eλ ).34) λλ and in the dc-limit. i. c† cν ν λ 0 = λλ |jλλ (x )|2 ei(Eλ −Eλ )t/~ nF (Eλ ) − nF (Eλ ) .36) . λ → nη 2π ~2 and setting T = 0 such that −∂nF (E)/∂E = δ(E − EF ). (7.

Suppose there is a smooth constriction between two electron reservoirs. respectively. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS Due to current conservation the current matrix elements jnηEF . 2. As the width decreases quantum channels are squeezed out one by one.3 7. The ﬁnal result is therefore I = − 2e2 Tr t† t h dx E(x ) = 2e2 Tr t† t V. (7. This has been experimentally tested in numerous experiments and it is now a well-established fact.3.n η EF (x ) = t† t m nn nn t† r −t † t nn nn − t †r ≡ m j. The ﬁrst experiments showing this was done by groups in Delft (Holland) and Cambridge (England) in 1988. By applying voltage to the gates the width of the constriction could be controlled very accurately. see Fig. 7.2. 7. The relevant wave equation for an electron horn is of course the Schr¨dinger equation. We have thus seen that it can be derived u microscopically. Smooth here means a horn-like shape were the curvature at all points is large compared to the wavelength of the wave which is going to be transmitted through the horn.38) Tr t† t .ηη 2 m 2 Tr j† j Tr 2 = =2 m m t† t 2 + t †t 2 + r † tt† r + r† t t † r (7. The technique they used was a socalled splitgate geometry where a set of metallic gate electrodes was put on top of a twodimensional electron gas such that a narrow contact between the two sides of the 2DEG was formed. each step being of height 2e2 /h. Hence we get |jnηEF .1 Electron wave guides Quantum point contact and conductance quantization One of the most striking consequences of the Landauer-B¨ttiker formula for conductance is u that the conductance of a perfect channel is 2e2 /h.116 CHAPTER 7.n η EF (x )|2 = nn .13). has been removed. and if there are N “perfect” channels it is N 2e2 /h.37) where the rows and columns correspond to η = +1 and −1. We will now see how this nice eﬀect can happen.n η EF (x ) are independent of x . see Fig.39) which again is the Landauer-B¨ttiker formula.10b. h (7. until only one remains. leading to a staircase of conductance. and we evaluate them in the L or R region at our convenience. (7. but there is in prino ciple no diﬀerence between the electron wave guide and horn wave guides used in loud . and any doubt about the validity of the treatment of the occupation factor in the heuristic derivation. We obtain jnηEF . after using the result Eq.

Ψ(x.41) n This is always possible at any given ﬁxed x since. y) χnx (y) = εn (x)χnx (y). By clever design this point contact yields a particularly large subband splitting. The lower left panel is an zoom-in of this structure recorded in an electron microscope. we try to separate the motion in longitudinal and transverse motion.42) . So the quantized conductance is nothing but a manifestation of the wave nature of a quantum particle. The device was fabricated and measured at the Ørsted Laboratory. y) = φn (x)χnx (y). y). y) = E Ψ(x. water waves or other wave phenomena. (7. Inspired by that we expand the wave function in terms of the transverse eigenstates χnx (y) which however are x-dependent now. (7. The Schr¨dinger equation for the quantum point contact geometry is o 2 − 2m 2 2 ∂x + ∂y + Vconf (x.3. o 2 − 2m 2 ∂y + Vconf (x. The right panel shows the conductance versus sidegate voltage. y) is the conﬁnement potential. At the lowest temperature (1.7. (7. (7. Because the change along the x-direction is assumed to be smooth. y) Ψ(x. {χn (x)} forms a complete set. speakers. ELECTRON WAVE GUIDES 117 Figure 7. but you might say a very striking one. Niels Bohr Institute. which is why the conductance quantization persists up to “high” temperatures of the order 20 K.2b). being solutions of the transverse Schr¨dinger equation.3 K) the conductance shows clear steps at integer values of 2e2 /h.2: An experiment on quantized conductance.40) where Vconf (x. Had the conﬁnement potential been rectangular we would have eigenstates as φ± in Eq. as are the expansion coeﬃcients φn (x). The upper left panel is a picture of the surface of an GaAs chip with an etched point contact structure.

When the energy of the incident electron is larger than the maximum transverse kinetic energy. Vconf (x. yields 2 − where 2 2m 2 ∂x + εn (x) φn (x) = Eφn (x) + δn . ∞ otherwise. i. (7.40) and multiplying from the left with χ∗ (y) followed by nx integration over the transverse direction. (7.118 CHAPTER 7.45) the transverse wavefunctions are the well-known wavefunction for a particle in a box χnx (y) = 2 sin d(x) πn(y − d(x)/2) d(x) .41) into Eq. y.e.43) δn = m n 1 2 dyχ∗ (y) (∂x φn (x)) (∂x χn x (y)) + φn (x)∂x χn x (y) . (7. In the case of hard walls. the fundamental approximation we wanted to impose was the smooth geometry approximation. it is transmitted through without reﬂection. otherwise not. often referred to as the adiabatic approximation.46) with the corresponding eigenenergies εn (x) = 2 π2 2m [d(x)]2 n2 . the maximum of εn (x). Inserting Eq. (7. (7. i. (7.44) As mentioned. ∂x χn x (y) ≈ 0. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS Closed channel Energy Gate E ε n+1(x) ε n(x) Gate x Open channel x Figure 7.47) . d(x)/2].e. It means that the derivative of the transverse mode with respect to longitudinal direction is neglected. The width of constriction and thereby the height of εn (x) is controlled by a voltage applied to the gate electrodes.3: Illustration of the adiabatic contact giving rise to an eﬀective one-dimensional barrier. y) = 0 for y ∈ [−d(x)/2. nx 2 (7.

7. Experiments using the splitgate geometry indeed show that the conductance traces (meaning conductance versus gate voltage) are well described by Eq. p(x) = 2m(E − εn (x)).50) All subbands with energy smaller than EF contribute with one conductance quantum. 2 2 where V0 is a constant. we can use the WKB approximation result for the wavefunction φn (x) ≈ φWKB (x) = n 1 p(x) x exp i −∞ dx p(x )/ . will give something proportional to d (x). In this case we can directly read oﬀ the transmission amplitude because in the notation used for the scattering states. namely 1 Tn (E) = . (7. it is smaller than E the mode has suﬃcient energy to pass over the barrier and get through the constriction. at this place is larger than E. the mode n cannot transmit (neglecting tunneling through the barrier. which results in a step structure of the conductance as a function of εmax . such we end up with an eﬀective onedimensional problem of decoupled modes.48) The transverse direction has thus been translated into an eﬀective 1D barrier. which obey the 1D Schr¨dinger equation o with an energy barrier εn (x) 2 − 2m 2 ∂x + εn (x) φn (x) = Eφn (x). The conductance is therefore G= 2e2 h Θ(EF − εmax ).52) 1 exp π E − V0 − (n + 2 ) ωx / ωy + 1 For this model the smearing of the conductance steps thus has the form of a Fermi function. This is roughly n what is seen experimentally. however. A useful model is the so-called saddle point model for the constriction.3. If the transverse kinetic energy. which happens when EF = εn (0).3. Let x = 0 be the position in the constriction where this is most narrow. For smooth barriers.51) Vconf (x. The essence of the adiabatic approximation is that d (x) 1. n n (7. If. φn . we would expect some smearing of the step. where εmax is changed by changing the width of the constricn tion through the voltage of the gate electrodes. (7.52). where the conﬁnement potential is modelled by 1 1 2 2 (7. (7. Using this potential it can be shown that the transmission probability has a particular simple form. The shape of the smearing will in general depend on the geometry of the constriction and is. ELECTRON WAVE GUIDES 119 Taking the derivative ∂x χn x (y). in contrast to the step heights. dmin = d(0). y) = mωy y 2 − mωx x2 + V0 . The saddle point model can be thought of as a quadratic expansion of the conﬁnement potential near its maximum. (7.7.49) which is a solution to Eq. not universal. this is illustrated in Fig. we have r = 0 and hence |t| = 1. .e.48) if |p (x)/ p2 (x)| 1. of course). Right at the point where a new channel opens. The barrier is there because some of the kinetic energy is bound into the transverse motion. i. εmax ≡ εn (0). Obviously the WKB approximation breaks down if p(x) is too small. (7.

Because of the applied B-ﬁeld we must add a vector potential A to the Schr¨dinger equation Eq.4: A device which shows Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect.120 CHAPTER 7.2 Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect A particular nice example of interference eﬀects in mesoscopic systems is the AharonovBohm eﬀect. where the wave function can be assumed to be of the form in Eq. while the right panel depicts the conductance versus B-ﬁeld trace.e. path 2 (7.18). This is shown in the bottom part. where an applied magnetic ﬁeld B is used to control the phase of two interfering paths. In that case the transmission coeﬃcient is given by a sum corresponding to the two paths t ∝ exp −i e r path 1 dl · A + eiφ0 exp −i e r dl · A . i. (7.45 2.30 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 B (mT) Figure 7.4. because of interference between path 1 and path 2. Each of the arms in the ring could be an adiabatic wave guide.3. Both the device fabrication and the measurements have been performed at the Ørsted Laboratory.50 2.54) .35 2.55 T = 0.70 2.32 K G (e 2/h) 2.65 2. 7. where the left panel shows the experimental realization.53) We now approximate the line integral by an integral following the center of the waveguides and furthermore assume ideal adiabatic arms. (7.60 2.40 2. At small magnetic ﬁelds we can neglect o the orbital changes induced by B in the arms of the ring and absorb the vector potential due to the B-ﬁeld through the hole of the ring as a phase factor ΨB=0 (r) = ΨB=0 (r) exp −i e r dl · A .40) as in Eq. (7. The geometry is illustrated in Fig. no backscattering. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS path 1 B path 2 2. 7. The interference is modulated by magnetic ﬂux enclosed by the paths. (7.49).

which is a mesoscopic region connected to reservoirs just as we have discussed above where the Landauer-B¨ttiker u formula was derived. see Fig. 7.g. namely weak localization and universal conductance ﬂuctuations. In order to understand these two phenomena.g. Such ensembles have been studied for a long time.4. The basic assumption being made is that the Hamiltonians describing each of the systems of the ensemble are drawn randomly according to some probability distribution only constrained by the symmetry of the system.4. which means that all parts of the phase-space are visited with equal probability.4.7. as a function of any external parameter (e. In fact. (7. Fig. Note that the eﬀect persists even if there is no magnetic ﬁeld along the electron trajectories. This important phenomenon is known as level repulsion. One cannot precisely neither locate nor control the positions of the impurities. This means that all unitary matrixes are equally likely. random matrix theory Let us consider the statistical properties of some ensemble of disordered or chaotic systems inﬂuenced by some external parameter. and from this one can argue that the S-matrix follows the so-called circular ensemble distribution. 7. Again we use the Landauer-B¨ttiker to calculate the u conductance. or density) the energy levels avoid to cross one another.4 Disordered mesoscopic systems In this section we shall study disordered mesoscopic systems. Experiments have veriﬁed this picture. The conductance will oscillate as with the applied magnetic. See Fig. Instead one studies the statistical properties of the conductance for an ensemble of systems. or in other words the distribution P (S) . The matrix elements of the Hamiltonians are assumed to follow a Gaussian distribution. experiments on disordered “quantum dots”. 7.5 shows an example of a disorder mesoscopic system. The experiments we have in mind are e. 7. 7. respectively. The transmission probability now becomes |t|2 ∝ 1 + cos φ0 − e r dl · A path 1+2 = 1 + cos φ0 − π Φpath 1+2 Φ0 . initially atomic nuclei containing a large number of nucleons.1 Statistics of quantum conductance. magnetic ﬁeld. DISORDERED MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 121 where φ0 is some phase shift due to diﬀerent length of the two arms. which is a manifestation of the non-locality of quantum mechanics. shape. This statistical method is known as random matrix theory (RMT). The average and the variance of the conductance will turn out to exhibit interesting quantum phenomena. a signature of quantum interference. Quantum mechanically this means that there are no symmetries and hence no systematic degeneracies of energy levels.5. we must ﬁrst learn about how to average over S-matrices. but because the system is disordered it makes little sense to talk about the conductance for speciﬁc sample geometries.55) where Φ is the ﬂux enclosed and Φ0 = h/2e is the ﬂux quantum. It cannot be a surprise that the classical motion in such a geometry is expected to be chaotic and the system to be ergodic.

We skip the derivation and simply list the ﬁrst few moments of a random unitary matrix of dimension M = 2N : Uαβ = 0. .122 CHAPTER 7.56) (7. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS Disordered quantum dot Impurity Figure 7. Here we will not be concerned with the microscopic justiﬁcation for the ensemble averaging. The ﬁrst term in Eq. By suitable choice of U0 the various averages can be derived. 1 ∗ δαβ δab .57) (7. Uαa Uβb = M 1 ∗ ∗ Uαa Uα a Uβb Uβ b = 2 δαβ δab δα β δa b + δαβ δab δα β δa b M −1 1 δαβ δab δα β δa b + δαβ δab δα β δa b . of scattering matrices S is uniform in the group of unitary matrices of size 2N × 2N. − M (M 2 − 1) (7. This claim can also be justiﬁed by “entropy” considerations. in sense that it is the distribution which maximizes the entropy and hence is the ensemble with “maximal randomness”. denoted U(2N ). dot boundaries or Fermi energy.58) is equivalent to assuming the real and imaginary parts of Uαa to be independent. (7. while the last term corrects for that because the unitarity condition gives some constraints on the elements of U. The averaged over diﬀerent geometries could be an average over positions of impurities. but simply say that since we have no information about the scattering matrix the most sensible thing to assume is that all scattering matrices in U(2N ) will appear with equal probability only subject to normalization conditions and symmetry constraints.58) The method to derive these result is to utilize f (U) = f (U0 U) = f (UU0 ) . we are therefore restricted to symmetric members of U(2N ). where U ∈ U(2N ).5: Disordered quantum dot geometry. The TR case can be realized by writing S = UUT . For the time-reversal symmetry case. These correlations however become less important in limit of large M . which for any ﬁxed unitary matrix U0 is a consequence of the constant probability assumption.

58). (7.e.4 studied the weak localization in self-averaging macroscopic samples. n=1 m=N +1 (7. which we saw from the arguments leading to Eq. we have G B=0 = = 2e2 h N 2N 2N 2N (δij + δmn δij ) 1 − n=1 m=N +1 i=1 j=1 1 2N 1 4N 2 −1 (7. (7. The average conductance is therefore 2e2 G = Tr t† t h 2e2 = h N 2N ∗ Smn Smn . (7. for B = 0.e. In this case the coherence length is larger than the sample. h 2N + 1 which is smaller than the B = 0 result. for B = 0. i. (7. (7.63) 2e2 1 2N 3 2−1 h 4N 1− 1 2N = 2e2 N 2 .4. . Also mesoscopic systems exhibit weak localization. DISORDERED MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 123 7. Of course in reality the transition from the B = 0 to the ﬁnite B-ﬁeld case is a smooth transition. hence the conductance is given by the S-matrix through the Landauer-B¨ttiker formula. The transition happens when the ﬂux enclosed by a typical trajectory is of order the ﬂux quantum. The origin of this eﬀect was found to be the constructive interference between time-reversed pairs of paths beginning and ending in the same point in space.2 Weak localization in mesoscopic systems In Sec. Writing S = UUT we get N 2N 2N 2N 2e2 ∗ ∗ G B=0 = Umi Uni Umj Unj .62) (7.64) This result clearly shows that quantum corrections.7. which comes from the last term in Eq.57) directly 2e2 N 2e2 2 1 N = . It is important to realize that the weak localization correction survives ensemble averaging.58).60) G B=0 = h 2N h 2 The case B = 0 means that in addition to unitarity S is also symmetric. First take the case of broken time-reversal symmetry. the series connection between two leads with N channels δG G N = 2 − = 2e2 /h 2e /h 2 N − 2(2N +1) 0 . In this case there is no other constraints on S than that it is unitary and there we can use Eq. (7.55). .61) h n=1 m=N +1 i=1 j=1 and now applying Eq.59) The result now depends on whether time-reversal symmetry is present or not. give a reduced conductance and that the quantum coherence is destroyed by a magnetic ﬁeld. B = 0. if a B-ﬁeld is applied or not. It is natural to compare the conductance with the classical conductance i. u and we can ﬁnd the weak localization correction not for an individual sample but for an ensemble of samples using random matrix theory of the S-matrix.4. 14. (7.

Suppose that the probability of ﬁnding an eigenvalue in dx is f (x) dx. which is the physical reason for the “universal” behavior. we get Eq. the probability for the next eigenvalue to be at x can be shown to be P (x) = π π x exp − x2 . The number of conducting channels in a given energy window does therefore not follow a Poisson distribution.65) after suitable normalization. one would expect that if the average conductance is G = N0 (2e2 /h). for N 1 (δnn + δmm ) . x]: x P (x)dx = exp − 0 dx f (x ) f (x)dx.3 Universal conductance ﬂuctuations The ﬂuctuations of the conductance contains some interesting information about the nature of the eigenstates of a chaotic system. This is not seen experimentally. The ﬂuctuations of the number √ of eigenvalues in a given interval is therefore far from 1/ N . (7. (7. In the following we calculate the ﬂuctuations of G using the statistical RMT for the S-matrix as outlined above. which has given rise to the name universal conductance ﬂuctuations (UCF).67) For f constant. times the probability that there was no eigenvalues in the interval [0. we recover the Poisson distribution result. n=1 m=N +1 n =1 m =N +1 2 N 2N N 2N = = 1 4N 2 2 n=1 m=N +1 n =1 m =N +1 2 4 2 2 −1 1+ 1 + δmm δnn − 1 4N 2 . TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 7. the reason being that the transmission probabilities are not independent. so that δG = (2e2 /h) N0 . It is an experimental fact that the ﬂuctuations turn out to be independent of the size of the conductance itself. The ﬂuctuation of the conductance in the non-TRS case are G2 B=0 = 2e2 h 2e2 h 2e2 h 2 N 2N N 2N ∗ ∗ Smn Smn Sm n Sm n . Naively. For a completely random system without any symmetries. Historically the study of these ﬂuctuations were the ﬁrst in the ﬁeld of mesoscopic transport. In fact one can show from RMT that the statistical measure vanishes when two eigenvalues coincide. 2 4 (7.124 CHAPTER 7. then the ﬂuctuations in the number of open channels √ √ would be N0 . and a suggestive derivation is as follows.66) and hence P (x) = f (x) exp − 0 dx f (x ) . then P (x) dx is the probability of ﬁnding an eigenvalue at x. They were observed experimentally around 1980 and explained theoretically about ﬁve years later.65) for the case with time-reversal symmetry. corresponding to N0 open channels. x (7.68) N ≈ 4N 2 − 1 2e h N 2 . f (x) dx. 2N 1 (7. Assuming “linear repulsion” f (x) ∝ x. Given an eigenvalue x = 0.4. This is called the Wigner surmise. we do not expect degeneracies to occur.

Datta. Phys. S.7. (7. Electronic transport in mesoscopic systems. 3876 (1995). Indeed this is what is seen experimentally for example as shown in Fig. Text books: 1. 7. which has additional gates by which the shape can be changed. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 125 Figure 7. 16 for N 1. The trace is taken at 30 mK. Rev.6: Variance of the conductance of a quantum dot as a function of magnetic ﬁeld.5. Lett.6. (7. 7. The inset shows the geometry of the quantum dot. After Chan et al. .69) A similar calculation for the B = 0 case gives B=0 (2e2 /h)2 δG2 1 ≈ . and the variance is B=0 (2e2 /h)2 δG2 ≈ 1 . (Cambridge University Press).5 Summary and outlook Below we list a few text books and review papers about mesoscopic physics.. The decrease of the variance when the time-reversal symmetry is broken by the magnetic ﬁeld is clearly seen and the decreases by approximately a factor of 2 is in agreement with the theory.70) The variance is thus independent of the average value of G and furthermore it is expected to decrease by a factor of 2 when a magnetic ﬁeld is applying. 1995. 74. 8 for N 1.

W. C. Transport in nanostructures. 2. The statistical theory of quantum dots. D. Review of Modern Physics 72. Solid State Physics 44. eds. Alhassid.J. Ferry and S. Conductance quantisation in metallic point contacts.J. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanostructures. Random-matrix theory of quantum transport. (Academic Press). 4. 3. Ehrenreich and D. 1995. Beenakker. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 2. Beenakker and H. Y. 731 (1997). Review papers: 1.M. 1991. Review of Modern Physics 69.W. H. Goodnick. van Houten. 895 (2000) . cond-mat/9910394.K.M. van Ruitenbeek. C. Turnbull.126 CHAPTER 7. (Cambridge University Press). J.

we want to solve Poisson’s equation 1 2 φ(r) = − ρe (r). This is a good idea because once we have found G(r).2). It has a long history with numerous applications. ρe .4) dk ik·r e G(k) = − (2π)3 dk eik·r 1 =− .1) is easily veriﬁed by letting 2 act directly on the r integrand and then use Eq. To illustrate the idea of the method let us consider the familiar problem of ﬁnding the electrical potential φ given a ﬁxed charge distribution.5) When inserting this into (8. where δ(r) is the Dirac delta function.2) r G(r) = δ(r). (8. The easiest way to ﬁnd G(r) is by Fourier transformation. 3 k2 (2π) 4πr (8. i. which immediately gives −k 2 G(k) = 1 and hence G(r) = ⇒ G(k) = − 1 .1 “Classical” Green’s functions The Green’s function method is a very useful method in the theory of ordinary and partial diﬀerential equations. the electrical potential r follows as 1 dr G(r − r )ρe (r ).1) ε0 It turns out to be a good idea instead to look for the solution G of a related but simpler diﬀerential equation 2 (8. 2 .6) 4πε0 |r − r | 127 .3) φ(r) = − ε0 That this is a solution to Eq.Chapter 8 Green’s functions 8. G(r) is called the Green’s function for the Laplace operator. (8. (8.3) we obtain the well-known potential created by a charge distribution 1 ρe (r ) φ(r) = dr . (8. k2 (8. (8.e.

It is natural to identify the operator [E − H0 (r)] as the inverse of G0 (r. 0 1 .2 Green’s function for the one-particle Schr¨dinger equao tion Green’s functions are particular useful for problems where one looks for perturbation theory solutions. One can now solve the integral equation Eq. E)V (r )Ψ0 (r ) + O V 2 . Consider for example the Schr¨dinger equation o [H0 (r) + V (r)] ΨE = EΨE . (8.9) This is veriﬁed by inserting ψE from Eq. The Green’s R In order to emphasize the matrix structure we could have written this as dr G−1 (r. there is a continuum of states and hence we are free to choose any E.e. E) = δ(r − r ). E) G0 (r. where the inverse Green’s function is a function of two arguments. r . E) = E − H0 (r) or G−1 (r. r). r . This situation is relevant for scattering problems where a ﬂux of incoming particles (described by H0 ) interacts with a system (described by V ). r ) = G0 (r . (8. In order to solve the Schr¨dinger equation. r ) = 0 δ(r − r ). 0 0 Now the Schr¨dinger equation can be rewritten as o G−1 (r. The interaction induces transitions from the incoming state to diﬀerent outgoing states. The procedure outlined below is then a systematic way of calculating the eﬀect of the interaction between the “beam” and the “target” on the outgoing states. r ) = (E − H0 (r))δ(r − r ). E) − V (r) ΨE = 0.8) with the boundary condition. The next leading terms are also easily found by continuing the iteration procedure. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS 8. i. (8. E)V (r )ΨE (r ).11) by iteration. (8. and where we want to treat V as a perturbation. r ) G0 (r .9). What we have generated by the E iteration procedure is nothing but the ordinary (non-degenerate) perturbation theory.11) into the G−1 ψE term of Eq. r ) and therefore we write1 G−1 (r.12) where Ψ0 is an eigenstate to H0 with eigenenergy E. we deﬁne the corresponding Green’s funco tion by the diﬀerential equation [E − H0 (r)] G0 (r. (8.10) (8. (8. r . E (8.128 CHAPTER 8. (8. E) = δ(r − r ). and up to ﬁrst order in V the solution is ΨE (r) = Ψ0 (r) + E dr G0 (r. But in the r-representation it is in fact diagonal G−1 (r.10) and 0 then using Eq. 0 and by inspection we see that the solution may be written as an integral equation ΨE (r) = Ψ0 (r) + E dr G0 (r. Here we consider the case of an open system. G0 (r. r .11) (8.7) where we know the eigenstates of H0 .

t. t ) = δ(r − r )δ(t − t ). t. t) = i∂t − H0 (r) − V (r).17) which both can be shown by inspection. t) = Ψ0 (r.8) we deﬁne the Green’s functions by [i∂t − H0 (r)] G0 (r. (8. t ). (8. Again we consider the case where the Hamiltonian has a free particle part H0 of some perturbation V . First we observe that the following self-consistent expression is a solution to Eq. The time dependent Schr¨dinger equation is o [i∂t − H0 (r) − V (r)] Ψ(r. t. t) + dr dt G(r. t) = Ψ0 (r.1. [i∂t − H0 (r) − V (r)] G(r. (8. we see that the full Green’s function G is given by G = G0 + G0 V G0 + G0 V G0 V G0 + · · · = G0 + G0 V G0 + G0 V G0 + · · · . (8. (8. as simple building blocks from which the solutions of more complicated problems can be build. t) = 0. r . Similar to Eq.14b) (8. (8.20) . t )V (r )Ψ(r . t )V (r )Ψ0 (r .15b) (r.14a) (8.18) where the integration variables have been suppressed. t. t) = i∂t − H0 (r) 0 G −1 (8. GREEN’S FUNCTION FOR THE ONE-PARTICLE SCHRODINGER EQUATION129 function method is thus useful for this kind of iterative calculations and one can regard the Green’s function of the unperturbed system. (8. r . By comparison with Eq. we continue to study the case of non-interaction particles some more and include time dependence. As for the static case in Eq.17). r . t ). From these building blocks we easily build the solution of the time dependent Schr¨dinger o equation.19) Noting that the last parenthesis is nothing but G itself we have derived the so-called Dyson equation G = G0 + G0 V G.16) or in terms of the full Green’s function Ψ(r. r . t) + dr dt G0 (r.15a) (8. (8.¨ 8. (8. H = H0 + V .11) we can iterate the solution and get Ψ = Ψ0 + G0 V Ψ0 + G0 V G0 V Ψ0 + G0 V G0 V G0 V Ψ0 + · · · = Ψ0 + G0 + G0 V G0 + G0 V G0 V G0 + · · · V Ψ0 .13) Ψ(r. t ) = δ(r − r )δ(t − t ).2.13) (8. G0 . The inverse of the Green’s functions are thus G−1 (r. Before we introduce the many-body Green’s function in the next section. see Exercise 7.

GREEN’S FUNCTIONS This equation will play and important role when we introduce the Feynman diagrams later in the course. The Green’s function are related by a simple change of basis G(rt. r t )Ψ(r . (8.21) which can be checked by inserting Eq. (8. It is also often called a propagator because it propagates the wavefunction.21) into the Schr¨dinger equation and using the o deﬁnition Eq.22) which indeed is a solution of the partial diﬀerential equation deﬁning the Green’s function. (8. Consider an electron incident on a barrier. (8. The eigenstates are for this example thus given by ψ(k) = exp(ikx).26) . r t ) = −iθ(t − t ) r|e−iH(t−t ) |r . for x > L.14b) with G0 from the left.130 CHAPTER 8. t exp(ikx). r t ) = −iθ(t − t ) n r|φn φn |r e−iEn (t−t ) . for x < 0. Here t is the transmission amplitude. t) we have deﬁned here is the non-interaction version of the retarded single particle Green’s function that will be introduced in the following section.g. t) = dr dt G(rt.e. see Exercise 7. (8.2. given that it was in the state |r at time t . n t ) φn |r . Looking at Eq. We could of course calculate the propagator in a diﬀerent basis. the incoming wave is for x < 0 given by exp(ikx) while the outgoing wave on the other side x > L is given t exp(ikx). n t ) = −iθ(t − t ) φn |e−iH(t−t ) |φn . suppose it was in a state |φn and time t then the propagator for ending in state |φn is G(nt.14) by multiplying Eq. i. As a simple example we end this section by a typical scattering problem in one dimension. e.23) r|φn G(nt. The Green’s function G(r. the proof being left as an exercise. (8.22) the Green’s function expresses the amplitude for the particle to be in state |r at time t.25) Propagation from one point to another in quantum mechanics is generally expressed in terms of transmission amplitudes. located between x > 0 and x < L. then the Green’s function becomes G(rt.14b). t ). (8.14b). (8. r t ) = nn (8. (8. (8. That the Green’s function is nothing but a propagator is immediately clear when we write is it as G(rt. if the wavefunction is know at some time then the wavefunction at later times is given by Ψ(r. Eq. (8.24) If we choose the basis state |φn as the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. The Dyson equation can also be derived directly from Eqs.

27) where G0 is the Green’s function in the absence of the scattering potential.28) where the (anti-) commutator [· · · . from which we obtain solutions to our problems. r σ t ) − G< (rσt. See also Exercise 10. 8. But as you will see later they are in fact solutions of equations of motions with similar structure justifying calling them Green’s functions.F . The retarded Green’s function is deﬁned as GR (rσt.8. x . they are truly many-body objects because they describe the propagation of single particles . σ B : bosons F : fermions (8. Ψ† (r t )]B. t ). Even though we call these Green’s functions for “single-particle Green’s functions”. σ G< (rσt. t. x > L and x < 0. x t ) = t G0 (x. (8.30a) (8. r σ t ) = −i Ψσ (rt)Ψ† (r t ) .29) Notice the similarity between the many-body Green’s function Eq. The Green’s functions contain only part of the full information carried by the wave functions of the systems but they include the relevant information for the given problem.3. r σ t ) = θ t − t G> (rσt. For non-interacting particles they are indeed identical. r σ t ) = −i (±1) Ψ† (r t )Ψσ (rt) . B] = AB − BA. When we deﬁne the many-body Green’s functions it is not immediately clear that they are solutions to diﬀerential equations as for the Schr¨dinger equation Green’s o functions deﬁned above. The second type of single-particle Green’s functions is the so-called greater and lesser Green’s functions G> (rσt.25) we see that the Green’s function for the x > L and x < 0 precisely describes propagator across the scattering region becomes G(xt. (8. [A. From this example it is evident that the Green’s function contains information about the transmission amplitudes for the particle. (8. σ (8. · · · ]B.30b) We see that the retarded Green’s function can be written in terms of these two functions as GR (rσt.F is deﬁned as [A. r σ t ) . Let us simply carry on and deﬁne the diﬀerent types of Green’s functions that we will be working with. also called Green’s functions. (8. r σ t ) = −iθ t − t [Ψσ (rt). B} = AB + BA. in Eq. B]F = {A. (8. B]B = [A. SINGLE-PARTICLE GREEN’S FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS 131 When this is inserted into Eq.22).2.28) and the one for the propagator for the one particle wavefunction. There are various types of single-particle Green’s functions.3 Single-particle Green’s functions of many-body systems In many-particle physics we adopt the Green’s function philosophy and deﬁne some simple building blocks.

σt.34a) (8. k σ t )e−ik ·r .31) where GR (νσt. kk (8. The Green’s functions in Eqs. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS governed by the full many-body Hamiltonian.30b) are often referred to as propagators.132 CHAPTER 8. The relation between the real space retarded Green’s function and the corresponding one in a general |ν -basis as deﬁned in Eq.3. it follows that G(k. ν σ t ) = −iθ t − t and similarly for G> and G< . (8.32) 8. kσ The other types of Green’s functions have similar forms. because the right hand side cannot explicitly dependent on the origin and on r . Therefore the single-particle functions can include all sorts of correlation eﬀects. In this sense GR has its name “retarded” because it is required that t > t . σt. kk 1 = V eik·(r−r ) GR (kσt. (8.k G(k). Consider therefore the Hamiltonian for free electrons (or other fermions) H= kσ ξkσ c† ckσ . σ t ) = −iθ t − t [akσ (t).k ) = δk.1 Green’s function of translation-invariant systems For a system with translation-invariance the usual k-representation is a natural basis set.2 Green’s function of free electrons A particular case often encountered in the theory of quantum liquids is the simple case of free particles. The reason is that they give the amplitude of a particle inserted in point r at time t to propagate to position r at time t. σ t ) = 1 V eik·r GR (kσt. ν σ t )ψν (σ r ).F . σt. σt. r ) can only depend on the diﬀerence r − r and in this case GR (r − r . Since the system is translation-invariant G(r.F . (1.28). σ t ).35) . σr t ) = νν ∗ ψν (σr)GR (νσt. ν (8. [aνσ (t). σ t ) = 1 V eik·(r−r ) GR (k. a† σ (t )]B. k σ t )ei(k−k )·r . allowing us to write GR (r − r .30a). kσ (8. k (8. (8. a† (t )]B.34b) GR (k.3. 8.33) However.71) is GR (σrt. and (8.

41) 0 The corresponding r-dependent propagator. k .39) because the propagators evolve periodically in time with the period given by the energy of the electron. t − t ) = −i G|ck (t)c† (t )|0 = −i G|ck e−iH(t−t ) c† |G eiE0 (t−t ) . 0 G< (kσ. ω) 0 = −2πi dk (1 − nF (ξk ))eik·(r−r ) δ (ξk − ω) (2π)3 2 sin(kω ρ) kω = d(ω) (1 − nF (ω)) .39c) We see that G> gives the propagation of electrons.36) Because of the simple form of the Hamiltonian we are able to ﬁnd the time dependence of the c-operators (see Eq.40) which precisely is the overlap between a state with an added electron in state k and with a state with an added electron in k and allowing time to evolve from t to t. (8. we get information about the possible energies of the propagating particle. 0 kσ (8. In exactly the kσ same way. 0 GR (kσ. An easy way to remember this is to realize that the factor k k e−iHt to the right of ck must have one more electron in state k than eiHt to the left of ck . |G = |FS . Here |G denotes the groundstate of the free electrons. t − t ) = −i(1 − nF (ξk ))e−iξk (t−t ) . which we denote G> to indicate that 0 it is the propagator of free electrons. i.38) and because the Hamiltonian is diagonal in k and the occupation of free electrons is given by the Fermi-Dirac distribution.37) and similarly c† (t) = c† eiξk t .8. (8. = ω. This is perhaps more clearly seen if we write the T = 0 deﬁnition of for example G> 0 G> (k. ω) = −2πi [1 − nF (ξk )] δ (ξk − ω) . the ﬁlled Fermi sea. t − t ) = inF (ξk )e−iξk (t−t ) . 0 k k (8. kω ρ 2m (8.42) . because it is proportional to the number of electrons. the electron propagator is in the frequency domain G> (kσ. Because the Hamiltonian is diagonal in the quantum numbers k and σ so is the Green’s function and therefore G> (kσ.39b) .3. Now G> becomes G> (kσ. (5. t − t ) = −i ckσ c† e−iξk (t−t ) . we of course have ckσ c† = 1 − nF (ξk ). For example. By Fourier transforming from the time domain to the frequency domain. which expresses propagation of a particle in real space is given by G> (r − r . 0 kσ (8.e. t 0 − t ) = −iθ(t − t )e −iξk (t−t ) (8.39a) (8. (8. ρ = |r − r |.24)) ckσ (t) = eiHt ckσ e−iHt = ckσ e−iξk t . This is intuitively clear from Eqs. SINGLE-PARTICLE GREEN’S FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS 133 and the corresponding greater function in k-space. (8. t − t ) = −i ckσ (t)c† (t ) . because it requires an empty state while G< gives the propagation of holes. we can evaluate G< and ﬁnally GR 0 0 G> (kσ.

3. {|n }. 8. e−βEn n |c† |n n|cν |n δ(En − En − ω).44) In the same way we have (for fermions. ν nn = −G> (ν. which is just another name for using the set of eigenstates.43) In the frequency domain. (8. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS where d(ε) = m3/2 ε/2/π 2 is the density of states per spin in three dimensions.46) nn nn n|cν |n n |c† |n ν e−βEn + e−βEn ω + En − En + iη . The propagation from point r to r of a particle with energy ω is thus determined by the density of states. ν nn 2πi = Z e−β(En +ω) n |c† |n n|cν |n δ(En − En − ω).134 CHAPTER 8. see also Eq. ν (8. G> (νtνt ). we obtain G> (ν. ω) = −i 0 ∞ (8. ω) = = 2πi Z 2πi Z e−βEn n|c† |n ν nn n |cν |n δ(En − En − ω). the availability of an empty state (1 − nF ). d. c) G< (ν. The retarded Green’s function becomes (again for fermions) GR (ν. ω)e−βω .3 The Lehmann representation A method we will often be using when proving formal results is the so-called Lehmann representation. t. H. t ) = −i cν (t)c† (t ) = −i ν 1 = −i Z e nn −βEn 1 Z n|e−βH aν (t)a† (t )|n ν n n|cν |n n |a† |n ei(En −En )(t−t ) . (2.31). If we insert 1 = n |n n| we get G> (ν. See also Exercise 7.3.45) dt ei(ω+iη)t 1 Z e−βEn nn n|cν |n n |c† |n ei(En −En )t ν + 1 = Z = 1 Z n|c† |n ν e −βEn n |cν |n e−i(En −En )t n|cν |n n |c† |n n|c† |n n |cν |n ν ν + ω + En − En + iη ω − En + En + iη . the interference function sin (x) /x that gives the amplitude of a spherical wave spreading out from the point r . ν (8. of the full Hamiltonian. Let us for example study the diagonal Green’s function. ω) = −2πi Z e−βEn n|aν |n nn n |c† |n δ(En − En + ω). as basis set.

ω) = −i 0 = ∞ −∞ dtθ(t − t )eiω(t−t ) e−iξk (t−t )η(t−t ) (8. ω).49) (8. as expected. −iG (ν. 0 (8.47) n|cν |n nn n |c† |n e−βEn (1 + e−βω )δ (ω + En − En ) .50a) (8.39c) GR (kσ. This result is true for any quadratic Hamiltonian.3.53) ν ν where ν labels the eigenstates of the system. the spectral function is a delta function. For example if we look at the retarded propagator for free electrons in Eq.4 < (8. (8. we have derived the important general relations iG> (ν. ω − ξk + iη the corresponding spectral function is A0 (kσ. Similar relations hold for bosons. ω) = 2πδ(ω − ξk ). non-interacting system.4 The spectral function The spectral function A(ν. ω) can be thought of as either the quantum state resolution of a particle with given energy ω or as the energy resolution for a particle in a given quantum number ν. If we for example have H0 = ξν c† cν .3.54) . ω)nF (ω).52) Thus for the idealized case of non-interaction free electrons. Deﬁning the spectral function A as A(ν. ω) = A(ν. It gives an indication of how well the excitation created by adding a particle in state ν can be described by a free non-interacting particle. ω) [1 − nF (ω)] . ν (8. ω) = −2 Im GR (kσ.51) 1 .e. i. SINGLE-PARTICLE GREEN’S FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS 1 Taking the imaginary part of this and using (ω + iη)−1 = P ω − iπδ(ω).8. ω) = 2πδ(ω − ξν ). which tells us that an excitation with energy ω can only happen by adding an electron to the state k given by ξk = ω. Again the spectral function is given by a simple delta function A0 (ν. we get 135 2 Im GR (ν. ω) = −2 Im GR (ν. ω) = A(ν. ω) = − =− 2π Z 2π Z n|cν |n nn n |c† |n ν e−βEn + e−βEn δ (ω + En − En ) (8.48) = −i(1 + e−βω )G> (ν. ω). (8. (8. see Exercise 7.50b) 8.

ω) = − 2π dω 2 Im GR (ν. e.57) The physical interpretation is that the occupation of a quantum state |ν is an energy integral of the spectral density of single particle states projected onto the state |ν and weighted by the occupation at the given energy. Secondly.57) is approximately unity and since A(ν. ω) −∞ 2π ∞ 1 = dω n|cν |n n |c† |n ν Z −∞ nn ∞ e−βEn + e−βEn × δ (ω + En − En ) 1 = n|cν |n n |c† |n ν Z = nn cν c† ν e−βEn + e−βEn (8. electronphonon interaction. One possible mechanism of broadening in a metal is by e. 8. ω)nF (ω).55) −∞ 2π This formula is easily derived by considering the Lehmann representation of −2 Im GR in Eq. ω) = −i −∞ 2π ∞ dω A(ν. (8.136 CHAPTER 8. which redistributes the spectral weight because of energy exchange . εν EF .46). Firstly.49) and the fact that n |cν |n n |c† |n = | n |cν |n |2 . This follows from Eq.50b) nν = c† cν = −iG< (ν. ν it obeys the sum rule ∞ dω A(ν. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Generally.3. (8. ν ν ν where the last equality follows from the Fermi operator commutation relations. the expected result follows. (8. We of course expect that if the state |ν is far below the Fermi surface. This is evident since the occupation nν of a given state ν is for fermions given by (8. due to interactions the spectral function diﬀers from a delta function. ω) integrates to 2π. This in fact follows from ν the sum rule. but it may still be a peaked function. ω) is also small compared to EF then the Fermi function in (8. We will now show that the spectral function is a like a probability distribution. Eq. which then indicates that the non-interacting approximation is not too far from the truth. t = 0) ¯ ν ∞ dω < G (ν. it is always positive as one must require. In Chap.47) ∞ −∞ dω A(ν. = −∞ 2π (8.g. then c† cν ≈ 1.g. see above.5 Broadening of the spectral function When interactions are present the spectral function changes from the ideal delta function to a broadened proﬁle.56) + c† cν = cν c† + c† cν = 1. Furthermore. (8. ω) = 1. because if εν EF and the width of A(ν. the deﬁnition of the spectral function. the spectral function is similar to the density of states at a given energy. 13 this is discussed in much more detail.

t) ≈ 2 Im i 0 ∞ dteiωt e−iξν t e−t/τ = 2/τ . one must have a way of measuring how the electrons propagate as a function of energy. 13. However. as we saw in the previous chapter. 13 on Fermi liquid theory. the free electron picture is still a good distribution in many cases and in particular for metals. In principle there is only one way to measure the single particle properties.4 Measuring the single-particle spectral function In order to probe the single-particle properties of a many-body system. In the following we study in detail the tunneling case where an electron tunnels from one material to the other and show how the tunneling current is expressed in terms of the spectral functions and thus provides a direct measurement of these.4. .g. Another mechanism for broadening is the electron-electron interaction. both being two particle propagators. In practice this means taking out or inserting a particle with deﬁnite energy.58) where τ is the characteristic decay time. (ω − ξν )2 + (1/τ )2 (8. MEASURING THE SINGLE-PARTICLE SPECTRAL FUNCTION 137 between the electron and the phonon system. This can be achieved by a so-called tunnel junction device or by subjecting the sample to a beam of electrons. 8. Such a decaying Green’s function corresponds to a ﬁnite width of the spectral function ∞ A(ν. 8. Amazingly. This is illustrated in Fig. a solid state sample say. in some cases also optical experiments approximately measures the single particle density of states. a freely propagating state outside the material. which. See Chap. The simple notion of single electron propagators becomes less well deﬁned for interacting systems.1 Tunneling spectroscopy The tunnel experiment set-up consists of two conducting materials brought into close contact such that electrons can tunnel from one to the other. As a simple example we consider a Green’s function which decays in time due to processes that scatters the particle out of the state ν. 8. which is reﬂected in a broadening of the spectral function. measures charge-charge or current-current correlation functions.4. (8. The reason for this will be discussed later in the Chap. which is to insert/remove a single electron into/out of a many-body system. There are not too many ways for doing this because most experiments measure density or other two-particle properties. In this situation the retarded Green’s function becomes GR (ν.1. For example the response to an electromagnetic ﬁeld couples to the charge or current.8. t) ≈ −iθ(t)e−iξν t e−t/τ .59) Thus the width in energy space is given by τ −1 . which is quite surprising since the Coulomb interaction between the electrons is a rather strong interaction. ω) = −2 Im −∞ dteiωt GR (ν. For example when a photon is absorbed and an electron is kicked out from an occupied state to e.

c† c1. Ie = −e I .µ 1.62) % $ #¢ " 0 & % "$ )' & ( ¡ £££ £££££££ £ ££ §¨© ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ 4 ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ! ¨ ¨2¨ 31 ¢ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ££ £ £ £ £ £ §¨© £ ¦ £¥ £ £ ££ ¤ § 2¨ ¨ )1 .µ + Tνµ c† c1. an oxide or for the so-called scanning tunneling microscope (STM) simply vacuum.ν − ∗ Tνµ c† c1. which means that µ1 = µ2 . which gives rise to a term in the Hamiltonian of the form H12 = νµ ∗ Tνµ c† c2. separated by an insulating material. with H(r) being the (ﬁrst quantization) one-particle Hamiltonian.µ . e. and hence I = i[H.ν . 1.ν 1.µ + Tνµ c† c1.g. N1 ] = i[H12 . N1 ] = i νµ ν ∗ Tνµ c† c2. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Figure 8.138 CHAPTER 8.µ ≡ −i(L − L† ). The current operator itself is already linear in Tνµ and therefore we need only one more order. c1. since the tunnel matrix element is exponentially suppressed with distance between the two systems.ν = −i νµ Tνµ c† c2.1: Measurement setup for the tunnel experiment.ν 2. ˙ where I = N1 . This $ 0 & % "$ 0 ' & (8. The coupling between the two sides of the junction is due to the ﬁnite overlap of the wavefunctions. The right panel illustrates the electron wavefunctions in the two subsystems which have a small overlap in the insulator region. Therefore we calculate the current to lowest order in the coupling.µ This is the most general one-particle operator which couples the two systems. The current through the device is deﬁned by the rate of change of particles. involving electron operators.61) (8.µ 1.60) (8. Two systems are brought into close contact. Systems 1 and 2 are described by their respective Hamiltonians. The coupling between the system is assumed to be very weak. H1 and H2 .ν 2.ν 2. In the tunneling Hamiltonian this is modelled by the matrix element Tνν . The current passing from 1 to 2 is driven by a shift of chemical potential diﬀerence. The tunnel matrix element is deﬁned as Tνµ = ∗ dr ψν (r)H(r)ψµ (r).ν and c2.ν .

we are of course allowed to choose a basis set where the Green’s This is in fact not true for superconductors which are characterized by having a spontaneous breaking of the symmetry corresponding to the conservation of particles and therefore such two-particle tunnel processes are allowed and give rise to the so-called Josephson current.µ (t )ˆ† (t) ˆ c2.µ eq (8. 2 . eq (8.µ c eq − c† (t )ˆ1.µ (t ) ˆ2.64) involves terms of the form t .2 We are therefore left with ∞ Ip (t) = 2 Re = 2 Re dt θ(t − t ) −∞ ∞ ˆ ˆ L† (t).µ (t ) ˆ2. Naturally the number of particles is a conserved quantity and matrix elements of this type must vanish. . c† c2.µ 1.ν (t) ˆ1.ν (t). L(t ) eq ˆ ˆ L† (t).63b) R ˆ ˆ CIp H12 (t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) [Ip (t). L(t ) ∗ Tνµ Tν µ νµ ν µ eq dt θ(t − t ) −∞ ∞ c† (t)ˆ1.4. Furthermore.µ (t) c† c2.c. L(t ) eq + c. L(t ) + L† (t ) ˆ ˆ L(t). t ). eq = 2 Re −∞ dt θ(t − t ) νµ ν µ ∗ Tνµ Tν µ eq c† (t)ˆ2. ˆ ˜ (8.ν c c1.66b) with the time dependence of c being given by the Hamiltonian with a common chemical ˜ potential µ. c† (t )ˆ2. The correlation function CIH12 can be simpliﬁed a bit as R CIp H12 (t − t ) = −θ(t − t ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ L(t) − L† (t).ν . According to the general Kubo formula derived in chap. (8.63a) (8.ν eq with two electrons created in system 1 and two electrons annihilated in system 2 and therefore is does not conserve the number of particles in each system.8.66a) (8. 6 the particle current is to ﬁrst order in H12 given by ∞ I (t) = −∞ R dt CIp H12 (t.ν (t)ˆ† (t ) ˆ c1.ν 1. L(t ) − eq = −θ(t − t ) Now the combination ˆ ˆ L(t). ˆ ˜ c2 (t) = c2 (t)e−i(−e)V2 t .65) Now the time dependence due to the shift in energy by the applied voltages is explicitly pulled out such that c1 (t) = c1 (t)e−i(−e)V1 t . MEASURING THE SINGLE-PARTICLE SPECTRAL FUNCTION 139 means that linear response theory is applicable. H12 (t )] where the time development is governed by H = H1 + H2 .µ c ˆ1.ν c eq c2.

−t )G> (µ.72) dV ν So the spectral function can in fact be measured in a rather direct way. ω) A2 (µ. 1 2 1 2 (8. (8.140 CHAPTER 8. |Tνµ |2 A2 (ν. −t )G< (µ. ω + eV ) ≈ const. which is illustrated in Fig. −eV ). (8. ω + eV )[nF (ω + eV ) − nF (ω)]. µ (8. This is a widely used spectroscopic principle in for example the study of superconductors where it was used to verify the famous prediction of the BCS theory of superconductivity that there is an excitation gap in the superconductor. and by the density of states at a given energy.2. νµ (8. i.e. 8. and that the density of states peaks near the gap. t ) . (8.3 and Exercise 7. . see Eq. Therefore by sweeping the voltage across the junction one gets information about A(ν. ω + eV ) . Also it is used to study small structures such as quantum dots where the individual quantum levels become visible due to size quantization. given by the diﬀerence of occupation functions. ω). and we ﬁnally arrive at ∞ Ip = −∞ dω 2π |Tνµ |2 A1 (ν.69) we see that the current is determined by two factors: the availability of states.68) 1 2 1 2 −∞ 2π νµ with the voltage given by V = V2 − V1 . The tunnel spectroscopy technique amounts to a sweep of an external voltage which controls the chemical potential while measuring the diﬀerential conductance dI/dV . ν (8.5.71) becomes dI ∝ A1 (ν. ω).e. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS function of the decoupled system (i. (8.50). ω + eV ) − G< (ν.67) After Fourier transformation (and reinsertion of the convergence factor eηt ) this expression becomes ∞ dω Ip = |Tνµ |2 G> (ν. ω)G< (µ. If the other material is a simple material where one can assume the density of states to be more or less constant. ω)G> (µ.69) In Eq. t ) − G< (ν.70) then dI ∝ dV ∞ dω − −∞ ∂nF (ω + eV ) ∂ω A1 (ν. The lesser and greater Green’s functions are now written in terms of the spectral function. G> = δνν G> .71) At low temperatures where the derivative of the Fermi function tends to a delta function and (8. without H12 ) is diagonal. The ν νν particle current then becomes (after change of variable t → t + t) 0 Ip = 2 Re dt −∞ νµ |Tνµ |2 ei(−e)(V1 −V2 )t G> (ν. see Exercise 4.

73) where A is some two particle operator. (8.4. t ) = −iθ(t − t ) A(t). which was shown in Chap. 6.2: The principle used in tunneling spectroscopy. The right one is metal. (6. The left panel shows the two density of states in the two materials.t) = Je (r. which was encountered in the linear response chapter. t) · E(r. It is seen how the diﬀerential conductance is a direct measure of ν A1 (ν.48) given by (take for simplicity the 3 Because the power dissipated at any given point in space and time is P (r. 8. The two right most panels show the resulting current and the diﬀerential conductance trace.8. ω). the % $ # ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥¥ ¥ ¥ ! " ! & ¥ §§¥¥©¨§¦§¦§¦¥¥¥ ¤ ¢ ¡£ ¢ Optical spectroscopy Two-particle correlation functions of many-body systems &¥ ' ' .5. is according to Eq. One important type of higher order Green’s functions are the correlation functions. Such an example is photo emission spectroscopy. which is the real part of the conductivity3 . there are cases where it is well approximated by the one-particle spectral function. TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS141 Figure 8. we evaluate the polarization function χ = Cρρ for a non-interacting electron gas (see Eq. (6.39)). This function gives for example information about the dissipation due to an applied ﬁeld.5 While the single-particle Green’s functions deﬁned above measure the properties of individual particles the higher order Green’s functions give the response of the quantum system to processes involving several particles. 8. A(t ) . Typical correlation functions that we will meet are of the type CAA (t. In order to treat a speciﬁc case. because the dissipation. For example. we saw that the response to electromagnetic radiation was determined by the auto correlation function of the charge and current densities. where there is little variations with energy and the experiment can therefore be used to get information about the density of states of the left material. t).2 While the response to an electromagnetic ﬁeld in principle is always given by the dielectric function.

ω) = − CHAPTER 8. δq2 +q. t).96) ρ(q) = kσ c† ck+qσ . t) · Je (r. The commutator is easily evaluated using the formula.142 translation-invariant case) Re σ (q. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t )e2 V The Fourier transform of the charge operator was derived in Eq. t). when inserted into (8. ρ(−q. c† cµ ] = c† cµ δµ. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t )e2 0 1 V nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) ei(ξk −ξk+q )(t−t ) . Due to the translation-invariance the result cannot depend on r and one sees that q2 = −q (or formally one can integrate over r and divide by volume to get a delta function. kσ (8. t ) q1 q2 ρ(q.77) For free electrons. t)= E (q. dr dr ρ(r. ω) · Je (q.79) where the subindex “0” indicates that we are using the free electron approximation. (8.0 ) and thus 1 ρ(q. (8. t).ν − c† cµ δν . ω)|2 σ(q. ρ(r . ν ν ν ν and we ﬁnd χR (q. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t )e2 0 1 V [c† ck+qσ . t − t )e−iq·(r−r ) . ω) 2π V q 2π V q . kσ (8. ρ(q2 . ρ(q2 . GREEN’S FUNCTIONS ωe2 Im χR (q. t ) q2 ei(q2 +q)·r .76) χR (q. eiq1 ·r+iq2 ·r e−iq·(r−r ) . ω). t ) 1 V2 e−iq·(r−r ) .80) total energy being dissipated is Z Z Z dω 1 X ∗ dω 1 X W = drdt E(r. yields χR (q. (1.µ . kσ (8. t ) . c† σ ck −q σ ] ei(ξk −ξk+q )t e kσ k kk σσ i(ξk −ξk −q )t . (8. the time dependence is given by (see Eq.78) which.37)) ρ(q. ω) = |E(q. t) = kσ c† ck+qσ ei(ξk −ξk+q )t . t).76).74) In momentum space the polarization is given by χR (q. q2 (8. (8.75) = −iθ(t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) 1 = −iθ(t − t ) V ρ(q1 . [c† cµ . t − t ) = dr χ(r − r .

However.8.3: Absorption of a photon creates an electron-hole pair excitation in the free electron gas. In the frequency space. TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS143 4 Figure 8. Let us take T = 0 where nF is either zero or one. which means that nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) is only non-zero if (k > kF and |k + q| < kF ) or (k < kF and |k + q| > kF ). ω) = −i 0 1 = V ∞ t dt eiωt 1 V nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) ei(ξk −ξk+q )(t−t ) e−η(t−t ) .81).82) .ω) = π V nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) δ(ξk − ξk+q + ω). while the latter corresponds to ω > 0. we ﬁnd k χR (q. (8. (8. −ω). q > 2kF . for which (q.83) .e. The ﬁrst case corresponds to ω < 0. we will study it in much more detail.5. when discussing the elementary excitations of the electron gas.82) is non-zero. The possible range of q and ω is given by the dashed area in the right plot. (8. The strength of the interaction depends on the imaginary part of the polarization function. which is easily seen from 0 0 Eq. The delta function together with the second condition thus imply 0 < ω = q2 1 1 +k·q ⇒ 2m m ωmax = ωmin = 1 2 2m q + vF q 1 2 2m q − vF q £¢¡ £ ¦ ¥¤ ¡ § © ¨ 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 (8. and later on. i. (8. Within the non-interacting approximation and according to Eq. for example ω > 0.81) (8. kσ We can now analyze for what q and ω excitations are possible. (8.74) we then have that the dissipation of the electron gas is proportional to − Im χR (q. This function is known as the Lindhard function. because of the symmetry χR (q. kσ nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) kσ ξk − ξk+q + ω + iη . see Eq. ω) Eq. we need only study one case. ω) = −χR (−q.82) because c† ck = nF (ξk ).

8. r σ t ) gives the amplitude for propagation from the space-time point r t to rt.3.83). ω) = 2πδ(ξν − ω) non-interacting case . ω) spectral function The spectral function is related to the density of states. There is one particular type of excitation which is immensely important. 8. r σ t ) = −iθ (t − t ) [Ψσ (rt). For non-interacting electrons the spectral function is given by a Dirac delta function A0 (ν. The excitations which give rise to the dissipation are electron-hole pair excitations. and we will use Green’s functions in practically all discussions in the remaining part of the course.ω)-space is shown in Fig. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS The possible range of excitations in (q. this is certainly not true for the interacting case which is more complicated. The Green’s functions describe the dynamical properties of excitations. The important spectral function is in the frequency domain and in a diagonal basis given by A(ν. While the electron-hole pair excitations are the only possible source of dissipation in the non-interacting electron gas. This we study in great detail later in this course. In this chapter we have deﬁned the following many-body Green’s functions GR (rσt.F σ G> (rσt. We have so far seen two examples of this: the density of states is related to the spectral function and it can be measured for example in a tunneling experiment. is illustrated in the hand side of Fig. The process discussed here where an electron within the Fermi sea is scattering to an empty state outside the Fermi sea. with initial spin σ and ﬁnal spin σ. and secondly the absorption of electromagnetic radiation is given by the charge-charge correlation function. σ r t ) = −i (±1) Ψ† (r t )Ψσ (rt) σ retarded Green’s function greater Green’s function lesser Green’s function and their corresponding Fourier transforms. Ψ† (r t )]B. where an electron within the Fermi sea is excited to a state outside the Fermi sea. σ r t ) = −i Ψσ (rt)Ψ† (r t ) σ G< (rσt. where the change of momentum and energy of an incoming photon is measured. 8.144 CHAPTER 8. The physical picture to remember is that the Green’s function G (rσt. namely the plasmon excitation. ω) = −2 Im GR (ν. There is a continuum of such excitations given by conditions in (8.6 Summary and outlook The concept of Green’s functions in many-body physics has been introduced in this chapters.3. The excitation of the electrons gas can be measured by for example inelastic light scattering (Raman scattering).

The basic idea of this method is to generate a series of coupled diﬀerential equations by diﬀerentiating the correlation function at hand a number of times. let us study the time-derivative of the annihilation operator (throughout this chapter we assume that H is time independent) i∂t Ψ(rt) = − [H. Ψ† (r ) B. Eq.1) We ﬁnd the equation of motion for GR as the derivative with respect to the ﬁrst time argument i∂t GR (rt. If these equations close the problem is in principle solvable. 9.F + (−i) θ(t − t ) [i∂t Ψ(rt). In many cases we need to calculate the time-dependence of these functions.F . r t ) = −iθ t − t [Ψ(rt).Chapter 9 Equation of motion theory In the previous chapters we saw how various physical observables can be expressed in terms of retarded Green’s functions and correlation functions. (9.F = δ(r − r ). Ψ(r)](t). Here we used that the derivative of a step function is a delta function and the commutation relations for ﬁeld operators at equal times Ψ(r). Next. Ψ† (r t )]B. Ψ(r)](t) − [Vint .F .1 The single-particle Green’s function Let us consider the retarded Green’s function GR for either fermions or bosons.3) . one of which is the equation of motion technique. We shall study examples of both situations in this chapter. (9. Ψ† (r t )]B. There are several ways of attacking this problem.28) GR (rt. r t ) = (−i) i∂t θ(t − t ) = δ(t − t )δ(r − r )+ + (−i) θ(t − t ) [i∂t Ψ(rt). and if not.F . one needs to invoke physical arguments to truncate the set of equations in a reasonable fashion. Ψ† (r t )]B. 145 (9. For example one can neglect certain correlations. Ψ(r)] (t) = −[H0 . (8. Ψ† (r t )]B.2) [Ψ(rt).

F ν (9. The Hamiltonian is again written as H = H0 + Vint . (9. a† (t ) ν B.6) The diﬀerential equation for the Green’s function in this basis GR (νt. say {ν}.146 CHAPTER 9. are called Green’s functions.1. DR (rt. ν t ) = δ(t − t )δνν + DR (νt. 8. Ψ(r) (9. Ψ(r)] we can.F In this course we will mainly deal with problems where the Hamiltonian does not depend explicitly on time (linear response was an exception. continue the generation of diﬀerential equations. Ψ(r)] = 1 dr Ψ† (r ) 2m 1 2 =− Ψ(r).F The function DR thus equals the corrections to the free particle Green’s function. aν ] = tνν aν . ν t ) = −iθ(t − t ) [aν (t). r t ) = δ(t − t )δ(r − r ) + DR (rt. Therefore the Green’s function can only depend on the time diﬀerence t−t and in this case . r t ). EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY where the interaction part of the Hamiltonian includes all the interactions in the given problem. 2m r 2 r Ψ(r ). ν (9. r t ) = −iθ(t − t ) −[Vint . The equation in (9.9b) DR (νt. 5. It is now evident why the many-body functions. while H0 describes the quadratic part of the Hamiltonian. aν ](t). (9.4) In this case the equation of motion becomes i∂t + 1 2m 2 r GR (rt. After evaluating [Vint . as in Sec. (9. a† (t )]B. GR .9a) .7) is found in exactly the same way as above. ν (9. for example the kinetic energy.5a) (9. but even there the time dependent problem was transformed into a correlation function of a time independent problem). where the Green’s function of a diﬀerential operator. Often it is convenient to work in some other basis. L.5. we have −[H0 . where the quadratic part of the Hamiltonian is H0 = νν tν ν a † a ν . ν t ) = −iθ(t − t ) −[Vint .5b) B. If H0 is the usual kinetic energy Hamiltonian of free particles.8) ν and hence (iδνν ∂t − tνν ) GR (ν t. Ψ(r)](t). was deﬁned as LG = delta function.5a) has the structure of the classical Green’s function we saw in Sec. ν t ). By diﬀerentiation the commutator with H0 is generated −[H0 . Ψ† (r t ) .

we can in fact solve for the Green’s function1 . (9. (9. For a diagonal basis.1 Non-interacting particles For non-interacting particles. ω) = −i ∞ −∞ dtei(ω+iη)(t−t ) θ(t − t ) −[Vint .12) and in matrix notation Eq. ν (9.14) which of course agrees with the result found in Eq. in order to ﬁnd the Green’s function all we need to do is to invert the matrix −1 GR νν . 1 .10b) DR (ν. ω) δνν = 0 1 δ . to ensure proper convergence. a† (t ) ν B. ω) = δνν + DR (ν. 4 we saw that such a term is indeed relevant for superconductors. We return to this in Chap. 4. δ(t) → 1. i.1. In Chap. In this case we have (δνν (ω + iη) − tνν ) GR (ν ν .2 Anderson’s model for magnetic impurities In order to exemplify the usefulness of the equation of motion technique.11) becomes GR 0 −1 GR = 1.13) Therefore. ω). As in Sec.11) where the subindex 0 on GR indicates that it is the Green’s function corresponding to a 0 non-interacting Hamiltonian. For the Green’s function in a superconductor we should therefore solve the linear problem in a way similar to the Bogoliubov transformation introduced in Chap. ω − εν + iη νν (9. we proceed by solving a famous model for the appearance of a magnetic moment of impurities of certain Here we only consider terms of the form c† c but also anomalous terms like cc could be included.1 we deﬁne the inverse Green’s function as GR 0 −1 (νν .51). 8. ω) = δνν (ω + iη) − tνν ≡ GR 0 −1 νν (9. aν ](t). 0 (9. η. We can write the equation of motion in frequency domain [δνν (ω + iη) − tνν ] GR (ν ν .e. which means that the Hamiltonian is bilinear in annihilation or creation operators. 15. Recalling that when performing the Fourier transformation of the derivative it becomes ∂t → −iω. 9. (8.10a) .9. tνν = δνν εν . ω) = δνν 0 ν (9. and that the Fourier transform of a delta function is unity.2. 9.F Here it is important to remember that the frequency of the retarded functions must carry a small positive imaginary part. ANDERSON’S MODEL FOR MAGNETIC IMPURITIES 147 it is always useful to work with the Fourier transforms. the solution is 0 GR 0 νν = GR (ν. ν . ν .

giving rise to a “hybridization” between the two.1: The Anderson model describing magnetic impurities embedded in a homogeneous host metal. But the energy of electrons residing on the impurity ion also depends on whether it is doubly occupied or not.16) t∗ c† cdσ . which is typically the d shell. The electrons occupying the conduction band couple to the outer-most electrons of the magnetic impurity ions. and hence interactions are less important for those. The impurity ion Hamiltonian is thus modelled as Hd + HU = σ where ndσ = c† cdσ is the number operator for d-electrons. In addition to the bare energy cost for an electron to reside in the d-state. which can be described by an eﬀective non-interacting model Hc = kσ For the impurity ion we assume that it has only one spin-degenerate state in the active shell. as seen in (b).g. dσ tk c† ckσ + dσ kσ (9. The crucial input is here dσ the correlation between electrons on the impurity ion. e. there is an interaction energy that depends on the state being doubly occupied or not. has a conduction band. The electrons in the conduction band of the non-magnetic host metal. the d-shell of a Fe ion. The bare onsite energy of the state on the magnetic ion is d . The coupling occurs because the d-orbital and the conduction band states overlap spatially and also lie close in energy.148 CHAPTER 9. Nb or Mo. k kσ (9. The states forming the conduction band are primarily s-states that are more extended in space. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY Figure 9. The overlapping orbitals leads to a non-diagonal matrix element of the Hamiltonian Hhyb = kσ ¦ ¨ ¥ '( © £ £¥ " & $% $ # ¨ " ! ¡ ¥ ¦ ( ¥ ¨ ¢ § £ ¥¤¢ ¡ (εk − µ) c† ckσ .15) (9. e. magnetic ions embedded in a non-magnetic host metal. therefore the state with two electrons residing on the ion has energy 2 d + U . because the interaction in the narrower d-shell of a magnetic ion is particular strong and this is in fact the reason for the magnetism.g. kσ (εd − µ) c† cdσ + U nd↑ n↓ .17) . The host metal. couple to the level of the magnetic impurity ion. indicated by the dashed areas.

its full solution is very complicated and in fact the model has a very rich phase diagram. ω) = 1 + U DR (dσ. εd . which follows from the retarded Green’s function.10) run over both d and k and we obtain the coupled equations (ω + iη − εd + µ) GR (dσ. The Anderson model has been used to describe numerous eﬀects in the physics of strongly correlated electron systems. dσ. ω) = 0.2 It turns out that for certain values of the parameters it is energetically favorable for the system to have a magnetic moment (and thus minimizing the on-site interaction energy) while for other values there is no magnetic moment (thus gaining maximum hybridization energy).1 The equation of motion for the Anderson model The magnetization in the z-direction is given by the expectation value of the diﬀerence n↑ − n↓ between spin up and down occupancy. this costs potential energy. ANDERSON’S MODEL FOR MAGNETIC IMPURITIES 149 The bare d-electron energy.9.2. k 2 The model in fact has a known exact solution. Due to the hybridization term the Hamiltonian is not diagonal in the d-operators and the equations of motion will involve another Green’s function. dσ. and it is hard to extract useful physical information from this solution. c† t } . dσ. ω). (9.23) (ω + iη − εk + µ) GR (kσ. GR .20) Let us write the equation of motion of this function using Eq. and it is not possible if 2εd + U > 2µ. dσ (9.19) ndσ = 2π where A(dσ. see Eq. ω) is the spectral function. (9. say. namely GR (kσ.1 for an illustration.10 ). t − t ) = −iθ t − t {cdσ (t) . The physical question we try to answer here is: Under which circumstances is the material magnetic? 9. ω) − k tk GR (kσ. but the solution ﬁlls an entire book. Furthermore.49). (9. ω). spin up electrons depends on the occupation of spin down electrons. U .2. Although the Anderson model looks simple.22) (9. dσ (9. the system gains further kinetic energy by the hybridization. (9. c† t } . t − t ) = −iθ t − t {ckσ (t) .57) in terms of the spectral function.18) is known as the Anderson model. (8. However. The sum of these three energy contributions H = Hc + Hd + HU + Hhyb (9.21) The equation of motion are thus found by letting ν in Eq. The occupation of a quantum state was found in Eq. which on the other hand is complicated by the fact that the hopping in and out of the impurity orbital with. ω) − t∗ GR (dσ. is below the chemical potential and from the kinetic energy point of view. For the d-electron occupation we therefore have dω nF (ω) A(dσ. (8. All we need to ﬁnd is then GR (dσ. The hybridization therefore seems to randomize the spin on the magnetic ion. . 9. it is favorable to ﬁll the orbital by two electrons. See Fig.

26) 9.22). (9. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) nd↓ {cd↑ (t). The self-energy changes the pole of GR and furthermore gives some broadening to the spectral function. Inserting (9.and d-states. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY dtei(ω+iη)(t−t ) θ t − t −[nd↑ nd↓ .28) With this truncation. c† (t )} . εd . therefore we replace the interaction part HU by its mean-ﬁeld version M HU F = U nd↑ nd↓ + U nd↓ nd↑ − U nd↑ nd↓ . Due to this term the “bare” d-electron energy. The ﬁnal answer is 1 GR (d ↑.150 where DR (dσ. ω) = . cdσ ](t). nd↓ (t) d↑ (t)]. d↑ In other words. is seen to be renormalized by two eﬀects: ﬁrst the energy is shifted by U nd↓ due to the interaction with the averaged density of electrons having opposite spin. ω) − k |tk |2 GR (d ↑. ω) = −i ∞ −∞ CHAPTER 9.2. It arises because the coupling to the c-electrons introduces oﬀ diagonal terms in the Hamiltonian. However a mean-ﬁeld approximation still grasps the important physics that the spin-up electron population depends on the spin-down population. d↑ (9. the coupling to the conduction band electrons gives through Σ(ω) an energy shift and most importantly an imaginary part. the function DR becomes DR (d ↑. ω) gives ω + iη − εd + µ − U nd↓ GR (d ↑. We thus face the following more complicated Green’s function DR (d ↑. so that it is no longer diagonal in the d-operators. (9. d† (t )} to be determined. cd↑ ] = nd↓ [nd↑ . cd↑ ] = −U nd↓ cd↑ . ω − εk + µ + iη The function is our ﬁrst encounter with the concept known as “self-energy”. (9.29) and likewise for the spin-down Green’s function.2 Mean-ﬁeld approximation for the Anderson model Diﬀerentiating the function in Eq. (9. c† (t )} = nd↓ GR d ↑. and secondly. t − t ) = −iθ t − t {nd↓ (t) cd↑ (t). ω) = 1.23) for GR (d ↑.24) The commutator in this expression is for σ =↑ [nd↑ nd↓ . (9. and solving Eq.27) (9.26) with respect to time would generate yet another function {[H. ω − εk + µ + iη (9. (9. t − t . since the mean-ﬁeld approximation makes the Hamiltonian quadratic we can include U nd↓ (t) to the energy of the spin-up d-electrons in our equation of motion. In the time domain the imaginary part translates into a life-time. ΣR (ω) .30a) (9. c† (t ) dσ . The diagonal modes are instead superpositions of c.25) and likewise we ﬁnd the commutator for spin down by interchanging up and down. and the set of equations does not σ close. ω − εd + µ − U nd↓ − ΣR (ω) ΣR (ω) = k (9.28) in Eq.30b) |tk |2 .

and if we furthermore nd↑ ≈ dω 2Γ .33) The real part gives a shift of energy and since it is a slowly varying function. ω) = −2 Im GR (d ↑. W ] we get ΣR (ω) ≈ dε − iΓ −W ω − ε + µ Γ W +ω+µ = − ln − iΓ. the selfenergy Σ is ΣR (ω) = dε d(ε) |t (ε) |2 =P ω − ε + µ + iη dε d(ε) |t (ε) |2 −iπd(ω +µ)|t(ω +µ)|2 . Note that the spectral function derived here is an example of the Lorentzian form discussed in Sec. which is justiﬁed because Γ consider low temperatures.3. Let us assume that the product d(ε)|t(ε)|2 is constant within the band limits. we get 0 W .5.2. (9. 2 2 ˜ −∞ 2π (ω − ε + µ − U nd↓ ) + Γ ε − µ + U nd↓ ˜ 1 1 . π W −ω−µ Γ π W −W < ω + µ < W. and deﬁne the important parameter Γ by πd(ε)|t(ε)|2 = Γθ(W − |ε|). ω) 2π W dω 2Γ = nF (ω) .35) If we neglect the ﬁnite bandwidth. the approximation is indeed valid.2. = (ω − ε + µ − U nd↓ )2 + Γ2 ˜ (9. For ω+µ ∈ [−W.36) . Now the self-consistent mean-ﬁeld equation for nd↑ follows as nd↑ = dω nF (ω)A (d ↑. ˜ The spectral function hence becomes A(d ↑.32) This approximation is good if the width of the Green’s function (which we shall see shortly is given by Γ) turns out to be small compared to the scale on which d(ε)|t(ε)|2 typically changes. (9. ω) 2Γ θ (W − |ε|) . ANDERSON’S MODEL FOR MAGNETIC IMPURITIES 151 9. (9. but fortunately it is not important for the present considerations. −W < ε < W. we simply include it as a shift of ε and deﬁne the new onsite energy ε = ε + Re ΣR . Since in practice Γ εF .3 Solving the Anderson model and comparison with experiments Assuming that the coupling tk only depends on the length of k and thus on ε. 8. T = 0.34) where Γ is the width of the spectral function.31) ω−ε+µ The density of states d (ε) and the coupling matrix element t (ε) depend on the details of the material. = − tan−1 2 π Γ (9.9. (ω − ε + µ − U nd↓ )2 + Γ2 ˜ −W 2π (9.

(1962)) for the magnetic moment of Fe embedded in transition metals. For nel > 8 the eﬀect of having more than two d-orbitals in the Fe-atoms becomes important and the simple model is no longer adequate. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY Figure 9. The bottom panel shows experimental results (Clogston et al.e.2: The upper part shows the mean ﬁeld solution of the Anderson model with the left panel being magnetization as a function of electron density nel . for two diﬀerent Γ-values.152 CHAPTER 9. i. The electron concentration and hence µ is varied by changing the alloy. while the right panel is the maximum magnetization as function of the correlation energy. BC 3 %0%12! 1% 0%3 ( '& # # ¤ £ ga b V f 4 A @ ! % 98 & 3 673 25! 24 1%3 3 ! "3 0%12! ) 1 % #$" ! © ¢¡ ¨ ¦ § ¥ 2B 3 %9 %58 G F ) 3 425! %25E 3 D " 4 X V b Ca ` YP 6W "U e¨ dc c ch ST CR Q H7P I H 6 i Q ¢P I H H . the chemical potential. The latter means that too strong hybridization destroys the magnetization. We see that there is a critical density and a critical U/Γ where the magnetization sets in. For 4 < nel < 8 the magnetization curve is seen to be quite similar to the prediction of the model.

To capture this physics one must go one step beyond the mean-ﬁeld approximation and truncate the equations of motion at a later stage. 9.4 Coulomb blockade and the Anderson model Above we applied the mean-ﬁeld approximation to the interaction. In an experiment where one probes the actual occupation of the atom this approach would not be suﬃcient. Also for this quantity one can generate a set of equation of motions. THE TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTION We obtain the two coupled equations cot (πn↑ ) = y(n↓ − x).2 solutions of these equations are shown together with experimental data. at least qualitatively.2. 9. (9. As is evident there. x = − (˜ − µ) /U. Consider for example the retarded charge-charge correlation function χR (rt. cot (πn↓ ) = y(n↑ − x). whether there exists a solution n↓ = n↑ . diﬀerent from the trivial solution n↓ = n↑ . because.2.9. ρ(r t )] .3. i. r t ) = −iθ t − t [ρ(rt). 6 it was shown that this function is related to the dielectric response function and therefore tells about the screening properties of the material.e. such as the density-density correlation. 6 shown to give the linear response properties. ε y = U/Γ. the tunneling barrier is increased by U .3. 153 (9. the model describes the observed behavior.37a) (9. But even so they may provide a good starting point for various approximation schemes.3 The two-particle correlation function The two particle correlation functions.3 In Fig.4.5 Further correlations in the Anderson model: Kondo eﬀect 9. and as for the single particle Green’s function they are not solvable in general.3. 9.37b) The solution of these equation gives the occupation of the d-orbital and in particular tells us whether there is a ﬁnite magnetization. was in Chap. This means that the energy of a given spin direction is only aﬀected by the average occupation of the opposite spin direction. which it in fact does have. Such an experiment is for example a tunneling experiment where current is passed through a single atom or a small metallic island which can be thought of as an artiﬁcial atom. 9. if it is. This is the topic for Exercise 8. See also Exercise 8. For the electron that wants to enter the island it does matter whether the island is already occupied.38) In Chap. . which is one of our 3 We should also convince ourselves that the magnetic solution has lower energy.1 The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) A commonly used approximation scheme for correlation functions is the so-called Random Phase Approximation (RPA). For the case of the electron gas.

k R k χ (kq). t − t ) = δ(t − t ) [(c† ck+q )(t).t . In Chap. c† ck −q = c† ck − c† ck+q . The two derivations give complementary insight into the physical content of the approximation. the q = 0 component is cancelled by the positively charged background. k (9. c† ck+q ] (t) .45) When this is inserted into Eq.42) a new 6-particle Green’s function is generated.12 RPA is derived using Feynman diagrams. RPA is exact in some limits. t )] . ρ −q. ρ −q. ck ck+q ] = − V (q ) c† c† −q ck ck+q + c† +q c† ck+q ck k k+q k k−q 2 kq − c† +q c† ck+q+q ck − c† c† −q ck ck+q−q k k k k . k and for this purpose we need the following commutators c† ck+q .154 CHAPTER 9. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY main topics in this course. but also in general gives a decent description of the interacting electron gas.t )] k − iθ(t − t ) [−[H.41) Let us from which we can easily obtain χ(q) by summing over k. k k k+q k (9. χR (q) = ﬁnd the equation of motion i∂t χR (kq. it turns out to be better to work with the function χR (kq. Using the recipe from Chap. ρ (−q) = k c† ck+q .42) (9. ρ (q) = k c† ck+q . t − t ) = −iθ t − t 1 V ρ (q. At this stage we truncate this series by the random phase approximation which says that the right hand side of (9.44) [H0 . c† ck+q ] = (ξk − ξk+q ) c† ck+q . (9. (9.t ] . We will for simplicity work with the translation-invariant electron gas with the Hamiltonian given by the usual kinetic energy plus interaction energy (here we disregard the spin degree of freedom because it is not important) H= k ξk c† ck + k 1 2 V (q)c† c† ck ck = H0 + Vint . but here we derive it using the equation of motion technique. k k 1 † [Vint .39) Furthermore.40) However.t) . Furthermore for each level of the equation of motion a Green’s function with two more electron operators pops up. The charge-charge correlation function is χR (q. ρ(−q. t − t ) = −iθ t − t [(c† ck+q ) (t) . ρ(−q.43) (9.45) is replaced by a mean-ﬁeld expression where pairs of operators are replaced by their average values. k+q k−q kk q=0 (9. (9. .

(ω + iη + ξk − ξk+q ) χR (kq. 8. nk . 0 (9. but of course the strength is modiﬁed by the real part of the denominator of (9. ω) = k 1 V nk+q − nk ω + ξk − ξk+q + iδ 1 + V (q) χR (q. ω) . ω). 8. ω) χR (q. we recognize the Lindhard function studied in Sec.46) V (q) nk+q − nk where we used that c† ck = nk δk. Collecting everything and going to the frequency domain the equation of motion becomes. 8. 1 − V (q)χR (q.3. ω) −1 = 1 − V (q) χR (q. The RPA dielectric function becomes 0 εRPA (q.5 to be related to the imaginary part of χR (q. namely collective modes.49) and the two results therefore agree nicely. ω) = 1 V χR (kq. by the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. There we studied a non-interacting electron gas and found that χR (q. k c† ck+q+q k c† −q ck + const. the interactions add other fundamental excitations. 8.5.3) is preserved here. ω) indeed was equal to the numerator in (9. allows us to ﬁnd an equation for χR (q. ω) 0 (9.RPA (q.5 we also analyzed the excitation of the non-interacting electrons gas and the analysis there is basically still correct. ω) = and hence χR. k (9. The free particle polarizability χR (q.49). ω) was derived in Sec. In Sec. ω) = nk+q − nk 1 − V (q) k χR (k q.49) This is the RPA result of the polarizability function. (9. we get [Vint .50) Replacing the expectation values. ω) 0 . 8. The additional . Note that the exchange pairings which we included k in the Hartree-Fock approximation is not included here. ω) . (9. c† ck+q ] ≈ − k 1 2 V (q ) c† ck+q c† −q ck k k+q k q =0 155 + c† ck+q c† −q ck k k+q + c† ck+q c† +q ck + c† ck+q c† +q ck k k k−q k−q −c† +q ck k − c† ck+q−q k = k c† ck+q+q k c† −q ck k − c† +q ck k − c† ck+q−q k c† −q ck . The excitations which were shown in Sec. ω) and therefore the structure of the electron-hole excitations of the non-interacting gas (depicted in Fig.48) χR (q.5.ω) = 1 + V (q)χR (q. THE TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTION 4.9.47) which.k . However. and in the case of a charge liquid these modes are the plasmon modes. when summed over k.

Wick’s theorem will then pave the way for introducing the Feynman diagrams. . ω) = 0 and this 0 is the plasma oscillation mode. ω) 0 + δ2 = πδ 1 − V (q) Re χR (q. namely the mean-ﬁeld solution of a magnetic impurity embedded in a metallic host. ω) . and in fact only a very small set of Hamiltonians describing interacting systems can be solved exactly. 9.156 CHAPTER 9. The set of diﬀerential equation is not soluble in general. If we set Im χR (q. The plasmon is studied in detail in Chap. ω) is zero because then 0 there is a possibility of a pole in the polarizability. and the RPA approximation for the charge auto correlation function. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY modes are given by the part where the imaginary part of χR (q. 0 (9. q 2 . In the following chapter we use the equation of motion to derive the Green’s functions in the imaginary time formalism and to derive the famous Wick’s theorem. 12. here we just mention that the condition for the mode turns out to be 2 ω ∝ ωpl + const. ω) = δ 1−V 2 (q) Re χR (q. ω) = −iδ. also called a plasmon.51) This means that there is a well-deﬁned mode when 1 − V (q) Re χR (q. namely the equation of motion method applied to the Green’s functions.4 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have seen a method to deal with the dynamical aspects of interacting many-body systems. Therefore approximations are necessary and we saw particular examples of this. we have 0 − Im χR (q.

we introduce a mathematical method to work out the retarded Green’s functions. e. For technical reasons it is convenient to use a mapping to a more general Green’s function. t ) = − A(t)B(t ) . This has no real physical meaning. 6. The present chapter concentrates on the mathematical details of the technique and applications are left for later. and this will eventually lead us to the Feynman diagrams. where the time and frequency arguments are imaginary quantities.g. (8.F . or that they can be derived in a simple way from the Green’s functions. When A and B are two-particle operators. In all the situations we have studied so far the physical observables have been related to the retarded Green’s functions. B(t ) B. Let us for example look at the deﬁnition of the following correlation function CAB (t. it is the single particle Green’s function deﬁned in Eq. This is much like treating electrical circuit theory with complex numbers even though all currents and voltages are real.Chapter 10 Imaginary time Green’s functions We have seen that physical observables often have the form of Green’s functions. t ) = − Tr(e−βH A(t)B(t )). (10. The imaginary time formalism is particularly useful when we want to perform perturbation theory.1) When A and B are single particle annihilation and creation operators. (10.3) .1) boson operators mean either single particle operators like b or b† or an even number of fermion operators such as c† c appearing in for example the density operator ρ. C R has the form of a retarded correlation function that was shown to give the linear response results of Chap. which in general are deﬁned as R CAB (t. In Eq. In this chapter. the density or current operators.28) from which one could derive the density of states.2) CBA ). B : for bosons F : for fermions . t ) = −iθ(t − t ) A(t). which we need to learn. and is only a clever mathematical trick. Z 157 (10. By deﬁnition (10. from which we can ﬁnd the retarded function as C R = iθ(t−t )(CAB we have 1 CAB (t. The important thing that distinguishes the boson case from the fermion case is the sign change that is obtained upon interchange.

i∂t U = HU while ρ is the solution to ∂β ρ = −Hρ. If we consider a product of operators A(τ )B(τ ) and write it in terms of the corresponding operators in the interaction representation. because both the density operator ρ = e−βH /Z and the time evolution operator U (t) = e−iHt are both exponential functions of the Hamiltonian. o which is known as the Bloch equation.158 CHAPTER 10.4) result in three time-ordered exponentials. (10.8) Note that we consider only time-independent Hamiltonians in this section. If they are not timeindependent. we get ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A(τ )B(τ ) = U (0. We deﬁne A(τ ) = eτ H Ae−τ H . τ )B(τ )U (τ . (10.7) Letting H = H0 + V . Furthermore. but bare in mind that this is purely a mathematical trick without physical contents. t ) = − Tr e−βH U (0.4) Z ˆ In Eq.1 They therefore satisfy similar diﬀerential equations: U satisﬁes the Schr¨dinger equation. τ )A(τ )U (τ. Then we saw in Chap. 0). 5.6) Similar to the interaction picture deﬁned for real times. τ a Greek letter. 6. 1 (10. we can deﬁne the interaction picture for imaginary times as ˆ A(τ ) = eτ H0 Ae−τ H0 . In order to treat both U and ρ in one go. one cannot use the ordinary equilibrium statistical mechanics but instead one must use a non-equilibrium formalism. to go back to physical real times from the imaginary time function. i. In the end this means that both U and ρ can be treated in just one expansion in powers of V . where τ is real and has the dimension time. (10. To make a long story short: this is a mess and a new idea is therefore needed. As for real time we can deﬁne an imaginary time Heisenberg picture by substituting it by τ . so A(t) = eitH Ae−itH . 5 that the interaction picture provides a systematic way of expanding in powers of V. which could be collected into a single time-ordered exponential. (10. (5. But the trouble arises for the density matrix e−βH . we will see that there is a well-deﬁned method to obtain the physically relevant quantity. which should also be expanded in powers of the interaction.5) In this notation. (10. 0) . t)A(t)U (t.e. one replaces the time argument by a imaginary quantity t → −iτ . you should use the imaginary time deﬁnitions when the time argument is a Greek letter and the usual deﬁnition when the times are written with roman letters. This would in Eq. We could try to utilize this and write CAB as 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ CAB (t. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Suppose the Hamiltonian is H = H0 + V . where V is the perturbation. This we did in the linear response limit in Chap.18) we saw also how a single U operator could be expanded as a time-ordered exponential. the relation between the Heisenberg and the interaction picture in imaginary time follows the arguments in Chap. t )B(t )U (t . but we will not cover the more general case of non-linear time dependent response in this course. t a Roman letter. . The solution to this problem is to use imaginary times instead of real times. To employ imaginary time is not as far fetched as it might look.

i. (10. is of course the same. τ ) = eτ H0 e−(τ −τ From this it follows directly that ˆ ˆ ˆ U (τ. . However. (10. τ ) = n=0 1 (−1)n n! τ τ τ τ dτ1 · · · τ ˆ ˆ dτn Tτ V (τ1 ) · · · V (τn ) (10.12) = Tτ exp − τ ˆ dτ1 V (τ1 ) . (5.8) and (10.11) ˆ This is analogous to Eq. and where the averages · · · e−βH0 e−βH0 0 depending on appear after normalizing with 1/Z0 = 1/Tr . before we can see the usefulness fully. 0) 0 0 .14) 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Tr e−βH0 U (β. (10.159 ˆ where. τ )A(τ )U (τ. (10. (10. 0)) . (10.15) Z This can be written in a much more compact way relying on the properties of Tτ and Eq. the time-evolution operator U in the interaction picture is ˆ U (τ. because by combining Eqs.4).16) ˆ where we have used Z = Tr e−βH = Tr e−βH0 U (β. (10. and indeed it can. First we diﬀerentiate Eq. τ )B(τ )U (τ . τ ) = U (τ.10) )H −τ H0 e .13) we can immediately expand in powers of V Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) = Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) = (10.12).9) and (10. 0) . Z Utilizing Eqs. 0)A(τ )B(τ ) = ˆ ˆ Tτ U Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) = Tr e Z ˆ U (β.13) 0 Consider now the time ordered expectation value of the pair of operators in Eq.10) ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ U (β. τ ) = eτ H0 (H0 − H)e−(τ −τ )H −τ H0 e ˆ ˆ = −V (τ )U (τ. Now the same iterative procedure is applied and we end with ∞ ˆ U (τ.9) An explicit expression for U (τ. τ ) = 1.13) and the boundary condition. τ ). (10. 0)A(τ )B(τ ) 1 −βH0 ˆ (β. 0) Tτ (U (0. τ )U (τ . we need to relate the correlation functions written in imaginary time and the correlation function with real time arguments. τ ).8) 1 Tr e−βH Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) .9) with respect to τ and ﬁnd ˆ ∂τ U (τ.12) we obtain β ˆ ˆ e−βH = e−βH0 U (β. (10.3.18).e. Above it was argued that the density operator naturally can be treated within the imaginary time formalism. (5. U (τ. τ ) is found in analogy with the derivation of Eq. (10. like in Eq. (10. The time ordering is again the same as deﬁned in Sec. (5. (10. the operators are ordered such that Tτ (A(τ )B(τ )) is equal to A(τ )B(τ ) for τ > τ and B(τ )A(τ ) when τ > τ . 0) = e−βH0 Tτ exp − dτ1 V (τ1 ) . 5. This result demonstrates that the trick of using imaginary time indeed allows for a systematic expansion of the complicated looking expression in Eq.

Secondly. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS 10. for τ < 0. We have for τ > τ −1 Tr e−βH eτ H Ae−τ H eτ H Be−τ H CAB (τ. 5 with the later “times” to the left + for bosons. τ ) is a function of the time diﬀerence only. i. CAB (τ.20) for τ < 0 is −1 Tr e−βH e(τ +β)H Ae−(τ +β)H B CAB (τ + β) = Z −1 = Tr eτ H Ae−τ H e−βH B Z −1 Tr e−βH Beτ H Ae−τ H = Z −1 = Tr e−βH BA(τ ) Z −1 = ± Tr e−βH Tτ (A(τ )B) Z = ±CAB (τ ). (10. convergence of CAB (τ. (10. is deﬁned in the following way CAB (τ. It means that operators are ordered according to history and just like the time-ordering operator seen in Chap.17) where the time-ordering symbol in imaginary time has been introduced.17) three things are clear. . CAB (τ.160 CHAPTER 10. (10.19) to get a factor exp (− [β − τ + τ ] En ) . For τ > τ the equality τ − τ < β is clearly seen if one uses the Lehmann representation in Eq.e. = = −1 Tr e−βH e−τ Z H τH e Ae−τ H eτ H B −1 Tr e−βH e(τ −τ Z )H Ae−(τ −τ )H B (10. τ ) is guaranteed only if −β < τ − τ < β.20) which again follows from the cyclic properties of the trace. (10. likewise. Firstly. (10. This follows from the cyclic properties of the trace. and of course likewise for τ > τ . (10. − for fermions. (10.21) and similarly for τ > 0.18) The next question is: What values can τ have? From the deﬁnition in Eq. Thirdly. also called Matsubara Green’s function. τ ) = CAB (τ − τ ). the second equality is obtained if τ < τ .19) = CAB (τ − τ ). τ ) ≡ − Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) . we have the property CAB (τ ) = ±CAB (τ + β). τ ) = Z Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) = θ(τ − τ )A(τ )B(τ ) ± θ τ − τ B(τ )A(τ ). and. The proof of Eq.1 Deﬁnitions of Matsubara Green’s functions The imaginary time Green’s functions.

(10.2 Connection between Matsubara and retarded functions We shall now see why the Matsubara Green’s functions have been introduced at all.22b) n=−∞ However. n is even for bosons. Because of the properties above.2.25) The frequency variable ωn is denoted a Matsubara frequency. Note how the information about the temperature is contained in the Matsubara frequencies through β. 2 0 2 0 β 1 = 1 ± e−iπn dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ). we remark that the boundaries of the integral 0 dτ in Eq. β for bosons.24) From now on we use the following notation for the Fourier transforms of the Matsubara Green’s functions β CAB (iωn ) = dτ e 0 iωn τ CAB (τ ). and thus according to the theory of Fourier transformations we have a discrete Fourier series on that interval given by CAB (n) ≡ CAB (τ ) = 1 2 1 β β −β ∞ dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ).22a) (10. for fermions.10. β]. β Finally. we take CAB (τ ) to be deﬁned in the interval −β < τ < β.21) this can be simpliﬁed as CAB (n) = = 1 2 β 0 β dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ) + 1 2 0 −β dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ). In the frequency domain they are in fact the same analytic function as the usual real times . (10. for example if CAB (τ ) includes a delta function δ(τ ). 10. n is odd for fermions. e. A consistent choice is always to move the time argument into the interior of the interval [0. (10. due to the symmetry property (10. (10.25) leads to a minor ambiguity of how to treat the boundary τ = 0. we obtain β CAB (n) = 0 dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ). ωn = ωn = 2nπ β .1 Fourier transform of Matsubara Green’s functions Next we wish to ﬁnd the Fourier transforms with respect to the “time” argument τ .g replace δ(τ ) by δ(τ − 0+ ). 1 1 β dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ) + e−iπn dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ − β).1. 2 0 (10. CONNECTION BETWEEN MATSUBARA AND RETARDED FUNCTIONS161 10.23) and since the factor 1 ± e−iπn is zero for plus sign and n odd or for minus sign and n even and 2 otherwise. e−iπnτ /β CAB (n). (2n+1)π .

According to the theory of analytic functions: if two functions Note that it is assumed that the grand canonical ensemble is being used because the complete set of states includes states with any number of particles. (10. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Green’s functions. CAB (iωn ).27) and hence β CAB (iωn ) = dτ eiωn τ 0 −1 Z e−βEn n |A| n nn n |B| n eτ (En −En ) .29) This function is analytic in the upper (or lower) half plane. (8. there exists an analytic function CAB (z). In the general case we get2 R CAB (ω) = 1 Z nn n |A| n n |B| n e−βEn − (±)e−βEn ω + En − En + iη . where z is a complex frequency argument in the upper half plane. that equals CAB (iωn ) on the R imaginary axis and CAB (ω) on the real axis. but has a series of poles at En −En along the real axis.where η is a positive inﬁnitesimal. In Sec. the other one follows by analytic continuation. (10.26) The Matsubara function is calculated in a similar way. For τ > 0. 8.28) −1 = Z = −1 Z e−βEn nn n |A| n n |B| n iωn + En − En n |A| n n |B| n iωn + En − En e−βEn nn 1 = Z nn n |A| n n |B| n iωn + En − En e−βEn − (±)e−βEn R Eqs.26) and (10. we have CAB (τ ) = −1 Tr e−βH eτ H Ae−τ H B Z −1 = e−βEn n |A| n n |B| n eτ (En −En ) .3. (10. R The relation between the two functions CAB and CAB is proven by use of the Lehmann representation.3 we calculated the retarded single particle Green’s function and the result Eq. this is a powerful method for ﬁnding the corresponding retarded function. Indeed we shall now show that the appropriate analytic R continuation is CAB (ω) = CAB (iωn → ω + iη).162 CHAPTER 10. Z nn (10.28) show that CAB (iωn ) and CAB (ω) coincide and that they are just R special cases of the same function. 2 . eiωn β eβ(En −En ) − 1 . ±eβ(En −En ) − 1 . Therefore the connection between imaginary time functions and retarded real time functions derived here is only valid in this ensemble. Since it is in many cases much easier to compute the Matsubara function.46) can be carried over for fermions. (10. In other words. This means that once we have one of the two. because we can generate both CAB (iωn ) and CAB (ω) from the following function deﬁned in the entire complex plane except for the real axis CAB (z) = 1 Z nn n |A| n n |B| n z + En − En e−βEn − (±) e−βEn .

(10. it is not obvious how to perform the continuation.e. CONNECTION BETWEEN MATSUBARA AND RETARDED FUNCTIONS163 Figure 10. If we na¨ ıvely insert iωn → ω + iη before doing the integral.2. This is illustrated in Fig. To summarize: Using the Lehmann representation we have shown that there exists a function CAB (z) which is analytic for z not purely real and which coincides with the Matsubara function. CAB (z = iωn ) = CAB (iωn ). furthermore.30) iωn → z → ω + iη gives the right analytic function. we could do the same thing in the lower half ) # " 0 $% # " ( ! ' ' ¥ ©¨ § # " & $% " ©! # 1 ' ¢ ' ' ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¦ £¤ ¥ ¢ . For example look at the deﬁnition in Eq.1. Later we shall see examples of how to perform the analytic continuation correctly. (10. If not. i.10. (10. 10.1: The analytic continuation procedure in the complex z-plane where the Matsubara function deﬁned for z = iωn goes to the retarded or advanced Green’s functions deﬁned inﬁnitesimally close to real axis.1 Advanced functions The function CAB (z) is analytic for all z away from the real axis. the answer is completely diﬀerent and of course wrong. it is not a simple task to determine CAB (z) unless it has been reduced to an rational function as in Eq.2. where it is evident that the replacement in (10.e. However.28). there is only R one such common function. i. CAB (z = ω + i0+ ) = CAB (ω). Therefore instead of the continuation in the upper half plane. 10. On the real axis coming from above R this function is identical to the retarded function. This means that if we know CAB (iωn ) we can ﬁnd CAB (ω) by analytic continuation: R CAB (ω) = CAB (iωn → ω + iη). coincide in an inﬁnite set of points then they are fully identical functions within the entire domain where at least one of them is a analytic function and.25).30) Warning: this way of performing the analytic continuation is only true when CAB (iωn ) is written as a rational function which is analytic in the upper half plane.

B(t ) B.1 Matsubara Green’s function for non-interacting particles For non-interacting particles the Matsubara Green’s functions can be evaluated in the same way we found the retarded Green’s function in Sec. i. They are deﬁned as G(rστ. τ ) σ G(ντ. which gives the so-called advanced Green’s function. τ − τ ) = − Tτ cν (τ )c† (τ ) ν . ν ν ν (10.32) The term “advanced” means that it gives the state of the system at previous times based on the state of system at present times. which gives G0 (ν.164 CHAPTER 10. (10.31) The advanced Green’s function is in the time domain deﬁned as A CAB (t. c† (τ ) = eτ H0 c† e−τ H0 = eξν τ c† . 6. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS plane iωn → z → ω − iη.3. t ) = iθ(t − t) A(t). 8.3. gives the present state of the system as it has evolved from the state at previous times. A CAB (ω) = CAB (iωn → ω − iη). ν τ ) = − Tτ cν (τ )c† (τ ) ν . .F (ν. ν (10.3 Single-particle Matsubara Green’s function An important type of Matsubara functions are the single-particle Green’s function G. (10. τ − τ ) = − θ(τ − τ )(1 − nF (ξν )) − θ(τ − τ )nF (ξν ) e−ξν (τ −τ ) e−ξν (τ −τ ) .35) = −θ(τ − τ ) cν (τ )c† (τ ) − (±) θ(τ − τ ) c† (τ )cν (τ ) ν ν = − θ(τ − τ ) cν c† (±)θ(τ − τ ) c† cν ν ν For fermions this is G0.τ )Ψ† (r .37) .F . 10.33a) (10. 10. (10. Suppose the Hamiltonian is diagonal in the ν-quantum numbers H0 = ν ξν c† cν .33b) {ν} representation.36) (10. the eﬀect of retardation. The retarded one. (10.2. real space. as was explained in Chap. r στ ) = − Tτ Ψσ (r.e.34) so that cν (τ ) = eτ H0 cν e−τ H0 = e−ξν τ cν .

while the bosonic one becomes qn = 2nπ/β G0.30). iqn − ξν (10.4 Evaluation of Matsubara sums When working with Matsubara Green’s functions we will often encounter sums over Matsubara frequencies. similar to integrals over frequencies in the real time language. τ − τ ) = − θ(τ − τ ) (1 + nB (ξν )) + θ(τ − τ )nB (ξν ) e−ξν (τ −τ ) . For example sums of the type S1 (ν. ω − ξν + iη (10. ikn )eikn τ . (10. EVALUATION OF MATSUBARA SUMS while the bosonic free particle Green’s function reads G0. (10. (8. According to our recipe Eq. β = − (1 + nB (ξν )) = − (1 + nB (ξν )) = 1 . ω) = 0 in agreement with Eq. the fermionic Green’s function is β 165 (10.B (ν. ikn τ > 0. 0 1 eikn β e−ξν β − 1 . ikn − ξν dτ eikn τ e−ξν τ . τ ).51). In the frequency representation. ikn ) = 0 dτ eikn τ G0. β kn = (2n + 1) π/β = − (1 − nF (ξν )) = − (1 − nF (ξν )) = 1 . Here we have anticipated the notation that is used later: Matsubara frequencies ikn and ipn are used for fermion frequencies.B (ν. 1 .F (ν. ikn − ξν (10.F (ν. iqn ) = 0 dτ eiqn τ G0. τ ).40) −1 because eiqn β = 1 and 1 + nB (ε) = − e−βε − 1 . iqn − ξν dτ eiqn τ e−ξν τ .4.38) G0. while iqn and iωn are used for boson frequencies.42) . the retarded free particles Green’s functions are for both fermions and bosons GR (ν.10.39) −1 because eikn β = −1 and 1 − nF (ε) = e−βε + 1 β .B (ν. 0 1 eiqn β e−ξν β − 1 . τ ) = 1 β G(ν.41) 10.

S2 (ν1 . the contour integral which encloses one of these points.49b) C 2πi . (10. (10. iωn and study them for τ > 0. In order to be more general. poles for z = i(2n + 1)π/β. which enclose all point z = ikn in the fermionic case and all points z = iωn in the bosonic case. (10. the trick is to rewrite them as integrals over a complex variable and to use residue theory. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS or sums with products of Green’s functions. iωn .45b) e −1 The residues at these values are (z − ikn ) δ 1 Res [nF (z)] = lim = lim βikn βδ =− . and therefore the types of sums we will meet are often products of the such free Green’s functions.g.48) If we therefore deﬁne contours. is given by dz nF (z)g(z) = 2πi Res [nF (z)g(ikn )] = − z=ikn 2πi g(ikn ). respectively. we can write dz nF (z)g(z)ezτ . β (10. but only regions where g(z) is analytic. poles for z = i(2n)π/β.44b) g(iωn )eiωn τ .49a) SF = − C 2πi dz SB = + nB (z)g(z)ezτ .166 CHAPTER 10. C. βz − 1 z=iωn z→iωn e δ→0 e β e −1 According to the theory of analytic functions. ikn τ > 0. (10. ν2 . τ ) = 1 β G0 (ν1 .43) This section is devoted to the mathematical techniques for evaluating such sums. which have poles at z = ikn and z = iωn . ikn ikn fermion frequency iωn boson frequency (10. but no singularity of g(z). e.47) for fermions and similarly for boson frequencies dz nB (z)g(z) = 2πi Res [nB (z)g(iωn )] = z=ikn 2πi g(iωn ). These functions turn out to be the well known Fermi and Bose distribution functions 1 .46b) =+ . (10. ikn )G0 (ν2 . n(z).46a) βz + 1 z=ikn z→ikn e δ→0 e e +1 β (z − iωn ) δ 1 Res [nB (z)] = lim = lim βiωn βδ (10. The imaginary time formalism has been introduced because it will be used to perform perturbation expansions. To evaluate these. ikn + iωn )eikn τ . For this we need two functions. we deﬁne the two generic sums S F (τ ) = S B (τ ) = 1 β 1 β g(ikn )eikn τ . β (10.45a) nF (z) = βz e +1 1 nB (z) = βz .44a) (10. (10.

1 Summations over functions with simple poles Consider a Matsubara frequency sum like Eq.43) but let us take a slightly more general function which could include more free Green’s function. Let us therefore consider the sum 1 F g0 (ikn )eikn τ . for Re z > 0.4. EVALUATION OF MATSUBARA SUMS 167 Figure 10. Furthermore.51) z − zj j where {zj } is the set of known poles and hence g0 (z) is analytic elsewhere in the z-plane. The contribution from the contour goes to zero as |z| → ∞ and hence the contributions from the z = ikn and z = zj poles add up to zero.50) S0 (τ ) = β ikn where g0 (z).2: The contour used to perform the Matsubara sum for a function with known poles. (10. has a number of known simple poles. the contour integral itself gives zero because the integrand goes to zero exponentially for z ∈ C∞ (remember 0 < τ < β) nF (z)eτ z = eτ z ∝ eβz + 1 e(τ −β) Re z → 0.4.g.2. we use the contour integration technique in two special cases. In the following two subsections. (10. eτ Re z → 0. (10. Such a contour would give us the contribution for poles of nF (z) plus the contributions from poles of g0 (z). (10.43) 1 g0 (z) = . in the form of non-interacting Green’s functions like (10. for Re z < 0. 10. τ > 0. e. zj . Because we know the poles of g0 a good choice for a contour is to take one that covers the entire complex plane C∞ : z = R eiθ where R → ∞.52) ¦¥ ¤ ¢ © §¨ ¦¥ ¤ £ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¢ §! ¦¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ §# ¦"¤ £ .10. see Fig. 10.

42).3: The contour used to perform the Matsubara sum for a function with known branch cuts.(10. including for example the inﬂuence of interaction. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Figure 10. The contribution from the outer parts of the contour goes to zero as |z| → ∞ and hence only the paths parallel to the cut (here the real axis) contribute. z=zj Res [g0 (z)] nF (zj )ezj τ . but we do know that it is analytic for z not on the real axis. This general property of the Green’s function was shown in Sec.e. ¨ § ¦¤ £ ¢ © ¥ © £ ¥ ¤ £ ¥ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ (10. 10. i. In general. ikn τ > 0.168 CHAPTER 10. Hence 0= C∞ dz nF (z)g0 (z)ezτ 2πi g0 (ikn )eikn τ + ikn F S0 (τ ) = j j z=zj =− and thus 1 β Res [g0 (z)] nF (zj )ezj τ . The Matsubara sum has thus been simpliﬁed considerably and we shall use this formula several times during the course.2. If it is the full Green’s function.56) ¡¢ ¢ . we do not know the poles of the Green’s function. For bosons the derivation is almost identical and we get 1 β B g0 (iωn )eiωn τ = S0 (τ ) = − iωn j z=zj Res [g0 (z)] nB (zj )ezj τ .4. it is known to be an analytic function in the entire complex plane exempt on the branch cuts.55) (10. 10. consider the sum S(τ ) = 1 β g(ikn )eikn τ .2 Summations over functions with known branch cuts The second type of sums we will meet are of the form in Eq.53) (10.54) (10.

As for the example in the previous section. A](τ ) ∂ θ(τ − τ ) A(τ )B(τ ) ± θ(τ − τ ) B(τ )A(τ ) . ∂τ = δ(τ − τ ) AB − (±)BA + Tτ [H.33b). (10. ε)eετ . Eq. EQUATION OF MOTION 169 where it is known that g(z) is analytic in the entire complex plane except on the real axis. ε − iη)] eετ .10.57). becomes in this way S1 (ν.3. In the second equality we used that G(ε − iη) = [G(ε + iη)]∗ which follows from Eq. Eq. ε). In the imaginary time formalism the time derivative of an operator is ∂τ A(τ ) = ∂τ eτ H Ae−τ H = eτ H [H.5 Equation of motion The equation of motion technique. the part where |z| → ∞ does not contribution to the integral and we are left with the parts of the contour running parallel to the real axis. (8. A]e−τ H = [H. 2π (10. 8 to ﬁnd various Green’s functions. (10. (8. A](τ )B(τ ) . (10. to a negative inﬁnitesimal 0− .58) according to the deﬁnition of the spectral function in Eq. (10.59) which agrees with our previous ﬁnding. Now setting the time argument in the single particle imaginary time Green’s ν function.60) If we diﬀerentiate the Matsubara function Eq. 10. 0− ) ν 1 − = G(ν. (10. (10. −∞ 2π (10. They are shifted by an inﬁnitesimal amount η away from the real axis on either side dz S(τ ) = − nF (z)g(z)ezτ .29) with A = cν and B = c† . ε + iη) − G(ν.52). 10. see Eq. we have in fact found an expression for the expectation value of the occupation. A contour which includes all points z = ikn and no singularities of g is therefore C = C1 + C2 depicted in Fig. ikn )e−ikn 0 = S1 (ν.τ ) = − ∞ 1 dε nF (ε) [G(ν.0+ ) β ikn ∞ = −∞ dε nF (ε)A(ν. can also be used for the Matsubara functions. used in Chap.49).57) 2πi −∞ For example. we obtain −∂τ CAB (τ − τ ) = . because c† cν = G(ν. ε) eετ 2πi −∞ ∞ dε = nF (ε)A(ν. the sum in Eq.17) with respect to τ . 2πi −∞ ∞ 1 =− dε nF (ε)2i Im GR (ν.5.42). 2πi C1 +C2 ∞ 1 =− dε nF (ε) [g(ε + iη) − g(ε − iη)] eετ . (10.

i.33). ν In this case. r )G0 (r τ. For example for free particle those given in Eqs. . τ )) . which we have indicated by the subscript 0. (10.called Wick’s theorem . −∂τ G(ντ. ν (10. ν τ ) = δ(τ − τ )δνν + Tτ ([H. The time-evolution is also with respect to H0 and it is given by c(τ ) = eτ H0 c e−τ H0 . cν ](τ )c† (τ )) . Ψ(r)](τ )Ψ† (r . (10. of the general form H0 = H0 = νν dr dr Ψ† (r)h0 (r. r τ ) = δ(τ − τ )δ(r − r ) + Tτ ([H. higher order Green’s function involving more than one particle can be factorized into products of single-particle Green’s functions. . . IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS where the minus sign in AB − (±)BA is for fermion operators. . whereas the plus sign should be used for boson operators. . when the Hamiltonian is quadratic.63b) −∂τ G0 (ντ.e. For the single-particle Green’s functions deﬁned in Eqs. .170 CHAPTER 10.6 Wick’s theorem We end this rather technical part by proving an extremely useful theorem. ˆ (10.e. the equations of motion therefore in the two representations reduce to −∂τ G0 (rτ. −1 G0 = −∂τ − H0 . ν τ ) = δ(τ − τ )δνν .64) This equation together with the boundary condition G(τ ) = ±G(τ + β) gives the solution.62)). ν τ ) − or in matrix form −1 G0 G0 = 1. νn τn . (10. ν (10.66) . 10. tνν G0 (ν τ. and which is used in the example ending this chapter.63a) (10. (10. The theorem . i.62b) tνν c† cν . r τ ) − dr h0 (r. which we will need later when doing perturbation theory. r τ ) = δ(τ − τ )δ(r − r ). ν1 τ1 . r )Ψ(r ).37) and (10.38).62a) (10. (10. Consider an n-particle Green’s function deﬁned as G0 (ν1 τ1 .61b) For non-interacting electrons the Hamiltonian is quadratic. (10. we then get for both fermion and boson Green’s functions −∂τ G(rτ. .states that for non-interacting particles. .65) The average is taken with respect to a non-interacting Hamiltonian H0 (like Eq.61a) (10. νn τn ) = (−1)n Tτ cν1 (τ1 ) · · · cνn (τn )ˆ† (τn ) · · · c† (τ1 ) ˆ ˆ cν ˆν n 1 (n) 0 .

(2n+1−j) cνj (τj ). so that we have −1 G0i G0 (n) θ = −∂τi G0 . . Which permutation is the correct one of course depends on how the time arguments in (10. Let us simplify the writing by deﬁning one operator symbol for both creation and annihilation operators dj (σj ) = c† ˆν (τ(2n+1−j) ). . . we can rewrite G0 as G0 (j1 .69). cν1 ](τ1 ) · · · cνn (τn )ˆ† (τn ) · · · c† (τ1 ) ˆ cν ˆν n 1 .10. corresponding to τi being either smaller or larger than τj . . b.69).63) and (10.70) last term which is similar to the derivation that lead to Eqs. Therefore if we (n) sum over all permutations and include the corresponding conditions. j ∈ [n + 1. There are two such terms in (10. (10. deﬁne the list (a. b) then P = (3. 2n]. This gives two kinds of contributions: the terms coming from the derivative of the theta functions and one term from the derivative of the expectation value itself. .65) are really ordered. 2)).71) −1 where G0i means that it works on the coordinate νi . The last one gives for example for τ1 − ∂ (n) G ∂τ1 0 ˆ ˆ = − (−1)n Tτ [H0 . (n) (10. (10. ˆ j ∈ [1. The easiest way to show Wick’s theorem is through the equation of motion for the n(n) particle Green’s function.72) . .65) is indeed quite complicated to look at if we write out all the possible orderings and the conditions for that particular ordering.67) and furthermore deﬁne the permutations of the 2n operators as P (d1 (σ1 ) · · · d2n (σ2n )) = dP1 (σP1 ) · · · dP2n (σP2n ). (10. (10.69) where the factor (±1)P takes into account that for fermions (minus sign) it costs a sign change every time a pair of operators are commuted. τ1 . and they will have diﬀerent order of the permutation. . j2n ) = (−1)n P ∈S2n (n) (±1)P θ(σP1 − σP2 ) · · · θ(σPn−1 − σPn ) 0 × dP1 (σP1 ) · · · dP2n (σP2n ) .g. (10. (10. For example if n = 2. Take now for example the case where τi is next to τj . WICK’S THEOREM 171 The expression in (10. n]. there are 4 time arguments which can be ordered in 4! diﬀerent ways. a.6. On the right hand side the derivative only acts on the theta functions in Eq. Thus we diﬀerentiate G0 with respect to one of time arguments. c) and the permutation (c. . τi . τn . 1.64).68) where Pj denotes the j’th variable in the permutation P (e. In this case G (n) has the structure G0 (n) = · · · θ(τi − τj ) · · · ± · · · θ(τj − τi ) · · · · · · cνi (τi )ˆ† (τj ) · · · ˆ cν j · · · c† (τj )ˆνi (τi ) · · · ˆν c j . (10.

71) now looks like −1 G0i G0 (n) n = j=1 δνi .77a) (10. .78) By recalling the deﬁnition of a determinants this formula is immediately recognized as the determinant in the case where the minus sign should be used. Besides this undetermined sign. . i ≡ (νi . (10. it gives the same result and hence (n) G0 n = j=1 (±)j+i G0 νi τi . i. . Hence ˆν ˆ j fermions: (−1)x = − (−1)n (−1)1−n (−1)2n−i−j = (−1)j+i . periodic in the time arguments.νj δ(τi − τj ) (−1)x G0 (n−1) (ν1 τ1 . νn τn ). In fact. . . c† (τi ) ˆ ˆν j B.e. . 1 ) · · · . . and hence θ −∂τi G0 (n) = [· · · ] · · · cνi (τi )ˆ† (τj ) · · · ˆ cν j [· · · ] · · · c† (τj )ˆνi (τi ) · · · ˆν c j δ(τi − τj ). i. With the plus sign it is called a permanent. (10. we get in the same manner the (anti-)commutator cνi (τi ). . (10. .172 CHAPTER 10. without i without j (10.F . .73) We can pull out the equal time commutator or anti-commutator for boson or fermions.. a constant. we saw a special case of this in Eq. The number of creation and annihilation operators has thus both been reduced by one. . . . n ) . νj τj G0 (n−1) (ν1 τ1 ..77b) = 1. .n ) = G0 (1. .. (n) Now Eq. n. cνj (τi ) ˆ ˆ B. . . νn τn ). νn τn .νj . IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS and when this is diﬀerentiated with respect to τi it gives two delta functions. ν1 τ1 . ..65) [(−1)n−1 ]−1 from the deﬁnition of G (n−1) .76) Let us collect the signs that go into (−1)x : (−1) from (−∂τ ).F = 0. respectively = δνi .F If τi is next to τj instead of τj . without i without j (10. 1 ) · · · G0 (1. and this sign denoted (−1)x will (for fermions) depend on the τj in question.. and for fermions (−1)n−i+n−j from moving c† next to cνi . . G0 (n.76) can be integrated and because G0 has the same boundary conditions as G0 . We therefore end up with (n) G0 (1.e. What we have not determined is the sign of the new (n − 1)-Green’s function. 1 .74) cνi (τi ).79) . ν1 τ1 .63) where a one-particle Green’s function was reduced to a zero-particle Green’s function. . . . our equation of motion (10. νn τn . n ) B. bosons : (−1) = − (−1) (−1) x n 1−n (10. and it leaves a Green’s function which is no longer an n-particle Green’s function but an (n − 1)-Green’s function. (10. . G0 (n. τi ) (10. . . (−1)n from the deﬁnition in (10.75) which therefore does not contribute. . (10.

10.54) . ikn + iqn )G0 (kσ.10.1. which follows from the corresponding Matsubara function by χR (q. ω). k ) ∝ δk.e. this is Wick’s theorem. kσ (10. 10. Remembering that G0 (kσ. G0 (k + qσ. χR (q. i.σ ck+qσ (τ ) c† σ k 0 Tτ ck −qσ (0) c† kσ (τ ) 1 − ρ (q) V 0 =0 for q=0 0 ρ (−q) 0 .5 we calculated the polarizability of non-interacting free electrons. ikn ) = 1/ (ikn − ξk ). The Fourier transform of a product in the time domain is a convolution in the frequency domain.e. 8.F means that for fermions it is the usual determinant.7. we can read oﬀ the answer from Eq. τ )G0 (kσ. Because one function has argument τ while the other has argument −τ . The starting point is the physical quantity which is needed: the frequency dependent retarded charge-charge correlation function. In order to illustrate the working principle of the imaginary time formalism.4. −τ ). iqn ) we start from the time-dependent χ χ0 (q.k σσ 0 .83) where we consider only q = 0 and use that G0 (k. EXAMPLE: POLARIZABILITY OF FREE ELECTRONS 173 where we used a shorthand notation with the orbital and the time arguments being collected into one variable.(10. τ ) = − 1 Tτ (ρ (q.k . τ ) = V = 1 V Tτ k. (10.k .83). iqn ) = 1 β 1 V G0 (k + qσ.7 Example: polarizability of free electrons In Sec. we do it again here.σ. The next step is to calculate the frequency dependent function. 1 χ0 (q.80) and expresses it as a two-particle Green’s function χ0 (q. ikn ). τ ) ρ (−q)) 0 . iqn → ω + iη). kσ (10. i. while for bosons it should be understood as a permanent where all have terms come with a plus sign. and where the determinant |·|B.81) (10.82) By Wick’s theorem this is given by a product of single-particle Green’s functions with all possible pairings and with the sign given by the number of times we interchange two fermion operators.84) ikn The sum over Matsubara frequencies has exactly the form studied in Sec. In order to ﬁnd χ (q. to Fourier transform the product (10. V (10. ω) = χ(q. τ ) = − 1 V Tτ c† (τ ) ck+qσ (τ ) c† σ ck −qσ kσ k k. the internal frequencies in the two come with the same sign χ0 (q.

174

CHAPTER 10. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS

by inserting the poles of the two G0 (kσ, z) (z = ξk and z = ξk+q − iqn ) and obtain χ0 (q, iqn ) = = 1 V 1 V nF (ξk )G0 (k + qσ, ξk + iqn ) + nF (ξk+q − iqn )G0 (kσ, ξk+q − iqn )

k

nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q )

kσ

iqn + ξk − ξk+q

.

(10.85)

**Here we used that nF (ξk+q − iqn ) = 1 eβξk+q e−βiqn +1 = 1 e
**

βξk+q

+1

,

(10.86)

because iqn is a bosonic frequency. After the substitution (10.80) Eq. (10.85) gives the result we found in Eq. (8.81).

10.8

Summary and outlook

When performing calculations of physical quantities at ﬁnite temperatures it turns out that the easiest way to ﬁnd the “real time” introduced in Chap. 7 is often to go via the imaginary time formalism. This formalism has been introduced in this chapter, and in the following chapters on Feynman diagrams it is a necessary tool. There you will see why it is more natural to use the imaginary time Green’s function, also called Matsubara Green’s function. The reason is that the time evolution operator and the Boltzmann weight factor can be treated on an equal footing and one single perturbation expansion suﬃces. In the real time formalism there is no simple way of doing this. We have also derived some very useful relations concerning sums over Matsubara frequencies. The things to remember are the following. Non-interacting particle Green’s function, valid for both bosons and fermions G0 (ν, iωn ) = 1 . iωn − ξv (10.87)

**Matsubara frequency sum over products of non-interacting Green’s functions (for τ > 0) S F (τ ) = 1 β 1 β g0 (ikn )eikn τ =
**

ikn j

Res (g0 (zj )) nF (zj )ezj τ ,

ikn fermion frequency, (10.88a)

S B (τ ) =

**g0 (iωn )eiωn τ = −
**

iωn j

Res (g0 (zj )) nB (zj )ezj τ ,

iωn boson frequency, (10.88b)

with g0 (z) = i 1/ (z − ξi ) . If we perform a sum over functions where the poles are unknown but where the branch cuts are known, we can use a contour depicted in Fig.

10.8. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK

175

10.3. For example if g(ikn ) is known to be analytic everywhere but on the real axis we get S F (τ ) = 1 β g(ikn )eikn τ = −

ikn ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞

dε nF (ε) [g(ε + iη) − g(ε − iη)] 2πi (10.89)

=−

dε nF (ε) g R (ε) − g A (ε) . 2πi

Finally, we proved an important theorem, Wick’s theorem, which says that for noninteracting an n-particle Green’s function is equal to a sum of products of single-particle Green’s functions, where all possible pairings should be included in the sum. For fermions we must furthermore keep track of the number of factors −1, because each time we interchange two fermion operators we must include a factor -1. The end result was

(n) G0 (1, . . . , n; 1

,...,n ) =

G0 (1, 1 ) · · · . .. . . . G0 (n, 1 ) · · ·

G0 (1, n ) . . . G0 (n, n )

B,F

,

i ≡ (νi , τi ) ,

(10.90)

where G0 (1, . . . , n; 1 , . . . , n ) = (−1)n Tτ c(1) · · · c(n)ˆ† (n ) · · · c† (1 ) ˆ ˆ c ˆ

(n) 0

.

(10.91)

176

CHAPTER 10. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS

Chapter 11

**Feynman diagrams and external potentials
**

From the previous chapters on linear response theory and Green’s functions, it is clear that complete calculations of thermal averages of time-dependent phenomena in quantum ﬁeld theory are a rather formidable task. Even the basic imaginary time evolution operˆ ˆ ator U (τ ) itself is an inﬁnite series to all orders in the interaction V (r, τ ). One simply faces the problem of getting lost in the myriads of integrals, and not being able to maintain a good physical intuition of which terms are important. In 1948 Feynman solved this problem as part of his seminal work on quantum electrodynamics by inventing the ingenious diagrams that today bear his name. The Feynman diagrams are both an exact mathematical representation of perturbation theory to inﬁnite order and a powerful pictorial method that elucidate the physical content of the complicated expressions. In this chapter we introduce the Feynman diagrams for the case of non-interacting particles in an external potential. Our main example of their use will be the analysis of electron-impurity scattering in disordered metals.

11.1

Non-interacting particles in external potentials

Consider a time-independent Hamiltonian H in the space representation describing noninteracting fermions in an external spin-diagonal single-particle potential Vσ (r): H = H0 + V =

σ

dr Ψ† (r)H0 (r)Ψσ (r) + σ

σ

dr Ψ† (r)Vσ (r)Ψσ (r). σ

(11.1)

As usual we assume that the unperturbed system described by the time-independent Hamiltonian H0 is solvable, and that we know the corresponding eigenstates |ν and 0 Green’s functions Gν . In the following it will prove helpful to introduce the short-hand notation

β

(r1 , σ1 , τ1 ) = (1)

and 177

d1 =

σ1

dr1

0

dτ1

(11.2)

178

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

for points and integrals in space-time. We want to study the full Green’s function, G(b, a) = − Tτ Ψ(b)Ψ† (a) , governed by ˆ ˆ H, and the bare one, G 0 (b, a) = − Tτ Ψ(b)Ψ† (a) 0 , governed by H0 . We note that since no particle-particle interaction is present in Eq. (11.1) both the full Hamiltonian H and the bare H0 have the simple form of Eq. (10.62), and the equations of motion for the two Green’s functions have the same form as Eq. (10.63):

[−∂τb −H0 (b)] G 0 (b, a) = δ(b−a) [−∂τb −H(b) ] G(b, a) = δ(b−a)

⇔ [−∂τb −H(b)+V (b)] G 0 (b, a) = δ(b−a) ⇔ G(b, a) = [−∂τb −H(b)]−1 δ(b−a),

(11.3a) (11.3b)

where we have also given the formal solution of G, which is helpful in acquiring the actual solution for G. Substituting δ(b − a) in Eq. (11.3b) by the expression from Eq. (11.3a) yields: [−∂τb − H(b)] G(b, a) = [−∂τb − H(b) + V (b)] G 0 (b, a) = [−∂τb − H(b)] G 0 (b, a) + V (b) G 0 (b, a) = [−∂τb − H(b)] G 0 (b, a) + (11.4) d1 δ(b − 1) V (1) G 0 (1, a).

Acting from the left with [−∂τb − H(b)]−1 gives an integral equation for G, the so-called Dyson equation, G(b, a) = G 0 (b, a) + d1 G(b, 1) V (1) G 0 (1, a), (11.5)

where we have used the second expression in Eq. (11.3b) to introduce G in the integrand. By iteratively inserting G itself in the integrand on the left-hand side we obtain the inﬁnite perturbation series G(b, a) = G 0 (b, a) + d1 G 0 (b, 1) V (1) G 0 (1, a) (11.6)

+ d1 d2 G 0 (b, 1) V (1) G 0 (1, 2) V (2) G 0 (2, a)

+ d1 d2 d3 G 0 (b, 1) V (1) G 0 (1, 2) V (2) G 0 (2, 3) V (3) G 0 (3, a) + . . . . The solutions Eqs. (11.5) and (11.6) for G are easy to interpret. The propagator, G, of a fermion in an external potential is given as the sum of all possible processes involving unperturbed propagation, described by G 0 , intersected by any number of scattering events V . So in this simple case there is really no need for further elucidation, but we will anyway proceed by introducing the corresponding Feynman diagrams. The ﬁrst step is to deﬁne the basic graphical vocabulary, i.e. to deﬁne the pictograms representing the basic quantities G, G 0 , and V of the problem. This vocabulary is known

11.2. ELASTIC SCATTERING AND MATSUBARA FREQUENCIES as the Feynman rules: b G(b, a) = G 0 (b, a) =

179

b d1 V (1) . . . = 1 (11.7)

a a Note how the fermion lines point from the points of creation, e.g. Ψ† (a), to the points of annihilation, e.g. Ψ(b). Using the Feynman rules the inﬁnite perturbation series Eq. (11.6) becomes b b b b b 1 = + 1 + 2 + 1 2 3 + ... (11.8)

a a a a a In this form we clearly see how the full propagator from a to b is the sum over all possible ways to connect a and b with bare propagators via any number of scattering events. We can also perform calculations by manipulating the diagrams. Let us for example derive an integral form equivalent to Eq. (11.5) from Eq. (11.8): b b b b b × 1 + 1 1 + 2 1 2 + . . . 3

=

+

=

+

1

(11.9)

a a a a a which by using the Feynman rules can be written as G(b, a) = G 0 (b, a) + d1 G 0 (b, 1) V (1) G(1, a).

a

a (11.10)

The former integral equation Eq. (11.5) for G is obtained by pulling out the bottom part V (n) G 0 (n, a) of every diagram on the right hand side of Eq. (11.8), thereby exchanging the arrow and the double-arrow in the last diagram of Eq. (11.9). This is a ﬁrst demonstration of the compactness of the Feynman diagram, and how visual clarity is obtained without loss of mathematical rigor.

11.2

Elastic scattering and Matsubara frequencies

When a fermion system interacts with a static external potential no energy is transferred between the two systems, a situation referred to as elastic scattering. The lack of energy

180

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

transfer in elastic scattering is naturally reﬂected in a particularly simple form of the single-particle Green’s function G(ikn ) in Matsubara frequency space. In the following the spin index σ is left out since the same answer is obtained for the two spin directions. First we note that since the Hamiltonian H in Eq. (11.1) is time-independent for static potentials we know from Eq. (10.19) that G(rτ, r τ ) depends only on the time diﬀerence τ − τ , and according to Eqs. (10.22b) and (10.25) it can therefore be expressed in terms of a Fourier transform with just one fermionic Matsubara frequency ikn : G(rτ, r τ ) = 1 β G(r, r ; ikn ) e−ikn (τ −τ ) ,

n β

G(r, r ; ikn ) =

dτ G(rτ, r τ ) eikn (τ −τ ) .

0

(11.11) The Fourier transform of the time convolution dτ1 G 0 (τb − τ1 )V G(τ1 − τa ) appearing in the integral equation of G is the product G 0 (ikn )V G(ikn ). The elastic scattering, i.e. the time-independent V , cannot change the frequencies of the propagators. In Matsubara frequency space the Dyson equation Eq. (11.10) takes the form G(rb , ra ; ikn ) = G 0 (rb , ra ; ikn ) + dr1 G 0 (rb , r1 ; ikn ) V (1) G(r1 , ra ; ikn ). (11.12)

As seen previously, the expressions are simpliﬁed by transforming from the |r -basis to the basis |ν which diagonalizes H0 . We deﬁne the transformed Green’s function in this basis as follows: Gνν ≡ drdr ν|r G(r, r ) r |ν ⇔ G(r, r ) =

νν

r|ν Gνν ν |r .

(11.13)

In a similar way we deﬁne the |ν -transform of V (r) as Vνν ≡ dr ν|r V (r) r|ν . In the |ν, ikn representation the equation of motion Eq. (11.3b) for G is a matrix equation, [(ikn − ξν )δν,ν − Vν,ν ] Gν

ν ,ν

(ikn ) = δν,ν

¯ ¯ or [ikn ¯ − E 0 − V ] G(ikn ) = ¯ (11.14) 1 ¯ 1,

¯ where E 0 is a diagonal matrix with the eigenenergies ξν = εν − µ along the diagonal. We have thus reduced the problem of ﬁnding the full Green’s function to a matrix inversion problem. We note in particular that in accordance with Eq. (10.40) the bare propagator G 0 has the simple diagonal form

0 (ikn − ξν )δν,ν Gν ν ,ν

(ikn ) = δν,ν

⇒

0 Gν,ν (ikn ) =

1 δ . ikn − ξν ν,ν

(11.15)

**We can utilize this to rewrite the integral equation Eq. (11.12) as a simple matrix equation, G(νb νa ; ikn ) = δν
**

b ,νa

G 0 (νa νa ; ikn ) +

νc

G 0 (νb νb ; ikn ) Vνb νc G(νc νa ; ikn ).

(11.16)

¯ We can also formulate Feynman rules in (ν, ikn )-space. We note that G 0 is diagonal in ¯ is a general matrix. To get the sum of all possible quantum processes one must ν, while V

1: (a) A disordered metal consisting of an otherwise perfect metal lattice with a number of randomly positioned impurities giving rise to elastic electron-impurity scattering.18) νa Random impurities in disordered metals An important example of elastic scattering by external potentials is the case of random impurities in a disordered metal. νb νb Gνb νa = νa νa Using these Feynman rules in (ν. and as a ﬁrst approximation an impurity ion at site Pj gives rise to a simple screened mono-charge Coulomb potential uj (r) = −(e2 /|r − Pj |) e−|r−Pj |/a .3. The frequency argument is suppressed. ikn )-space we can express Dyson’s equation Eq. while at low T only the electron-impurity scattering is eﬀective and gives rise to the non-zero value ρ0 of ρxx at T = 0. This will be discussed in detail in Chap. given by the so-called screening length a. The valence of the impurity ions is one higher than the host ions. 11.3 = δν b . RANDOM IMPURITIES IN DISORDERED METALS 181 sum over all matrix indices diﬀerent from the externally given νa and νb .17) 11. . One well-controlled experimental realization of this is provided by a perfect metal Cu lattice with MgII ions substituting a small number of randomly chosen CuI ions. In Fig.11. xx © ©§ ©§¨¥ ¦¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤¢ £ ¢ ¡ . and as a result the range of the potential is ﬁnite.ν b ikn − ξνa Vνν = ν ν (11.νa = b δν b . and since the vibrational Figure 11. The screening is due 0 to the electrons in the system trying to neutralize the impurity charge. (b) The electrical resistivity ρxx (T ) of the disordered metal as a function of temperature. At high temperature the resistivity is mainly due to electron-phonon scattering. since the Green’s functions are diagonal in ikn .νa = δνa . At high T the electron-phonon scattering dominates giving rise to a linear behavior. The presence of the impurities can be detected by measuring the (longitudinal) resistivity ρxx of the metal as a function of temperature.1(a) is sketched a number of randomly positioned impurities in an otherwise perfect metal lattice.16) diagrammatically: νb νb νa 0 Gν . (11. 13.νa νa + νa νb νc (11.

(11. The elastic scattering potential V (r) then acquires the form Nimp V (r) = j=1 u(r − Pj ). Exercise 3.182 CHAPTER 11.19) Two small dimensionless parameters of the system serve as guides to obtain good approximative solutions. Finally.3. at the lowest temperatures. ikn ) u(r1−Pj ) G(r1 . ra . Now consider Nimp identical impurities situated at the randomly distributed but ﬁxed positions Pj . One is stating that the ratio between the impurity density. 11. kF a}. ρ0 . FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS 1 energy ω (n+ 2 ) in thermal equilibrium is proportional to kB T . (11. For high energies around. typically a few kelvin. We postpone the calculation of the resistivity and in this section just concentrate on studying the electron Matsubara Green’s function G for electrons moving in such a disordered metal.21) 11. only the electron-impurity scattering is left preventing the Bloch electrons in moving unhindered through the crystal. As a result the resistivity levels oﬀ at some value. the level spacing is (∂ε/∂p) ∆p = (p/m) ( /a) = ka 2 /ma2 . We assume that the scattering potential u(r − Pj ) diﬀers only signiﬁcantly from 0 for |r − Pj | < a.22) Assume that u is only important in a sphere of radius a around the scattering center. nimp = Nimp /V. say ε = p2 /2m. ra .1(b). (11. ikn ) = G (rb−ra . We use the plane wave states |kσ from the eﬀective mass approximation Eq. and consequently the resistivity becomes proportional to some power α of T . is also proportional to T (see e.1 Feynman diagrams for the impurity scattering With the random potential Eq.16) as the unperturbed basis |ν . Weak scattering means ˜ 2 /ma2 as follows:1 that u is much smaller than some characteristic level spacing ˜ u ˜ ma2 2 min {1.12) becomes Nimp G(rb .2).19) the Dyson equation Eq. (2. the so-called residual resistivity. where p = k has been used. and the electron density nel is much smaller than unity: nimp nel 1. the number n of phonons. At lower temperature the phonon degrees of freedom begin to freeze out and the phase space available for scattering also shrinks. (11. (11. and hence the electron-phonon scattering rate.g.20) The other small parameter is stating that the strength of the scattering potential is weak. ~ ~ ~ ~ . The level spacing for non-perturbed states in that sphere is near the ground state given by the size quantization 2 /ma2 . ikn ) + j=1 1 0 dr1 G 0 (rb−r1 . Thus u is weak if it is smaller than the smallest of these level spacings. The temperature behavior of the resistivity is depicted in Fig. Pj is randomly distributed. (11. and that the characteristic value in that region is u. ikn ).

.23) × G 0 (rb −rn ) u(rn − Pjn ) .3. . However. which may be interpreted as momentum conservaj j−1 j tion in each electron-impurity scattering: the change of the electron momentum is absorbed by the impurity. . .. . ra ) = j1 . (11. . and therefore translation-invariant. . ra . ra ) = ∞ G (n) (rb . ra ) = j1 ...k +q .jn 1 Vn b q1 . ikn ) = 1 V 0 Gk (ikn ) eik·(r−r ) .25) The Fourier expansion of G (n) (rb .27) 0 Gka e −i[(kb −kn−1 )·Pjn +. uk 2 −k1 0 Gk1 uk . We now want to deduce the Feynman rules for constructing diagrams in this situation. k (11. k1 .23) is: Nimp G (n) (rb .. u(r2 −Pj2 ) G 0 (r2 −r1 ) u(r1 −Pj1 ) G 0 (r1 −ra ). if we are satisﬁed with the answer to the less ambitious and more practical question of what is the average behavior.. . ikn ). .24) The Fourier transform of the impurity potential u(r−Pj ) is: u(r−Pj ) = 1 V uq eiq·(r−Pj ) = q 1 V e−iq·Pj uq eiq·r .22) in orders n of the scattering potential u(r−Pj ). ra .+q2 ·Pj +q1 ·Pj ) ×eikb ·(rb −rn ) eiqn ·rn eikn−1 ·(rn −rn−1 ) . eiq2 ·r2 eik1 ·(r2 −r1 ) eiq1 ·r1 eika ·(r1 −ra ) .. ra ). ... we can never hope to solve this problem exactly.+(k1 −ka )·Pj ] 1 j1 .15) Gk of the impurity free. uq2 Gk1 uq1 Gka e −i(qn ·Pjn +. Not only is it for all practical purposes impossible to know where all the impurities in a given metallic sample de facto are situated. (11. problem has the simple form: 0 Gk (ikn ) = 1 .jn b −kn−1 0 ×Gk uk 0 Gkn−1 .. . This n-th order contribution can be interpreted as the sum over all processes involving n scattering events in all possible combination of impurities.11.. RANDOM IMPURITIES IN DISORDERED METALS 183 where we have used the fact that the unperturbed system is translation-invariant and hence that G 0 (r1 . jn dr1 . . ikn − ξk 0 Gk (r−r . To this end we reformulate Dyson’s 0 equation in k space since according to Eq.qn 1 V2 1 ka kb V n−1 dr1 . n=0 where the frequency argument ikn has been suppressed. Utilizing these delta functions in the n q-sums leads to G (n) 1 (rb ra ) = 2 V Nimp e ka kb b ikb ·rb −ika ·ra e 1 V n−1 k1 .26) 0 0 0 0 ×Gk uqn Gkn−1 uqn−1 . (11. drj ei(kj −kj−1 −qj )·rj = V δk . but even if we did. This complicated expression can be simpliﬁed a lot by performing the n spatial integrals. ikn ) in Eq.kn−1 1 −ka (11. q (11.kn−1 drn 2 1 (11. .. drn (11. . First expand the Dyson equation Eq.. and obtain G(rb . Naturally... ikn ) = G 0 (r1 −ra .. then we shall soon ﬁnd an answer. no simple solution for the Green’s function could be found. The n-th order term G (n) is Nimp Nimp G (n) (rb .

0 Let straight arrows k denote Gk . We therefore begin to consider the possibility of performing an average over the random positions Pj of the impurities. ra ) = with Nimp (n) Gk ka b of G (n) (rb . (11.184 CHAPTER 11. . kb −kn−1 k3 −k2 k2 −k1 k1 −ka 11.30) The diagram corresponding to Eq.. and Nimp j1 . as mentioned above. Let Gka kb 0 Let Gk go from vertex j to vertex j + 1. ra ) as eikb ·rb e−ika ·ra Gk ka kb (n) . However..4 Impurity self-average If the electron wavefunctions are completely coherent throughout the entire disordered metal each true electronic eigenfunction exhibit an extremely complex diﬀraction pattern spawned by the randomly positioned scatterers.g.. j kj Maintain momentum conservation at each vertex. . If one imagine changing some external parameter. Perform the sums 1 V over all internal momenta kj . each individual . . 0 go into vertex •1 and G 0 away from vertex •n.31) = ··· n kb kn−1 k3 3 k2 2 k1 1 ka This diagram is very suggestive. Draw n scattering events... b ka 1 V2 (11. uk 2 −k1 0 Gk1 .kn−1 −i[(kb −kn−1 )·Pjn +.29) 0 × Gk uk b −kn−1 0 Gkn−1 . e. .29) is: Pn Gk (n) b ka P3 P2 P1 (11. the average electron density or an external magnetic ﬁeld.+(k1 −ka )·Pj ] 1 (11. Pj denote a scattering event uq e−iq·Pj .. (11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS (n) b ka Introducing the Fourier transform Gk G (n) (rb . (n) : b ka we can now easily deduce the Feynman rules for the diagrams corresponding to Gk (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Let dashed arrows j q. One can see how an incoming electron with momentum ka is scattered n times under momentum conservation with the impurities and leaves the system with momentum kb . it is not possible to continue the study of impurity scattering on general grounds without further assumptions..jn over Pjl .jn 1 V n−1 b e k1 .28) = j1 . uk 1 −ka 0 Gka .

Therefore. For very large (mm sized) macroscopic samples lϕ is much smaller than the sample size at all experimental realizable temperatures (T > 10 mK for electron gases in metals and semiconductors). At suﬃciently high temperature (e. at 0..2(a) is shown the conductance trace of a GaAs nano-device. IMPURITY SELF-AVERAGE 185 diﬀraction pattern will of course change drastically due to the sensitivity of the scattering phases of the wavefunctions.. In fact. Thus in the following we average over all possible uncorrelated positions Pj of the Nimp impurities for the entire system: 1 Gkb ka V ¯ ≡ δk .31 K as a function of the electron density. Using modern nano-technology to fabricate small (but still macroscopic) samples. 11.31 K.ka Gka ≡ b δk imp b .2(b) where the conductance trace at 4.4. Any n-th order contribution to Gk contains n scattering events. one can in fact obtain an experimental situation where the electrons can traverse the sample without loosing their quantum-mechanical phase coherence.2. 2. As the temperature of a given sample is raised. the amount of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering increases because of an increased phase space for scattering and an increased number of phonons. These ﬂuctuations turn out to be perfectly reproducible as Vg is swept up and down several times. Signiﬁcant quantum ﬂuctuations must therefore occur in any observable at suﬃciently low temperatures. and standard cryogenic equipment to cool down these samples to ultra-low temperatures.1 K is seen to be much smoother than the one at 0. and we can think of the device as being composed as a number of phase-independent small phase coherent sub-systems. In Fig. and where the many small phase coherent sub-systems of the sample are indicated below the experimental graph. But due to the random distribution of the impurities. when one measures an observable the result is in fact an incoherent average of all these sub-systems. 11. such as the one shown in Fig. This density can be controlled by applying a gate voltage Vg on an external electrode. even on the rather small length scale lϕ the system is already homogeneous. 4. 1 V dPNimp Gka (11. Mathematically. This eﬀect is illustrated in Fig. the impurity average is performed by summing over all the phase-independent coherent sub-systems and dividing by their number Nsys . 11.10. The conductance G is seen to ﬂuctuate strongly for minute changes of Vg .1 K) lϕ is much smaller than the size of the device.32) Here we have anticipated that the impurity averaged Green’s function is diagonal in k due to the restoring of translation-invariance upon average. The quantum mechanical phase of each individual electron is changed by a small random amount at each inelastic scattering event. and we are in the impurity self-averaging case. and this eﬀective averaging is consequently denoted self-averaging. Some care must be taken regarding the average over the impurity positions Pj . this average is the same as an average over the impurity position within a single subsystem . any . and one can as well perform the position average over the entire volume of the sample.ka V dP1 1 V dP2 . Note that this average is imposed by the physical properties of the system itself.ka Nsys sys Gka i ∼ δk i=1 1 Nsys b . but they need not be on n diﬀerent scatterers. However.as can be seen from Fig.11.g. and as a result the coherence length lϕ for the electrons diminishes.

..30 0. We note that in Eq. The sum in Eq.40 0.50 Vg (V) T = 4. Below is indicated that the phase coherence length lϕ is large compared to the size of the sample.1 K .20 0.29) the only reference to i(q ·P +q ·P +.186 ¢ ¡ CHAPTER 11. 1 ≤ p ≤ n of scatterers could be involved.31 K displaying random but reproducible quantum ﬂuctuations as a function of a gate voltage Vg controlling the electron density. The ﬂuctuations are almost gone due to the smallness of lϕ at this temperature. Then. (11.20 0. For a given ﬁxed number n of scattering events the most important contribution therefore comes from processes involving just one impurity.+qn ·Pjn ) . follow processes involving two impurities. number p. As mentioned in Eq. (11.20) we work in the limit of small impurity densities nimp .40 0.30 0. which suppresses the quantum ﬂuctuations.2: (a) The measured conductance of a disordered GaAs sample at T = 0.29) over impurity positions in this exponential is now ordered according to how many impurities are involved: ¥ ¤ ¢ £ ¥ ¤ 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.50 Vg (V) T = 0. etc. The ﬂuctuations are due to phase coherent scattering against randomly positioned impurities. As a result a substantial self-averaging occurs. (11. down by the small factor nimp /nel . with the scattering the impurity positions is the exponential e 1 j1 2 j2 vectors qi = ki − ki−1 . (b) The same system at T = 4.31 K G (e2/h) Figure 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS 5 4 G (e2/h) 3 2 1 0 0. We must therefore carefully sort out all possible ways to scatter on p diﬀerent impurities. The sample now contains a large number of independent but phase-coherent sub-systems of size lϕ .1 K.

(11.11.2 Since all the p positions Ph now are manifestly diﬀerent we can perform the impurity average indicated in Eq. . the sum of all scattering momenta on the same impurity must be zero. the result may perhaps be easier to understand than the derivation.. The detailed calculation is straightforward but somewhat cumbersome.. . IMPURITY SELF-AVERAGE 187 Nimp e j1 . q2 . (11. The impurity average indicated in Eq.32) over each exponential factor independently.. .. The result of the impurity averaging can now be written as Nimp e j1 . (11. As depicted in Eq.34) i This of course no longer depends on the p impurity positions Phi . For the important terms p Nimp and the error is p/Nimp 1.33) we let the j-sums run unrestricted. while Q1 ∪Q2 ∪.4. (11.35) i This error occurs since our approximation amounts to saying that the (p + 1)-st impurity can occupy any of the Nimp impurity sites. in Eq.. that strictly speaking two diﬀerent impurities cannot occupy the same position. Note. the averaging has restored translation-invariance. cf. (11. This introduces a small error of the order 1/Nimp for the important terms in the low impurity density limit involving only a few impurities.jn i Pn l=1 ql ·Pj Nimp l = h1 i( P e i( P q ∈Q j1 qj )·Ph 1 1 Nimp Nimp + Q1 ∪Q2 =Q h1 h2 e q ∈Q1 l1 ql )·Ph 1 1 e P i( q l2 ∈Q2 ql )·Ph 2 2 Nimp Nimp Nimp + Q1 ∪Q2 ∪Q3 =Q h1 h2 h3 e P i( q l1 ∈Q1 ql )·Ph 1 1 e P i( q l2 ∈Q2 ql )·Ph 2 2 e i( P ql ∈Q3 3 ql )·Ph 3 3 + . . However. .P q ∈Qh hi qh . Since translation-invariance is restored by the averaging. 11. .P h=1 h=1 Qh =Q q ∈Qh hi qh .32) over each independent exponential factor results in some Kronecker delta’s meaning that all scattering vectors qhi connected to the same impurity must add up to zero: e P i( q ∈Qi hi qh )·Ph i i = imp 1 V dPhi e i( P q ∈Qh hi qh )·Ph i i = δ0. (11.38) the impurity averaged Green’s function is a sum scattering processes against the position-averaged impurities.. All the scattering vectors in one particular subset Qi are connected to the same impurity Phi .jn 2 i Pn l=1 ql ·Pj n p Sp l = imp p=1 Nimp δ0.33) Here Q = {q1 .. qn } is the set of the n scattering vectors. and not just the Nimp −p available sites.3.∪Qp = Q denotes all possible unions of non-empty disjunct subsets spanning Q. But let us see how these conclusions are reached. Fig. (11. ..

188

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

**which, when inserted in Eq. (11.29), leads to Gk
**

(n) imp

=

1 V n−1

n k1 ...kn−1 p=1

1

p

Sp

Nimp δ0,P

0 Gk2 . . . uk

n−1 −k

h=1 h=1 Qh =Q 0 Gk .

Qh (khi −k(hi −1) )

0 0 × Gk uk −k Gk1 uk

1 −k2

(11.36)

We note that due to the p factors containing δ-functions there are in fact only n − 1 − p 1 free momenta sums V k to perform. The remaining p volume prefactors are combined with Nimp to yield p impurity density factors nimp = Nimp /V. The Feynman rules for constructing the n-th order contribution Gk purity averaged Green’s function Gk imp are now easy to establish: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)

(n) imp

to the im-

Let scattering lines q denote the scattering amplitude uq . Let denote a momentum conserving impurity averaged factor nimp δ0,P q . 0 Let fermion lines k denote the unperturbed Green’s function Gk . Draw p impurity stars. Let n1 scattering lines go out from star 1, n2 from star 2, etc, so that the total number n1 + n2 + . . . + np of scattering lines is n. Draw all topological diﬀerent diagrams containing an unbroken chain of n + 1 fermion lines connecting once to each of the n scattering line end-points. 0 Let the ﬁrst and last fermion line be Gk . Maintain momentum conservation at each vertex. Make sure that the sum of all momenta leaving an impurity star is zero. 1 Perform the sum V k over all free internal momenta kj .

j

Sum over all orders n of scattering and over p, with 1 ≤ p ≤ n. (11.37)

**The diagrammatic expansion of Gk Gk
**

imp

imp

has a direct intuitive appeal: +

=

+ + +

+

!

+ + + ··· +

(11.38)

" # $ % &

+ +

In this expression, showing all diagrams up to third order and three diagrams of fourth order, we have for visual clarity suppressed all momentum labels and even the arrows of the scattering lines. For each order the diagrams are arranged after powers of nimp , i.e. the number of impurity stars. In Fig. 11.3 two diagrams with complete labels are shown. In the following section we gain further insight in the solution of Gk imp by rearranging the terms in the diagrammatic expansion, a procedure known as resummation.

'

+ ··· +

(

)

+ ···

Figure 11.3: Two fully labelled ﬁfth order diagrams both with two impurity scatterers. Diagram (a) is a so-called irreducible diagram, i.e. it cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting one internal fermion line. In contrast, diagram (b) is reducible. It consists of two irreducible parts.

11.5

In Fig. 11.3 we introduce the concept of irreducible diagrams, i.e. diagrams in the expansion of Gk imp that cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting a single internal fermion line. We now use this concept to resum the diagrammatic expansion Eq. (11.38) for Gk imp . We remind the reader that this resummation is correct only in the limit of low impurity density. First we deﬁne the so-called self-energy Σk : Σk ≡ = = The sum of all irreducible diagrams in Gk 0 without the two external fermion lines Gk

imp

**Using Σk and the product form of Gk Gk
**

imp

**This algebraic Dyson equation, equivalent to Eqs. (11.9) and (11.18), is readily solved: Gk (ikn )
**

imp

From this solution we immediately learn that Σk enters Gk imp as an additive correction to the original unperturbed energy, ξk → ξk + Σk , hence the name self-energy. The problem

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Self-energy for impurity scattered electrons

11.5. SELF-ENERGY FOR IMPURITY SCATTERED ELECTRONS

189

* + , /

+ + +

imp

+

.

+ ···

+ ··· (11.39)

= =

0 0 = Gk + Gk Σk Gk

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

+ + + × +

imp . 0 Gk

in Fourier space, Eq. (11.38) becomes + ...

+ ... (11.40)

=

1−

0 Gk

Σk

=

1

0 (Gk )−1

− Σk

=

1 . ikn − ξk − Σk (ikn )

(11.41)

190

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

of ﬁnding Gk imp is thus reduced to a calculation of Σk . In the following we go through various approximations for Σk .

11.5.1

Lowest order approximation

One marvellous feature of the self-energy Σk is that even if it is approximated by a ﬁnite number of diagrams, the Dyson equation Eq. (11.40) actually ensures that some diagrams of all orders are included in the perturbation series for Gk imp . This allows for essential changes in Gk imp , notably one can move the poles of Gk imp and hence change the excitation energies. This would not be possible if only a ﬁnite number of diagrams were used in the expansion of Gk imp itself. Bearing in mind the inequalities Eqs. (11.20) and (11.21), the lowest order approximation ΣLOA to Σk is obtained by including only the diagram with the fewest number of k impurity stars and scattering lines, ΣLOA (ikn ) ≡ k

7

= nimp u0 = nimp

dr u(r),

(11.42)

**i.e. a constant, which upon insertion into Dyson’s equation Eq. (11.41) yields
**

LOA Gk (ikn ) =

1 . ikn − (ξk + nimp u0 )

(11.43)

But this just reveals a simple constant shift of all the energy levels with the amount nimp u0 . This shift constitutes a redeﬁnition of the origin of the energy axis with no dynamical consequences. In the following it is absorbed into the deﬁnition of the chemical potential and will therefore not appear in the equations.

11.5.2

1st order Born approximation

The simplest non-trivial low-order approximation to the self-energy is the so-called ﬁrst order Born approximation given by the ’wigwam’-diagram Σ1BA (ikn ) ≡ k

8

k−k k −k k

= nimp

k

|uk−k |2

1 , ikn − ξk

(11.44)

where we have used that u−k = u∗ since u(r) is real. We shall see shortly that Σ1BA = k k Re Σ1BA + i Im Σ1BA moves the poles of Gk imp = away from the real axis, i.e. k k 1BA the propagator acquires a ﬁnite life-time. By Eq. (11.40) we see that Gk is the sum of propagations with any number of sequential wigwam-diagrams:

9

In the evaluation of Σ1BA we shall rely on our physical insight to facilitate the math. k We know that for the electron gas in a typical metal εF ∼ 7 eV ∼ 80 000 K, so as usual only electrons with an energy εk in a narrow shell around εF ≈ µ play a role. For

: ; < = >

1BA

=

+

+

+

+ ···

(11.45)

11.5. SELF-ENERGY FOR IMPURITY SCATTERED ELECTRONS

191

Figure 11.4: (a) The functions nimp |uk |2 and (ω − εk + µ)/[(ω − εk + µ)2 + η 2 ] appearing in the expression for Re Σ1BA (ikn ). (b) The functions nimp |uk |2 and |kn |/[(ω − εk + µ)2 + η 2 ] k appearing in the expression for Im Σ1BA (ikn ). k T < 800 K we have kB T /εF < 10−2 , and for applied voltage drops Vext less than 70 mV over the coherence length lϕ < 10−5 m (the typical size we are looking at), i.e. applied electrical ﬁelds less than 7000 V/m, we have eVext /εF < 10−2 . Thus we are only interested in Σ1BA (ikn ) for k |k| ∼ kF and |ikn → ω + i sgn(kn )η| εF . (11.46) Here we have also anticipated that at the end of the calculation, as sketched in Fig. 10.1, we need to perform an analytical continuation down to the real axis, either from the upper half-plane, where kn > 0, as ikn → ω + iη, or from the lower half-plane, where kn < 0, as ikn → ω − iη. Furthermore, as we shall study in great detail later, the electron gas redistributes itself to screen out the external charges from the impurities, and as a result uk−k varies in a smooth and gentle way for 0 < |k − k | < 2kF . With this physical input in mind we continue: 1 (11.47) Σ1BA (ω + i sgn(kn )η) = nimp |uk−k |2 k (ω − ξk ) + i sgn(kn )η

k

=

k

nimp |uk−k |2

ω − ξk − i sgn(kn ) πδ(ω − ξk ) . (ω − ξk )2 + η 2

Since |uk−k |2 vary smoothly and |ω − ξk | εF ≈ µ we get the functional behavior shown in Fig. 11.4. Since (ω − ξk )/((ω − ξk )2 + η 2 ) is an odd function of ω − ξk and the width η is small, we have3 Re Σ1BA (ikn ) ≈ 0; For the imaginary part of Σ1BA we obtain the k usual delta function for η → 0. Finally, since the spectral function for the unperturbed system forces ω to equal ξk , we obtain: Σ1BA (ikn ) = −iπ sgn(kn ) k

k

3

nimp |uk−k |2 δ(ξk − ξk ) = −i sgn(kn )

Strictly speaking, we only get vanishing real part if the slope of |uk−k |2 is zero near µ. If this is not the case we do get a non-zero real part. However, since |uk−k |2 is slowly varying near µ we get the same real part for all k and k near kF . This contribution can be absorbed into the deﬁnition of µ.

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1 , 2τk

(11.48)

192

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

**where we have introduced the impurity scattering time τk deﬁned as 1 ≡ 2π τk nimp |uk−k |2 δ(ξk − ξk ).
**

k

(11.49)

This result can also be found using Fermi’s golden rule. Now we have obtained the 1st order Born approximation for Gk (ikn ) in Eq. (11.41) and the analytic continuation ikn → z thereof into the entire complex plane: z−ξ 1 i , Im z > 0 k + 2τ 1 1BA 1BA k Gk (ikn ) = −→ Gk (z) = (11.50) 1 ikn − ξk + i sgn(kn ) ikn →z z−ξ − i , Im z < 0. 2τ

k k 2τ k

1BA We see that Gk (z) has a branch cut along the real axis, but that it is analytic separately in the upper and the lower half-plane. This is a property that will play an important role later, when we calculate the electrical resistivity of disordered metals. Note that this behavior is in accordance with the general results obtained in Sec. 9.2 concerning the analytic properties of Matsubara Green’s functions. We close this section by remarking three properties summarized in Fig. 11.5 related to the retarded Green’s function GR,1BA (ω ) = G 1BA (ω + iη). First, it is seen by Fourier R,1BA transforming to the time domain that Gk (t) decays exponentially in time with τk as the typical time scale:

Gk

R,1BA

(t) ≡

e−i(ω +iη)t dω = −i θ(t) e−iξk t e−t/2τk . 2π ω − ξk + i/2τk

(11.51)

−1 Second, exploiting that ω , τk εF , it is seen by Fourier transforming back to real space R,1BA (r, ω ) decays exponentially in space with l ≡ v τ as the typical length scale: that G k F k

GR,1BA (r, ω ) ≡

πd(εF ) ik |r| −|r|/2lk dk eik·r = e F e . (2π)3 ω − ξk + i/2τk kF |r|

(11.52)

**Thirdly, the spectral function A1BA (ω ) is a Lorentzian of width 2τk : k
**

1BA A1BA (ω ) ≡ −2 Im Gk (ω + iη) = k 2 (ω − ξk )2 + 1/4τk

1/τk

(11.53)

In conclusion the impurity averaged 1st Born approximation has resulted in a selfenergy with a non-zero imaginary part. The poles of the Matsubara Green’s function 1BA Gk (ikn ) are therefore shifted away from the real axis, resulting in a both temporal and spatial exponential decay of the retarded Green’s function. This is interpreted as follows: the impurity scattering transforms the free electrons into quasiparticles with a ﬁnite life time given by the scattering time τk and a ﬁnite mean free path given by lk = vF τk . The ﬁnite life time of the quasiparticles is also reﬂected in the broadening of the spectral function. The characteristic sharp δ-function for free electrons, Ak (ω ) = 2πδ(ω − ξk ), is

11.5. SELF-ENERGY FOR IMPURITY SCATTERED ELECTRONS

193

Figure 11.5: (a) The impurity averaged Green’s function Gk (ikn ) imp . The imaginary part of the self-energy is related to the scattering time τk and hence also to the elastic scattering length l = vF τk . (b) In the Born approximation the spectral function Ak (ω ) is a Lorentzian centered around ξk = 0 with a width 1/2τk . broadened into a Lorentzian of width 1/2τk . This means that a particle with momentum k can have an energy ω that diﬀers from ξk with an amount /2τk . This calculation of self-averaged impurity scattering constitutes a ﬁrst and very important example of what can happen in a many-particle system. Note in particular the important role played by the self-energy, and the fact that it can have a non-zero imaginary part. The results is obtained in the 1st order Born approximation, where the self-energy is approximated by a single diagram. But what happens if we take more diagrams into account? The surprising answer is that in the low impurity density limit, nimp nel no qualitative diﬀerence arises by taking more diagrams into account. Only at higher impurity densities where scattering events from diﬀerent impurities begin to interfere new physical eﬀects, such as weak localization, appear. Let us see how this conclusion is reached.

11.5.3

The full Born approximation

A natural extension of the 1st Born approximation is the full Born approximation, which is exact to lowest order in nimp . It is deﬁned by the following self-energy ΣFBA (ikn ), where k any number of scattering on the same impurity is taken into account, i.e. more dashed lines on the wigwam-diagram:

ΣFBA k

≡

?

+

k k−k

kk

@

×

k

+

k

k

A

+

k

+

k

k

B

+

k

+ ···

k

=

C D

+

kk k

δk ,k

E

F

k

G

+ ···

k

In the parenthesis at the end of the second line we ﬁnd a factor, which we denote tk ,k , that is not diagonal in k but with a diagonal that equals the self-energy tk,k = ΣFBA . In k scattering theory tk ,k is known as the transition matrix. When this matrix is known all

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**

(11.54)

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194

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

consequences of the complete scattering sequence can be calculated. An integral equation for the transition matrix is derived diagrammatically:

tk

1 ,k2

(ikn ) ≡

δk =

H

+

1 ,k2

k1

I

k1−k

+

k2

k1

J

δk ,k

+ ···

k2

δk

K

+

1 ,k2

k1

L

+

×

k

M

+

2

k

N

+

k

k2

O

+ ···

k2

= nimp u0 δk

1 ,k2

uk

k

1 −k

0 Gk tk ,k .

2

(11.55)

This equation can in many cases be solved numerically. As before the task is simpliﬁed by the fact that we are only interested at electrons moving at the Fermi surface. The real part of the diagonal element tk,k (ikn ), the one yielding the self-energy, is almost constant for |k| ∼ kF and is absorbed into the deﬁnition of the chemical potential µ. We are then 0 left with Imtk,k (ikn ), and by applying the optical theorem,4 Imtk,k = Im k t† Gk tk ,k , k,k we obtain Im ΣFBA (ikn ) k = Im tk,k (ikn ) = Im

k ikn →ω +i sgn(kn )η

|tk,k |2 ikn − ξk |tk,k |2 δ(ω − ξk ).

k

−→

−sgn(kn ) π

(11.56)

This has the same form as Eq. (11.48) with |tk,k |2 instead of nimp |uk−k |2 , and we write ΣFBA (ikn ) = −i sgn(kn ) k 1 , 2τk with 1 ≡ 2π τk |tk,k |2 δ(ξk − ξk ).

k

(11.57)

By iteration of Dyson’s equation we ﬁnd that G FBA is the sum of propagations with any number and any type of sequential wigwam-diagrams:

P Q R S T

FBA

=

+

+

+

+ ···

(11.58)

11.5.4

The self-consistent Born approximation and beyond

Many more diagrams can be taken into account using the self-consistent Born approximation deﬁned by substituting the bare G 0 with the full G in the full Born approximation

Eq. (11.55) states (i): t = u + uG 0 t. Since u† = u the Hermitian conjugate of (i) is (ii): u = −t (G 0 )† u + t† . Insert (ii) into (i): t = u + (t† G 0 t − t† (G 0 )† uG 0 t). Both u and t† (G 0 )† uG 0 t are Hermitian P 0 so Im tk,k = Im k|t† G 0 t|k = Im k t† Gk tk ,k . k,k

† 4

11. The ﬁnal result is ΣSCBA (ikn ) = −i sgn(kn ) k 1 .59) = nimp u0 δk. SELF-ENERGY FOR IMPURITY SCATTERED ELECTRONS Eqs. i. k + ··· (11. Only the imaginary part Σk of Σk = ΣR + iΣi plays a role. k (11.k |2 δ(ω − ξk ).k |2 ikn −ξk −iΣi k ≈ −sgn(kn −Σi ) π k k |tk.61) By iteration of Dyson’s equation we ﬁnd that G SCBA is the sum of propagations with any number and any type of sequential wigwam-diagrams inside wigwam-diagrams but without crossings of any scattering lines: Y SCBA = + Z [ \ ] ^ _ + + + + + ··· + ··· (11.e.56).k + a self-consistent equation in ΣSCBA since Gk = (ikn − ξk − ΣSCBA )−1 . 2τk with 1 ≈ 2π τk |tk.54) and (11.11. Also sketched is the phase space Ω available for the internal momenta k1 and k2 in the two cases.55) yields: ΣSCBA k ≡ 195 U V W X + + + uk−k Gk tk .k .k = Im k k |tk.60) The only self-consistency requirement is thus connected with the sign of the imaginary part. (11. At zero temperature the energy broadening around the Fermi energy εF is given by . (11. In Fig. where the limiting δ-function in Eq. (11. (11. and if furthermore SCBA the scattering strength is moderate. |Σk | εF we obtain almost the same result i SCBA as in Eq.62) + ` + ··· + a + ··· We have now resummed most of the diagrams in the diagrammatic expansion of Gk imp with the exception of wigwam-diagrams with crossing lines.6 are shown two diﬀerent types of irreducible diagrams of the same order in both nimp and uk .5. The only diﬀerence between the full Born and the self-consistent Born approximation is in the case of strong scattering. k Σi = Im tk.60) may acquire a small renormalization.k is only weakly dependent on energy for |k| ≈ kF and ω εF . We again utilize k k that tk. But this requirement is fulﬁlled by taking Im ΣSCBA (ikn ) ∝ −sgn(kn ) as seen by direct substitution. since k k the small real part ΣR can be absorbed into µ.k |2 δ(ω −ξk ).

i.e. doped semiconductors it is possible to obtain a degenerate electron #( ¤ © ¦ ¤ © § ¤ © ¦ ¤ §¥ ¤ ¤ © ¦ ¤ §¥ ¤ £ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ £ % #$" ! 3 54 ! 3 2 ¤ ¦¥ ¤ £ § ¤ ¦¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¤ © 1 0 ¨" # ( ) ¤ © ¦ ¤ © § ¤ © ¦ ¤ © ¤ © ¦ ¤ §¥ ¤ ¨§ ¤ ¦¥ ¤ £ £ ¤ ¦¥ ¤ £ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ £ % '" ! !&% $" ! ! # # ¢ ¡ . In k-space the broadening ∆k is given by 2 (k + ∆k)2 /2m ≈ ε + /τ which gives ∆k ≈ 1/v τ = 1/l. (b) The crossing wigwam diagram has the same restrictions for k1 and k2 as in (a) plus the constraint that |k+k2 −k1 | ≈ kF . one inside the other.6(a). It is interest2τk ing to note that in e. on a ring with radius ∼ kF and a cross section 1/l2 as indicated in Fig. |Σ| ≈ /τ which relaxes |k1 |. where k1 and k2 can take any value on the spherical shell of radius kF and thickness ∆k ≈ 1/l.e. 11.63) In conclusion: all cases where the scattering length l is greater than 1 ˚ we have by A the various Born approximations indeed resummed the perturbation series for Gk (ikn ) imp taking all relevant diagrams into account and obtained Σk (ikn ) = −i sgn(kn ) . Since for metals 1/kF ∼ 1 ˚ we ﬁnd that A 1 kF l 1. i. where the scattering lines crosses. the inverse scattering F F F length. the Feynman rules dictate that one further constraint.6(b). In Fig.6(b). Such a suppression factor enters the calculation for each crossing of scattering lines in a diagram.e. In Fig. For ﬁxed k2 the variation of k1 within its Fermi shell is restricted to the intersection between this shell and the Fermi shell of k + k2 − k1 . Thus by studying the phase space available for the noncrossed and the crossed processes we have found that the crossed ones are suppressed by a factor Ωb /Ωa ≈ 1/(kF l). 2 So Ωb = (4πkF /l)(2πkF /l2 ). 11. 11. |k2 | = kF a bit. The phase space 2 is now Ωb ∝ (4πkF ∆k)(2πkF ∆k 2 ). no further restrictions 2 applies. This means that k1 and k2 are both conﬁned to a thin spherical shell of thickness 1/l and radius kF . so the volume of the available phase space is Ωa = (4πkF /l)2 . Thus only one of the two internal momenta are free to be anywhere on the Fermi shell. A (11. namely |k + k1 − k2 | ≈ kF . FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS Figure 11. the other is bound to the intersection between two Fermi shells. for l 1 ˚. to a ring with cross section 1/l2 and radius ≈ kF . Thus the crossing diagram (b) is suppressed relative to the non-crossing diagram (a) with a factor 1/kF l.6: (a) The non-crossing wigwam diagrams. i. where no crossing of scattering lines occurs.g.196 CHAPTER 11. The phase 2 space is Ωa ∝ (4πkF ∆k)2 .

These more subtle quantum eﬀects are fundamental parts of the modern research ﬁeld known as mesoscopic physics. In these systems 1/kF or the Fermi wavelength is much larger than in metals.k |2 δ(ξk − ξk ). 15.63) is violated. Im z > 0 k + 2τ 1 1BA 1BA k −→ Gk (z) = Gk (ikn ) = 1 sgn(kn ) ikn →z ikn − ξk + i 2τ z−ξ − i . The weak localization eﬀect is studied in Sec. 11. and the condition in Eq. 11. ΣFBA (ikn ) = −i sgn(kn ) k 1 .4.6. The technique can be extended to the study of quantum eﬀects like weak localization (see Sec. which is an increase in the resistivity due to quantum interference between scattering events involving several impurities at the same time. They can be explained within the theoretical framework presented here. 15. 15 in the study of the residual resistivity of metals. . Im z < 0. We have applied the diagrammatic technique to an analysis of the single-particle Matsubara Green’s function for electron propagation in disordered metals. 11. One example is the observation of weak localization. In this case one may therefore observe deviations from the simple theory presented here.6(b). 2τk with 1 ≡ 2π τk |tk. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 197 gas with a very low density.4) and universal conductance ﬂuctuations (see Fig. k and the scattering-time broadened spectral function A1BA (ω ) = k 2 (ω − ξk )2 + 1/4τk 1/τk . For example is weak localization explained by treating crossed diagrams like the one in Fig. which was neglected in calculation presented in this chapter. The theory presented here provides in combination with the Kubo formalism the foundation for a microscopic quantum theory of resistivity. by taking higher order correlations into account. (11. The main result was the determination of the self-energy Σk (ikn ) in terms of the scattering time τk .2).11. The structure in the complex plane of the Green’s function was found to be: z−ξ 1 i .6 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have introduced the Feynman diagrams for elastic impurity scattering. k k 2τ k These results will be employed in Chap.

FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS .198 CHAPTER 11.

1 12.2) 1 . r1 ). rb . ra . r2 . rb . τb )Ψ† (σa . (12. (12. (10. τa ) ≡ − Tτ Ψ(σb . Below we develop the Feynman diagram technique for a system of fermions with pair interactions. τa ) . this being the case for our coming main examples: electron-electron interactions mediated by Coulomb or by phonon interactions. The main goal of this chapter is to derive the Feynman rules for the diagrammatic expansion in orders of W of the full single-particle Matsubara Green’s function Eq.3) deﬁning G are of course given in the Heisenberg picture. (12. The total Hamiltonian H governing the dynamics of the system is as usual given by H = H 0 +W . σa .Chapter 12 Feynman diagrams and pair interactions It is in the case of interacting particles and ﬁelds that the power of quantum ﬁeld theory and Feynman diagrams really comes into play.33a) G(σb .σ2 We have specialized to the case where no spin ﬂip processes occur at the vertices.16) we can immediately transform the expression for G into the 199 . r2 ) W (σ2 . ra .1) while the interaction Hamiltonian W is given by W = 1 2σ dr1 dr2 Ψ† (σ1 . The time-independent Hamiltonian H0 of the unperturbed or non-interacting system is H0 = σ dr Ψ† (r)H0 Ψ(r). (12. σ1 .2 The perturbation series for G inﬁnite perturbation series!Matsubara Green’s function The ﬁeld operators in Eq. but using Eq.3) 12. τb . (10. r2 )Ψ(σ1 . r1 )Ψ† (σ2 . r1 ) Ψ(σ2 .

6) for W into Eq.j as β j+ ≡ (σj . n=0 0 The great advantage of Eq. . (12.. 1 .Wn.1 . (10.. Ψ† Ψ† n ˆ ˆ Ψn Ψn − n=0 ∞ (− 1 )n 2 n! (− 1 )n 2 n! 0 . 1. (12.1 . dj ≡ σj dr 0 dτj . (12. . . 0 ˆ ˆ dτn Tτ W (τ1 ) . and Wj. a.n Tτ Ψ† Ψ† Ψ1 Ψ1 . To make sure of that we add an inﬁnitesimal time η = 0+ to the time-arguments of Ψ† (1) and Ψ† (2). The τ -integrals of W (τ ) is therefore β 0 1 ˆ dτj W (τj ) = 2 dj ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ dj Ψ† (j+ )Ψ† (j+ ) Wj. 0) 0 0 . FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS interaction picture. W (τn )Ψ(b) Ψ† (a) β 0 (−1)n n! . .2) the two creation operators must always be to the left of the two annihilation operators.4) The subscript 0 indicates that the averages in Eq. a) = ∞ (12. dj . .. 0) Ψ(b) Ψ† (a) ˆ U (β.j ≡ W (rj .8) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆn ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆa d1d1 .dndn W1.4) acts. . τ1 ) = (1) we obtain G(b. . .5) dτ1 . rj .n ˆ ˆ Tτ Ψ† Ψ† 1 1 ˆ ˆ ˆn ˆ Ψ1 Ψ1 . which gives the right ordering when the time-ordering operator Tτ of ˆ Eq. a) = − n=0 (−1)n n! ∞ n=0 β 0 β dτ1 . .65).6) where we have deﬁned j+ .dndn W1. But one precaution must be taken regarding the ordering of the four operators in the basic two-particle interaction operator.. The expansion Eq.5) for G: G(b.7) It is only in expressions where the initial and ﬁnal times coincide that the inﬁnitesimal ˆ shift in time of Ψ† plays a role.8) is that the average of the ﬁeld operators now involves bare propagation and thermal average both with respect to H0 . . . .200 CHAPTER 12.j Ψ(j )Ψ(j).12) for U is now inserted into Eq. τj +η). According to Eq. . In fact using Eq. W (τn ) 0 ˆ Here we need to calculate τ -integrals of W (τ ). r1 . (12.3).. (12.Wn. (12. .4) are with respect to e−βH0 rather ˆ than e−βH as in Eq. rj ) δ(τj −τj ). β 0 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ dτn Tτ W (τ1 ) . (12. (12. a) = − Tr e−βH Tτ Ψ(b)Ψ† (a) Tr e−βH = − ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ U (β. (12. Next insert Eq. 1 . n ) times . (12. (12. 1. (10.. (12... n . Ψ† Ψ† Ψn Ψn Ψb Ψ† 1 1 n d1d1 . Wj. we recognize that the average of the products of ﬁeld operators in the numer(2n+1) ator is the bare (2n+1)-particle Green’s function G0 (b.4): ∞ G(b. With the short-hand notation (σ1 .

(10.σout . n ) .n ∞ n=0 (− 1 )n 2 n! d1d1 . 1) G 0 (b. n ) G 0 (1 .Wn. .. .6) and (12. a) G 0 (1 . while in the denominator it is the bare (2n)-particle Green’s function (2n) G0 (1. (12. . Interaction lines: j j ≡ Wj.9). . G 0 (1.. Vertices: j• ≡ dj δσin . but not forgotten. 1) G 0 (n . . . 1) G 0 (n .1 . 1 . it turns out that using these basic rules leads to a proof that the denominator cancels out. thus cancels the sign in Eq. . 1 ) . n . This can be done in (2n)! ways.1 . a) are (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Fermion lines: j2 j1 ≡ G 0 (j2 . 1 ) . . G 0 (1.. The resulting sign. 1 ) G 0 (1 . n ) . n ) .9) . For each set connect the 2n vertices with 2n fermion lines: one entering and one leaving each vertex. . 1) G 0 (1 . 1 ) . j1 ). . (12.e. . 1 . a) G 0 (1. (12.. (12. G 0 (b. (12. . j) according to Eqs.1 Feynman rules for the denominator of G(b. a) The basic Feynman rules for n’th order term in the denominator of G(b. .3. . . 1 ) .3 The Feynman rules for pair interactions We formulate ﬁrst a number of basic Feynman rules that are derived directly from Eq. .7) is to be shifted inﬁnitesimally to τj + η. We have suppressed. sum over internal variables.j .. Now is the time for our main use of Wick’s theorem Eq. G 0 (1 . j j Draw (2n)! sets of n interaction lines j j. . G 0 (n . τ1 → τ1 + η. i. the fact that the initial time τj in G 0 (l. a) G 0 (b.. . 12.n This voluminous formula is the starting point for deﬁning the Feynman rules for the diagrammatic expansion of G in terms of the pair interaction W . a) G 0 (n .. 1 ) G 0 (1. 0 (n . . This in turn leads to the formulation of the ﬁnal Feynman rules to be used in all later calculations..79): the bare many-particle Green’s functions in the expression for the full single-particle Green’s function are written in terms of determinants containing the bare single-particle Green’s functions G 0 (l. 0 (n . . . a) = G 0 (b. 12.Wn.. . n ) G G 0 (1. 1) G 0 (1. ..dndn W1. . 1) G 0 (1 . n ) times (−1)2n = 1.dndn W1. . 1 ) . THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR PAIR INTERACTIONS 201 (−1)2n+1 = −1. However.10a) . G 0 (n . −1. n ) . 1) G 0 (1.3. . .12. 1. n ) G ∞ n=0 (− 1 )n 2 n! d1d1 . G 0 (1 . j): G(b. no spin ﬂip.8). . .

Thus we obtain the last Feynman rule (6) 1 1 Multiply by n! (− 2 )n (−1)F . e.e.] = −sgn[.202 CHAPTER 12. or j1 F . This raises the dimension of the n’th order determinant from 2n to 2n+1. . where F is the number of fermion loops in the coming from the determinant is (−1) given diagram. this expansion takes the following form using Feynman diagrams: ˆ U (β. (12.. F being the number of fermion loops.g. An outline of the proof is as follows..9).. This changes the determinantal sign of the product since sgn[. A fermion loop is an uninterrupted sequence of fermion lines starting at some vertex j and ending there again j3 j2 . j1 . 24 terms + .G 0 (j1 . a) diﬀers from the denominator by the ˆ ˆ presence of the two external ﬁeld operators Ψ(b) and Ψ† (a) that act at the external spacetime points (b) and (a).G 0 (j1 .. only Feynman rules (4) and (5) given for the denominator have to be changed to give the rules for the numerator: . Consequently.. because what about the sign arising from the expansion of the determinant? Here the concept of fermion loops enters the game. The overall sign after connecting to other vertices..G 0 (j2 . j1 ). and at the same time it changes the number of fermion loops by 1.10b) For all n there are (2n)! terms or diagrams of order n in the expansion of the deterˆ minant in the denominator U (β.. becomes . i. F = 2n is even. The product of the diagonal terms in the determinant is per deﬁnition positive and in diagram form it consist of n factors j j .]. but indicating the number of diagrams of each order... + + .3.11) + + + . + + .g. 0) 0 of G(b...2 Feynman rules for the numerator of G(b.. + 2 terms (12. j2 ). e. Suppressing the labels. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS But this is not all... j1 j2 . . 720 terms 12. a) ˆ ˆ ˆ The numerator Tτ [U (β. + + .G 0 (j2 . All other diagrams can be constructed one by one simply by pair wise interchange of the endpoints of fermion lines. 0)Ψ(b)Ψ† (a)] 0 of G(b. 0) 0 =1 + + + + . and add the resulting (2n)! diagrams of order n. (12. j1 ). j2 ). a) in Eq...

12) 203 Using these rules we obtain the diagrammatic expansion of the numerator: ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ [U (β. and those consisting of two or more pieces.11) order by order.3 The cancellation of disconnected Feynman diagrams It looks like we are drowning in diagrams. (12. one entering b.12. 120 terms 12. 0)Ψ(b)Ψ† (a)] b + b b ! " # b b b b + + + + + a a a a a a a b b b b + + + ..13) 6 terms + ...g. the so-called disconnected diagrams (e..13) disconnected from the external vertices are the same as the diagrams appearing in Eq. We note that in Eq. For each set connect the 2n+2 vertices with 2n+1 fermion lines: one leaving a.. the so-called connected diagrams (e. (12.. the ﬁrst second order diagram). (12. We also note that a diagram containing two or more disconnected parts can be written as a product containing one factor for each disconnected part. We furthermore note that the parts of the diagrams in Eq. and one entering and leaving each internal vertex j. THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR PAIR INTERACTIONS (4’) (5’) Draw (2n+1)! sets of n lines j j and 2 external vertices •a and •b.g.3.. 0 = (12. + + .13) two classes of diagrams appear: those being connected into one piece with the external vertices a and b. (12.. + a a a a + . A detailed combinatorial analysis (given at the end of this section) reveals that the denominator in G cancels exactly the disconnected parts of .3. the last second-order diagram). but in fact there is a major reduction at hand.

. a is connected with r W -lines. Thus they can at will be stretched. There are n! ways to choose the enumeration j of the n interaction lines j j . mirror inverted and otherwise deformed. In conclusion.. Multiply each diagram by (−1)F . (12. so that one leaves •a. the external vertices a and b are always connected. (3) In a diagram of order n. (2) If vertex j somehow is connected to a. Except for the sign this 1 factor cancels the prefactor n! (− 1 )n . j1 ). 1 + & + .15) Pay attention to the fact that only the topology of the diagrams are mentioned. connected diagrams containing n interaction lines j j . one enters •b.. . no spin ﬂip j j At order n draw all topologically diﬀerent. for pair interactions the ﬁnal version of the Feynman rules for expanding G diagrammatically is: (1) (2) (3) (4) Fermion lines: j2 j1 ≡ G 0 (j2 .j Vertices: j• ≡ dj δσin . (12. and 2n+1 fermion lines. + .σout .. i. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS the diagrams in the numerator leaving only the connected ones: b b G(b. We conclude that all 2n n! diagrams with the same topology relative to the external points give the same value.14) connected (5) (6) .e. We study the numerator of Eq. 2 vertices •a and •b. sum over internal variables. The proof goes through eight steps. No notion of a time-axis is implied in the imaginary time version of the Feynman diagrams. a) = = Being left with only the connected diagrams we ﬁnd that since now all lines in the diagram are connected in a speciﬁc way to the external points a and b the combinatorics of the permutations of the internal vertex indices is particularly simple. ' ()*+.j . F being the number of fermion loops. For completeness we give the following proof of the cancellation of the disconnected diagrams. Interaction lines: j j ≡ −Wj. (12. Sum over all the topologically diﬀerent diagrams. ..204 CHAPTER 12. b b b b b + + + + a a a a a $% + + . we are left with a factor of (−1) for each of the 2 n interaction lines. a a 1 + + . and for each line there are 2 ways to put a given pair of labels j and j .. / 0 .e. i. and one enters and leaves each internal vertex •j. but the reader may skip it since the essential conclusion has already been given above. (1) Since all internal vertices have one incoming and one outgoing fermion line. so is j due to the interaction line Wj.9). τ1 → τ1 + η.

14) deﬁne the concept of irreducible diagrams in G(b. (c) and (d).. m = n−r. 11. 12. (r+m) ]discon .j . n.. 1 )].e. connected topological diﬀ. and reducible. (r+1) . ˆ (8) The disconnected part is seen to be U (β. n ] n n r=0 r = n=0 ∞ 1 −1 n! 2 n! I[1.3 for impurity scattering.j = Wj . a) in the presence of pair-interactions.1: Examples of irreducible. (5) The r pairs of vertex variables j and j connected to a can be chosen out of the n! available n pairs in r!(n−r)! ways.. . such diagrams are the ones that cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting a single fermion line. r ]con r! 2 1 −1 m! 2 m I[r+1... r ]con I[r+1... j ) yield the same result. . Continuing the analogy with the impurity scattering case we can also deﬁne the self-energy Σ(l. we can now based on Eq. if as usual Wj. each choice yielding the same value of the total integral. r. n ]discon r!(n − r)! ∞ m=0 = r=0 1 −1 I[1. 0) Ψ(b) Ψ† (a) 0 ˆ = U (β.17) (2r+1)×(2r+1) .4 Self-energy and Dyson’s equation In complete analogy with Fig.[−W (r.16) . As depicted in Fig. . (7) In the connected part all r! permutations of the vertex variable pairs (j. n. (6) The structure of the sum is now: ∞ n=0 1 n! ∞ −1 2 n I[1. i.. j) as ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ (12. where 0 ≤ r ≤ n. (4) In all terms of the expanded numerator the integral factorizes into a product of two integrals. and so does all the 2n ways of ordering each pair. (12.12. r )] Det G 0 r=0 12. r. . . 1 . (a) and (b). We thus reach the conclusion ∞ ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ U (β. The number of disconnected W -lines is denoted m. Feynman diagrams in the expansion of G(b. SELF-ENERGY AND DYSON’S EQUATION © ¥ £ § ¥ ¨ £ ¥ ¦ £ ¥ ¤ £ 205 Figure 12.4. a) in the case of pair interactions. (r+m).. 0) 0 [−W (1. 1 . 0) 0 .. (12.1. 1 ... (r+1) . one over the 2r variables connected to a and one over the 2m variables disconnected from a.

iqn )-space. In terms of the Fourier transform W (q) = 4πe2 /q 2 the Coulomb 0 interaction W (rτ . 12.. a) and G 0 (b. Our main example of such a system is the jellium model for Coulomb interacting electrons studied in Sec. a). a) without the two external fermion lines G 0 (j.14) and (12.iqn (12.. l) (12.20) It is important to realize that the Matsubara frequency iqn is bosonic since the Coulomb interaction is bosonic in nature: two fermions are annihilated and two fermions are created by the interaction. 0 Likewise. .7) the Matsubara frequency iqn appears only in the argument of the exponential function. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS Σ(l.19) Note how Dyson’s equation in this case is an integral equation. one boson object is annihilated and one is created. a) G(b. 2.2. using Eq. (12. τ ) is written W (rτ . l) Σ(l. r .e.. q. j j l j + + + b b b l l l j j j a + b l j × j a + j a a + dl dj G 0 (b. r τ ) = 1 βV W (q) e[iq·(r−r )−iqn (τ −τ )] . we note that due to the factor δ(τ − τ ) in Eq. a) 1234 5 6 8 9 7 : . The sum of all irreducible diagrams in G(b. We shall shortly see that for a translation-invariant system it becomes an algebraic equation in k-space. a) = = = = b b b b a a a a = G 0 (b. τ )-space to (q. i.39) we can express the electronic Green’s function Gσ (rτ. r τ ) for spin σ in (k.j + l j + l + l + .5 The Feynman rules in Fourier space For the special case where H0 describes a translation-invariant system and where the interaction Wj. (10...18) we obtain Dyson’s equation for G(b. j) ≡ = = From Eqs. < = > ? δl. ikn )-space as .18) a + . + (12.j only depends on the coordinate diﬀerences rj − rj and τj − τj it is a great advantage to Fourier transform the representation from (r. (12. Furthermore.206 CHAPTER 12. j) G(j..

21) that ˜ it saves some writing to introduce the four-vector notation k ≡ (k. (12. Since each vertex consists of two fermion lines ˜ ˜ and one interaction line. in agreement with our previous remarks. ˜ 0 ˜ q ˜˜ kq (12. to even values for the Matsubara frequencies of the interaction lines. It follows from Eqs. r1 ) W (˜3 . the order of the diagram. r2 . For each independent momentum a factor 1/βV remains from the corresponding Fourier transform. r τ ) = 1 βV 0 Gσ (k. τ )-space is not changed by the Fourier transform. ˜ r1 ˜ ˜ where the (r. r) = r 0 r ˜ 0 r ˜ r ˜ r ˜ r3 . The topology of the diagram in (r. r ≡ (r. ikn ) = 1/(ikn − ξk ) depends on k and ikn . In the case of the Coulomb interacting electron gas in the jellium model we thus see 0 that both the Green’s function Gσ and the interaction W depend only on the space and imaginary time diﬀerences r − r and τ − τ . and q from r to r3 . r) r 0 r ˜ 0 r ˜ r ˜ = = = d˜ r 1 (βV)3 0 p r r r r q r r Gσ (˜) Gσ (k) W (˜) ei[˜·(˜2 −˜)+k·(˜−˜1 )+˜·(˜3 −˜)] p 0 ˜ q ˜ ˜˜ kpq p q r d˜ e−i(˜−k+˜)·˜ r ˜ ˜ @ ˜ kσ 1 (βV)3 1 (βV)2 0 pr ˜r qr Gσ (˜) Gσ (k) W (˜) ei[˜·˜2 −k·˜1 +˜·˜3 ] p 0 ˜ q ˜ ˜˜ kpq ˜ r r 0 ˜ q r r Gσ (k− q ) Gσ (k) W (˜) ei[k·(˜2 −˜1 )+˜·(˜3 −˜2 )] . and q to be used in the Fourier transform. r1 ) W (˜3 . (12.12.22) d˜ Gσ (˜2 . ikn ) e[ik·(r−r )−ikn (τ −τ )] .22) yields with this sign convention d˜ Gσ (˜2 . but not on σ.21) into Eq.20) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ and (12. r3 .e. Inserting the Fourier transforms of Eqs.21) 0 where Gσ (k. ikn ). k. τ )-space points r1 . the momentum conservation combined with the odd values of the fermion Matsubara frequencies leads. We therefore end up with the following Feynman rules for the n-order diagrams in the expan- .20) and (12. Here ξk ≡ ε − µ.23) From this follows that in Fourier space the four-momentum (k. The momentum conservation rule for each of the 2n vertices also leads to 2n delta function constraints on the 2n internal fermion momenta and the n interaction line momenta. ikn ) is conserved at each ˜ Coulomb scattering vertex: k = p + q . On top of their usual meaning the arrows ˜ ˜ ˜ now also indicate the choice of sign for the four-momentum vectors: k ﬂows from r1 to ˜ r. r) Gσ (˜. THE FEYNMAN RULES IN FOURIER SPACE 207 0 Gσ (rτ . p from r to r2 . τ ).ikn (12. and r are indicated as well as the wave vectors k. Using this notation we analyze the Fourier transform of the basic ik ˜ n Coulomb scattering vertex r2 ˜ pσ ˜ q ˜ (12. i. and ˜ ˜ · r ≡ ik · r − ik τ . (12.5. r) Gσ (˜. ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ p. and whence the number of independent internal momenta equals n.

12. ikn ).25) Dyson’s equation Eq. All vertices must contain an incoming internal fermion lines Gσ j j and an outgoing fermion line as well as an interaction line.e.24) Note how the two ’same-time’ diagrams in rule (6) are the only ones where it is relevant to take explicitly into account the inﬁnitesimal shift τj → τj + η mentioned in Eqs. ikn ). iqn Conserve the spin and four-momentum at each vertex.6 Examples of how to evaluate Feynman diagrams The Feynman diagrams is an extremely useful tool to gain an overview of the very complicated inﬁnite-order perturbation calculation. ikn ) E F G = + = . two external fermion lines Gσ (k. Due to four-momentum conservation a ˜ four-momentum kj entering a self-energy diagram. (12. ikn Interaction lines with four-momentum orientation: ≡ −W (q). q.e. F being the number of fermion loops. ikn )-space the fourth Feynman rule concerning the conservation of four-momentum at the scattering vertices simpliﬁes many calculations. (11. ikn ) is to be interpreted as the externally given four-vector momentum. Fermion lines with four-momentum orientation: A B (5) (6) (7) 0 Multiply Gσ (k. ikn ) in the ’same-time’ diagrams Multiply by 1 βV for each internal four-momentum p. where (k. (12. 0 ˜ 0 ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Gσ (k) = Gσ (k) + Gσ (k) Σσ (k) Gσ (k) with Gσ (k. kσ.7).41) the self-energy Σσ (k. The self-energy (with spin σ) is thus diagonal in k-space. k). and 2n q 0 (p .208 CHAPTER 12. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS sion of Gσ (k. pσ ˜ . kl = kj . ˜˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Σσ (k) ≡ Σσ (k. Most noteworthy is the fact that Dyson’s equation becomes an algebraic equation. i. ikn ). ˜ ˜ must also exit it. and no spin ﬂipping. (1) (2) (3) (4) 0 ≡ Gσ (k. ikn ) 0 1 − Gσ (k. Multiply each diagram by (−1)F . ˜ ˜ ˜ Σσ (k. ikn ) Σσ (k. At order n draw all topologically diﬀerent connected diagrams containing n 0 oriented interaction lines W (˜). induced here by the Coulomb interaction W . k ) = δk. i.6) and (12. ikn ) = the solution 0 Gσ (k.k Σσ (k). perform the sum ˜ CD and by eikn η . ip ). ikn ) As in Eq. (12.27) 1 . appears as a direct additive renormalization of the bare energy ξk = εk − µ.19) is therefore an algebraic equation. The factor eikn η follows directly from the Fourier transform when this shift is included. (12.26) (12.18). ikn ). (12. (12. ikn − ξk − Σσ (k. incoming momenta must equal the outgoing. In (k. and they allow one to identify the important . such as the ones shown in Eq.

(12.6. ikn ) ≡ The four-momentum transfer along the interaction line is zero. and one fermion loop. rule (3) in H Eq. The self-energy diagram is a ﬁrst order diagram.2 using the Hartree-Fock mean ﬁeld approximation. The Feynman rules therefore lead to the following expression for the Hartree self-energy diagram Eq. (4.6. (p. (12. EXAMPLES OF HOW TO EVALUATE FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS 209 processes for a given physical problem. 12. We start with the so-called Hartree diagram Gσ (which is zero in the presence of a charge compensating back-ground). while the four-momentum (p.27) the self-energy is the interaction-induced renormalization of the non-interacting single-particle energy. This renormalization we have calculated by completely diﬀerent means in Sec.29) exactly equals the Hartree part of the mean ﬁeld energy in Eq. In other words we have shown that the tadpole-shaped self-energy diagram is the diagrammatic equivalent of the Hartree mean ﬁeld approximation. 10. The evaluation of the p-integral is elementary and yields N/2.12. The Matsubara sum can easily be carried out using the method of Sec. i. ikn ) ≡ σ H −1 βV σ 0 Gσ (k. where we in accordance with Eq.25b). The spin sum turns into a simple factor 2. (12. F = 1. ipn ) and the spin σ in the fermion loop are free to take any value.18) strip oﬀ the two external fermion lines to obtain the self-energy ΣH : H Gσ (k. one internal spin.24).1. We end this chapter by studying the explicit evaluation of three simple Feynman diagrams in Fourier space using the Feynman rules Eq. n = 1. yielding a factor of 1/βV. ipn . (12.2 The Fock self-energy diagram F We treat the Fock diagram Gσ and Fock self-energy ΣF similarly: σ .24). σ .28) J = 0 − W (0) Gσ (p. (12.6. V (12. i.28): ΣH (k. ipn ). σ (12. ipn ) eipn η p ipn = 2W (0) β dp (2π)3 ipn eipn η ipn − ξp = W (0) N . 12. (12. It contains one internal four-momentum.29) = 2W (0) dp n (ξ ) (2π)3 F p Note the need for Feynman rule Eq. We see that the diagrammatic result Eq. According to Eq.4.1 The Hartree self-energy diagram To evaluate a given diagram the ﬁrst task is to label the fermion and interaction lines with four-momenta and spin obeying the conservation rules at each vertex. ikn ) I 0 p. (12. When this part of the analysis is done one is (hopefully) left with only a few important diagrams that then need to be evaluated. 4.24)(6) for evaluating this speciﬁc diagram.e. ikn ) = 0 Gσ (k.e.

iqn 0 Removing the two external fermion lines Gσ (k.4. The Matsubara sum can easily be carried out using the method of Sec. no fermion loops are present. We immediately note that this diagram is of second order. σ 0 Once more the external fermion lines are written explicitly as two factors Gσ (k. The spin sum turned into a simple factor 1.σ Gσ (p. Eq. ikn ) leaves us with the pair-bubble selfP . σ ipn +iqn (12. ikn ) ikn −ipn σ (12. ikn ) P Gσ (k. We have thus shown that the half-oyster self-energy diagram1 is the diagrammatic equivalent of the Fock mean ﬁeld approximation. i. (p. It contains one internal four-momentum.11) . However.e. leaving the Fock self-energy ΣF to be determined. in contrast to Eq. This diagram is a ﬁrst order diagram. F = 0. At the ﬁrst vertex the incoming momentum 1 N = k−q. ikn ) = p. n = 1.30): ΣF (k. F = 1. ipn ). The Feynman rules therefore lead to the following expression for the Fock self-energy diagram Eq. which. The four-momentum transferred by σ the interaction line is (k − p. σ ikn −iqn 0 Gσ (k. yielding a factor 1/βV. i. (12. i.e. We see that this self-energy diagram exactly equals the Fock part of the energy in Eq. ikn − ipn ). n = 2.6. 12. ikn ).32) A full oyster diagram can be seen in e.30) M = 1 βV −1 β 0 − W (k−p) δσ. Finally. (12. (12. The evaluation of the p-integral is in principle elementary.g. 10.25b) calculated using the Hartree-Fock mean ﬁeld approximation.210 CHAPTER 12. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS F Gσ (k.3 The pair-bubble self-energy diagram P Our last example is the pair-bubble diagram Gσ . ipn . as we shall see in Chap. We proceed as in the previous examples: 0 Gσ (k.e. ipn ) eipn η σ p ipn = dp W (k−p) (2π)3 ipn eipn η ipn − ξp (12. iqn p+q. ikn ) ≡ q. (2π)3 Note that also for this speciﬁc diagram we have used Feynman rule (6). energy diagram Σσ containing one fermion loop.31) =− dp W (k−p) nF (ξp ). 13.1. (4.e. ikn ) k−p G 0 (k. i. σ ipn q. ikn ) O p. plays a central role in studies of the electron gas.28) the internal spin σ is now forced to be equal to the external spin σ. ikn ) ≡ σ K L = 0 Gσ (k.

iqn ) is sent out through the interaction line. It enables a systematic analysis of the inﬁnitely many terms that need to be taken into account in a given calculation. iqn ) is traditionally denoted the pair-bubble. 3 (ip + iq − ξ (2π) n n p+q ) (ipn − ξp ) (12. ikn ) in terms of the pair-interaction W . and that the Matsubara sum over ipn can easily be carried out using the method of Sec. (12. ipn +iqn ) Gσ (k−q. At the fermion loop. The Feynman rules lead to the following expression for the pair-bubble self-energy Eq. ikn ) is split. iqn ) is joined by the internal fermion momentum (p. The evaluation of the p-integral is in principle elementary. ikn −iqn ) = dq 0 W (q)2 Π0 (q.7 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have established the Feynman rules for writing down the Feynman diagrams constituting the inﬁnite-order perturbation expansion of the full single-particle Green’s functions G (b. the former two yielding a prefactor 1/(βV)2 . and we shall study it in more detail in the coming chapters. At the top of the loop the momentum (q.32) leads to a bit more involved Matsubara frequency summation over iqn and momentum integration over q. where it ultimately recombines with the former fermion momentum (k − q. and we shall return to it later. ikn ) σ ˜ ≡ p = −1 (βV)2 1 β P q ˜ q ˜ σ pq ipn iqn iqn − W (q) 2 0 0 0 Gσ (p. a) or Gσ (k. Inserting the result for Π0 (q. ipn+iqn ). Π0 (q.1. iqn ) Gσ (k−q. Here we just note that the spin sum becomes a factor 2. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 211 (k.34) 12.33) where we have separated out the contribution Π0 (q. iqn ) out through the interaction line. (2π)3 (12. ipn ) and continues in a new fermion line as (p+q. However. We have thereby ensured that the exit momentum equals that of the entrance: (k. ikn − iqn ). ikn ). iqn ) from the fermion loop. The internal degrees of freedom are (q. ipn ). (q. iqn ). the calculation can be performed. Q = −2 β ipn dp 1 1 . Using the Feynman diagrammatic . and σ . 10. ikn−iqn ) continues in the fermion line. The Feynman diagram technique is a very powerful tool to use in the context of perturbation theory.12. (p. (12. ipn ) Gσ (p+q. iqn ) ≡ The loop contribution Π0 (q. sending (q. Our main example is the Coulomb interaction. iqn ) into the pair-bubble self-energy diagram Eq. while the remainder (k−q.4. ikn −iqn ).7.32): ΣP (k.

identify which sub-classes of diagrams that give the most important contributions. we show in Chap. We have already given explicit examples of how to evaluate some of the diagrams that are going to play an important role. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS analysis one can.212 CHAPTER 12. Indeed. We shall learn how these diagrams determine the ground state energy of the system as well as its dielectric properties such as static and dynamic screening. . as we shall see in the following chapters. (12.34) are the ones that dominate the physics of the interacting electron gas in the high density limit. 13 that the diagrams analyzed in Eqs.31) and (12.

Nevertheless. (2. (12. Edir (2) ∝ 0 dq q 2 1 1 qq (q 2 + α2 )2 q ∼ − ln(α) α→0 −→ ∞. This was expected to be a valid procedure in the high density limit.2 revealed a divergence in (2) the contribution Edir from the direct processes.18) the self-energy is given by the sum of all the irreducible diagrams in Gσ (k. (12.103) and the associated footnote. To ensure well-behaved ﬁnite integrals during our analysis we work with the Yukawa-potential with an artiﬁcial range 1/α instead of the pure long range Coulomb potential. and we show how a meaningful ﬁnite ground state energy can be found. ikn ) in (k. ikn ) removing the two external fermion 213 .Chapter 13 The interacting electron gas In Sec. (2. In analogy with Eq. At the end at the calculation we take the limit α → 0 to recover the Coulomb interaction. The starting point of the theory is the self-energy Σσ (k. the second order perturbation analysis of Sec. where according to Eq. For example.2. ikn ).49) if α is ﬁnite. q +α (13.1 The self-energy in the random phase approximation To construct the diagrammatic expansion of the self-energy Σσ (k.35) the interaction energy is negligible. 13. with the Yukawa potential we (2) can obtain a ﬁnite value for Edir in Eq. W (r − r ) = |r − r | 4πe2 W (q) = 2 0 2 . 2. but the divergence reappears as soon as we take the limit α → 0.2) The main result of the following diagrammatic calculation is that the dynamics of the interacting system by itself creates a renormalization of the pure Coulomb interaction into a Yukawa-like potential independent of the value of α.49).1) The range 1/α has no physical origin. (2. (1. 2. ikn )-space we use the Feynman rules Eq. see Eq. e2 0 e−α|r−r | . In this chapter we reanalyze the Coulomb-interacting electron gas in the jellium model using the Feynman diagram technique. (13. see Eq.24).2 we studied the Coulomb interaction as a perturbation to the non-interacting electron gas in the jellium model. which then without problems can be taken to zero.

ikn ) . ΣH (k. . we have n<n ⇒ (n) Σσ (k. .. (2. (13. (2. σ (13.and thus rs -dependence: n n 2n−1 ikn −εk F Σ(n) (k.4) 2n − 1 Green’s fcts n internal momenta We then make the integral dimensionless by measuring momenta and frequencies in powers of the Fermi momentum kF and pulling out the corresponding factors of kF . G 0 () . ikn ) of order n: n interaction terms Σ(n) (k. (13. We recall that due to the charge compensating back ground in the jellium model the Hartree self-energy diagram vanishes. and then resum the inﬁnite series taking only these terms into account. .6) are the precise statements for how to identify the most important self-energy diagrams in the high density limit. ikn ) ∝ σ 5 kF −2 kF −2 kF = kF −(n−2) ∝ n−2 rs . . We have 2+3 2 2 5 1 1 dk ˜ k ∝ kF .1.5) where in the last proportionality we have used rs = (9π/4) 3 /(a0 kF ) from Eq. ikn ) = σ ∝ ˜ dk1 . ˜ dkn W () . rs → 0. ε ∝ kF . . . ikn ) 1 Σ(n ) (k.3) For each order of W we want to identify the most important terms. We can conclude that for two diﬀerent orders n and n in the high density limit. ikn ). W () G 0 () .214 CHAPTER 13. and β ∝ kF . ikn ) = = 0. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS 0 lines Gσ (k.5) and (13. (13.6) Eqs. ikn ) = + + + + + .1 The density dependence of self-energy diagrams (n) Consider an arbitrary self-energy diagram Σσ (k. dk1 ∝ β ikn (2π)3 ∝ kF = kF . .. Furthermore. This is achieved by noting that each diagram in the expansion is characterized by its density dependence through the dimensionless electron distance parameter rs of Eq. 13. for rs → 0.37).37) and its degree of divergence in the cut-oﬀ parameter α. The self-energy diagram therefore has W (q) ∝ 2 1 2 ∝ k −2 and G 0 (k) = q +α F σ the following kF . Thus: σ Σσ (k. (13. while 1 ˜ ∝ k −2 .

the more divergent is this diagram. i.7) Consider two diagrams Σσ and Σσ of the same order n. in a set of measure zero in the integral over q and p.1) (k. The more interaction lines carrying the same momentum there are in a given diagram.1) (n. In contrast.e. δ)-table. ikn ) having the same momentum q. With one notable exception. i. For example (taking α = 0) two lines with the momentum q contributes with W (q)2 which diverges as q −4 for q → 0 independent of the behavior of any other internal momentum p in the diagram. (13. (13. σ for α → 0 and any n-order diagram Σ(n.1. it is in general not possible to determine which diagram is the larger based alone on knowledge of the divergence number. (13.8) the most important terms are those in the diagonal in this table where δ = n.2) (n.1) in the limit of small q and α leads to a divergent behavior of the self-energy integrals.6) and (13. we now order the self-energy diagrams in a (n.1.2 The divergence number of self-energy diagrams The singular nature of the Yukawa-modiﬁed Coulomb potential Eq.8) 13. which diverges as q −4 only when both q → 0 and p → 0 at the same time. ikn ) .1) δσ =n ⇒ Σ(n. In view of this discussion it is natural to deﬁne a divergence number δσ (n) energy diagram Σσ (k. In the limit α → 0 this diagram is the largest: (n.13. THE SELF-ENERGY IN THE RANDOM PHASE APPROXIMATION 215 13. According to Eqs.3 RPA resummation of the self-energy Using the order n and the divergence number δ.1. ikn ) σ Σ(n. (13. The ﬁrst few diagrams (without arrows on the . two lines with diﬀerent momenta q and q − p contributes with W (q)W (q − p).2) (k. ikn ) as (n) of the self- (n) δσ ≡ the largest number of interaction lines in (n) Σσ (k. when all n momenta in the diagram are the same. The exception involves the diagram with the maximal divergence number.e.2) .

An important part of the self-energy diagrams in Eq. − (13.6. 10. It plays a crucial role.10) is clearly the pair-bubble Π0 (q. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS interaction lines for graphical clarity) are ˜ Σσ (k) δ=1 n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 δ=2 − δ=3 − − δ=4 − − It is clear that the most important diagrams in the high density limit are those having a low order.e..216 CHAPTER 13. i. ≡ −χ0 (q. 3 (ip + iq − ξ (2π) n n p+q ) (ipn − ξp ) . 12.3. dp 1 1 .11) In fact. iqn ) ≡ already introduced in Sec. The self-energy in the random phase approximation (RPA) is an inﬁnite sum containing diagrams of all orders n.9) χ0 (q. For each given order the diagrams with the highest divergence number are the most important. To make the fermion-loop sign from the pair-bubble appear explicitly we prefer to work with χ0 ≡ −Π0 .7. ΣRPA (k) ≡ q ˜ σ q ˜ p ˜ q ˜ (13. iqn ) = 2 β ipn (13. (13.24) are still valid for each part. since the Feynman rules Eq.. iqn ). (12. this χ0 is the same correlation function as the one introduced for other reasons in Sec.10) q ˜ q ˜ q ˜ Below we are going to analyze parts of the diagrams individually. This is straightforward to do. but only the most divergent one for each n: q ˜ q ˜ q ˜ q ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ k− q ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ k− q k− q p + q k− q ˜ + + + + . because it ensures that all interaction lines W (q) carry the same momentum q.

−W RPA (q. In (q.16) +. 1 − W (q) χ0 (q. q ! " # $% &' ( )* + + + + .15) .2. omitting (13.1) for the Yukawa-modiﬁed Coulomb interaction. (13.12) (13.13) can be found using a Dyson equation approach. as + + + + . and let the artiﬁcial cut-oﬀ parameter α tend to zero. + .. iqn ) α→0 (13. THE RENORMALIZED COULOMB INTERACTION IN RPA By introducing a renormalized interaction line −W RPA (˜) = q interaction line arrows. pulling out the convergent Fock self-energy × ΣRPA = σ In the following we study the properties of the renormalized Coulomb interaction W RPA (˜).13) 13. = . . = + ≡ + + + = + × + + 217 we can. We can now insert the speciﬁc form Eq.2 The renormalized Coulomb interaction in RPA The renormalized Coulomb interaction W RPA (q. iqn ) introduced in Eqs. iqn ) = = = Note the cancellation of the explicit signs from W and χ0 in the denominator. . The ﬁnal result is W RPA (q. . iqn ) 0 (13.12) and (13. q 2 − 4πe2 χ0 (q.13. iqn ) ≡ + . .14) (13.-.. rewrite the RPA self-energy as × ΣRPA = σ or. . (13./ 01 234 567 8 9 : = + × 1− −W (q) . . iqn ) −→ 4πe2 0 . iqn )-space this is an algebraic equation with the solution −W RPA (q.

2 ks ≡ −4πe2 χ0 (0. 0 (13. 0 Note that the pair-bubble is a function of both momentum and frequency. 0) is simply minus the density 0 of states at the Fermi level. (2π)3 ξp+q − ξp − iqn (13. iqn ) having its origin in the dynamics of the interacting electron gas. and discuss a physical interpretation of the random phase approximation. (13. 0) −→ 0 q→0 2 F ∂n dp (ξp+q − ξp ) ∂ξp = − dξp d(µ + ξp ) − F 3 (2π) ξp+q − ξp ∂ξp ∂n −d(εF ).18) In the extreme long wave limit we have W RPA (0. In the static.54): χ0 (q. ks has been introduced. long-wave limit. The sum was carried out in Eq. it is a simple matter to obtain the static. but with the important diﬀerence that the artiﬁcially introduced parameter α in the latter has been replaced with the pair-bubble function −4πe2 χ0 (q. for kB T εF . From now on we no longer need a ﬁnite value of α. long-wave limit at low temperatures χR (q.20) The frequency dependence of the retarded pair-bubble χR can now be found by the 0 usual analytical continuation iqn → ω + iη. 0) = . (10. according to Eq. (12.218 CHAPTER 13. i. 0). THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS W RPA (q. However. χ0 (0.22) d(εF ) . long-wave limit q → 0 and iqn = 0. 0) = −1 . iqn ) = 2 dp nF (ξp+q ) − nF (ξp ) .85) using the recipe Eq. q → 0 and iqn = 0 + iη.1 Calculation of the pair-bubble In Eq. (13. (10.34) the pair-bubble diagram is given in terms of a p-integral and a Matsubara frequency sum. 0) (13.17) W RPA (q. 13.19) In the following section we calculate the pair-bubble χ0 (q. we ﬁnd that W RPA appears in a form identical with the Yukawa-modiﬁed Coulomb interaction. (13. and we can 0 perform a Taylor expansion in energy χR (q. We still have to perform the rather involved p-integral. and consequently. and thus determine χR (q. 0) −→ 2 q→0 q 2 + ks where the so-called Thomas-Fermi screening wavenumber. W RPA (q → 0. 0) becomes 1 W RPA (q → 0. ﬁnd the value of the Thomas-Fermi screening wavenumber ks . and it is put to zero in the following. (13. 0). In this limiting case ξp+q → ξp . iqn ) thus has a form similar to W (q).e. a screened Coulomb interaction 4πe2 0 .19).21) In the static.2. iqn ).

25) The integrand is now made dimensionless by measuring all momenta in units of kF and all frequencies and energies in units of εF . .24) 2m In the low temperature limit the Fermi-Dirac distribution is a step-function. We now turn to the more general case.1 nm−1 . x0 ) + f (x. −x0 ) + 2 8x 2 .27a) x0 −x x ln x + x2 − x0 . (13. and the real part of χ0 is most easily calculated by splitting Eq. −1 ξp−q − ξp = 1 (q 2 − 2pqλ). (13.23) a0 being the Bohr radius. (13. 0) = 4π e2 d(εF ) = 0 0 0 4 kF . ω +iη) = −P kF 0 dp 2 p 2π 2 1 −1 dλ nF (ξp ) 1 1 2m (q 2 −2pqλ)+ω + 1 1 2m (q 2 +2pqλ)−ω . Finite temperature eﬀects can be obtained by using the Sommerfeld expansion or by numerical integration. It is therefore useful for numerous applications. (13. dp = (2π)3 ∞ 0 dp 2 p 4π 2 1 dλ. substituting p with p − q in the ﬁrst term. In the p-integral the only angular dependence of the integrand is through cos θ. R (13. 2 ks = −4πe2 χR (0.2.26) and then the λ-integral followed by the p-integral is carried out using standard logarithmic integrals1 . In the low temperature limit an analytical expression is obtained by a straightforward but rather tedious calculation. and collecting the terms again: Re χ0 (q. but limit the calculation of χ0 (q.20) in two terms. (2.18) with Eqs. THE RENORMALIZED COULOMB INTERACTION IN RPA 219 The Thomas-Fermi screening wavenumber ks is found by combining Eq. For metals ks ≈ 0. The ﬁnal result for the retarded function χR is 0 Re χR (q. π a0 (13.20) is Im χ0 (q. ω + iη) = 1 kF 0 dp 2 p 2π 1 a 1 −1 dλ [nF (ξp+q ) − nF (ξp )] δ(ξp+q − ξp −ω ).13. (13. x0 ) ≡ 1 − 1 f (x.27b) The imaginary part of χ0 in Eq. ω + iη) to the low temperature regime kB T εF .36). because it relates the screening length 1/ks to microscopic parameters of the electron gas. This result is very important. and we have λ ≡ cos θ. such as x ≡ q 2kF and x0 ≡ ω . ω ) = −2 d(εF ) 0 where f (x.31) and (2. 4εF (13. x − x2 + x0 (13.28) Useful integrals are R 1 dx ax+b = ln(ax + b) and dx ln(ax + b) = 1 [(ax a + b) ln(ax + b) − ax]. (13.

τ )-representation. and we now see the origin of the renormalization of the Coulomb interaction. Choosing τ > 0 in Eq. and deﬁne Hλ ≡ H0 − µN + λW. τ > 0) = − c (τ ) c† 0 c† (13. But using the equation of motion technique combined with an “integration over the coupling constant” method we obtain the result.83) we arrive at dp χ0 (q. 8.3 The ground state energy of the electron gas We ﬁrst show how to express the ground state energy in terms of the single-particle Green’s functions G(k. In the time interval from 0 to τ an electron-hole pair is thus present. That this is at all possible is perhaps surprising due to the presence of the two-particle Coulomb interaction.31) where H0 is the kinetic energy and W the Coulomb interaction Eq. (1.30) pσ p+qσ (τ ) cp+qσ 0 . 0. (2π)3 pσ σ Consequently we can interpret χ0 (q.29) for 0 < x0 < x − x2 0 2 x. for other x0 ≥ 0. ω ).2. the λ-integral can be performed. According to Eq. ikn ). THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS Using δ(f [x]) = x0 δ(x − x0 )/|f [x0 ]|.220 CHAPTER 13. For λ = 0 we have the non-interacting electron gas while for λ = 1 we retrieve the full Coulomb interacting electron gas. 13. (2. (13. τ > 0) as the sum of all processes of the following type: at τ = 0 an electron is created in the state |pσ and a hole in the state |p + qσ . where x0 are the zeros of f [x]. we study the pair-bubble diagram a little closer in the (q. describes the corresponding dissipative processes. for |x − x2 | < x0 < x + x2 8x x π x0 Im χR (q. At the later time τ the process is reversed. but this corresponds to a polarization of the electron gas. where momentum q and 0 energy ω is absorbed by the electron gas (see also the discussion in Sec. A careful analysis of when the delta-function and the theta-functions are non-zero leads to π 1 − x0 − x 2 . and the electron falls back into the hole state.119) the thermodynamic potential Ω ≡ U − T S − µN is given by . which correspond to an electron jumping from the latter state to the former. The imaginary part of χR (q. In the remaining sections of the chapter we study how the eﬀective RPA interaction inﬂuences the ground state energy and the dielectric properties (in linear response) of the electron gas. To gain some physical insight into the nature of this renormalization. ω ) = −d(εF ) (13.5).2 The electron-hole pair interpretation of RPA We have learned above that the RPA results in a screened Coulomb interaction. The RPA scheme takes interaction processes into account thus changing the dielectric properties of the non-interacting electron gas. 13.34). (10. Let λ be a real number 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1.

3. ckσ ](τ ) c† kσ kσ λ λ ε Gσ (k. (13. 1 βV λ (ikn − εk ) Gσ (k. τ ) using Eqs. ikn ) Gσ (k. using Fourier transforms we can at τ = −η write 1 1 λ λ Gσ (k. τ ) kσ = δ(τ ) + 1 V 1 V Tτ [Hλ . ikn ) − 1 eikn η = 2 λW ikn kσ λ.34) The subscript λ refers to averaging with respect to Hλ . whence the ground state energy E of the system can be calculated as E = E 0 + lim 1 T →0 0 dλ λW λ λ. τ ) − 2 k kσq λ W (q) Tτ c† σ (τ ) ck +qσ (τ ) ck−qσ (τ ) c† λ . (13. kσ k 2 (13. ikn ) eikn η .31) and (10. (13. ikn ) eikn η and δ(−η) = β ikn eikn η . We therefore arrive at the following compact expression. (13.61b) − ∂τ 1 V λ Gσ (k.39) . (13. σ ikn kσ (13.38) λ λ λ We now utilize that 1 = [Gσ ]−1 Gσ and furthermore that [Gσ ]−1 = ikn − εk − Σλ to obtain σ λW λ = 1 2βV λ Σλ (k.37) Collecting the sums on the left-hand side yields 1 βV λ (ikn − εk )Gσ (k. THE GROUND STATE ENERGY OF THE ELECTRON GAS 221 1 ln Tr e−β(H0 −µN+λW) . At T = 0 we have ∆E = ∆Ω. (5.33) By integration over λ from 0 to 1 the change in Ω due to the interactions is found: 1 Ω(1) − Ω(0) = 0 dλ λW λ λ. β By diﬀerentiating with respect to λ we ﬁnd Ω(λ) = − ∂Ω 1 Tr −βW e−β(H0 −µN+λW) =− ∂λ β Tr e−β(H0 −µN+λW) = W λ.13. Furthermore. ikn ) through the equation of motion λ for Gσ (k. ikn ) eikn η = ikn kσ 1 βV eikn η + 2 λW ikn kσ λ.35) λ The expectation value λW λ can be related to Gσ (k.36) = δ(τ ) + kσ We now let τ = 0− = −η and note that the last term is nothing but the interaction part λW λ of the Hamiltonian.32) (13. −η) = β ikn Gσ (k.

through RPA.<=> ?@ A BC D E F G + + + + + + + 2 + + .41) we obtain to (renormalized) second order: E − E 0 ≈ lim 1 T →0 0 dλ λ 1 = 0 dλ λ Note the similarity between the three diagrams in this expression for E − E 0 and the ones depicted in Fig.42) (13. Moreover. (13. second-order perturbation theory of Sec. . 2. ikn ) eikn η . We are now in a position to continue the expansion Eq. (13. 2. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS and when this is inserted in Eq.211 0. The RPA renormalization of the interaction line in the second diagram in Eq.1. ikn ) ≈ σ λ Gσ (k. We will not go through the calculation of these diagrams.222 CHAPTER 13.43) renders the diagram ﬁnite.44) This expression ends the discussion of the ground state energy of the interacting electron gas in the jellium model. Fig.42) and (13.40) This expression allows for an diagrammatic calculation with the additional Feynman rule 1 that limT →0 0 dλ must be performed at the end of the calculation.43) of E/N in terms of the dimensionless distance parameter rs .41) (13. ikn ) ≈ Note that only the second diagram in Eq. (2. Ry.2) that this diagram must be proportional to log ks and hence to log rs . we do not have to expand the Green’s function G beyond ﬁrst order: Σλ (k. E N rs →0 .43) −→ 2. it is a λ remarkable result. ikn ) Gσ (k. (13.8a. Since the self-energy Σ contains diagrams from ﬁrst order and up. λ σ (13. Combining Eq. To improve the high-density.6b.35) we ﬁnally arrive at the expression for the ground state energy E = E 0 + lim 1 T →0 2βV 1 ikn kσ 0 dλ λ λ Σ (k. By employing the powerful quantum ﬁeld theoretic method.2 we include in Eq.40) all diagrams up to second order and. (13. This is because only this diagram is divergent without renormalization. 2.2. and Fig.8b. Since the Thomas-Fermi wavenumber ks replaced α as a cut-oﬀ. we know from Eq. The techniques are similar to those employed in the calculation of the pair-bubble diagram in Sec. (13. (13. the most divergent diagram of each of the higher orders.916 + 0.094 − 2 rs rs (13.0622 log rs − 0.40) with Eqs. 2.41) needs to be renormalized. (13. because it relates the ground state energy of the interacting system to the single-particle Green’s function and the related self-energy. (13. 13.

45) where ρ(r) is the particle density and not.75) and (8. ω ) φext (q. (13.76). the charge density. ω ) = φext (q. Next step is to use the Kubo formula. −q. t). this is in fact the case.46) e2 We divide with e2 since W (q) by deﬁnition contains this factor. (13. we could ﬁnally solve the problem posed by the failed second order perturbation theory.e. ω )]. (13.48) where χR (q. ω ) φext (q. 6. 6. ω )-space. ω)] with the external potential and with the retarded density-density correlator R [−e ρind (q. which relates [−e ρind (r. ω ) creates an induced charge density −eρind (q. (13. R χR (q. (13. ρ(−qt ) eq .48) the total potential φtot (q. ω). t) 4π 0 |r − r | ⇒ φind (q. In the following we focus on the dielectric properties of the system. see Eqs. we write all expressions in Fourier (q. t − t ) ≡ Cρρ (qt. and indeed. THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION AND SCREENING 223 in casu resummation of the Feynman diagram series for the single-electron self-energy and Green’s function. ω ) is the Fourier transform of the retarded Kubo density-density correlation function χR (q.49) Here the subscript ’eq’ refers to averaging in equilibrium. 13. ω ) + φind (q. The external potential φext (q.13. ω) φext (q. ω ). H = dr [−e ρ(r)] φext (r.47) Collecting our partial results we have φind (q. t) = dr −eρind (r . ω ) = W (q) χR (q.4 The dielectric function and screening Already from Eq. (13. φtot (q. we will also be able to study other aspects of the interacting electron gas. ω) φext (q. with respect to H = H0 + W omitting H . as we shall see below. Having achieved this solution. (13. One suspects that also external potentials φext will be screened similarly. t − t ). ω ).50) . As in Sec.4 we study the linear response of the interacting system due to the perturbation H caused by φext . Using Eq. (13. −qt ) = −iθ(t − t ) 1 V ρ(qt). ω)] = (−e)2 Cρρ (q.15) it is clear that the internal dynamics of the interacting electron gas lead to a screening of the pure Coulomb interaction. (8. ω ) = 1 + W (q) χR (q. i. ω ). Through the Coulomb interaction this in turn corresponds to an induced potential φind (r.4. ω) ≡ e2 χR (q.4. ω ) can be written in terms of the polarization function χR . ω ) = 1 W (q) [−e ρind (q. as in Sec. Since the unperturbed system even with its Coulomb interacting electrons is translation-invariant.

where it for the single-particle Green’s function is stated that the diagrams must contain two Green’s functions with the external momentum k. This rule was a direct consequence of the deﬁnition of G(k.54) Hence χ(q. eq (13.30) and the speciﬁc calculation in Sec. But according to Eq. τ ) given by Eq. (1. It is now possible to apply the Feynman rules Eq. From Eq. (10. (12. iqn )-space of χ(q.6).52) where χ(q. (10. (13. τ ) = − 1 T ρ(q. (12. ε(q. We only have to pay special q attention to rule (4). ˜ ˜ k k G(k.53) We will calculate the latter Green’s function using the Feynman diagram technique.7 we can obtain χR (q. iqn ) is the Fourier transform in imaginary time of χ(q. ω ) = χ(q. as in Eq. ω ) we can determine ε(q. The disconnected part is zero since the expectation of the charge density in the neutralized and homogeneous jellium model is zero.81): χ(q.24) directly and to write the diagrammatic expansion in (q. and φext to the displacement ﬁeld D = 0 εE.56) kσ H I . One part where the two density operators are disconnected from one another. and the other part where they mix. we see that the following expression for the dielectric function or electrical permittivity ε has been derived: 1 = 1 + W (q) χR (q. ω ). 10.224 CHAPTER 13. pσ ρ(−q) = kσ c† k+qσ ckσ . The second term has a structure similar to the simple pair-bubble diagram with an external momentum q ﬂowing through it. ω ) by analytic continuation of the corresponding Matsubara Green’s function χR (q. τ ). (13.51) So upon calculating χR (q. η = 0+ has been inserted to ensure correct ordering. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS When recalling that φtot corresponds to the electric ﬁeld E. iqn → ω + iη). τ ) is seen to be a two-particle Green’s function of the form χ(q. τ ) = − Tτ ckσ (τ ) c† ⇒ ··· (13. ω ) (13. and we have divided the contributions to χ into two parts. 0) V τ eq .55) Here.96) we can read oﬀ the Fourier transform ρ(±q): ρ(q) = pσ c† cp+qσ . (13. τ ) = − 1 T V τ c† (τ )cp+qσ (τ ) c† k+qσ ckσ pσ pσ kσ eq ρq=0 eq = 1 − ρq=0 V eq + pσ kσ Tτ cp+qσ (τ )ckσ c† (τ + η)c† k+qσ (η) pσ connected . ω ). iqn ) = χ(˜). τ ) ρ(−q.

. + ˜ k (13. One straightforwardly gets the following vertices corresponding to ρ(q) and ρ(−q): χ(q. except this is a two-particle Green’s function with two operators at each of the external vertices instead of just one. −χirr (˜) ≡ q p+q ˜ ˜ VWXYZ [ ˜ ˜ k+ q + .59) . 12..57) ˜ ˜ k+ q The initial (right) vertex absorbs an external four-momentum q while the ﬁnal (left) vertex ˜ reemits q ..4. (13.13. We must then have that χ(˜) is the sum of all possible diagrams that connect ˜ q the two ρ-vertices and that involve any number of Coulomb interaction lines. we deﬁne the irreducible diagrams in the χ-sum as the ones that cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting any single interaction line : U = ≡ L M N O P Q R ST ˜ k ˜ k ˜ ˜ k+ q p ˜ + p−k ˜ ˜ ˜ k + p+q ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ k+ q + + the sum of all irreducible diagrams in −χ(˜) q + + + + p ˜ ˜ k (13..4. THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION AND SCREENING 225 Likewise for χ(q. p ˜ −χ(˜) ≡ q p+q ˜ ˜ ≡ ˜ ˜ k+ q + + In analogy with the self-energy diagrams in Sec. τ ). τ ) ∼ Tτ c† pσ (τ )cp+qσ (τ ) ckσ c† k+qσ ⇒ p+q ˜ ˜ J K p ˜ ...58) + .

−χ0 (q. q q −χ(˜) = q = = = with the solution With this result for χ(q. iqn ) i l k m −→ RPA −χirr A (q. iqn ) . iqn ) q −χRPA (q. iqn ) = and the full correlation function χ(q. iqn ).65) 1− . −χirr (˜) − χirr (˜) W (˜) χ(˜) .60) (13. iqn ) is approximated by χRPA (q. iqn ) n or more directly (13. irr (q. \ ]^_ `abc de g f h + + + × + + . iqn ) = 1 − W (q) χirr (q. iqn ) = This results in the RPA dielectric function εRPA (q. iq ) ε(q.61) 1 χirr (q. + = −χ(˜) = q = = 1− −χirr (˜) q 1 − W (˜) χirr (˜) q q ε(q.64) = = (13. 2 0q + .226 CHAPTER 13. iqn ) 1 = 1 + W (q) = . iqn ) is approx0 imated by the simple pair-bubble −χirr (q. q q q q (13. iqn ) = 1 − e2 irr χ (q.62) (13.. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS Hence we can resum χ(˜) in terms of χirr (˜) and obtain a Dyson equation for it. iqn ). In RPA χirr (q.. (13. 1 − W (˜) χ0 (q. iqn ) we can determine the dielectric function... iqn ). iqn ) 1 − W (q) χ 1 − W (q) χirr (q. iqn ) = RP j = −χ0 (q.63) Note it is e2 and not e2 that appears in the last expression.

φRPA (q. iqn ) = uRPA (q) = nopq rstu = + + = + + x0 ). all deﬁned by the conditions vF q ω (or x (13. z≡ qvF λ ω 1. (13. We could choose to study the full case described through χR (q.69) 13. (13.72) We rewrite the delta-function in energy-space to one in k-space. PLASMA OSCILLATIONS AND LANDAU DAMPING 227 εRPA (q.66) The entire analysis presented in this section leads to the conclusion that the external potentials treated in linear response theory are renormalized (or screened) in the exact same way as the internal Coulomb interactions of the previous section.. One is the internal electron-electron interaction potential represented by the screened Coulomb interaction line W RPA . q kF (or x 1).21) we obtain Re χR (q.73) . iqn ) = φext (q. The goal of this section is to investigate the frequency dependence of the dielectric function ε(q. iqn ) = 1 − W (q) χ0 (q. but to draw some clear-cut physical conclusions.29).. (13.27a) 0 and (13. ω ) ≈ 0 1 2π 2 dp p2 δ(εp − εF ) 1 dλ −1 vp qλ . ω ) by Eqs. (13. + .29) that Im χR = 0.70) In this regime we see from Eq.25) and (11. kB T εF . ω − vp qλ (13.5 Plasma oscillations and Landau damping We now leave the static case and turn on an external potential with frequency ω .68) + .20) and Taylor expanding nF as in Eq. (13.30) represented by the screened electron-impurity line uRPA . iqn ) = 1 − e2 χ (q. iqn ) 1− e2 2 0q χ0 (q. vF p → kF .. (13. dp = (2π)3 ∞ 0 dp 2 p 4π 2 1 dλ. The other is the external impurity potential Eqs.71) Utilizing this in Eq. (13.. and furthermore we introduce a small dimensionless variable z: δ(εp − εF ) = δ(p − kF ) . iqn ) = tot 1 εRPA (q.13. we conﬁne the discussion to the case of high frequencies. 2 0 0q (13. ω ). −1 ξp+q − ξp ≈ vp qλ. (13. long wave lengths and low temperatures.5. iqn ) . (13. To proceed we adopt the following 0 notation λ ≡ cos θ. (11. vp → vF . iqn ). −W RPA (q.67) This conclusion can be summarized in the following two diagrammatic expansions. iqn ) φext (q.

8. it marks the limit below which metals reﬂects incoming electromagnetic radiation. It is determined by the electron density n and the eﬀective band-mass m of Eq.75). φext (q. εRPA (q. Philos. the existence of these oscillations is proved as follows.228 CHAPTER 13. 10 ωp (13. (2. and the smallness of this new variable permits the Taylor expansion z/(1 − z) ≈ z + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 . ω ) = 0 2 ⇒ 2 ω 2 ≈ ωp + 3 (qvF )2 5 ⇒ ω (q) ≈ ωp + 2 3 vF 2 q . ω ) = ε(q. putting it in the ultra-violet part of the electromagnetic spectrum. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS This in inserted in Eq. Typical values are ω ≈ 1016 Hz. Ashcroft. Re χR (q. Combining Eqs.74) we ﬁnd the RPA dielectric function in the high-frequency and long-wavelength limit to be 2 ωp 3 qvF 2 εRPA (q.66) and (13. The variable λ is substituted by z. well known as the electronic plasma frequency. we obtain ωp = 2.72). 2055 (1963) regarding aluminum. the plasma oscillations. (13. (13.76) ωp ≡ m 0 13. chapter 14. For the determination of the electron band mass m in aluminum see N. ω ) φtot (q.75) ω 5 ω where the characteristic frequency ωp . We are thus about to identify an oscillatory eigenmode for the electron gas. and above which they become transparent. Theoretically.1 Plasma oscillations and plasmons The plasma frequency is an important parameter of the interacting electron gas setting the energy scale for several processes. ω ) ≈ 0 ≈ = 1 2 1 ω k 2π 2 F vF qvF 2 1 kF ω 2 2π 2 qvF n q2 qvF /ω −qvF /ω dz z 1−z +qvF /ω −qvF /ω 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 z + z + z + z 2 3 4 5 3 qvF 5 ω 2 m ω2 1+ . Mag. (13. e. (13.27 × 1016 Hz = 15. ne2 . (13. while the latter can be determined from de Haas-van Alphen eﬀect2 . Solid State Physics. A very direct manifestation of the plasmon frequency is the existence of the collective charge density oscillations.115 m0 . The Fermi surface can be mapped out using this technique as described in Ashcroft and Mermin. Al n = 1. ω ) = 0 in fact allows for a situation where the total potential varies in space and time in the absence of any external potential driving these variations. (13. Using the observed parameters for aluminum.77) The de Haas-van Alphen eﬀect is oscillations in the magnetization of a system as the function of an applied external magnetic ﬁeld.16). The former parameter can be found by Hall eﬀect measurements. Note that ε(q. Consider the relation D = ε 0 E or the related one. .74) 3 where in the last line we used vF = kF /m and 3π 2 n = kF .W.0 eV.81 × 1029 m−2 and m = 1.5. Let us calculate its properties in RPA from Eq. has been introduced.g. ω ). ω ) = 1 − 2 1 + .

and the ﬁnal energy Ef is measured at zero scattering angle on the other side of the foil. here with the emission of three plasmon during the traversal. with a characteristic energy of ωp . Phys. The ﬁnal energy. 13. The energy loss clearly happens in quanta of size ∆E. but instead a traversal during which two plasmons are excited.1: (a) Observation of plasmons in high-energy electron transmission spectroscopy on a 258 nm wide aluminum foil. as is the case with any harmonic oscillator. 13. In the experiment high energy electrons with an initial energy Ei = 20 keV are shot through a 258 nm wide aluminum foil. others excite one or more as sketched in Fig.1(a). The initial energy is Ei = 20 keV.8 eV in good agreement with the plasma frequency determined by other methods to be 15. On the plot electrons exciting as many as seven plasmons are clearly seen. 13. The energy loss Ei − Ef clearly reveals loss in quanta of ∆E. is measured on the other side of the foil. If some eigenmodes exist with a frequency ∼ ωp .8 eV in very good agreement with the value of the plasma frequency of 15.1. and the energy loss Ei − Ef can be plotted. PLASMA OSCILLATIONS AND LANDAU DAMPING 229 Figure 13. by Marton et al. the plasma oscillations. then. 50 234 234 234 @8 5 7 16 0 9 0 234 10 ¢ ) ¦¦¦¨¦¨¦¤ © § ¥ %% $$ #¤ ¥" ¥" ! &'( ¡¢ £ .5. Rev. Some electrons traverse the foil without exciting any plasmons (the ﬁrst peak). (b) A sketch of a typical microscopic process.1(b). Ef . so no 0 damping occurs. denoted plasmons. 126.0 eV. The value of the energy loss quantum was measured to be ∆E = 14. Recall that in the high frequency regime Im χR and consequently Im ε is zero.13. they must be quantized leading to oscillator quanta. They have a simple quadratic dispersion relation ω (q) starting out from ωp for q = 0 and then going up as q is increased.77) it is indeed possible to ﬁnd oscillatory eigenmodes. But how could one be convinced of the existence of these oscillations? One beautiful and very direct veriﬁcation is the experiment discussed in Fig. The result of the measurement is shown in Fig. (13. Thus by Eq.0 eV for bulk aluminum. Note that the most probable process is not the plasmon-free traversal. 182 (1962). The energy quantum ∆E was found to be 14.

Note that ImχR (q.2: A gray scale plot of Im χR (q.R φtot (q. ω ) + i eq2 0 In Eq. (13. 0 φRPA. however. ω ) = tot φext (q. ω ) + iη 0 If. ω ) 0 . ImχR = 0 we end up with a usual Lorentzian peak as a function of ω. ω ) 2 R χ0 (q. This can be elucidated by going to the retarded functions in Eq. ω + iη) 0 In the case of a vanishing imaginary part Im χ0 we ﬁnd a pole on the real axis: φRPA. (13.80) §¦¥ )' '¤ £¢ ' ' ¡ ("# % ! # & % $ §¦¥ ©¨ £¢ . we discuss the damping of excitations. and this region is shown in Fig. which is described by the imaginary part Im χR (q.2.26): x = q/2kF and x0 = ω /4εF . ω ) = 0 only in the gray scaled area. (13. (13. ω ) = . (13.0 eV. ω ) = tot e2 2 0q 1− Re φext (q. 13. (13.78) e2 1 − q2 χ0 (q. The darker a shade the higher the value. signaling 0 a temporal decay of the total potential with a decay time proportional to Im χR . ω ) 1− e2 2 0q Re χR (q. ω ). ω ).29) we have within RPA calculated the region the (q. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS Figure 13. 13. The parameters chosen for this branch are those of aluminum. which is bounded by the constraint functions 0 given in Eq.79) Im χR (q. (13. ω ) RPA. 0 The variables are rescaled according to Eq.7 eV and ωp = 15. The physical origin of the non-zero imag0 inary part is the ability for the electron gas to absorb incoming energy by generating § ¨ & 2 2 "# ! # D $3 E # ! D $3 3 3 "C ! " % "% 1 3 B A @ B 978© 7& 5 6 % # & % $ 1 3 & 12 1 # 0 V WU T S PQ IG F R H 4 ¡ 4 .R (q.29). εF = 11. ω )-plane of non-vanishing Im χR .2 Landau damping Finally. Also shown is the plasmon branch with its propagating and damped parts. The pure plasma oscillations discussed above are examples of undamped 0 or long-lived excitations.R (q.230 CHAPTER 13.5.67) φext (q.

It starts out as a bona ﬁde excitation in the region of the (q.81) 0 ω whereby it is explicitly conﬁrmed that a non-vanishing ImχR is associated with the ability 0 of the system to dissipate energy. Finally we remark that in Fig. Hence the plasmons have inﬁnite life times for small q. . One main result was ﬁnding the screening of the Coulomb interaction both for the internal interaction and for external potentials. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 231 electron-hole pairs.47) it follows that 1 e2 Im χR = − q· Re σ ·q. Outside the appropriate area in (q. ikn ) = σ This result was used to calculate the ground state energy of the electron gas E −E 0 = N + + = We also used the RPA analysis to study the dielectric properties of the electron gas. and the electron gas cannot absorb energy by that mechanism. In the literature this damping mechanism is denoted Landau damping. (6. However. and they are damped out as a function of time. (13. 13. energy and momentum constraints prohibit the excitation of electron-hole pairs. . In other words for high q-values the plasmonic excitations are not exact eigenmodes of the system. The main result was the RPA resummation of diagrams to all orders in perturbation theory valid in the high density limit. In particular we found the self-energy ΣRPA (k.13.211 0.094 − 2 rs rs uRPA (q) = = Ry. It is well-known that the real part of σ is associated with dissipation (Joule heating). when a current J is ﬂowing.916 + 0.2 is shown the dispersion relation for the plasmon excitation.6. at some point the dispersion curve crosses into the dissipative Im χ0 = 0 area. ω )-space where the RPA dissipation is 0. .0622 log rs − 0. iqn ) = = + + v wx y z { |}~ × + + + + . 13. and there the plasmon acquires a ﬁnite life time. But from Eq. here expressed by their Dyson’s equations −W RPA (q. = 2.6 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have used the Feynman rules for pair-wise interacting particles to analyze the Coulomb-interacting electron gas in the jellium model. ω )-space. Another way to understand the eﬀect of a non-vanishing Im χR is to link it to the 0 conductivity σ of the electron gas.

electron-phonon interaction. long-wave limit and (ii) the high frequency. long-wave limit. 0) = 1 + εRPA (q. Moreover. it plays a crucial role in the studies of electron-impurity scattering. (i) the static. 10 ωp where ωp ≡ ne2 .232 CHAPTER 13. ω 5 ω Finally. and of many other physical phenomena involving the electron gas. εRPA (q. we studied the plasma oscillations of the electron gas found from the condition εRPA (q. . THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS Explicit expressions for the dielectric function ε(q. ω (q) = ωp + 2 3 vF 2 q . m 0 The RPA analysis has already given us a good insight in some central physical properties of the electron gas. superconductivity. ω 2 ks 4 kF 2 . and found the dispersion relation involving the plasma frequency ωp . ω ) = 0. ω ) was found in two cases. where ks = q2 π a0 2 ωp 3 qvF 2 qvF ) = 1 − 2 1 + .

This is in fact a rather stringent criterion. the conductivity. 233 . and this condition will set the limits for the applicability of the theory.Chapter 14 Fermi liquid theory The concept of Fermi liquid theory was developed by Landau in 1957-59 and later reﬁned by others1 .1 Adiabatic continuity The Fermi liquid theory is based on the assumption that starting from the non-interacting system of particles one can analyze the interacting case by applying perturbation theory. The quasiparticle distribution function satisﬁes a kinetic equation. Pines The Many-body problem. also is easily understood in terms of scattering of quasiparticles. which may include scattering from one state to another for example due to impurity scattering. because it explains why the apparently immensely complicated system of for example interacting electrons in a metal can be regarded as a gas of non-interacting particles. What we mean by “suﬃciently short” of course has to be quantiﬁed. AddisonWesley (1961. and it is equivalent to the well-known Boltzmann equation from kinetic gas theory. and it gives the theoretical explanation of why all the results that one gets from the widely used free electron model work so well. This equation is known as the Landau transport equation. 15.1997). The basic conclusion is that a gas of interacting particles can be described by a system of almost non-interacting “quasiparticles”. The Fermi liquid theory is conceptually extremely important. because it means that one cannot cross a phase 1 See for example the collection of reprints in the book: D. furthermore. 14. which is calculated from microscopic considerations in Chap. These quasiparticles are approximate excitations of the system at suﬃciently short time scales. In this description the potential is allowed to vary in space due to some external perturbation or due to interactions with the inhomogeneous density of quasiparticles. The quasiparticle concept furthermore gives the theoretical foundation of the semiclassical description. This is of course an enormous simpliﬁcation. Using the Landau transport equation we shall see that the collective modes derived in the previous chapter also come out naturally from a semi-classical description and.

(14. t) + ∂ψadia (x.2). t) ≈ ψV0 (t) (x) exp −iEV0 (t) t . which yields i∂t ψadia (x. This is because a phase transition. We now imagine changing the potential slowly. The phase with broken symmetry can only occur if the ensemble of states in the statistical average is truncated. The accuracy of the solution in Eq. t) = EV0 (t) ψadia (x.3.3) p2 + V (x. What we really are claiming is that the excited states of the interacting system can be labelled by the same quantum numbers as those we used to label the non-interacting system by.e. t) = −V0 (t) exp −x2 /2x2 . t) = can be approximated by the adiabatic solution ψadia (x.5) Thus we have an approximate solution if the ﬁrst term dominates over the second term. (14.234 CHAPTER 14. t) ∂V0 (t) ∂V0 (t) ∂t = Hψadia (x. .2) where ψV0 (t) (x) is the solution of the static (or instantaneous) Schr¨dinger equation. If you imagine that we start from the non-interacting system excited in some state and then turn on the interaction adiabatically. 4. 2m (14. Thus apparently our conclusion is that if the rate of change of V0 (t) is small enough the solution for the new value of V0 = V02 can be found be by starting from the solution 2 This fact you can understand from the concept of broken symmetry explained in Sec. t) = H(t)ψ(x. FERMI LIQUID THEORY boundary line. (14. As a simple example of adiabatic continuity we now consider a particle trapped in a one-dimensional potential. cannot be reached by perturbation theory starting from the paramagnetic phase. (14.4) Note that both ψV0 (t) (x) and EV0 (t) depend parametrically on the time through V0 (t). As an example consider a potential of the form V (x. so slowly that the occupation numbers are not changed. t) ψ(x. then we would end up in a corresponding excited state of the interacting system. (14. The one-dimensional potential will have a number of bound states with discrete eigenenergies and a continuum of eigenenergies corresponding to the delocalized states. (14.3) into Eq. (14. 4.1) 0 where the depth of the well is time dependent. If this change is slow the solution of the Schr¨dinger equation o i∂t ψ(x. i. with o energy EV0 (t) H(t)ψV0 (t) (x) = EV0 (t) ψV0 (t) (x). t). and let us suppose that it is changing from an initial value V01 to a ﬁnal value V02 . such as for example the ferromagnetic transition discussed in Chap. t).2 If the excitations of the non-interacting system are connected to the excitations of the interacting system by a one-to-one correspondence (at least on short time scales as explained below) the two cases are said to be connected by “adiabatic continuity”.3) is estimated by inserting Eq.

1. under the conditions of adiabaticity. thus making computation possible. 0)|(kσ)p t→∞ −→ (k σ )p |(kσ)p 0 . The ﬁrst term inserts a particle while the second term creates both a particle and hole. The two states can simply not be connected through small changes of V0 . for example between states with added particles or added particle-hole pairs. we can bring the states (|(kσ)p . then the matrix elements are identical to those of the non-interacting case. that if we avoid these transitions between diﬀerent kinds of states. etc) all the way back to the non-interacting case. however. let us consider states with single particles or single electron-hole pairs added to the groundstate |(kσ)p = c† |G . because one is a decaying function and one is an oscillatory function. then it does not matter how slowly we change V0 .1 The quasiparticle concept and conserved quantities The principle of adiabatic continuity is now utilized to study a system of interacting particles. The important message is. (14. adiabatic continuity does work.7) then according to Eq. For example † (k σ )p |(kσ)p = (k σ )p |Uζ (t.9) . This turns out to be realized in many systems. (14. it will change to a somewhat modiﬁed state with a somewhat modiﬁed energy. t > 0. If we now imagine letting time evolve according to a Hamiltonian where the interaction is gradually switched oﬀ at a rate ζ Hζ = H0 + Hint e−ζt . |(kσ)p . Since we are dealing with the low energy properties of the system. ADIABATIC CONTINUITY 235 with the old value of V0 = V01 and “adiabatically” changing it to its new value. It is used to bring the excitations of the interacting case back to the well-known excitations of the non-interacting case. and it is not always true. (kσ )h . In the following this idea is applied to the case of interacting particles. This is an example where perturbation theory to any order would never give the right answer. For example if the real solution during this change of V0 from V01 to V02 changes from a bound state to an un-bound state (if V02 is small enough there is only one bound state). In doing so we gain the fundamental understanding that the interacting and the non-interacting cases have a lot in common at least under some restricting circumstances.18) the time evolution with the time dependent Hamiltonian is |kσ (t) = e−iH0 t Tt exp −i t 0 dt Hζ (t ) |kσ ≡ Uζ (t. kσ etc. (5. 0)|kσ .1. but most importantly it is still the ﬁrst excited state and it is still a bound state. This may sound completely trivial. For example if the ﬁrst excited state is a bound state. kσ |(kσ)p . (14.6) where |G is the groundstate of the interacting system. When calculating physical quantities. The following arguments are meant to be the full theoretical explanation for the applicability of Fermi liquid theory. such as response functions or occupation numbers we are facing matrix elements between diﬀerent states.14. but it is not. 14. (k σ )h = c† ck σ |G . but rather to give a physical intuition for the reason why the quasiparticle picture is valid. (14. 0)Uζ (t.8) If.

(2) the total current Je = −e kσ vk nkσ . (14. respectively. since typical excitation energies are of order of the temperature.10) The last condition can in principle always be met at high enough temperatures.e. and (3) the total spin S = kσ σnkσ all commute with the Hamiltonian. τlife ∝ T 2 . Next we discuss the properties of the state with an added particle. (14. or in other words the life-time τlife of the state is long compared to ζ −1 . because the life-time turns out to be inversely proportional −1 to the square of the temperature. or. whereas the ﬁrst one is not necessarily possible. This apparently leaves an energy window where the idea makes sense. Thus there is always a temperature range at low temperature where Eq. Most importantly. 0)|kσ has a number of properties in common with the initial state |(kσ)p .236 CHAPTER 14. This leads us to the deﬁnition of quasiparticles: . The adiabatic procedure is valid when the energy of the state is large compared to the rate of change. (2) it carries current −e k/m. that is τlife ζ −1 . namely when we can choose a switch-oﬀ rate ζ such that −1 τlife ζ kB T. |(kσ)p . It is clear that the state where the interaction is switched oﬀ Uζ (∞. These properties are all conserved quantities because the corresponding operators (1) the total charge Q = −eN .10) is fulﬁlled. εkσ ζ. and therefore the distribution function c† σ ckσ = (k σ )p |(kσ)p −→ (k σ )p |(kσ)p 0 is a k Fermi-Dirac distribution function. and (3) it has excess spin σ. The interactions do not induce transitions of the states in question. this is equivalent to assuming kB T ζ. Here −e and m are charge and mass of the electrons. FERMI LIQUID THEORY There are two important assumptions built into this construction: 1. namely those that are conserved by the Hamiltonian: (1) it has an excess charge e (compared to the groundstate). 2. the adiabatic continuity principle can also be used to calculate the distribution function. Below we shall see that it is indeed possible to make the approximations consistent. i.

The quasiparticle are thus not to be thought of as the exact eigenstates. if the local potential of the quasiparticles is space and time dependent so is then the density of quasiparticles. this only makes sense on length scales larger than a typical thermalization length. Thus we write the resulting local potential φtot (r. The quasiparticles can be labelled by the same quantum numbers as the non-interacting case. and they therefore constitute a dilute gas. 12 we saw how the collective modes of a charged Fermi gas came out of a rigorous diagrammatical analysis.3 Now. 3 . must be determined self-consistently. (14. (k σ )h ). SEMI-CLASSICAL TREATMENT OF SCREENING AND PLASMONS 237 Quasiparticles are the excitations of the interacting system corresponding to the creation or annihilation of particles (for example particle-hole pair state |(kσ)p . Finally the quasiparticles are in equilibrium distributed according to the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. because otherwise we could not talk about a local potential. 14. The thermalization length is the length scale on which thermal equilibrium is established. For a translation-invariant system of electrons interacting through the Coulomb interaction. At low temperatures there are only a few quasiparticles. In the following we make use of the quasiparticle concept to calculate the screening and the transport properties of an electron gas. t) + φind (r.2. Consider a uniform electron gas which is subject to an external potential φext (r.11) The induced potential φind created by the induced density ρind . This in turn changes the electrical potential because the quasiparticles are charged and therefore the total potential φtot is given by the sum of the external potential φext and the induced potential φind . Note that we are here invoking a new concept namely local equilibrium. which in turn depends on the total potential. Here we shall rederive some of this using a less rigorous but maybe physically more appealing approach.14. t) as φtot (r. t). The quasiparticle concept only makes sense on time scales shorter than the quasiparticle life time.2 Semi-classical treatment of screening and plasmons In Chap. t). We can include the external potential as a local change of the potential felt by the charged quasiparticles. The induced potential is caused by the excess or deﬁcit of quasiparticles. Clearly. because they will of course tend to move towards the low potential regions. provided that the corresponding operators commute with the Hamiltonian. t) = φext (r. the quasiparticles quantum numbers are thus k and σ and they carry charge −e and velocity vk = k/m.

2 Dynamical screening In the dynamical case. This depends on both r and t. 0 ⇒ φtot (q) = (14. (14.21).5. FERMI LIQUID THEORY 14.15) in full agreement with the conclusions of the RPA results Eqs. The way to describe this is to look at the deviation of the distribution function nk of a quasiparticle with a given momentum p = k (below we as usual use = 1). The conservation of particles in state k is expressed in the continuity equation nk + ˙ r · jk = 0. (14. we expect to ﬁnd collective excitations similar to the plasmons found in Sec.66 ) and (13.14) 14.238 CHAPTER 14.16) The dynamics are controlled by two things: the conservation of charge and the change of momentum with time.11) yields φtot (r) = φext (r.17) .67) using χR = −d(εF ) from Eq. so that nk = nk(t) (r. (14. the number of quasiparticles in each state is conserved.12) where ξk is quasiparticle energy measured relative to the equilibrium chemical potential and d(εF ) is the density of states at the Fermi level.2. Because we are interested in times shorter than the life time of the quasiparticles. To linear order in the local total potential and at low temperatures the induced charge density is given by ρind (r) = 2 V nF ξk + (−e)φtot (r) − nF ξk k ≈ −(−e)φtot (r) 2 V − k ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk ≈ −(−e)φtot (r)d(εF ).1 Static screening First we consider linear static screening. t). In order to treat this case we need to reﬁne the analysis a bit to allow for the time it takes the charge to adjust to the varying external potential. From this we get the induced potential in real space and in q-space as φind (r) = 1 −e dr W (r−r )ρind (r) ⇔ φind (q) = 1 W (q)ρind (q) = −W (q)φtot (q)d(εF ). 13. (14. the induced charge density at point r at time t now depends on the total potential at some other point r and at some other (previous) time t . 1 + W (q)d(εF ) which when inserted into (14. (13.2. −e (14.13) φext (q) . (13. Consequently. t) − W (q)d(εF )φtot (q) and hence ε(q) = 1 + W (q) d(εF ). The ﬁrst dependence arises from the ﬂow of the distribution function.

21) ∂nk ∂ξk φtot (q. SEMI-CLASSICAL TREATMENT OF SCREENING AND PLASMONS 239 where the current carried of quasiparticles in state k is given by jk = vk nk = ( k/m)nk . ω) = q· k ξk ω − q · vk − ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk (−eφtot (q.19) we ﬁnd (−iω + iq · vk )nk (q. i. (14. Using Eq.e. 13.5.24) which agrees with Eq. (14. The second dependence follows from how a negatively charged particle is accelerated in a ﬁeld. .15). which relies on the Fermi liquid theory. Note that q drops out because W (q) ∝ q −2 . We have also gained some physical understanding of this renormalization.11) and we obtain the dielectric function ε = φext /φtot in the dynamical case ε(q) = 1 − W (q) 2 V q· k ξk ω − q · vk − ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk .2. ω) = 2 V q· k ξk ω − q · vk − ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk (−eφtot (q. (14.20) To linear order in the potential φtot we can replace the nk on the righthand side by the equilibrium distribution n0 = nF (ξk ) and hence we ﬁnd k nk (q. based on renormalization by summation of the most important diagrams.19) Again it is convenient to use Fourier space and introducing the Fourier transform nk (q. ω)). gives the same result as the fully microscopic theory. (14. (14.22) k where the factor 2 comes from to spin degeneracy. This is inserted into Eqs.75) in Sec. ω)). because k ξk = vk . simply from Newton’s law p = −(−e) ˙ r φtot (r. At long wavelengths or large frequencies qv ω.23) k At ω = 0 we recover the static case in Eq. (14. 4 Here r and t are independent space and time variables in contrast to the sometimes used ﬂuid dynamical formulation where r = r(t) follows the particle motion.13) and (14. ω) = ie (q· k ξk ) − (14. (13. ω) = −ie (q · k nk ) φtot (q. ω). we ﬁnd by expanding in powers of q that ε(q) ≈ 1 − W (q) 2 ω2 V (q · vk )2 − ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk =1− ωp ω 2 . ω).14. (14. t). From this expression we easily get the induced density by summation over k ρind (q. (14.18) which is known as the collision-free Boltzmann equation4 . We have thus shown that in the long wavelength limit the semi-classical treatment. (14. because we saw explicitly how it was due to the screening of the external potential by the mobile quasiparticles. and hence we get ˙ ∂t (nk ) + k · k nk + vk · r nk = 0.

17) to take into account the processes that change the occupation number nk . It can be found from Fermi’s golden rule Γ(k σ← kσ) = 2π k σ|Vimp |kσ 2 δ(ξk − ξk ). namely by assuming that the charge carriers form a classical gas. As explained in Chap. In steady state these forces are in balance and hence −(−e)E+ mv τp−relax =0 ⇒ J = −env = e2 nτp−relax E m ⇒ σ= ne2 τp−relax . the ﬁnite resistivity of metals at low temperatures is due to scattering against impurities or other imperfections in the crystal structure. the ones considered here. For non-magnetic impurities. In Sec. the Drude formula was ﬁrst derived in an incorrect way. thus introducing a mechanism for momentum relaxation and hence resistivity. and we get 2 Γ(k σ← kσ) = Γk σ.28) . 15 we will furthermore see how the very same result can be derived in a microscopic quantum theory starting from the Kubo formula and using a diagrammatic approach.25) m where σ is the conductivity and τp−relax is the momentum relaxation time. but amazingly the result turns out to be the same.kσ 2π = 2 V dr e j −ik ·r u(r − Rj )e +ik·r δ(ξk − ξk ). Microscopically the momentum relaxation corresponds to scattering of quasiparticles from one state |kσ with momentum k to another state |k σ with momentum k . at which scattering from the state |kσ to some other state |k σ occurs. A simple minded approach to conductivity would be to say that the forces acting on a small volume of charge is the sum of the external force and a friction force that is taken to be proportional to the velocity of the ﬂuid at the given point. This will in fact lead us to the famous Drude formula. (14. the spin is conserved and thus σ = σ .3 Semi-classical transport equation Our last application of the semi-classical approach is the calculation of conductivity of a uniform electron gas with some embedded impurities. Historically. We know now that they follow a Fermi-Dirac distribution. FERMI LIQUID THEORY 14.26) where Vimp is the impurity potential. The new scattering process thus introduced means that the number of quasiparticles in a given k-state is no longer conserved and we have to modify Eq. The rate of change is given by the rate. Γ(k σ← kσ). where |kσ 0 = eik·r / V. These collisions take momentum out of the electron system. (14.27) Vimp (r) = i We can then ﬁnd the rate Γ by the adiabatic procedure where the matrix element k σ|Vimp |kσ √ is identiﬁed with non-interacting counterpart k σ|Vimp |kσ 0 . The fact that the scattering on an external potential is an elastic scattering is reﬂected in the energy-conserving delta function. (14. (14. 10. 11) u(r − Ri ) (14. The total impurity potential is a sum over single impurity potentials situated at positions Ri (see also Chap.240 CHAPTER 14.

and therefore to linear order in E the ˙ ˙ term k nk multiplying k can be replaced by the equilibrium occupation. k (14. Let us furthermore concentrate on the long wave-length limit such that r nk ≈ 0. because the right hand side is then of the form τ −1 nk similar to −iωnk on the left hand side.14.18).30) where the change due to “ﬂow and force” is given by the left hand side in Eq. (14.k = Wk . The average is done assuming only lowest order scattering.29) times the probability for the initial state to be ﬁlled and the ﬁnal state to be empty. SEMI-CLASSICAL TRANSPORT EQUATION 241 Of course we do not know the location of the impurities exactly and therefore we perform a positional average. Because Wk. and multiplied by the impurity potential for a single impurity u(r). The new collision term is not a derivative but an integral functional of nk ∂ nk ∂t =− collisions nimp V nk (1 − nk )Wk . (14. (14. k (14.34) Without the nk -term on the right hand side this equation is simple to solve.k (nk − nk ) .17) as an additional term.k = 2π nimp V dr ei(k−k )·r u(r) δ(ξk − ξk ) ≡ 2 nimp Wk . By going to the frequency domain. First we note that p = −eE. i. The time derivative of nk becomes nk(t) (r. t) = ˙ d nk dt + ﬂow−force ∂ nk ∂t . V (14. This .3. Nimp = nimp V. (14. which at zero ˆ ˆ temperature becomes k n0 = k θ(kF − k) = −kδ(kF − k).31) The ﬁrst term in the sum represents the rate for being scattered out of the state k and the second term represents the rate for being scattered into to state k from the state k .k .k (nk − nk ) . collisions (14.k . leaving out interference between scattering on diﬀerent impurities.32) ∂t V collisions k and the full Boltzmann transport equation in the presence of impurity scattering now reads nimp ˙ ∂t (nk ) + k · k nk + vk · r nk = − Wk .k (nk − nk ) . where k is a unit vector k oriented along k.29) Now the change of nk due to collisions is included in the diﬀerential equation Eq. The total rate is obtained from the Fermi golden rule expression (14. We obtain Γk . Therefore we can simply replace the sum over impurities by the number of scattering centers.k − nk (1 − nk )Wk.e.k .33) V k The Boltzmann equation for impurity scattering is rather easily solved in the linear response regime. we have nimp ∂ nk =− Wk . we obtain nimp ˆ −iωnk + eE · k δ(kF − k) = − V Wk .

and therefore we can put E parallel to k.37) (14.39) = τ tr V k =kF The time is known as the transport time.k ). (14. so let us try the ansatz 1 ˆ eE · kδ (kF − k).41) 1 − iωτ tr m .k (cos θk − cos θk ). The result for the conductivity is 1 ne2 τ tr σ = σ0 . For a uniform system the result cannot depend on the direction of the electric ﬁeld. That this is in fact a solution is seen by substitution −iω ˆ ˆ eE · kδ(kF − k) + eE · k δ(kF − k) iω − 1/τ tr nimp −e ˆ ˆ = Wk .40) 3 where we have used the relation between density and kF .38) Here θk is angle between the vector k and the electric ﬁeld E. σ0 = . tr V iω − 1/τ |k | (14. |k |=kF (14.k includes an energy conserving delta function. as we see by calculating the current density J=− =− = 2e V 2e V nk vk k τ tr k eδ(kF − k) ˆ k k·E tr iω − 1/τ m 1 E 1 ∞ dk k 3 δ(kF − k) d(cos θ) cos2 θ (2π)2 −iω + 1/τ tr m 0 −1 2e2 E 1 e2 n 3 2 = kF = E.35) nk (ω) = iω − 1/τ tr where the relaxation time τ tr needs to be determined. FERMI LIQUID THEORY hints that we can obtain the full solution by some imaginary shift of ω. n = kF /3π 2 .242 CHAPTER 14. because it is the time that enters the expression for the conductivity.36) Since Wk . −iω + 1/τ tr (2π)2 m 3 (−iω + 1/τ tr ) m 2e2 (14.k (1 − cos θk.k (k − k ) · E. (14. (14. and get nimp 1 Wk .k kδ(kF − k)−k δ(kF − k ) · E. we can set k = k = kF and remove the common factor δ(kF − k) to get nimp −iω −e ˆ ˆ eE · k + eE · k = tr tr V iω − 1/τ iω − 1/τ which is solved by cos θk nimp 1 = τ tr V Wk . k =kF ˆ ˆ Wk .

but of course both total momentum and total energy are conserved in the scattering event. and the analysis that was applied in the ﬂuid dynamical picture in Eq.32) and it is therefore incorrect. Often one uses an even simpler approximation for the collision term.25) found by the simpliﬁed analysis.42) where n0 is the equilibrium distribution function. i. This would however only give the ﬁrst term in the right hand side of Eq. τ0 (14. which was also calculated in Eq. This k approximation in fact gives the correct answer if the relaxation time is identiﬁed with the transport time τ0 = τ tr . k σ scatter. (14. the ﬁnal state will be a state |k + qσ. (11. In this approximation the collision is replaced by ∂ nk ∂t =− collisions nk − n0 k . i. (14.39) accounts for. is given by the ﬁrst Born approximation 1 τlife = nimp V Wk .e. it is tempting to think of the τ0 as the time for scattering out of the state k.14. The interaction between the particles is screened by the other particles and we should use the RPA result for the interaction. the state k is destroyed but the momentum is almost conserved and such a process therefore does not eﬀect the conductivity. Therefore the transport time is precisely the momentum relaxation time deﬁned in the simple ﬂuid dynamical picture in Eq. and τ0 is the relaxation time. Then we included some ﬁnite life time induced by scattering against impurities. (14. cos θ ≈ −1. corresponding to a large momentum relaxation. If the quasiparticle scatters forward.43) This time expresses the rate for scattering out of a given state k. The Coulomb interactions thus introduces a two-particle scattering where momentum and energy are exchanged.25) is indeed applicable to each quasiparticle separately.25). such that the initial and the ﬁnal energies are the same εk + εk = εk+q + εk −q or counting from the chemical potential ξk + ξk = ξk+q + ξk −q .49 ). Here we investigate the validity of this approach by studying the rate of quasiparticle-quasiparticle scattering. the life time of the state k.3. On the contrary when the particle is scattered backward. but it does not tell us how much the momentum is degraded by the scattering process. The rate for quasiparticle-quasiparticle scattering can be calculated using Fermi’s golden . The reason that the two approaches give the same result is that we can treat the quasiparticle as independent. At ﬁrst sight. namely the socalled relaxation time approximation. i. 14. But we never included scattering of quasiparticle on other quasiparticles. (14.k . Clearly there is a mechanism for quasiparticle scattering against quasiparticles because they are charged and therefore interact through the Coulomb interaction. SEMI-CLASSICAL TRANSPORT EQUATION 243 which agrees with Eq. k (14. This is precisely what the additional cosine-term in Eq.3. cos θ ≈ 1. k − qσ . If two particles in states |kσ. there is a large change in momentum. The life time.1 Finite life time of the quasiparticles Above we ﬁrst assumed that the quasiparticles have an inﬁnite life time.e.e. (14.

or k + q. The result for the “life-time” τk of the state |kσ is then given by screened interaction Γk+qσ. 0) ε 2 δ ξk + ξk − ξk+q − ξk −q × nk nk 1 − nk+q 1 − nk −q scattering out of state k − 1 − nk 1 − nk nk+q nk −q .10) holds as long the temperature is much smaller than the . (14. At ﬁnite temperature the typical excitation energy is kB T and ξk is replaced by kB T 1 ∝ T 2 . for T > ξk . But for now we just want the energy dependence of the life-time.kσ = 2π k+qσ. i. This is a very important result because it tells us that the life-time of the quasiparticles diverges as we approach the Fermi level and thus the notion of quasiparticles is a consistent picture. (14. scattering into state k (14. We then have 1 ∼ |W |2 [d(εF )]3 τk = |W |2 [d(εF )]3 = |W |2 [d(εF )] 0 ∞ dξ −∞ 0 0 dξ Θ(ξk + ξ − ξ ) −∞ 2 3 ξk dξ ξk + ξ Θ(ξk + ξ ) for T < ξk . k −qσ |W RPA (q)|k σ . To ﬁnd that we must multiply Γ with the probability that the state |k σ is occupied and that ﬁnal states are unoccupied and sum over all possible k and q. Suppose then we have integrated out the angle dependence.45) can be evaluated explicitly for a particle in state k added to a ﬁlled Fermi sea. 14.47) τk The conclusion from this analysis is: the life-time of the quasiparticles based on Fermi’s golden rule diverges at low temperatures and therefore the condition for the adiabatic approach expressed in Eq. We look at situation with a particle above the Fermi surface ξk > 0.1. see also Fig. kσ 2 1 2π = 2 2 τk V spin kq W (q) RPA (q. k − q. Then we are left with two energy integrals over ξk ≡ ξ < 0 and ξk −q ≡ ξ > 0.244 rule CHAPTER 14.46) 2 . nk = 1 and np = θ(kF − p) for p equal to k .44) where W RPA (q) is the RPA screened Coulomb interaction.e. At T = 0 this gives the condition that ξk + ξk − ξk+q > 0. FERMI LIQUID THEORY δ(ξk +ξk −ξk+q − ξk −q ).k −qσ .k σ . From this rate we can obtain the total rate for changing the state of a given quasiparticle in state |kσ by the Coulomb interaction. A simple phase space argument gives the answer. (14. which takes care of the delta function. (14.45) The expression (14.

the other particle which is scattered out of state k can only gain energy.4.14.1: The two-particle scattering event that gives rise to a ﬁnite life time of the quasiparticles. This together with the Pauli principle cause the phase space available for the scattering to be very limited. the quasiparticle picture therefore has real physical meaning.4 14. can be described by a free particle with a long life time.1 the physical reason for the smallness of the scattering rate is that although the Coulomb scattering matrix elements are big there is not much phase space available for scattering due to the Pauli principle. the condition in fact holds for even moderately elevated temperatures. Because the Fermi energy in for example metal is in general a fairly large energy scale. 14. The function that measures precisely the density of states for adding particles is the retarded Green’s function GR . Fermi energy. The dashed circle indicates the energy of the initial state.1 Microscopic basis of the Fermi liquid theory Renormalization of the single particle Green’s function The Fermi liquid theory relies on the assumption that the excitation created by adding a particle to the system. which in general can be written . We consider the one-particle retarded Green’s function. If the retarded Green’s function of the interacting system turns out to be similar to that of free particles. Furthermore. 14. As illustrated in Fig. Since the particle can only loose energy.4. This is what we are going to show in this section and thereby give a microscopic foundation of the Fermi liquid theory. These were the quasiparticles. because of the Pauli principle the ﬁnal states of both particles have to lie outside the Fermi surface and therefore the phase space volume for the ﬁnal state k + q (white area) and for the initial state k (gray area) both 2 scale with ξk giving rise to a maximum total phase proportional to ξk . Both momentum and energy have to be conserved. which is illustrated on the right hand ﬁgure. MICROSCOPIC BASIS OF THE FERMI LIQUID THEORY 245 − ξ Figure 14.

(14. which of course is not doable in the general case. ω − ξk − ΣR (kσ.49) ˜ We then anticipate the quasiparticle picture by looking at k-values close to the kF .54) ˜ k=kF In Sec. and where ΣR (k. ω) ≈ ˜ ω − ω∂ω Re ΣR − (k − kF )∂k (ξ + Re ΣR ) − i Im ΣR i 2˜k (ω) τ −1 −1 ˜ ≡ Z ω − ξk + where Z −1 = 1 − (14. At small ˜ ˜ ˜ energies and for k close to kF . 0) = 0. The ˜ eﬀective energy ξk is usually expressed as ˜ ˜ ˜ ξk = (k − kF )kF /m∗ . 0) ˜ ∂k kF . 12 was shown to give the exact answer in the high density limit.50) 1 = −2Z Im ΣR (k. (14. ω) = CHAPTER 14. meaning ˜F is deﬁned close to the renormalized Fermi-energy. ω). ω)] − i Im ΣR (k. For a very .51) (14.52) (14. Fortunately. ω) . ω) (14. 0))k=kF . ω) is not expanded because we look at its form later.48) where ξk = k 2 /2m −µ is the free electron energy measured with the respect to the chemical potential µ. The renormalized Fermi wave number k ˜ by the condition that the real part of the energy vanishes ξkF + Re Σ(kF .3. ω) . ˜ ∂k (14. If this also ˜ holds here the spectral function therefore has a Lorentzian shape near k = kF . ∂ω ω=0 ∂ ˜ ˜ ξk = (k − kF )Z (ξk + Re Σ(k.53) The imaginary part of ΣR (k.55) (14. where the eﬀective mass by Eq. ω) = 1 ω − [ξk + Re ΣR (k. (14.246 as GR (kσ. τk (ω) ˜ ∂ ˜ Re Σ(kF . ω) is the irreducible retarded self-energy. Let us ﬁrst write the general form of GR by separating the self-energy in real and imaginary parts GR (kσ. To calculate the self-energy we should in principle include all possible diagrams.1 we saw that the life-time goes to inﬁnity at low temperatures. namely the RPA which in Chap. 14. FERMI LIQUID THEORY 1 . important conclusions can be drawn from the ﬁrst non-trivial approximation.52) is seen to be m =Z m∗ 1+ m ∂ Re Σ(k. we can expand (GR )−1 in powers of k − kF and ω. which leads to GR (k.

and hence Eq. ω). ω) = 1. (14. ω) = 2πZ δ(ω − ξk ) + A (k. 2π is not fulﬁlled by Eq. the Green’s function and the spectral function ˜ has a sharp peak at ω = ξk . ¤ (14. the integral only amounts to Z. small imaginary part we could namely approximate Im ΣR ≈ −η. that has an integrated weight given by 1 − Z. the quasiparticle peak cannot be the whole story. It contains a distinct peak. However.2: The spectral function A(k.2. ω) ≈ 2πZδ(ω − ξk ).7 and 1 for rs < 3. This part called Aqp however only carries part of the integrated spectral weight and the rest must therefore be contained in the background function A stemming from other types of excitations. which is identiﬁed with the quasiparticle.57) DC C C C E E E C E E E 9 ! @ ' A¦ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¤ § 0 () E FE E E E E 3% E E E E 8 4 & 2 ¥1 0 (' ¡¤ ) 6 # ¦ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¨© B 666 $! # %& ! 6676 56 "¦ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¨© ¤ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¨© §¦ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ . ω) as resulting from the analysis of the RPA approximation. the book by Mahan. Therefore we instead write ˜ A(k. See Fig. because the general sum rule ∞ −∞ dω A(k. (14. ω) = −2Im GR (k.56) This shows that with a small imaginary part. The constant Z is called the renormalization constant and it is a measure of the quasiparticle weight. 14. where rs = (3/4πa3 n)−1/3 is the parameter often used to parameterize the density of electron 0 gases.58) where the remaining contribution A not associated with the pole. (14. see Exercise 13.50) gives ˜ A(k. contains more complicated many body excitations not describable by a free electron like peak. The peaked spectral function therefore resembles that of a free gas and the pole is identiﬁed as the quasiparticle that was deﬁned in the Fermi liquid theory. (14.2.56). There must be another part of the spectral function.g.14. For a discussion on the measurements of Z using Compton scattering see e. MICROSCOPIC BASIS OF THE FERMI LIQUID THEORY 247 Figure 14.4. which we denoted A . where the jump at the Fermi level is a direct measure of Z. The renormalization constant shows up for example in the distribution function n(k). Typically Z is found from experiments to be between 0.

iωn ) (14. which we therefore have to subtract again. As seen in Fig.61) ε (q. σ. (10. ikn + z). (10. when letting δ → 0+ .3) C = C1 + C2 then we include all the Matsubara frequencies except the one in origin (note that the points shown in Fig. If we therefore make a contour which is like the one in Fig. 14. (14. ikn ) = − σ 1 β iωn 1 V q W (q) G0 (k + q. In the Matsubara frequency domain it is given by .3) are the fermionic Matsubara frequencies).59) where W/εRPA is the screened interaction. 14. ikn + ω) − (η → −η) + iη) W (q) nB (ξk+q − ikn ) RPA . ikn ) = − 1 V ∞ P q −∞ dω nB (ω) 2πi × + 1 V εRPA (q. ikn ) = − σ 1 dz nB (z) 2πi V G0 (k εRPA (q.12). Now that we have performed the Matsubara sum. The small loop C3 shown in Fig. also enclose the pole in z = ξk+q − ikn . in ΣRPA (kσ. ω q W (q) G0 (k + q. (13.4. We now get ΣRPA (kσ.3 is now seen to cancel parts of the counters C1 and C2 so that they are modiﬁed to run between ] − ∞. Therefore we include a loop around the origin so that the contour C = C1 + C2 + C3 shown in Fig.60) C q where C is a suitable contour that encloses all the bosonic Matsubara frequencies z = iωn . 14. the RPA self-energy Eq. 14. however.3 we. −δ] and [δ. σ.2 Imaginary part of the single particle Green’s function We base our analysis on the most important diagram. εRPA (q. ∞[ only. As usual we perform the Matsubara summation by a contour integration ΣRPA (kσ. σ. The integrand in analytic everywhere but in z = ξk+q − ikn and for z purely real.3 includes all boson Matsubara frequencies z = iωn . and this is equivalent to stating that the integration are replaced by the principal part. z) W (q) + q. FERMI LIQUID THEORY We still need to show that the assumption of a large τk is valid and we now turn to evaluating the imaginary part of the self-energy. (14. ikn + iωn ). we are allowed to get the .248 CHAPTER 14. ξk+q − ikn ) In the last term we should use that nB (ξk+q − ikn ) = −nF (ξk+q ) because ikn is a fermion frequency.

ξk+q − ε − iη) ∗ because εRPA (q. ξ ε k+q − ξk ) 2 (14.62) ε (q.3: The contour C = C1 + C2 + C3 used for integration for a the Matsubara sum that enters the RPA self-energy in Eq. The contour C3 which picks up the contribution from the pole z = 0 cancels the parts of C1 and C2 given by the small loops.60). ε) = [nB (ξk+q − ε) + nF (ξk+q )] Im RPA . Since we are interested in the case where a particle with ξk is scattered. ε) = − 1 V ∞ P q −∞ dω nB (ω) 2πi 1 εRPA (q.64) . (14. ξk ) = τk V nB (ξk+q − ξk ) + nF (ξk+q ) q × Im χR (q.R (q. (13. ω × (2i) Im − 1 V q W (q)GR (k + q. MICROSCOPIC BASIS OF THE FERMI LIQUID THEORY 249 Figure 14. ξk+q − ε + iη) (14. The poles from the boson frequencies are shown by black dots. while the that of G0 is the white dot. retarded self-energy by the substitution ikn → ε + iη which leads to ΣRPA. 0 The imaginary part of the polarization function follows from Eq. ε + ω) 0 + iη) W (q) nF (ξk+q ) RPA .14. σ.R (kσ.65) k § £ ¡ ©¨¦ ¥ ¤¢ ¤¢ ¡ " # ! W (q) RPA. V q ε (q. σ. ε + ω) = πδ(ε + ω − ξk+q ) and then performed the 0 ω-integration. (14. ω + iη) = εRPA (q. ξk+q − ξk ) = 0 2π V nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk −q ) δ(ξk − ξk −q − ξk+q + ξk ) (14. ω − iη) . ξk+q − ξk ).63) where we used that − Im GR (k + q.20) Im χR (q. we evaluate the imaginary part in ε = ξk and ﬁnd 1 −2 = −2 Im ΣRPA (kσ.4. The imaginary part of the self-energy becomes 1 W (q) Im ΣRPA (kσ.

67) At low temperature the ﬁrst term is due to the energy conservation condition non-zero for ξk > 0. Rev. It is however not hard to imagine that more complicated scattering events than the simple one depicted in Fig. but the RPA approximation in Chap. 14. it can in fact be shown that the imaginary part vanishes to all orders in the interaction. J. Ferrell. The derivation is rather lengthy and we do not give it here. 5 6 J. The ﬁrst term thus corresponds to the scattering out term in Eq.64).45). If we furthermore approximate ξk − ξk+q ≈ 0 in εRPA we now see that the life time in Eq. (14. 121. We have thus veriﬁed that the imaginary part of the retarded Green’s function indeed goes to zero. (14. ε) = − τk V [nB (ξk+q − ξk ) + nF (ξk+q )] nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk −q ) qk × W (q) RPA. For the second term we use the obvious identity nF ( 1 )[1 − nF ( 2 )] − nF ( 2 )[1 − nF ( 2 ] = nF ( 1 ) − nF ( 2 ) and nF (− ) = 1 − nF ( ).66) is equivalent to the Fermi’s golden rule expression Eq. For the ﬁrst term in the ﬁrst parenthesis we use the identity nB ( 1 − 2 )[nF ( 2 ) − nF ( 2 )] = nF ( 1 )[1 − nF ( 2 )].250 CHAPTER 14. Quinn and R. (14.66) was done by Quinn and Ferrell5 who got √ 2 3π ξk 2 1 = ωp .R (q. FERMI LIQUID THEORY (here we shifted k → k − q as compared with Eq. (13.66) Let us study the occupation factors in this expression and compare with the Fermi’s golden rule expression Eq. An explicit calculation of Eq. (14. Luttinger.1 will have even more constrains on the energies.45). we obtain 1 4π = −2 Im ΣRPA (kσ.45).66) as −nF (ξk )[1 − nF (ξk+q )] 1 − nF (ξk −q ) − [1 − nF (ξk )] nF (ξk+q )nF (ξk −q ) (14. All together this allows us to write the occupation factors in Eq. Phys. (14. This concludes our analysis of the single particle Green’s function.M. This was done by Luttinger6 who proved that the imaginary part of any diagram for the self-energy goes to zero as ξ 2 or faster. combined with ξk − ξk+q = −ξk + ξk −q . Hence after integration. A. 942 (1961).68) τk 128 εF Going beyond RPA. while the last term is non-zero for ξk < 0. ξ ε k+q − ξk ) 2 δ(ξk − ξk −q − ξk+q + ξk ).20)) and when this is inserted back into Eq. . The analysis indeed conﬁrmed the physical picture put forward by Landau in his Fermi liquid theory. Rev 112. 812 (1958). At least when employing the RPA approximation for the self-energy. Phys. (14. (14. 12 was shown to be exact in the high density limit. J. (14. while the second term corresponds to the scattering in term. they will result in higher powers of ξk . (14.

The driving ﬁelds enter through the Lorentz force as ˙ p = k = (−e)(E + v × B).14. σ = ne2 τ tr /m. In Chap.5.4 14. The calculation has to be done in a consistent way such that the diagrams included in the irreducible self-energy is also included in the diagrams for the two-particle correlation function.e. For a translation-invariant system the quantum numbers are k and σ. The theory is valid whenever perturbation theory is valid. These particles we call quasiparticles and they can be labelled by the same quantum numbers of those of the non-interacting system. When the same type of diagrams are included both in the self-energy and in the lines that cross the two-particle “bubble” then the mass renormalization exactly cancels. i. The result .5 Outlook and summary We have developed the semi-classical Fermi liquid theory of interacting particles. provided that the corresponding operators also commute with the full Hamiltonian. On the right hand side of Eq. We also found that the eﬀective mass of the quasiparticle was renormalized due to the interactions.4. using the random phase approximation result for the self-energy. i.69) we have included colli˙ sions due to impurities and particle-particle collisions . collisions (14. See also Exercise 14. On long length and time scales we can use a semi-classical approach to study various properties. It has been widely used to explain numerous transport phenomena in gases and solids. it is given by k/m and not k/m∗ . when the interaction does not induce a phase transition. (14. This seems to contradict the postulate of the Fermi liquid theory that the current of the quasiparticles is independent of interactions. Miraculously. the interacting system of particles can be described by a gas of non-interacting particles. The bare velocity of the quasiparticles was important for obtaining the Drude formula for the conductivity. OUTLOOK AND SUMMARY 251 14.69) This equation is extremely useful since it in many situations gives a suﬃciently accurate description of the physics. This approach is based on the Boltzmann equation ˙ ∂t (nk ) + k · k nk + vk · r nk = ∂nk ∂t . Landau’s phenomenological theory was shown to be justiﬁed by a rigors microscopic calculation. One can include both electric and magnetic ﬁelds driving the system out of equilibrium. 15 we shall see an explicit example of this by calculating diagrammatically the ﬁnite resistance due to impurity scattering starting from the fully microscopic theory.3 Mass renormalization? In the previous section we saw how the assumption of weakly interacting quasiparticles was justiﬁed by the long life time of the single particle Green’s function.e. The conductivity is as we remember from the Kubo formula related to the current-current correlation function. One can also include for example particle-phonon scattering in solids and thus explain the temperature dependence of the diﬀerent transport coeﬃcients. How come the renormalized mass m∗ appears in the Green’s function whereas the physically observable conductivity contains the bare mass m? The answer to this question in found by studying how the conductivity is calculated diagrammatically.

(14. T 2 ). FERMI LIQUID THEORY of this analysis was that even in the presence of interactions does the Fermi surface persist and near the Fermi surface the imaginary part of the single particle Green’s function rapidly vanish as Im ΣR (kF .70) This explains why the Fermi liquid theory works: when the imaginary part goes to zero the single particle Green’s function is identical to that of a free particle. ε) ∝ max(ε2 . .252 CHAPTER 14.

Chapter 15 Impurity scattering and conductivity We now return to the problem of calculating the resistance of a metallic conductor due to scattering against impurities. In one dimension. the so-called universal conductance ﬂuctuations. was discovered in small (∼ µm) phase-coherent structures. we therefore start by deriving the semiclassical result. In three dimensions. 253 . The basic physics of impurity scattering was discussed in Chap. This discovery started the modern ﬁeld of mesoscopic physics. In Chap. This is however outside the scope this book. and an extended research was initiated on the role of quantum coherence in transport properties. 10. In 1979 the weak localization correction to resistivity was observed experimentally in large 2D samples at low temperatures. which is the topic in Chap. It was explained theoretically later the same year. In this chapter we deal with extended systems and discuss the most important disorder-induced quantum corrections. A few years later another low-temperature interference eﬀect. where we saw how the single-particle Green’s function acquired a ﬁnite life time after averaging over the positions of the impurities. is that it can be extended to include correlation and coherence eﬀects that cannot be described in the semiclassical Boltzmann approach. Weak localization involves coherent scattering on many impurities. the situation is again diﬀerent in that at some critical amount of impurity scattering there exists a metal-insulator transition known as the Anderson localization. 15. In order to get familiar with the techniques. which is due to interference between time reversed paths. at least in two dimensions. The advantage of this microscopic approach. To understand these smaller systems one must take into account the ﬁnite size of the conductors. Then we go on to include the quantum mechanical eﬀect known as weak localization. We now rederive the Boltzmann equation result starting from a microscopic quantum approach. The leading quantum correction is precisely the weak localization eﬀect. and it can therefore not be explained semiclassically. besides giving a ﬁrst principle justiﬁcation of the Boltzmann equation. 13 the conductivity was calculated within the Boltzmann equation approach. things are more complicated because there all states are localized and one cannot talk about a conductivity that scales in a simple fashion with the length of the system.

Note that the system is translation-invariant even in the presence of impurities after performing the position average described in Chap. denoted σ .254 CHAPTER 15. αβ ω (15. . ω) = ω αβ The dc-conductivity is then found by letting1 q → 0 and then ω → 0. ω) = − e2 Im ΠR (r. 15. τ )Jx (−q. ω). αβ ω (15. In the computation we can choose α to be the x direction.25) drops out of the real part. V (15. term in Eq. The Matsubara current-current correlation function is Πxx (q. (6.4) 1 If in doubt always perform the limit q → 0 ﬁrst. 10.1 Vertex corrections and dressed Green’s functions Let us start by the Kubo formula for the electrical conductivity tensor σαβ given in Eq. These corrections cannot be treated evaluating only singleparticle Green’s functions.3 is cancelled out. They are thus genuine two-particle correlation eﬀects. we assume in the ﬁrst part of this chapter that we can describe the electrons as non-interacting. In the second part of the chapter we include electron-electron interactions together with impurity scattering and explicitly demonstrate that the non-interacting approximation is valid.25). For a translation-invariant system we consider as usual the Fourier transform ie2 R Π (q. ω). In the following we therefore only include the ﬁrst.2) σαβ (q. (6. The dc-response at long wavelengths is thus obtained as Re σαβ = −e2 lim lim ω→0 q→0 1 Im ΠR (q.25) Re σαβ (r. and therefore we take the real part of Eq.4. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Based on the physical picture that emerged from the Fermi liquid description in Chap. r . As usual we calculate the retarded function starting from the corresponding Matsubara function.ω) where ω = 0 and q ﬁnite is unphysical. it is absolutely imperative to include vertex corrections to the current-current correlation bubble diagrams. which can be described by diagrams where interaction lines “cross” the bubble diagrams. τ − τ ) = − 1 Tτ Jx (q. term of σ in Eq. ω). 13. τ ) . so-called “paramagnetic”. (6. (15. (6. we shall see that in order to obtain meaningful results. Furthermore. Here we shall only look at the dissipative part of the conductivity. In particular we have no magnetic ﬁeld and take A = 0. so-called “diamagnetic”. σαβ = σ δαβ . i.1) Note that the last. (6.e. r . because having a electric ﬁeld E(q. the conductivity tensor is isotropic and therefore diagonal.3) In this chapter we consider only homogeneous translation-invariant systems.26). since it would give rise to an inﬁnite charge built up.25) in terms of the retarded current-current correlation function Eq. This means that we shall see how the mass renormalization discussed in Sec. 14.

VERTEX CORRECTIONS AND DRESSED GREEN’S FUNCTIONS In the frequency domain it is Πxx (q. We can now draw diagrams for the current-current correlation function using the Feynman rules. We can now express Jx (q. kσ kσ 1 11 ≡ 2m β V ˜ ˜ ˜ (2kx +qx )c† (k)cσ (k + q ). since the result cannot depend on τ . iqn ) and obtain Πxx (q.8) In order to begin the diagrammatical analysis we write the current density Jx (˜) in q four-vector notation β Jx (˜) = q dτ eiqn τ 0 1 1 2m V (2k + q)x c† (τ )ck+qσ (τ ) kσ kσ 1 1 = 2m β ikn 1 V (2k + q)x c† (ikn )ck+qσ (ikn + iqn ). iqn ) = − 1 V β 0 d(τ − τ )eiqn (τ −τ )1 β (15.1. because τ > τ . 10 and (15. here we include both the impurity lines from Chap. σ ˜ k σ (15. and thus has the momentum q = (iqn . iql )Jx (−q. iqn )Jx (−q. q) ˜ Πxx (˜) = − q 1 Jx (˜)Jx (−˜) . τ )Jx (−q. (15. Finally. however. τ ) . 12. q q Vβ (15. iqm ) e−iql τ e−iqm τ . The procedure is analogous to that for the charge-charge correlation function in Chap. we must have iqn = −iqm .15.10) . iqn ) = − 1 Jx (q. iqn ) = − 1 V β 0 255 d(τ − τ )eiqn (τ −τ ) Jx (q.7) iql 1 β Jx (q.9) which we draw diagrammatically as a vertex ˜ k Jx (˜) = q ˜ ˜ k+ q The vertex conserves four-momentum. and whence Πxx (q. iqm This we conveniently rewrite using the four-vector notation q = (iqn . τ ) in terms of Jx (q.6) The integration with respect to τ leads to iqn = iql . Vβ (15. −iqn ) . q) ﬂowing ˜ out from it to the left.5) where the time-ordering operator Tτ is omitted.

(15... Eq. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY from Chap. In doing so we have in one step resummed Eq.11) and are left with bubble diagrams where the only interaction and impurity lines to be drawn are those connecting the lower and upper electron Green’s functions. (15.11) the Coulomb interaction lines Πxx (˜) = q ≡ + + + + + + + + + + We can perform a partial summation of diagrams to all orders by replacing each Green’s function G0 by the full Green’s function G..256 CHAPTER 15. Πxx (˜) = q + + + Here the double lines represent full Green’s functions expressed by Dyson’s equation as in + + (15. We obtain (15. .12) + ..11) then becomes + + + + + + + + + + + + . 12.

15./01234 ≡ + . Diagrams of this type are proportional to q −2 and thus they vanish in the limit q → 0. and 11 in Eq.17) 2 We do not include diagrams like the terms 9. (15. (15. .19) 257 ˜ G(k) = = is the irreducible self-energy. These diagrams are denoted vertex corrections.12). which cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting both the upper and the lower line just once2 . Λirr ≡ . = = + + + + + (15.16) The next step is to organize the diagrams according to the lines crossing the bubbles from the upper to the lower fermion line in a systematic way. To obtain a Dyson equation for Πxx we ﬁrst introduce the irreducible line-crossing diagram Λirr consisting of the sum of all possible diagrams connecting the upper and lower fermion line.13) 1BA + RPA: ˜ Σirr (k) = % & ' ≈ + + + (15.15) (15. the irreducible self-energy is simply $ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ = G0 (k) + G0 (k)Σirr (k)G(k). VERTEX CORRECTIONS AND DRESSED GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Eq.1. 10 . (12. ! # " + (15.14) where RPA means the following screening of all impurity and interaction lines ( ) * + . . For example in the case where we include where Σirr = impurity scattering within the ﬁrst Born approximation and electron-electron interaction in the RPA approximation. .

x (k+ q . q .. both for the impurity scattering problem in Chap. and Γ is the current vertex function. This follows from a general relation between the self-energy and the vertex function. 3 The Ward identity reads ˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ iq0 Γ0 (k + q . Theory of Superconductivity. . (15. k ). called the Ward identity.20b) The notation for the arguments of the Γ functions is Γ = Γ(“out going”. Consequently. This relation. the answer is simply that there is no freedom left in the choice for the vertex function Γ.20a) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜˜ ˜ d˜ Λirr (k. ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Γ0.18) where the unperturbed vertex is (15. If we include certain diagrams for the self-energy we must include the corresponding diagrams in the vertex function.3 is derived using the continuity equation. 10 and for the case of interacting particles in Chap. k) − iq · Γ(k + q .. k+ q ). (15. k) ≡ ? @ A ˜ ˜˜ ≡ Γ0. R..19) and the “dressed” vertex function is given by an integral equation. 2m = + + .B.x (k. q )G(k+ q )G(k+ q + q )Γx (k+ q + q .g. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Using Λirr we see that we can resum all diagrams in Πxx in the following way Πxx (˜) = q + + + = ≡ ≡ − 5678 9 :. k) + (15. k + q ) = 1 (2kx +qx ).<= > × + + + ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ dk Γ0. + . In the present case once the approximation for Σirr is chosen. q (15. k) = −G −1 (k + q ) + G −1 (k). Addison-Wesley (1964). k + q )G(k )G(k + q )Γx (k + q .“in going”). where the function Γ0 is the charge vertex function.18) ˜ ˜˜ Γx (k+ q . The question is now which diagrams to include in Λirr . which can be read oﬀ from Eq.258 CHAPTER 15. For more details see e. We have seen examples of how to choose the physically most important self-energies. 12.. Schrieﬀer.x (k .

15. (15. k + q ).22) q ˜ q u(q) u(−q) ˜ q W (˜) = W RPA (˜) + nimp RPA q . If we consider the ﬁrst Born approximation and RPA for Σirr as depicted in Eq.21) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜˜ ˜ d˜ W (˜ )G(k + q )G(k + q + q )Γx (k + q + q . k. This deﬁnition involves a summation over the internal Matsubara frequency.ikn + iqn . k)+ where BCD ≈ + ˜ ≡ W. For a derivation and discussion see for example the book by Schrieﬀer. one along z = ε and one along z = −iqn + ε. a name which perhaps becomes clear graphically if Eq.x (k + q .. Therefore a physically sensible approximation must obey Ward’s identity. k)G(k.14). iqn ) = − 1 V Γ0. we can obtain from Eq. with ε being real.21) for Λirr is inserted into the ﬁrst line of Eq. Here we simply follow the rule as dictated by the Ward identity: if an irreducible diagram is included in Σirr the corresponding diagrams should also be included in Λirr . (15. The presence of two G’s in the summand leads to two branch cuts. ikn ). (15. RPA (−˜) ε (˜) ε q q (15. (15. k) = Γ0.x (k. (15. ikn )G(k.18) a general formula for the conductivity. Therefore we ﬁrst study a summation .ikn + iqn )Γx (k.25) The Matsubara sum over ikn is performed in the usual way by a contour integration over z = ikn .24) 15.2.2 The conductivity in terms of a general vertex function Having the expressions for both the single-particle Green’s function G and the vertex function Γ. and if for clarity we consider only the impurity scattering lines: Πxx (˜) = q EFGH + + + 1 β ikn + . (15. the current-current function is Πxx (0. and furthermore treat the case q = 0. and one uses the term “conserving approximation” for the correct choice for the vertex function. k (15.18) for Πxx . (15.. THE CONDUCTIVITY IN TERMS OF A GENERAL VERTEX FUNCTION259 not fulﬁlling this identity is equivalent to a lack of conservation of particles. we get for Λirr Λirr = and in this case the integral function for Γ becomes ˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜˜ Γx (k + q .23) This particular approximation is also known as the ladder sum. If we drop the four-vector notation in favor of the standard notation.

If we shift the integration variable ε → ε + ω in the two last terms. of the form S2F (iqn ) = 1 β f (ikn . we also take the imaginary part as in Eq. ε + iqn ) −∞ 2πi ∞ dε nF (ε − iqn ) f (ε − iqn .e. ε + ω) − f AR (ε. Since f AA = f RR .260 CHAPTER 15. (15. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Figure 15. ε + ω) 2πi −∞ ∞ dε − nF (ε)f RR (ε. (15. ε + iη. i. ε + ω) 2πi (15.29) .3).28) + f AR (ε − ω. we expand to ﬁrst order in ω. we ©§¥ £ ¨ ¦ ¡ £ ¡ ¤¢ (15. we obtain R S2F (ω) = dε [nF (ε) − nF (ε + ω)] f AR (ε.1: The contour used in the frequency summation in Eq. ε) . Fur∗ thermore. 2πi where the integration contour C is the one shown in Fig.26). ε + iqn ) − f (ε − iη. − −∞ 2πi ∞ At the end of the calculation we continue iqn analytically to ω + iη. 2πi −∞ ∞ Since we are interested in the low frequency limit. ε + iη) − f (ε − iqn . ε) − f AA (ε − ω. z + iqn ). with the convention that f AR (ε. ε − iη. (15. and the second argument is retarded. ε − iη) .1) made of three contours leading to four integrals over ε S2F (iqn ) = − dε nF (ε) f (ε + iη. ε + ω) − nF (ε + ω)f AA (ε.27) (15. ε + ω) . and ﬁnd R S2F (ω) = − ∞ −∞ dε nF (ε) f RR (ε. and so on. ε ) means that the ﬁrst argument is advanced.26) (15. ikn + iqn ) ikn =− C dz nF (z)f (z.

The semiclassical approximation is similar to the ﬁrst Born approximation in that it only includes scattering against a single impurity and neglects interference eﬀects.3 The conductivity in the ﬁrst Born approximation The conductivity was calculated in Sec. k. 0) − f AR (0. ikn ). where τ is the scattering time for impurity scattering. ε) − f RR (ε. (15. The vertex function is now solved using the ﬁrst Born approximation. we may replace the general formula in Eq.ikn + iqn . The RPA part of the self-energy in Eq. k+q . 0. In this case. 14. 0. 0)ΓRA (k. 0) x k − GA (k.25) and then inserting into Eq. . i. k) GA (k. (15. 0) . (15.e.3. THE CONDUCTIVITY IN THE FIRST BORN APPROXIMATION ﬁnd R Im S2F (ω) = −ω Im ∞ −∞ 261 dε 2πi − ∂nF (ε) ∂ε f AR (ε. (15. (15. the integral equation Eq.33). The starting point in this section is non-interacting electrons scattering on impurities. k. again taking q = 0. 15. we can approximate the derivative of the Fermi-Dirac function by a delta function ∂nF (ε) ≈ δ(ε) (15.32) Re σxx = 2 Re e2 1 2π V Γ0.14) is not included in this section.30) At low temperatures. We will consider only cases where the disorder is weak and for this case it is shown in the next section that the product GR GA exceeds GA GA by a factor of order 1/τ EF .31) − ∂ε and hence ω Re f AA (0.15. one must look at the speciﬁc physical cases and then solve for the vertex function satisfying Eq.34) × G(k + q .ikn + iqn )Γx (k + q . This is how far one can go on general principles. ε) .33) where we have included a factor of 2 due to spin degeneracy. Later we discuss what happens if interactions are included.x (k.22) becomes Γx (k.33) by the ﬁrst term only. 0)GA (k. (15.3) one obtains R Im S2F (ω) = (15. the ﬁrst diagram in Eq. Hence in the weak disorder limit.20b) and insert the result into (15. ikn ) = Γ0. In the following we consider various cases. To proceed further. 2π By applying this to Eq.ikn + iqn .3 using a semiclassical approximation for the scattering against the impurities. 0)ΓAA (k. 0) . x (15. (15.21).x (k. k. Therefore we expect to reproduce the semiclassical result if we only include the ﬁrst Born approximation in our diagrammatical calculation. 0)GR (k. ikn ) q 2 (15. k) + 1 V nimp uRPA (q ) G(k + q . (15.

as we learned from the Ward identity.23) has been inserted and where uRPA = u/εRPA . Let us look more carefully into the products GA GR and GR GR . k . ε) k 2 k · k RX γ (k . ε) 1 1 = Im R (k. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY where the second term in Eq. which also appear in Eq. One immediately sees that the small factor nimp tends to kill the sum. When inserting this into Eq. Note that there is no internal Matsubara sum because the impurity scattering conserves energy. ε) = 1 + 1 V nimp uRPA (k − k) GX (k .33). k) = k/m. which we obtain from x Eq.33) for the conductivity both ΓRA and ΓRR appear (or rather x x = (ΓAA )∗ . and where as before the life-time τ is deﬁned by τ −1 = −2 Im ΣR (k. ε) deﬁned as Γ(k. (15.38) . Remembering that Γx is a component of a vector function Γ and that the unperturbed vertex is Γ0 (k. ε) 1 ≡ A(k. ikn ) = 1 + 1 V nimp uRPA (k − k) G(k .ikn + iqn ) ΓRR x k · k 1BA γ (k .36) k2 where X = A or R. k.37) where A = −2 Im GR is the spectral function. −2 Im ΣR (k. ε).ikn + iqn . (15. and the product of two delta functions has to be deﬁned with care.35) by letting iqn → ω + iη and ikn → ε ± iη. ε)GR (k.262 CHAPTER 15. ikn ). we set the frequency in εRPA (q. ε) ≡ τ A(k. because in the limit of small nimp . k2 (15. ε)GR (k. ε)/m. The lesson we learn here is that we have to be rather careful with products of Green’s function carrying the same arguments. They satisfy two diﬀerent integral equations. Im GX tends to a delta function. and in the weak scattering limit one should expect the solution of this equation to be simply γ RX (k. 0) to zero. The Green’s functions G are. (15. ε) = k γ(k. ε). In doing so we in fact use that the system is isotropic which means that only the vector k can give the direction. For the case of weak impurity scattering the scattering rate τ −1 is small. multiplying by (1/k 2 )k·. ε) ≈ 1. (15. and subsequently taking the dc-limit ω → 0. This ﬁrst combination is GA (k. ε) Im Σ ε − ξk − ΣR (k. It is immediately seen that this is a consistent solution for the imaginary part of both γ RA and γ RR but it turns out that for the real part of γ RA a factor 1/nimp is contained in the Green’s function.35) In the formula Eq. whence the spectral function is approximately a delta function. ε). we deﬁne for convenience a scalar function γ(k. (15. ε) ≈ τ 2πδ(ε − ξk ). ε) 2 ≡ (15. We arrive at γ RX (k. Since we do not expect the dynamical screening to be important for the elastic scattering. ε) = GR (k. ikn ) k 2 × G(k .34). (15. we get γ(k. and shifting the variable q to q = k − k. (15. also those obtained in the ﬁrst Born approximation. ε)GR (k . In the case of small nimp we therefore get GA (k.ikn + iqn . ε) 2 1 ε − ξk − ΣR (k.

33) then becomes Re σxx = 2e2 Re 1 V Γ0. k)τ0 δ(ξk )ΓRA (k. (15. and since the lengths of both k and k are given by kF . (15.43) 1 . this life time is independent of k.42) Since this equation has no dependence on the direction of k. 0. The solution follows from the integral equation Eq. k.15. 0. ε) ≈ = R R ε − ξk − ε − ξk ε − ξk 2 + (ε − ξk )2 − 2 + 2 i 2τ 1 2 2τ 1 2 2τ 2 + 1 2 2τ i (ε − ξk ) A(k. 0) m m m (15.41) The remaining problem is to ﬁnd γ RA (k.40) Because all energies are at the Fermi energy. The conductivity Eq.44) . 0. 0) x k 1 = 2e2 τ0 Re V k kx e2 n kx δ(ξk ) γ RA (k. and we get γ RA = 1 + The solution is thus simply γ RA = where λ= 2π V nimp uRPA (k − k) δ(ξk ) k 2 2π V nimp uRPA (k − k) δ(ξk ) k 2 k·k k2 τ0 γ RA . (15. k.39) The last term clearly goes to zero when τ is large and when A is approximated by a delta function. The ﬁrst term is a peaked function at ε − ξk = 0.36) is ﬁnite in the limit nimp → 0.0) for |k| = kF . the product nimp GA GR in Eq. (15. 1 − λ τ0 k·k = (τ0 )−1 − τ tr k2 −1 (15. 0) = τ0 γ RA (kF . kF . That GR GR is ﬁnite is seen as follows G (k.35) γ RA (k) = 1 + 2π V nimp uRPA (k − k) τ0 δ(ξk ) k 2 k · k RA γ (k ). From these arguments it follows that the terms with GR GR can be omitted and only terms with GR GA are kept. (15. (15. ε)G (k. But kF is constant. (15. THE CONDUCTIVITY IN THE FIRST BORN APPROXIMATION 263 Because τ ∝ n−1 . 0. As explained above. imp The combination GR GR on the other hand is not divergent and in fact nimp GR GR → 0 as nimp → 0. but the integrated weight is in fact zero as can be checked by performing an integration over ε.45) . k2 (15. γ RA depends only on kF .x (k. k. In the following we therefore approximate τ with the ﬁrst Born approximation life time τ0 −1 τ −1 ≈ τ0 ≡ 2πnimp k |u(k − k )|2 δ(ξk − ξk ).3. we use the ﬁrst Born approximation for the self-energy. ε).

47) Finally. (14.264 CHAPTER 15. Due to these processes the phase of the electron wave acquires some randomization or “dephasing”. m (15. . This is what we expected. (15. the scale on which the wave function evolves according to the one-particle Schr¨dinger equao tion.46) This expression is precisely the transport time that we derived in the Boltzmann equation approach leading to Eq. which does take into account multiple scattering does so only for multiple scatterings on the same impurity.44) γ RA becomes γ RA = τ tr . spacing 104 -105 atomic lattice spacings. Hence φ ∝ T −2 can become very large at suﬃciently low temperatures. If an electron interacts with another electron or with a phonon through an inelastic scattering event its energy changes. (15. The reason is that even the full Born approximation depicted in Eq.4 The weak localization correction to the conductivity The Born approximation includes only scattering on one impurity at a time. In this section we shall study in detail why that is. As the temperature is lowered we expect quantum mechanical coherence to become more important because the phase coherence length φ increases with decreasing temperature. (11. 11.5. 13 the scattering rate for these processes is proportional to T 2 .6. and as we know from Chap. We saw in Chap. 10 that there was in practice only little diﬀerence between the ﬁrst Born and the full Born approximation. typical coherence lengths are of the order 1-10 µm. 11. 4. scattering on diﬀerent impurities can interfere. At low temperatures the dominant dephasing mechanism is electron-electron scattering. At liquid helium temperature. and thereby having gained conﬁdence in the mathematical structure of the theory. τ0 (15. Quantum eﬀects such as interference between scattering on diﬀerent impurities can therefore not be incorporated within the Born approximation scheme. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Here the transport time τ tr is deﬁned as τ tr −1 ≡ 2π V nimp uRPA (k − k) |k |=kF 2 1− k·k k2 .41) at zero temperature is σ= e2 τ tr 1 m2 V 2 δ(ξk )kx = k e2 nτ tr .e. Here the coherence length means the scale on which the electrons preserve their quantum mechanical phase. we can go on to calculate various quantum corrections to the Drude formula. the conductivity formula (15.54).4 it was hinted that such interference processes are represented by crossing diagrams as in Fig. i. In Sec.2 K. When the coherence length φ exceeds the mean free path imp for impurity scattering. 15. and its coherence length becomes ﬁnite.48) We thus ﬁnd full agreement with the semiclassical result obtained in the previous chapter. and hence the evolution of its phase. When inserted back into Eq. corrections not obtainable in the Boltzmann approach.39). and below.

If we can £ ¢ ¡§¤ ¢ ¦¡ ¡¥ © ¤ ¢ ¡ £ ¨ ¢£ ¡ @ B A@7 @ 9 78 5 65 4 ¡¤ % $ # "! (')% $& A@7 ¨¤£ 2) 3 0 25 5 41 0 . we follow an electron after it has been scattered to a state with momentum k by an impurity positioned at R1 . (b) Experimental data from measurements on a PdAu ﬁlm by Dolan and Osheroﬀ. 721 (1979).15. the so-called self-averaging illustrated in Fig. and it is therefore intuitively clear that these terms vanish when one averages over R1 and R2 . Terms describing interference between the two scattering events will thus contain the factor eik·(R1 −R2 ) . and most notably cause the appearance of the universal conductance ﬂuctuations shown in Fig. Lett. that even in the case of large samples. Rev. Only the interference processes which are independent of the impurity positions survive self-averaging. the cross-term expresses the interference.4. Phys. but still smaller than the sample size L. Interference generally means that the amplitude for two paths t1 and t2 are added as t1 +t2 . 11. shown in Fig. The relative phase φ1 − φ2 determines whether the contributions from the two paths interfere constructively or destructively.2. To picture how averaging over impurity conﬁgurations inﬂuences the interference eﬀects. 43. (11. (11. In this regime all kinds of quantum interference processes become important. showing that the low-temperature weak localization correction to the resistivity increases logarithmically as the temperature decreases.2: (a) A sketch of the electrical resistivity ρxx (T ) of a disordered metal as a function of temperature.1 the linear behavior at high temperatures is due to electron-phonon scattering. When the electron hits the next impurity at position R2 it has acquired a phase factor eiφ = eik·(R1 −R2 ) . Naturally. much more dramatic quantum eﬀects appear in small samples in the so-called mesoscopic regime (see also Chap. However. so that when taking the absolute square |t1 +t2 |2 = |t1 |2 +|t2 |2 +2|t1 t2 | cos(φ1 −φ2 ). 15. In the following we study only the weak localization phenomenon appearing in large samples and not the universal conductance ﬂuctuations appearing in small samples. most of the interference eﬀects disappear. around 1980 it was found through the observation of the so-called weak localization. 0 L. but now at low temperatures we have added the small but signiﬁcant increase due to the quantum interference known as weak localization. THE WEAK LOCALIZATION CORRECTION TO THE CONDUCTIVITY 265 Figure 15.2). as discovered around 1985.2). 7) given by L φ . If the coherence length φ is longer than the mean free path 0 . As in Fig. one very important class of interference processes survive φ the self-averaging. This is because the limit φ L eﬀectively corresponds to averaging over many small independent segments.

ﬁnd two paths where the relative phase is independent of the position of the impurities. Thus for two such time-reversed paths there is always constructive interference. Ri . r . and two such paths are shown in Fig. hence the name “weak localization”4 . This is indeed possible. the cross term would thus survive the impurity average. r . The interesting second order 4 The term “strong localization” is used for the so-called Anderson localization where a metal-insulator transition is induced in three dimensions at a critical strength of the disorder potential. To study interference eﬀects between scattering at these two impurities we must expand to second order in the impurity potential. Here the external potential is given by the impurity potential. ) = GR (r. we have dr GR (r. ). 10. i. r . ) + 0 If we for simplicity assume Uimp (r) ≈ at the positions {Ri }. )Uimp (r )GR (r . ). The key observation is that for each path that ends in the starting point after a speciﬁc sequence of scattering events. and the electrons therefore tend to be localized in space. r . 0 i U0 δ(r − Ri ). we have for the retarded Green’s function GR (r. ikn → + iη. these two paths pick up exactly the same phase factor. As a consequence there is an enhanced probability for returning to the same point. Having realized that the interference between time reversed paths survive impurity averaging. we now want to calculate the resulting correction to the conductivity. Most remarkably. )U0 GR (Ri . ) = GR (r.50) GR (r. First we recall the Dyson equation for the single-particle Green’s functions in an external potential. Writing it in the frequency domain and making analytic continuation. short range impurities located (15. two impurities located at R1 and R2 . there is a corresponding reverse path which scatters on the same impurities but in the opposite order.3: Illustration of the two interfering time-reversed paths discussed in the text.3. ¥¦¢ ¤¢ £ ¡ (15. r . and thus their relative phase φ1 −φ2 is always zero independent of the actual positions of the impurities. r . In order to do so we need to identify the corresponding diagrams. 0 Let us look at a speciﬁc process where an electron scatters at. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Figure 15. ) + 0 i GR (r. which was derived in Chap.49) .e. say. r . 15. Uimp .266 CHAPTER 15.

4 to be smaller than the Born approximation by a factor 1/kF . First the quantum correction due to interference to the transmission from r to r is δ|t(r. which we used to derive the Boltzmann equation result. )U0 GR (R2 . r . In k-space one gets δ|r|2 imp ≡ δ|t(r = r )|2 1 ∝ Re 4 V imp GR (Q − p1 . Nevertheless. 0 0 0 (15. R1 . r . )U0 GR (R1 . (15. )U0 GR (Q − p2 . ) 0 0 0 + GR (r. )U0 GR (R2 . )U0 GR (R2 . )U0 GA (p2 . )U0 GA (p3 . (15.4. ) 0 0 0 ∗ . THE WEAK LOCALIZATION CORRECTION TO THE CONDUCTIVITY 267 terms (there are also less interesting ones where the electron scatters on the same impurities twice) are GR(2) (r.52) Now reﬂection is described by setting r = r . 15. 0 0 0 (15. R2 . at low temperatures they do play a role as the leading . ) 0 0 0 × GR (r. GA (15. ) 0 0 0 p1 p2 p3 Q × GA (p1 .53) This formula can be represented by a diagram similar to the last one in Eq. ) = GR (r. )U0 GR (R1 . r )|2 ∝ Re GR (r. and because we want to ﬁnd the correction δ|r|2 to the reﬂection coeﬃcient. we set r = r at the end of the calculation. R2 . r .5. 11. )U0 GR (R1 . )U0 GR (R2 . R1 .61) with the upper lines being retarded and the lower lines being advanced Green’s functions. and in fact they were shown in Sec. The probability for the process is obtained from the absolute square of the Green’s function.51) These two terms correspond to the transmission amplitudes t1 and t2 discussed above and illustrated in Fig. R1 .54) This hints that the interference term coming from time reversed paths can be summed by taking diagrams of this form into account. R2 . If we however twist the lower branch such that the Green’s function run in opposite directions while the impurity lines cross. r . R1 . These crossed diagrams were not included in the Born approximation.15. the diagram looks like conductivity diagram if we furthermore join the retarded and advanced Green’s function like this GR δ|r|2 imp = GA I GR GA GR . ). R2 . )U0 GR (R1 . r . ω)U0 GR (Q − p3 . Notice however that contrary to the usual diagram for conductance the Green’s function and the lower and upper branch run in same direction. Doing this and averaging over impurity positions R1 and R2 we ﬁnd the quantum correction δ|r|2 to the reﬂection. ).3.

It is straightforward to see that the corresponding diagrams are of the same type as (15. If we continue this line of reasoning we should include also diagrams where paths scattering on more than two impurities interfere with their time reversed counter parts. i.56) Then we see that the full series in Eq. Let us twist the diagram in Eq. 11.268 CHAPTER 15. ˜ where the box C is a sum of parallel impurity lines.. There is however a trick which allows for a summation just like a ladder diagram. down by a factor 1/kF vF τ0 (see the discussion in Fig. (15. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY quantum correction. This divergence stems from summing the interference of many time-reversed paths.54) but with more crossing lines. they can safely be ignored. k . We have now identiﬁed which diagrams we need to sum in order to get the leading quantum correction to the conductivity.6).e. but now with the fermion lines running in the same direction.. This sum is diﬀerent from the ladder diagrams that we summed in the Born approximation.58) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ dk (2kx + qx )G(k)G(k + q )C(k. This class of diagrams are called the maximally crossed diagrams. The crossed diagrams we are about to evaluate are also small by the same factor. This reversed . (15. Let us return to the Kubo formula for conductance. ΠWL(3) (˜) = q xx J K L + + . (15.56) can be written as ˜ ˜ k k WL Πxx (˜) = q C ˜ ˜ ˜ k+q k +q ˜ =− 1 1 2 V2 (2m) ˜ dk N M .57) (15. analogous to the normal ladder sum of Eq. We write the current-current correlation function as Π = ΠB + ΠWL where ΠB is the Boltzmann result derived in the previous section.56) with for example three impurity lines so as to make the impurity lines parallel. Most importantly. but as we shall see they nevertheless yield a divergent contribution.55) (15. q )G(k )G(k + q )(2kx + qx ). (15. since they only give a small contribution. Since we include crossed diagrams in the vertex function we should in principle also include these in the self-energy. (15. this is a contribution which does not disappear upon self-averaging.24). and let us sum the maximally crossed diagrams. However. and where ΠWL (˜) = xx q + The full electron Green’s functions in these diagrams are as before the full Green’s function with an appropriately chosen self-energy.

63) The Green’s function G is here the Born approximation Green’s function which after analytic continuation is GR (k. It is now straightforward to solve the Dyson-equation for the cooperon ladder and obtain p W0 G(Q − p..60) k V W X Y C(Q. It is now simple to ﬁnd the solution for the cooperon C.58) xx ΠWL (0. THE WEAK LOCALIZATION CORRECTION TO THE CONDUCTIVITY 269 ladder sum. (15.64) where [τ0 ]−1 = 2πW0 d(εF ). ikn )G(k . we only study the case q = 0. ε) = G(k. is called a cooperon.59) (15.. ikn )G(k. while the lower ones carry the frequency ikn . With these approximations. ikn )W0 .15. (15. ikn ) = 1 V Q−p Q−p Q−p + . which couples two electron lines or two hole lines rather one electron line and one hole line. ikn )G(k . and denoting k + k ≡ Q the cooperon becomes k O P Q R S TU C ≡ + + = + C k Q−p Q−p Q−p C = + + k p p p p p p + . and furthermore we restrict the analysis to the case of short range impurities so that we can approximate W (q) by a constant. (15..4. ikn + iqn . 1 p W0 G(Q − p. ikn + iqn . iqn ) = − xx 1 1 1 2 V2 β (2m) (2kx )G(k. . ikn → ε + iη) = 1 . C. (15. ε − ξk + i/2τ0 (15. ikn ) V 1− (15. ikn + iqn )G(p. The solution for the cooperon C is found from the following Dyson-like equation In order to simplify our calculation. ikn + iqn )G(p. ikn + iqn )(2kx ).61) Because the impurity scattering conserves Matsubara frequencies the upper fermion lines all carry the frequency ikn + iqn .. ikn + iqn ) ikn kk × C(k + k . W0 = ni |u0 |2 .62) This can then be inserted into the expression for the current-current correlation function ΠWL in Eq.

(15. followed by inserting the result into Eq.68) p To proceed further we must now evaluate the p-sum in ζ(Q). IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY In the previous section we learned that only the GA GR term in Eq. 0)GR (k .63) the weak localization correction by the replacements ikn + iqn → ε + ω + iη and ikn → ε − iη. i.62) becomes C RA (Q) = ζ(Q) ≡ W0 ζ(Q) . here we cannot replace them by delta functions. 2 + (1/2τ )2 ξ −∞ 0 dξ ∞ (15.70) p 1 (vp · Q)2 . Combining Eqs. kk (15. The dc conductivity is therefore dominated by the contribution from values of Q near zero. (15. 0. Taking the dc-limit ω → 0 and the low temperature limit T → 0. (15. 0)GA (k . Using Eq.65) As in the previous section we have factors of GA GR appearing. we have WL Re δσxx e2 = 2× 2π 1 m 2 1 V2 (kx kx )GR (k. 0)GA (k. V p (15.270 CHAPTER 15. 0).33). because k and k are connected through C RA (k + k ). so we need to go to second order in Q ζ(Q) ≈ 1 + ni |u0 |2 1 + ni |u0 | V 2 1 V p 1 −ξp + i/2τ0 1 −ξp + i/2τ0 3 2 1 −ξp − i/2τ0 −vp · Q+ Q2 2m (15. We begin by studying Q = 0.69) where we have used the deﬁnition of the life time τ0 in the Born approximation.69) it follows that C RA diverges in the limit of small Q and small frequency. 0)GA (p. 1 − ζ(Q) ni |u0 |2 GR (Q − p. (15. (15. Furthermore. we study −1 the limit QvF τ0 1 or Q 0 = 1/vF τ0 . by symmetry arguments the term linear in Q vanish. Consequently.66) (15.64) ζ(Q) becomes ζ(Q) = ni |u0 |2 1 V 1 1 .67) where we have introduced the auxiliary function ζ(Q). in which case we have ζ(0) = ni |u0 |2 d(εF ) 1 1 −ξ + i/2τ0 −ξ − i/2τ0 −∞ ∞ 1 = ni |u0 |2 d(εF ) dξ = ni |u0 |2 d(εF )2πτ0 = 1. However. Instead we evaluate the cooperon as follows. After analytical continuation the cooperon in Eq. −ξp − i/2τ0 . (15. Likewise.33) contributed in the limit of weak scattering and therefore we should replace ikn + iωn by a retarded frequency and ikn by an advanced frequency.68) for small −1 Q. 0).e. we study this contribution by expanding Eq. −ξQ−p + i/2τ0 −ξp − i/2τ0 (15. 0)C AR (k + k .66) and (15. Here small means small compared the width τ0 of the spectral function. we obtain from (15.

0)GA (−k. 0)GA (Q − k. we ﬁnd that ζ(Q) ≈ 1 + 2πi 2πτ0 1 i/τ0 2 Q2 + 2m 1 i/τ0 3 Q2 vF 2 . D= (15.4. −ξ − i/2τ0 Ndim where Ndim is the number of dimensions. and hence smaller than the width of the 0 spectral function. 0). 0)GA (k. 0)GA (k. 0)GR (−k.76) First we perform the sum over k. (15. 0) k. DQ2 (15. 0. and we end up with ζ(Q) ≈ 1 − where 0 1 Q2 Ndim 2 0 ≡ 1 − Dτ0 Q2 . τ0 dominates over τ0 . THE WEAK LOCALIZATION CORRECTION TO THE CONDUCTIVITY 271 where it is indeed seen that the term linear in Q is zero because vp is an odd function of p. 0) = d(εF ) k 2 4πkF 2 kF Ndim ∞ dξ −∞ 1 ξ 2 + (1/2τ0 )2 2 = From this follows δσ WL Ndim 3 d(εF )τ0 . (15. δσ W L in Eq. We emphasize that Eq.73) = v F τ0 . we can approximate Q − k by just −k and obtain 1 V 2 kx GR (k.78) .15. Ndim (15. v F 2 τ0 .71) 1 2πτ0 dξ −∞ Q2 vF 2 1 . With this result for ζ(Q) inserted into (15.77) e2 =− π kF m 2 2τ0 1 Ndim V Q< −1 1 DQ2 (15. (15.72) −1 3 2 To leading order in τ0 .73) is only valid for Q 0 . 0) = W0 (1 − Dτ0 Q2 ) W0 1 ≈ . Since Q < −1 . Ndim (15. we ﬁnd ζ(Q) ≈ 1 + + 1 2πτ0 ∞ dξ −∞ ∞ 1 −ξ + i/2τ0 1 −ξ + i/2τ0 3 2 1 −ξ − i/2τ0 Q2 2m (15.75) Because the important contribution comes from Q ≈ 0. 2 Dτ0 Q τ0 DQ2 (15.74) −1 D being the diﬀusion constant.66) we obtain the ﬁnal result for the cooperon C RA (Q.Q< −1 0 1 GR (Q − k.65) becomes δσ WL e2 = 2× π 1 m 2 W0 1 τ0 V 2 2 (−kx )GR (k. Closing the contour in the lower part of the complex ξ plan. Now transforming the sum into integrations over ξ and performing the angular integrations.

3D . and hence the cooperon gets modiﬁed as W0 . the sample size L must of course replace φ as a cut-oﬀ length. which does not occur in reality. respectively 1 1 dQ = Ndim 1/τ + DQ2 (2π) φ 1/ 0 0 dQ 1 1/τφ + DQ2 1 π τφ D π 1 2π Q 1 Q2 2π 2 tan−1 Dτφ 2 0 . (15. We can now return to (15. τ0 1/τφ + DQ2 (15. Clearly a path with n scatterings will then carry a factor e−nγ . It says that the paths corresponding to a diﬀusion time longer than the phase breaking time cannot contribute to the interference eﬀect. 0) W0 1 . because paths longer than the sample should not be included.79) and evaluate the integral in one. In a real system the electron cannot maintain coherence over arbitrarily long distances due to scattering processes that cause decoherence. 0.79) It is evident that this integral is divergent in the small Q limit in both one and two dimensions. 1 − e−γ + e−γ DQ2 τ0 or small γ.80) In the limit of large φ (15. 1D 2D Dτφ 2 0 = 1 4Dπ 1 2π 2 D 0 ln 1 + 1 √ Dτφ Dτφ 2 0 . ω) ≈ e−γ 1 − Dτ0 Q2 . Here we choose to do this in a phenomenological fashion instead. we therefore have C RA (Q.272 CHAPTER 15. (15. 0. which amounts to 1 V 1 = DQ2 Q< −1 0 Q< −1 0 dQ 1 ∝ (2π)Ndim DQ2 Q< −1 0 dQ QNdim −1 . γ = 0 / φ . 0) = C RA (Q. The parameter γ is then interpreted as the amount of decoherence experienced within a mean free path.82) where τφ = φ/ vF . Physically this is because we have allowed interference between path of inﬁnite length. This is a physical sensible result. or equivalently to the number of impurity scattering events involved in the path. If the phase coherence length becomes larger than the sample.e.81) (15. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY We are then left with the Q-integration. This can be modelled by including a factor e−γ in the impurity potential so that instead of W0 we write W0 e−γ .83) − 2π 2 D tan−1 .61) has a probability of being destroyed by a scattering event and that this probability is proportional to the length of the path. the function ζ(Q) is changed into ζ(Q. i. With this modiﬁcation. To properly describe the breaking of phase coherence between the time-reversed paths one should include coupling to other degrees of freedom such as coupling to phonons or electronelectron scatterings. Let us suppose that each path in the sum over paths in Eq. We must therefore ﬁnd a method to cut-oﬀ these unphysical paths. DQ2 (15. two and three dimensions.

85) δσ2D ≈ − 2 ln 2π τ0 This result is “universal” since. in the one-dimensional case it tells us that in one dimension the localization correction is enormously important and may exceed the Drude result.84) − ln τφ . 2D 0 (τ )−1/2 . That it is a small correction to the Drude conductivity can be seen from the ratio WL δσ2D 1 =− σ0 πkF ln 0 τφ τ0 . 15.2. In fact it can be shown that a quantum particle in a one dimensional disordered potential is always localized. The phase coherence can be changed in two ways. Foremost. decreasing the tem−1 perature increases the phase coherence time τφ ∝ T α . COMBINED RPA AND BORN APPROXIMATION 273 which in the limit of large τφ gives us information about the importance of the quantum corrections: − (τφ )1/2 . Two dimensions is in between these two cases. See also Exercise 14. 1D WL τ δσ ∝ (15.15. For the two dimensional case we have τφ e2 WL . Secondly. it does not depend on the details of the material or the impurity concentration. and it is in this case that the term “weak” localization makes sense. 3D. and a logarithmic increase of the conductivity is to be expected. which states that due to the localization correction the conductivity decreases with increasing phase coherence time. there a metal-insulator transition occurs at a critical value of the disorder strength. because here the correction is small.5. In three dimensions the situation is more subtle. (15. (15.5 Combined RPA and Born approximation This section will be added in the next edition of these notes. Indeed δρ ∝ −δσ ∝ ln τφ ∝ − ln T as is measured and shown in Fig.4 . apart from the logarithmic factor. 15. φ This is an important result. one can apply a magnetic ﬁeld which breaks the time-reversal symmetry giving rise to the fundamental interference between time-reversed paths. Furthermore.86) A way to measure this eﬀect is to change the phase coherence time τφ and to look at the change of conductivity.

274 CHAPTER 15. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY .

(3. With these prerequisites the non-interacting phonons are described by Hph and the electron-phonon interaction by Hel−ph as follows: Hph = qλ Ωqλ b† bqλ + qλ 1 . we prove the existence of the so-called Cooper instability of the electron gas. that the relevant phonon operators to consider are not the individual phonon creation and annihilation operators. the phonon-induced instability which is the origin of superconductivity.41) and Hel−ph in Eq.λ introduced in Eqs. qλ qλ (16. 3.σ ckσ Aqλ . (3. We derive the one-electron Green’s function in the presence of both the electron-electron and the electron-phonon interaction.4) and in the lattice phonon Hamiltonian Eq.23). e. (3.g. 16.1) The phonon operator Aqλ can be interpreted as removing momentum q from the phonon system either by annihilating a phonon with momentum q or by creating one with momentum −q. Finally. but rather the operators Aqλ and A† deﬁned as qλ INA It follows from all the Hamiltonians describing electron-phonon interactions.λ and bq. (3. kσ qλ (16.22) and appearing in the jellium phonon Hamiltonian Eq.43). Hel−ph Aqλ ≡ bqλ + b† −qλ .Chapter 16 Green’s functions and phonons In this chapter we develop and apply the Green’s function technique for free phonons and for the electron-phonon interaction. in particular the bosonic phonon creation and annihilation operators b† −q. We also show how the high frequency Einstein phonons in the free-phonon jellium model become renormalized and become the usual low-frequency acoustic phonons once the electron-phonon interaction is taken into account. A† ≡ b† + b−qλ = A−qλ . We ﬁrst deﬁne and study the Green’s functions for free phonons in both the jellium model and the lattice model.1 The Green’s function for free phonons jel in Eq. The point of departure is the second quantization formulation of the phonon problem presented in Chap. Then we apply the Green’s function technique to the electronphonon interaction problem. (3.10) and (3.2) . 2 Hel−ph = 275 1 V gqλ c† k+q.

Ωqλ . (16.7) where we have used that nB (Ωqλ ) = 1/ exp(βΩqλ ) − 1 .276 CHAPTER 16. This is because the number of phonons can vary.8) When governed solely by H0 the electronic and phononic degrees of freedom are completely decoupled. Hel and Hph .3. . (16. ωn = 2nπ/β.17) and introduce the 0 bosonic Matsubara Green’s function Dλ (q. . τ ) for free phonons. .106) the basis states are given in terms of simple outer product states described by the electron occupation numbers nkσ and the phonon occupation numbers Nqλ . . (10. 16. 0 ˆ ˆ Dλ (q. cν ) → (qλ.18) with a plus-sign. nk2 σ2 .5) deﬁne the ˆ phonon operators Aqλ (τ ) in the imaginary time interaction picture1 ˆ Aqλ (τ ) ≡ eτ Hph Aqλ e−τ Hph . (10. and thus minimizing the free energy gives ∂F/∂N ≡ µ = 0. (16. H0 = Hel + Hph = kσ εk c† ckσ + kσ qλ Ωqλ b† bqλ + qλ 1 . (16. (10. For clarity. we can in accordance with Eq.25). iqn ) are found using the boson results of Sec. . for τ > 0. iqn ) = 2 Ωqλ 1 1 − = .9) 1 1 2 2 1 This expression is also valid in the grand canonical ensemble governed by Hph − µN . in this section we do not take the Coulomb interaction between the electrons into account. In the imaginary time domain we ﬁnd 0 Dλ (q. (10.3) With this imaginary-time boson operator we can follow Eq.2 Electron-phonon interaction and Feynman diagrams We next turn to the problem of treating the electron-phonon interaction perturbatively using the Feynman diagram technique. for τ < 0. 10. . 2 (16. . (1. εν . bqλ ). τ ) = − nB (Ωqλ ) + 1 e−Ωqλ τ − nB (Ωqλ ) eΩqλ τ −nB (Ωqλ ) e−Ωqλ τ − nB (Ωqλ ) + 1 eΩqλ τ . τ ) and Dλ (q. τ ). and as in Eq. The frequency representation of the free phonon Green’s function follows by applying Eq. 0 Dλ (q. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS Since Hph does not depend on time.1 with the substitutions (ν. . The unperturbed Hamiltonian is the sum of the free electron and free phonon Hamiltonians.6) while in the frequency domain we obtain 0 Dλ (q. |Ψbasis = |nk1 σ1 .5) 0 0 The speciﬁc forms for Dλ (q. iqn − Ωqλ iqn + Ωqλ (iqn )2 − (Ωqλ )2 (16.4) where Tτ is the bosonic time ordering operator deﬁned in Eq. . Nq λ . τ ) ≡ − Tτ Aqλ (τ )A† (0) qλ 0 ˆ ˆ = − Tτ Aqλ (τ )A−qλ (0) 0 . (16. iqn ) ≡ β 0 0 dτ eiqn τ Dλ (q. |Nq λ .

. c (16.11) At ﬁrst sight the two single-electron Green’s functions in Eqs. . . (16.10) is modiﬁed as follows. 0 ˆ ˆ dτm Tτ P (τ1 ) . . However. so we now write m = 2n. (16. .2. P (τm ) 0 ˆ ˆ where the W (τ )-integral of Eq. Hence we end up with the prefactor (−1/2)n /n!. (16..79) for boson operators to break down the n-particle phonon Green’s function to a product of n single-particle Green’s functions of the form gq λ gq i i j λj ˆ ˆ Tτ Aq λ (τi )Aq i i j λj (τj ) 0 = ˆ ˆ |gq λ |2 Tτ Aq λ (τi )A−q λ (τj ) i i i i i i 0 δqj . we shall now show that the two expressions in fact are very similar. all choices leading to the same result.10) seems to ˆ ˆ be quite diﬀerent since W (τ ) contains four electron operators and P (τ ) only two.10) dτ1 .Aqm λm (τm ) 0 Tτ c† ˆk+q σ (τ1 )ˆkσ (τ1 ). Then a factor (2n)!/(n!n!) appears from choosing the n momenta qj among the 2n to be the independent momenta.ˆ† m σ (τm )ˆkσ (τm ) c ck+q c (τ1 ).. (12. τ ). we use Wick’s theorem Eq..1) that only an even number of phonon operators will lead to a non-zero contribution in the equilibrium thermal average.5) we use the interaction picture representation. i j (16. . First we note that because the electronic and phononic degrees of freedom decouple the thermal average of the integrand in the m’th term of say the denominator in Eq. a factor n!/2n from all possible ways to combine the remaining n momenta to the chosen ones and symmetrizing the pairs.13)...λ .10) can be written as a product of a phononic and an electronic thermal average. (12. In analogy with Eq.5) and (16. (16. τi −τj )δqj . (16..ˆ† m σ (τm )ˆkσ (τm ) c ck+q c 1 . but ˆ now in momentum space. In the ﬁnal combinatorics the prefactor (−1)m /m! = 1/(2n)! of Eq. (16. and substitutes the two-particle interaction Hamiltonian W (τ ) ˆ (τ ) with the electron-phonon interaction P ∞ Gσ (k.12) It is clear from Eq.13) Note how the thermal average forces the paired momenta to add up to zero. β 0 1 ˆ dτj P (τj ) = V dτj kσ qλ ˆ gqλ c† ˆk+q.λ i j = −|gq λ | i i 2 0 Dλ (qi . (10.. Next.Aqm λm (τm )ˆ† 1 0 = 0 ˆ Tτ Aq ˆ (τ1 ). For each value of n .−qi δλ . . . A sign (−1)n appears from one minus sign in each of the n factors of the form Eq. P (τm )ˆkσ (τ ) c† (0) β 0 (−1)m m! .−qi δλ . β 0 0 ˆ ˆ c ˆkσ dτm Tτ P (τ1 ) .2) is turned on? We choose to answer this question by studying the single-electron Green’s function Gσ (k. (16. .σ (τj )ˆkσ (τj ) Aqλ (τj ).6) is changed into a P (τ )-integral. ˆ Tτ Aq 1 λ1 1 λ1 ˆ ck+q σ (τ1 )ˆkσ (τ1 ). (12. ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION AND FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS 277 What happens then as the electron-phonon interaction Hel−ph of Eq. And ﬁnally.16. τ ) = − m=0 (−1)m m! ∞ m=0 β 0 β dτ1 .

iqn ).σ2 (τi )ˆk2 σ2 (τi )ˆk1 σ1 (τj ). however. ipj ).e. 1 Multiply by βV for each internal four-momentum p and perform the sum pσλ . P(τn )ˆkσ (τ ) c† (0) c ˆkσ β 0 (−1)n n! .34).10) is given by the eﬀective two-particle interaction operator β 0 ˆ dτi P(τi ) = β 0 β dτi × 0 dτj k1 σ1 k2 σ2 qλ 1 0 |g |2 Dλ (q. two external fermion lines Gσ (k. . 0 dτn ˆ ˆ Tτ P(τ1 ) . The derivation of the Feynman rules in Fourier space. incoming momenta must equal the outgoing. . τ ) = − n=0 (−1)n n! ∞ n=0 β 0 β dτ1 .σ1 (τj )ˆ† 2 −q. . and no spin ﬂipping. . (16.24): (1) (2) (3) (4) Fermion lines with four-momentum orientation: Phonon lines with four-momentum orientation: kσ.278 CHAPTER 16. ikn 0 ≡ Gσ (k. At order n draw all topologically diﬀerent connected diagrams containing n 0 1 0 oriented phonon lines − V |gqλ |2 Dλ (q. i. ˆk ck c c From this interaction operator we can identify a new type of electron-electron interaction ph Vel−el mediated by the phonons ph Vel−el = 1 2V k1 σ1 k2 σ2 qλ 1 0 |g |2 Dλ (q. All vertices must contain an incoming and an outgoing fermion line as well as a phonon line. iqn ) qλ. .17) . (16.e. ˆk ck c c V qλ (16. ∞ Gσ (k. ikn ).14) dτ1 . ˜ ˜ (16. the phononmediated interaction is retarded. β 0 0 ˆ ˆ dτn Tτ P(τ1 ) . GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS ˆ the 2n operators P (τi ) form n pairs. τi −τj ) c† 1 +q. Multiply each fermion loop by −1.16) This interaction operator resembles the basic two-particle Coulomb interaction operator Eq. . (12. non-local in time. τi −τj ). regarding both the operators and 0 the coupling strength (1/V) |gqλ |2 Dλ (q. but while the Coulomb interaction is instantaneous or local in time. (2.σ2 (τi )ˆk2 σ2 (τi )ˆk1 σ1 (τj ). i. 0 and 2n internal fermion lines Gσ (pj . τi −τj ) 2V 2 qλ (16.15) c† 1 +q. is the same as for the Coulomb interactions Eq.σ1 (τj )ˆ† 2 −q. . ikn ) (5) (6) 0 1 ≡ − V |gqλ |2 Dλ (q. . P(τn ) 0 ˆ ˆ where the P(τ )-integral substituting the original P (τ )-integral of Eq. iqn Conserve the spin and four-momentum at each vertex. and we end with the following single-electron Green’s function.

34) and study the full Hamiltonian H for the electronic and phononic system. This theorem is the condensed matter physics analogue to the well-known Born-Oppenheimer approximation of molecular physics. light electrons. bare. Likewise. 3. i. The resulting. iqn ) = W (q) . which is then solved. (3. or vice versa.16. A complete calculation is rather tedious. In the case of an ion density ρ0 = N/V we found the ion dispersion-less jellium phonon modes in the long wave length limit. Note that we have dropped in the last equality in accordance with the convention introduced in Sec. if we consider the interaction between the ions and the electron gas assuming the latter to be homogeneous and completely inert. but in Sec. The latter states that it is a good approximation to consider the coordinates Ri of the slowly moving. 5.1 we have already sketched the ion plasma oscillation that occurs. 0M V (16. (2. disregarding all the dynamics of the electrons. 3. it can be proven by phase space arguments that renormalization of the electron-phonon vertex is suppressed at least by a .3. COMBINING COULOMB AND ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTIONS 279 16.3.21) 16.e. H = Hel + Vel−el + Hph + Hel−ph .44) and (16. 1 1 |gq |2 = V V Ze2 q 0 2 e2 Ω 1 N = = W (q) Ω.1. phonon-mediated electron-electron interaction is Ω2 1 |gq |2 D0 (q.18).20) To discuss the role of the electron dynamics we now add the electron-electron Coulomb interaction Vel−el of Eq.1 Migdal’s theorem When the electron-phonon coupling Hel−ph is added. 2 2 2M Ω 2 0q (16. (16.18) The coupling constant for the electron-electron interaction mediated by these jellium phonons is found by combining Eqs. In the second stage the values of Ri are then changed adiabatically. heavy ions as parameters in the Schr¨dinger o equation for the fast moving. The answer is provided by Migdal’s theorem.19) which not surprisingly is proportional to the Coulomb interaction W (q). For simplicity we henceforth study only longitudinal phonons and hence drop all reference to the polarization index λ. Ωq = Ω = Z 2 e2 N . In Fig. the question naturally arises of whether to study the inﬂuence of the electrons on the ions before that of the ions on the electrons.1 we studied the ion plasma oscillations in the jellium model neglecting the electron dynamics. V (iqn )2 − Ω2 (16.3 Combining Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions We now discuss the eﬀect of the long range Coulomb interactions between electrons and ions and between electrons themselves.

We therefore study only the inﬂuence of the electronic degrees of freedom on the bare phonon degrees of freedom. (16. Consequently.37) the typical (acoustic) phonon interaction line for low frequencies. Furthermore. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS factor m/M ∼ 10−2 . iqn ) −Veﬀ (q. (16. M (16. 1 0 −W (q) − V |gq |2 D0 (q. (13. the two internal electron propagators are conﬁned within ωD to the Fermi surface.22). eﬀective electron-electron interaction line. This combined interaction will be the basis for our analysis of the interacting electron gas henceforth. yields the following bare. due to four-momentum conservation.2 Jellium phonons and the eﬀective electron-electron interaction In more realistic calculations involving interacting electrons we need to consider the sum of the pure electronic Coulomb interaction and the phonon-mediated interaction. Ω.22) The proof builds on a self-consistency assumption. (16. and if. (13.24) and (16. The diagram on the left hand side in Eq. where m and M are the masses of the electron and ion.5) at the ﬁrst and third equality sign. iqn ) ≡ + . The result of the analysis is that the assumption for Migdal’s theorem indeed is fulﬁlled. |iqn | ωD . (16. In the following we assume that we can neglect the phonon-induced renormalization of the electron-phonon vertex. The important frequencies for acoustic phonons are smaller than the Debye frequency ωD . thus we concentrate on phonon frequencies ωq < ωD . We will just outline the proof of Migdal’s theorem here by studying the simplest phonon correction to the electron-phonon vertex. We assume that the high frequency jellium phonons.3.23) where we have used Eqs.22) and (3. Combining the Feynman rules for these two interactions. is −W (q)/εRPA .280 CHAPTER 16. (16. χ0 = −d(εF ). the pairbubble of Eq. as shown in the following section. ≈ m × M . respectively.24) . Eq. ωq = vs q. get renormalized by electron screening processes to the experimentally observed low frequency acoustic phonons. 16. a phase space factor of the order ωD /εF must appear in front of the usual unrestricted contribution from two such lines.21). (12.17). Eqs. according to Eq.22) is correct we can prove the assumed phonon renormalization. respectively. (16.22) contains one phonon interaction line and two electron propagators more than the diagram on the right hand side. The ratio between the values of the two diagrams is therefore roughly given by ωD vs k ω W (q) = 1 D =2 × D × d(εF ) = εRPA εF εF 2 vF kF Z 3 m kD ≈ M kF m . If these phonons are used we can prove Eq. Now.

ω) is shown in Fig. ω) = W (q) ω2 . according to our main result in Chap. Since Veﬀ (q) is proportional to the bare Coulomb interaction. 16. the interaction is attractive for frequencies ω RPA less than the acoustic phonon frequency ωq . eﬀective electron-electron interaction becomes negative for ω < Ω. 0 The speciﬁc form of Veﬀ is obtained by inserting Eq. Eqs.1(a). ω 2 − Ω2 + i˜ η (16. Note that the interaction is 0 attractive for frequencies ω less than the jellium phonon frequency Ω. Before we consider how the phonon propagator is renormalized by the electronic RPA. ω) → W RPA (q) for ω → ∞. and that Veﬀ (q. ω) → W (q) for ω → ∞. 13. the § ! © ¨ ¥¦ £ ¢ ¡ § § © ¦§¨ ¤ ¥ £ ¢ ¡ . see Sec. eﬀective electron-electron interaction. Migdal’s theorem leads us to disregard renormalization due to phonon processes 0 and only to consider the most important electron processes. in the limit high electron densities are given by RPA. (16.e. iqn ) = W (q) + W (q) Ω2 (iqn )2 = W (q) . (b) The same for the RPA renormalized eﬀective electron-electron RPA interaction Veﬀ (q. 16.16. i. ω) as a function of the real frequency ω for a given momentum q. and Veﬀ (q. at low frequencies the electron-phonon interaction combined with the originally fully repulsive Coulomb interaction results in an attractive eﬀective electron-electron interaction.4 Phonon renormalization by electron screening in RPA The electronic Coulomb interaction renormalizes the bare. 13.26) 0 The real part of Veﬀ (q.25) or going to real frequencies. 0 Veﬀ (q. 0 Veﬀ (q.4. PHONON RENORMALIZATION BY ELECTRON SCREENING IN RPA 281 0 Figure 16.1: (a) The real part of the bare. these processes. 16. It is seen that the bare. (16. iqn → ω + iη. At high frequencies the normal Coulomb interaction is recovered.4.66) between the dielectric function εRPA . let us remind ourselves of the following expressions from Chap.61)–(13.24). Now.20) into Eq. (13. eﬀective electron-electron interaction Veﬀ (q. ω). (iqn )2 − Ω2 (iqn )2 − Ω2 (16.

31) . while collecting the remaining diagrams containing a mix of Coulomb and phonon interaction lines into another sum. 0 1 − Veﬀ (q) χ0 (q. (16. a physically more transparent form of Veﬀ is obtained by expanding the inﬁnite series Eq. iqn ) = RPA . without contributions from the external coupling vertices. iqn ) W χ0 1 1 1 + W (q)χRPA (q. iqn ) has the standard form RPA −Veﬀ (q. 1 − W χ0 1 − W χ0 ε (q. iqn ) χ0 (q.32) 1− RPA . (16. (16.28). (13. 1 1 − χRPA (q. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS RPA density-density correlator −χRPA = .282 CHAPTER 16. (16. iqn ). iqn ) RPA [ g RPA ]. iqn ) . iqn ) Returning to the electron-phonon problem. 1 RPA RPA −Veﬀ (q. i. iqn ) = = + RPA is the sum of all diagrams between the ﬁrst and the last phonon line. iqn ) (16. iqn ) = = 1− = 0 −Veﬀ (q) . iqn ) = 1 − W (q)χ0 (q. iqn ) (16.33) = + ∗ . The solution for the RPA renormalized phonon line is −DRPA (q.30) = + RPA . while the renormalized phonon line DRPA (q. iqn ) = 1 − W (q)χ0 (q. and then collecting all the diagrams containing only Coulomb interaction lines into one sum (this simply yields the RPA screened Coulomb interaction W RPA ). χRPA (q. −DRPA (q.27b) (16. iqn ) = = + .28) RPA The solution for Veﬀ (q. χ0 (q. Here the renormalized coupling gq q RPA gq ≡ is the sum of all diagrams between the outgoing left [incoming right] vertex and the ﬁrst [last] phonon line. iqn ) −W RPA (q) − V |gq |2 DRPA (q.27c) εRPA (q. (16. iqn ). iqn ) = 1 + = = RPA . iqn ) = = −D0 (q.29) RPA While this expression is correct.68) for W RPA and obtain RPA −Veﬀ (q. iqn ) ε (q. and the simple pair-bubble −χ0 = . (16. we now extend the RPA-result Eq.e. iqn ) V |gq |2 D0 (q.27a) (16.

iqn ) → ks /q 2 = (4kF /πa0 )/q 2 . iqn ) = where ωq ≡ Ω εRPA (q. iqn ) = − V q = + RPA = (1 + W χRPA ) gq = gq .34) (16. 0) = Ze2 ρ0 el q= 2 ks 0 M Zm v q.66) 2 and (13. (16. we have used the Feynman diagram technique to show how the phonon spectrum gets renormalized by interacting with the electron gas.16. (16. (16. (16. namely the explicit form of the eﬀective electron-electron interaction due to the combination of the Coulomb and the . The long range Coulomb forces of the non-interacting problem resulted in optical jellium phonons with the high frequency Ω.4. In more elementary treatments this spectrum is derived by postulating short range forces following Hooke’s law.36). We note from Eqs. but now we have proven it from ﬁrst principles. 3M F (16. In a moment we shall interpret this new frequency.34) and (16. and as a result the phonon dispersion gets renormalized to the usual low frequency acoustic dispersion ωq = vs q. (13. By introducing the electron-electron interaction the Coulomb forces get screened. Inserting this into 3 2 ρ0 yields the following explicit form of ω : Eq. A further physical interpretation of this result is obtained by evaluating the expression Eq. We end by stating the main result of this section. iqn ) = Z 2 e2 ρ0 ion = εRPA 0 M Ze2 ρ0 el .35) is the renormalized phonon frequency due to electronic RPA screening.20) where the unscreened phonon frequency Ω and the unscreened Coulomb interaction W (q) have been replaced by their RPA screened counterparts ωq and W (q)/εRPA .20) and then Eq.38) This we recognize as the Bohm-Staver expression Eq. (16. RPA gq ≡ (16. (16.5) for the dispersion of acoustic phonons in the jellium model. The signiﬁcance of this result is that starting from the microscopic Hamiltonian Eq. PHONON RENORMALIZATION BY ELECTRON SCREENING IN RPA Using ﬁrst Eqs. 2 2 2 2 ε (iqn )2 − ωq εRPA (iqn ) − ωq (16.7) and (16. 2 ωq 2Ω W (q) = RPA . (16. (3.36) The ﬁnal form of the RPA screened phonon-mediated electron-electron interaction is now obtained by combining Eqs.21) for the coupled electron and phonon problem.35) for ωq in the static. respectively. = 2 2 W (q)χRPA (q.23) that in this limit εRPA (q.27c) leads to DRPA (q. εRPA 0 M (iqn )2 − Ω2 2Ω 2Ω .35) and using the relation kF = 3π el q 1 RPA 2 RPA |g | D (q. but before doing so we study how also the coupling RPA constant gq gets renormalized in RPA and acquire the value gq . iq ) ε n = |gq |2 /V ωq (q → 0. iq ) (iqn )2 − ωq −Ω n 283 (16.37) We now see that this renormalized propagator is identical to the free phonon propagator Eq. RPA (q. long wave length limit.

Further. see Eq.1(b): 1 RPA RPA −Veﬀ (q.39) and Fig. according to the Debye model of acoustic phonons.. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS ! −˜↓ p (iqn )2 . while it becomes attractive instead of repulsive for frequencies below ωq .1(b). iqn ). Sec. The divergence is due to repeated scattering between electron pairs occupying time-reversed states of the form |k ↑ and ˜ |−k ↓ . According to Eq.39) 16. iqn ) rapidly approaches W RPA (q) for frequencies larger than the given acoustic phonon frequency ωq .41) 1 Vβ 0 RPA ˜ − Veﬀ (k− q ) G↑ (˜) G↓ (−˜) Λ(˜. 16..42) RPA To proceed we make a simplifying assumption regarding the functional form of Veﬀ (q. Λ which is equivalent to the following integral equation RPA ˜ ˜ ˜ Λ(k. (16. The instability arises because a certain class of electron-electron scattering processes when added coherently yields a divergent scattering amplitude. p) = given by the inﬁnite ladder-diagram sum over scattering events between time-reversed electron pairs: (16.5 The Cooper instability and Feynman diagrams In 1956 Cooper discovered that the electron gas in an ordinary metal would become unstable below a certain critical temperature Tc due to the phonon-induced attractive RPA nature of the eﬀective electron-electron interaction Veﬀ (q. iqn ) −W RPA (q) − V |gq |2 DRPA (q. 16. First we note that according to our analysis of the electron gas in Chap. is proportional to ε2 or ωq for frequencies less than the Debye frequency ωD = vs kD and zero otherwise. ˜ q 0 q q ˜ q ˜ (16. RPA Veﬀ (q. 3.40) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ k↑ p↑ ˜ k↑ p↑ ˜ k↑ k1 ↑ p↑ ˜ k↑ k1 ↑ k2 ↑ p↑ ˜ Suppressing all arguments and stripping away the external electron propagators we can recast Eq. (3. (16. p).27). iqn ) = + = −W RPA (q) ˜ −k↓ CHAPTER 16. We will ﬁrst derive this divergence. (16. Dion (ε). This means that most of . 2 (iqn )2 − ωq (16. Cooper and Schrieﬀer (BCS) to develop the microscopic theory explaining superconductivity. see also Fig. p) = −Veﬀ (k− p) + ˜ " #$%& '( ) −˜↓ p ˜ −k↓ −˜↓ p ˜ −k↓ ˜ −k1 ↓ ˜ ˜ k−k1 ˜ −k↓ ˜ −k1 ↓ ˜ ˜ k−k1 ˜ −k2 ↓ −˜↓ p Λ = ˜ p k−˜ + ˜ p k1−˜ + ˜ ˜ ˜ p k2−k1 k2−˜ + . Using the four-momentum notation k = (k.40) in the form of a Dyson equation for the pair-scattering vertex Λ. ikn ) we consider the following pair ˜ ˜ scattering vertex Λ(k. In this section we will derive the Cooper instability using Feynman diagrams.5. Thus we are really only interested in RPA the deviations of Veﬀ (q. ω) at low frequencies. iqn ) from W RPA (q). 13 no instabilities arise due to the pure Coulomb interaction. This discovery soon lead Bardeen.284 electron-phonon interaction. and then we will discuss its physical interpretation. = + Λ . the density 2 of phonon states.

RPA Veﬀ (q. This instability is called the Cooper instability. or β = βc . iqn ) q 0 G↓ (−q. p) thus only involves frequencies less than ωD . and for those it takes the form 1 Λ(k. But in our model this would then happen simultaneously for all electron pairs within a shell of thickness ωD of the Fermi surface.−iqn ) . (16.44) we can take Λ outside the sum.45) to zero using Gσ (q. hence a consistent solution is obtained by taking Λ(k.−iqn ) Λ(q. In quantum mechanics an inﬁnite scattering amplitude signals a resonance. p). and the on-set of it marks the transition from a normal metallic state to a superconducting state. q (16. in the present case the formation of a bound state between the time-reversed pair of electrons. On the right hand side of Eq. |iqn | > ωD . whence for the left hand side we conclude Λ(k. Hence we arrive at the model used by Cooper and by BCS: −V. It is therefore a reasonable approximation to set ωq = ωD . Finally. As T is lowered the denominator in Eq. which we naturally denote Λ. iqn ) = 1/(iqn − εq ) . the resulting pair-interaction Λ equals the attractive pair-interaction strength V from Eq. (16.e. The critical temperature T = Tc . (16. β 1/oD.16. i.43). p) in the summand we can write Λ(p).45) can approach zero from above resulting in an arbitrarily strong or divergent pair-interaction strength Λ. and thus for Λ(q. p) to be a constant. Now it is furthermore evident that the p-dependence occurs only in the Λ-function. i. the entire Fermi-surface becomes unstable at that temperature.44) The summand on the right hand side does not contain the external momentum k. and solve for it: V V 1− β |iqn |<ωD Λ= 1 V 0 G↑ (q. |iqn | < ωD 0. The conclusion is clear: if the pair-interaction strength Λ diverge for a certain critical temperature Tc . for the on-set of the Cooper instability is 0 obtained by setting the denominator in Eq. iqn ) ≈ (16. and a new ground state is formed involving bound electron pairs in time-reversed states.e. THE COOPER INSTABILITY AND FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS 285 the phonons encountered have a frequency of the order ωD . p) = Λ(p). p) = V + β ωD iqn 1 V 0 0 V G↑ (q.45) We see that at high temperatures. since the eﬀective pair-interaction is attractive only for energy exchanges less than ωD . as a last simpliﬁcation. iqn ) G↓ (−q.5. (16.43) ˜ ˜ The integral equation for Λ(k. (16. we set the interaction strength to be constant.

47) Two important comments can be made at this stage. (16. 3. d(εF )/2. 2 2π βc ωD 1.286 and qn = 2π βc CHAPTER 16. Fig. since Tc (V ) ∝ exp(−const/V ). These problems will be treated in some of the exercise of this chapter and in much greater detail in the next chapter concerning the BCS theory of superconductivity. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS n+ 1 2 : 1 V d(εF ) 1 1 V = iqn − εq −iqn − εq βc 2 q |iqn |<ωD 1 β ω 2π c D 1 π 1 − 2 = V d(εF ) |qn | 2 n+ 1 2 n=0 ∞ 1= V βc dε −∞ |iqn |<ωD 1 2 qn + ε2 = ≈ V d(εF ) 2βc |iqn |<ωD V d(εF ) βc ωD ln 4 . The second comment is that Tc is a non-analytic function of the pair-interaction strength V .46) where we use the density of states per spin.g. Consequently. the critical temperature Tc for the Cooper instability is lowered to about 1 K by the exponential factor. From this equation Tc is found to be kB Tc ≈ ωD e 2 − V d(ε F ) . see e. (16. it is not possible to reach the new ground state resulting from the Cooper instability by perturbation theory in V of the normal metallic Fermi sea. The ﬁrst is that although the characteristic phonon energy ωD is of the order 100 K. .6b.

3 BCS theory with Green’s functions 287 .1 The Cooper instability 17.2 The BCS groundstate 17.Chapter 17 Superconductivity 17.

4.1 17. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 17.5 The Josephson eﬀect .4 17.288 CHAPTER 17.4.2 Experimental consequences of the BCS states Tunneling density of states speciﬁc heat 17.

2 18.2.5 The Luttinger-Tomonaga model .3.spinless case Interacting one dimensional electron system Bosonization of Tomonaga model-Hamiltonian Diagonalization of bosonized Hamiltonian Real space formulation Electron operators in bosonized form 289 .4 18.3 18.Chapter 18 1D electron gases and Luttinger liquids 18.1 Introduction First look at interacting electrons in one dimension One-dimensional transmission line analog 18.3.1 18.1 18.3.3.2 18.3 18.3.

2 What is a Luttinger liquid? Experimental realizations of Luttinger liquid physics Edge states in the fractional quantum Hall eﬀect Carbon Nanotubes .5 18.290 CHAPTER 18.7 18.8.1 18.8 18.8.1 Luttinger liquid with spin Green’s functions Tunneling into spinless Luttinger liquid Tunneling into the end of Luttinger liquid 18. 1D ELECTRON GASES AND LUTTINGER LIQUIDS 18.6.4 18.6 18.

k (A. travelling at the speed v = ω/|k|. (A.2) 1 V fk eik·r . Lz and a volume V = Lx Ly Lz .4) Note the prefactor 1/V in Eq. t) under study on plane wave components. .3) (A.Appendix A Fourier transformations Fourier transformation is useful to employ in the case of homogeneous systems or to change linear diﬀerential equations into linear algebraic equations. (A. In all cases the product of the normalization constants should be 1/V. The idea is to resolve the quantity f (r. 291 1 V eik·r = δ(r). An extremely important and very useful theorem states dr e−ik·r = V δk. nx = 0. or to put 1/ V in front of both equations. k kx = 2πnx .1 Continuous functions in a ﬁnite region Consider a rectangular box in 3D with side lengths Lx . ±1. . Another choice would √ be to put it in Eq. V (A. (A. . ±2. It is our choice to put it there. f (r + Lx ex ) = f (r + Ly ey ) = f (r + Lz ez ) = f (r) can be written as a Fourier series f (r) = where fk = dr f (r) e−ik·r .3).5) . Lx likewise for y and z. fk.ω ei(k·r−ωt) . Ly . (A.4).1) A. The central theorem in Fourier analysis states that any well-behaved function fulﬁlling the periodic boundary conditions.0 .

(A. and the k-sum in Eq.2 Continuous functions in an inﬁnite region If we let V tend to inﬁnity the k-vectors become quasi-continuous variables.5). (A. (A.0 . A. dt eiωt = 2π δ(ω).3) an reduce by use of Eq. (A.1) – we have f (t) = and also ∞ dω fω e−iωt . discrete k.292 APPENDIX A. (A. −∞ 2π ∞ ∞ fω = ∞ −∞ dt f (t)eiωt .5). Thus t plays the role of r and ω that of k. Again it is easy to use these expression to verify that Fourier transforming twice brings you back to the starting point. (2π)3 k (A. continuous ω.4 Some useful rules We can think of Eqs. dk f eik·r .11b) (A. (A. (A. (A. to the case where this period tends to inﬁnity. 1k ←→ δ(r). 1ω ←→ δ(t).10) as the Fourier transform of the constant function f = 1 to delta functions (and back): 1r ←→ V δk.7) – but with the opposite sign of i due to Eq. Note also that by using Eq.10) A.8) (2π)3 Note that the dimensions are okay. (A. and in complete analogy with Eq. dr e−ik·r = (2π)3 δ(k).3 Time and frequency Fourier transforms The time t and frequency ω transforms can be thought of as an extension of functions periodic with the ﬁnite period T . continuous k. f (r) = 1 V fk eik·r k V→∞ −→ 1 V V (2π)3 dk fk eik·r = k. A.11c) .4) into the expression for f (r) in Eq. −∞ 2π Note again that the dimensions are okay. (A.8) and (A. (A.5) you can prove that Fourier transforming from r to k and then back brings you back to the starting point: insert fk from Eq.7) fk = dk ik·r e = δ(r). 1r ←→ (2π) δ(k). (2π)3 k We have dr f (r)e−ik·r . (A.11a) (A. (A. 3 1k ←→ δ(r).6) Now you see why we choose to put 1/V in front of f (r) = and also dk f eik·r . FOURIER TRANSFORMATIONS Note the dimensions in these two expressions so that you do not forget where to put the factors of V and 1/V.3) is converted into an integral.9) −∞ dω −iωt e = δ(t). (A. 1t ←→ 2π δ(ω).

TRANSLATION INVARIANT SYSTEMS 293 Another useful rule is the rule for Fourier transforming convolution integrals. For the gradient operator we have r f (r) = r 1 V fk eik·r = k 1 V fk k re ik·r = 1 V ikfk eik·r . is derived in a similar way (and here given in three diﬀerent versions): dr h(r) g ∗ (r) = dr h(r) g(r) = dr h(r) g(−r) = dk h g∗ . it is obvious from the factor ei(k +k)·r that any reference to the absolute value of r only can vanish if k = −k. Any physical observable f (r. ←→ −k .5. (2π)3 k −k dk h g . × ←→ ik × .18) (A. and ∂t (remember the sign change of i in the latter): r 2 ←→ ik.k (A.20) . k (A.12) or in words: a convolution integral in r-space becomes a product in k-space. (A. f (r. r ) = dk (2π)3 dk f eik·r eik ·r = (2π)3 k.14) (A. The consequences in k-space from this constraint are: dk f eik·(r−r ) ei(k +k)·r . the invariance of inner products going from r to k.8) we ﬁnd f (r) = ds h(r−s) g(s) = ds 1 V2 hk eik·(r−s) gk eik ·s = k. k (A. 2 ∂t ←→ −iω.5 Translation invariant systems We study a translation invariant system.k ∝ δ(k + k ).k dk (2π)3 (A. (2π)3 k k dk h g .A. ds h(r−s) g(s) ←→ hk gk . (2π)3 k k (A. By direct application of the deﬁnitions and Eq.16) Finally we mention the Fourier transformation of diﬀerential operators.19) A. (A.21) Since this has to be a function of r − r . ×.17) Similarly for 2. (A.k 1 V hk gk eik·r .13) A related rule. and thus fk. (2π)3 k. f (r. r ) of two spatial variables r and r can only depend on the diﬀerence between the coordinates and not on the absolute position of any of them.15) (A. r ) = f (r−r ).

we can go through the same arguments or use the formulae from above to get ˜ fk.k = Vδk. r ) ←→ fk.24) For the discrete case.21) and (A. (A.25) for k = −k we get that g(k) = 1 A(k)B(−k) . and by using the result in Eq.26) where A and B are some operators. (A. we can also ﬁnd the Fourier transform of f by explicitly using that f only depends on the diﬀerence r − r ˜ f (r. FOURIER TRANSFORMATIONS To ﬁnd the proportionality constant.294 APPENDIX A. (A. (A. For a translation-invariant system we now that g(r.−k .k = (2π)3 δ(k + k )fk . translation−invariant systems. (A.25) This result is used several times in the main text when we consider correlation functions of the form g(r.−k fk . or in short f (r. r ) = f (r − r ) = dk ˜ ik·(r−r ) f e . r ) = g(r − r ).22) and by comparing the two expressions Eqs.22) we read oﬀ that ˜ fk. (2π)3 k (A.27) (A. V (A. r ) = A(r)B(r ) .23) .

where with the probability amplitude t one valence electron can hop from an ion j to one of the nearest neighbor ions j + δ (as usual {c† . (1.63) for fermions: Ttot = fermion operators c† . (1.67) in the real space representation Eq. cj = (1/ N ) k eikja ck to diagonalize H in k-space and plot the eigenvalues εk as a function of k. j+δ This Hamiltonian is known as the tight-binding Hamiltonian. Argue why in this case one has c† b = c† b cνn c† nj . (1. 295 . . (1.2 Find the current density operator J in terms of the arbitrary single particle basis states ψν and the corresponding creation and annihilation operators a† and aν .3 In some crystals the valence electrons are rather tightly bound to their host ions. Exercise 1. A good starting point for analyzing such systems is to describe the kinetic energy by hopping processes. Use the discrete Fourier transformation a. 2. and a lattice constant √ Here j = 1. What about the ν j fermion anti-commutator sign? j νi .j ): j H = −t jδ c† cj . periodic boundary conditions. cj } = δj.νj Tνi νj c† i cνj . .1 Prove Eq. . Hint: use the ν basis transformations Eq.60) with ν Exercise 1. (a) Consider a 1D lattice with N sites. N and δ = ±1. Hints: write Eq.Appendix B Exercises Exercises for Chapter 1 Exercise 1.62) by moving the pair c† b cνn to the left. Obtain the ν ν ν ν fermion analogue of Eq. . (1.99a).

while ω and ω0 are positive constants.43) is not exact ∗ near the energy minimum density rs = rs = 4. 1. Hints: work in polar coordinates 2π +1 ∞ 2 0 r dr r = (r. (2. a† ] = 1. and determine the eigenenergies. Prove that the Fourier transform is Vq s = 4πe2 0 2 +k 2 q s e2 .5 The Yukawa potential is deﬁned as V ks (r) = r0 e−ks r . In this case the 2D tightbinding model is applicable. What might be the physical origin of the second term in H (see Sec. where [a. and λF .4 Consider a bosonic particle moving in 1D with the Hamiltonian H = ω a† a + 1 2 + ω0 a† + a .1 Iron (Fe) in its metallic state has valence II. where the ions form a 2D square lattice. φ). Diagonalize H by introducing the operator α ≡ a + ω0 /ω and its Hermitian conjugate α† . εF . Generalize the 1D model to a 2D square lattice also with the lattice constant a and plot contours of constant energy εkx ky in the kx ky plane.3 Starting from Eqs.2 Use the variational principle to argue that although the expression Eq.34) and (2. (2. Exercise 2. Exercise 1. with ks being some real positive k constant with the dimensions of a wavevector.296 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 2 (b) In the high-temperature superconductors the conduction electrons are conﬁned to parallel CuO-planes.4.287 nm. Exercises for Chapter 2 Exercise 2.1)? Compare the result to a classical and a ﬁrst quantized treatment of the problem.47) for the contributions from the direct Coulomb interaction processes to the interaction energy in second order perturbation theory. . and perform the 0 dφ and −1 d(cos θ) integrals ﬁrst. (2. Relate the result to the Coulomb potential.29 eV nevertheless ensures the stability of the electron gas. θ. Calculate the density n of the resulting gas of valence electrons. Exercise 1. and X-ray measurements have revealed that it forms a body-centered-cubic (BCC) crystal with side length a = 0. The remaining integral is a simple integral of the sum of two exponential functions. the result E ∗ /N = −1. vF . Exercise 2.83. and use this value to determine the microscopic parameters kF .45) derive the expression Eq.

Exercises for Chapter 3 Exercise 3.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3. in analogy with the 3D case.σ ckσ b−q . the relation between the 2D Fermi wave vector kF and the 2D electron density: kF 2 = 2πn.41). Use the result to derive the 2D density of states per area. 297 Exercise 2. Derive. and an initial state |i having the energy Ei and being speciﬁed by the occupation numbers nkσ and Nq for electron states |kσ and phonon states |q (see Eq. . emi (b) The scattering rate corresponding to the emission processes is denoted τk .3.e. (3. and show that 1 c† c b† |i q Nq +1 k+q k emi for a given q = 0 in Hel−ph the only possible normalized ﬁnal states is √ .5 In Sec.2 we saw an example of the existence of 2D electron gases in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructures.108)). Assume that |i is a simple but unspeciﬁed product state. It can be estimated using Fermi’s Golden Rule (suppressing the unimportant spin index): 1 emi τk = 2π f emi f |Hel−ph |i 2 δ(Ef − Ei ).1 We want to study the inﬂuence of electron-phonon scattering on a given electron state INA |kσ using the simple Hamiltonian Hel−ph of Eq. d(ε). 2. (1.4 In Sec. involving a sum over all possible ﬁnal states with energy Ef = Ei . For simplicity we restrict our study to processes that scatter electrons out of |kσ .3 we saw an example of the existence of 1D electron gases in carbon nanotubes. i. k+q k abs Derive the analogous expression for the scattering rate 1/τk due to absorption. (a) Argue that in this case we need only consider the simple phonon absorption and emission processes given by abs emi Hel−ph = Hel−ph + Hel−ph = q gq c† k+q. Exercise 2. |i = † {kσ}i ckσ {q}i √1 Nq ! b† q Nq |0 . Use the result to derive the 1D electron density: kF = 2n/π.3. the relation between the 1D Fermi wave vector kF and the 1D density of states per length. (c) Show for the state |i that 1 emi τk = 2π q i |gq |2 (Nq + 1) (1 − ni ) ni δ(εk+q − εk + ωq ). in analogy with the 3D case. d(ε). 2.σ ckσ bq + q † gq c† k+q. Derive.

k ≈ kF . (a) To obtain realistic results we need to use the screened Coulomb or Yukawa potential for the ionic potential Vq (see Eq.5). due to the lack of phonons. we are mainly interested in electrons moving relatively close to the Fermi surface (why?). (3. i. (3. . k .2 emi We now determine the temperature dependence of the scattering rate τk in the high and low temperature limits.42) together with k = k + q change τ emi from Exercise 3. since at low T . εk − εk > ωmax Since dεk = 1 emi τk dωq show in the limit ωmax ωmax 0 εF how to obtain ωmax 0 2 dωq ωq [nB (ωq ) + 1]..42) and Exercise 1. We note that since k and k are tied to the Fermi surface the largest q is 2kF .1d to k 1 emi τk ∝ 2π k ωq [nB (ωq ) + 1] [1 − nF (εk )]δ(εk − εk + ωq ). The electrons redistribute in an attempt to neutralize the ionic potential. q Exercise 3. Now use polar coordinates to obtain k ∝ dεk −1 d(cos θ). we employ the Debye model of the phonon spectrum (see Sec. and the corresponding largest phonon energy is denoted 1 ωmax ≡ 2vD kF . ∝ 2 dωq ωq [nB (ωq ) + 1] [1 − nF (εk )] ≈ (d) Show that the result in (c) leads to the following temperature dependencies: 1 ∝ emi τk T. As we shall see in Chap. and the electron density 2 ≈ k /a . n that ks F 0 1 (b) Show how Eq. for T T 3 + const. εk − εk < ωmax 0.5): ωq = vD q. and show using q 2 = |k − k|2 that d(cos θ) ∝ q dq. for T ωmax /kB ωmax /kB . (c) As usual. 1/τk ≈ 0. 3. Furthermore.298 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 (d) Keeping nk = 1 ﬁxed for our chosen state. argue why thermal averaging leads to 1 2π = emi τk |gq |2 [nB (ωq ) + 1] [1 − nF (εk+q )] δ(εk+q − εk + ωq ). With this prove that 1 −1 d(cos θ)δ(εk − εk + ωq ) ∝ 2kF 0 q dq δ(εk − εk + ωq ) ∝ εk −εF ωq . the Fermi energy εF . while emi abs at high T we have 1/τk ≈ 1/τk . This immediately gives us the behavior of the total scattering emi abs abs rate 1/τk = 1/τk + 1/τk . 13 they succeed to do so for distances further away than 1/ks from the ion. where we here and in the following do not care about the numerical prefactors. Show by dimensional analysis 2 involving the Fourier component e2 /( 0 ks ).e.

. (2. (a) Multiply the continuity equation by the ion mass M to obtain M ∂t ρion + · π = 0. from which the (square of the) sound velocity vs is read oﬀ: 2 M ∂t ρion − 2Z ε 3 F 2 ρion = 0. .. Uk ). the momenta. which on the other hand is equal to the pressure gradient − P due to the compression of the electron gas following the ionic motion: ˙ π=f =− P = ∂E (0) ∂V . 3. respectively. 3. 3. while for the ◦ ions they are denoted M . . .5). (a) Verify that the Hamiltonian of the two-atoms-per-unit-cell chain is H= j 1 2 1 2 1 1 pj + Pj + K(uj − Uj−1 )2 + K(Uj − uj )2 2m 2M 2 2 ∂H ∂H ˙ ˙ (b) Use Hamilton’s equations uj = ∂pj and pj = − ∂uj (similar for Uj and Pj ). 3. Uj−1 .4. ¨ (c) Assume the harmonic solutions uj ≡ uk ei(kja−ω t) and Uj ≡ Uk ei(kja−ω t) to derive a 2 × 2 matrix eigenvalue equation for (uk .2.3(c). to ˙ ˙ ¨ obtain the equations for uj and Uj . ˙ (b) Take the time derivative and note that π is the force density f . (3. where the light and mobile electrons always follow the motion of the slow and heavy ions to maintain local charge neutrality. where π is the momentum density. The ionic lattice has a unit cell with two diﬀerent ions • and ◦. . pj and uj . . The sites are numbered by j as . 3.3(c) and the eigenmode displayed in Fig. We study the situation described in Sec. 3.4 The task is to prove the Bohm-Staver expression Eq. and the displacements of the • ions are denoted m.3 we now want to ﬁnd the eigenmodes of the linear 1D chain with lattice constant a mentioned in Fig. The masses.28). uj+1 . . Uj . (3. Pj and Uj . uj−1 . N where the electron gas ground state energy E (0) is given in Eq.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 299 Exercise 3. The ions are treated as the jellium of Sec. All spring constants are the same.1.3 In analogy with the homogeneous 1D chain of Sec. (c) Combine the equations and derive the wave equation for ρion . Uj+1 . (d) Check that in the limit M = m the dispersion ωk in Eq.9) of the one-atomper-unit-cell is recovered. Exercise 3. uj . Verify the dispersion curve ωk displayed in Fig. namely K.

The potential energy contributions which involves the ionic system are the ion-ion interaction and the electron-ion interaction ion−ion Epot = 1 2 drdr δρion (r)V (r − r )δρion (r ).300 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 Exercise 3. Because the system is charge neutral as a whole. drdr δρ(r)V (r − r )δρion (r ).e. (2. When included it gives rise to the term in Eq. we need only take into account interactions between deviations from equilibrium. derive the Lagrangian as a functional of u L0 [u] = ion 1 2 dr M ρ0 |u(r)|2 − ion ˙ ρ0 ion 2 2 drdr [ · u(r)] V (r − r ) · u(r ) . . The classical Lagrangian for this system is L0 = Tion − Vion ion 1 0 Tion = dr M ρion (r)v 2 (r) 2 ion−ion Vion = Epot . Because we are interested in the low energy excitations we linearize the kinetic such that T = 1 2 dr M ρ0 v 2 (r). ion Using particle conservation show that v(r) = −u(r) ˙ and using this. where v is the velocity ﬁeld of the ions. · u(r). We have not explicitly included the electron-electron interaction here. where u is a displacement ﬁeld describing the deviation of the ion density from equilibrium. and ρ(r) is the electron density.5 Electrons and phonons in the jellium model In this exercise we quantize the jellium model of the ion system in a solid and derive the electron phonon interaction in a way which is somewhat diﬀerent from the method used in the main text. each ion has charge +e. First we quantize the ion system and we start by looking at the isolated ion system. i. We deﬁne ρion (r)=ρ0 + δρion (r) ≡ ρ0 +ρ0 ion ion ion ρ(r)=ρ0 ion + δρ(r). We take the case of a monovalent metal. ion−el Epot = − with the usual deﬁnition el−el Epot = 1 2 drdr δρ(r)V (r − r )δρ(r ).34).

In the jellium case.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 301 Because the Lagrangian is quadratic in u it is equivalent to a set of harmonic oscillators that describe sound waves of the ion system. one must choose a positive polarization direction. q The system is quantized by the condition (canonical quantization) [ui (r).6 Bare electron.pj (−q )] = iδij V δqq . which you can easily check. Ω is chosen such that H is diagonal.e. Ω0 = . Now follow the standard scheme for diagonalization of the phonons modes. The polarization is here parallel to q i. Using the quantization from the previous exercise verify that the Hamiltonian describing the electron-phonon In the general non-jellium case the polarization vectors are eigenvectors of the dynamical matrix D(q) in Eq. Exercise 3. 2 q q where the polarization vector has the property that q = −q . What dispersion relation do you expect? Next you should quantize the ion system and ﬁnd the Hamiltonian. H= Ω0 b† bq + q 2 M q Explain the physics of this result. Furthermore. Show that in k-space this becomes [ui (q).phonon interaction in the jellium model. (3.e.14). Verify that 4πe2 ρ0 1 0 ion . Deﬁne uq = V † 0 Ω bq + b−q . i. using the well known relation H = 0 Hion p · u − L. 1 . namely q . only longitudinal modes exist in the jellium model1 . one thus has Dαβ (q) = qa qβ V (q) which only has one eigenvector with non-zero eigenvalue. that ˙ · u(r)] V (r − r ) · u(r ) 1 = 2 = 1 2V ρ0 p2 (r) dr + ion 2 M ρ0 ion 2 drdr [ 2 q ρ0 p(q) · p(−q) + ion 2V M ρ0 ion V (q) [q · u(q)] [q · u(−q)] . First show that the canonical momentum corresponding to the ﬁeld u is p(r) = M ρ0 u(r). ion ˙ and show.pj (r )] = iδij δ(r − r ). 2M ρion p−q = i VM ρ0 Ω † ion bq − b−q .

k VHF (k) = − k V (k − k )nk σ . (d) The conclusion is so far that Hartree–Fock and ﬁrst order perturbation theory are in this case identical.3) Aq = bq + b† .25b) and is given by εHF = εk + VHF (k) .1) g(q) = iqV (q) and ρ0 ion . After the mean-ﬁeld approximation the Hamiltonian can be written as H HF = k εHF c† ckσ + constant. (2. which then gives k2 − k2 k + kF e2 kF 1+ F ln .39).1 (a) Consider the Hartree-Fock solution of the homogeneous electron gas in a positive background. Is it given by ? EHF = εHF nF εHF .302 interaction is given by Hion−el = = EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 4 drdr δρ(r)V (r − r )δρion (r ) ρ0 ion V ρ(−q)V (q)(iq · u(q)) q 1 =√ V where g(q)ρ(−q)Aq . k kσ (1) Argue why it is that in this case the Hartree-Fock energy follows from Eq. Is that true as well for the mean ﬁeld solution of the Stoner model? . V (q) = 4πe2 0 q2 (2) The occupation numbers should of course be solved self-consistently. (4. −q Exercises for Chapter 4 Exercise 4. (4) k k k and why not? Hint: show that the correct energy reduces to E (1) given in Eq. e. (c) Now ﬁnd the energy of the electron gas in the Hartree-Fock approximation. Use this to argue that the guess nk σ = θ (kF − k ) is in fact the correct solution.g. 2M Ω0 (B.2) (B. and assume that nk σ = θ (kF − k ). graphically). (3) VHF (k) = − 0 π 2kF k k − kF VHF (k) is increasing monotonously with k (which you might check. q (B. What is the selfconsistency condition? (b) Consider the zero temperature limit.

First go through the arguments that give the so-called coherence factors.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 4 303 Exercise 4. Exercise 4. The basic idea is to expand the free energy in powers of the order parameter. near d(∆). (4. The square root singularity that you ﬁnd. make a sketch of the speciﬁc heat of the system and show that it is discontinuous at the transition point.3 In this exercise we calculate the density of states in the superconducting state. Hint: recall that CV = −T ∂2F . and use the principle of minimal free energy to show that η= −A = 2C (TC − T ) η (0) . Exercise 4. This conclusion contradicts both experiments and the Fermi liquid theory discussed in Chap. Secondly. Show that it diverges at the “gap-edge”. T = TC . Eqs. It also warns us that the single-particle energies derived from a mean-ﬁeld Hamiltonian are not necessary a good approximation of the excitation energies of the system.6.2 The Hartree–Fock energies derived in the previous exercise have however some unphysical features. and A > 0 for T > TC . η) = F0 (T ) + A (T ) η 2 + C (T ) η 4 . 2C Finally. even if the mean-ﬁeld approach gives a good estimate of the groundstate energy. and that A < 0 for T < TC . See also Table 4. At the transition point η vanishes. uk and vk . 14. For second order phase transitions only even terms are present in the free energy expansion F (T. (2) diverge at the Fermi level.64). ∂T 2 . d(E). and the excitation energies. TC η (0) = Tc α .63) and (4. Consider a transition to a state with a ﬁnite order parameter. η. E. ﬁnd the density of states for the excitations in energy space. C (T ) = C. has been conﬁrmed in great detail by experiments and is one of the many successes of the BCS theory. Then write A and C as A (T ) = (T − TC ) α. Hint: start with the density of states in k space and translate to a density in energy space. Show that the density of states as derived from Eq. You can assume that ∆ is real. Use this to argue that A also vanishes at the transition point.4 In 1937 Landau developed a general phenomenological theory of symmetry breaking phase transitions.

C]B. while the interaction energy is given by Vel−el of Eq.19). . (2. [AB. C] = A[B . Solve these equations by introducing the operator α† ≡ a† + ω0 /ω .4. Interpret the change of the zero point energy.5 In the jellium model of metals the kinetic energy of the electrons is described by the Hamiltonian Hjel of Eq. t0 ) = 3! i 3 t t0 t t dt1 t0 dt2 t0 ˆ ˆ ˆ dt3 Tt V (t1 )V (t2 )V (t3 ) . t0 ) of U (t. and C. In the Heisenberg picture the time evolution of the electron creation and annihilation operators c† and ckσ is governed by the total Hamiltonian H = Hjel + Vel−el . useful for fermion operators. C}B.6) we will often need to calculate commutators of the form [AB.31) derive the equation of motion for ckσ (t). Express H in terms of α† (t) and α(t).34). t0 ) in Eq. Show the very important relations [AB.4 Due to the equation of motion for operators Eq.1 We return to the bosonic particle described by the Hamiltonian of Exercise 1.304 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 5 Exercises for Chapter 5 Exercise 5.22) we have H= ν εν a† aν ν ⇒ H(t) = ν εν a† (t)aν (t). C] = A{B. Apply the Hartree–Fock approximation to the result.18) indeed has the form 1 1 ˆ U3 (t. B. for some operators A. ν Exercise 5. Write down the Heisenberg equations of motion for a† and a.2 ˆ ˆ Show that the third-order term U3 (t. Exercise 5. (5. (5. (2. (5.16) and (5. Exercise 5. Hint: study Eqs. (5. In analogy with kσ Eq. C]. Exercise 5.17) and the associated footnote. (5. C} − {A. C] + [A .3 Use the Heisenberg picture to show that for the diagonal Hamiltonian H of Eq. useful for boson operators.

1. Express your result in both real space and momentum space.1 we consider a harmonic oscillator inﬂuenced by an external force f (t). but now we treat this force as a time-dependent perturbation H = f (t) x.3 1 We study integrals of the form −∞ dx x+iη f (x). see Sec. where S is the spin density operator S(r) = Ψ† (r)sΨ(r). Show that 1 in this context x+iη can be decomposed as the following real and imaginary parts ∞ 1 1 = P − iπ δ(x). These moments could for example be in the form of a neutron beam in a neutron scattering experiment. where f (x) is any function with a well behaved Taylor expansion around x = 0. Suppose that a piece of some material is perturbed by external magnetic moments. t) · S(r).and rotational-invariant system. Argue that this result is in fact exact. for example by considering the equation of motion for x(t) . Express x in terms of a and a† and calculate the linear response result for the expectation value x(t) .3. r ) is a function of r − r only and that . This means that the conductivity σ(r. Exercise 6. x Exercise 6. and η = 0+ is a positive inﬁnitesimal.2 The spin susceptibility measures the response to a magnetic ﬁeld. t) . Find the response to linear order in B for the induced spin density in the material.4 In this exercise we consider the conductivity of a translation. The perturbation is in this case given by H = −gµB dr Bext (r.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 6. S(r.4.1 As in Exercise 5. x + iη x Here P means Cauchy principle part: P 1 dx f (x) ≡ x −∞ ∞ 1 dx f (x) + x −∞ −η ∞ η 1 dx f (x). 305 Exercises for Chapter 6 Exercise 6. Exercise 6. Neutron scattering experiments are the main source for obtaining experimental information about the distribution of spins in condensed matter systems.

(8. Hint: diﬀerentiate (8. namely Eq. Derive the expression for the particle current operator in this limit. q → 0. where J(q) is the particle current operator in momentum space. ω)E(q. J(0. Exercise 6. From this you can derive obtain the long wavelength conductivity σ αβ (0.16) and (8. Show that in the Fourier domain Je (q.1 Verify that the self-consistent equations in Eqs.306 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 7 the conductivity tensor is diagonal with identical diagonal components.22) with respect to time using that the derivative of the theta function is a delta function.42) in the clean limit. t) = 1 m k c† (t) ckσ (t).2 In this exercise we prove that the propagator in Eq. 0)] . i. . σ(q. ωm How does this ﬁt with the Drude result (13. t). Find the relation between the conductivity. ω) = iδαβ ne2 . ω) = σ(q.14b).13). J α (−q. (8.5 Consider again the conductivity of a translation-invariant and rotational-invariant system. ω) and the correlation function [J α (q. kσ kσ and show that it is time-independent in the Heisenberg picture. First consider the conductivity of a non-interacting electron gas at long wave lengths.22) in fact is identical to the Green’s function by showing that it obey the same diﬀerential equation. and that r|H|φ = H(r) r|φ Which you can see for example by inserting a complete set of eigenstates of H. o Exercise 7. (8.e. ωτ → ∞)? How does the conclusions change for an interacting translation-invariant system? Exercises for Chapter 7 Exercise 7.e. where the impurity induced scattering time τ tends to inﬁnity (i. ω). (8.17) both are solution to the Schr¨dinger equation in Eq.

Now you can use the method in Sec. ω) = A(ν. From Sec.6 In this exercise we shall calculate the dc conductance of a perfect one-dimensional wire. t) = −iθ(t) {ck↑ (t). t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) Ip (xt). First ﬁnd the retarded Green’s function GR (k ↑. 6.5 to ﬁnd that ΠR (x − x . (8.4 Eqs. ω ΠR (x − x . assuming the tunneling matrix element to be approximately constant. Exercise 7. (4. Once you have done that the problem is reduced to ﬁnding the Green’s function of a free particle.65). c† } k↑ by expressing the c and c† operators in terms of the diagonal γ-operators called bogoliubons given in Eq. Plot the results of I and dI/dV versus V . Now calculate the tunneling current-voltage characteristics. ω) nB (ω). (4. Show that the corresponding results for bosons are iG> (ν. (8. G> (r. iG< (ν. which you see from the Hamiltonian Eq. 8. Exercise 7.3 we have that the conductance is given by G= ie2 R Π (ω).EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 7 307 Exercise 7. ω) similar to Eq. Ip (x t ) where Ip is the operator for the particle current through the wire.5 The tunneling density of states for a superconductor has a characteristic shape which you ﬁnd in this exercise.3 Find the greater propagator.50) are valid for fermions.66). . but now in one. Can you suggest an experiment (at least in principle) that measures this propagator. ω) [1 + nB (ω)] . t − t ) = − iθ(t − t ) × k+ q 2 2 2 mL nF (εk ) − nF (εk+q ) kqσ ei(εk −εk+q )(t−t ) eiq(x−x ) .42). r . Exercise 7.and two dimensions. kσ The result for the dc conductance does not depend on where the current is evaluated (why?). Hints: use the onedimensional version of the particle current operator Ip (x) = mL k+ kqσ q 2 c† ck+qσ eiqx . ω) = A(ν.

7 Consider a 2D electron gas in the xy plane conﬁned to the strip 0 < x < L. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) {ci (t).21).22) and (9. What will change at larger temperatures? The oscillations that you will ﬁnd are called Friedel oscillations.2 Derive Eqs. Use the equation of motion method. h Exercise 7. you ﬁnd the famous result for the conductance G of a perfect 1D G= 2e2 . Do the q-integral ﬁrst and ﬁnd lim Im ΠR (ω) = ωπ 2 m 2 ω→0 m 1 2πL − kσ ∂ nF (εk ) ∂εk k2 |k| ω 1 = . c† (t )} . The Hamiltonian is given by H = E1 c† c1 + E2 c† c2 + tc† c2 + t∗ c† c1 . Hints: Use standing waves in the x-direction fulﬁlling the proper boundary conditions. What is the electron density as a function of the distance x from the left edge? Take for simplicity T = 0. You may need to know the integral π ds 1 − s2 sin2 (xs) = 8x [x − J1 (2x)]. −βµ + 1 π e In the limit µ channel kT .23) by diﬀerentiating the Green’s functions in (9.1 Consider a physical system consisting of fermions allowed to occupy two orbitals. ω) and study it in the low frequency limit. Exercises for Chapter 8 Exercise 8.308 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 8 Setting x = x ﬁnd ΠR (0. Show that lim Im Π (ω) = ωπ R 2 ω→0 mL − kqσ ∂nF (∂εk ) q δ(εk − εk+q ) k + εk 2 2 . . 1 2 1 2 Find the Green’s function GR (ij. and assume quasi-continuous states with periodic boundary conditions in the y direc† 2 tion.20) and (9. Don’t j forget to interpret the result. Exercise 8. where the ν-sum runs√ over the appropriately normalized states |ν . Find the x-dependent density as n(x) = dy ν cν cν | xy|ν | . ω). (9. where i and j can be both be either 1 or 2 and where GR (ij.

Instead F R is coupled back to DR .23). If we assume that only a single orbital couples to the metal states.22). Start by combining Eqs. 9. derived in Sec. 8 for the tunnel current and the mean ﬁeld expression for the d electron Green’s function. and show that if you again neglect the term [Hhyb . nd↓ d↑ ] = nd↓ [Hhyb . 9. nd↓ ] no new Green’s functions are generated.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 8 309 Exercise 8. (9. (9. d† (t )} . Exercise 8. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) {(nd↓ ck↑ )(t).30b) to obtain the following equation of motion for GR (d ↑.18).4 In this exercise we improve the solution of the Anderson model presented in Secs. kd Derive the equation of motion for F R .28) it was approximated by a product of two single-particle Green’s functions.60). (9. ↑ Note the similarity between F R and the single-particle function GR (kdσ) of Eq. First ﬁnd the diﬀerential equation for DR by diﬀerentiation with respect to t.2. which we can describe by a tunneling Hamiltonian as in Eq.17). ω). Since the atom is strongly coupled to the metal surface the bottleneck for the current is the tunneling from STM to atom. Thus we get a better approximation which takes pair correlations into account. . then the atom and the metal can be described by the Anderson model Hamiltonian Eq. Here we go one step further and derive an equation of motion for DR (d ↑. described by Eq. k k↓ ↓ The last term contains a new type of processes giving rise to higher order correlations (corresponding to spin ﬂips). When a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is placed near the atom current will ﬂow from the STM tip through the atom to the metal. and (9.2 and 9. t) is deﬁned in Eq.26). and not the tunneling between atom and metal. ω) = 1 + IU DR (d ↑. d↑ ] + [Hhyb . and it is therefore omitted. (8. (9.3 Consider an atom on a metal surface. It is therefore a good approximation to assume that the atom is in equilibrium with the metal. This constitutes our new and improved approximation.21). Sketch the resulting dI/dV using the expression derived in Chap. d↑ ] + kσ t∗ c† d↓ − tk d† ck↓ d↑ . ω): ω + iη − εd + µ − ΣR (ω) GR (d ↑. The ﬁrst term generates a two-particle Green’s function denoted F R given by F R (kd ↑.3. and the model was then solved at the level of single-particle Green’s functions. t) and truncate it at the two-particle Green’s function level. (9. (9. The two-particle Green’s function DR (d ↑.2. The electronic states of the atom will hybridize with the conduction electrons in the metal. In Eq. (9.2. When you do that the diﬃcult commutator is [Hhyb . nd↓ ] d↑ = nd↓ [Hhyb . and to use tunneling theory for the current between tip and atom.

9). Use the procedure going from Eq. τ − τ ) = δ(r − r ) δ(τ − τ ).1 Single impurity scattering.6 but this time using the imaginary time formalism. The Dyson equation for otherwise free electrons scattering against an external potential is written in Eqs. Finally. R (ω) ω + iη − εd + µ − Σ ω + iη − εd − U + µ − ΣR (ω) Interpret this result physically. Suppose now that the .80) to Eq. (10. ikn ) = nF (εν ) ikn − How would you calculate cν c† ? ν Exercise 9. Then show that c† cν ν 0 = Gσ (ν.5) and (11. solve for GR and show that the result is GR (d ↑) = 1 − nd↓ nd↓ + . (11.85).1 Find the Fermi-Dirac distribution by starting from the Matsubara Green’s function and setting τ = 0− . Exercises for Chapter 10 Exercise 10. Exercises for Chapter 9 Exercise 9.3 According to Eq. 2m Show (10. Exercise 9. Note that both τ and τ are greater than zero. τ = 0− ) = 1 β 0 e−ikn 0 Gσ (ν. (10. for example by considering how the result of Exercise 8.63) the equation of motion for the Matsubara Green’s function of a free particle is −∂τ − p2 0 + µ Gσ (r − r . and show that the resulting equation for DR is ω + iη − εd + µ − U − Σ(ω) DR (d ↑) = nd↓ .310 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 10 Inset this result into the equation of motion you derived for DR above.39) by Fourier transforming this equation.3 is changed. (10.2 Repeat Exercise 7.

ikn ) 1− U0 0 Gσ (00. Use this to show that the transmission is unity for the particular values of θ satisfying α = i cot θ. ikn ) + Gσ (x0. ω) = t G0R (xx . ikn ). . σ σ σ where eiφ(x. The Hamiltonian is then given by ∞ H = H0 + −∞ dx ρ(x) U0 δ(x − a1 ) + δ(x − a2 ) .x ) G0R (xx . ikn ) U0 0 Gσ (0x . The transmission is unity when these two paths interfere constructively – as does paths with any number of trips back and forth in the “cavity”. where k = kω (see previous exercise) and where α = U0 /iv and θ = k(a2 − a1 ). where H0 is the Hamiltonian for free electrons in one dimension. From the Dyson equation ﬁnd the retarded Green’s function for x < a1 < a2 < x: GR (xx .EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 10 311 electrons are conﬁned to move in one dimension and that the external potential can be represented by a delta-function impurity potential. Hint: solve for G(0x . ikn ). e−ika2 · 1 − α −αeiθ −αeiθ 1 − α −1 · eika1 eika2 .2 Resonant tunneling. Write H in x−space and ﬁnd a formal expression for the Matsubara Green’s function using Dyson’s equation. In for example semiconductor heterostructures one can make quantum-well systems which to a good approximation can be described by a one-dimensional model of free electrons with two tunneling barriers. Exercise 10. ikn ) = Gσ (xx .x ) is a phase factor. which is determined by the calculation. U (x) = U0 δ(x). ω − εk + µ + iη ivω (do you agree?) where kω = 2m(ω + µ) and v =ω ∂εk /∂k|k=kω . ikn ) ﬁrst and insert that in the Dyson equation for G(xx . Derive the same result using the following simple argument involving two paths for an electron to go from x to x: (1) x → a1 → a2 → x. Show that in this case the solution of the Dyson equation becomes 0 0 Gσ (xx . and (2) x → a1 → a2 → a1 → a2 → x. Find r and t and discuss the phase shifts that the electrons acquire when they are scattered. For x < 0 we have GR (xx . ω) θ(−x). ω + iη) = σ 1 L k eik(x−x ) 1 ikω |x−x | = e . ω) = Gσ (xx . we can in fact extract the transmission and reﬂection amplitudes t and r. Here we simplify it somewhat further by representing the tunneling barriers by delta-function potentials situated at a1 and a2 . ω) = σ eik(x−x ) 1+α ivω e−ika1 . To ﬁnd the retarded Green’s we thus need the unperturbed Green’s function. ω) θ(x) + 1 + reiφ(x. Since the retarded Green’s function tells us about the amplitude for propagation from point x to point x. which is 0 G0R (xx .

(9. while the interaction part is σ kσ MF given by Hint = Hhyb + HU .29) using Feynman diagrams. (12.30) and (12. iqn ) ≡ ΣF (k. see Sec.54) for summing over functions with simple poles to perform the Matsubara frequency summation appearing in the following diagrams of Eqs. 9. 0) 0 G(b. Use the rule Eq. (12. Exercise 11. We study the one-particle Green’s function. (10. and show explicitly the cancellation of the disconnected diagrams. (1) Start with the simpler denominator (how many terms?). We employ the mean-ﬁeld approximation given by Eq.312 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 11 Exercises for Chapter 11 Exercise 11.1 Matsubara frequency summation. ikn ) ≡ σ Exercise 11. We return to Anderson’s model for localized magnetic moments in metals.2 The cancellation of disconnected diagrams in G(b. ˆ with U (β. but now to second order in W . which in the interaction picture in the presence of the particle-particle interaction W (r − r ) becomes: ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ U (β. (2) Draw topologically identical diagrams only once and multiply with the number of them. 0) = Tτ exp − β 0 ˆ dτ W (τ ) . 0) Ψ(b) Ψ† (a) ˆ U (β.27).3 Feynman diagrams and Dyson’s equation for the Anderson model.27) where the σ spins only interact with the average density nd¯ of the opposite σ spins. Hints. (9. As in Eq.34): Π0 (q. a). The unperturbed Hamiltonian is given by H0 = σ (εd − µ) d† dσ + kσ (εk − µ) c† ckσ . the sum of the hybridization Eq. (9.17) and on-site repulsion Eq. ¯ σ We introduce the following rather obvious diagrammatic notation for the Matsubara Green’s functions and interactions: ≡ ≡ ≡ G 0 (dσ) G (dσ) G 0 (kσ) U ≡ tk ≡ k tk U . (3) Get most of the diagrams in the numerator by cutting open and stretching out a Fermion line in the diagrams from the denominator (how many terms?). We wish to derive the Dyson equation Eq.2. (9. a) = − 0 .14) use the Feynman rules to expand the denominator and the numerator.

charge compensating jellium background. (12. Treat the ions as an inert.30b). Consider an electron gas of density n conﬁned in a rectangular box of length Lx in the x direction and having a large surface area Ly Lz in the yz plane (Lx Ly . Give a physical interpretation of the resulting motion of the electron gas. 2.19) Dyson’s equation graphically.1 A classical treatment of the plasma oscillation. . (9. Lz ).18)..EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 12. U U t∗ k + U G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G(d¯ ) σ G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) + G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) Express the self-energy as a sum of diagrams using a deﬁnition analogous to Eq. The electronic plasma frequency ωp ≡ ne2 /m 0 introduced in Eq. Exercises for Chapter 12 Exercise 12. Imagine now the electron gas being translated a tiny distance ξ in the x direction (ξ Lx ). Use the obtained Dyson equation to verify the solution Eqs. (13.76) does not contain Planck’s constant and is therefore not a quantum object.30a) and (9. In the following exercises we consider a translationinvariant electron gas in two dimensions fabricated in a GaAs heterostructure (see Sec. Exercise 12. The tedious work with the equation of motion has been reduced to simple manipulations with diagrams. Find the equation of motion for the coordinate ξ using Newtons law and classical electrostatics. (12. The resulting system resembles a plate capacitor.2 Interactions in two dimensions. and derive in analogy with Eq.3.2). 313 We write the diagrammatic expansion (here shown up to second order in |tk |2 and U ) for the full d-orbital spin up Green function G (dσ) as: G(d¯ ) σ tk = G (dσ) G 0 (dσ) + G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) G(d¯ ) σ tk + G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) G(d¯ ) σ tk + t∗ k U U t∗ k tk t∗ k + G(d¯ ) σ tk t∗ k +. Derive ωp from the following purely classical argument.. leaving the ion jellium ﬁxed. The electron gas is then released.

where ks is the ThomasFermi screening wavenumber in 2D. Hint: use 0 dθ cos (α cos θ) = πJ0 (α). 2D n2D . The electron mass for this material is m∗ = 0. where J0 is the Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind of order zero.3 Plasmons in two dimensions. The electron wave function for the two dimensional electron gas is restricted to be ψk (r. For a strictly 2D system. Show that at low temperatures.50). kB T εF . the plasmon dispersion relation is ω = vF ks q/2. the relative permittivity is εr = 13. and low temperatures.4 Static screening in two dimensions.σ ck . Consider a translation-invariant electron gas in two dimensions fabricated in a GaAs heterostructure. |ζ0 (z)|2 = δ(z). Find the relation between kF and the electron density. Show that in 2D the static RPA screened interaction at small wavevectors. 2D 0 (q + ks ) . the relative permittivity is εr = 13. Is it larger or smaller than kF for n2D = 2 × 1015 m−2 ? Exercise 12. y). For such a system the RPA dielectric function is given by ε2D (q. Write down the interaction part of the Hamiltonian and show that it is of the form H 2D = 1 2A † W 2D (q) c† k+q. i. while the electron density ranges from n2D = 1 × 1015 m−2 to 5×1015 m−2 .20). ky ) and r = (x. RPA 0 with q = (qx . Express ks in terms of the parameters of the electron gas.σ kk q σσ where q = (qx . iqn ) is the 2D version of the 3D pair bubble χ0 0 given in Eq. (13. qy ).314 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 12 The electron mass for this material is m∗ = 0. Exercise 12. 0) RPA e2 . qy ) and where χ2D (q. show that W 2D (q) = π e2 2εr 0 q . 2D 2D q ω/vF . iqn ) = 1 − W 2D (q) χ2D (q.σ ck. while ζ0 (z) is the lowest eigenstate in the z direction. z) = 1 eik·r ζ0 (z). is given by 2D WRPA (q.σ ck −q. i.e. (2. iqn ). while the electron density ranges from n2D = 1 × 1015 m−2 to 5×1015 m−2 . 0) ≡ W 2D (q) = 2εr ε2D (q. Lx Ly where k = (kx . q kF . and long wave lengths.067 m. n = 0 in Eq.067 m. kB T εF .e.

with f (k−k0 ) = exp − (k−k0 )2 . Exercises for Chapter 13 Exercise 13. If the quasiparticles behaves like non-interacting particles why is then the number of quasiparticles conserved on the semi-classical level? To answer this question we introduce the concept of a wave packet.1 Semi-classical motion. .g.4. i. (13.19). τ ) for a translation-invariant system. What is the physical interpretation of ∂k ω (k0 )? In conclusion. a). 2 (∆k)2 Taylor expand ω (k) to ﬁrst order and show that the wave packet can be written as ψ(r. a) ≡ − Tτ ρ(b)ρ(a) eq = − Tτ Ψ† (b)Ψ(b)Ψ† (a)Ψ(a) eq . Write down the expression for χ(b.53). Then apply Wick’s theorem to obtain the analogue of Eq. (14. In the real space formulation χ(b. The task is to understand the arguments q leading to the diagrammatic expansion for χ(˜) given in Eq. Finally. e. (14. Are the plasmons damped in the region q < kF in GaAs with the parameters given above? Exercise 12. Then apply Wick’s theorem in this situation to obtain the starting point for the diagrammatic expansion directly in q-space. see also the form of σ(q. you may start with χ(q. The electron-hole pair continuum is the region in q − ω space where Im χ2D = 0.8). the wave packet has the energy εk and the velocity vk given by εk = ωk . We study Eqs. (12. In the estimate you can use the small-q expressions for the plasmon frequency and the polarization. (12. t) = dk f (k−k0 ) ei[k·r−ω (k)t] . (12.5 Damping of two dimensional plasmons. a) (you do not have to show that).16) it can be shown that the numerator also cancels in the case of χ(b. 315 Exercise 12.6 Deriving the Feynman diagrams for χ(˜). τ ) ρ(−q.e. that you found above. (13. Find the condition for the plasmons not to be 0 damped by single-particle excitations for q < kF . Please note that ρ eq = 0 due to charge neutrality.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 13. vk = ∂k ωk = 1 ∂k εk .8) for G(b. a wave function fairly localized in both space and momentum space: ψ(r. a) analogous to Eq. (12.18). and (14. and write this in a form analogous to Eq. where F is some envelope function. argue with the help of Appendix A that for a 1 translation-invariant system χ(q. 0) eq as stated in Eq.17). Following arguments similar to those of Eq. τ ) = − V Tτ ρ(q. ω ) in Exercise 6.9). t) ≈ ei[k0 ·r−ω (k0 )t] F (r − ∂k ω (k0 ) t). Alternatively.58). We are not asking q for detailed calculations.

t) = − V (r. In the so-called impulse approximation for Compton scattering. discuss the following simple model for A(k. ω . The experimental result ˜ is compared to theory based on RPA calculations of A(k. q2 ˜ q2 ˜ q q −∞ 2π 2m 2m where A(k. Instead of using RPA. is proportional to the number of scattering events on all electrons fulﬁlling the simple kinematic constraint: conservation of energy and momentum. t) varying slowly in space and time. I(ω1 . respectively. q) = N (ω1 . ω ) in Eq. to show ˙ 1 ˙ k = F. ω ) dk nk δ(ω + εk − εk+q ) ∝ dk nk δ ω − 1 2 1 q − q·k . Pk = F · vk and Pk = εk . The value of Z can be inferred from X-ray Compton scattering on the electron gas. Demonstrate the existence of a Fermi surface characterized by the renormalization parameter Z. Exercise 13. (b) contains an experi˜ mental determination of I(q. Combine the two classical expressions for the power. q ) ≡ I(ω1 . a renormalized quasiparticle pole of weight Z coexists with a broad background of weight 1 − Z.316 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 13 For external forces F(r. ω .58) and use it to calculate the distribution function nk . ω . while at higher energies. the intensity I(ω1 . q) of incoming photons of energy ω1 being scattered with the energy and momentum loss ω and q. (a).2 Measuring the discontinuity of the distribution function. For an interacting electron gas discuss the spectral function A(k. εk < 4εF . ω ) nF (ω ). q). we can through the power Pk absorbed by the wave packet centered around k deduce the time evolution of k as follows. 2m m We omit the explicit reference to the ﬁxed ω1 and work with I(q. q ) ∝ ˜ dεk nk = dεk A(k. At low energies. 21#! ) % % $ 21#! ) $ $ &) & $ $ &) & $ 0& $ &0 $ &( $ P RSG 6 Q 8 7P I H &( $ G 3E6 W WP 5 Y V X W 6 P FX &' $ 9 3 G 5 7EF 5 D C 5 &' $$ $ B A @ 9 78 6 5 34 " "# ! & % " "# ! & % $ U$ ¢ T $ $ ¢ ©¤¥ § ¦¥ £ © ¤ £¨§ ¦ £ £ ¤¤ £¥ ¢ ¡ . Show ˜ that ∞ 1 ∞ 1 ∞ dω I(q. (14. ω ) containing the essential features. see Fig. q ) from X-ray scattering on sodium. ω) is the spectral function and q ≡ mω /q − q/2. ω ). εk > 4εF . Fig.

Show that the usual Fermi-Dirac equation solves the Boltzmann equation in this case.23 ˚. Hint: you may need × ×E = − 2 E. ω ) = Zk 2πδ(ω −ξk ) + (1−Zk ) π θ(W −|ω |). 0)GA (k. and the quasiparticle is in fact the bare electron: A(k. For which frequencies does the wave propagate through the metal. x k . Set D = 0 (0. ˆz magnetic wave with E = E(x)e Use the high-frequency limit of Maxwell’s equations in matter. 317 Here W is the large but unspeciﬁed band width of the conduction band.75) we have in the semiclassical high 2 frequency. 0)ΓRA (k. W Zk = Z. Consider a monochromatic electro−iωt e incident on a metal occupying the half-space x > 0. that the right hand side is also zero if we use n = nF .EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 14. collisions In the homogenous and static case.e. 0). The scattering life time in Eq. one atom in each corner and one in the center of the cube) with a side-length of 4. Exercise 13. i. A It is observed that Na is transparent for UV-light with a wavelength shorter than 206 nm. and for which is it reﬂected? From X-ray diﬀraction we know that the unit-cell of Na is body-centered cubic (i. ω)E and prove that 2 E(x) = pc2 E(x).4 Why are metals shiny? According to Eq. (14. Exercise 13. long wave limit that ε(0. ω) = 1 − ωp /ω 2 . The Boltzmann equation with inclusion of e-e scattering therefore reads ˙ ∂t (nk ) + k · k nk + vk · r nk =− 1 τk . for k < 2kF 1. Hint: Each Na atom donates one electron to the conduction band.3 Detailed balance. for k > 2kF . ω 2 −ω 2 Exercises for Chapter 14 Exercise 14.1 The integral equation for the vertex function in the Born approximation.e. no renormalization occurs. Explain Fig. the left hand side is expected to be zero. Explain this. k.e.45) expresses the time between scatterings assuming some unknown distribution function n(k). (c). (13. absence of external forces. i. The conductivity is in the weak scattering limit given by σxx = e2 1 π V kx m GR (k. Hint: show and use that nF (ε) [1 − nF (ε )] exp (β(ε − ε )) = [1 − nF (ε)] nF (ε ). 0. This exercise deals with the Kubo formula method applied to impurity scattering in metals. and explain why (polished) metals appear shiny.

k. you will ﬁnd for |k| = kF that ΓRA (k) = with |k | = kF and show that dΩ = d(εF ) k + m 2 dΩ |u(k − k )|2 ΓRA (k ). dφ dθ sin θ is an integration over the angle of k . 0). 2. In this more realistic case. Prove that in this case ΓRA = x and use this to ﬁnd that σ= kx . k . If the impurity potential is short ranged argue that we can approximate it by a constant |u(k − k )|2 ≈ |u0 |2 . . Explain the physical meaning of the last term and why it does not appear in the result for point-like impurities. Now relax the assumption of short range scatterers but assume instead that u(k − k ) −1 is slowly varying on the scale given by the width of the spectral function. m k·k dΩ |u(k − k )|2 1 − 2 4π kF . 0) = x kx 1 + m V nimp |u(k − k )|2 GR (k .2 Life time of the Green’s function in the Born approximation. 0.e. i. m where τ0 is the Born approximation life time −1 τ0 = 2πd(εF )nimp |u0 |2 . Show that the retarded impurity averaged Green’s function in the Born approximation decays exponentially in time and given a physical interpretation of this result. where τ tr −1 = 2πd(εF )nimp Hint: use the ansatz ΓRA (k) = (k/m)γ. x k 1. Exercise 14. 0. 0)ΓRA (k . 0)GA (k .318 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 14 In the Born approximation the Dyson equation for the vertex function is ΓRA (k. m e2 nτ0 . τ0 . Now σ= e2 nτ tr .

4) Note that it is G and not G0 that enters in the self-consistent approximation. Let us for instance consider the lowest order self-consistent Born approximation. ω) is ζ(Q.5) ∗ ω − ξk + i τ2∗ If we include the real part in this way (contrary to Sec. vk = k/m and the impurity potential in the collision term. when expanding the Green’s function near the Fermi surface we can write Z GR (k.3 and Exercise 5. If we think about impurity scattering from a microscopic point of view the self energy has both a real and an imaginary part. ε) ≈ .EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 14 319 Exercise 14. V p 1 and long wavelength QvF τ0 1 limit Show that in this case.e. ω)GA (p. ω) = |u0 |2 GR (p − Q. 0). (B. i. ω) 1 ζ(Q. Here we consider the weak localization correction at ﬁnite frequency. Exercise 14.3 Weak localization at ﬁnite frequency. where it is neglected) does it lead to a renormalization of the Drude formula? . 14. ω) = W0 ζ(Q. (B. ω) . The real part leads to a renormalization of the mass and to a renormalization of the spectral weight at the Fermi surface. In this case the self-energy reads 1SCBA (k. 1 − ζ(Q. the low frequency ωτ0 of ζ(Q. Show that the frequency provide a small Q cut-oﬀ in the conductivity correction and try to explain why. The Drude formula can be derived from e. the Boltzmann equation. ω) ≈ 1 + iωτ0 − Dτ0 Q2 . The only change in the formula for the weak localization is through the Cooperon which becomes instead C RA (Q. The impurities only enter in the scattering time.4 Mass renormalization in Drude formula? The mass that appears in the Drude formula is the bare electron mass (possibly including bandstructure eﬀects).g. ikn ) = nimp k |uk−k |2 G k . where the mass enters through the velocity. ikn .

Find an expression for the conductance G and plot the G as a function of µ. How would the result look if the transverse conﬁnement was given by a square well? .2 Landauer-B¨ ttiker formula at ﬁnite temperatures. h 1 + (V0 / vF )2 εF . 2m ∂x2 2 eikx + re−ikx .05.320 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 15 Exercises for Chapter 15 Exercise 15. z = mV0 / k. so that the distribution function for electrons in the states ψk is given − by nF (εk − µL ). where V = µR −µL e + ~ ( ψ+ ∗ ∂x ψ+ − c. 0. 2 where ωT is the frequency of transverse oscillation. Plot for example G(h/2e2 ) versus µ/ ωT for two diﬀerent temperatures: kT = (0. nn Using a model electron waveguide.1 Conductance of a delta function barrierAs a model system of a mesoscopic 1D channel take the following Hamiltonian H=− Consider a scattering state + ψk (x) = 1 √ L ∂2 + V0 δ (x) . Suppose now that the two ends of the wire have diﬀerent + chemical potential. L and likewise for ψ − . while the distribution function for electrons in states ψk is nF (εk − µR ). where the potential in the transverse direction is a parabolic conﬁnement.15) ωT . For a general mesoscopic system u show that the linear conductance at ﬁnite temperature is generalized to G= 2e2 h ∞ dE − n 0 ∂nF (E − µ) ∂E Tn (E). the transmission coeﬃcient is supposed to be 1 Tn (E) = Θ(E − En ) = Θ(E − (n + ) ωT ).) = |t|2 = 1 − |r|2 with t = (1 + iz)−1 . x > 0. where Tn (E) is the transmission probability of a given mode Tn (E) = n t∗ tn n . Hints: vk = 2mi k k Exercise 15. Show that the current at low temperature becomes I = 2e k>0 + − vk nF (εk − µL ) − vk nF (εk − µR ) = 1 2e2 V. Show that ψ (0+ ) − ψ (0− ) = 2m 2 V0 ψ(0) and use it to ﬁnd r and t.c. x < 0. 1 √ teikx .

|k | = kF and energy equal to zero. kσ † c† k+qσ ck −qσ ck σ ckσ . which means that we choose k = −k and σ = −σ . 2) The electron pair forms a coherent superposition of pairs not necessary at the Fermi surface. In order to separate the eﬀect of the interaction on the Fermi sea and on the extra pair of electrons. where q is the exchanged momentum and vs is the sound velocity. (2) becomes H = −V0 k. i. After relabelling we have H = −V0 c† ↑ c† ↓ c−k↓ ck↑ . In Chap.e. According to the variational principle the lowest energy of the two is closest to the groundstate energy. and with interactions according to (2). i. H = H0 + H (1a) H0 = kσ (εk − µ) c† ckσ . Thus Eq. It is attractive for small frequencies. The scale of this energy is given by the Debye energy. BCS model Hamiltonian. Exercise 16. which is also the starting point used by BCS.1 Phonon Green’s function Prove Eq. . we look speciﬁcally at the interaction between such pairs. The pairs are thus supposed to consist of electrons with opposite momentum. 16 it is shown that the electron-phonon interaction leads to an eﬀective electron-electron interaction. c† ↑ c† ↓ c−k↓ ck↑ .k >kF . (16.e. (1b) H =− V0 2 (1c) Here the sum is restricted such that all initial and ﬁnal states lie in an interval given by [µ − ωD . µ + ωD ]. Anticipating the physical idea that the electrons due to the attractive interaction will form pairs with zero total momentum and spin. k −k (2) Variational calculation of FS with an added pair of electrons.e. i.2 Cooper’s instability In this exercise we shall see that an attractive electron-electron interaction leads to an instability of the Fermi surface. for energies smaller than qvs .7). k −k (3) We look at the diﬀerence between the two situations: 1) The electron pair is added to the Fermi surface. with |k|. This observation lead Cooper to study the following model Hamiltonian. in a shell around the Fermi surface. We wish to ﬁnd the energy of a pair of electrons added to a ﬁlled Fermi sea state.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 16. 321 Exercises for Chapter 16 Exercise 16. the sum is further restricted to involve only states outside the Fermi sea.

Find that (reinserting ) E = −2 ωD exp (−1/V0 d(EF )) . Consider a tunnel junction between two superconductors. (8) Discuss the following two important issues: • Why does this result indicate an instability of the Fermi surface • Could this result have been reached by perturbation theory in V0 ? Exercises for Chapter 17 Exercise 17.1 The Josephson eﬀect. (5) and that this leads to a condition for E given by 1 = V0 k >kF 1 .322 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 17 For situation 2 we start by an Ansatz wavefunction. The tunnel Hamiltonian is † HT = tkp c† fpσ + t∗ fpσ ckσ . i. two superconductors separated by an insulator. We apply the relations to study the current-voltage characteristic of a tunnel junction in the so-called resistively shunted Josephson junction model. This exercise deals with the supercurrent across a tunnel junction. (4) k↑ −k↓ k Show that αk satisﬁes the following equation. which is a superposition of socalled Cooper pairs |ψ = αk c† c† |F S . the so-called Josephson eﬀect. Supercurrent in the equilibrium state. (2εk − EF ) − E (6) In order to ﬁnd the energy E you should make use of the following hierarchy of energy scales E ωD EF . (1) kp kσ kp where the electron operators for the two sides are called c and f . therefore tkp ≈ t (2) . αk (2εk − EF ) − V0 k >kF αk = Eαk . (7) where the validity of the ﬁrst one of course must be checked at the of the calculation. respectively. In the following we assume for simplicity that in the energy range of interest the tunnel matrix element depends weakly on the states k and p.e.

(7) where the expectation value 1 ∂ 2 ∂φ β 0 dτ Tτ HT (τ )HT 0 means taken with respect to Eqs. (8) ∂φ β ikn kp where G12 and G21 are the oﬀ-diagonal Nambu Green’s functions deﬁned in Exercise 3. F is the free energy and φ = φc − φf is the phase diﬀerence. The phase diﬀerence between the two side can be absorbed as a phase shift of the tunnel matrix t → e−i(φc −φf )/2 t.c. This is a current which runs in thermodynamical equilibrium and hence is dissipationless in the sense that it runs without an applied bias (the chemical potential of the two sides is per deﬁnition identical in equilibrium).EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 17 The Hamiltonian for the two sides are the usual BCS Hamiltonians Hc = kσ 323 ξk c† ckσ − ∆eiφc kσ k † ξk fkσ fkσ − ∆eiφf kσ k c† c† − ∆e−iφc k↑ −k↓ k † † fk↑ f−k↓ − ∆e−iφf k c−k↓ ck↑ . (4) by the transformation c → eiφc /2 c. τ )G12 (p. Show that to second order in HT ∂ HT ≈ − ∂φ β 0 dτ Tτ HT (τ ) 0 ∂ HT ∂φ 0 =− 1 ∂ 2 ∂φ β 0 dτ Tτ HT (τ )HT 0 .c. ∂φ ∂φ (5) Show that the equilibrium current running between the two superconductors is IJ = I = (−2e) (6) ˙ where I is the operator for the electrical current I = (−e) Nc . Verify the following steps G21 (k. ∂F ∂ HT = (−2e) . ikn ) + c. ikn ) ∆d(εF ) 2 ∆d(εF ) 2 ∞ = dξ −∞ 1 (ikn ) − E 2 . (2). (9) 2 =− π 2 kn + ∆2 . f → eiφf /2 f. dτ = ∂φ 0 kp ∂ 1 = t2 eiφ G21 (k. −τ ) + c. and ∆ is here taking to be real. Then show that β ∂ t2 eiφ G21 (k. φc and φf . The order parameter of each side of the junction have diﬀerent phases. (3a) (3b) Hf = where the two superconductors are assumed to be equal. ikn ) = k p G12 (p. ikn )G12 (p. f−k↓ fk↑ . In the following we calculate this so-called supercurrent to second order in the tunneling amplitude.

Consider a current biased setup. The Josephson junction thus acts as a voltage to frequency converter. Now we look at the current-voltage characteristic of a Josephson junction in the RSJ model. which corresponds to φ → φ + 2eV t. (5) (6) . (3) (4) f (t) → f (t)e−iV t/2 . Thus 1 ˙ V + IC sin φ = φ + IC sin φ. The pair current is described by the Josephson relations while the normal current is supposed to be given by Ohm’s law. This current is made up by the sum of the supercurrent and the normal current. one can still have a supercurrent running.2 RSJ model of a Josephson junction. With a ﬁnite bias voltage across the junction. The ﬁnite voltage changes the energy of electrons of the two sides and hence their phase. which has many applications. IC dτ τ= 2eIc R t. a current carried by Cooper pairs and the relation IJ = IC sin φ. (2) which is called the second Josephson relations. 2 (10) Exercise 17. i. a junction with a ﬁxed current.e. or 2e ˙ φ = V. The second Josephson relation adds interesting dynamics to the Josephson junction because of the intrinsic frequency 2eV / . We can simply include this phase change in the time dependence of by the following substitution c(t) → c(t)eiV t/2 . 2eRN 2 = sin φ −1 where the normal state tunnel resistance is given by RN = πe2 d2 t2 / . This is known as the ﬁrst Josephson relation. R 2eR Write this equation in the dimensionless form I = IN + IJ = η= I dφ = + sin φ. The current is carried by two kinds of electrons: those that are paired and those that are not. One can measure this frequency by applying external RF radiation to the junction.e. I. i. (1) is still valid.324 and use it to ﬁnd that IJ = − π∆d(εF )t 2 2 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 17 1 β ikn 2 kn 1 + ∆2 e (πd(εF )t) ∆β ∆ tanh 2 2 ∆π ∆β = sin φ tanh .

EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 17 325 The voltage is time dependent. . (6) and show that the average voltage becomes V = RIc 0. I < IC (I/IC )2 − 1. but in a dc measurement one measures the average voltage. Integrate Eq. I > IC (7) ˙ ˙ Hint: ﬁrst ﬁnd solutions for φ = 0 and then a “running” solution where φ = 0. Here T is the period of the voltage or the time it takes to increase φ by 2 π. For the dφ 1 T 2π last situation the average voltage is V = T 0 dt dt = T .

5 frequency. 120 analytic continuation. 56 in second quantization. 51. 26 Boltzmann equation collision free. insulator. 73 art. 91 time-derivative. 81 interaction potential model. 158 Bloch’s theorem. 190. density matrix. 161 Anderson’s model for magnetic impurities. 55 adiabatic continuity. 13 anti-symmetrization operator. 40 Boltzmann distribution. semiconductor. 2 systems with diﬀerent particles. 233 advanced function. 12 many-particle fermion systems. 55 bosons. 14 orthonormal basis set. 145 anti-commutator. 35 metal. 34 for 1D phonons. 83 tunneling spectroscopy. 11 deﬁnition. 130 many-particle boson systems. 68 atom artiﬁcial.Index acoustic phonons Debye phonons. 40 in metal. 192 Born-Oppenheimer approximation. 10 deﬁning commutators. 52 graphical representation. 45 Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieﬀer (see BCS). 2 Brillouin zone bandstructure diagram. 33 bandstructure. 34 Bogoliubov transformation. 153 Bohr radius a0 . 147 annihilation operators 1D phonons. 54 326 . 3 Green’s function. 16 complete basis set. 31 attractive pair-interaction. 35 deﬁnition. 82 self-consistent gap equation. 259 full Born approximation. 233 with impurity scattering. 241 Born approximation ﬁrst Born approximation. 7 antiferromagnetism. 140 Bloch Bloch theory of lattice electrons. 193 in conductivity. 1st order. 51 boson creation/annihilation operators. 285 mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 279 Bose-Einstein distribution. 283 semi-classical. 53 Bohr radius a0 . 261 self-consistent Born approximation. 165 many-particle basis. 24 BCS theory eﬀective Hamiltonian. 194 spectral function. 29. 10 fermions. 3 ground state energy E0 . 239 introduction. 163 Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect. the art of mean ﬁeld theory. 40 electron orbitals. 35 Bloch’s equation. 161. 78 basis states change in second quantization. 12 bra state. 82 Bohm-Staver sound velocity from RPA-screened phonons. 13 time dependence. 281 bandstructure diagram extended zone scheme. 162 analytic function.

2 commutator [AB. 44 in conductivity. 100 mesoscopic system. 285 ferromagnetism. 59 Debye model. 240 connected Feynman diagrams. 227 screened impurity scattering. 269 introduction. 160 Cooper Cooper pairs. 116 conductivity cooperons. 166 convergence of Matsubara functions. 10 fermions. 208 conserving approximation. C]B. 100 diagrammatics. 44. 100. 213 exchange process. 11 deﬁning fermions. 39 collapse of wavefunction. 81 instability.and paramagnetic terms. general. Π deﬁnition. 91 critical temperature Cooper instability. 62 electron-phonon. 52 for quasiparticles. 52. 22 current-current correlation function.INDEX broadening of the spectral function. 81 instability of the Fermi surface. 92 deﬁning bosons. 269 core electron. 97 correlation hole around electrons. 23 0 electron-phonon. 48 charge-charge correlation function. 103 chemical potential deﬁnition. 27 momentum. 92 [AB.. 63 electron-phonon. 65 Coulomb blockade. 99 second quantization. 153 Coulomb interaction combined with phonons. 259 continuity equation for ions in the jellium model. 98 relation to dielectric function. C] = A{B. 254 d-shell. 3 set of quantum numbers ν. C}B. 196 current density operator dia. jellium model. RPA-renormalized. 74 superconductivity. 11 complete basis states. 268 crossing diagrams deﬁnition. 52 Debye energy or frequency ωD . 136 broken symmetry. 220 creation operators 1D phonons. 113 universal ﬂuctuations. 181 second quantization. 26 carbon nanotubes. 27 temperature dependence. C] + [A. 186 Kubo formalism. Feynman diagrams. 256 RPA renormalization. 84 crossed diagram deﬁnition. 71 canonical ensemble. C} − {A. 267 maximally crossed. 21 partition function. 64 electron-phonon. 283 integration over. 284 . 253 Kubo formalism. 218 coupling constant electron interaction strength e2 . 254 general Kubo formalism. 203 conservation of four-momentum. 148 Debye acoustical Debye phonons. 55 bosons. 279 direct process. 3 conductance conductance ﬂuctuations. 104 semi-classical approach. 284 cooperons in conductivity. 238 contour integral. 103 current-current correlation. C] = A[B. 121 conductance quantization. RPA-screening. 13 time dependence. 264 suppressed in the Born approx. 217. 43 divergence. 13 general deﬁnition. 59. 23 Yukawa potential. lattice model. 31 correlation function 327 charge-charge correlation.

246. jellium. 35 eﬀective mass. 72 density-density correlation function the pair-bubble χ0 ≡ −Π0 . 28 Maxwell-Boltzmann. 131 single-particle Green’s function. 1 eigenvalue. 184 valence electrons. 269 full Born approximation. 226 the RPA-bubble and phonons. mesoscopic systems. 108. 144. 190 for Πxx . 140 non-interacting electrons. 226 self-consistent Born approximation. 280 Coulomb and phonons. 223 relation to conductivity. 28 Boltzmann. 31 . 7 diagonal Hamiltonian. 59 frequency cut-oﬀ. 29 INDEX electron reservoir. 285 delta function δ(r). Gibbs. 59 spectral function. 226 Kubo formalism. 29 non-interacting fermions. 216 the RPA-bubble χRPA . 143 distribution function Boltzmann. 194 single-particle in external potential. 26 Bose-Einstein. 127 external and induced. 264. 7 in Wick’s theorem. 60 Einstein phonons in the jellium model. 104 diﬀerential conductance. 4 density in second quantization. RPA. 19 lattice vibrations. 99 dielectric function ε equation of motion derivation. 284 polarization function χ. 203 disorder. BCS. 283 eﬀective mass approximation. 179 electric potential classical theory. 272 determinant ﬁrst quantization. 179 ﬁrst Born approximation. 136 density waves. Debye model. 251. 146 Dirac bra(c)ket notation for quantum states. Debye model. RPA. 133 diamagnetic term in current density. 172 Slater. 155 irreducible polarization function χirr . 58 eigenstate deﬁnition. 45 donor atoms. 59 density of states. 208 pair interactions in real space. 1 Einstein model of speciﬁc heat. 26 non-interacting bosons. 102 relation to polarization function χ. 193 impurity and interaction. 127 many-body Green’s function. 59 Debye wave number kD . 121 dissipation due to electron-hole pairs. 1 superposition. 257 for cooperon. 283 phonon mediated. 60 dynamical matrix D(k). 240. renormalization. 52 optical phonons..328 Debye temperature TD . 57 Dyson equation Feynman diag. 178 eﬀective electron-electron interaction Coulomb and phonons. 31 density of states. 251 eigenmodes electromagnetic ﬁeld. 189 pair interactions in Fourier space. external potential. 264 Dulong-Petit value for speciﬁc heat. 205 pair-scattering vertex Λ. 256 impurity averaged electrons. 46 Drude formula. 2 delta function δ(r). 113 Fermi-Dirac. 52 elastic scattering Matsubara Green’s function. 38 phase coherence. 38 phonons. 237 electron core electrons. 27 density of states measured by tunneling. 4 disconnected Feynman diagrams. deﬁnition of. 22 density matrix operator. 231 of electron gas. 140 diﬀerential equation classical Green’s function. 282 dephasing.

35 motion in external potentials. 88 in proof of Wick’s theorem. 74 introduction. 245 Fermi-Dirac distribution. 169 non-interacting particles. 41. 220 Landau damping. 38 ground state energy. 45 introduction. 36 Fermi wave length λF . Cooper instability. 63. 228 second order perturbation. 39 ground state energy. 37 Fermi sea with interactions. 51 equation of motion Anderson’s model. 72 Stoner model. 177 ﬁnite temperature. 276 combined with Coulomb interaction. 36 Fermi wavenumber kF . 53 umklapp process. 31 electron gas. 275 the sound velocity. 144 Fermi velocity vF . 230 plasma oscillations. 43 thermodynamic potential Ω. 63 the jellium model. 35 329 Fermi Fermi energy εF . 222 Landau damping. 149 derivation of RPA. 51 graphical representation. 61. 23 0 electron wave guides. 213 general considerations. 165 many-particle basis. 281 Cooper instability. 219 Fermi liquid theory introduction. 25 extended zone scheme. 49 1D: carbon nanotubes. 250 Thomas-Fermi screening. excitations. 220 electron gas. 155 interpretation of RPA. 161. 70 inﬁnite perturbation series. 145 Matsubara Green’s function. 147 single-particle Green’s function. 202 ferromagnetism critical temperature. 222 Hartree–Fock mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 177 static ion lattice. 233 microscopic basis. 36 Fermi sea diagrams. 73 order parameter. 240. 264. 145 ergodic. 244. 33 density of states. 57 frequency domain. 214 full theory. 13 frequency. 223 ﬁrst order perturbation. 5 creation/annihilation operators. 171 introduction.INDEX electron gas. interacting attractive interaction. 53 basis states. deﬁnition. 147 Heisenberg operators. in general 0D: quantum dots. 284 dephasing. non-interacting Bloch theory. 218. 48 2D: GaAs heterostructures. 286 Fermi sea. 243 electron-hole pairs excitations. 275 the lattice model. 237 fermion deﬁnition. 46 3D: metals and semiconductors. 33 electron interaction strength e2 . 281 dielectric properties and screening. 38 jellium model. 153 for ions. 63 electronic plasma oscillations graphical representation. 203 . 144. 75 Feynman diagrams cancellation of disconnected diagrams. 14 fermion loop. 42 Fermi sea. 116 electron-electron scattering attractive interaction. 276 general introduction. 272 life-time. 28. 231 electron-phonon interaction adiabatic electron motion. 13 deﬁning commutators. 38 Feynman diagrams. 279 Feynman diagrams. 36 Fermi’s golden rule. 43 full self-energy diagram. 36 Fermi sea. 220. 214. 121 ergodicity assumption.

G denominator. 150. 209 Fock space. 135 quadratic. 204 Feynman rules electron-impurity scattering. 39 for ions. 254 free electrons. 276 external potential scattering. 69 four-vector/four-momentum notation. 131 translation-invariant system. 145 retarded. 18 second quantization. 10. 208 interaction line in real space. 204 irreducible diagrams. one-body system. 46 gauge breaking of gauge symmetry.330 Cooper instability. 78 Landau gauge. 189 irreducible diagrams. many-body system. 130 RPA-screened phonons. 188 pair interactions in Fourier space. 131 imaginary time. 207. 4 name. 275 greater and lesser. 194 single-particle. 146. external potential. 27 ensemble. 70 Fock self-energy for pair interactions. 184 external potential scattering. 128 o single-particle. 205 pair interactions. G numerator. 70 Hartree self-energy. equation of motion. 193 impurity averaged single-particle. pair interaction. 188 interaction line in Fourier space. 70 the interacting electron gas. 245 retarded. 132 two particle. 127 renormalization. 179 impurity averaged Green’s function. 47 Gibbs distribution. 182 electron-phonon interaction. 202 phonon mediated pair interaction. 177 topologically diﬀerent diagrams. 27 Hartree–Fock approximation. Matsubara. 127 dressed. 2 Fock approximation for interactions. 54 basic theory. 134 Poisson’s equation. 204 pair interactions. 255 Fourier transformation 1D ion vibrations. 67 GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructures. 206 equation of motion. 225 self-consistent Born approximation. 27 partition function. 170 classical. 135. 278 ﬁrst quantization many-particle systems. 27 in mean ﬁeld theory. 1 single-particle systems. 208 pair interactions in real space. 132 free phonons. 69 mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 3 INDEX radiation ﬁeld. 141 Hamiltonian diagonal. 52 . many-body system. imp. 26 grand canonical density matrix. 127 Lehmann representation. 179 ﬁrst Born approximation. 199 polarization function χ. 19 Gauss box. 147 Matsubara functions. 190 full Born approximation. 282 Schr¨dinger equation. 158 Green’s function n-particle. 69 Hartree–Fock approximation introduction. 209 Hartree–Fock approximation. 131 retarded. 18 Hartree approximation for interactions. 27 gravitation. 133 non-interacting particles. 160 introduction. 284 electron-impurity scattering. 1 Greek letters. 19 transversality condition. 291 Coulomb interaction. 70 heat capacity for electrons. 161 free energy deﬁniton. 170 harmonic oscillator length. scattering. pair interactions. 201 pair interactions.

magnetic. 189 pair interaction. 128 331 jellium model eﬀective electron-electron interaction. 46 Hilbert space. 253 impurity self-average. 220 interaction line general pair interaction in real space. 31 irreducible Feynman diagrams impurity scattering. 51 forming a static lattice. 90. 75 hybridization. t0 ). integral eqs. 88 real space Matsubara Green’s fct. 95 Landauer-B¨ttiker formula.INDEX Heaviside’s step function θ(x). 21 Kronecker’s delta function δk. 255 renormalization by RPA-screening. 162 integration over the coupling constant. 217. 33 lattice vibrations 1D phonon Hamiltonian. 208 RPA screened Coulomb line. 88 model of ferromagnetism. 63 full electronic self-energy. 73 helium. 115 lattice model basis in real space. 214 oscillating background. 2 kinetic energy operator including a vector potential. conductivity. 149 Hubbard model. 280 Einstein phonons. 113 linear response derivation. 115 u RPA-screening in the electron gas. 61 Lehmann representation deﬁnition. 144 inﬁnite perturbation series breakdown at phase transistions. 40 imaginary time discussion. 97 tunnel current. 264. 259 Landau and Fermi liquid theory. 223 time evolution. 227 RPA screened impurity line. 9 heterostructures. 233 damping and plasma oscillations. 188 in conductivity. 160 impurities. 4 Kubo formalism conductance. 158 Greek letters. 222 self-energy for interacting electrons.n . 265 ions ionic plasma oscillations. 3 Landauer-B¨ttiker formula u heuristic derivation. 52 electron-phonon interaction. 3 ground state energy E0 . 52 static case. 35 ket state. 254 correlation function. 1 hopping. 98. 205 polarization function χirr .. 90 inﬁnitesimal shift η. 158 Green’s function. 200 interference. 33 basis in reciprocal space. 148 impurity scattering. 214 single-particle Green’s function. 85 electron gas ground state energy. 225 iterative solution. 73 in a metal. 4 Heisenberg Heisenberg picture. 21 kinetic momentum. 53 electron-phonon interaction. 204 pair interaction in Fourier space.. Hamiltonian. 148 hydrogen atom Bohr radius a0 . 40 electron orbitals. 134 . GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As. 139 ladder diagram. 3 gauge. 227 interaction picture imaginary time. 21 second quantization. 33 Hamiltonian. ionic ferromagnets. 102 general introduction. 33 Heisenberg model. 184 impurity-scattering line Feynman rules. 227 inelastic light scattering. 97 dielectric function. 230 eigenstates. 159 introduction. 100 conductivity. 178 ˆ time-evolution operator U (t.

254 Matsubara function. 206 interacting electrons in real space. 31 occupation number operator bosons. 46 Newton’s second law for ions in the jellium model. 150. 149 many-body system single-particle Green’s function. 78 mesoscopic disordered systems. 233 retarded Green’s function GR (kσ. 82 broken symmetry. 71 INDEX general Hamiltonian HMF . MBE. 168 Matsubara Green’s function elastic scattering. 161 frequency. 32 observation of plasmons. 74. 95 Landauer-B¨ttiker formula. 219 Migdal’s theorem. 134 Matsubara function. 261 Matsubara Green’s function. 132 Hamiltonian. 28 equation of motion. 115 u mesoscopic system. 169 convergence of. simple poles. 70 introduction. introduction. evaluation of. 150 BCS mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 208 interacting electrons in Fourier space. phase transistions. 135 in conductivity. 148 magnetic length. 137 Meissner eﬀect. 164 quasiparticles. 67 partition function ZMF . 143. 121 physics.332 for G> . 182 ﬁrst Born approximation. 229 Thomas-Fermi screening in metals. 181 general description. 160 Fourier transformation. 162 life-time. 282 self-consistent Born approximation. 113 time evolution. 9 mass renormalization. G< . 72. ω). 188 interacting elec. 149 magnetization. ω). 12 fermions. 65 mean ﬁeld approximation. 165 sums. 279 molecular beam epitaxy. 139 magnetic impurities. 268 MBE. with branch cuts. 14 introduction. 46 mean ﬁeld theory Anderson’s model. and GR . 161 Green’s function. 147 Green’s functions. 3 magnetic moment. 155 linear response theory introduction. 160 relation to retarded function. scattering state. 194 two-particle polarization function χ. 147. 10 . 181 electrical resistivity. 21 kinetic. 193 impurity averaged single-particle. 107 metal disordering and random impurities. 52 non-interacting particles distribution functions. 240. 91 tunnel current. 190 free phonons. 199 RPA-screened phonons. 67 the art of mean ﬁeld theory. 236. equation of motion. 243. 21 relaxation. in Fourier space. 107 measuring the spectral function. 31 Hamiltonian. 243 MOSFET. 46 momentum canonical. 224 maximally crossed diagrams. 108 nucleus. 68 mean free path. 161 sums. 2 second quantization. 275 full Born approximation. 135 spectral function A0 (kσ. molecular beam epitaxy. 135 normalization of quantum states. 131 ﬁrst quantization. 167 sums. 265 systems. 262 Lindhard function. 179 electron-impurity scattering. 253 regime. 66 Hartree–Fock mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 3 normalization.

55 relevant operator Aqλ . 59 dephasing. 55 1D lattice vibrations. 36 photons. 281 RPA-renormalized Green’s function. 56 optical spectroscopy. iqn ). 244. 205 Feynman diagrams. 7. 90 second quantization. 72 list of order parameters. electron gas. 14 ˆ time evolution operator U (t. 205 pair-bubble calculation of the pair-bubble. 178 inﬁnite order. 138 pair condensate. 204 self-energy in Fourier space. Debye model. 51 Hamiltonian for jellium phonons. 194 order parameter deﬁnition. 53 electrons. 1 real time ordering Tt . 208 self-energy in real space. 216 paramagnetic term in current density. interacting electrons. 90 phase coherence. 19 expansion of e−iHt . 27 optical phonons Einstein phonons. 264. 52 graphical representation. 71 order parameters. 58 Einstein model of speciﬁc heat. 218 Feynman diagram Π0 (q. 148 particle propagation. 243 partition function canonical ensemble. 10 electromagnetic ﬁeld. 272 eigenmodes in 3D. 264 phase coherence for electrons. 275 RPA renormalization. 211 in the RPA self-energy. electron gas. 10 operator adjoint. 85 broken symmetry. ground state energy. 41 inﬁnite order. 7 Heisenberg equation of motion. 251 life-time. 26 grand canonical ensemble. 72 phonons 1D annihilation/creation operators. 19 permanent for bosons. 89 trace Tr. 171 permutation group SN . 216 self-energy diagram. 222 inﬁnite order. 7 in Wick’s theorem. 208 Dyson equation in real space. Kubo formula. 228 ionic plasma frequency. 53 density of states. Green’s function. 72 pair interactions Dyson equation in Fourier space. 2 boson creation/annihilation. 7 in ﬁrst quantization. 141 optical theorem. 21 periodic boundary conditions 1D phonons. 186 phase space. 133 tunneling. 52 phonon branches. 210 the correlation function χ0 ≡ −Π0 . 60 free Green’s function. t0 ). 172 permutation. scattering theory. 184 phase coherence length lϕ . t0 ). 199 Feynman rules in Fourier space. 275 general introduction. 40 spin matrices. 99 particle-particle scattering in the collision term. 13 ﬁrst quantization. 282 second quantization. 128 ˆ time-evolution operator U (t. 245 phase transition breakdown of perturbation theory. 52 . 88 Hermitian. 5. 208 Feynman rules in real space. 90 perturbation theory ﬁrst order. 95 second order. 43 single particle wavefunction. 214 linear response. 87 fermion creation/annihilation. 58 plasma frequency for electron gases in a metals. 55. 27 333 in mean ﬁeld theory. 72 overlap of wavefunctions localized/extended states. 67 Pauli exclusion principle.INDEX occupation number representation.

131. 47 Green’s function. 264. 273 quantum dots introduction. 17 quantum ﬂuctuations in conductance. 228 plasmons dynamical screening. 19 Raman scattering. 113 relaxation time approximation. 188 the RPA self-energy. 130 single-particle in external potential. 235 introduction. 233 life-time. 33 reduced zone scheme. 247 eﬀective mass. 103 momentum space. 19 probability current conservation. 236 discussion. 246. 116 quantum state bra and ket state. 110 reﬂectionless contact. Dyson equation. 49 tunneling spectroscopy. 51 interacting electron gas in RPA. 3 Landau states. 186 quantum number ν Feynman rules. 240 resummation of diagrams current-current correlation. 257 deriving the equation of motion. 220 Fermi liquid theory. 170 quantum coherence macroscopic in superconductivity. 181 random matrix theory. 225 Kubo formalism. 2 time evolution. 2 hydrogen. 223 two-particle Matsubara Green’s fct. 132 relation to Matsubara function. 281 reservoir. 111 probability distribution. 215 retarded function convergence factor. 237 Poisson’s equation GaAs heterostructures. 136 propagator Green’s function. 228 semi-classical treatment. 224 polarization vectors phonons. 33 reciprocal space. 213 rational function. 158 RPA for the electron gas Coulomb and impurity lines. 238. 246 . 35 reﬂection amplitude. 150. 3 orthogonal. 79 single electrons. 228 ionic plasma oscillations. 226 Feynman diagrams. 140 quantum eﬀects. 3 INDEX sum over.. 17 Fourier transform. 51 Landau damping. 57 photons. 142 relation to dielectric function ε. 251 Green’s function. 184 quantum correction. 243 quasiparticle-quasiparticle scattering. 25. 108. 127 polarization function χ Dyson equation. 147 Green’s function. 230 plasmons. 2 quasiparticle deﬁnition. 2 free particle. 144 random impurities. 108 resistivity (see conductivity). 153 electron-hole pair interpretation. 253. 243 renormalization constant Z. 135. 143. 4 quantum point contact. 229 plasma oscillations. 245 of phonons by RPA-screening. 256 impurity scattering. 238 experimental observation in metals. 161 Roman letters. 178 quadratic Hamiltonian. 121 random phase approximation (see RPA). 173 irreducible Feynman diagrams. 107 quantum ﬁeld operator deﬁnition. 243 radiation ﬁeld.334 plasma oscillations electronic plasma oscillations. 146. 163 reciprocal lattice basis. 181 general introduction. 225 free electrons.

209 impurity averaged electrons. fermions. 190 Fock diagram for pair interactions. 257 pair interactions in Fourier space. 112 time-dependent. 21 . 261 screening. interacting electrons. 87 o screening dieelectric properties of the elec. 259 Rydberg. 137 spin Pauli matrices. 21 second quantization. semi-classical. 22 particle density. 128 quantum point contact. 135 physical interpretation. pair interactions. 108 scattering state. 2 hydrogen orbital. 52 sounds waves. 27 self-average for impurity scattering basic concepts. 2 Schr¨dinger picture. 150 ﬁrst Born approximation. 169 measurement. 1 operators. points and integrals. 23 electromagnetic ﬁeld. 194 Schr¨dinger equation. S. 240 single-particle states as N -particle basis. 128 o transition matrix. 18 kinetic energy. 227 renormalized Coulomb interaction. 9 basis for diﬀerent particles. 141 tunneling. 53 Debye model. 283 Bohm-Staver formula. 151 broadening.. 40 scattering length. 223 RPA-screened Coulomb interaction. 151 general mean-ﬁeld theory. 193 scattering matrix. dynamical. 58 harmonic oscillator. 209 full Born approximation. 238 semiclassical. 226 the polarization function χRPA . 192 in sums with branch cuts. 108 scattering theory optical theorem. 61 free phonons in 1D. 137 non-interacting particles. 226 vertex corrections. 19 electron-phonon interaction. RPA. 55 free phonons in 3D. 6 free particle state. 218 semiclassical. 216 self-consistent Born approximation.INDEX plasmons and Landay damping. 205 pair-bubble diag. 193 Schr¨dinger equation o Green’s function. 22 spin. 39 sound velocity Bohm-Staver formula. 21 statistical mechanics. 14 particle current density. 217 resummation of the self-energy. 25 thermal average. 194 semi-classical approximation. 218 second quantization basic concepts. jellium model. 214 irreducible. 117 scattering theory. 177 spectral function Anderson’s model. 67 self-energy due to hybridization. 265 335 self-consistent equation Anderson’s model. 7 Sommerfeld expansion. 237 transport equation. unit of energy (Ry). 210 RPA self-energy. 215 the dielectric function εRPA . gas. 51 space-time. 136 deﬁnition. 3 Slater determinant. 21 name. 128 time reversal symmetry. 135 ﬁrst Born approximation. static. 24 change of basis. 16 Coulomb interaction. 238 Thomas-Fermi screening. 208 pair interactions in real space. 184 weak localization. 189 interacting electrons. 3 Landau state. 193 Hartree diagram for pair interactions. 135 spectroscopy optical.

132 transmission amplitude. 2 weak localization and conductivity. Kubo. 123 Wick’s theorem derivation. 222 time dependent Hamiltonian. 112 time-reversed paths. 257 vertex function. 150. 19 kinetic energy. 24. 218. 213 RPA-screened Coulomb interaction. 140 current. 280 pair-scattering vertex Λ. 78 Meissner eﬀect. imaginary time. 55 unitarity. 89 time-ordering operator imaginary time Tτ . 124 valence electrons. 262 wavefunction collapse. 28 for the interacting electron gas. 220 Thomas-Fermi screening. 193 translation-invariant system conductivity. 75 superconductivity critical temperature. 160 real time Tt . 254 Green’s function. 277 WKB approximation. 138 Stoner model of metallic ferromagnetism. 138 BCS superconductor. 218 . 121. 99 vertex current vertex. scattering theory. 84 introduction. 91 interaction picture. 88 in linear response. 121. 78 microscopic BCS theory. 88 linear response. t0 ). 110. 63 unit cell. 27 thermodynamic potential Ω deﬁnition. 95 time evolution creation/annihilation operators. 268 Ward identity. 97 operator. 272 topologically diﬀerent diagrams. 31 vector potential electromagnetic ﬁeld. 111 universal conductance ﬂuctuations. 137 INDEX umklapp process. 154 discussion. 27 transition matrix. 78 introduction.336 spontaneous symmetry breaking breaking of gauge symmetry. 201 phonon Green’s function. 91 Heisenberg picture. 145 tunneling scanning microscope. 170 interacting electrons. 113 transport equation. 47 truncation Anderson’s model. 21 Kubo formalism. 130. 233 transport time. 264 introduction. 268. 258. 81 order parameter. 138 spectroscopy. 255 dressed vertex function. 242 transversality condition. 267 transmission coeﬃcients. S-matrix. 87 o ˆ unitary operator U (t. 253 mesoscopic systems. 4 STM. 7 thermal average. 284 vertex correction. 72 symmetrization operator. 90 time-reversal symmetry. 72 statistical mechanics second quantization. 119 Yukawa potential deﬁnition. 254. 266. 153 derivation of RPA. 258 electron-phonon vertex. 204 trace of operators. 25 step function θ(x). 19 triangular potential well. 159 Schr¨dinger picture. 219.

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