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Astanga Hridayam असटांग ह्र्य्दयम

Astanga Hridayam असटांग ह्र्य्दयम

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असटांग ह्र्य्दयम आचार्य वाग्भट जी द्वारा निर्मित आयुर्वेदिक पुस्तक
असटांग ह्र्य्दयम आचार्य वाग्भट जी द्वारा निर्मित आयुर्वेदिक पुस्तक

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KRISHNADAS A YURVEDA SERIES Vol.

27

- HRDAYAM . ASTANGA
VAGBHATA'S
• • •
(Text. Engltsh Ttanslatwn, Notes, Appendtx and Jndtces )

Translated by

Prof. K. R. Srikantha Murthy
Principal (Ret1red) Government College of Indian Medicine
BANGALORE

( s utra &

VOLUME' I
Sarlra Sthana )

KRISHNADAS ACADEMY, VARANASI

Publisher : Krishnadas Academy. Varanast-1 Pnnter : Chowkhmnba Press. Varanast-1 Edttion : Fifth 2001

ISBN: 81-218-0018-8
All nghts reserved No reproductiOn or translatiOn of book or part thereof m any torm. should be made Netthet tt may be stored m a rctneval system, or' transmitted. by any means, electromc. mechamcal, photocopymg, recordmg or otherwise, Without the wntten permiSSion of the pubhshcr

© KRISHNADAS ACADEMY Onental Publtshers & Dtstrcbutors

Post Box No 1118 K. 371118. Gopal Mandtr Lane Ncar Golghar (Matdagm) Varanast- 221001 (lndta) Phone 335020
(

l""f

JAYALAKSHMI
INDOlOGICAl BOOK HOUSE
6, Appar Swamy Ko1l Street (Upstairs) Mylapore, Chenna1- 600 004 Tel 4990539 Fax 044-4940066 Attn FDA 89

Also can be had from Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office K. 37/99. Gopal Mandtr Lane Near Golghar (Maidagm) Post Box No. 1008. Varanast-221001 (lndta) Phone Office 333458, Res. 334032, 335020

Dedicated to the sacred memory of my preceptor

Prof. C. Dwarakanatb
who showered on me a paternal affection and insisted my literary service to

on

1

Scheme ot transliteration
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tl'=ka

'lt=a

t: =i

t=i

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llt=o aft=au
'ir=kha u=cha 'l=ga "''=gha :S: =ria

•n=l}

•=ca a==ta a'=ta
q=pa

•-ja g=jha st=:fia
=Qha ur =l}a \t=dha ;:r=na
if • ba

'I'= rna

'-l=va

if=va .:=ha Q!=\a •=tra

u=s

•=jiia

CONTENTS
I. Introduction II. Chapters of the text : Section. 1. Satrasthllna ( section on geneFal principles )
1.

vii-xxiv

Page.

adhyaya (desire for long life) 2. Dinacarya adhya ya ( daily regimen ) 3. adhya ya ( seasonal regimen ) 4. Roganutpadaniya adhyaya (prevention of diseases)

3 22

33
45 53 74

5. Dravadravya vijnaniya adhyaya '(knowledge of liquid materials ) 6. Annasvarfipa vi'jnaniya adhyaya ( nature of food ) i. (protection of foods) 8. Matrasitiyadhyaya (proper quantity of foQd) 9. Dtavyadi vijnaniya adhyaya ( knowledge of substances etc. ) 10. adhyaya (classification of tastes) 11. Do$adi vijnaniya adhyaya (knowledge of etc.) 12. adhyaya ( classification ,of, dosas) 13. adhyaya (treatment of the dosas)

109 124 135 143 154 166
182

14. Dvividhopakramal).iya adhyaya ( two kinds of
· treatments )

191
199

I 5. Sodhanadigai}a sangraha adhy-aya ( groups of drugs
for purificatory therapies etc. /)

16. Sneha vidhi adhyaya ( oleation therapy) 17. Svedavidhi adhyaya ( sudation therapy) 18. Vamana virecana vidhi (emesis and purgation therapies ) 19. Basti vidhi adhyaya (enema therapy) 20. Nasya vidhi adhyaya ( nasal medication )

208
219

225 238 255

( VI )

...

21. Dhfimapana vidpi adhyaya ( inhalation of smoke therapy ) 22. vidhi adhyaya '( n1outh ga1 gles and other therapies )

264
269

23. Ascyotana·anjana vidhi adhyaya (eye collyrium therapies ) 276 24. vidhi adhyaya (satiating the eye and other therapies ) 283 25. Yantra vidhi adhyaya ( use of blunt instruments ) 26. Sastra vidhi adhyaya ( use of sharp instrun1ents ) 288 297 308 318 328 343

27. Siravyadha vidhi adhyaya ( venesection) 28. vidhi adhyaya ( removal of foreign
bodies )\ 29. Sastrakarma vidhi adhyaya (surgical operation )

30.

viclh'i adhyaya ( alkaline and thermal cautery )

Section 2.
.SZJrJra sthlJna ( section on anatotny, physiology etc. ) Page no.

1. Garbhavakranti sarira ( embryology) 2. Garbhavyapad sarira ( disorders of pregnancy ) 3. Anga sarira ( different parts of the body ) 4. Mar rna 'vibhaga sarira of vital spots) 5. Vikrti vijnantya sarira ( knowledge of bad prognosis ) III. Appendix-1 Index of diet a('ticles and drugs-

357 380 391 422 433

6. Diltadi vijnani ya sarira {knowledge of messenger etc.) 45 7

469
503 515 522

IV. Index of Sanskrit headingsV. General Index VI. Corrigenda

i

lNTROD UCTION
of the eight branches ( of Ayurveda ) is one of the authoritative treatises on ancient Indian medicine. It had attracted the attention of medical men not only within this country but also of neighbouring countries such as Arabia, Persia, Tibet and Germany. Its popularity is substantiated by the large number of commentaries by Indian scholars and appreciation by the scholars of many other countries. ,With its beauty and brevity of poetical composition, sequential arrangement of topics, clear description of precepts and practices of medical science and many other merits, it has earned its rightful place as one among the 'Brhat trayi'-three great treatises-of Ayurveda. It is an epitome of Ayurveda catering to· the needs of the students, scholars and medical practitioners alike.
)Iature

and contents

of the treatise :

contains six .sthanas ( sections ) each sthana consisting of varying number of adhyayas ( chapters); the total number chapters being 120. The text is composed entire} y in poetry. The total number of verses is 7120 in the extant edition. 1 In addition there are about 33 verses ,which have not been commented upon ( by Arul}adatta ) hence considered as later interpolations. There are 240 short prose lines also, two at the commencement of each chapter. The sthanas ( sections ) and thtir important contents are:-

1. Sfltrasihllna :-The first section has 30 chapters dealing
with basic' doctrines of Ayurveda, principles of health, prevention of diseases, properties of articles of diet and drugs, humoral physiology and pathology, different kinds ef diseases and methods of treatment.
1. Edited by Harisastry Paradkar, published by Nirnayatagar Bombay, 1939 and reprinted by Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 1982.

(

)

2. sarira sthana :--The second section has 6 chapters dealing with embryology. anatomy, physiology, physiognomy, physical and psychological constitutions, auspicious dreams and omens, signs of bad prognosis of oncoming death. \
3. Nidnna sthlJ.na :-The third section with 16 chapters describes the causes, premonitory symptoms, charectoreatic features, pathogenesis and prognosis of some important diseases coming within the realm of Kaya cikitsa ( inner medicine ).
4. CikitslJ sthpna :-The fourth section has 22 chapters elaborating the methods of treatment of all maJor organic diseases, including efficacious medicitaal recipes, diet and\ care of the patient.

l

5. Kalpa-siddhi sthtJna :-The fifth section has 6 chapters ,' 1 dealing with preparation of recipes, administration of purificatory therapies and management of complications; and principles of pharmacy.
6. Uttara sthana :-The sixth and the last section is devoted to the remaining seven branches of Ayurveda. It has 40 chapters in total; divided as follows, viz. 3 for Bala cikitsa f paediatrics), 4 for Graha cikitsa { demonology/psychiatry ), 17 for LJrdhvaliga Cikitsa ( diseases of organs in the head ) sub-divided again-9 for netra cikitsa ( ophtholmology ), 2 for karna cikitsa ( otology ), 2 for nasa cikitsa ( rhinology ), 2 for mukha cikitsa ( mouth, teeth and throat), and 2 for siroroga (diseases of the head ). salya cikitsa (surgery ) has 10 chapters; (toxicology ) has 4; Jara cikitsa ( rasayana ), ( reJuvination therapy. geriatrics ) and ( vaji· karana {virilification therapy, aphrodisiacs) have one chapter each. Greater portion of the text being devoted to Kaya cikitsi· ( inner medicine ) is thus conspicuous.
At the beginning of the treatise. the author states "that he is going to describe only such information'' as has been

{ ){.I

)

teveaied by great sages like Atreya etc." 1 ''collecting only the cream of k_nowledge from texts ( written by sages ) has been scattered 1n the country, thts text prepared which is neither too brief nor too elaborate''.2 These statements vouchsafe the authenticity and reliability of information contained in the text.

1

Author :Unfortunately the author of A$taiighrdaya has not furnished either his name or any other information about himself anywhere in the text. Hence many of the present day scholars·both Indian and European-have been consist· ently attempting to identify this author but so far no conclusion has been arrived at. AU the views are ''the most feasable assumptions" only. The following internal and external evidences form the basis for identification. 1. In the concluding verses of the text, the author states ''by churning the great ocean of the eight branches of medical science, a great store of nector·the ( name of a treatise ) was obtained. From that store, this treatise ( A:?tafiga hrdaya) which is more useful, has arisen separately for satisfying the less studious''3• By studying this, the person will be able to understand the Sangraha ( sangraha )4• The author of has furnished the following information about himself and his work in the concluding verses of that treatise. 'cThere was a great physi· cian by name Vagbhata, who was my grand-father, I bear, his name; from him was born Simhagupta and I am from him ( Simhagupta '; I was born in the Sindhu country. Having learnt the science from Avalokita, my precepter and much more from my father and after studying a large number of texts on this science, this treatise ( ) has been written, suitably classified f arranged into sections, chap·
1. The statement every chapter. 2. A. hr. su. 1/4 S. A. hr. utt. 40/80 4. Ibid 40/81

ia found at the beginning of

( XII )

ters etc. Elsewhere he states that it has been prepared in such a manner as is suitable to the age 2 ( of the author ) •

3. In sonte manuscripts of there is a colophon at the end of Nidana aud Uttara sthanas which reads as ends the Nidana sthana in samhita written by srimad Vagbhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.'' But the absence of such a colophon at other places and in some other ntanuscripts, and the use of honorific term ''srimad" as a prefix to the author's name have made the present day scholars to doubt the authenticity of the colophon.
4. Commentators on other Ayurveda treatises have quoted verses of and of caiJing them as 'from V:rddha Vagbhata' and ''from Laghu/svalpa or simply ) Vagbha\a" respectively. Based on these points, it is now generally agreed that the author of h:rdaya is also The next problem that bas to be solved is whether both sangraha and h:rdaya are authored by one and the same personVagbhata, son of Simhagupta or whether the authors are different persons of the same name. This has been a subject of long discussion and has ere a ted two groups of scholars. viz.:-

1. First group which considers the author of both the texts
as one and the same person--Vagbhata, son of Simhagupta.. This group consists of Candranandana, I:iidu, Aru:Q.adatta, CakrapaJJ.idatta, Bhatta Narahari among the ancient commentators, Rudraparasava, Bhagawat Simhji, GaQ.anath Sen, Harisastry paradkar, Yadavaji trivikramji, D. C. Bhattacarya, Swami Hardatta sastry, editorial board ofCaraka Samhita, Jamnagar edition, Nanda.. kisore Sarma, Atrideva Gupta and some others among the present day scholars. following points form the basis for their opinion.
l. A. s. Utt. 50/203-204 2. Ibid. IU. 1I 18.

-

(

XIII

)

l

(a) author's own statement at the- end of that it is born out of and written separately for the benefit of the les_§ studious. (b} specific mention of the -name and other personal details of the author at the end of and its non-mention in (c) incorporation of a large number of verses without any change from similarity in the arrangement of sections, chapters, topics; views on precepts and practices etc. between the two texts; epitomisation and simplification of being noticeable in (d) opinion of the commentators representing the traditional view. (e) instances in ancient times in India of the same author writing more than one book on the same subject.

2. Second group which considers the authors of the two texts
as different persons; Vagbhata, son of Simhagupta as the author of ( Vagbhata I } and another Vagbha\a ( II ) as the author of Dalha:Qa, Vrnda, Hemadri and Sivadasasena among the commentators, Hoernle, Keith, j.Jolly, P. K. Gode, P. C. Ray, Hariprapannaji, G. N. Mukhyopadhyaya, Priyavrata sarroa and some others among the modern scholars in this group. Their opinion is based on the following points : (a) commentators have used two distinct terms, viz. Vrddha Vagbhata to denote and laghufsvalpa (or simply ) Vagbhata to denote suggestive of two different authors. This represents the traditional view. there are many dissimilarities between the two texts on topics such as nature of composition, religious and social beliefs,- scientific precepts and practices etc. 1
1. Priyavrata Sarma-Vagbhata Vivecana-pp, 292.

r

(

XIV )

(c) both the texts are almost of the same size ancf no

scholar would waste his time and energy to write more than one book on the same subject; epitomisation and simplification cannot be accepted as made out. Before aligning with any one of the two groups, it is nece· ssary to have a bnef comparison of both the texts. Astafigahrda ya

1. Nature

of composition
new style containing only poetry, easily understan .. dable. brief narration of religious rna tters, etc. large number of versf's of incorporated without any alterations, in addition to ·hose of Caraka, Susruta etc.

(a) Archeac style containing both prose and poetry, with difficult words, long sentences.

(b) furnishes datailed reli .. gious practices, social customs and beliefs, etc.
(c} verses ofCaraka, Susruta and many other ancient texts incorporated, some with slight and others without alte.. rations. Views of many authorities furnished.

2. No. of verses

9241 (prose passages and verses together).l
3. No.

7120 ( only verses

of stklJnas ( sections )
6

6

1. Thi1 number is that found in edition brought out by Anant Damodar Athavale. Pune-1980. Prose passages Jong and short; have serially numbered along with 2. This is the number found in the edition of Harisastry Paradkar, Bombay and rtprinted by Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi-1980.

( XV

)

A$ta iiga sangraha

ya

4. JitJ. of Adhynyas ( chapt,rs)
(a) Siitrasthana {b) Sarirasthana
(c) Nidana sthana (d) Cikitsita sthana (e) Kalpa siddhi sthana

40 12
16 24

30 6 16 22
6

(f) Uttara sthana

8 50
150

40
120

5. Branclzwise break-up in

Ut!ara sthnna:
(a) 'Bala cikitsa
{b) Graha ciki tsa

5
5

3 4

(c) flrdhvnnga cikitsiJ :
( i ) netra roga cikitsa ( ii ) kart}a roga (iii) roga ( iv) mukha roga ( v ) siro roga
(d) SaJya cikitsa (e)

10
2

9 2

2 2 2
II

2
2

2

10
4

( cikitsa

)
9

( f) Jara ( rasayana ) cikitsa

1
1

1
1

-

(g-) Vr$a ( vajiltarat)a ) cikitsa

50

40

( XVI

)

Though there are difficulties in accepting either of the two opinions, I am more inclined to accept that both sangraha and are by one and the same person Vagbhata, son of Simhagupta. Again, there are two divergent opinions regarding the order of sequence of these texts. viz., '(I) all Indian scholars is the earUer text consider that hrdaya, the later. (2) E'tropean scholars consider the . hrdaya is earlier, next an intermediary text and sangraha is the 1ast.1 Points in support of this view h:rdaya was popular in neighbouring countries and has been translated into Arabian and Tibetan languages very early but not sangraha; there are more number of com me• ntaries on and it is included among the Brhat trayi-great triad of Ayurveda literature, whereas sangraha does not have these previlages. With the above two conflicting views, it is better to keep this topic open for some more time anticipating further research.

Jejjata in his on Caraka) samhita mentions another text by name AruJ}adatta in his cornmentary on hrdaya also mentions this book as another work of the author of Ni*calakara4 and Sivadasasena,5 in their quoted several verses from a text which they have called as "Madhya Vagbhata". These verses are neither found in nor in but closely resemble the verses of these texts. This makes it imperative to accept
1. Meulenbeld G. J.-Madhava nidana and its chief commentaries pp. 423-425
2. 3. 4. 5. Jejjata-Nirafitara pada vyakhya-Caraka lf4. AruQadatta-Sarvanga sundara Vyakhya-A. hr. ci. 17/19 Nisca1akara-Ratnaprabha vyakhya on Cakradattas cikitaa sangraha. Siva(Hisa sena-Tatvabodha vyakhya on A. hr. utta. 21/5. 22j.'H

r

( XVII )

l

the existence of an intermediary text by Vagbhata. I think that in all probability, might be the Madhya Vagbhata. There are two more books which bear the name as their author.

1. Af&llJiga ni gharztu-the colophon in one ot the manuscripts reads as-''th us ends nigh a Q\U in hrdaya 1 samhita written by srimad Vahatacarya'' •
" The term is the prakrit variant of the term Vag· bhata and had been in popular use. Both J and Ifidu, the commentators have used this term. nighaDtu is a small treatise dealing with synonyms of drugs mentioned in sangraha. Priyavrata Sarma who has edited the text with three of its manuscripts, has proved that the work is not that of the author of hrdaya and it can only be assigned to a later period ( 8th century AD). 2 2. Rasaratna Samuccaya-the author of this text calls himself as Vagbhata, son of Simhagupta.3 There is no similarity and ya between this text and and no proof of common authorship. Rasaratna samuccaya deals with medical chemistry, chemical pharmacy and treatment of diseases with mercurial and mineral drugs marking the second phase of Rasasastra assignable to 12th Century AD. The author is proved to be pFeudo-Vagbhata, a per.. son who has concealed his real name; posterior to the author of sangraha and hrdaya by more than centuries.

a

Date

of Vagbhata

:

The date of Vagbhata of and afiga hrdaya has to be determined on the following evidences :
I. ( Ms. No. 11297. Tanjore Library) Vide Priyavrata sarma introdu· ction to nighaiJ.tu, Kuppuswami sastry Research Institute, Madras-1973. 2. Priyavrata nigha:otu-introduction I. C_olo.phon at the end of each chapter.

( XVIII )

1. Many recipes found in the Bower MSS are also found it1 hrdaya. The Bower MSS is assigned to 4th century AD and Vagbha\a might have borrowed the recipes from it. hrdaya, Vagbhata has quoted verses from that portion of Caraka satnhita which has been supplemented by Dric}habala, who belongs to at out 500. AD. This is the upper limit of the date of Vagbhata.
3. Brhat satnhita of Varahamihira has a verse which very hrdaya and most closely resembles the verse of 1 Varahamihira lived between 505 probably taken from it. and 580 AD. This date is taken as the lower limit for the date of v agbha\a.

2. In

4. Itsing, the chinese travellor in his travel records ( 671695 AD ), states that 'lately a person collected all the eight branches of medicine, hitherto separate and made them into one bundle' 2• This in all probabality refers to Vagbhata.
5. The religious, social and economic conditions described in sangraha and hrdaya pertain to the early phase of Gupta era of Indian history ( 5th-7th century AD )
6. Madhavakara ( 8th century AD ) in his book Rugviniscaya ( rnadhava nidana ) has quoted many verses from hrda ya.

7. A sanskrit medical text 'rGuyud bzi' corresponding very
hrdaya has been translated in Tibetan closely to during 728-786 AD and is found in the Tanjur colle.. ction. 3

8. Ali. b. Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, a persian physician in his medical treatise called Firdaws al-hikrna written in 849850 AD specifically names hrdaya (as Astanqhrdy.) 4

J. Brihat samhita. 73/3 2. ltsing-a record of Buddhist practices in lndia-trans1ated by Takakusu.

n.

128

{ XIX )

9. nan 1e

hrda ya has been trar1slated into Arabic by the· during the reign of Khalif 1-Iarun-al-Rashid

f 773-808 AD ) ·1
Taking all these points into consideration, the date of Vagbhata has been presumed to be 550-600 AD until evidences to the contrary upJ

Other noticrs of his life :
According to his own statement he was born in Sindh and his preceptor was Avalokita. His father, Simhagupta also must have been a great scholar of Avurveda and a successful physician earning the title 'Vaidyapa ti.' A medicinal recipe said to have been cornpounded by Simhagupta is mentioned by Sodhala in Gadanigraha. 2 ,
I
I

Recently European scholars have postulated that Ravigupta, the author of Siddhasara, a medical treatise is the brother of Simhagupta. J ejjata the commentator describes Vagbhata as mahajanhu pati-king of1nahajanhu.8 another cornmentator calls Vagbhata·a Based on these D C. Bha.ttacarya thinks Vagbhata to have been a1 king of a small state in Sind b. 5 There is a village by name , Maj hand about fifty n1iles to tht:" north of H yderabag/irt Karachi district ( of Pakistan ) which might have been the ancient site. We may also persume that MJhajahnu might be famous seat of learing and as its Priyavrata s,arma opines that Vilgbhata might have moved out of Sindh after'its invasion by the•sakas and spent his later life at Ujj::tin then a fatuous city where geat poets and scholars like Kalidisa, Varahmihira and many more resided. 6
1

i

There is another traditional belief that Vagbhata lived in Kerala in his 1ater life and is the founder of the VaidyansSachau-Aiberuni's India preface. Sodhala-Gadanigraha -·part I pp. 2 32 ( Khadira vat aka )· Jejjata-Niraiitarapada Vyakhya. Niscalakara-Ratnaprabha Vyakhya. 5. D J Bhattacarya-Date and works of Vagbhata-the physician ABORIXX Vlii p. 122 2 6. Priyavrata Sarma-Vigbhata vivecana-p, 307
1. 2. 3. 4.

(

XX

)

eight families of physicians, one for each of the eight branches of Ayurveda. These fc1milies of heriditory physicians depended mainly on Vagbhata's hrdaya for the treatment of diseases. hrdaya was so popular that il used to be learnt rby heart' not only by the children of these families of physicians but also by children of other brahmin families. Unfortunately no definite records-either epigraphical or literary-has been traced so far in Kerala to substantiate the presence of Vagbhata there. The religion to which Vagbha\a belonged is another subject of interesting discussion. One set of scholars argue that Vagbhata was a Brahmin following the Vedic tradition. The basis for such a view are-mention of Ayurveda as an upaveda of Atharvaveda, performance of propititory and magical rites according to Atharvaveda, advice for the worship of gods-Siva, Sivasuta. Hara, Hari and other divine beings, the cow, the brahn1ana etc; description of yana ceremony, advise not to enter a caitya (Buddhist shrine), not forbidding of meat and aicohol in daily use-all these and many more such are enough to accept him as a Brahmin. Another set of scholars argue that Vagbhata was a Buddhist as can be decided on the following points-the Buddha is specifically Jlamed in the invocatory verse of Astafiga sangraha and indirectly in that of hrdaya; Avalokita the preceptor was a renowned Buddhist scholar, mention of names of) Arya Tara, Parnasabari, ]ina, Jinasuta, San1yaksambuddha, etc. are all definitely of Buddhist religion, advice to recite the invocatory hymn before consurning the medicine, advise to tallow the madhyama n1arga-middle mean-in all the activities, advice to avoid the ten kinds of sinful acts, mention of four kinds of death, Mayuri and maha· mayuri vidya ( sorcery rites ) and many more. Without much difficulty both these views can be combined together, Justifiably also, to accept Vagbhata to have been born as a Brahmin, studied Vedic literature, following its practices in his early life and in later life embraced Buddhism which was the popular religion then. Hence he has reverence to ancient Vedic precepts and practices, as well as to

1

( XXI )

of Buddhism. The great scholar Varahmihira is anothe.r exan1ple of persons who became Buddhist in later life and exhibited equal respect to both the Hindu and Buddhist religions in their works.

Son and grandson :
Tisata-author of 1Cikitsakalika' calJs himself as the son of Vagbhata in the colophon of his book 1 But Vagbhata's name does not appear an1ong the many authorities mentioned by him in the invocatory verse at the commencement of the text. 2 Tisata's son Caiidrata was also a great scholar and author of many books. Among these, his commentary on his father's book Cikitsakalika is also .one. Even Caiidrata does not anywhere in it3 • From intemention the name of rnal and external evidences Tisata and Candrata are assigned to lOth and 1I th Century AD respectively. Het1ce it is difficult to accept Tisata as the son and as the grandson of Vagbha\a of hrdaya. ·

Disciples:
Jejjata in the colophon of his commentary on Caraka samhita calls himself as 'disciple of Vahata ( Vagbhata ). 4 Nilamegha in his book Tantrayuktividira has composed a popular verse in praise of Vagbhata, in which both and Indu are \nentioned as the chief disciples of Vagbhata.6 To accept as a direct disciple of Vagbhata, the quotes verses of following difficulties arise-( a) J hrdaya stating ''as told by Vagbhata'' without any reverence such as guru, acarya, etc. (b) Jejjata belongs to/9th centruy ·AD and hence far posterior to Vagbhata. With regard to Iiidu, similar difficulties are met with. In his commentary on sangraha, he says that there are many commentaries on sangraha before
1. Tisata-Cikitsakaliki2. Ibid 3. Cafidrata-Cikitsakalika Vyakhya-on the above verse. 4. Jejjata Niraiitara pada vyakhya-bharata vakya . .l. Nilamegha-Tafitrayuktivicara-Invocatory verse.

( XXII )

his time, 1 which is suggestive of a long gap of time between - him and Vagbhata. Iiidu's date is taken as 1:1th century AD. So even Indu could not have been a direct disciple of Vagbhata. With all these info1 tnation about Vagbha\a and most probable about his identification, date and works etc. Vagbhata remains an enigma until such time when unquestionable evidences cotne up by further research.

Commentaries :
ya has the signal hoiJour of having the highest number of commentaries than any other Ayurveda treatise 2• Though ab0ut thirty commrntaries are known most of them are either lost, available partly or remaining in manuscript form in the librarier; of India and other countries. Only six are available in print one completely and the remaing partly.

/

l. The only commentary available in full and in print is SarvlJ;;,gasundara by Arul).adatta, son of Mrgafikadatta.3 He probably belonged to Bengal and was a great scholar not only iu Ayurveda but also in grammer, prosidy and other branches of san,skrit literature. He is identified by some autho· rities with the lexicographer of the same He is assignable to early part of 12th century AD as he is quoted by Hemadri ( 13th-14th Century AD). His name appears in the commentary of l)alhaQ.a (11th century AD) but some scholars doubt its cannotation4, If accepted as true, then the ddte of AruJ).adatta has to be pushed back to lOth or 11th Century AD.
\\

SarvlJilgasundarll is fairly elaborate, explains meanings, with the help of gran1mer, ,substantiates with qubtations from other texts, provides of drugs and'
vyakhya introductory verses. to As. HTi-Harisastry paradkar \J riddhatrayi-Gurupdd Hal dar Vagbhata Vivecana-Priyavrata sarma 3. ArUI.tadatta-SS Vyakhya Introductory ve1ses As Hr. Su 4. l)alhaQ.a's Vyakyi-Susruta-·Kalpasthanc\ 1/33
2.

1.

If I

( XXIII )

l

names for their identification. With these merits it justifies its name and reflects the erudition of its author. It is quite from an earlier likely that the author might have derived commentary on h:rdaya by Candranaiidana as there is some similarity between the two. is said to have written· a commentary on Susrutasamhita also but it has hot been traced so far. .... 2. Ayurveda Ra.rlJyana-is the work of Hemadri, son of Kamadeva. He was a Brahmin belonging to Vatsa gotra. He was the chief minister and advisor ( dharmadhikari, srikaral}adhipa ) to King Mahadeva ( 1260-71 ) and his son Ramacandra ( 1271-1309), the Y adava rulers of Devagiril. He was a great scholar in all branches of ancient learning especially Dhanna Sastra. He a prolific writer and has about fourteen books to his credit. Most important among them is the-Caturvarga Ci:iitamal}i-the magnum opus-dealing with Dharma Sastra consisting of more than a thousand pages. He was also a patron of learning and maintained many scholars like Kesa va Pal}<;\ ita, Bopadeva and others. Ayurveda Rasayana-commentary on hr.daya was written after 'Caturvarga Ciiitamal}i' and so iS-assigned to later half of the 14th century AD .. Unfortunately this commentary is not available in full, but available only for Siitrasthana, Nidana sthana, first six chapters of cikitsa sthana and all chapters of Kalpa-siddhi sthana and these have been printed. Hemadri has incorporated the chapters ofKalpasiddhi sthana into Siitrastana. 2 While writing the commentary, Hemadri quotes many earlier works such as Kharanada, Vrnda, Vangasena etc. but chiefly from sangraha, in addition to Caraka and Susruta. He asserts that he has cleared the doubts on many moot points which the earlier commentators have not decided. 3 He expresses his with the views of others on many points.
I. Hemidri-Introductory verses of A:yurveda Rasayana Vyakhya. 2. In the extant edition of Astafiga hrdaya, the two sthanas have been separated and printed. 3. Hemidri-Ayurveda Rasayana Vyakhya-Jntroductory

{XXIV)

3. Padnrtha the title of the commentary by Caiidranafidana, son of Ravinafidana. He was a native of Kashmir - and wrote this work at the instance of Sakunadeva I king of Kashmir. He is placed in the lOth century AD.l
Padartha candrika is by far the earliest available comme· ntary on hrdaya. It is available in full in manuscript form. Only some portions of it is in print and furnished in the foot note in the extant edition brought out by Harisastry Paradkar. Its Tibetan translation is available in full and is included in the Tan jur collection•.2 eandranaiidana is said to be the author of commentaries on Car aka and Susruta samhitas and also of nighaJJtu, which is appended to hrdaya.

4. Hrdaya hodhika ( or Hrdaya bodhini )-is by Sridasa Pal}Q.ita who belonged to Kerala. He was a desciple of a scholar by name Vasudeva. Only the first portion of this commentat y ( Siitra, sarira and nidana sthanas ) have been printed. This commentary is brief and furnishes Malayalam equivalents to names of drugs.
Sridasa PaiJQ.ita quotes another commentary by narne written by student of his own Vasudeva. Both Hrdaya bodhika and Vyakhyasara have been provided with a short summary in Malayalam called 'Alpabuddhiprabodhana' written by a scholar by name Sridasapal}<_iita belonged to early part of 14th century and ,Srikal}tha to the later part of it. 3 .5. Nidana ciiitllmatzi-is the commentary on Nidanasthana of hrdaya. It is the work of a scholar by name Kanhaprabhu, son of Mahavaidya Beimdeva Prabhu and Samambika. 4 He is not to be mistaken for
1. Meulenbeld, G. J.-Midhavanidana and its chief commentaries PP 402
2. Tbid

3. Meulenbeld G. J.-Midhava nidana and its chief commentaries PP430 4 Colophon in the manuscript-Vide introduction to As Hr.
paradkar.

(

XXV

)

Todaramalla, the famous minister of emperor Akbar. This commentary has been printed in the foot note of Harishastry paradkar's edition. Its date is not yet decided, most likely it belongs to 14th-15th century AD.

I. Tatvabodlza-this commentary is only for the Uttarasthana of h:rdaya by Sivadasasena, son of Anafitasena, who was the court physician to Barbak Shah, Sultan of Bengal ( 1457-1474 ). This commentary was probably written 1500 AD and is available in print. Sivad!sa has written commentaries on Carakasamhita ( Tatva pradipika ) and Cikitsa sangraha of Cakrapal}.idatta.

7. VtJghhafa ma7Jdana-by Bhatta Narahari ( or N:rsimha) is not a commentary on hrdaya but a compendium intended to defend it from certain aiJegations. A scholar by name Soura Vid yadhara finds many faults in h:rdaya and abuses its author Vagbhata. Bhattanarahari, son of Sivadeva refutes all the allegations of Vidyadhara and defends Vagbhata. Both the accusor and the defender support their arguments with quotations from other autho· ritative texts. Thus •Vagbhata mal}Q.ana' is a literary criticism of a high standard and only one of its kind in Ayurveda literature. It is tentatively assigned to 15th century AD. It is being edited by me and going to be published shortly.1
Apart from these, the commentaries known to have been written by Bhattara Haricandra ( 600 AD ), Himadatta ( 8th century ), Hatakaiika ( 8th century ), ( 9th century), Isvarasena {11th century}, Indu (12-13th century), A$adhara (13-14th century), Udayadityabhatta (14th century), Bhatta Narahari ( 15th century), Ramanathagal}aka ( 16th century ) and some others have not been traced so far.
\

Translations hrdaya has been translated into almost all major Indian languages.
It had been translated into Arabic, under the title 'A9tafikar' during the reign of Kha1if Harun-aJ-Rashid ( 773-808 AD). 2
1. ,Vagbhata ma:QQana-Ed. K. R. Srikantba Murthy. Pub. Chaukhamba ' Orientalia. 2. Alberuni's-India-translated by fachau-Prrface. p. 30-32

( XXVI )

very closely with

A medical text called 'rGyud bzi' in Tibetan agreeing hrdaya has been translated during reign of King Khri-Sron-dehu ( 728·786 or 755-797 AD. ) The first five chapters of this Tibetan translation has been into English by Vogel and published in 1965.1 Luise ·Hilgenberg and Willibald Kirfel have translated hrdaya into German and it was pub1ished in 1941.2

About this translation :
This is a faithful translation of the text. in simple English. The commentaries of AruJ}.adatta and Hemadri have been relied qpon to a great extent. No clain1 of any kind is made by me in this stupendius task except as R faithful translator. Inspite of best efforts to avoid printing mistakes a few have r-emained over. Readers are requested to correct these by referring to the 'corrigenda' before undertaking the study.

Acknowledgements :
I thank my qaughter, Smt. K.S. Revathi, B.A. who has typed etbe manuscript bearing all the troubles smilingly. I am highly obliged .to my esteemed friend Prof. Jyotirmitra of the Insti·tute or-Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanaei, who inspite of his own busy schedule, went through the proofs at the press. I am also beholden to M/s. Chowkhamba Saoskrit.Series-office, Yaranasi, the reputed Indologica] .publiJllers for including this in their Ayurveda series. I conclude ·this introduction with the popular verse:
;n I

... P:Pn
349, "NANDAN.A." 16th Crou, Jayanagara Myaorc-570 014 (India)

1at:(f:

"

K. ll. SRIKANTHA. M:UilTHY

l

Meulenbeld, G. J.-Midhava Nidina and ita chief commentuiea. pp. 644. Bibliography.

2. Ibid.

l

ASTANGA HRDAYAM .
\'

SUTRASTHANA ( Section on general principles )

I

Chapter-1.
AYU$KAM1YA ADHTATA (desire for long life).

Namaskara-( Obeisances. )
I

(Rit II

t

II

Obeisances be, to that Apurva vaidya ( unique/unpara· Belled/rare physician } who has destroyed, without any residue, ( all) the diseases like rllga ( passion/desire ) etc. which are constantly associated ( innate/inherent) with and spread all over the body, giving rise to (anxiety), moha ( delusion) and arati ( trstlessness ). (1)
Notes :-The term "raga etc., includes kama (lust), krodha (anger), (hatred), lobha (greed), mada (arrogance), matsarga (jealousy)) bhaya (fear) and many such bad emotions.

1

a

I

We shall now expound the chapter-Ay (desire for long life), thus said Atreya aHd other grectt sagrs. 1-a.

ll

II

Person desirous of ( long) life which is the means ( instrument) for achieving dharrna (righteous ·ess ), artha (wealth ) and sukha (happiness) should repose utrnost faith in the teachings of Ayurveda. 2.
Notes :- -Sukha includes both kama ( desire of sensual enjoyment ) and moksa (salvation)· Dharma, artha, klima and are known as Purutiirthas (aims or pursuits oflife) to be followed by every person. For achieving these, a long and healthy life is essential. By his '•Thus said Atreya and o1her great sages", Vagbhata, the author of this treatise, desires the readers to note that the opinions found herein are not his own but the teachings of ancient sages only and so the authority and sanctity of these need not be doubted.

4

I

[ CH.

AyurvedlJvatarm;lJ-(origin qf Ayurveda)ifim

I

o1
(li§fTTUr I

II

Brahman, remembering Ayurveda ( the science of life ) taught it to Prajapati, he (Prajapati) }n turn taught it to Asvin twins, they taught it to (Indra)', he taught it to Atri's son (Atreya Punarvasu or Atreya) and other sages, they taught it to Agnivesa and others and they (agnivesa and other desciples) composed treatises, each one separately.

2-3.
Notes:-- The above is a brief narration of origin of Ayurveda according to Caraka tarilhita, a full account of it is furnished herein :
''Lord Brahman, recalling to his mind the science of life, taught it to (Prajaoati) he taught it to twins, who in their turn taught to Indra-the king of gods. When diseases began to tt ouble the human beings, the great sages of the world, assembled in the slopes oft he Himalaya mountains, and resolved to learn the science of Ayurveda from Indra and bring it to the world for the benefit of living beings. But who would undertake this difficult task of going to heaven and learn the science from Indra? Sage Bharadvaja, one of the participants of the assembly, volun. teered for the task which was very gladly accepted. Bharadvaja went to Indras abode, learnt the science ftom him, came back to earth and propou.. nded it to the assenbly. Krsl}.a Atreya also known as Punarvasu A.treya, son of sage Arti, taught this science to six of his disciples, Agnivesa, Bhela, JatiikarJ)a, Para5ara, Harita and one of them wrote a treatise and placed them before th ":ir teacher Kni)atreya and the assembly of the sagea. The treatise of Agnivesa was adjudged as the best and was praised even by the gods. It became popular in the world.'' ( Caraka sarilhita .. Siitrasthana. Chapter-1.) ' The teachings of Atreya deals mainly Kiyacikitsi (inner , medicine) which is one among the eight branches of Ayurveda, this school is popularly known as .Atreya sampradaya or Kiyacikitsa. The treatise written by Agnive8a is avaiable today not in its original fo1m but in ita revised version-known as Caraka Samhita because it was redacted (re-edited) by Caraka muni for the first time. It underwent a second redaction from the pen of Dr"habala. Modern scholars assign Krsl}.itreya and Agnive8a to 6th-5th cent. B. C.; Caraka muni to 2nd cent. A. D. and to 4th cent. A. D.

II
...

II

I

t1

SUrRASTHANA

5

1

From those treatises which are very eloborate ( hence difficult to study ), only the essence has been collected and this treatise-Aeytang(l hrda ya-prepared which is niether too succinct nor too elaborate. (4)

A$TA.RGA AYURVED,A 4 (eight branches of Ayurveda)II'-\ II

it!i

1

Kaya, Ba.la, Grah'l, Ordhvanga, Saiya, and V:t§a-are the eight branches (of Ayurveda) in which·treatnient (of is embodied {described)-(5)
Notes--Kayacikitsa branch deals with the treatment of diseases arising ftom d '"o.ders of digestive activity, known in modern parlance as Inner :rviedicit.e; Ba.la cikit\!a is treatment of diseases of children (paediatrics ), Graha cikhsa means treatment of diseases arising from possession by evil spirits, pathogenic micro-organisms etc. and deals mainly with mental diseases ( psychiatry ). Urdhvafiga cikitsi deals with treatment of diseases of the head inclusive of the eyes ( ophthalmology ), ears (otology ), nose ( rhinology), throat ( laryngology ) and teeth ( dentistry ). Salya cikitsa also known as Jastra cikitsii deals with treatment of requiring the use of knife (surgery). cikitsa is treatment of diseases due to poison (toxicology). Jara cikitsi also known as Rasiyana chicitaa deals with treatment of dlseases of old age (gerientology, geriatrics). Vna c:ikitsa deals with tfeatment of diseases like impotence, sterility etc. and making man sexually strong by the use aphrodisiacs (verification).

Trido!lJI}-( (,.; three

do$llS )-

'-ltg;:

f!t=a

;

'!f"''T
Rf';tr

8'

II \ II :q I

Vayu (vata), and are the three in brief; they destroy and support (sustain, maintain) the body when they are abnormal and normal respectively. (6)
Notes:-- The are material substances present in the body always, they have their own definite pramiQa (quantity), guQa (quality) and karma ( functions ). When they are uormal ( avikrta) they attend to different functions of the body and so maintain it. But they have the tendency to become abnormal (vikrta) -undergoing increase ( vrddhi) or decrease ( in their quantity, one or more of their qualities and functions. When they bccoje abnormal, they vitiate their places of dwedhatus ( tiasues ), because of thiJ tendency of vitiation, they arc

6

At)TA.

AM

ECH.

called as or vitiators. These three- Vita, pitta and kapha-are more intimately concerned with the body, hence cal'ed as sariraka in distinction to two minasa rajas and tamas-which are concerned with the mind. 'The specific mention of three, their number is to deny any fourth do§a some consider rakta ( blood ) as the fourth one.

€t

II \9 II

Though present all ove the body, they are found (predominantly) in the region..below, middle and above, respectively, of the area between the heart and umbilicus. (7a)
Noles : are present in every cell of the body attending to its different functions; they are found predominantly in certain places, viz. vita in the area below the umbilicus, pitta in the area between the heart and the umbilicus; and kapha in the area above the heart.

-

ilMnt_ I

They a, e predominant, respectively, during the last, middle and first stages of the life (span), the day, the night, and ( process of digestion of) the food.
Notes :--Vita is predominant in old age ( after 60 years of age ), in the afternoon ( betwe.,n 3 pm. and 7 pm. ), late night ( 2 am. to 6 am. ) and at the rnd of digestion of food. Pitta is preduminant in the middle age (between 20 and 60 years), midday ( between 11 and 4 p.m.), midnight 12 and 2 a.m.) and during middle period of digestion. Kapha is predominant in early age ( from birth upto 16 years of age ), in the forenoon ( between 6 a.m. and 10 a.m. ), in early part of the night (between 7 p.m. and 11 midnight) and the early period of digestion.

.....

Agnibheilal} (Kinds of digestive activiry) :-

..r.c:t*-''f1t: d:
By them (the
·

II

are produced the the and the maiidagni respectively; while samagni is produced by their equilJibrium.

Noles :-··Agni, literally firf", refers to the fire-like activity in the alimentary can4\l, responsible for digestion of food. This activity is influenced by the condition of the dotas. When all the three dotas are in equili· brium, the digestion of food will be perfect in all respects and that is samlgrai.. normal digestion; but when the dotas get aggravated ( increased ) they bring about their own characteristic changes in the digestive activity also. When Vtila is aggravated, the digestion becomes irregular, erratic di&'ercnt from time to time and accompanied with flatulance etc., such

t]

a digestive activity, is vi1amiigni. When Pitta ia aggravated the digestive activity is very intense, even large quatities of food get digested very quickly and there is burning sensation, thirst, etc. during digestion; such a condition is Tikt'}tlgni. When Kapha is aggravated the digestive acti· vity is very dull, poor, inadequate, even small quantities of food get digested after a long time and there is heavyness of the abdomen, lassitude, etc. during digestion, such a condition is Mandiigni. All these three types are abnormal and give rise to many diseases of the causative

'

l

KoiihabhedlJh-(kinds of alimentary tract)it':..._u

{:l'ifdtf ,

( nature of alimentary tract or nature of bowels) is kriira (hard), mrdu (soft) and madhya (moderate, medium) by each ot them ( ) respectively; it is madhya ( medium ) even \vhen aU the are equal.
Notes :--With the predominencefaggravation of vita, the bowel move. mentis hatd (hard scabulous feaces being eliminated with difficulty and not regularly every day );, with the predominance of pitta, the bowel is soft (semi-solid or liquid feces,' eliminated more than once a day, even drinking of milk produces purgations); with the predominence of kapha bowel is moderate (feces is neither hard solid nor liquid, is eliminated without difficult once a day, regular!)' ). It is so when all the are in equal proportion. This is the ideal condition and does not give rise to any disease while the former two are abnormal and cause ill-health.

De!zaprakrti (body constitution)I I \ II

hf R:
...

QT, fir.vT

""

I

By them (the which are present in the sukra (male seed) and artava (female seed} at the time of commencement of life, there arises three kinds of prakrti (human constitution) just like poisonous worms arise from poison; they (constitutions) are the htna ( poor, weak) the madhya (medium, moderate) and the uttama (best, strong) from each (of the ( respectively; that constitution arising _from equal proportion of all of them ( the is the samaahlJtu prakrti, which is ideal; those arising from combination of two do,as are nindya (denounced).

8

HJ.lDAYAM

[ Cl't.

Notes :--The male seed is the sukriQU ( spermatazoon) and the female seed is the aQQiQu-( the ovum). Both these unite together (fertilisation) and form the embryo and that is the commencement of life. The male and the female seeds produced in the body of the man and the woman, contain the At the time the union of the two seeds the undergo change in their proportion, either all of them might remain in equal proportion, or any two together might become predominant or any one only might become predominant. These conditions greatly influence the nature of the embryo in its characteristic features, which becomes known as Prakrti of man ( natural human constitution ). Thus seven kinds of prakrtis get formed, three ( from any one seperately ) , three dvaftdvaja or sam.sargaja ( from the combination of any two and one from sammisra or sannipata (from the combination of all the three together in equal proportion ) . Among thems arc hina (poor), the samsa1gaja (dvaiidvaja) ate madhya (moderate) and · sammisra is uttama (best, ideal ). Further, even among the the first one (vitaja) is hina (poor) the second (pittaja) is madhya (moderate), and the third (kaphaja) is uttama (best). The characteristic feature of these prakrtis (constitutions) has been described in chapter 3 of Sirira sthina. The example of poisonous worms is to indicate that though they are born from poison, they do not die of it, but continue to survive, aimilarly the prakrti, though formed from the which are similar to poison,. continue to manifest in the person as long as he lives.

Tridosalaktarza-( properties ofthe three doias )-

a'f

1

(dryness), laghu (light in weight), sita (coldness), (subtleness) and cala ( movement) khara (roughness), are the of Anila (vata).

't1.1ac:wl'fui't'Q

t=ri

Sasrteha (slight un'ctousness), (penetrating deep), (hot, heat producing), laghu (light in weight), visra (bad smell), sara (free flowing) and drava (liquidity) are the properties of Pitta.
I

Snigdha (unctousness), sita (cold, producirl'g coldness), guru

I]

SUTRASTHANA.

(heavy), manda (slow in action), (smooth), mrtsna (slimy) and sthira (stable/static) are the properties of kapha.
Notes :--The above are some of the natural and properties of the and more information about the will be found later in chapters. 11 & 12.

.

Both in their decreased and increased states, the combination of any two do5as is knovV'n as sarhsarga and of all thn:e, as sannipata. (12.)

Dlzatu and mala-(hasic tis.sues and wastes)- ·
'{1Strt:

Rasa (plasnla), asrk (blood), marllsa (nluSclc-.-s), tnedas (fat),. asthi (bone), majja (bone HldffOW) and sukra {stmen) are the seven dhatu (basic tissues) and are also known is (those that get vitiated by the
Jl'iliT
:q llt\11

Malas (waste products) are the miitra (urine), sakrt (feces), sweda (sweat) etc. (13.)
Notes :--These will be described again in detail in chapter 11. c.. "t • f' &:£. '[141.; I

Vrddhi ( increase ) of all of them ( dhatus and malas ) is caused by the use of sa mana ( similars ) , and its opposite ( decrease ) by use of viparita ( dissimilars ).
I

Notes :--Each of the dosas, dhatus, and malas has its \own prami1.1a ( quantity ), gul)as ( specific qualities) and karmas ( functipns ), which in its normalcy ( samya ) is conducive to health. They sometimes, undergo vrddhi (increase ) and (decrease ) in their one or more of ita qualities and functions, which are both known as { abnormalcyl) and which lead on to ill·health, Use of or association with subst• ances, qualities and activities which are similar (same or identical) with the material, qualldea and functions of the dhitus and malas bring about their increase, whereas the use or association with substances, quali· 3 . ties and activities which are viparlta ( distimilar, opposite ) bring about their decreaae.

1()

A$TANGA Hl_tDAYAM

[ CH.

$ADRASA-(six tastes) :II

q:g'"'

:a

1

Swadu (sweet), amla (sour), lavaQ-a ("alt), tikta (bitter), (pungent) and (astringent) are the six rasas (tastes); they are present in the substances, each one is more strengthening (to the body) i11 their order of precedence. ( 14.)
Not1s :--Taste is also a gu1)a (quality) of every substance, each subst. ance may have one or more tastts, which becomes known when the substance is put on the tongue. The first, clearly recognisable taste is known as Pradhana rasa (primary taste) and the remaining tastes which are recognised later and mildly are anurasa ( secondary taste ). In respect of giving strength to body, ( astringent ) provides the mini urn, (pungent ) a little more and so on, swadu (sweet ) providing the maximum.

Alleviatien

of
d

by ta:, tes• t" ,....

"'£laO

II

g

I

The first three tastes ( swaduJ arnla and lavaQa ) alleviate ( mitigate, cause decrease ) n1aruta (vat a); the three starting with tikta (tikta, and alleviate kapha; tikta and madhura alleviate pitta; whereas the others cause their increase (aggravation of the ). ( 15.)
Nol1s :--Madhura is the synonym of swadu (sweet), "others cause increase" is explained as follows., tikta ( bitter ), iisQa ( pungent ) and (astringent) cause vrddhi (increase) ofvata; amla (-our), Javal)a ( salt ) and katu ( pungent ) cause increase of pitta; swadu ( swfet ), amla ( sour) and lwal).a (salt ) cause increase of kapha-properties and actions of each taste will be described again in chapter 10.

Dravyahhedan-(kindJ of substances) :-

Dravyas (substances used as food, drugs, etc.) are of three kinds viz •. samana which alleviate the kopana (those which aggravate the and swasthahita (suitable for health/which help maintain health). ( 16.)

t]

SUTRASTliANA

J'irya (Potency) :-

qlit

fil\11

U$I}a (heat) and sita (cold) being the powerful qualities, virya (potency of the substances) is also taken to be two.
Notes :--Virya is that aspect/factor of the substance which is mainly responsible for the actions of the substance in the human body. More details will be found in chapter 9.

..

Vipaka ( end product of dige';tion) :Vipaka (nature of end product of digestion) is also threeswadu (sweet), amla (sour) and k:=t\U (pungent). ( 17.)
Notes :--More details in chapter 9. Gurvlldi guf.ll!h (qualities) :1

gun:

f'qoma-:

Guru{heavy), tnaiida (slow), hima (cold), snigdha (unctous), (smooth), sandra (solid), mrdu (soft), sthira (stable), (minute, subtle) and visada (non-slimy )-these ten along with their respective opposites-are the twenty gunas {qualities. propel tit>s of substances).
Notes :--The above statement can be elaborated as follows aGuru (heavy) Manda (slow) Hima (cold) Snighda (unctous) (smooth) Sandra (solid) Mrdu (soft) Sthira (stable) (subtle, small) Vi,ada (non slimy)
X X

x x
x

x x
X X

x

laghu (light in weight) (quick, fast) (hct) (dry) khara (rough) drava (liquid) kathiQa (hard) cala (moving, unstable) sthiila (big, gross) picchila (slimy).

Roga-arogya karaT)a (cause of disease and health ):.I

11\\11

At$TANGA

Hina (inadequate, poor), mithya (improper, perverse) and ati {excess), yoga (association, contact, union) of kala (sea son), artha (objects of senses) and karma (activities, functions) are the chief causes of diseases; whereas their samyak yoga (proper contact, association) is the chief cause of health. ( 19)
Not1s :--This will be described in detail in chapter 12.

Roga-(disease)Roga (disease) is (the effect of) disequilibrium of the while health is ( the result of) the equilibrium of the

as

---

Not1s :--Each of the possessing its specific quantity, qualities and functions is known as ils simya (equilibrium) whereas increase ( vrddhi) and decrease ( in its quantity, one or more of its qualities and functions are known as its ( disequilibrium).

itflt flNl Roga (disease) is said to he of two kinds, Nija (orglnic, arising from the body itself) and agantu (traumatic, arising from external causes). 20.
Utvt+tf'4

I

Their (of diseases) (seat, nidus, residence) is also two: kaya (the body) and manas (the miad).

MlJnasika do1alz-( do11Js of the mind) :....

it ...

...
of the man as

Rajas and tamas are enumerated as the (mind). 21.

Noles :--Satva, rajas and lamas are known as the three mabagu:ois, they are primary or natural qualities responsible for creation of all the 1ubstances of the world and said to be present in every one of them and concerned with intellegence stuff. Out of them, satva is coneidered to be pure and not having any bad effect, whereas the other two are bad at}.d having bad effects. Hence rajas and tamas are considered as the dosis of the mind, when they increased above the specific limit. .

Rogi-roga parlkllJ-( examination of the patient ):=it

t

The (patient) should be examined by (inspec_tion) spa.riana, (palpation) and prasna (interrogation).

1]

SUTRASTHANA

IS

it;t

lf\:tf+t:

Roga (disease) should be examined by its nidana (causes, aetiology), pragriipa (prodromata, premonitory symptoms), ( specific signs and symptoms, clinical features ), upasaya (diagnostic t_ests) and apti (samprapti) (pathogenesis).
Notes
will be explained in detail in chapter 1 ofNidana1thlna.

DelabhedtJh-(kinds of habitat) :-

..

fiNr 1
... ,q tl

Rlm

I

Desa (habitat), in this science, is said to be of two kindsbhiimi ( desa )-region of land and deha ( desa)-the body. Bhumi desa-land region is of three kinds viz, jafigala-which is predominant of vata, aniipa which is predominant of kapha anri sadharai}.a which has all the malas in normal condition. 23.
Notes :-jafigala region is a.tid or desert-like land with no mountain•

or hills, has less vegetation, poor water resources and is more breezy.
'Aniipa is marshy land with m'Jre of water, more vegetation, very less of sunlight and heat. Sadharal).a is the moderate type with few mountains, hills, moderate water, vegetation and sunlight.

...

Kalabhedilh-(kinds cf time) ::;::r

Kala (time} which is relevent to the ( administration and selection of) drug (or therapies) is of two kinds-viz. that (time) (moment) etc .. , and that of the stages commencing with of the disease. (24}.
Notes is the minimum unit of time measurem.ent and is equalent to the time required for winking of the eyelid once or uttering of one letter of the alphabet; kala, na<;lika, muhiirta, yama, ahor.. itra, masa, rtu, ayana and sarhvatsara-are the successive units. knowledge of this external time is essential for collection of drugs at appr• opriate period, preparation of1 ecipes, administration to the patient etc. The disease devt::lops in the body in different successive stages and not all of a sudden; each stage has its own characteristic signs and symptoms, recognition of each stage helps the physician to assef,S the strength of the diseafe and decide the appropriate drug and therapy required for that stage, hence the necessity of fwo kinds of time.

14

[CH•

Autat/ha bhedlJh-(kinds of therapies) ::(IJI;i ...

'

-

(medicaments, therapies) is, in brief, of two kindssodhana (flurifictiory) and samana (palliative).
Notes :--Sodhana is the method of eliminating the aggravated from the dody forceb)y, thus purifying it. Samana, on the Olher hand, is to mitigate the aggravated within the body itself.
q'f;f

1 I

For the of the body, basti (enemata), vireka (pur· gations) and vamana (emesis) are the best therapies respectively; likewise are taila {oil), ghrta (ghee, butterfat) and madhu (honey). 25.
Nolll :--Administration of different kinds of medicinal enemas is best for mitigating vita, producing purgations is for pitta and vomittings is for kapha; use of medicated oils ( both internally and externally ) is ideal for mitigating vita, ghee for mitigating pitta and honey for kapha.

.....
I

Dhi (descrimination), dhairya (courage, strong will) and atmadi vijnana (knowledge of the soul etc.) are the ideal therapies for the mind. 26.
Notes :-Dhi is the ability of the person to decide good and bad,
dhairya is ability to adhere to the good, avoid the bad, and withstand difficulties with strong will; atmadi viji'iana is pos•essing or obtaining correct knowledge of the soul, of the aims and pursuits of the present life as well as of future life etc., in other words, a philosophical view of human life. These are especially of great value in the treatment of mel). tal disorden.

-

CikitslJ

limbs of treatment ) :-

Utt'T

I

The physician, the attendent (nurse), the drug and the the four limbs of treatn1ent; each one has four (good) qualities. 27.

.....
The physician must be efficient, having learnt the science in all its meanings (implications) from a preceptor, must have

I]

SUTRASTHANA

15

witnessed the therapies (gained practical experience) and pure/clean (iJ;t body, mind and speech).
...

-

The drug should be suitable for preparing many recipes, possess many good qualities (taste and other properties), endowed with virtues (genuine, 11ot defective) and suitable (to be used in different condition of the in different diseases and different types of persons). 28.
I

The attendent (nurse) should be attached (affectionate, faithful to the patient), clean (in body, mind and speech), efficient in work and intellegent.

'".,)
The patient should be wealthy, obedient to the physician, having good memory (capable ofreme1nbering and explaining events connected with probable causes, symptoms, etc.) and of strong will (capable of with standing strain of therapies etc.). 29.

RogabhtJd8.1)-(kinils

(

of iliseases) :{Rr
't

a-' g

:onsqsmr:
1

1 II

J) )

U\o II
I

;:rq-:

ft\

Disease is of two kinds-sadhya (curable) and asadhya (incurable), they are again of two kinds-susadhya (easily curable) and krchra sadhya (curable with difficulty), yapya (controllable) and anupakrama (not responding to any therapy, ' fatal.).

Slldh)'llsll.dhya lalqa'(ta-(features of curability and incurability )Diseases which are present in persons capable of with• standing all kinds of therap·ies, in adults, in males, in those I ' who are self-controlled; which are not affecting (involving} have few/mild causes, premonitory symp· vital organs, toms and specific features; which are uncomplicated (having

16

ASTA."&GA

[ CH.

no secondary diseases or very troublesome symptoms etc.) which are dissimilar in respect of (tissues), desa (habitat), rtu (season) and prakrti (body constitution); which have the four limbs of treatment in excellent condition; which have vety favourable planetary influence; which have arisen from any one whic!.l are seen manifesting in one disease pathway and which are of recent onset-are susadnya (easily curable).
:q

aa) crcr:

1

Diseases which require the use of sharp instruments etc. in treatment. and also those which have mixture of factors (enun1erated in the previous verses) are krcchra sadhya (curable with difficulty).
U\':r(ll

Diseases which persist till the remainder of life, but can be controlled with continuous good regimen (of drugs, food, activities etc.) and which possess qualities of the those (easily curable) diseases are yapya (controllable).

11:er

1

Diseases which have features entirely opposite (of curable diseases), which have stayed long (involving all the important tissues and vita] organs), which have produced anxiety (fear of death), delusion and restlessness; which are presenting fatal signs and which cause loss of sense organs (sensory functions) are anupakrama (which require no therapy, fit to be rejected, sure to cause death). 33.
attr

mq
I

!iouf

The physician should reject the patient (refuse treatment to) who is hated by the physician and the king (or government) and who hates them; who hates himself (dejected in life), who is not having the equipments and other facilities required for treatment, who is busy with activities (not having the required attention, leisure etc. t'owards the treatment), -who is

I]

SUTRASTHANA

17

disobedient (to the physician), whose life is corning to an end, who is of evil mind (violent, destructive), who is afflicted with great grief, who is full of fear, who is ungrateful and who thinks himself to be a physician (in respect of deciding drug, therapies, food, activities etc). 34..

l

Adi!)Jaya saiigraha-(chapters of the treatise) :Further on, shall be the enumeration of the ( names of) chapters pf this treatise;
I 1

"

u

11

......

-

"

..........
ctl

I

fwtferN-:
1. (desire for long life), 2. dinacarya (daily regimen), 3. rtucarya {seasonal regimen), 4. roganutpadaniya (prevention of diseases), 5. dravadravya vijfianiya {knowledge of liquid materials), 6. annasvariipa vijnaniya {knowledge of nature of foods), 7. {protection of food), 8. matra· sitiya (determination of quantity of food), 9. dravyadi vijnaniya (knowledge ofsubstances etc.), 10. rasabhediya ( classification of tastes), 11. vijnaniva {knowledge of etc.), 12. {classification of etc.), 12. .. mal}.iya (treatment of 14. dvividohpakramat).iya (the two kinds of treatments) 15. sodhanadi gal)a safigraha ( collection of purificatory drugs etc.), 16 sneha vidhi (oleation therapy), I 7. swedavidhi (sudation therapy), 18. vamanavirecana vidhi (emesis and therapy), 19. bastividhi {enema therapy), 20. nasya vidhi (nasal medication therapy), 21. dhiima pana vidhi (inhalation of fume therapy), 12. vidhi (mouth and such other thera· pies), 23. iscyotana-anjana vidhi (eye-wash and such other therapies), 24. tarpal).a-putapaka vidhi (therapies for the eyes), 25. yantravidhi (use of blunt intruments and app1i•
I

2A

18

[ CH.

ances), 26. sastravidhi (use of sharp instruments etc.), 27. siravyadha vidhi (venesection), 28 .. (removal of foreign bodies), 29. sastrakarma vidhi (surgical procedures) and 30. ksaragnikarma vidhi ( caustic alkali and fire cautary therapies ·these thirty chapters forrn the Siitrasthana. ). 36-38!
I

qlA.
1. Garbhavakranti (formation of the embryo), 2. garbhavyapt ( disorders of pregnant woman and the new born ), 3. afigavibhaga (human body and its parts), 4. marmvibhagiya (classification of vulnerable spots), vikrti vijnaniya (knowledge of bad prognostic features), 6. diitadi vijnaniya (knowledge of the messenger etc.)-these six form the Sarirasthana. 39.
I
1 t
,!J

'it
:q

1

1. Sarvaroga nidana (causes and methods of diagnosis of all diseases, 2. jwara nidana (diagnosis of fevers), 3. raktapitta, kasa nidana (diagnosis of bleeding diseases and cough), 4. 5wasa, hidhma nidana (diagnosis of dyspnoea and hiccup), 5. nidana (diagnosis of tuberculosis etc.), 6. madatyaya nidana (diagnosis of alcoholic intoxication), 7. arso nidana ( diagnosis of piles ), 8. atisara-grahal}iroga nidana (diagnosis of diarrhoea and deuodenal disorders), miitra· ghata nidana (diagnosis of suppression of urine), 10. prameha nidana ( diagnosis of diabetes ), 11. vidradhi, etc.. (gulma), nidana (diagnosis of abscess, hernia and abdominal tumors), 12. udara nidana (diagnosis of enlargement of the abdomen), 13. {sopha-visarpa) nidana (diagnosis of anaemia, dropsy, and erysepelas), 14. (svitra krmi) nidana (diagnosis of leprosy, leucoderma and worms), 15. vatavyadhi

I]

SUTRASTHANA

19

nidlna (diagnosis of diseases caused by vata, nervous diseases) and 16. vatasra nidana (diagnosis of gout)-these sixteen chapters form the Nidana sthana. (40-41).

'&ti:l

:q

I

crdt

min •'l,
I

r..
fUtSc"?:ffq'f:
1. Jvara cikitsa (treatment of fevers), 2. raktapitta cikitsa {treatment of bleeding disease), 3. kasa cikitsa (treatment of cough), 4. svasa-hidhma cikitsa (treatment of dyspnoea and hiccup), 5. cikitsa (treatment of tubercuJosis cikitsa (treatment of vomitting, etc.), 6. chardi heart diseases and thirst), 7. madatyayadi cikitsa (treatmeilt of alcoholic intoxication etc.), 8. arsas cikitsa (treatment of piles), 9. atisara cikitsa (treatment of diarrhoea), 10.. cikitsa (treatment of disorders of the deuodenum), 11. miitraghata cikitsa (treatment of suppression of urine), 12. prameha cikitsa (treatment of diabetes), 13. vidradhi-vrddhi cikitsa (treatment of abscess and hernia), 14. gulma cikitsa (treatment of abdominal tumour), f5. udara cikitsa (treatment of enlargement of the abdomen), 16. panQ.uroga cikitsa (treatment of anaemia), 17. swayathu chikitsa (treatment of dropsy), 18. visarpa cikitsa ( treatment of herpes ), 19. cikitsa (treatment of leprosy and other skin disorders), 20. svitra· krimi cikitsa (treatment of leucoderma and worms), 21. vatav.yadhi cikitsa (treatment of diseases caused by vata-nf'rvous diseases), 12. vatasonita cikitsa ( treatn1ent of gout )-these twenty two chapters form the cikitsa sthana. (42-43j)
...

1SIUT

...(t\(:

1. Vamanakalpa (recipes for emesis therap.. 2. virecana . kalpa {recipes for purgation therapy), 3. vamana•vyapatsiddbi

20

[ CH.

(management of complications of emesis and purgation therapies, 4. bastikalpa (recipes for enema therapies), 5. bastivyapatsiddhi (management of complications of enema therapy), 6. dravyakalpa (nature of medicinal recipes etc.). these six chapters form the Kalpasiddhi sthana (44).
ata'

..

m
c "'

1b
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:q

i@tt
1

u:' at

:q

"' I I

'

1. Balopacara:Q.iya (care of children), 2. balamaya prati· (prevention of diseases qf children ), 3. balagraha
( prevention of seizures in children ), 4. bhiita vijnaniya (knowledge ab( ut evil spirits etc.), 5. bhiita prati(dispelling of evil spirits), 6. unmada (prevention of insanity), 7. apasmara (prevention of epilespy), 8. vartmaroga vijnaniya (diagnosis of the diseases of the eyelids). 9. vartmaroga (treatment of diseases of the eyelids), 10. saiidhisitasita roga vijfianiya (diagnosis of eye-joints, sclera and cornea), 11. sandhisitasita roga prati(treatment of diseases of eye-joints scleara and cornea), 12. vijfiania (diagnosis of diseases of vision), 13. timira (treatment of blindness ), 14. (treatment of disorders of lens), 15. vijnaniya (diagnosis of diseases affecting the entire eye). 16. sarvaksiroga (treatment of diseases affecting the entire eye.), 17. kar:Q.aroga vijfianiya (diagnosis of diseases of the ear), 18. karl}a roga (treatrnent ofdiseases of the ear), 19 nasa roga vijfianiya (diagnosis of diseases of the nose), 20. nasa roga (treatment of diseases of the nose), 21. mukharoga vijnauiya (dignosis of diseases of the mouth), 22. mukha roga of diseases ofthe mouth),23.siro roga vijfianiya( diagnosis of the disease sof head),

t]
24. siro roga

SUTRASTHANA

2l

1

(treatment of diseases of the head.), 25. (treatment ofulcers),26. sadyovraQ.a (treatn1ent of traumatic wounds), 27. bhagna (treat· ment of fractures), 28. bhagafidara (treatment of fistula-in-ano ), 29. ,grafithi·a rbuda-slipada a paci-naQi vijfianiya (diagnosis of tumors, cancer, filariasis, goitre and sinus ulcers), 30. graiithi·arbuda-slipada-apaci-naQ.i (treatment of tumors, cancer, filariasis, goitre and sinus ulcers), 31.. roga vijnaniya {diagnosis of minor diseases), 32. roga (treatment of minor diseases), 33. guhya roga vijnaniya (diagnosis of veneral diseases), 34. guhyaroga prati· (treatment of veneral diseases), 35. (treat· ment of diseases due to poisons), 36. (treatInent of snakebite), 37. kita-liitadi {treatment of bites of insects, spiders etc.), 38. prati(treatment of bites of mouse, rabid d<Jgl etc.), 39. rasa• yana vidhi (rejuvina tory therapies) and 40. vidhi (nourishment of reproductive tissue or aphrodisiac therapy)these fort)' chapters form the Uttara sthaiJa (45-48).

Thus there are, one hundred and twenty chapters, divided into six sections. (49.)
tctr

(\ISI"'"''it

i1M Sl'CMt..sur&1r: II

II

Thus ends the chapter known as the first of sutrasthana in sarp.hita.. composed by srimad son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

'
Chapter-2 DJ.NACARTA ADHTATA-(Dai[y regimen)

mr
'

i[

l

We shall now expound the Dinacarya adhyaya-chapter on daily· regimen; thus said Atrey a and other great sages.

PrlltaruthiJnl'-(getting up in the morning) :'

The healthy per3on should get up (from bed) during brahma muhiirta, to protect his life. l.a.
)/otis :-The last three hours of the night ( from S a. m. to 6 a. m. ) is known as Brahma muhiirta, because it is the best time for study and obtain brahma or knowledge.

Dantaclhavana-( cleaning of the teeth) :-

'llfFUii!'OT
:a'
tt•W'Ifil(f .....

II
1

II

II

srgui

I I! \ II

Contemplating on the condition of his body, the person should next, attend to ablutions, (after eliminating the urine and faeces), Then after, he should clean his teeth with twigs of ar.ka, nyagrodha, khadira, karafija, kakubha, etc. which are astringent, puugent, and bitter in taste; they (twigs) should be of the size of the tip of the little finger in thickness and twelve afigulas breadth) in length and straight, its top made like a soft brush {by chewing), the teeth should be cleaned without hurting the gums. 2-3.

'iUJi1Ptt

:et

II

II

Persons suffering from indigestion, vomitting, dyspnoea, cough, fever, facial paralysis, thirst, ulcerations of the mouth,

II]

SUTRASTH.ANA

l

diseases of the heart, eyes, head and ears, should not make use of the tooth brush (for cleaning the teeth). 4.
Notes :--Forbidding the tooth b1 ush does not mean that these persons should not clean their teeth at all. They should make use of soft powder of other drugs instead of twigs.

Anjana (collyr£um to the {Yes) :f;r(q
1

Sauvirafijana is gooJ for the eyes, hence it should be used (as eyesalve) daily.
II
I

II

The eye is full of tejas (light) and has risk of troubles especially from (kapha); hence rasanjana should be used once a week, to drain it (kapha) out. 5.
Notes :-Sauvirafij1na is the ore of antimony available as shining black pebbles in the river bed of sauvira country (modern Afghanis than and Beluchisthan ) . A kind of collyrium ( eye-salve, kajal ) was being prepared from this ore a long with some other plant products and used in ancient times both as a medicine and a cosmetic. Rasifijana is prepared from the decoction of daruharidra (Berberis aristita ). It is an irritant and so used to produce more lacrimation.

ffifT

II

II

Afterwards, the person should make use of navana ( nasal drops ) , ( mouth gargles ), dhiima ( inhalation of smoke ), and tambiila ( chewing of betel leaves ). 6.
Tambala sevana-( betel-chewing) :I
I I \5 II

Tambiila (betel-chewing) is unsuitable (harmful) to those suffering from wounds, bleeding diseases, dryness and redness of the eyes, poisoning, unconsciousness, intoxication and even from consumption.
Notes :-Tambula (betel chewing or pin-chewing) is an ancient custom in our country. Vagbhata in saiigraha prescribes two betel leaves, one small sized arecanut, little quantities of slaked lime and extract of khadira ( known as kaca, k-1tthi, etc. ) as the ideal combination.

ASTANGA HE.DAYAM

[ CH.

Fragrant substances like cordamum, cloves, etc, are also permitted in other texts, but none of the ancient texts mention tobacco, and such other intoxicating substances to be mixed with This custom of chewing tobacco or using it in other fo1 ms like snuff, smoking ( of bidi, cigarrette etc. ) came into vogue during the Muslim rule in India. Chewing of betel leaves, a1ecanut, ltme and other fragrant substances has defenite medicinal properties and so beneficial for health; chewing of tobacco along with betel leaves is injurious to health and is the chief cause for cancer of the lips, tongue and throat.

Ahhyanga-( oil-massage) :"r-. •

1
II t; II

ri

I
II

Abhyafiga (oil-massage and bath) be resorted to daily, it wards off old age, exertion and (aggravation of) vata; bestows good vision, Dourishment to the body, long life, good sleep, good and strong (healthy) skin. It should be done specially to the head, ears and feet. It should be avoided by persons suffering from aggravation of kapha, who have (just) undergone purificatory therapies (like emesis, purgations etc.) and who are suffering from indigestion. 8-9.
Noles :--Abhyafiga is anointing the head and body with medicated oil, massaging them mildly and then taking bath with warm water. It is very beneficial not only for the healthy but also for persons sufFering from disorders of the nervous system etc.

· Jijlnyama (exercise) :-

C!rf\lcf

'.tq= 1
lltoll

Lightness (of the body), ability to do (hard) . d 11estion , depletion of ( excess ) fat, stable . and 10 dtsttnct . ) physique accrue from vya yama (phystcal exercises . •
en(1

GIRIT !it..SGitvff :q (j

I

Persons-stiffering from diseases ofvata and pitta; children, the aged and those having indigestion should avoid it. ,

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ll
<Rtt..sRn{ll

,i\a.....

IV,

I

II)

SUTRASTHA.NA

l

Persons who are strong and who indulge in fatty foods (daily); in cold seasons and spring (season) should do it (exercise) to half of their strength (capacity) only; while others (and in other seasons) should do it mildly. 11.
Notes :-Half the capacity of the person is understood by appearance of perspiration on his forehead, nose, axilla, joints of the limbs and feeling of dryness of the mouth.

<:i
After doing it (exercises) all the parts of the body should be massaged comfortably. 12.
q1SUI'T \tq: sra+l"tit
WJr: p: I

Thirst, emaciation, severe dyspnoea (difficult or excess breathing), bleeding diseases, exhaustion, feeling of debility (even without any work), cough, fever and vomitting areby excess of exercise .. 13.
I

,ft=rG: ... Those who indulge daily in too much of physical exercise, keeping awake at nights {loss of sleep), walking long distances, sexual intercourse, too much of laughing, speaking and such other strenuous activities perish, just as a lion, after van qui· shing an elephant. 14.
Noles ;-The lion though vanquishes and kills the elephant, dies 1oon after wards due to severe strain and consequent cmhaustion. This simili is to impress upon avoiding excess of physical work.

Udvartana-(massage) :Ulttlt\.-.r tro( u Udvartana (massaging the body with soft, fragrant powders) mitigates kapha, liquifies the fat, produces stability (compactness, strength) of the body parts and excellence of the skin. 15. Snc2na-(bath) :4
I

•. :

I

••'1.4•W..

II '\II

HR.J)AYAM

(OH.

Snana (bath) improves appetite, sexual vigour, span of
life, valour (enthusiasm) and strength; removes itching, dirt, exhaustion, sweat, stupor, thirst, burning sensation and sin. 16.
I

.....

Pouring warm water over the body bestows strength, but the same over the head, makes for loss of strength of the hair and eyes. 17 .

......

..

...

t

Bath is contra-indicated for those suffering from facial para lysis, diseases of the eyes, mouth and ears, diarrhoea, flatulence, pinasa (discharge -of foul smelling liquid from the nose), indigestion and who have just taken food. 18.

Sadvrtta (good conduct) :mf f;m
it

I

Person should take food after digestion (of the meal), that which is suitable (to him) and in Hflitted quantity; urges ofthe b<?dY should not be initiated (prematurely) by force; should not be engaged in other works when the urges are patent; not do anything (administration of drugs, therapies etc.) without treating the curable diseases (first). 19.

Wfi •

WtNl:
Cf

mT

mn:

lt,_"'q! I

All (human) activities are meant for the happiness of all the living beings; such happiness is based on dharma (righteousness, rip:ht moral cond11ct); hence every person should adopt (fol!ow) righteoustness always. 20.

,I

,

Frieuds should be served with affection and good deeds (beneficial acts) whereas c,thers (foes, wicked persons) should be kept at a distance. 21.

q1q

dftt

oq-, ...

.. '6(q't(,.t...

r..

SUTRASTHANA

Hirhsa (causing injury, torture etc.) steya (stealing, robb· ing), anyathakama (unlawful sex activity), paisunya (abusive or harsh speech), aorta vacana (scloding, speaking untruth); sambhinna aHipa (speech causing dissension, seperation, brea· king of company), vyapada (quarrel, intention of harming), abhidya (jealousy, not tolerating good of others) and drgvi· paryaya (finding fault, misunderstanding, faithlessness etc. with scriptures, elders etc. )-these ten sins pertaining to the body, speech and mind should be avoided. 21-22.
Not8S :--Of the ten sins, the first three pertain to the body, next four to the speech and the Jast three to the mind.

Those who have no means of livlihood, who are suffering from diseases'and who are affiicated with grief should be helped (to get over their troubles) to the utmost exent. Even the insects and ants should be treated (with compa· ssion and kindness (just as ones ownself). 23. God, cow, brahmaJ}.a, elders, the physician, king and guests should be worshipped.

... :
Beggers should not be disappointed, abused or objected. 24.
I
if

One should be very helpful even to his foes, even though they are not helpful. One should maintain a single mind (balanced mind) during (the period of) wealth as well as during ( period of) calamity. One should be envious of the cause (of wealth, happiness, well-being etc. of others) but not be jealous of the effect (money, happiness etc.). 25.

CTW mf

fi«i

I

One should speak appropriate to the occasion, with words which are good, in brief, which is not untrue and which is pleasing.

28

ASTAN"GA

[Oft.

'lqtflt+rrq),
if if

-

'Uf't<f: I
II II

;:r 'Ef:ia:HRif.

i=IHJ.TT;f ;:r :;:r

SRtt: 1

One should start conversing (with others) first, with a pleasant face; should be virtuous, kind and soft (mild), should not be comfortable aud happy alone (should make others also like himself); should neither believe everybody nor suspect everyone; shoutd not reveal that som'e one is his foe, and that he is a.n enemy·- of sorne one else; should not make pllblic the insults had and the disaffection towards the master (his own insults from his master or of his ma')ter towards him).
('

q•

,..._

({ Keeping in mind the nature of the people, one should deal with them in such manner as best pleasiug to them, becoming well-versed in the art of adoring others. 26--28.
ll':(f(.ll The sense organs should oeither be lroubled (strained) very much nor should they be coaxed (fondled) very much. 29.
if if

11':(<:11 1

I

One should not engage himself in occupations which are devoid of the three pursuits [dharma (righteousness), artha, (wealth) and kama (pleJsure )]; should carry on the occupation without going contrary to them (dharma and kama).

11\oll
In all dealings (activities), one should adopt the middle mean only (avoiding the extremes). 30.

...
.,.,.,,.5\i!J:
---

11\tll

One should cut his hair, nails, and mustaches ( not allow them grow long), keep his and orifices of waste materials (ears, nose, eyes, urethra and anus) clean; take bath daily, put on scents and good dress which is not superfluous but is pleasant to look at.

II]

SUTRASTHANA

29

I

..

11\:tll
1

fflfo

One should always wear precious stones, potent hymns and herbs (kept inside an1ulets) on the person (body), one should walk holding an umbrella, putting on foot-wear and looking straight to a distance of four arms length in front of himself; in case of urgent work at nights, one should go equipped with a baton, head-dress and an assistant. 32.

.. ,...

;r

lll.\11 .- 1

One should not invade (trample f set foot on /traverse f occupy) on the shade of a holy tree on which deities reside (or a Buddhist shrine), materials (or men) of worship, banner and unholy things, heap of ash, husk and dirt, (excreta etc.), sand dunes, boulders, places of bali (offering to gods, demons etc.) and bathing.

;ra:t
=\;f

<1, 1

One should not swim across rivers with arms, should not walk facing huge fire, should not travel in a risky boat, not climb a tree doubtful of strength; or ride on a vehicle ot bad condition. 34. One should not sneeze, laugh or yawn without covering his mouth. 35.
;r

;nWUia
One should not blow his nose (except for forcing out the dirty excretion); not scratch the ground without any reason, not do ugly movements of the parts of the body and not sit on ones own heels for a long time. 36.
cifW:t: 11'fCtl
I

...

tsf&Ii

30

[ CH.

One should stop the activities of the body, of speech and of the mind before getting exhausted; should not keep his knees above for long period (keeping erect the legs folded at the knees whib sleeping or standing on the hands keeping the legs up etc.). 37.

;r=ai

;r

II

1
;r

Ill.(' 11

One should not reside at night on trees, meeting place of three roads, (or place where people assemble for recreation), vicinity of a holy tree (or a Buddhist shrine), meeting place of four roads and a temple, (house of god). One should not :reside even during daytime, in a place of slaughter, a forest, baun' ed house and burial ground. 38.
if

'It(( I

Slffii

(Tatit'iqtfu(ftfur

:;;r ll\'11

One should not gaze at the sun for long time, not carry heavy weight on his head, not see continuously objects which are minute, shining, dirty and unpleasant. 39.
I

One should not engage in selling, brewing, distributing free or receiving {for drinking) of wine. I

r..

;rqf«'fi

,
I!
t

tl

q

I
:q

The person should avoid the direct breeze, sunlight, dust, snow (dew), h,trd breeze (whirl wind etc.); should not sneeze, belch, cough, sleep, dine or copulate in improper postures,

II]

SUTRASTHANA

31

l

should avoid the shade of a scaffold, places hated by the king (or government), campany of wild animals, biting animals and those with horns; of mean, wicked (uncivilised), and veryinte1le· -gent persons; avoid quarrel with good men; avoid ·taking foods, copulation, sleeping, study and recaptulation in the two safi· dhyas (the time of meeting of the night and sunrise, of the sunset and the night); avoid the food given by enemies, given during sacrificial ceremony, (that offered by large group of donors of different castes) ,that given by prostitutes and merchants; one shoulds not make sound with the body parts, mouth and nails, nor shake the hand and hairsa should not move in between two ( recepticles of) water, fire and the worshipful; should avoid the smoke of a cadaver; too much indulgence, in wine ( drinking ), believing and independence for women. 40-44.
•'"""

•.N

M

I

For an intellegent person the whole world is a teacher, hence one should imitate the world after carefully considering their meaning (and effects) of such actions. 45.
(qttT:
£:':;

q1.{\t:ft1fnt

s. ,.... .....

. ftfl: I

Compassion with all living beir,gs, granting of gifts, contro· lling the activities of the body, speech and mind; feeling of selfishness in the interests of others (looking after the interest of others as his own) these are sufficient rules of good conduct (moral behaviour) 46.

-.rffift{;rtfil it

k,

I

He, who constantly thinks of examines) how his day and night arc passing (and adopts the right way only) will never becorne a victim of sorrow. 47.

s:rur)m

1

[CR.

Thus was in brief, the rules of good he who adopts it will (surely) attain long life, health, wealtll, reput3rtion and also ththternal world. 48.

...

Not" are·ooly a fer' of rules of right conduct, many more are •unciatcd in the te'$' s which should be referred to for details; lOme of the 4o's and dopt's are in practice while tome have disappeared. As centuries on, many changes place in all aspects of the society • political, religigus, - phiiQ.sophical, ethical, etc. Some of t1te precepts and practices relevent and good in the past may be irrelevant and even bad for the present day, while some others will continue to be relcvaut tor all times. The spirit and the principles of health behind every rule of right conduct is to be given importance to aad folfowed, jf n-ecessary with changes. They should not be practised blindly as routine rites, to telect the ideal ones, is the need of the hour aacl not total adoption or rejection blindly.

tftr

, ...

f\ ....cf1

..,,..
11M

.. 1!'•'t('liEifC:ac"'t
II \ II

Thus ends the chapter called Dinacatyl, the second iD 'iltraathina of hrdaya samhita cQmposed by srimad son ofsri vaidyapati

-

...
l Chapter-3

IJ.TU CARYA ADHYAYA (Seasonal regimen)
aNm
I
I

We shall now expound the chapter R.tucarya·seasoua]
regimen; thus said Atreya and other great sages. I.

$adytus-( six seasons ) :i!fiJrtQ_

1

,.... r-81ti!{lil

,.... r-:-

II
,.....
...,_ • ('r-.

II
II

I
II

=a,

With every two masa ( months ) commencing with magha, are the six rtus ( seasons ) vasanta, and hima ( hemanta ) successively; the three commencing with ira ( sisira, vasanta, and ) form the Utta1 ( northern solastice ); also known as AfHina kala because the , sun takes away the strength of th'=' people daily. 1-2

-

Notes :-The months and seasons can be explained as foHows :Migha and Phalguna rtu (mid-January to mid·March) (cold, dewy season) Caitra and Vai§akha' Vasanta rtu ( mid-March to mid-May ) ( spring season ) J yef}tha and Gri$ma rtu (mid-May to mid-July) (summer The above three rtus ( seasons ) form uttariyaQa ( northern solastice ) or A.dankala ( dt>bilitating period). Sravaoa and Bhadrapada Var*i rtu ( midJuly to mid-September) ( rainy seac;on ) Asvayuja and Kartika Sarat rtu (mid-September to mid-November) ( autumn season } and Pauf}a Hemanta rtu ( mid-November to mid-January ) (winter These three rtus form ( southern solaitice) or visarga kala ( strt"ngthening period ). 3A

S4
UttarlJyatJa

[CH·

(_northern solastice ) :(llot+t-t..
Ei'.ii'Tli!

1

n" "
Cf.i'til
I

Because of the nature of the path, both the sun and wind become very strong ( powerful ) and dry during 'this ayana ( uttarayai}a ) and take a\'\ ay all the cooling q\!'!lities of the earth; tikta ( bitter), ( and. ka\uka (pungent ) tastes are mo1e powerful respe<..tively ( in the three successive rtus ), hence this adana kala is agneya ( predominantly fire·hke in nature). 3-4
Notes : -Tikta ( bitter taste ) is powerful in sisira (cold, winter season), (astringent) in vasanta ( spring) and (pungent) in
(summer).

southtrll solastice ) :--

qt<t

7.itm M
cat;:a-atit
,.... ...... f':: '

n '
-.:fer=
11

11
11

1
II\ II

The three rtus cornmencing with "at ( va rat and hemanta ) fron1 the ( south1rn solastice ) and visarga kala-the period in which the I sun the strength of the people; be: cause the rnoop is more powerful and the sun loses his streflgth, the earth h9comes cooled of the heat of sunlight by ( the effect of) clouds, rain and cold wiud; the unctous tastes-amla (sour), laval}d ( salt ) and madh4ra ( sweet )-are powerful ( respectively) during this period. (5·6)
Notes :-Amla (sour) is poWt-rful during ( rainy season), lavai}.a (salt) during brat (autumn f.eason ) and madhura (sweet) during hemanta ( winter season ) .

sa

rJ

1

In sita kala (cold Sf"SSf1Tl compr Li:lg of hemanta and sisira (winter and dei\'Y seasons) t!w stn·l·9"th of people will be mnxi'11um, during vnti and gharrna (r,dny and hot seasons

III]

SOTRASTHANA

con1prising of and rtus) it will be poor (minimum) and in the remaining seasons, it will be medium (moderate), 6!.

Hemanta rtucarya-(regimen during winter) :ll \9 II
l

ata'T

II <:: II

-•

In hemanta, the people are strong, the anala (fire in the alimentary tract vis a vis digestive' activity) becomes powerful because it gets obstructed (from spreading out) by the cold (in the atmosphere). It begins to digest the tissues (of the body) supported (helped) by vayu (vata in the body); so in this hemanta (winter), use of (substances of) sweet, sour and salt tastes should be made. 7-8.
1

'l.f'fl

ati
:t1

81
I

As the nights are longer, penons feel hungry in the (early) morning itself, so after atteudit!g t0 oblntions, they should resort to the regimen as enurnerated in abhyafiga (oil.. bath over the head and body ) procedure vvith medicated oil with vata alleviating property; miirdha-taila (bathing the head with more of oil), n1ild massaging of the body, wrestling with the skilled ( wrestlers ) to half of his strength and judicious trampling of the body (by e"Jepc:·ts in art). 9-10.

vrer
... cc ....

I
II

I

eR=rr
'51tr;f

1

II
1

36

[CH.

After these, the oil (coverir.g the head and body) should be removed by washing with astrir gent (decocticns, powders etc.) and bathing; then fine pastefpo\'\ der of kurhkun1a {kfsara) and darpa (kastiiri) should be applied, the body exposed to the fumes of aguru; meat soup mixed with meat of fattened (well nourished) animals, wine prepared with jaggery (molassess) suppernatant portion of sura and sura as such, should be made use of; food prepared from the flour of \Vheat, blackgrato, products of sugarcane and of n1ilk, food pre-pa1 ed from freshly harvested corn, muscles, fat and edible oils f,hould bt partaken as food; warm water should be used for oblutions, thick sheet made of cotton, leather, silk, wool or bark of trees which are light in weight sh0uld be used during sleep; exposure to sunlight, and fire should be resorted to judiciously; foot .. wear should be worn ahvays. 11-14.
1

....

-

II

Women who have well developed tLigLs, b1 easts and buttocks, who are encha11tir:g and exhilarated by the use of fragrant furnes, scents and ) outhfulness and thus made warm in their body, and who are liked, drive away the colu (by their embrace etc.)

"'
il

1

ang

-

'il'lq€ II f'

Persons who spend their tin1e residing in houses kept warm by fire, in inner most apartment encircled with others, or in underground chambers, will not be affected by the disorders (diseases) due to cold and dryness. 16.

silira rtu·carya-(regin1en during dewy season) :alq"i:rq

fu=:O'tto:
I

1

fa

I ISII

Even in sisira \cold, dewy season) the same regimen (as described above) should be adopted more intensly for during this period cold is severe and dryness n1ore, being the efft cts of adana kala' {the forthcon1ing semester). 17.

lti]

S0TRAS1 H.ANA

37

1

Vasanta rtu carya-(regimen during spring):1
a(eil..Slil
::.,

il"ittilo
......,

3tltQ:.
1
II t

t11:a ;tlUl("it
,...._ c::

;-.

I

II
li!f)

fsr'.Plr.sfqo-twt_l
I

;r_
.....

II
:q I

Kapha which has undergon.e increase in sisira C cold seasons) becomes liquified by the heat of the sun in vasanta (spring), diminishes the agni (digestive activity in the alimentary tract), and gives rise to many diseases; hence it (kapha) should be controlled quickly, by resorting to strong emesis, nasal medication and other therapies, and also by foods which are easily digestable and dry (moisture-free, fat-free}, physical exercises, (dry) massage and mild trampling. Having thus vanquished (mitigated) the kapha, the person should take bath, anoint the body with the paste of karpura, candana, aguru, and kumkuma, make use of old yava (barley) godhiima meat of animals of desert-like land, (wheat), and meat roasted in fire as food; drink the juice of mango• fruit mixed with fragrant substances, in the company of friends, getting it served by the beloved (women) which has been made more pleasant by the sweet scent of their body and the grace of their lily-like eyes; the drink, thereby producing satisfaction to the mind and heart. He should also make use of unspoiled beverages such as asava (fermented infusion), (fermented decoction), sidhu (fermented sugarcane juice), --mirdvika (fermented grape juice), madhava (honey water) or water boiled with srnga vera or sarambu (extract of trees such as asana, candana etc,) or water mixed with honey, or water boiled with jalada (musta). 18-22.

3B

[ CH.

qR:at
I
I

l

11
1'he person should speHd midday happily in the company of friends engaged ir. pleasant ga1nes, pastimes, storytelling etc., in forests (or gardens) which have cool breeze from south direction, with plenty of restrvoirs of water all around, invisible or poor sunlight, tile land covered with shiniug crystals, with the cuckoo every where n1aking pleasaut sounds and engaged iu lovt-play, with trees of tli.ffereut kinds of beautiful and svveet sn1elling flowers,. 23-25. Foods which are har<l to· digest and cold, sleeping at daytime, foods which are fatty, sour and sweet should be avoided. '25!. Gritma rtuca7yu-(regimell during summer) :,
ata 1.Sf'

1

W;J

.

"" .:t

I

\911

In (summer) the sun rays become powerful, day after day and appears to be de-structive (of all things); {kapha) decreases day by day and vayu (vata) increases consequently, hence in this season use of things which are pungent, and sour (in taste) (as food), physical exercises and exposure to sunlight, should be avoided. 26-27

RRni

!(eJJ{ I

Foods which are sweet, light (easy to digest), fatty, cold and liquid should be taken; cornflour mixed with very cold water and suger after taking bath in cold water.
if iA',

ipJ q'f
(fQ.

I

Madya (wine) should not be taken; if very necessary, taken

iD. very little quantity, or diluted with more quantity of

III ]

SOTRASTHANA

water; otherwise, (take.n in large doses) it will cause emaciation, debility, butning sensation and delusion,
1 ll\o n

en

1 II
t

H.ice (boiled) white like kunda flower and the tnoo!l should be eaten along with meat of animals of desert-like Jand. Rasa {tneat juice) which is not very thick, rasala (curds churned and 1nixed with pepper powder and sugar), raga ( syrup which is sweet, sour and salty ) and khat].Qava ( syrup which has all the tastes, prepared with many substances), pa11aka pancasara, (syrup prepared with madhuka, kha rjura, kasmarya, and fruits all in equal quanti·ties, cooled aud added with powder of patra, tvak, ela etc.) and kept inside a fresh mud pot, along with leaves of plai· ntain and coconut trees, and made sour (fermented) should be drunk in jugs (n,ugs) of mud or shell; very cool water kept in mud pot along with :B.owers of and karpiira should be used for driQking.
'UUit;f'b'(.U't-l_

fqiR(

\fTi

I

Eatables known as sasanka kiraJJ.a (hollow, finger-like, fried pastry made of corn flour) should be taken at night; buffaloes milk mixed with sugar and cooled by moonlight and the stars shou!d be u:ed for drinking.
11'\\11

e;it!!
f....-...-..q ...

1 t

I

11\'-\lf
I

11\\11
..-.:<1

40

[ca.

Daytime should be spent in forests h1 ving tall trees reachillg the such as sala, ta1a etc. which obstruct the hot rays of the sun, or in hou·,es a 1 ound which bunches of flowers and grapes are hanging from their creepers; sheets of cloth spreading sweet scented water, are arranged (to fan the air), bunches of tender leaves and fruits of (mango) hanging all arouprl; sleep on soft hcd prepared \dth petals of flowers of kadali, kaihr. ra, etc. with fully bloo50ILtd flowers suspended at all pl::1ce;,, Gr speud the dLL y 1 tn1ainir,g tnside the house cooled by water fountains, water beir,g &ccnted with usira, coming OUt fr0rr1 the well shaped br<"'2Sts, bands and mouth (of statues) and thereby get rid of the heat of the sun.

:aattflil'f

r 11\<::tl
1
,... .. 1' '

I

ll"loll
ctiT;on 1

qfv;:tr)

({Plat:

At nights, person should sleep on the terrace having good moonlight. Exhaustion (due to heat of the day) of the person, who is of balanced mind will be relieved by, anointing the body with paste of candana, wearing garlands, avoidance of sexual activities, wearing of very light and thin dress, by fanning with fans· made of leaves of tala or large leaves of padmi11i ( lily ) made wet; syringes sprinkling cool water softly, garlands of flowers of karpiira, mallika, and of pearls and beads of haricandana (white sandal paste), children, sftrika (mynah bird) and suka (parrot) talking pleasantly; beautiful women wearing bangles of soft lotus stalk, blossoms of lotus in their hair, moving about nearby. 41.
Varfa rtu-carya-(regin1en

rainy season) :1

crti'!

til]

SUTRASTH.ANA

4i :;r I

""

mat
r;sr

n
1

;;{

ll$dij r:

In (rairjy season) the agni (digestive activity) though weak in persons, debilitated by the adankala ( summer ) undergoes further decrease and gets vitiated by the dosas. 'fhey get aggravated by the (effect of) hanging, thick clouds full of water, colu \\ind having suow, blowi 1,g suddenly; water getting dirty because of rain, wannth of the earth and sourness, and the l'oor streugth of digestive activity the start vitiating one another (and cause many diseases). Hence all methods (which n1itigate the and 1neasures to enhance the digestive activjty should be adopted .. 42-44.
iia'lWJ:_ I

wecrRli
qT I
I

After undergoing purifactory therapies (vamana, virecana) the person should also be administered asthapana (decoction enema therapy). He should use old grains for food, meat· juice processed with spices etc., meat of animals of desert-like lands, soup of pul.ses, wine prepared from grapes and ferme· nted decoctions, which are old or mastu (whey, thin water of curds) processed with rnore of souvarcala and powder of paiicakola, should be used. Rain water or water from deep wells, well boiled should be used for drinking. On days of no sunlight at all, the food should be predominantly sour, salty and fatty, dry, mixed with honey and easily digestable. 45-46!

w:m:
Ptiri
5

a

1

Persons should not move about on foot (move only on vehicles), use perfume's, his clothes to fragrant fumes,

Hl_\DAYAM

[ ca.

dwell in upper stories of the house, devoid of heat, cold and snow.
II River wat('r, udamantha (beverage ptepared with flour of corns mixed with ghee), sleeping at exertion and exposure to sun should be avoided.

.sarat rtu carytl-(regimen duriug autumn) :1

.....

fa

1

,

In persons who bave btconle to the cold of (rainy season), getting exposed suddenly to the warm rays of the sun, the pitta, which has UJ,dergone increase in their bodies during ( rainy season ) becomes greatly aggravated (increased) during sarat (autumn). In order to get over it, tikta ghrta (medicated ghee recipe described in the of chapter 19 of Cikitsa sthana), purgation therapy and blood letting should be resorted to.

=tr

11'-\oll

1
When hungry (gready) the person should take foods which are of bitter, sweet and astringent tastes, and easily digest able such as $ali ( rice ), rnudga ( green-gram ), sita ( sugar ), dhatri ( amalaka ), patola, madhu ( honey ), and meat of animals of desert-like lauds. 50!.

aa

1

"m
;r en

11'-\';(11

.:?(1 qtiitfi{1iq-ila)qJr'l_ i The water which gets heated by the hot rays of the sun during day and gets cooled by the cool rays of the moon during night, for many days which has been de-poisoned (detoxicated) by the rise the star Agastya, which is pure, uncontaminated and capable of mitigating the n1alas ( is ki1own as Harhsodaka. It is (producing n1ore secretions or moisture inside the

til 1

SOTRASTHANA

4$

n1inute channels so as to block them) nor dry {cauiing dryness by non-production of sufficient moistness in the channels), &uch water is like amrta ( nector) for drinking and other purposes. 51-52. ,

''"''-', ·
I

Evenin!s should be spcut on the terraces of houses which are white (by painting), annointing the body with the paste of candana, usira, and karpiir.t, wearing garlanda ofpear}s and shinning dress and enjoying the
I

Exposure to suow (n1ist), indulgence in alkaline substances, satiation with hearty n1eal, use of dadhi (curds), taila (oil), vasa (muscle-fat), exposure to sunlight, strong liqurTs, sleeping at day time and the eastern lH cf·ze-should be avoided (in ' this season'. 54{.
1

I
During sita (hemanta and sisira-winter aud dewy season) and (rainy season) the first three rasas (tastes such as sweet, sour and salt) should be n1ade use of especially; the last three rasas (tastes such as bitter, pungent and astringent); during vasanta (spring season),. svadu (sweet) during nidagha {summer); and swadu; tikta and (sweet, bitter and astringent) during sarat (autumn); the food and drink should be dry ( moisture less, fatless ) during sara t and vasanta (autumn and spring), and cold during gharma (summer) and ghananta (end of rainy season) and its opposite (i.e. hot) in other (seasons). 55-56. The habit of using all tht" (six) tastes every day is ideal (for maintenance of health) except during special seasons, when

44

r

particular tastes suitable to the respective season should be used more. 57. ,8tusandhi-(interseasonal period) :1
iflltl'Q_

ft
The seven days 'at the end and commencement of rtus (seasons) is known as (inter seasonal period). During that peri{Jd, the regimen of the preceding season should be discontinued gtadually and that of the succeeding season should be adopted (gradually); sudden discontinuance or sudden adoption gives to diseases caused by asatmya (non-habituation). 58-59!. "")

tfW

-rta:r

, , ' ,,

the third of siitrasthana of hrdaya samhita composed by srimad Vagbhata son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

Thus ends the chapter·named

l
Ckapter-4 .
ROGA NUTPADA.N IrA-( Prevention

of diseases)
1 I

1f8

1[

We shaH now expound the chapter Roganutpadaniya(prevention of origin of diseases);-thus said Atreya and other great sages. Adhararzfya vega (urges not to be suppressed) :m ....
1

II

II

Urges of flatus, faeces, urine, sneeze 7 thirst, hunger, slt>ep cough, breathing on exertion, ya vomitting and of semen: should not be suppressed (by force as a habit). I.

Adhovata rodha-(suppression offlatus) :l(1 I
11

Suppression of the urge of flatus, will give rise to abdominal tumor, upward n ovement inside the alimentary tract, pain (in the abdon1en), exhaustion (even without exertion) obstruction to the elimination of flatus, urine and feces, loss of vision, loss of digestive capacity and diseases of the heart. 2.

Purtsa

of faeces ) :I

3\'=ciCJt!:

1fiTEF.oT

II 1

IJ

Suppression of the urge of faeces gives rise to pain in the calves, running in the nose, heaclache, upward movement of air (bel chings), cutting pain in the rectum, oppression in the region of the heart, vomitting of f:1eces and diseases mentioned earlier (under suppression of flatus). 3.

46

[ CH.

Mutrarodha-(suppression of urine) :II
;:.r""srtqr utrt:

II

By the suppression of the urge of urine arise, cutting pain
all over the body, formation of urina.. stones, severe pain in the urinary penis and groin, and also the diseases mentioned eat tier (under suppression of flatus and faeces). 4.
• r-

I
II "\ II

amrt1;t

1

....,.
I
\

g Qtif
4-t 1';flff

II

II

I

For these ( diseases arising from suppresssion of flatus, feces and urine) the treatment are rectal wicks (suppositories), oil massage and bath, immersion bath,. tub bath, sudation therapy and enema therapy. In disectses due to suppression of faeces, foods and drinks which help its elimination (laxatives and purgatives) are to be used. diseases caused by of urine, drinking of ghee (as per procedure of oleation therapy described in chapter 16) breakfast is idea.!. So also. drinking ghre in the rna xi mum dose at the erjd of (l!gcstion of food of both the midday and the night which iq known as avapic;L,ka \>e 1 esox ted :o. 5-7.

-

UdglJrarodha-(suppressio!J of belchirJg) :II " II I II Suppression of the (urge of) belching produces loss of taste (ur of appetite), trem(·rs, ft eling of obstruction in the (tegion of) heart and chest, fL."tulGncc, cough and biccup, treatment for this, is similar to that of hiccup. 8.

of sneezing) :I

...
• I

..

II
I

II

IV]

SOTRASTHANA

47

Headache, debility (lack of keenness) of the sence organs, stiffness of the neck (wry neck) and facial paralysis arise fron 1 suppression of sneezing. (Treatment for these is) inducing sneezing by strong (medicinal) inhalations, collyria, snuff, gazing at the sun etc., and oleation and sudation (therapies), 9. Tullrod/za-(suppression of thit st) :• II

1

felf'f:.lfia-:
..

I

Suppression of ( urge of) thirst will give rise to emaciadebility of the body, deafness, loss of consciousness giddiness and heart diseases; for this, an kicds of cold measures (cold food, bath, use of drugs of cold potency etc.) is ideal. 10. of hunger) :-

ra

1

Cutting pain in the body, loss oftaste (or appetite), debility, e1naciation, pain in the abdomen and giddiness (result from of the urge of hunger). l'hese should be treated with food which is easy to digest, fatty, warm and little in quantity, 11.

Nit/rarodha-(suppression of skrp) :II

a-stq:

1

Suppression of sleep cau::,es delusion, feeling of heavyness of the head and eyes, lasf'itude, too 1nany yawnings and squee· zing pain all over the body. Good sleep a1,d mild massaging are the ideal treahuents. 12.

Kararodha-(snp ressi<n! of cough) :1 Suppression of cough causes its increase,. difficulty in breathing, loss of taste (or appetite), heart diseases, emaciation and hiccup. For these, all treatmevts which relitve (or cure) cough should be done. 13.
TI,

\iltit

48

[CH.

Sramasvasa rodha-(suppression of heavy respiration) :-

m:r

-

at.!l

enoRlel

fs:R!il!fiif: l

Tumors of the abdomen, heart diseases and delusion result fro'm suppression of heavy breathing after sternous work. Ta_king rest (not doing any physical ..a<;.tivity) and therapies for these. 14. which mitigate vata are the ideal

Jrmbhllrodha-( suppression of yawning ) :.:

\ietqS\Tfft:,

Suppression of_yawning leads to the so me diseases enume· rated under suppression of sneezing and remedy for them are all the therapies which mitigate vata. 15. AJrurodha-(suppression of tears) :-

\".)

1

firqn
Running in the nose, pain in the eyes, head and heart, stiffness of the neck, loss of taste (or appetite), giddiness and abdominal tumors arise from. control of tears. Good sleep, drinking wine and hearing of pleasant stories are the treatments. 1f1.

of vomitting)
· 1

qih

-.\i

WJf;rf
"'\

I
I

.

Visarpa (herpt>s), rashes on the skin, leprosy (and other skin diseases), irritation in the eyes, pallor (anaemia), fevers, cough, opP.ression in the che-st (nausea) pigmented patches on the face and swdling ( dropsy ) arise from suppression of vomitting. Mouth gargles, inha1ations, fasting, eating dry foods, and then inducing votnitting, exercises, blood letting, and purgations are treatment. Oil mixed with alkalies and salts is ideal for oil massage and bath, 17· 18.

IV j

SOTRASTHANA

49

Sukraroaha (suppression of semen) :(:
I
ll ll

f9=1i:

fSNT: R;irq:

I

Suppression of semen produces its discharge (constantly), pain and swelling of the genitals, fever, discomfort in the ( region of) the heart, obstruction to micturition, cutting pain in the body, Vfddhi (inguinal and SC!Otal hernia), urinary stones and impotence.. These should be treated with food containing poultry, sura (beer) and rice, enema therapy, oil massage, immersion brtth (tub-bath), milk processed with drugs which clean the bladder; and loving won1en (copulation).

19-20.

'l.''Tor
Those persons who are babituated to suppression of urges and having thirst and pain in the abdomen, emaciation and faecal votnitting should be rejected. 21.
l

et'S!fii a'Si

it !J ar-t_ srfaI

All diseases arise from (premature) initiation (by force) and suppression (control by force} of the urges of the body. For those common diseases arising from these acts specific treatments were enumerated so far. In others of different kinds, usually pavana {vata) gets aggravated, hence they should be treated with foods, drinks and therapies which clear the · passages (of vata) and help its downward movement.

DhlJrat;tiya vega-(urges to be controlled ) ;-

if(q

:q 1

...
He who· is desirous of happiness here ( in this life ) and hereafter (life in the other world) should control the urges·
4A

50

A$TANGA

[ OH.

of greed, ·envy, hatred, jealosy, love (desire)!etc.\ and gain , control over his sense organs. 24. '

Sotlhana cikitJ4 prafamsa-(importance of purifactory therapies)t. . ;;:.r

Slftr I

ft

llrt"n

All out efforts should be made to clear out the ma1as and waste products) at appropriate tinJes. Too much of their accumilation leads to their aggravation and even cutting short of life itself (dt,ath). 25.
I

U4J:T il' The which are mitigated by bnghana therapies might sometimes become aggravated those which are cleared ( expelled out ) by not get aggravated ( purificatory ) therapies

it

and pacana (again) but sarnsodhana again. 26.

I
11'(\511

The physician who knows the proper time of every · therapy (sodhana or purifactory) should administer tLem in properl procedure and proper degree, later on administer appropriate effective rejuvinators and aphrodisiacs. 27.
Bhliajaktapita cikitsa-(treatment for those debilitated by porifactory therapy ) :-

rri
r' "' •

1
r-. r-

II

l

For those emaciated (debilitated) by therapies 1 it is ideal to give theln nourishing fouds such as sali (dee), sastika ( rice which matures in sixty d::tys ), godhuma ( ) mudga (green-gra1.n), 1narhsa ( rneat), ghrta (ghee, butterfat) etc., medicines which are good to the heart (or n1ind) which increase hunger combined together to improve the taste and digestive. capacity; oilmassage (and bath), sirnple massage, bath, decoction enema and oil-enema therapies. 28-29.

IV]

SOTRA liT HANA
.::..

51

-:ri'JI'

I

TttfT

By these, they will obtain hap_11iness l health), keenness of all the pavaka (fire-like activities ofthe hody), improved intellegence, clarity of colour ( cotupkxioP) arL: sensory perceptions, sexual vigour and lm ·g life. 30.
Notes :--Pivaka is agni or fire·1ike agent in the body, they are of thirteen kinds, viz. one jatharagni or (digestive activity present in the alimentaty tract ), five bhiitagni (one of each bhiita), also present in the alimentary tract and helping the digestion offt>od material of their respective bhiita and seven dhatvagni (one in each dhatu responsible for dhatu paril)ama-tissue metabolism ). Health depends upon the proper quantity, q alities and functions of these agni ( fiJe.Jike activity), any abnormality leads to origin of disca'1es.

Aganturoga-(traunu't:c rli-;eases) :-

it 6
;Ji!{t:

t

-

Those diseases produced by bhiita (evil spirits, bacteria, parasites, insects and other living L..?ings), (poisons), air (hurricar,e, cyclone), agni (tire, electncity, radiation etc.) (injury, wouLtds etc.), bhafiga (fracture of bones) etc., as (hatred), bhaya also those due to raga (desire, lust), (fear) etc. are all known as Agani u -diseases (arisiPg from external causes). 31.

Sarvar{}ga samllrrya cikitsa-(gcnerztl trentu:1ent for all diseases):(ttr:rr:
•: 1

1
i

:v UT;:olt !1\\111
Avoidance of improper (of the body, miPd and speech by wi1lful nf rules), control of the senses, remembering previous ex pet iauces (and tlcting rightly), good age) and thtt knowledge of thf' land (l:abitat). tine

-

52

:

[CH

self (and their importance to hea1tl1), adherence to rules of good (moral) conduct, conduct of propitiary rites as prescribed in the Atharva veda, worshipping of n1alevalent p1anets, not touching (not comlng in contact directly) the bhiiUis (evil spirits, bacteria> insects and other creatur es)-these are in brief, enumerated here, as the plan (means, methods) to prevent the onset of diseases-both nija (organic) and agafitu (traumatic)-and also for the cure ( 01 relief) of those (diseases) which have already arisen .. 32-34.
I
II

The a ccun1ilation of a rising frotn cold {season) should be expelled out during vasanta (spril:g); that arising from (su should be expelled during abhrakala rainy 5easou); that arising from (rainy seasot1) be expelled during ghanatyaya exr.editiously and effectively. By this, people \\till not becon1e victims of diseases born (by the effect) of the seasons. 35.
I

:q

He, who indulges daily in healthy foods and activities, who descrirninates (the good and bad of eve1ything and then acts wisely), wh<? is not attached (too to the objects of the senses, who devclo:)s the habit of chanty, of considering all as equal (requh ing kinduess), of h uthfuluess, of pardoning and keeping company of good persons only, becomes free from all disf'ases. 36. rt3WTifil:l
11

n

Thns ends the chapter called Roganutpadaniya, the fourth in Siitrasthana of sarhhita ofstimad 'Vaghhata son of sri vaidyapati Sirnhagupta.

Chapter--s.

VI]NANlrA (K'nowledgs

of liquid matsrials)
I

m.-

,

We shaH now expound the chapter, Dravadravya vijfia· niya-knowledge of liquid n1aterials; thus said Atrey a and other great sages.

.T oya var ga-(group of waters) water) :-

3ft'Ciii'
qP!
ft
0..

1

II t II
I

ll

tt

Enlivening, comforting (healthy) to the heart (mind), stimulating the intel1ect, thin, of imperceptable tastes, slightly sweet, cold (coolant), easily digestable nector)ike in property/effect, are the properties ofgangambu (rain water) which has fallen from the sky, coming in contact with sunlight, moonlight and wind. Its good or bad, depends chiefly on the region and season. 1-2.
Not1s :--The properties described above are those of rain water colle· cted in a clean vessel directly, a little while after the commencement of rain, especially so when there is bright sunlight. It should be consumed wilhin a few hours as it loses its properties by storing. It is not good in all seasons. In olden days rain water used to be pure and so good for health, but not so now-a-days. With the increasing industrialisation, the atmosphere has become contaminated with poisonous gases, fumes and dust, so the rain water coming down form the clouds gets polluted to a great extent, because of this only we hear of sour rain, salty rain, crimson rain etc. frequently. Use of such polluted rain water for drinking is not good for health.

U318'

I
1

ffiiR

54

[ OH.

011ly that r;1iu water \\'hich makes the boiled rice kept in a deaD silver plate neither too n1oist nor change its colour is

to to cousiderd as good

drinking.
II l. II

SamuarlJtJihu-(seawater) :(IV

l

A:i A.L.tt k1.1Js ut wau::J. are call'- J :,t:iu1udra water}, they should not be used for drinking except during asvayuja

season). 3.
Notes :--The terms gar:igambu ( also called aindrarhbu ) and samudrambu also denote potahle ( pure-llriukable ) water and unpotahle ( contaminaLed, unsuLed ;or drinking ) respectively. Durng asvayuja month there will be the appearance of Agasl.ya nakcatra ( the star canopus ) to remove the poisonous properties of water and other things which IS of the earth, h-once permission tv use other kinds of water also for drinking during this season.

:a

n •
II

11

II

w::tel, collected !h a good (clca!l) and which has not become changed (in colour taste, touch etc.), should be used for drinking always. In its absence, the water of the earth, which resembles rainwater (in all its qua1ities) collected from places which are clean. and vast_. having black or white soil, and exposed to sunlight and breeze.

water) :if
('

.

.

I
II II

I

II \t II
I

The water which is duty, ueiug m1xed with slush, algae, weeds and leaves, which is not exposed to sunlight and wind, which is a mixture ot old and fresh, which is heavy (not easily qigestable), frothy, containing worms, hot (by nature), causes tingling of teelh by being very cold, that rain·

V]
rain, (befol e the a

SOTR-\.SfHANA

55

1

water which is unseaso:L-d or though season<tl that of the first ance uf Ag.,sty;-. that contaminated with the webs, sali\'a, urine, faeces of sp·ider e\c., and such other poi&onous Inaterails, should not be used for drinking.

6-7!.
]{ady"ala-(river water) :II
6')
I

II

St ;t'ed brirfly. the water cf the rivers which flow into the western ccean ( Arnbian sea ), which are swift and which have pure Wdter (uacontarainated) is good for health, whereas it is opposite (bad for health}, if it is otherwise. 8.
Notes :-The term "if otherwise'' means water of rivers which flow into the 0Cf'an ( Ray of Bengal ), which are slow and whose water is contaminated, i; bad for health.

:q-

II 1

II

-..,.

The water of rivets arising frotn Himalaya and Malaya mountains, and which get churned up well by dashing against rocks are good for health, whereas the sal!le water if gets stagna ed (and gets contaminated) gives rise to worms ( intestinal parasites ), filariasis, diseases of the heart, throat and bead. 9-10.

--.

!'lhrrfir,

1
I

-.......

Water of rivers of the Pracya (gauc;Ia)A Avanti (mAlwa) Aparanta (konkaQa) countries produces piles (haemorrhoids); of those arising from Mahendra mountains cause enlargement of the abo omen and those arising from Sahva and Vindhy1 mountains produces leprosy (qncl other skin di.:;ease) anaemia and diseases of thP. head; of those arising from Pariyatra, mitigate the (aggravated) bestow streng\h

56

HJ.{DAYAM

[Cit

and sexual vigour, the water of the sea causes vitiation of all the three 11-12.
Notes :--PI acya or gau9.a de·:a cjmpdses of central Bengal and parts of Orusa. Avafiti or Malwa country was round about the modern city of Aparafita or konkaQ.a comprises of Goa, Karwar and North districts ofKarnataka. Mahendra is the northern part _o"fthe eastern ghats, (Lhe whole 1at1ge of hills cxlending from Orissa to the distdct of Mr1dura was known by the name of Mahendra parvata). bahya is the southern range of vVestern Ghats. Viudhyas are mountain ranges of central lndm. Pa.,iya:ra is the westtrn part of the Vindhya mountains.

The water of kiipa (deep well), ta9aga (artificial pond) etc., should be considerd to be sin1ilar (in qualities and pro• perties) to those of the dese1 t, Inarshy and mountains (respa· ctively).

I

Jalapana varja-(avoiding flj drinking water) :llt4\tl 1
II

Water not be consumed or consunied in very little quantity, if unav9idable due to debility, by those suffering from poor digestive function, tumors of the abdomen, anaemia, enlargement of the abdomen, diarrhoea, haemorrhoidst diseases of the duodenum, consumption or dropsy. Exceptio sarad {autumn) and nidagha (summer) even healthy persons should drink less quantity of (in all other seasons). 13-14.

_,.,

Jalapana phala-(effects

of drinking water) :I

Persons who drink water in the middle, at the end and at the commence. .nent of the meal, will remain normal, become stout and emaciated respectively.

Sitajala (cold water) :-

fdl(f

filq""Cauht

I

V]

S"OTR.ASTHAN A

57

Cold water relieves alcoholic intoxication, fainting, vomitting, debility (fatigue), giddiness, thi1rst, heat (of the sun) burning sensation, aggravation of pitta, rakta and poison. 15

Uirzajala-(warm water) :Qt:fl.l;f e;:;v?id
C;:. ,...... ......

,I

•&

C;

""

I

:a'

I \511

Hot (warm) water stimulates hunger, helps digestion, good for the throat, easily digestable, cleanses the urinary bladder, relieves hiccup, flatulence, aggravation of anila (vata) and (kapha); is ideal on the days of purifictory therapy' and for those suffering frotn nascent fevers, coug:1, ama (accumulation of undigested materials), running in the nose1 : and pain in the flanks. 16-17.
1

o§ftt(f

<:II

Water which has been boiled and then cooled is not going to increase the moisture inside the body11 too much is easily digestable and idenl for the associated with pitta. Waterwhich has been kept overnight ( so become statle) causes ( aggravltion of) all the three 18.

Narikelodaka-( coconut water) :I

Narikelodaka (coconut water) :-is unctous, sweetr aphrodisiac, coolant, easily digestable, relieves thirst, (aggravation of) pitta and anila (vata), increase's hunger and clea ses the
urinary bladder. 19.
fi{;q;n.it qt

tnlr

I

tf'a aNer,i; 1
6

(rainy season) rf in water is best an· river water least. (in their qualities and fitness for drinking).
During

58

ASTANGA HRDAYAM .

.

.

{ Cli.

K$ira varga-(group

of milk

ana milk products) :I

u)aiin[ 1
Generally tnilk is sweet in taste and also at the end of digestion, ui;Ctous, invigourating, increases the dhatus (tissues of the body), midgattsvata and pitta, is aphrodisiac, increases (kapha) not easily digestable and coolant. 20-21.

Gokrtra-(cow's milk) :ant

g

iTTfillfQ. I

Cow's milk promotes Jo1.1g life, is rejuvinator, good for thof)e emaciated after injury ( especially to the chest ), increases intelHgence, strength and breast milk; helps easy movement of the bowels and cures exhaustion, dizziness toxicity, inauspiciousness, dyspnoea, ( increased respiration ), cough, severe thirst and hunger, long standing dysurea and bleeding diseases.

k11ra-(bujflllo's milk):qift{)
I

( buffalo's 1nilk ) is good for those suffering from very powerful digestive activity and from loss of sleep, is not easily digestable and is cold (in potency). 23.

Aja knra-(goat's milk) :-

.
/

("-

('

,.....

Aja . nulk·ts easly aigestable because of the goat drinking little quantities of water, doing n1ore physical

V]

SOI'RASTHANA

59

l

exercise, aud eating food which is of pungent and bitter tastes; it cures consurnption (pultnonary tuberculosis), fevers, dyspnoea, bleeding diseases and diarrhoea. 24.

k11ra (camel's milk) :(tq;f

<Ji I

(milk of ca1ncl)-h slightly uou.-unctous, hot (in poteney), salty, increaser.; hunger and easily digeEtable. It is good frJr mitiga.ti11g vata and kapha, distention of the abdo· men, (intestinal), worms, dropsy. enlargement of the abdomen and he:1 morrhoids. 25. lqira-(lzurnan milk) :1

(humatl nlilk.. breast tnilk), relieves vation of) vata, pitta and asrk ( blood ), cures traumatic wounds, and diseases of the eye by use in the form of tar· pa:Q.a (bathing the eye) ascyotana (eye drops) and nasya (nasal drops). 26,

Avika k11ra-(ewe's milk) :11 «'II
I

.. (..: wt's Jnilk) is nut good to the heart (mind), is hot (in potency,), cures diseases of vata origin, gives rise to hiccup, dyspnoea, increase of pitta and kapha. 261.

Hastiktlra-(elephant's milk):Hastini
(elephant's milk) is strengthening.

261

Ekalapha lqtra-(milk of single lzoofed animals) :-

q
tcn<fli \!Rd\¥0( I

[CH.

Milk of single hoofed animals ( like horse, donkey, etc.) is very hot ( in potency ), cures vata disorders localised in the sakhas, (blood and other tissues), is slightly sour and sa]t and causes lassitude (lazy ness).

.....
1

gerhi,
•(tf.l).sfa'l(f, 1 Uncooked tnilk is (produces excess secretion in the tissue pores and causing their blockage) and not easily rligestable, that which is properly cooked is opposite 1n its qualities; too much of boiling n1akes it very hard for digestion. Milk drawn from the udder (nipple) direct into the mouth is similar to nector.

Dadhi-(curds/soured milk/coagulated milk) :RlM

·, :titail\
Ill. o 11
l

:er, q
ij;r)•of
il

g
.WI

II

aw•,aR:fa)qm{_ 1
iltfq

;it
1

Dadhi is sour both in taste and also at the end of dige· stion, water· absorbent (causing constipatior1), hard to digest, hot (in potency), mitigates vata, increases fat, semen, strength, (kapha), pitta, rakta, aghi (digestive activity). produces oedema ( improves taste (or appetite}, is ideal for use in loss of intermittant fever associated with cold (rigors), chronic rhinits, dysurea; devoid of its fat, it is idenl in diseases of the duodenum. It should not be eaten at nights, not made hot, not in spring, summer, and autumn; even in other seasons, with .. out the addition of soup of mudga (green-gram), {honey), ghrta (ghee. butterfat), sitopala (sugar candy) and amalaka; it should not be daily nor when it is not well formed, othewise it will cause fever, bleeding diseases,

..

V]

SOTRASTHANA

61

visarpa ( leprosy and otJ,er /skin diseases}, par,;u;Iu (anaemia) and bhrama 29-32.

Takra-(butter milk removed of its fat)

t-

<:rft

f\ftq_
I

11

Takra (buttermilk) is easily digestable, astringent and sour in taste, kindles hunger, mitjgates kapha aud vata, and cures dropsy, en1argement of the abdomen, haemorrhoids, duodenal diseases, dysurea, loss of taste (appetite), enlargement of spleen, abdominal tumor, complications arising from excess consumption of ghee (during oleation therapy), artificial poisons and anaernia. 33-34.
Notes :-Hemadri, the commentator, clarifies, that takra is mathita dadhi ( well churned curd/coagulated milk ), it is of two kinds, sajala ( mixed with water ) and- ni jala ( unmixed with water ); sajala (water diluted ) is again of two kir.ds, sasneha ( with fat ) and asneha ( without fat ), the propel tits mentioned above are of asneha takra ( devoid of fat).

Mastu (whey/watery part of curds):1

Mastu (watery part of curds) is sin1ilar (to takra) in properties helps easy movement of bowels,. cleanses the channels and relieves constipation.

Navanila (bullet):;rer;:r')a ;ri
I

g

11

Fresh navanita (buttur) is aphrodisiac, cold (in potency), improves colour (complexion of the skiu), strength and digestion, absorbs water, cures of vata, pittrl, asrk (blood), consun1ptior1, haemorrhoids, facial paralysis and cough; butter obtained from milk i:l water absorbent, cures bleeding diseases and disease of the eye. 35-36.

Ghrta-(.gheefbutter fat) :. I

62

[CH.

...
..6.t"' ltj'\'J.i

-

U\W

trol I

Ghrta is ldeal for improving inteUegence; memory, ingeneity, keenness of digestion, longlife, semen (sexual vigour), and eye sight, for children, the aged, those who desire more children, tenderness of the body, and plcasaut voice, for those suffering from eroaciation as a result of injury to chest {lungs), parisarpa {herpes), injury from W<'apons, and fire, disor· ders of vata and pitta origin, poison, insanity, consumption, inauspicious activity (witchcraft, etc.} and fevers; is best among fatty materials {tor oleation other therapies), cold (in potency), best for retaining of youth; capable of giving a thousand good effects by a thousand kinds of processing. 37-39.

I

Qqt'il'tWJ..
Pural}a ghrta {ghee old by ten years), cures intoxication, epilepsy, fainting, diseases of the heacl, eye and vagina; clc;anses and heals of the wounds. 40.
I

kurcika, moro.J}.a, etc. are strengthening, increase the semen, sleep and kapha, cause constipatton, heavy {hard to digest) and aggravate the dosas. 41.
Not1s :-Kilita is the solid portion obtained af1er ht>ating curds or buttermilk, is the milk of cow which has just given bit th to a calf, upt() a period of abrmt th:·ec days or till the milk becomes thin; kiircika it the solid portion obtained after heating while moral)a (or morata) is the sour, thin liquid portion. ·

'ldt

,

Milk and ghee obtained from cows milk are best (in properties) and these obtained from ewe's milk, the least. 41}.

-

V]

SOTRASTHANA

63

Jk'u varga- (group of sugarcane juice anti its products) gur,ah-(properties of sugarcane juice) :I

taur:
I

Juice of sugar cane is sara (laxative), heavy (hard to degest), unctous, stoutening the body, cause increase of kapha and urine, is aphrodisi.::lc, cold in potency, cures bleeding 42. diseases, sweet in taste and also at the end of digestion. I

fq

:;:r

fo

;. \tij n

The roots, shoots and worm infested parts of the cane being crushed together, the juice getting mixed with dirty materials (dust etc.), and lapse of little time in between (crushing and consuming the juice) because of these, the cane juice taken out from machines get spoiled and causes burning sensation during digestion, is not easily digestable and causes constipation. 43-44.

tftcrf'li: I
The poul}Qraka variety of cane is best in view of its coolant, effect, thinness and more sweetness of its juice; next to it is the vamsika 45.
I
I

Next are the sataparvaka, kafitara, naipala etc., in respective order, a! e slightly alkaline aud astringent in taste, hot in potency aud cause burning sensation slightly. 46.

Phn,.ita-( half cooked molossf r, unrifined
'ilnuta
..c; • (',-..
f'

lrt acle
....

) :I

Phal}.ita (half-cooked molasst's) is heavy (hatJ to digest), (increasing the secretious in tht> tissue pores and

64

[CR.
and clea-

blocking them), causes mild increase (of the nses the urine (by increasing its quantity).

Guf/.lJ-( jaggery/molassesftreacle) :-

q'la:

11\3\111

Gu4a (jaggary, molasses) washed well (made white and purified by some process) does not cause great increase of (kapha). (causes slight increase); helps easy eliminati::>n of urine and faeces; the other one (which is not washed and purified) causes appearances of worms greatly (inside the inte· stines) and disorders of bone-marrow, blood, fat, muscles, and also of kapha.
p:

qans, ifq:

That 1which is old is good to heart and suitable for health that which is fresh, causes 'increase of kapha and weakens digestive activity. 47-48.

Matvandikadi-(hrown sugar etc.) :\tTUT\«IfW8'T
oc..

I

itri:rur
MatsyanQjka (brown sugar), khaQ.da (sugar candy) and sita (white sugar) in their order are better gu,;fc:t-jagger/treacle), are aphrodisiac, good for the emaciated and the wounded, cure bleeding diseases aud aggravation of vata. 49.

..,

.rasa Jarkara :81: un 'fiqAT 1 -3 Yasa sarkara -(sugar prepared from ya_vasaka plant) is similar in properties to sugar but is bitter-sweet a119 astringent in taste. 49!.

All sugars cure burning sensation, ting, and bleeding diseases. 50.

vomitting, fain·

Among the products of sugarcane juice, sugar is the bestand pha9ita (half-cooked molasses) is the least. 50f.

• '"m ,

....

V]

SOTRASTHANA

ti5

:-

I
qto<!S'
Madhu (honey) is good for the· eyes (vision), breaks up hard n1asses, relieves thirst, (increases kapha), poison. leprosy (and other skin hicCltp, bleeding diseas s, diseases), worms, vomitting, rlyspnoea, cough, diarrhoea; clea· nses, unites and heals wounds 11 aggravates vata, is non•unctous and slightly astringent and sweet in taste; tnadhu sarkara (solidified houey) is simi]ar to it (honey) in properties and actions. 51-52!.
:q

Honey, kills, if used after heating it, and by those suffering from great heat, used during hot season, hot country or with hot foods. 53.

fird

'l

if

l

I

But honey does not cause any harm when used warm (mixed with warm water) for producing vomitting or for administration of niriiha (decoction enema) because it comes out ofthe body before it undergoes digestioP. 54.
Notes :-Honey is the sweet liquid prepared by bees for their own use but robbed by man. There are many varieties of bees, different in size, colour and habitat. Some dwell in forests and build their home {hive) attached to the b1 of tall trees, some ·build them inside the crevices of the trees, roofs of tall buildings, inside the cracks of the walls etc., gene• ally large and medium sized, brown coloured bees build big hives while small siz<"rl, slightly blackish bees build their home inside the crevices, hollows of trees buildings. The bees hop from flower, suck the sweet nect<u, sto1e them for some tim<' in a special sac inside their mouth. After they come b,tck to th( ir hive in the evening, they bring out the sweet nr.cta' aud deposit it inside the small cham bets of the hive, thus they build up a store of 1 c<tdy food for their own use in rainy seaso\). Man lurecl by the sweetness of honey, drives away the bees forcebly and collects the honey, daring even the strong poisonous of the enraged

...

5A

.

66

AS.TANGA

l CH.

...

bees. Now-a-days bee keeping has come into practice, wooden hives are provided to them in side the garden and honey collected periodically without harming the bees or being harmed by them. Honey is a very sweet, thick liquid, varying in colour from dark brown to light yellow The sweetnes and thickness show varia tiona depending upon the region, type of flowers bees feed on, the season and the variety of the bees. Honey is a mixture of nectar and pollen of flowers. It contains 20.06o/ of water, 71 4 ·. o/ of ca1 bohydrate ( in the 0 0 form of two sugars-dextrose and lavulose ), 0.38% ofp1otein, small quantities of formic acid, and vitamin B. It is used as a sweetening agent along with foods and drinks, it is also ufed as a vehicle for administration of medicines, as a supplementary diet and as a medicine in many diseases. It can be used daily by all, of age, or sex, but in little quandties either as such without adding anything, or along with other articles of food. It is necessary to use genuine honey always and reject the spurious and adultrated honey which are sold cheap in the_ market. Genuine honey is slightly t1 anspat ent, clear liquid without any precipitate at the botom of the b<Jttle, and forms a uniform solution when poured into clean water.

Taila varga-(group of oils and ot!zfr fats):il$.1 a'(ief'J':
C!

I
lil 1

.

.
ti;rfi

.
:q

.

;:.r "il

''

Tailas (oils) are generally similar (in properties) to their source (oil seed), of them the chief is that of tila (sesamum).

Oil of sesamum possesses the properties like penetrating deep into the tissues, and spreading throughout the body fast; it produces diseases ofthe skin, is bad to the eyes, capable of entering into even minute pores, hot in potency, uot increasing kapha, it makes ]ean persons fatty anrl fat persons is constipating, kills worn1s; with appropriate proce· ssing. it cures a11 diseases. 55-56.

lean,

Not1s :--In ancient times in.InoiaJ oil ofsesamum was the chief edible oil and useJ both for cooking- as well as for the treatment of diseases. "!:-he term 'taila' specially means the oil of tila ( sesamum ) and used in tbat sense at all place,, in all the ancient books of A.yurveda (and t:V4l'D orsanskrit Iiteiature ) unless specified differently. The use Qf sesa-

V]

sOTRASTHANA

o7

.mum oil for cooking is gradually becoming lesa in recent times and oil of groundnuts (peanuts), cocoanut, mustard, rape seeds, soya bean, sunflower etc. have been brought to use. In the context of Ayurveda, it is seaamum oil only thst should be used for internal administration of medicated oi11. Many other kinds of oils of medicinal value are described further on.

Oil

of Eracula-(castor

oil) :,....,

..

.

,.....

!I'! '

:er

"""II

I

Castor oil is bitter, pungent and sweet in taste, sara (laxative), hard to digest, cures enlargen1ent of the scrotum, (hernia), abdominal tumors, diseases caused by vita and ka pha, enlargement of abdomen, intermittant fevers, pain and swellings of the waist, genitals, abdomen and back, is capable of penetrati ·1g deep, hot in potency and bad in smell.

Oil of red variety of castor seeds is sti \1 more penetrating, hot in potency and sticky and has a bad smell. 57-58.
Notes :-Castor oil is used for medicinal purposes to produce purgation to relieve pains and reduce swelling etc. it is an efficient Vitahara dru1 ( mitigatt. s the increa5ed vita) and so very useful in many diseuea.

...

Sar1apa taila-(mustard oil) :

*t'f'Ji

1

'q

11"'-"

taila (mustard oil) is pungent, hot in potency, penetrating deep, mitigates (reduces) kapha, semen and anila (vata), easily digestable, produces bleeding diseases, rashea on the skin, leprosy and other skin diseases, haemorrhoids, · ulcers, and worms (bacteria etc.). 59.

Ak1a taila (oil of vibhuaka) :-

an\1

fit"tfii•NI1( I

Aksa taila-oil obtained frotn seeds of vibhitaka is sweet, cold potency good for the hair, hard to digest, mitigates pitta and anita {vata).

68

A

A

YAM

[ CH.

Nimba taila-( neem oil) :;lftoll

.
I'
i

Nimba taila is not very hot (slightly hot) in potency, bitter, destroys WOI ms (becteria, etc.) leprosy and other skin diseases and mitigates kapha. 60.

I 1

Uma-kusumbha taila-(linseed oil ar.d s.ifflower oil) :-

:ert'4Svi

1

Taila ofuma (linseed) and kusumhha are hot in potency, produce diseases, of the skin, aggravate kapha and pitta.

VaslJ-majjO.·medas-(muscle1at, marrow andfat) ::Jfat' "f
tU(t)l)

ll,tfl
1

'(m

=er,
1

Vasa (muscle-fat) and majja (bone»m:.1rrow) mitigate vata, cause increase of strength, pitta and kapha and sin1ilar in properties with the 1neat of animals from which they are obtained. Eve11 the fat should also be understood as to them (muscle-fat and marrow). 61.

A1adya varga-(group ojwines) :(!

J('Uqtt:

I

t(Tq;:f
'-.=1'1\'T'Pi

I

II
11

ul

u

fla
q)({

1

I

Madya (wines, all alcoholic beverages generally) in general, stimulate digestion, help taste, penetrate deep, hot in potency, give satisfaction ( mental )-and nourishment (to the body) slightly sweet, Litter and pungent in tastt"', sour at the end of digestion, laxative, slightly astringent, confer good voice, health, intellegence, colour and cotnplexion; easily digestable, beneficial to those having loss of s]eep or t"'X{:rss sleep for both

SOTRASTHANA

69

lean and stout persons; is non-viscid, capable of entering through minute pores aed cleansing them, mitigate vata and kapha, all these if used judiciously; but used otherwise, they act like poison. 62-64!.

gq
ipi
if

Fresh ones are hard to digest; make for increase of all the doras, whereas old ones are opposite of this; they should not be used hot or with hot comforts, not by persons who are having purgations (or had purgative therapy) and who are hungry; wines which are very strong or very weak, which are very clear (like water) or very turbid and those which are spoilt, should not be used (or drinking. 65-66.
Notes :-The term 'madya' refers to all types of alcoholic beverages in general, the practice of preparing and drinking alcoholic beverages ia very ancient in our cot;tntry going as far back as the times of J.'gveda ( 3000 B. C. ). Drinking many kinds of wines, sometimes alone, some times in groups and in assemblies was very common then, so also even today. Alcoholic beverages produce exhilaration and a sort of mental exuberance. Hence the1r popularity, and also as a tonic for health. But / the good effects are slight compared to the quantity required to produce them. So people go on increasing the quantity of the drink day after day and finally become addicted to it, so greatly, that it is impossible to be withbut it even for a few hours. Large quantities of such drinks produce many abnormalities in the various 01 gans and their functions and cause incurable and even death. Having understood this, ancient scholars prescribed many rules and regimen for taking alcoholic drinks in order to protect the health, such as, that it should be little, to be taken after food and not on empty stomach, taken in the company of good friends and not alone, and many others. Followed these will avoid much of the bad effecta of such drinks. Judicious use of alcoholic drinks is somewhat good to the body and mind but its injudicious use is definitely injurious just like poison.

....

Sura (beer) : -

6m:ilt

I

..
Sura cures abdomininal enlargement of the abdo• men, heainorrh,)ids, duodenal diseases and consumption, is lubricating, hard to tnitigates vata, causes increase of fat, blood, milk, urine and kapha. 67.

[ CH.

Notes :--Sura is prepared by fe1menting a mixture of water, flour of rice, jaggery (treacle ) etc., somewhat like the beer of the present day.

Yihhttaka suriJ1tVT

"' 1
qan

er0r

n ....

I

Sura prepared horn vibhitika is not very intoxicating, is easily digestable, good for health; not so harmful, (as other wines) in wounds, anaemia, and leprosy and other skin diseases. 69.

(yava surll ) :-

geff
61!. Aritfa-(Jermentecl decoctions ) :-

I

Sura prepared !rom yava (bailey) causes constipation, is not easily digestable, non-unctous and aggravates all the three

..i).sftl:
!:1Wurr...

...

11\toll
1
11\ttll

...

( ferrner.ted decoctions ) wheu used as intoxicating
drink possesses properties of the materials from which it is prepared, and is more intoxicating of all alcoholic beverages; it cures disease of the duodenum, anaemia, leprosy and other skin diseases, haemorrhoids, dropsy, consumption, enlargement of the abdomen, fever, abdominal tumors, worms (intestinal parasites) and disorders of the spleen; is astringent, pungent and aggravates vata. 70-71.

MlJrdotka-(wine preparedfrom grapes) :'IV .. i

m-

.......
Mardvika ( wiue prcpa.reJ f1 om grapes) is sca1 ificient good to the heart (or mind), not very hot in potentcy, sweet, sara (laxative), causes slight increase of pitta and anila (vita), cures anaema, diabetes, haemorrhois and worms (intestinal parasites). 72.

V]

SOTAASTHANA

71

Kkarjara-(wine prepared from dates) :-

.

.

1

Kharjiira-(wine prepared from dates)-is inferior in proe· rties (than of grapes), aggravates vata. and hard for digestion.

73.
Sarkara-(wine prepared by using sugar) :is sweet smelling, sweet taste, good for the heart (or mind), not very intoxicating- and easily digestable.
1

"''fa..,if

1 '"''-"

GouQa ( prepared by using ntolasses/treacle ) produces elitnination of urine, faeces and flatus, is no:urishing and increasing hunger. 731.

S!dhu-(wine

of sugarcane jutce) :q(:

tt\IWII 1

Sidhu (prepared frorn {errnenting sugarcane juice) aggra• vates vata and pitta, decreases lubrication and diseases of (kapha), obesity, dropsy, enlargement of the abdomen and haemorrhoids; that prepared by cooking sugarcane juice is best. 74.

Maahvasnva-(wine prepared from honey) :. MadhNas 1va (wine prep ..1red fro1n honey) breaks up hard masses (of k?.pha etc), penetrates deep, cures diabetes, chronic nasal catarrh and cough. 75.

i§if

Sukta-(wine preparedfrom tubers) :..,u+li

;:v

I 1 \5\11
1

Sukta (wine pre pd. red from roots and tubers) increases the moisure of hlood, pitta and kapha, expels vata in downward directions, very hot in potency, is penetrating, causes dryness, sour, good to the heart. (or mind), increases taste (appetite),

72

ASTANGA

[CH

is sara (laxative), enhances hunger, is cold to touch, cures anaemia, diseases of the eye and worn1s. 76.
ll\9\91 l

..

Sukta prepared by usirg jaggery, sugarcane, honey and grapes are easily digest.t ble in their successive order,

Asava (fermented infusion ) ::q

1

· Asava prepared by using tubers, routs, fruits etc, is similar (in properties with that of sukta).

il=Erii
Asava prepared by using sanQaki (balls of fried paddy mixed with spices, dried in sun and then deep fried in oil) and by other material as oil-cakes etc) which have turned sour by lapse of time are a ppetisers and easily digestable. Dhanyamla :I
...._

IV

. (lq;f

ll\9,11
ertoetitnTqaq:_ I

a

wa

1

-.':

I

Dhanyamla (liquor prepared by fermenting the water in which rice and such other grains, pulses etc. have been slightly cooked or merely Wa5hed} is purgative, penetrating, hot in potency, aggravates pitta, cold to touch, relieves fatigue and exhaustion, inc;·eses appetite and hunger, cures pain of the urinary bladder, ideal for use as asthapaua (decoction enema), good to the heart, easily digestable, mitigates vata and kapha. Sauvlraka and also possess similar properties, cure worms, hea-rt disease, abdominal tumor, haemorrhoids and a' aemia. These are prepared from dehusked yava (barley) and yava with husk respectively. 79-81.
Not1t :-Sukta, sauviraka, etc. were in use in olden days and are not prepared in the present day. Beer, brandy, whisky, rum, gin, champagne, etc. are the popular alcholic drinks of today. Country

I

SOTRASTHANA
liquors like toddy and arrack are- popular with the poor people. The percentage of'alcohol varies 1n eae-n 01 Lhem ranging ft om 20% to 80%. Those· containing less amount of alcohol (less than 15%) act as stimulents aml do not cause intoxication when . used in doses. More the alcohol, gr,eater ia!he intoxication, risk of addiction and conse- quent ill-health etc.

Matra varga-(group of urine) :I

q
I

Miitra (urine) of cow, goa,t, sheep, buffalo, elephant, horse, camel and donkey-are going to aggra¥ate pitta, are non .. unctous, penetrating deep, hot in potency, pungent with salt as its secondary taste \and cure wo1 ms, dropsy, abdominal enlargement, flatulence, colic, anaemia, aggravation ofkapha and a r:!a (vata), abdon1inal loss of taste (or appetite), poison, leucoderma, leprosy, (an.d other skin dis('ases) and haemorrhoids, and are easily digest'flble. 82-83
Notes though a waste product of the body has many medicinal properities, which had been recognised py the ancients and so was used both internally a d externally. Cow's urine is used more commonly than of other animals, probably because of the special sanctity attached to the cow in this country. Urine is composed mainly of water with Httle quantitiey of urea, uric acid, salts ( phospates, oxalatcs of sodium, calcium etc. ) and some horm9nes, the proportion of these varying from one animal to the other, and by many other factors also.
:q
'(f(t

I

II<::VII

Thus, were described. so far, in brief, the groups of liquid such as that of water, milk, sugarcane juice, oils and wines (as also of urine), 84.

_
7

...

....
iiTJr q.m-,5\"q'p.f: II t.. II

Thus ends the chapter called Dravadravya vijfilniya, the of siitrasthana of ya sathhita composed by sr.imad Vagbhata, son of sri vidyapati Sithhagupta.

qt5o)So"l(flf: I

1

Chapter-6 ANNASVA.ROPA VI]NA.NlrA (.Nature offood materials) :I

W

I

We shall now expound the chapter called Annasvariipa Vijnaniya (knowledge of nature of food materials); thus said Atreya and other great sages. I.

sukadkanya varga (group of corns with spike):aM
('

I
I

tt
!!v-sittb:
'lit'!lif)
I

II

II :t II
1

it :qr;il'

u

11

Rakta, mahan, kalan;a, tUrt}aka, sakunahrta, saramukha, rodhra,iika, sugandhika, put}Q.ra, pal}C;iu, pUl)Qarika, pramoda, gaurasariva, kaiicana, siika, kusu· maJ}.Qaka, Hingala, lohavala, kardama, sitabhiru, patanga, tapaniya,-these and other varieties of {rice) are suitable (as foed). 1-3.

ftiPqr

I

fc:m:

II

II

They are sweet in taste and at the end of digestion, unctous, aphrodisiac, cause constipation and little quantity of faeces, have a:stringent as secondary taste, good for health, easily digestible, diuretic and cold in potency. 4.
..

I

..

(J(f:

II

II

VI]

SOTRASTH.ANA

7.S

. Among the above varieties and even among the siika dhanyas (grains which have sharp spike at their front) the rakta (red) variety is best, it relieves thirst and mitigates all the thrc;e next inferior to that is mahan variety, next to thac is kalama and so on in their order (of succession). 5.
('

'1'•-=n..sl=fZT!

"

('..

I II
1

II

Yavak . . , hay.:lut-t, and varieties (of rice) are sweet, hot in potency; are hard to digest, unctous,

sour at the end of digestion, increase kapha and pitta, help elimination of urine and faeces easily. These are bad in their reverse order (of enurneration ). 6-7 a.
!ft6'T

WwT
(t'(f:

..

II " II 1 II <: II

I
l(.W)

II
I

II

...

{the paddy whit:h matures in sixty days) is best

among vrihi (paddy); is unctous, constipating, easily digestays long inside the stable, sweet, miti,.. ates the three body (alin1entary tract). cold in potency; it is of two kindsgoura (whitr) and asita-goura (blackish-white). Next inferior (to ika) is mahavrihi. 11ext to that is and the others such as jatiin,ukha, kukkutanQ.aka, paravatak1, siikara, varaka, uddalaka, ujvala, Cifla, sarada, dardura, gandhana and kuruvifida. 7 b-10 a. /
Utofl

qrq: I
The other varieties of rice are sweet in taste and sour at the end of digestion, cause increase of pitta and are hard to digest, makes for increase of urine, faeces and body temperature. Pa\ala kind of rice aggravates all the three

10 b-11 a.,

76

[ CH.

Notu :--The different varieties of rice mentioned here are either not clearly recognisable or even hard to find now-a-days as majority of them have been replaced by high yeilding, new strains, each kind has regional charactors and not g1 own uniformaly throughout the country. The kind of rice which is easily digestable, having sweet taste and pleasant smell has to be selected for daily use.

TrtJailhllnya varga-(group

l!f /!rains produced by grass like plants) :-

. qUNT"'
(grainr. produced by

.

II
I

Kangu, kod.rava, nivara, syamaka and other trQadbanya like plants) are cold in potency, easily digestable, inct ease vata, scarilicieut and mitigate kapba and pitta. II.
gli:

qt m&)

I

Of them, priyafigu, especially, helps in the unification of broken parts (fractures of bones), makes the body stout and is hard to digest; efficieutly stops discharge of fluids from the body, cold to touch and antipoisonous.

w:

.

,.....

1 II t ij II

Yava (barley) dry, cold in potency, hard to digest, sweet sara (laxative), helps formation of and flatus, disiac, gives statnina, reduces the urine, body fat, pitta and kapha, cures chronic nasal catarrh, dyspnoea, cough, urus(stiffness of the thigh), of the throat and skin. 13 b-14.
qq-: 1

Anuyava (a small sized barley) is inferior in qualities to yava; venu yava {heeds of barnboo) is non-unctous and hot in 15 a.

Ul8'T gli;

s:.)q;ft
.._: ,
ijfij: llt\11

.-!.

VI]

SOTRASTHANA

77

Godhiima (wheat) is aphrodisiac, cold potency, hard to digest, unctous, nourishing, mitigates vata and pitta, unites the broken parts (fractur'e), sweet in taste, gives strength and is sara (laxative). Nandimukha (veriety of wheat) is good for health, cold in potency, astringent sweet in taste and easily digestable. 16.

tf«

l

Thus ends the group of grains .which have spike.
Notes :-.;;Yava and Anuyava are the big and small- varieties of barley, Venuyava is the seeda oCbamboo tree which is used rarely aa Cood.

Simhtallanya varga-(group of legumes or pulses) :artl

I

r""""n.,
c;5ij

'i'W1

mt

...

Mudga (green gram), aQ.haki (tur), masiira (lentil) and other belong to the group called sithbidhanya (those having pod,sflegurnes). They produce constipation, astringentsweet in taste, absorb water, pungent after digestion, cold in potency, easily digestable, mitigate fat, kapha, asra (blood) and pitta, suited for use as external application and bathing the body parts etc. a.
'IU..s'!l'

f!IT,Sc!qlll!l'8:,
,

Among them, mudga (green gram) is best, it causes mild increase of cala ( vata ); kalaya ( round pea ) causes ! great increase of vata; (bigsized blackgram) also increases vata and dryness, produces more faeces and is hard to 18.
\!1iurt:

qtft..mJT:

11\,11
C.

..

Rf;a"

r

I

Kulattha (horse gram) is hot in potenc,y, sour at the end of digestion, cures diseases of urinary stones, dyspnoea, nasal catarrlf; haemorrhoids, of

78
kapha aud vata and diseases. 19.

HR.DAYAM

[Cit.

especially

gives

rise to

bleeding

>

uu

fqttfiiT

I

(flat bean) aggravates vata, pitta, rakta, stanya (breast milk) and n1iitra (urine), is not easily digestable, is sara (laxative), causes burning sensation, decreases vision, semen, kapha, sweiling and effect of poisons. 20.

...

{«:
I

1

(black gram) is unctous, increases strength, kapha, faecal matter and pitta, is laxative, not easily digestable, hot in potency, mitigate anila ( vata ), sweet in taste, causes increase and of semen greatly. 21.

u
Fruits of kakanQola and atmagupta are similar (in prope· rties) to 22.

f(JT: ctii: tnit'
\

I

Til a (sesan um) is hot in potency, good for the- skin, cold on touch, good for hairs, strengthening, not easily digestable, produces little quantity of urine, pungent at the end 0f digestion and increases intellegence, digestive function, kapha and pitta. 23.
I

qtit,
Seeds of uma (linseed) is unctous, s-weet·hitter in taste, hot in potency, causes kapha and pitta, hard to .digest, destroys vision and semen, pungent at end of digestion. Similar are the seeds of kusurhbha. 24.
m'tTS:ir

-q I

(black gram) in the group of simbija (legumes) and yavaka (small barley) in the group of siikClja (cereals) are very inferior.

-I
I

VI]

SO'IRASTH.ANA

'19

;rei

'

Fresh grains (just harvested) are (causes excess exudation from tissue pores and block them by it), old by one year are easily digestable, those· which grow quickly, those which are removed of their husk, those that are properly fried are a1so easily digestable. 25.
I

Thus ends the group of si1nbi dhanyas. (legumes).

Krtanna 'IJar ga-(group of Prepared foods) :(
Jrq)
Qt=a'ifT ) "lq: I
:q

....il: 1
II
1

...

Mal}.Qa, peya, vilepi and odana are more easily digestable in their preceding order ol enumeration. out of them, mal}<}.a is the best for its causing easy movement of faeces and :fl£!tus, relieving thirst and exhaustion, residues of (which might have remained over even after purificatory therapies); it helps digestion, restores the norma ley of the tissues, causes softness of the channels (and tissue pores), perspiration and kindles the digestive activity. 26-27-i-. '
Notes :--MaiJ.Qa, peya, vilepi and odana are preparations of rice or other grains cooked in water. The thin fluid resembling water, drained out immediately after boiling is known as mal)Qa; slightly thicker to manda but still only liquid is peya; the next stage with mo1 e of solid and less of fluid is called vilepi and the last stage which i• Eolid without fluid portion is known a-; odana. The solid one, the odana-is easily digestable, its earlier one the vilepi is more easily oigestable, its previous one the peyi is still more and the first one the mai)Qa is sti 11 better digestable than peya.
,. ::.

I Peya relieves hunger,· thitst,
debility, diseases

.so·

[ CH.

of the abdomen and fevers, it causes easy elimination of faeces, good for all, kindles appetite and helps digestion. 28.
Il

Vilepi withholds discharge of fluids fron1 the body, good for the heart, relieves thirst, kindles appetite, ideal for all, especially for those suffering from ulcers, eye diseases, those who have been administered purifactory therapies, who are weak and who have been given fats for drinking as part of oleation therapy. 29.
11
I

ul.tn
Odana prepared with grains which have been washed wen, irt wliich the entire water has evaporated and which is devoid of hot fumes is easily digestable; likewise that prepared along with addition of decoction of medicinal substances of hot potency or that prepared with fried grains are also easily digestable; the opposite of these, that prepared with addition of milk, mutton etc., are 110t easily digestable.

...
;twur: sfturwr)

,
lll.':ttl

In this manner, the effects of the grain, kind of processing, admixtures, quantity and other aspects should all be determined ( by experiance ). 30-311.
?

Man1sa rasa (n1ea t soup) is stoutening the body, gives satisfaction ( nourishment ), .fJphrodisiac, good for the eye (vision) and cures ulecers. 32.


Mudgasiipa (soup of green grafh) is good for health, for those who have undergone purifactory therapies and for those sufferi11g from ulcers, diseases of the throat and eyes. 32!.

VI]

SOrRASTHANA.

81

....

Kulatth .. soup (soup of gram) produces movetnent · of vata and relieves abdominal tumor, tiinl and pratituni (pains of the urinary bladder.) 33.
l(flq;f

Eatables prepared from tila (sesamum), piJJ,yaka (residue of sesamum after the oil is taken out), dried leafy vegetables, germinated grains, sai}Qakivataka (balls of fried rice dried in sun and then fried in oil) destroy eyesight. increase the cause debility and are hard to digest. 34.

iaurt

I

Rasala (curds or yoghart, churned by hand and added with powder of pepper and sugar) is stoutening, aphrodisiac, unctous, strengthening and appetiser.
..!}

e '

srtUlii

lr (fQ. 1

Panaka ( syrup ) relieves exhaustion, hunger, thirst and fatigue, gives satisfaction, hard to digest, stays long in the stomach, is diuretic and good to the heart (or the mind). Its properties are same as that of the rnaterial from which it is prepared. 35.

flm:

I

Laja ( fried paddy ) relieves thirst, vomitting, diarrhoea, diabetes, obesity, mitigates kapha, cough and pitta, increases appetite, easily digestable and cold in potency. 36.
11'\\911

Prthuka (parboiled and flaked paddy) is hard to digest, strengthening increases kapha, stays long; in the stomach 37. (causing
\:ltilt

aqur)

1

Dhana (fried barely and other grains) stays long in the stomach causing indigestion, is dry, satisfying, scarifying, and hard to digest.
6A

82
;:) !'l. "

f.CH.

Rf;a
'f
if

'Q't;Jlf{:l'l'

I
;r

m;i

i6efca-r-(
efT I

Saktu (corn flour) is easily digestible, relkves hunger, thirst, fatigue, eye diseases and wounds, is nutritious and taken as a drink gives strength immediately. They should not be eaten without drinking water in between, not twice in a day, not at not solely (without other kinds offoods) not after meals, not by hard chewing and not too much in quantity. 38-39.
Notes :-Liji is prepared by frying paddy, prthuka is prepared by boiling paddy for a shm t while and pounding it with ptstle in a morter dhina is made by frying b 1rely wh1ch is soaked in water and saktu is flour either raw or fried.
Many tasty eatab!es are prepared from the flour of rice and other cereals, horsegram, bengal-gram and other legumes, with addition of spices, sour and fragrant substances, some of them are boiled in water, some are steamed, some are fried in oil etc., vegetables like onions, brinjals, banana etc. are also iused in some preparations. These are asually consumed as side-dishes or snacks in between meals. However in view of their difficult digestability, some warnings have been enumerated above.

Nl!:S:lfT
gf;:

11\:loll

1

PiQyaka produces giddiness, dryness, indigestion and vitiates vision. Vesavara is not easily digestable, is unctous, increases strength and builds the body, that prepared from greengram and others is hard to dige&t and possess properties similar to the material from which it is prepared. (41)
Nol1s :- -Pil}yaka is the residue of sesamum, groundnut and other oil
SLeds, after taking out all the oil from them, Vesavata is meat, cut into

minute bits, added with spices like pepper, ginger etc, and roasted or fried. Vegetable vesavira is prepared w1th flour of pulses of various kinds, added with spices etc
,..... ,....
I

-

II

VI]

SOTRASTHANA

83

.,

Eatables cooked by steaming, baked on hot mud or iron pan, in a vessel kept over a oven, inside a hearth and baked by placintg on burning coal directly are easily digestable in the succt.!ssive order of their enumeration. Similarly the eatables prepared from any one kind of grain by any of these methods of cooking. 42.
'imV ( q151v )

I

ends the group of prepared foods.
Notes prepared by steaming them are easily digeatable, those bake on hot pan is more easily digestable, tho!e cookfd in a veaael kept on a tove or oven is still better, those prepared by placing inaide a oven an.d <Hosed is still more better and those baked by pJacin1 on burning c0 a,l ill!' most easily digestable than alJ others. 'Those prcparrd by any one kind qf grain, in any one of these methods is easily digestable than a similar one prepared from another kind ofgrain.
I

Mamsa varga-(group of meats):-

.

fq•l:

I

Jrlft:

Mrga varga (deer etc.) (antelope, fawn) kuraiiga (a kind of deer), rksa (white footed antdope), gokaqla (deer antelop· ), mrgamatrika (red coloured harelike deer), sasa (hare, rabbit), sambara (rleer with branr.hed (gazelle) sarabha? etc. are known as mrga 43.
Notes :-These are different kinds of deer, antelope and bucb. Some of them are having horns, some arc hornless, all of them arc herbivorous and live in dry regiona especially shrubby forests. In olden days they were being hunted mainly for food.

Vi1kira varga :'C. 'C.

IIWII

'fffi@5T =ttef
<:1 , "''-s

1

II
1

...

Lava (bustard quail), vartika (bush quail), vartira (rain quail), ra.ktavartma (red jungle fowl), kukkubha (wild cock),

84

[ CH.

kapiiij<lla (black partridge), upacakra (small cakora (greek pheasant), kurubahava, vartaka (button quail), vartika (bush quail), tittiri (grey partridge), kralcara (black partridge), sikhi (peacock), tamraciiQa {domestic cot\), bakara (small crane), gonarda (siberian crane), girivartika (mountain quail), sarapada (a kind of sparrow), indrabha (.&edge spa• rrow), varata {goose) etc. belong to the group l.nown as (birds which scratch the with their legs and pick up their food). 44-45.
I
.. ,......_ ,...

llu II

1

Jivafiijivaka (greek partridge), (gallinul\e), bhrnagahwa (shrike), suka (parakeet), sfnika (rnynah), hi:ltva {wild kokila (cuckoo), harita (gr(y peigon), kap1bta (wood peigon}, cataka (house sparrow) etc. beloug to the: group of (birds which the food and eat). 46. Bheka (frog), godha (iguana lizard), a hi {snake), swavio' (hedgehog) etc. are bilesaya (living in burrows). 47. ,

Prasaha varga :1
l I

Jl'!l&f

1ttlaT

I

Go (cow)1 khara (ass, donkey), aswatara (mule), (camel), aswa (horse), dwipi ( leopard ), sirhha (lion), (bear), vanara (monkey), mlrjala (cat), (rat, mice), vyaghra (tiger), vrka (jackal), babhru (large brown mangoose), (hyena), Iopaka (fox), jambuka (jackal), syena (hawk), (blue joy), vafitada ( dog ), vayasa ( crow ), sasaghni (golden eagle)r bhasa (beared vulture), kurara (osprey), grdhra (vulture), uliika tow1), kuling<,ka (sparrow hawk)r dhiimika these and other animals (owlet), madhuha (honey and birds belong to the group known as ptasaha (which catch their food by teeth, tear it and eat). 48-49!.

VI]

SOTRASTHhNA

oa

- ...

I 1

Il

1

Varaha (boar), (buffalo), nyanku (dog deer), rohit;:t (big deer), ruru (swamp deer), vanH}.a (elep?ant), sr.mara (indian wild boar), camara (yak), khaQ.ga (rh1nocerus) and gavaya (goya!l ox) are known as maha.mrga (animals of huge body). 50. 1 Apcara varga-(aqtMtic birds) :I1

1
Hamsa (swan), (i ..ldian crane), kadamba (greylegged goose), baka (heron), (white breasted goose), plava (pelican), baHik,l (crane); urkrosa ( rllattard), cakrahva {ruddy krounca (pond heron) sheldrake), madgu (small ete. are known as apcara (aquatic birds). 51.

Mlatsya varga :-(Fishes)

,..

,......

t"- "

"

I

Rohita (red fish), pathina (boa1), kfirma (tortoise), kumbhira (gavial, alligater). karkata' (crab), sukti (pearl mussel), sankha (conch sheH), udru (otter), sambuka (common snail), safari (large glistening fish), varnti ca·odrika (a kind of cat fish), culuki (porpoise, seahog), Pakra (crocodile), rnakara ( crocodjle), sisumara (dolphin), timii•gala (whale, shark), raji (snake fish), cilicirna (red striped fish) and others belong to the group h( matsya (fishes). Thus eight kinds of (source ot) marhsa (meat) are enumerated. 52-53}.

(

;r

I

II

II )

Goat and st1eep are not included in any particular group because of their 1nixed heredity and living in all types of lands. 54

QU

( OH.

Out of the eight groups mentioned above, the first three {mrga, aud pratuda) are. abo known as jan gala; the last three {mahamrga, jalacara and matsya), are also called aniipa; the middle two {bi!eSa.ya and prasaha) are known as sidharana. 54l
Notes :---The region of land which has dry forests (shrubby) with Je1s rainfall is jaiigala, the region with plenty of ram fall 4nd water-logged is inup?, the region which has neither too much of dryness nor too much of moisture is sidharana ( tcmpot ate ). The nature and qualities of the land are also seen in all the flora and fauna of that region.
(f'5(

ijS'Q'"t

fm:

1

Meat of the jangala group are the best, they produce hard faeces, are cold (in potency), easily digestable, and good in sannipata with great increase of pitta and tnoderate increase of vata, mild i.ncrease of kapha following them. 55.
.)

;.fttA:
The flesh of

'flit

(rabbit) enhances hunger, pungent after water absorbent and cold in potency. 56.
ali'OTT
I

q(\'

unfT

I

The flesh of the vartaka and are slightly hot in potency, hard to digest, unctous and make body stout. Tittiri is still better, makes for increase of intellegence. power of digestion, strength and semen, with. . holds discharge of fluids from the body, improves the co1our (complexion). effectively mitigates sannipata with great increase of vata, .
..

The flesh of sikhi (peacock) is not very g?od generally but good for the ears (hearing), voice, ageing (to slow down ageing), , and eyes (vision). 58.

VI]

SOTRASTHANA 1

87

11'-\ \
l

n

Flesh ot cock ( wud fowl), Is similar (to that of peacock), and is aphrodisiac; that of the domesticated fowl increases kapha and is hard to d1gest; flesh of krakara increases intellegence and dige'ition, is good for the heart (or the mind); similar is the flesh of upacakraka; that of kat}akapota is hard to digest, slightly saity a11d increases all the 59!.

"'

,..

lt\ou

1\tleat of cataka increases kapha, is unctous, mitigates vata and best to increase semen. 60.
.::t qflhst(f)

'

I

ll\tll
Flesh of animals of the next succeding group (bileSa.ya), and hard to digest, hot in potency, unctous and sweet, increases urine and semen, :;;trengthening, mitigates vata and Increases kapha and pitta. 61.
t

qtit
fu(JT: I

Flesh of the n1aha1nrgas is cold in potency generally; .of them the flesh of carnivorous and prasaha animals have salt as secondary taste, at the end of digestion, increases the muscles of the body, ideally suited for persons suffering from long standing haemorrhoids, duodenal disease$ and consumption.
iftrd ...

n\\n
•g-t·nfi
t

Aja (goat's meat) is not very cold in potency, hard to digest, fatty, does not aggravate the being identical with the of the human body, it is (does not cause increase in the tissue chanhels) and so it is brmhat}a (stoutening). 63.

AB

[ CH·

fcr1Rta;&'(tt

9

11

A vi (meat of is opposite (in na· ure with -tliat of goat) and is brmhal}.a (stout<rning). 64.
1

I

Gomamsa (flesh of cow, bull, bullo9k ) cures d1y cough, exhaustion, excess hunger, intermittent fevers, chronic nasal catarrh, emaciation, and diseases caused by increase of vata independently. 65. \
I
I '

Flesh of d!Jces sleetl,

(buffalo) is hot, not easily digestable, proand stoutness of the body.
I

\ Flesh of varaha ( boa1) is similar to that of the buffalo, 66. relieves fatigue, rn.creases taste, semen and
1

Fish, in getieral tend to increase kapha greatly. ' Cilicima fish tends to increase all the three

cril
/

I

Lava, rohita, godha and eQa-are best in their respective -roups. 67. :g:rj :;t I
e

I

tifii

,ra

n

Meat of animals which have been just killed, which are pure (uncontaminated) and of a,dult animals only should be used as food; meat of dead animals, of those which are very emaciated, which are very fatty, and of those animals which are dead due to disease, water (drowning) and poison should be rejected. 68. ---

ttffioll

I

,

11\Q..tl 11\loll

VI]

SOTRASTHANA

ll\9 11
f' •

C!

I

Meat obtained from the parts above the un1bilicus of male anin1als and from the parts below the umbilicus of female animals, that obtained fron1 the pregnant animal are all hard to digest. Among tb e quadrupeds, the flesh of females is easily digestable but among the birds it is of the males.. Flesh obtained from the head, neck, thighs, back, waist, forelegs, stomach and intestines are hard to digest in the reverse order of enumeration. The tissues of the animals such as blood and others arc hard to digest in their successive order; testicles} penis, kidneys, liver and rectum are hard to digest than the flesh .. 69-71. ends the group of meat.
Notes :-In ancient India, hunting was vet y common both for the 1ake of food and as pastime. Among the hunted animals and birds belonging to kinds and nature some were fo11nd suitable a· food but some were not. It is difficult to correctly identify some of the animals, birds and fishes named herein, some of them might become extinct
I

I

.,

J:rtfa
g

11\9':<.11 I
11\1\11

StJka varga :-(group of leafy vegetables)
Sakas (leafy vegetables) of sat hi, satinaja in general, mitigates all the three dol?as, are easily digestble and stop elimination of fluids from the body; suni- · l?al}l)a increases hunger and is aphrodisiac; is still better and cures duodenal diseases, haemorrhoids; vastiika breaks up the hard faeces. 72-73.
m1iUTT
8
'

I

I 118\olll
ep: 1 3

[OH.

Kakamaci mitigates the three cures leprosy (and other skin diseases) is aphrodisiac, hot in potency, rejuvinator, causes easy movement of faeces, and is good for voice. Cafigeri is sour taste, kindles digestion, good for duodenal diseases, haemorrhoids and for. increased vata and kapha; hot iu potency, withholds elimination of fluids and is easily djgestable. 74•

..

11\9'-\11

11\9\11 1

.;r;(t 1fifQl iP!tli UT(i

I

qtC q

crtffi!i ..

11\9<::11

Pa\Ola, saptala, (angaravalli/bharangi), avalguja, amrti, vetragra (shoot of vetra), brhati, visa, kutiJi, tilaparJ.lika ( badraka ). mal}Qiikaparl}i, karkota, karavella. parpa\a, naQ.ikalaya, gojihwa (godhumi); vartaka (brhati), vanatilttaka (vatsakafkutaja), karira, kulaka (kupllu), nandi (jaya), kucaila, sakula,dani ka\i11a (raktapunal'nava), kebuka (kembuka), kositaka, and karkasa {kampilla),all these are cold in potency, bitter in taste, pungent at the end of digestion, with hold the movement of fluids, increase vita and mitigate kapha and pitta. 75-78.

p

'1iRt

'

Pa\ola is good for the heart (or the II)ind), destroys worms, sweet at the end of digestion and gives taste.

'lmlt
The two brhatis increases pitta, promote hunger, breaks bard faeces.

!I

"f"""'sw
cf\'q;f
t•oll

Vna (vasa) cures vomitting, cough and specially so the haemorragic disease.

VI]

s0TRASTHANA

11

Karavella is bitter in taste, kindles digestion and mitigates kapha and pitta especially.

q
.........

u:v

1

Vartaka (brhati) is pungent, bitter, hot 1n potency, awect, mitigates kapha and vata, is slightly alkaline, kindles digestion improves taste and does not aggravate pitta. 81.

... ,,....

I

Karira produces distention of the abdomen, is astringei1t, sweet and bitter in taste, Kosataki and avalguja break the hard faeces and kindle digestion. 82.

f(it

ii'Q: I
..2

5 f311<:r et•(t
!Pi

aiwoi

1

..

TaQ.duliya is cold in potency, dry, sweet 1n taste and also at the end of digestion and easily digestable, cures intoxication,_ pitta, poison and disorders of blood; Mufijata mitigates vita aud pitta, is cold in potency, hard to digest, sweet, makes the body stout and increases semen. 83.

Palankya is hard to digest,

and

Si

unt+r._.: I laxative.

Upodika also relives intoxication; Caficu is similar to pila· nkya arid withholds elimination of fluids. 84. {'qq,ocj q•(tN'CJJtt 41.,.t'dt

'41:q,_.ic.i\a••

-.)qw(\

ea•(JIIt

'P1'1'

ftwt

Vidari mitigates vata and pitta, is diuretic, sweet in taste, and cold in potency, prolongs life ( by giving strength_ J, makes the body stout, good for the, throat, hard to Big ·.

A&TANGA

[alt.

aphrodisiac and rejuvinator. Jivafiti is good for the eyes, mitigates all the is sweet in taste and cold in 85-86.
1

tf'll

itfi{

gli 1
ervaru,

· KW}mai}Qa, tumba ( alabu ), kalinga, karkaru,

tin4iSa., trapusa, cinaka, cirbha\a-all cause increase of kapha
and vata, breaks the hard faeces, stays long without digestion inside the stomach, causes more secretion in the tissues, sweet in taste and at the end of digestion and not easily digestahle. 87.

srqi ti1iJltOi
1

is best among the creepers, tnitigates vata and pitta, cleanses the urinary bladder, and aphrodisiac. Trapusa causes more urination (diuretic).

!P1i

•'t'IG-i

UJ{{ fellf.l
!I

I

'-ftq;f

I

Turhba (alabu) is very dry (causes dryness), witholds elimi· nation of11uids from the body; kalinga, ervaru and cirbhila when tender mitigate pitta and are cold in potency, but when ripe are opposite in qualities, these which are overripe and seperated from its attachment, will be alkaline in taste, increase pitta, mitigate kapha, and vata, improves taste and appetite, good for the heart, cures enlargement of the prostate, diste· ntion of abdomen and are easily digesta ble. 89-90.
I

•tii'Pi. -sa1¥i
Mtof.IA {lotus stalk),

liS

a 11lf1 fc;i !f'i

bisa (lotus root).

saluka {lotus

tuber),

kumuda (utpala kanda), naiidi, mashaka, keliita,
kaaeruka, kraui'1cadana and are dry (cause aryness). Water absorbent, cold -in potency and not easilr digestable. 91-92.

-

VI]

S1!JTRASTH1#NA
1

'"'-11
\iff e('"(l
;;:f

f;

I

.

mv

.

.

.
snq)

'"'

. !Pi t
'
"\

1

nalika (kapotacaraQa), marp, ku\injara. b\11· mbaka, cilli {vastiika), 1atvaka, lol,;lika, kariitaka, gavedhuka, jivafita, jhunjhu, tQagaja, yavataka (yavlnisAxa), suvarcall and aluka of different kinds, leaves of lagumes used for soup and of are all sweet, ,slightly dry, salty, increase vata and kapha, not easily digestable, cold in potency, help elimination of urine and faeces, stay long in the stomach for digestion; if cooked in stean1, juice taken out and mixed with oils, they will not cause much aggravation of the do3is. 93-95..

S qT NuR '3T cm:9'5'3JR qat ll\\11
Cilli, which has small leaves is similar (in property) with vastuka. 96.

trf;a-


..

I

"'\SI"

Tarkari and varul}a are sweet and slightly bitter and mitigte kapha and vata. The two kinds of and kalasaka are slighdy alkaline, pungent and bitter, improve digestion, break the hard faeces and cure artificial poisoniDit dropsy, kapha and vata. 97.
11,<=11
I

The tender sprouts of cirabilva increase appetite, mi_tigate kapha and vata and cause movement of bowels; sprouts of-§atl·, vari are bitter, aphrodis iac and mitigate the_ three 98. .
'
1

[ CH.
VamSakarira (tender shoots of bamboo) causes dryness inside, heartburn and increase of vata and pitta. 99. -

...

Pattiira kindles digestion, is bitter, cures enlargement of spleen, haemorrhoids and mitigates kapha and vita. 99-j.. Kasamarda cures disease caused by worms, cough and increase of kapba and moves the bowels.

Kousumbha is dry, hot in potency, sour, ba .. d to digest increases pitta and makes the bowels to move.
!A,•.,;

mtt

ntotu

is not easily digestable, hot in potency, binds the faeces and urine and causes increase of all the
I

!P-......

.....

I

Miilaka, when tender and not h&\"ing definite taste, is slightly alkaline and bitter, mitigates the easily digestable, hot in potency, and cures abdominal tumours, cough, dyspnoea, ulcers, disease of the eye and throat, horseness of voice, dyspnoea, upward movement inside the abdomen (reverse peristalsis) and chronic nasal catarrh. 102-103•
..,.. o\11

qR •

v ..

a'(fil 81t't f1

Miilaka, big in size is hard to digest, pungent in taste and at the end of digestion, hot in potency, increases all the three dosas, hard to digest and is (causes more secretions and obstructions of the tissue pores), cooked

VI]

SOTRASTHANA

with fats it mitigates vata; the dried one mitigates vata and ka ph a whereas the uncooked one, causes increase of the 104.

..n
..

f'4

Pin.c.falu is pungent, hot in potency, mitigates vata and kapha but increase pitta. 105.
1

Jrtf( m•iP(
q
._\1)-.i
I

11\o\tll

sigru, surasa, sumukha, asuri, bhutroa, arjaka, jarhbira, etc. when green are water absorbent, cause burning sensation during digestion, pungent, cause dryness, hot in potency, good for the heart (or the mind), kindles hunger and taste; destroy vision, semen and worms (iatestinal parasites), penetrates deep, cause slight increase of the and are easily digestable. 106-107.
....

Surasa cures hiccup, cough, poison, dyspnoea, pain in the flanks and bad smell {from the mouth, nose etc.). Sumukha does not cause much burning sensation, cures artificial (homicidal) poison and dropsy. 107.
if :q

l

Ardrika (green kusturpburu) is bitter and sweet in taste, diuretic and does not increase pitta.

ijJu;il

II
t
o II

lwt,.

I

tff;:o

ll

Lasuna is highly penetrating (deep into the tissues), hot in pq.ngent in taste, a11.d a,t the end of''digestic;>n, wake4 ,

tbtt bowels to move, good for the heart (or"'the mind), and llahst ha-d to. digest, aphrodisiac, unctuos, improves taste and -digestion, helps union of fractures, gives strength, greatly vitiates the blood and piua, curet leucoderma, leprosy ( and other skin diseases ), abdominal tumours, heamorrhoids, c!iabetel, wonns, diseases caused by kapha and vata, ,hiccup, chronic nasal catarrh, dyspnoea and cough. It is a rejuvinator of the body. 109-111.
I

[CH •

--.

PaiA:v4u is iaferior in the above qualities, increases kapha but does not ca.-ue great increase of pitt a. lllJ.
.qcq&
(IV(

d\t'tR

IITIT

I

Otftj;rnaka is best suitable to persons suffering from haemorrhorct• tjf kapha vita origin, for fomenting ( masaea) and eating; it is penetrating, water absorbent and not suitable to those who have pitta predominance. 112.

rc...
peat 113.

.,
qv.f:

I

_, Siiraoa kindles digestion, improves taste, mitigates kapha, Ia nen•unctous, easily. digestable and especially good for haep1orrboid•J bhiikaftda causes increase of all the dosas to a

·
V

'fit

Tit q8 lfN
{ftr

IRirnf.ll,tYII
I
1

'IU . . .

Gl"tf

Leaves, flowers, fruits (unripe), tubular leaves a nd tubers are heavy easily digestable) in their successive order; jivaftti ia the best _and the wo! st among the leafy vegetables. 11'4. Thus endS the group of vegetables. kilada of veactablea have bceA described in thete oftbem ,are recogni1able 'now while some others arc not, aomc oflbeal 'tiJel't fD \liC \n olden days but are not 10 now-a-daya, aomc of enly in foreltt and fie14a· while aomc etbere aro eal'dNol11
VU1111 101DC

..*" .......

VI]

SOTRASTHANA

I

1

l

vated. All are not found or used in all the parts or the cQuntry. Ja some places some are used greatly. It is also difficult in some cases to know the particular part ofthe plant use-d for eating, because the term "sib" il not specific alld is applied to mean vegetable in a general sense. It can b" presumed that leaves, tender sprouts, flowen, shoots, roots, fruita (unripe), atalks of tubers, tubers, and seeds were being used. Some of them were eaten uncooked also. Many varieties of soups, curry, and side-dishes are prepared with them and used chiefly as adjuvants to the staple food, to increase taste and htlp easy digestion. Many of the vegetables which are common now..a·days are not found in the above list. For example, tomato, cabbage, cauliflower, beetroot, etc. Their qualities and properties can be understood by repeated usaae and carefUlly recognising their effects in the body. It should also be borne in mind that all vegetables will not produce the same efFect to the same degree in all persons, aa the constitution of each person is difFerent from that of the other at least to a little extent. A vegetable which may cause constipation in one penon may not do so in the other. So every person should take note of the good or bad effect of every vegetable he uses and become accustomed to those which do not harm him and avoid those which cause harm.. Using them well cooked is always good and those which are used raw should be cleaned well with good water and outer skin removed before use. It is ideal to usc only fresh vqetablea.

'ft(!$Mm

"'tft+&.

..
f;.,..

M"'
((qq'-l

..
I

ll\

.....
Phala varga-(group of fruits):(grapes) is best among fruits, is aphrodisiac, good for the eyes, helps elimination of urine and faeces, sweet in taste and at the end of digestion, unctous, slightly astringent, cold in potency, hard to digest, cures diseases of vata, pitta and rakta; bitter taste in the mouth, intoxication, thirst, cough, fever, dyspnoea, hoarseness, injury to the lungs and tuberculosis. 115-116j.

..

q,ch... utt\111
I

.,
7A

d .V

atft ..

98

li:({DAYAM

[ Cll.

, Dac;lima {pomogranate) mitigates the greatly increased pitta 'in particular and the other also and is sweet; the $OUr variety is also not going to increase pitta, not very hot in potency and mitigates vata and kapha. AU varieties (of dac;lima) are good to the heart (or the mind), easily digestable, unctous, with old elimination of fluids, stimulate appetite and digestion. 117-118.
I II\ \'-.11

ilq

..... I
o II

..

f)(q,<J ..:r

1

f'tttni
Moca (plantain), kbarjiira (dates), panasa (jack fruit) narikela (cocoanut) amrataka, tala, rajadana, . madhiika, badara, afikoJa, phalgu, vatama, abhirnukiilaka, nikocaka, uriimai}am, and priyalamake the body stout, not easily digestable, cold in potency, relieve burning sensation, injury to the lungs, consumption, bleeding conditions, sweet in taste and also at the end of digestion, unctous, stay long in the stomach without digestion, increase kapha and senten. 119-1211.

9

8m
..
I

Fruit of tala increases pitta, moves the Fruits of is cold in potency, relieves the obstruction of faeces and urine, good for the hairs, increases intelligence and is a rejuvinatior. 122.

g
V atanta etc. are hot in potency, increase kapha and pitta, are laxative. 123.

s
fM<Il<tOOI\-Jtf

ftt'6Tfmoli'TI[l

VI]

SOTRASTHANA

99

Priyala mitigates vata effectively, is unctous, cold in potency; its marrow is sweet, aphrodisiac, mitigates pitta and vata,

I
Kola majja (fleshy part of the kola) is similar (in properties with priyala majja) relieves thirst, vomitting and cough.

124.
qvi

l{rq;i ";..,_'=t

'IT<ii,

Bilva pbala, when ripe is hard to digest, aggravates the and causes foul smell in the flatus; unripe fruit kindles digestion, mitigates vata and kapha; both are water absor· bant. 125.

"'

.. at{ I

.m('lm;i qii

tit'f<i,
ri

lJ

Amakapittha {unrjpe kapittha) is bad to the throat, and increases the three Pakwa kapittha (ripe fruit) mitigates the relieves hiccup and vomitting, both are water absorbent and antipoisonous. 126.
t

Jambava (fruit of jarhbu) is not easily digestable, stays long inside the stomach, cold in potency, causes aggravation of vita especially, water absorbent from urine and faeces, bad for throat and mitigates kapha and pitta. 127.

gqhf

1

BaJa amra (tender. unripe mango) increases vata, rakta and pitta; when its stone is formed, it increases kapha and pitta; when it is ripe it is not easily digestable, mitigates vata, incre· ases kapha and semen. 128.

'i\tiW

1i\1T.ui

(fruits1 withhold elimination of fluids. dry, hot in potency, mitiagates vata and kapha and easily digestabte. 129.

[CR.

W't,

ij

I

samya (fruit or sami) is not easily digestable, hot in pote· ncy, destroys the hairs and causes dryness.

'IN·,qk•ai 'CI1!

'ft(!l'tro(

I

Pilu increases pitta, mitigates kapha and vata, is purgative, cures diseases of the spleen, haemorrhoids, worms, abdominal tumors; that variety of pilu which has bitter-sweet taste is not very hot in pott>ncy and mitigates all three 130.

f-. .
;t1ui
i!N

,

1

,

The skin of matulunga fruit is bitter, pungent and unctous, mitigates vata; its fteshypart makes the body stout, is sweet 'in taste, mitigates vata and pitta and not easily digestable; itl tendril is easily digestable, cures cough, dysponea, hit:cup:< alcoholic intoxication dryness of the mouth, disorders of vita and kapha, constipation, vomitting, loss of taste, abdominal tumor, enlargement of the abdomen, haemorrhoids, colic and dyspepsia. 131-133.
1 Ht'\\ill

The outer rind and fleshy part of bhallataka fruit makes the body. stout, sweet in taste, cold in potency; its seed is just like fire in properties, increases intellegence and effectively mitigates kapha and vata. 134.

...i "
"

...

fl:"'

1

Pilevata fruit of sweet taste is cold in potency, while that of sour taste is hot, both are hard to digest, improve taste and cure diseases due to e-xcess digestive activity. 134}.

qsm,

qyfa-

...

VI]

S\JTRASTHANA

101

Aruka fruit improves taste and is sweet; ripe fruit undergoes digestion quickly, not very hot in potency, sometimes hard to digest and increases the 135.
....

I

and and karamardaka, in their green state are sour, increase pitta and ka'pha, to digest, hot in potency, mitigate vata and laxative. 136.
.-'-

.

:q

....

llt\(11

Kola, karkaiidhu, lakuca, amrataka, aruka, airavata, satiida, mngalil}Qika,-all are sour and do not aggravate pitta greatly; so also, karamardaka fruit ripened and dried does not cause great increase of pitta (causes miid increase). 137-138.

...
,.._,

I ll t

Fruits of amlika and kola improve digestion, cause purgations, cures thirst, fatigue, exhaustion; are easily digestable and mitigates kapha. and vata,. 139.

cr-sr
{f<:l'
f"'

I

Lakuca pbala is least among all the fruits and· increases all the as. Thus ends the group of fruits.
Not1s :-Among the fruits enumerated so far, majority. of them are in
tue even now while a few may not be so, in urban areas. Some new kinds

of fruits such as the pineapple, apota, papaya etc. are also in uae now-adaya. The qualities and properties of such few ones oan be understood by repeated uae.

Varjya (rejectables) :-

•Hi

"

. .la,.n.sf(f

1
·:;r

t

ASTA"RGA H\tDAYAM
ll(ilthiE(

rca.
"
1

srr...-

... 1

Grains which have been spoiled by ti·ost, heavy breeze, hot sunlight, polluted air' and saliva of snake and other reptiles; which are infested with worms, which have remained under for long time, not grown in the field meant for it (in fields meant for other kinds of grain), which are unseasonal, mixed with other grains, and which have lost their properties having become very old-should be rejected. Similarly also with the vegetables, the dishes prepared from them without addition of fatty material (oil or ghee), which are very hard even after cooking, should be avoided. Tender vegetables which have not developed their normal taste and which have become dry should not be used except mtilaka; so also with the fruits, except amabilwa (unripe bilwa).
I

fe..,.. ftott tl''f'Ji 11nuf qrfiE

it'1!fii

U1!1Jti !nr 11\\t\11 •q_ I

Autadha varga (group of drugs) :AU the salts are (produce more secretions in the tissues) aiik,ma (enter into minute pores) help soft/easy movement of faeces, mitigate vata, help digestion, are penetrating, , aggravate kapha and pitta. 143.

..

n

/ 8"4g•ui

P qamfqq,J'tt4\""'+t

I

Among them, saindhava salt is slightly sweet, aphrodisiac, good for the heart (or mind), mitigates an the three easily digestable, not hot in potency, good for health, does not cause burning sensation during digestion and kindles digestion. 144.

.Qqc-i f'....

tV

.
f{\qf(\q
I

VI]

SOTRAS'IHANA

Sauvarcala is easily digestable, good for "the heart (or mind), possesses good purifies belchings, pungent at the end of digestion, relieves constipation, kindles digestion and gives taste. 145.

(rq;i ' 11m{ llt\1\11
"'

----

produces both up"" ard and downward movement ·of kapha and vata, kindles digestion, cures constipation, flatulence, obstruction, of flatus, colic and heavyness ( of the abdomen ). 146.

rq.,.,*

g':fi

....

...

llt'l\511

Samudra is sweet at the end of' digestion, not stable and aggravates kapha. 147.

eliSe-

Audbhida is slightly bitter, pungent aud alkaline in taste, penetrates deep and increases the secretions.

. ..

m "'-.. .

-

laval}a has properties similar to souvarcala except the smell. 148.

!J'i I
Romaka is easily digestable; pamsiittha is slightly alkalint, aggravates kapha and easily digestable.

t!S''lVTTWfT

.

-1t

4h,_ll t Y'11

Whenever lavan.as (baits) are to be used (for medicinal recipes) they should be prefered commencing_ with saindhava. 149.
No11s :-Words like {two salts), (three 1alt1 ), laval)a (four aalts ), pafica laval)a (five alta) are found in the composition of 10111e medicinal formu1ae. At such places, aaifidhaft should be preferred first and then the others in that order.

'!!C!+I"..

.., ..,., ..,.. ..........
'ftl ...

II

104

Af$'fANGA

YAM

y avasiikaja ( of barley seed or in short ) mitigates abdominal tumors, diseases the heart, duodenal disease, anaemia, splenic disorders, distension of the abdomen, diseases of the throat, dyspnoea, hae1norrhoids and cot1gh arising from kapha. 150.

of

Notes :-There are two kinds viz., that prepared by the ashes o spikes of barley grain (described above) and another, a mineral ( potasaium carbonate ).
3

I

qterft

''fq((T(or: 11
I
-.$ '

All (alkalies) are very penetrating; very hot in potency, destroy worms (bacteria etc. ) easily digestable, vitiate pitta and asrk (blood), help digestion of other substances, help break up hard n1asses, not good for the heart, pun· ctures the tissues; being pungent and salty in taste are not good to semen, ojas (essence of the tissues), hairs and eye (vision). 151.
Notll are alkaline subatances, they are of two kinds viz natural and artificial; natural a1e minerals and ores of calcium potassium, sodium etc. in different combinations; artificial are those prepared by the ash of certain plants, ( yava, apamarga ), animal producta like urine ( cows-urine ), excreta ( goats excreta } etc. both these kinds are caustic alkaliet, possessing the property of destroying the tissues by penetrating deep into them. The advantage of this property is utilised in the treat... ment of abnormal growth of the tissues ( tumors, pile masses ), of woundJ and ulcers, etc. to destroy extra growths, pathogenic bacteria etc.; Ayurvcda prescribes their use both for esternal application ( pradlirava ) and internal potion ( piniya ).

fq

qf(l•'f.•-wna"t&..illi
qy;:r;f <!nt I
.,:)

Hingu mitigates vita, kapha, cures distension of the abdo· aaeD and colic, aggravates pitta, pungent in taste and at the 'C!fld of digestion, enhances taste, hunger, digestion and is easily digestabfe. 152.
'l'fP.lf

.... . . it'lllt tRW*

..it inl*
q\'tf I

'

V!j

SOTRASTHANA
c.

lW

tt
...

....

r

...

U

I

tdl
...

fem:rtwt_
""

ll

'1((1 t.f. 'i=t l'tdl'ta j

*'

ll ,'-.\911

Haritaki is astringent, sweet at the end of digestion, dry (causes dryness), devoid of la va:Q.a (possesses the remaining five tastes) easily 'digestable, kindles hunger, helps digestion, improves intellegence, best to maintain youth, hot in potency, laxative, bestows long life, strengthens the mind and the sense organs, cures leprosy (and other skix;t diseases) discolouration disorders of voice, chronic intermittant fevers, disease of th; head, and eyes, anaemia, heart disease, jaundice, disease of the. consumption, dropsy, diarrhoea, obesit)', fainting, vomitting, worms (intestinal parasites), dys-pnoea cough, excess salivation, haemorrhoids, disease of the tpleeO: distention of the abdomen, enlargement of the abdomen obstruction of channels, abdominal tumors, stiffness of thigh, loss of taste (anorexia) and many other disease arising from (aggravation .of) kapha and vata. 153-157.
I

Similarly so is amalaka (in all other properties) it is cold in potency, and mitigates pitta and kapha.

f!S1 qt$ f1Jf

I

(vibhitaka) is pungent at the end of digestion, eold in potency, good for hairs and possesses properties similar (to haritaki and Amalaka) but slightly less (in degree). 158.

..

i ...CW-.\

·I t ItC..\11

9

Thus, the tri phala (haritaki, Amalaki and vibhitald), together is a best rejuvioator of the body, cures diseaaea of the eyes, heals wounds and cures skin diseases, excess moisture of the tissues, obesity, diabetes, aggravation of kapha and aara

'blood). 159.

- ' 106

ASTA'&GA

•a•tt

I

<il'fart.ui Twak, patra and ela together are known as trijataka and these along with ke8ara form the caturjata (ka). They cause aggravation of pitta, are penetrating, hot in potency, dry (cause dryness), improve taste and hunger. 160..

Marica is pungent both in taste and at the end of degestion, mitigates kapha and is easily digestable.

wft
WT
'I

r.,._."t.t,

.1llt


'Iii: I
\=RT

i

II t f'l'IT I

I

Pippaii in its green state aggravates kapha, is sweet in taste and cold in potency, not easily digestable and is unctous. The same, when dry, becomes opposite (of the properties of the green state), and so is unctous, aphrodisiac, pungent in taste, sweet at the end of digestion, mitigates anila (vata), slesma (kapha), dyspnoea and cough; is Jaxative; it should not be used in excess (for long period), without following the regimen of rejuvination therapy. 161-162.

.....
I
I

(tqii
i!nj

mft: ri

llt\\11
I

increases hunger, is aphrodisiac, water absorbant, good for the heart (or the mind), relieves constipation, bestows, taste, easily digestable, sweet at the end of digestion, unctous, hot in potency and mitigates kapha and vita. 163.

...

1l'fi

At'li!itf•

"'r. II
.... .....

Similar is ardraka (su:.. thi in its green state); these three ( marica, pippali and together known as trikatu, cures obesity, dyspnoea, dyspepsia, cough, filariasis and rhronic nasal catarrh. 164.

VI]

S"OTRASTHANA

lOt

Cavika and pippaJimula possess qualities and properties sin1ilar to marica but in lesser degree. 165.

oq:n,...

1

Citraka is sirp.ilar to fire in digesting . things and cures dropsy, haemorrhoids, worms and leprosy (and other skin diseases).

q•"'m"'m:r..
eftq;i

'

ut,,n
I

The above, excluding rna rica, (pippali, pippalimiila, cavy a, citraka and nagara) is known as pancakolaka, it cures a;bdominal tumors, disease of thC( spleen, enlargement of the, abdo· men, distension and colic, and is best to improve and digestion. ·
..i..:\'q
0...

..

q_

ut\'111
1 .

Bilwa, tarkari, and are together known as mahat paficamiila. It is astringent and bitter in taste, hot in potency and mitigate kapha arid aniia (vata). 167.

t:

WI'8Jr I I

'

I

Brbatidwaya ( brhati and ), arhsumatidwaya (saliparl}i and ptinipari)i) and are known as hrasva paficamiila. It is sweet in taste and at the end of digestion, neither very hot nor very cold in potency and mitigates all the 168.
§

II\''"

Bala, punarnava,, eraQQ.a, surpapan;.U dvaya (mi§&parvi and mudgapart]i) together form the madhyama paflcamiila. It mitigates kapha and vita, does not, greatly ag1ravate pitta and is laxative. 169.

' 101

ASTA:NGA

tmt.
'
I

enn....(-c.t\lf1d.-,:)"ft)...
!I
'

Abhiru . vira, jivanti, jivaka and together from the jivana paiicamiila. It is good for the eye, aphrodisiac and mitigates pitta and ani Ia (vat a)-

qun¥i
..

....
..

.:il

ut\9\11

I

Trolkhya {trl).a paficamula) consisting of darbha, kasa, Sara _'and sali, mitigates pitta. 171.
I

.cfl. . . .
Thus, were described, in brief, the substances used daily as fQOd, in groups such as suka, Simbi, pakvanna, mimsa, phala and a 182.

...

ii'M

'ftitSOQ'P.I:

II \ II

Thus ends the chapter known as Annaswarupa vijnaniya, the sixth in Sutrasthlna of hrdaya samhita composed by arimad Vlgbha,a, son of sri vaidyapati simhagupta.

ANNARAK$ADHrArA-(PrfJtection offaods)

tftr

..
ii

.. : '
I

We shali now expound. the chapter Annaraql (protection of foods); thus said Atrey a and other great sages.

PrlJnaclJrya (Royal physician) :)t

u

.U.•'el ,a • ....

1
II ' II

The king should arrange for the residence of the pravacarya (physician) near the palace so that he (physician) can be vigilant with all things at all times. 1.

.... q,;t
t


II

l:rl+t\'il,

II

The foods and drinks of the king should be protected from poison, because his welfare and health depend upo.P. them (food and drink) and righteousness etc. are conditioned by them (welfare and health). 2.

Savita Annapana Lak:ratJa;....( features of poiaolled foods and
drinks):q'f1t
1 Ill. tl
l

''

Boiled rice which is m.ixed witi1 poison becomes thick, and unable to flow out (of the vessel), takes long time to cook, cooked ones becomes moist ( stale ) very soon, emits flames (when thrown on fire) resembling the colour of the peacock's neck (blue), produces delusion, f'iinting and (excess)

110

HF.J)AYAM

[CH..

lalivation (when consumed), loses (quickly) its colour, taste etc., becomes watery and full of glistening particles. 3-4.

lf\';n.sfdfi'tfi'

-e\tCttetft.ur.. fq'a-(1 1 U11lt

n

r:r I
'11 II
I

II

••"ceui

II\ II

The condiments dry up quick and becon1e dirty, images seen in them appear deficient, augmented, abnormal or not seen at all; froth and lines appear on their surface and edges, threads and bubbles are likely to appear. Raga (sweet syrups), kha:Qdava (sweet puddings), vegetables ,and meat become broken and solid portions get seperted) and assume bad taste. 5-6.
8fti1

I

I

'lt'-lfEIT,
tt ..

,k-.a-t
6.((
... \.,j=
(' • ."'ll

lllifT.,..._..f't..n 11\tll
..,..,

I 1 II .t: II

111'1:

'l{'IT ._.,o._,._, "4'
...
.....

t

II ' II I

.
fl

ll,oll I
ttq.. fa I

-

1:u9

.f\

11 t tu

Blue lines appear in meat juice, coppery lines in ·milk and black ones in dadhi (yoghurt, curds), yeUowish white Jines in buttermilk, lines resembling water appear on ghrta (ghee, butterfat), that resembling pegion appear on mastu (whey), blue black lines on ( sour drink prepared from barley husk), black lines on wines and water, green lines in honev and crimson lines on oils. Unripe fruits, ripen (fast) and ripe ones become overripe and decomposed, substances which are green and dry become dull in appearance and discoloured respectively, soft and hard substancee undergo ·change to their opposite qualities,
I

Vlt]

The flowers of the- garland become split at their edges, fade and assume others smell (other than their own). Dirty patches appear on cloth {dress and other its threads and hems rail out. (Vessels etc. prepared from) metals, pearls, wood, precious stones etc. become dirty, and lose their smooth touch and lustre those prepared from mud assume lust('e. 5-11.

Visada laksapa (feature of the person who puts poison)
ferq:

...

ttt:tll 1

The person who puts poison (administers poison in any form) will have his face black (discoloured) and dry (devoid of complexion), is shy, looks around (in fear), sweats, trelllbles, loses strength, is fearful, (in acts such as talking, walking etc.) and yawns too much. 12. parlksa-(testing of poisoned foods) :«:q

fit
ef1st ..

II tl.ll
I

fil•f•

The fire on which poisoned food is thrown, emits flame in a single pile (without its whirls), makes too much crackling noise, flame and smoke resembling the neck of the peacock (blue colour) emerge or no flame comes .UP at all, and very strong smell issues forth. 13.
'1\Ni:
'I

I

Stot:•ct&f8',
I

T

II t
en;R:: '

iQti
..... "{(.

m\lfh:::,
it..if

Itt"''
I

112

Eating .(poisoned) food, flies die, the crow loses its the suka (parrot), datyiiha (gallinule bird) and sarika (common mynah) begins to hoot ot the very sight (of poisoned food), the bamsa (swan) loses its gait, jivafijiva ( chukar), becomes exhausted the eyes of the cakora (greek pheasant) become red, krounca (pond heron) becomes intoxicated (exhilarated}, the kapota (pegion), parabhrit (cuckoo) and cakravaka (ruddyshel drak.e)L.lose their life, the marjara (cat) becomes irritable, the vanara (monkey), eliminates feaces, the rnayiira (peacock) becomes exhilirated by seeing it (poisoned food) and by its sight the poi.son loses its strength; knowing (by these tests) that the food· is poisoned, it should be rejected and disposed offin such a W'3.Y, that even small animals will not get troubled by it. 14-18.

J'itlJnMjtJ

produced by poisoned food) :.........,
ill't(1

1 11\'11
....: I

llrtoll

The touch (of poisoned foods) produces itching (irritation), burning sensation all over the body, burning sensation at the site of touch, fever, pain, eruptions, loss of tactile sensation, falling of the nails and hairs and swelling. The treatment shall be bathing (washing), pouring with water processed with anti-poisonous drugs, application of paste ofsevyl. (uSira), amrta cai\dana, padmaka; somavalka, Uilisa patra, and nata. 19-20.

....
c;r

... •cl'.t4f..l
1

Poisoned food inb ide the mouth produces excess of saJi .. vation, inactivity of the tongue and lips, burning sensation, tingling of the -teeth, inability to perceive taste and stiffness ofthe lower jaw. The treatment shall be mouth gargling with water processed with sevya and others ( drugs mentioned

VII]

SOTRASTHANA

llS

earlier ) and all other therapies ( for the mouth) which are antipoisonous. 21-21!.

attm-a•q"•d \l& 1
q;ffff

1

!i::tRcf

irRi
f.t

1

i''ftiel"-sifqC!!J\11""- 1

Reaching the stomach it (poisoned food) produces sweating, fainting, flatulence. toxicity, giddiness, horripilations, vomittings, burning sensation, loss of movement of the eyes and heart, and apperance of (black) dots all over the body. Reaching of the intestines it produces vomitting of many colours, excess of urination, purgations, drowsyness, emaciQ.·. tion, pallor, enlargement of the abdomen and loss of strength. For both (these conditions) the patient should be admini.. stered emesis and purgation therapies, followed by nasal medication, collyriums and drinking of decoction prepared from the two haridra, katabhi, gu4a ( molasses, jaggery ) sin.duvarita, sataparvikaa roots of tan<)uu.. yaka, kukkutaJ}.Qa (hen's egg) and avalguja to relieve the effect of poison. 22-26.

Hrdvisodhana-(purifying the heart) :...
(f(f:

I
I

ara:'tthlttt:J: ll:t\911

;{

1

person who has consumed poisoned food should be administered purifactory therapies of upward and downward routes (emesis and purgation respectively) and then made to

SA

114

Af)'f.Al\fGA HIPlAYAM

[CH·

lick fine powder of copper mixed with honey 1 at the propertime, in order to purify the heart; after thus purifying the heart fine powder of gold one sai}a in quantity should be administered to him. In the body which has partaken gold in not adhere just like water in a lotus this way the poison leaf. By this, the life of the person becomes long; the same treatment is suitable even· for gara (artificiaJ poison, homi· cidal poisoning). 27-28}. Viruaahahara-(incompatable foods) :-

ffR!:aiffq

hu i

Even incompatable foods should be considered similar to poison and artificial poisoning. 29•

..
U'\oll

Rti)f't;J: 1 Meat of animals of marshy regions is incompatable with tblack gram), (honey), (milk), virii9haka (germinated grains), bisa, miilaka or guQa (molasses, jaggery); especially the fish with milk, and among the fish the cihcima 30. qqm ri 'llii 11\tll

....

1

All sour substances are incompatable with milk, so also all the fruits (which are sour), so also kulattha, varaka, kangu, valla and 311.
U\:tll

After consuming green (leafy) vegetables, drinking of milk should be a voided. 32.
.!)

I

amndmfir wrfer
...

..
'31

11\l.ll 1
'IT I

t'£tcta.. 1... 1

Elf

,

VII]

SOTRAS'IHANA

115

f1..:nri en ...

...

q:ait

"'''•-c." .., 1
ll\\U

l

Meat of (varaha) boar, should not be consumed along with the meat of svavidh (porcupine), meat of pnata (spotted deer) and (cock) should not be partaken with dadhi {curds, yoghart); uncooked meat along with bile, miilaka with meat of avi (sheep) with leaves ofkusumbha; soup germinated grains with bisa, fruits of lukuca along with soup of guc;la (jaggery ), milk, dad hi (curds, yoghart) and ajya ( butter-fat ) fruit of tala along with dadhi (curds, yoghart), ka:Qa and alongwith madhu (honey) or kaka· maci with guQa (jaggery, molasses), kakamaci prepared in the vessel meant for cooking fish or for cooking nagara or prepared in any other vessel to make it likeable or that kept 33-36.

'liAit

''*

'
ll\\11'

Pippali processed with the oil in which fish is fried should be rejected. Sarpi (ghee, butterfat) kept for more than ten days in a bronze vesse1, heat (hot materials, hot comforts etc.) along (should be avoided). 37. with
I

Meat of bhlaa bird (white headed vulture) which is roasted is incompatable (for health); so also kampilla (a side-dish) prepared with buttermilk. Mixing together (and then consuming) of payasa (milk pudding), sura (beer) and krsara (rice mess prepared with green gran1) should be avoided. 38.

flrof.u£

I

"'

...

n1.'n

Mixture of equal quantities of honey, ghee, muscle-fat, oil and water in their combination of (any) two, three or all of them ·together is incompatable with each other, S9.

lt6

[ C.H.

ff4 ... ii\

atfq

;r"'icr'frit
=cr,

1

..

..

llftS{: I Mixture of honey and ghee though in unequal proportion consumed followed with rain water as an after-drink is incompatable; so also with madhu (honey) and seeds of madhu (wine prepared from honey) maireya (wine prepared from dates) sarkara (wine prepared from drinks made milk followed by mantha (solution of corn flour), as an after· drink; haridra and ta ila ( mustard oil ) are all iocompata bles. 40-40l.

mfitat
Upodaka leaves processed with paste of tila is going to cause diarrhoea. 41
irtll'iT
J I

Meat ofba1aka (demoiselle crane) bird along with varuJJ.i (supernatent fluid of wine) and (green gram and other pulses cooked over steam) is incompatable; the same (meat of balaka) frind in fat of boar soon takes away life. 42.

...,

.

,

Similarly also the meat of tittiri ( black partridge ) , patra<;lhya (peacock), godha (iguana lizard), lava {common quail) kapti'ijala (grey partridge) cooked over by the fire of (wood of) eral}.Qa (castor plant, Recinus comn1unis) and processed with (fried in) its oil (castor oil). 43.

1
ctrTqf;:prfa II

Meat of haridra (a kind of yellow bird) peirced with wood uf haridra (daruharidra-Berberis aristata) and cooked with the flame of haridra (daruharidra) takes away life quickly.
:q

SOTRASTHANA

117

--

The same (r.'eat of haridra bird) smeared with ash and sand (as a method of cooking) and consumed along with honey) (also kills the person quickly). 44.

Viruddha vyakhylJ-( definition of viruddha) :;r .. tit"ta:

Said in brief, any thing that causes aggravation (increase) of the but does not expel them out of the body is (called) viruddha (incompatable). 45l.

-:m.tl

elf

I

The treatment desirable for it (troubles arising from consu· ming of incompatable foods) is either purifactory therapies (emesis, purgation etc.) or palliative theravies, opposite of their nature (specific for the diseases) .

. ..

"'

The body should be reconditioned as earlier, by use of substances (foods, drugs etc.) of the same nature (in other words substances possessing properties opposite of the aggra• vated ). 46. 1

fq'C)'iqf\a if

=i!

IIW\tll

Foods though incompatable do not produce diseases, in those who are habituated to exercise (physical activity) ·and fatty foods, who have strong digestive power, who are of a1e (adult age) and who are strong; so also those foods (though incompatable) which have become accustomed (by long use) and which have been consumed in very little quantity. 47.

SlJtmtkarapa krama-(method of
.. ...

:CIT 11\U:II

f(t'i

Unhealthy things (foods, drinks, activities)-which have ,become accustomed (by long U$e) should be discontinued by quarter and quarter (gradually), similarly;healtb.Yi thiugs (fapds

ita

. [ OH.

etc.) should be made use of (gradually) with intervals of one, · two or three days. 48.
...

fc:

1

Discontinuance of unhealthy things (foods, drinks etc.) and indulgence in healthy things, done suddenly and (a1so) other wise (improperly) give rise to (become causes of) diseases of satmya (habituation) and asatntya (non·habituation). 49.
Notes :-The above statement can be explained as follows :...:..a person who has been drinking wine which is unsuitable to health will have become accustomed to it due to long use If he discontinues drinking suddenly, he will become a victim of diseases caused by discontinuance (withdrawal ) of satmya (accustomed); similarly, a person who is not accustomed to milk which is suitable for health, starts drinking it suddenly, becomes a victim of diseases of indulgence in aaatmya (unaccustomed matc:rial). ·
I

lfqf..a

;r

The bad effects diminished gradually and the good effects increased gradually, attain ( the state of) non-recurrence and become stable. 50.
Notes :-Bad effects get diminished by gradual discontinuance of unhealthy food, drinks, etc., and good efFects increase by indulgence of unhealthy things. In course of time, both become stabJe and do not revert back to their earlier condition again.
\_
it
I

A wise man, by indulging in unhealthy things, should not help the vitiating factors which have become very intimate and (thereby) vitiate the body greatly. 51.
Noter :--Uahealthy things though accustomed to the body by long USJ and though very intimately associated are still harmful, as long as they are continued. They cause greater harm when combined with other unhealthy things. So a wise man, desirous of health should not only discontinue the already accustomed unhealthy things but also avoid indul• gence in other unhealthy things.

VII]

SOTRASTliANA

Traya upasthambhah-(three supports of life) :I

fwt(qiftq{-tf;rq-

Ahara (food), sayana (sleep) and abrahmacarya (noncelibecy} p10perly indulged, support the body constantly just like the house (is supported} by the pillars. 52. ·

antiTU

:er

1.

Food has been described earlier and will be described further on also here and there. .Nidra-(sleep) :......
'1
:;:f

I

Happiness and unhappiness, nourishment (good physique) and emaciation, strength and debility, sexual prowers and impotence, knowledge and ignorance, life and its absence (death)-all are dependent on sleep. 53.
;:r •

f;n(t

fl ...

l

Sleep indulged at irnproper time, in excess or not at alldestroys happiness { health ) and life Hke another (goddess of death). 54.
1

Keeping awake at nights (avoiding sleep) is dry (causes dryness inside the body), sleeping during daytinje (causes moistness inside) and taking a nap sitting comfortably ( during day ) is neither dry nor unctous ( of moisture). 55c

R"\''if
u: I
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ll...\911
I

..

.M..l}\

1\NliA

t ott
1

.....
a-m

:q1mfir

Sleeping during day time is beneficial during summer, because in that season, vata undergoes mild increase, dryness is. more because the season is adana (withdrawal of moisture by the sun) and the nights are short; the same (day sleep) at other seasons, causes aggravations of kapha and pitta, it is good for those who are exhausted by (too much of) spe.aking, riding, walking, wine, woman (sexual intercourses), carrying heavy load, physical activities, tired by anger, grief and fear, for those suffering from dyspnoea, hiccup, diarrhoea, for the aged, the children, the debilitated, the emaciated, those having injury (to the thest); thirst pain (in the abdomen), indigestion; those assaulted, those intoxicated, and those who are habituated to day sleep. In them it maintains the normalcy of the tissues and the slesma (kapha) nourishes the body. 56-S9.

fq\':II,J: "'q:Oqft

""'t:

IQ

\iflg

..

"''fir '

ll,oll

Persons who are having more of medas (fat) and kapha, who take fatty materials (food) daily, should not sleep during day; those suffering from diseases of poison and of the throat should not sleep even at night. 60.
f...(t.tr.f\'ifUT:
(1 ':lllQq'\

I

Sleeping at improper time causes delusion, fever, lassitude, catarh,. headache, dropsy, oppression in the chest ,_(na-usea), obstruction of the tissue p<lres and weakness of digestive function; for this fasting, emesis, sudation and nasal, medictions are the treatment. 61-6li.

nasaJ

. ;(q .. r..

0p fra;at
$\('f.J(

a"\liui
Qf.fCfN

11\:tll 1
ll\\11

drops, fasting (or thinning therapy)

In case of excess of sleep, strong emetics, collyrium, nasal sexual intercourse;

Vtl)

SOTRASTHANA

grief, fear and anger are advocated. By ·these the 'lesma (kapha) gets decreased leading to loss of sleep. 62-63.

...

e

I

t\\\jll

-

Loss of sleep leads to squeezing pain in the body parts, heavyness of the h·ead, too much of yawning, lassitude, exhau• stion (even without strain), giddiness, indigestion, stupor and diseases of vata origin. 64.

fi11ti
...

1

Of

srm:

11\'-\U

Hence, the person should sleep at the proper time at night-s daily as much as desirable and become habituated to it. If he has kept awake at night due to non-habituation (not accu· stomed to), he should sleep for half that period1 the next morning without taking any food. 65.

.........
'li'tJi

i{N

I

1\\\11
I

t\\91\
1

• Those suffering from very little sleep (or no sleqp at all), should indulge in the use of milk, wine, meat soup and curds (as food), oil massage and mild squeezing (of the body), bath, anointing the head, ears and eyes with nourishing oils, com• fotting embrace by the arms of the wife, harbouring the ing of satisfaction (of having done good deeds) and resorting to things which alie comforting to the mind as much, as desi• red; these bring about the pleasure of good sleep. For those who follow the of celibecy, who are not very crazy of sexual intercourse and who are contented with happiness. sleep will not be very late than its regular time. 66-61.

firS(l

Abrahmaearya-(non celibacy/sexual activity)
-

1-

10

..,,II

1

- .

122

[CH.

;.r

n•ou
I I

q'(iJf •In respect of copulation (sexual intercour::.e) the person should avoid the woman who is not lieing with her face upward, who is in her menstrual period, who is not liked, whose activities are displeasing, whose vagina (genitals} is dirty and troublesome; who is very obese or very emaciated, who has (recently) delevered and who is pregnant_; the other woman (other than his wife), and the nun, the other vagina (of animals Jik( the goat, buffalo etc.), should avoid copulation in the abode of the teacher, gods and kings in monastries, burial ground, places of r orture and of sacrifice and meeting of four roads,

should avoid days of special significance (new-moon, fullmoon, eclipses, festivals, mourning days and others), avoid organs which are non-sexual, (such as the mouth, axilla, knees, anus etc.) and also the days forbidden for copulations, avoid beating (causing injury) the head and region of the heart (during sexual play), should not indulge in copulation, after a heavy tneal, without keen intention, when hungry, when his body is in uncomfortable postures, when thirsty; with children (very young girls), with the aged (old women), when troubled by other urges (such as of urine, faeces etc.) and when he is himself a patient. 69-72.
15lmr:

'fi11i

(!8T

frit 1
f!\91.11

DUring hemanta (and sisira) (snowy & cold seasons) the person can indulge in copulation (daily) as much as he likes after making use of aphrodisiacs (and obtajning strength); once in three daya in vasanta (spring) and sarat (autumn) and once a fortnight in (rainy) and nidagha (summer). 73.

.....,.I

vti 1

sOTltAsrii..\NA

l

Giddiness, ·exhaustion, weak'uess of the thighs. loss of stre.. ngth, depletion Q[tissues, loss f?f acuity of senses and premature dt-ath occur from improper indulgence in the woman_ intercourse). 74.
..

I

. . . . l') af'8
Good memory,. intellegence, longlife, health, nourishn1ent, acuity of sense organs, reputation, strength and slow ageing accure from disciplined (controlled) indulgence in the women.

..
'I1S uq;i

ma'l l{(RJ;I

..

..

'75.

t
\1M 11\1\11

After copulation, the man should indulge himself in bath, applying scented paste, exposure to cool breeze, drinking of syrup from sugar candy, cold water, milk, meat juice, soup, sura (fermented 1tquor prepared from grains), prasanna (clear supernatent fluid of sura) and then go, .to sl*P; by these, the vigour of the body returns quickly ita abode again. 76.

-. ..
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!

..

. . \s: tt\1\111

The king who has implicity reposed the, protection of his body with his physician, who is well conversant with the scriptures and its practices efficient in and kind, great valour, health, fame, influence, capacity to enjoy the fruits of all his actions and a long life. 77.

tM

......

....
II \1 ll .

"-

Thus ends the chapter called as the seventh in the of samhita of srimad Vagbhata. son ofSri Vaidyapati Simhagupta.

Chapt,.r-8.

'MATRA

r A ADHrJ.rA. (partakin!- proper quantiry

offood)

UW

atqRft ....,.,F..ttdllf.l...
1:

... :

I I

We shall now ex;pound the chapter natned Matrasitiyapartaking proper quantity of food; thus said Atreya and other sages. 1.

Akaramatra aplktll-(proper quantity essential in respect of
food): ....
otof.ll .... l':li

tai:
II 1
II

mwf .......
fol

t

II
II

tinl:rt

f.,.tq.!

Man should always consume proper quantity of food, proper quantity is the activator of agni (digestive functions), foods whether laghu (easily digestable) or guru (non easily digeatable) both require a specified quantity for ( proper ) digestion. 2.

HintJtimlJtra

effects of insufficient and excess food):-

a\.,.... ,.,j

;J

I

:er

stq'C.Id II \

II

1

Consuming of insufficient quantity of food does not belp improvement of strength, growth and vigour, it becomes a cause for all diseases of vata origin. Excess quantity on the other band produces quick increa'se of an the dosas. 3-31 .
....

. . l"h

...

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I

II 11

r..v•

11

..-...) -u'(.fff•tl•qt

... : 1

S'OTRASTHANA

125

Vita and other thus getting increased (aggravated) together suddenly and associating with the undigested and vitiated food, produce diseases such as Alasaka, by blocking the movement (of food inside the alimentary tract) and viSa. cikA by expelling out {the indigested food) in both downward and upward directions (purgations and vomittings) simultaneously in persons who are not self controlled (who can not control their craze for eating). 4-5.
114,fa

;r :q

q•

n\

11

Food neither comes out in the upper direction (vomitting) nor in the downward directions (purgations) does not even undergo digestion but stays lazily inside the stomach· hence this disease is known as Alasaka. 6. '
...

II \9 II
1

Profound aggravation (increase) of vayu {vata) and other causing diffe.rent kinds of troubles, the person experie· nces pain as though being pricked by needles, hence this disease is called Visiicika.
(JS(

II<: II
1

II

II

Abdominal pain, giddiness, distension of the abdomen, tremors, rigidity etc. are caused by vata; fever, diilrrhoea, burning sensation, inside, thirst, loss of consciousness etc. are caused by pitta; vomitting, feeling of heavyness of the body, loss of speech, excess expectoration etc. are caused by kapha. 7-9.
1

.

tftmr
e{tq-:

...

II
1

to

II

UwA:T;r.

II t

II

126

[CH.

Alasaka occurs especially in those who are poor in strength apd digestive capacity, who suppress the urges of the body {habitually) in them, vata getting increased (aggravated) associates with {kapha) obstructs the movement of undigested food causes it to stay like a foreign body, pt:oducing severe pain in the abdomen etc. but without vomi· tting and diarrhoea, this is Alasaka. 10-11.
1

-

II

II
I

;mr a which are greatly increased getting into the vitiated and obstructed channels (by accumulation of undigested food), being unable to move inside them begin to move in other channels (unnatural) occupy the whole body making it stiff like a log of wood. This disease is called Dai}QakaJasaka, which should be rejected it is quick in effect ( causes death ). 12. /

il'r"cn"

fq11'CJ"ur"' II t l. II
II II

Persons who indulge in partakir1g incompatable foods, overeating and eating of uncooked food develop the dreaded which is similar to poison and so kr,own as (food poison) which also shou]d be refused treatment because of its similarity with poison, quickness of action {causing death) and requiring treatments of opposite nature {to one another). 13-14. Alasaka .cikitsll-(treatment of alasaka) :I 11 11
II

:er
qf+q+ttiflfif ;n'f{fif

1

II

Ama (undigested food) stagnating inside should be removed quickly after deciding the conditions of easy management, by making the person drink warm water mixed with (powder of)

VIII]

127

ugra (vaca), 'patu (saindhava) and phala (madanapha1a); this will produce vomittingJ next sudation therapy, rectal suppo· sitories prepared frOlCl f1·uits Which help downward move• ment of feaces and flatus should be administered, the parts of the body which are rigid should be well fomented and then wrapped (with cloth). 15-16.

ViJaciklJ chikit.ra-(treatment of visucika) :..u..(d,_.,uqj

1

II \\1 II

In advanced stage of visiicika, branding by fire over the heel1 is highly beneficial, the patient._ should be made to fast on that day and taken care of as tlie one who has undergone purgation therapy. 17.

Ama dota cikitslJ-(management of

:I

·<:funffiUQ;mt
feta..,.lf:tfq

II

II

ferliiJr:

1

The patient of indigestion though having severe abdominal pain should not take pain-killing drugs; the agni (digestive fire} which is associated wlth ama (undigested food, impro• perly metobolites) wiJl not be able to digest the drugs and food; the severe troubles arising from these (thrr.e) will soon kill the patient. 18.

g

!J5:iqTQ_

II

t' II

"f I

After the food is found digested, if stiffness and he a vyness of the abdomen persisting, then the medicines should be adrninistered to cook the residue of the and to stimulate the agni (digestive activity). 19.
II II

ntf!J\1

I

-

Diseases produced by ama (undigested food) become reli· eved by apatarpatJa (non-nourishn1ent); three kinds of it (non-nourishment) appropriate to the three should be adopted after careful consideratio.o (of all aspects). 20.

128

"'tqtl cq:;i

II '( t II

.. . If it (ama) is little, only laiighana (fasting) will be suitable, ifit is moderate laiighana (fas.ting) and pacana (digestive drugs) are needed; if it is great_(more), then sodhana (purificatory therapies) is necessary; for these will expel out the malls ama etc.)· from tpeir very roots. 21.
..

II
§

tt..n

qf'f.W..'( l· u

u

Even the other diseases should be treated by adopting treatments which are opposite of their causative factors (hetu viparyaya). If, however, the diseases reoccur (or persist for long time} then the hetu viparyaya (therapies which are opposite ofthe cause) should be given up and vyadhi viparyaya cikitsa (.treatments which are opposite of the specific disease should be adopted suitably.

err, qs c{tq

1@1

I

,tq

II :tV II

Or Tadarthakari cikitsa (therapies which, though not actualy opposite of either the cause or the diseases still produce the desired result) should be adopted; when the have becon1e ripe (return to normal and devoid of ama) and the digestive activity augmented, then oil-bath, drinking of oil (oleation therapies) and enema therapy, etc. should be administered appropriately. 22-24.
AjiffJtJ

kinds of indigestion):et!r1'Ul ..
,.;

8'!11

I
II

From kapha (increased) arises amajirrJa (a kind of indige· stion) charactorised with swelling of the eyes (socket) and cheeks, belchings similar to those which come up in;amediately after meals, excess salivation, nausea and feeling of heavyness of the body. 25.
'I

..

VIII]

SOTRASTHA.NA

129

(another kind of indigestion) arises from (increased anila vata) and is characterised by pain in the abdomen, constipation flatulence and debility.
..

111t' U

(another kind of indigestion) arises from (increased) pitta and has thirst, fainting, giddiness, sour belchings and burning sensation inside as its symptoms. 26.

Ajlrna cikitsa-(treatment of indigestion) :s•

Rctnt

'fiN;a'M g, fef'llit
qil';j,

II

Jl

For amajirQa, langhana. ( fasting) should be done; for swedana (sudation therapy) should be done in greater measure; for vidagdha, vamana (emesis therapy) should be done, or a fly therapy appropriate to the stage of the disease can be done. 27.
fI

:tc; II

Vilambika (another kind of indigestion) occurs due to profound accumulation of ama inside the channels, it is producted jointly by kapha and vata and has all the symptoms of ama; its treatment also is similar to it (that of ama). 28.
pPlT

I etimt;nma) fifclt 11 <18 I

u

Lack of enthusiasm (in all activities), discomfort in the region of the) heart inspite of pure belchings are the features of rasasesajirQa (another kind of indigestion). Such a person should sleep for some time during day without eating anything. Patients of indigestion (of any type) should sleep day without taking any food, later, when he develops hunger he should eat little quantity of easily digestable food. 28j-29. Ajlrtza samanya lak1apa-(general symptoms of indigestion):l l '\o II
9A

'

tso

[CH.

Non-elimination or excess of elimination (of faeces urine and exhaustion, inactivity of vata, distension of the abdomen, feeling of heavyness and giddiness are symptoms of ajiro.a (indigestion) .. 30.
lfjlrtra anyak4rapllni-(other causes of indigestion) :if

...
I

II
t
i1' :q
II II

{';,_

I

(partaking of) large quantity of food, is not the only cause for production of atna foods which are disliked, which cause flatulence, which are over-cooked or uncooked, which are not easily digestable, which are dry (powdery), very cold, dirty (contan1inated) which cause burning sensation during digestion, which are dried up or soaked in more water, do not undergo proper digestion; so also the food partaken by persons afflicted with grief, anger, hunger etc. 31-321.

Du:rtll a/ana-(bad kinds of diet) :,.....

.

tlW

.

::;r

.
g

.

I I ?t I

II

q-1
ell

11 efl 1

11

. Consuming suitable and unsuitable foods mixed together is known as consuming large quantity of good even before the previous meal is digested constitutes Adhyasana, consuming less or more quantity at improper time is these three either cause death or give rise to dreaded diseases. 33-34.

Aharavidhi-( regimen of diet) :a;:Jrift: ,1

?t'-\ II

1
ttll(f:
H

oQPt(CJt fqa-r_

1

11 ?tiS

u-

VIII]

SOTRASTHANA

lSI

u

n

Food should be consumed at the proper time, it should be the accustomed, clean, suited to health, unctous, hot and easily digestable; partaken with due attention, should contain all the six tastes with predominance of sweet taste, partaken neither very quick nor very slow; after tak}ng bath, after havit g good hunger, sitting in solitude, after washing the feet, bands and face, after satisfying the pitrs (manes), gods, guests, children, preceptors and even the dependents maintained in the house (such as servants, horses and other animals for receiving service, parrots and other pets etc. ), after carefully considering one's own ( constitution. likes and dislikes, iterinary etc. ), 'without scolding abusing the food, without too much of talk; should partake more of liquid food, that which 'is l1ked, in the company of the liked persons, and served by those who are clean and faithful to him. 35-38.

!if:

I

II \\ II

Food which is contaminated with grass, .hairs etc; warmed again, which consists more of vegetables and undesirable grains, which is very hot and very should be rejected. 39.

....
c;r "

"
1

"

11

11

-

Kilata ( inspissated milk ), dadhi (voghurt, curds), kiicika ( alkalies), sukta (fermented ( solid portion of curds ), g"-'el), ama millaka (uncooked raddish), meat of animals which are emaciated, dry meat, n1eat of the boar, sheep, cow, fish and buffalo$ saliika, bisa, (powdery, starchy), germinated grains, dried vegetables, yavaka (small barley), pha:Q.ita (half cooked n.olasses)-these should not be consumed habitually. 40-41.

. ...

1

U

132 ....
II

[ CH.

II

(rice maturing in sixty days), jangala (meat of anitnals of desert like lands), sunisal}.Qaka, jivanti, balamiilaka, pathya, amalaka, mrdwika, mudga, sarkara (sugar), ghrta (butter fat), divyodaka (rain water or pure water), (milk), ,{ honey ), daQima and saindhava ( salt ) can be consumed habitually. 42-43.

Sali (rice), godhiima ( wheat ), yava (barley),

fc:rm
;r

:a

1
II II

Triphala along with honey and ghee (butter•fat) should be consumed at nights daily for strengthening of eye sight. Any other things which is good for health and dispelling/ cure of diseases can also be consumed habitually. 43!.
1

!Ill

f

II

II

1

Foods which are not easily digestable, which are nnctous (fatty), sweet, slow and hard such as hi sa, moca, coca, amra, modaka (sweet meat ball), utkarika (sweet dish) etc., shquld be consumed at the commencement of the meal; foods of opposite qualities, at the end of the meal, and those which are predominantly sour and salt, in the middle of the n1ea 1. 45-451

qcrilltft;rt

II

II

Two parts of the stomach (half of its capacity) should be filled with solid foods, one part by liquids and the remaining one part should be kept vacant for accomodating air etc. 46.
AnupCJna-(after-drink)
t-

qtft fttq
9

II \i\9 II
I

rr

r

'

Vlti 1
!im;:rj

SOTRASTHANA

133

c:rit't
f\ttUt
:;r

g
lii

I II
1

II
II

... mq..
:;:r qq:

II

As Anupana (after-drink) cold water is ideal after meals containing / prepared from yava ( barley ) and godhiima (wheat), so also after consuming dadhi (yoghurt/ curds), wine, poison and honey. Warm water is ideal after foods which are starchy, mastu (whey), takra (diluted buttermilk) and amlakanjika (ferrnented gruel) are ideal; after dishes prepared from vegetables and mudga and other legumes): Sura (beer) is good to make lean persons shout, and honey water to make stout persons lean; juice of meat is good for the emaciated, wines are ideal after a meal of meat and to those who have poor digestive capacity; milk is best suited just as nector for those who are debilitated by diseases, medicines (and therapies), walking long distances, speaking, sexual intercoures, fasting, exposure to sun and such other (tiresome) activities; for the emaciated, the aged, and children. 47-50.

;:r 1

--

It

'-\t II

An ideal anupana ( is that which has proper· ties opposite of those of the foods but not incompatable with them; such an after-drink is always valuable. 51.

oqtfs

1

:;:rll

II

Anupana ( after-drink ) invigorates, gives contentment, helps proper movement of food inside, stability of the body parts; loosening of hard masses of food, their proper liquification (moistening) and digestion. 52.
:q :q

r II

II

It is not good in diseases of the organs above the shoulders, dyspnoea, cough, injury to chest (lungs), rhinitis, for those engaged in singing and speaking and in hoarseness of voice. 53.

t94

[Oft.

..

t:

qlif
Drinking liquids (water etc.) should be avoided by those who are overhydrated, who are suffering from polyuria ( diabetes ) diseases of the eyes and throat, and wounds (ulcers.) 54.
\=ltrta

.

....

11
I

ll

.Utcft,

erli' qlii

All (both l!ealthy and sick) should avoid speaking (oration), walking long distances and sleeping immediately after consuming liquids; exposure to sun and fire, travel in vehicles, swimming and riding on animals soon after consu· ming food. 54J.

Aharaknla-(proper time 1 meals):of

fi;rv;i:
:;;r
t:r

1

M;m: '' "" u

The ideal time for taking meals is after the elimination of feaces and urine, when the mind is clean (devoid of emotions), are moving in their natural paths (functioning when the normally), when belchings are pure (without any foul smell or taste), when hunger is well manifest, when the flatus is moving downward easily, when the digestive activity is keen, when the sense organs are clear (functioning), when the body is light. Food should be cosumed observing the rules and procedures of taking food. That is the ideal time. 54-55.

....l...
ii'M

ll

II

Thus ends the chapter called Matrasitiya, the eightth in the siitrasthana of Aitafigahrdaya samhita composed by srimad of sri vaidyapati Shnhagupta.

l
1

Chapter-9.

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DRA V.Y.ADI VI]N A}/] YA (Knowledge of substances ete.)
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We -will now expouud the chapter-Dravyadi vijfianiya, knowledge of substances etc; thus said Atreya and other great sages. 1.

Dravya pratlhllnya-(Importance of the substance) :-

its,

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Dravya (substance), (mass of the substance to be more precise) is the chiPf (most important) among rasa (tastes) and others (qualitif's); bec;}use aH of them (qualities) are residing in it (substance). It ( substance ) is pancabhiitatmaka ( composed of, born from the five elements), it has (prthvi bhiita) as its substratum (mass, support), it takes origin from arhbu (ap bhiita), agni (tejas bhiita), pavana (vayu bhiita) and nabhas (akasrl (bhuta), with their intitnate (inseperable) combination making for its formOltion and specificity (of each substance). ltc; identification/designation is by preponderance (predominence of the bhiita present in it).
Notes :--The above verses point out the paiicabhiita doctrine of the Samkhya philos'lphy, which has been adopted by Ayurveda. It envisages the existence of panca hhutas (five prima• y elements) viz, prthvi (earth), ap (water), tt"Jas (fire), vayu (air) and aka!a (space) which are (minute, subtle); each one has many guQas (qualities)-one (special) anJ otht"rs simanya (general); even these general qualities also being &OU;lewhat specific. Gaiidha (smell) is the gul)a (special quality) of prthvl bhiita (earth e), ment), while guru (heavyness), khara (roughness), kathina (hardneu) etc. arc its oth'!r g•JQ.fu (qualities); ra•a (taste), riipa (appearance,

A$TANGA

(CH.

form), sparsa {touch) and sabda (sound) are the specific qualities ofthe other four bhiitas in addition to many other general qualities which will be enumerated in further verses· These bhiitas ( elements ) do not remain seperate in their (minute) form but soon combine together in an inseperable combination tsamaviya), become sthiila (gross ) and give rise to the formation of all the substances of this universe. Hence the entire universe is paiicabhautik (composed of five elements, hence designated as prapaiica). The proportion/ quantity of each bhiita in this combination varies and hence the existence of myriads of substances in this universe, each one different from the other. With this variation in the quantity of the five bhiitas (elements), whichever the one that is predominant/preponderant in any substance bestows its name to that substance. If prthvi bhiita (earth element) is more than the other fC>ur: in a certain combination, then the substance that gets formed is called pirthiva; if ap bhiita (water element) is more the resulting substance is known as ipya; if tejas bhiita (fire element) is more it will be taijasa if vayu bhiita (air element) it will be vayaviya, and if ikasabhiita (space element) is more, it will be akasiya {nibhasa). Thus all the substances of the universe are classified into five kinds. The qualities (properties) and functions of each kind will be described in further verses. Hence, there is no substance having only one rasa (taste) because of the combination of the bhiitas (eliment), because of that (presence of many tastes in every substance) diseases also are not produced by any one only (as every substance consumed by a person may increase more than one at the same

Rasa-Anurasa-(Primary and secondary tastes) :-

.

.

O?'.fm).sfq Among them (tastes present in a substance) that which is (clearly) manifest (perceivedt recognised) is designated as rasa (chief/ primary taste) and others which are not clearly manifest or which are understood (recognised) at the end are anurasa (secondary tastes). 3.
Notes :-Rasa (taste) is an important gul).a (quality) of every substance. and is given importance in Xyurveda, tastes are present in every substance and among them which ever taste is predominant that is conaidered as primary taste and others are secondary, on the basis of the rule ''daigna· tion by predominence'', all the substances of the universe are classified into abc kinds on the basis of the tastes; this bas been described in the next chapter.

I II I

II

IX]

SUTRASTHANA

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1

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II

II

I

Guru and other guvas (qualities) present in the prthvivyadi dravyas (substances of prthvi ar""d other bhiita predominance) are residing in the rasas (tastes of those substances); they (gul}as) are ascribed to (attributed to) the tastes, because of inti1nate co•existance.
A

Notes :-Guru and g1u;tas (qualities) have already been explained in the first ch:lpter 18). In texts of these qualities are ascribed to the taste, this attribution is only categ Jrical; strictly speaking the gut;1aS (qualities) actually pertain to the (elements) present in the substance; as both t11e q -1alities and also the tastes are pre· sent in the same substance intimJ.tely and tastes being recognised easily the qualities are categorically attributed to the tastes.

Parthiva ilrav_ya

qualities af parthiva substances) :II II

The substance which prossesses qualities such as guru (heavyness), sthiila (bulky), sthira (stable) and predon1inant in gandha (smell) is parthiva ( earthy ); it bestows heavyness, stability, compactness and growth, 5,
._ 1

Apya dral!J'a
...

of apya substances) :, OT'l_

1

II '

II

The substance which possesses qualities such as drava (liquidity), sita (cold), guru (heavyness), snigdha (unctousness, 1110isture, oilyness), manda (dull), sandra (thickness, dense) and predominant in rasa (taste) is apya (watery); it confers lubrication ( moistness ), secretion (moisture, production), kleda (keeping wet), &atiation (contentment, satisfaction) and cohesion (binding, holding together). 6.

Agneya dravya

of agneya substances) :II \9 II

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The substance which possesses qualities such as 11 (dry), (penetrating, sharp), (hot), visada (non·

c ca.
slimy), (minute) and predominant in rtipa (appearance, showing, from) is agneya (firy); it causes burning sensation, lustre, expression of colour and digestion (process of transformation, putrefaction etc. 7.

Y117avl}'a dravya /aktatta-(qualities of vayaviya substances) :11
11

I

Vayavlya substance possesses qua]ities such as (dry), vibda (non-slimy), laghu (lightness) and predominant in sparsa (touch tactile sensation), it produces dryness, light1Jess, transperancy, movements (different kinds of activities) and es:haustion. 8.

Nabhasa dravya laksaoa-(qualities of nabhasa substances) :...
II

II>

Nabhasa ( akasiya ) substance possesses qualities such as sOkJ.ma (rninuteness), visada (transperance, clearness), laghu (lightness) and predominant in sabda (sound, hearing); it produces cavitation ( hollowness ) and lightness { weightlessness). 9. r

.No·thing i.r non-medicinal;I
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There is no-thing in this universe, which is non-medicinal, which can not be made use of for many purpose and by many modes. 10.
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Substances which have predomiuence of agni and pavana bhiitas generally, have the property of moving upwards (causing movements in upward direction) and those which have predominance of bhiimi (prthvi) and toya (ap) bhiitas generally have the property of moving downwards (causing movement in downward direction). 11.

SOTRASTHANA
I

1S9

was the description of dravya (substance), the diffe· rent classification of rasas {tastes) will be described later on (in the next chapter). IIi.

Vtrya (potency) :-

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Son1e authorities say that guru, snigdha, hima (sita), mrdu, laghu, and the eight viryas (potency), in their opinion. 12.

aq_

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says that Virya is that (property) through which action is made possible, no action is possible without virya and all actions are effected by the virya only. 13.
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Those who designate guru etc. (eight qualities mentioned above) as vlryas, do so by direct implication (after actually noting/observing the effect of these qualities), bee,. use out of all the qualities, these (eight) are the chief, their very string, hnportant in day-to-day routiHe (widely used), and applicable to n1ajority of substauces being consid·ered first (in the scientific procedures). 14-15.
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Rasa ( taste ) and others ( qualities other than the above eight) though eligible to the considered ( as viryas ) are not called as viryas because these are opposite to ( the four reasons mentioned in the previous verse ). Hence guru and others ( eight qualities ) only, are the viryas. 16.

140

HI_{DAYAM
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[ CH.

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Some others ( authorities ) consider (hot) and sita (cold) only the two (gul)as) as vi1 yas, because even though, substances are of many kinds a11cl qu;dities, o1dy agni (ttjas) and soma ( ap ) are very strong ( powerful ) just as Vykta (manifest) and Avyakta (uHinanifcst) a1 c for this uuivcrse and these cannot be surpassed (vanquished, belittled. 17-18.
Notes :-The simili of vyakta and avyakta and the universe in this which verse also points to another doctrine of the Samkhya states that in the very beginning (before the evolution of the universe) the1 e existed only one principle and it was Avyak.a (unrnanifest). From this were evolved many principles which became Vyakta (manifest in from). So it is categorically said that Avya.kta (uttmanifeJt) and vyakta (manifest, evolutes forming all the different substances) are the two important principles which oannot be surpassad.
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Actions of

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virya ( hot potency ) produces giddiness, thirst, exhaustion (without any works), perspiration, burning sensation, quick cooking (transforn1ation) and mitigation of vata and kapha; sisira (sUa vit ya .. cold potency) on the other hand causes h1adana (production), jivana (livings, activities of life), stoppage ( withholding, restraining ) and purification (removal of abnormalities) of rakta (blood) and pitta. 18-19.
Vlryas

Vipaka-(taste after digestion):,

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The change in the tastes (of substances) that occures at the end of digestion by the association of (coming in contact with and being acted upon) the jatl).aragni (fire in the stomach vis-a-vis-digestive juice of the alin1entary tract) is called as

1

vipaka. 20.

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SiJTRASTHANA t

141

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Swadu (sweet) and patu (salt) tastes become madhura ( sweet ) after digestion; sour remains as sour (itself), the vipaka of tikta (bitter), ( pungent ) and (astrin· gent} tastes will generally be katu (pungent). 21.
I The effects (actiors) of the tastes (which are felt in the mouth) and ofthe vipaka rasa (tastes at the end of digestion 21!. will be the

Karma viahDna-(mechanism of action of substances):q'fflwt

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Substances yeild good or bad effects, some by their rasa (tastes), some by their vipaka (taste at the end of degestion). some by their gul].a (qualities), some by their virya and some by their prabhava (special action), 22.
II \ II

srq'ri' fu

1

II

II

Which ever the one that is powerful among them (rasa, vipaka, gui}a, virya and prabhava) present in a substance, covers up (reduces, inactivates, lessens or even negates) the others and becomes the cause of action (of that substance). In case of combination of two opposite the strong one vanquishes the weak.
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When these are of equal strength, vipaka wins over rasa; they (rasa and vipaka) win over the virya, prabhava wins over them (ra,sa, vipaka and virya); this is the (pattern of) natural strength. 25.

PrablelJr1a-( special effect) :-

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142

YAM

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The special action (of a substances) soon, when the rasa others (present in it) are of equal strength, that action is laid tb be arisen from prabhava (for example); though danti (Croton tiglium) is. identical with .citraka (plumbago zeylanica) in (respect of) rasa etc:, it (danti) is a purgative, (while citraka is not so); similarly so, are madhuka (GJycerrhiza . .bra)·and mrdvika (Vitis vinifera), mrdvika is a purgative . -..,aqadhllka is not so); ghrita (ghee, butter-fat) and (milk) in respect of kindling digestion (ghrta kindles digetion where as does not). 26. Vicitra pralyfJ:11Jrdha dracrya-(extraor£}inary substances) :-

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Thus was described the general (usual) mode of actions of the substancrs and others (its qualities). Then again, there is the special category (of known as vicitra pratyayarabdha, (born out of pecu1iar combination of causative .r.ctws1 i_.e. the pancabhiitas)) for example-6oth godbiima {JvP-e.at) and yava (barley) possess swadu and (\uru (sweet 1l¢ heavy qualities ) yet godhiima ( wheat ) ntitigates vita ,yava ( barley ) aggravates (increases) vita; fish is hot (ln potency} while milk is cold (in potency) (though both 'are sweet and heavy), meat of lion though of sweet taste becomes ka\U (in vipaka) whereas the meat of the pig is not so (does not b; come pungent after digestion). 28-28I.
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Thu,s ends the cha:pter named Dravyadi vijfianiya,· the ninth in the siitrasthana of Hrdaya samhita composed by Srimad Vigbhata, son of sri Vaidyapati Sin1hagupta,
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Chapter-10

RASABf/EDlTA--( Classification
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of tastes)
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We shall now expound the chapter entitled Rasabhediyaclassification of tastes; thus said Atreya aod other great sages. Rasotpatti--( formation

if tastes

) :-

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Madhura and other rasas { tastes ) get formed from the preponderance of two bhiilas ( primary elements ) respectively, in the following manner :
( p:rthvi ) + ambo ( ap ) agni ( tejas ) + ( ap ) ambu ( ap ) + tejas kha ( akasa ) + vayu agni ( tejas ) + aniJa ( vayu ) go ( prthvi) + anila ( vayu ) Rosa

....

madhura {sweet.) amla (sour) lava1;,1a ( saJt ) tikta (bitter) katu ( pungent) (astringent) l. characteristics of tastes ) : q)

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Among them ( rasas ) swadu ( madhura-sweet ) is understood by its adhering to the inside of the n1outh when put into it, providing a feeling of contentment \ pleasure ) to the body and comfort to the se11se organs. It is, liked even by ants etc. 2. !rifq,_ I .. II
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144

H}.t.;DA YAM

[ CH.

Amla {sour) the mouth watery, causes horripilations and tingling of the teeth, and leads to closing of the tyes and brows. 3.
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Lavat}.a ( salt ) oa.uses more moisture in the mouth ( increase salivation ) and burning sensation in the- che__,eks and throat. 3j
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Tikta ( bitter ) cleanses the mouth and destroys the organs of taste ( makes perception of other tastes in1posible ) 4.

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Ka\U ( pungent ) stimulates ( excites ) the tip of the tongue, causes irritation, brings out secretions from the nose and mouth, and causes burning sensation of the cheeks. 5.
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( astringent ) inactivates the tongue ( diminishes capacity of taste perception ) and causes obstructions of passage in the throat. 5!.

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These are the characteristic features of the tastes, now their actions ( are stated ). 6.

Rasa karma-( actions of tastes )..... I I

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Madhura rasa lcarma-Madhura (sweet) 11 being accustomed since birth, produces greater strength in the dhatus (tissues) is very valuable for childrent the aged, the wounded,

X]

S"OTRASTHANA

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emaciated, is good for the colour ( complexion ), hairs, sense organs, and ojas ( essence of the tissues ), causes stoutness of the bodv, good for the throat, increases unites broken things ( fracture of bones etc. ), not easily digestable, prolongs life, helps life activities; is unctous, ..mitigates pitta, vat:;t- and ( poison ) . By excess use it produces diseases ( kapha ), obesity' dyspepsia, arising from fat and unconsciousness, diabetes, enlargements of glands of the neck etc., malignant tumour ( cancer ) and such others. 7-9.

Amla rasa karma":""-( actions

of sour taste)
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Amla ( sour ) stimulates the agni ( digestive activity ), is unctous, good for the heart, digestive, a hot in pote· ncy, cold on touch ( coolent on external applications, relieves burning sensation ), satiates ( comforting),. causes moistening, is easy for digestion, causes aggravation (increase$) of kapha, pitta and as:ra ( blood ) and makes the inactive vata move downwards. Used in excess, it causes looseness ( flabynesa) of the body, loss of strength, blindness, giddiness, itching (irritation ), pallor ( whitish yellow discolouration as in anaemia ), visarpa ( herpes ), swellings, visphota { small pox), thirst and fevers. 10-lll.

Lavarza rasa karma-( actions qf salt taste ) ; -

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Laval}a ( salt ) removes the rigidity, clears the ohstruc• tions ( of the channels and pores ) increases digestive activity, causes sweating, penetrates ( into the tissues ), 1mproves taste, causes lacerations and bursting ( of tissues, new growth, abscess etc.).
10 A

146

[OH.

Used in excess, it causes increase of asra ( blood ) and pavana ( vata ), causes baldness, greying of hair, wrinkles of the akin, thirst, leprosy !( and other skin diseases ), poison ( effect of poison• ), visarpa ( herpes ) and diminision of strength ( of the body ). 12-13.
Tikta rasa karma--( actions of hiller taste ) :--

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T1kta ( bitter ) by itself is not liked, it cures anorexia, worms ( bacteria, parasites etc. ), thitst, poison, leprosy (and other skin dic;eases ), loss of conscioust,{SS, fever, nausea, burning sensations; tnitigates pitta and kapha, dries up moisture ( water ), fat, rnu4icle-fat marrow, faeces and urine; is easily digestable, increasps inteUegence, cold ( in potency ), dry ( causes dryness), cleanses the breastmilk, and throat. Used in excess, it causes depletion of dhatus ( tissues ) and 'diseases ofvata origin. 14-16.
Kalu rasa karma-( actions

of pungent taste
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Katu ( pungent ) cures diseases of the throat, allergic rashes, leprosy and other skin diseasc-s, alasaka ( a kind of indigestion ), swelling ( odema ); reduces the swelling of the ulcers, dries up the unctousness ( greasiness ), fat, and moistture ( water ); increases hunger, is digestive, improves taste, 6odhana ( eliminates the ), dries up the ( moisture of the ) food, breaks up hard masses, dilates ( expands ) the channa,ls and mitigates ( increased ) kapha.

X]

SOTRASTHANA

147

By over use, it causes thirst, depletion of sukra ( reproductive element, sperm ) and strength, fainting ( loss of consci· ousness ) contractures, tremors and pain in the waist, back etc. 17-19.
K asiJya rasa karma-( actions
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of astringent taste ) : I

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....

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( astringent ) mitigates ( the increased ) pitta and kapha, is not easily digestable; cleanses the blood, causes squeezir-g and healing of ulcers ( wounds), cold (in potency), dries up the moisture and fat, hinders the cooking (digestion) of undigested food, is water absorbant ( thereby _causing constipation ), dry ( causes dryness ) and cleanses the skin too much. Used in excess, it causes stasis of food without digestion, flatulence, pain in the ( region of) heart, thirst, emaciation, loss of virility, obstruction of the channels and constipation. 20-211.

Madhura gapa-( group

of sweet substances ) : n-=t\11
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qor: Ghrta ( ghee, butter fat), bema (gold), gu-;Ia (molasses), moca, coca, abhiru, vira, paoasa, rijldana, the three hal a, the two medas, the four parl}ies, jivaiiti, jivaka, nabhaka, madhuka, madhiika, bithbi, vidari, the two SraVal}i, the two the t\\"O saba, etc. form the group of sweet substances. 22-24.

148

A$TANGA

[ CH.

Amla gana-( group of sour substances) :--

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Dhatriphala, amlika, matulufiga, amlavetasa, da<;lima, rajata (silver), takra, cukra, palevata, dadhi, am1 a, amrataka, bhavya, kapittha, karamardaka etc. form the sour group.

25-26.
Lavarza gapa--( group of salts ) :--

fici
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Varam ( saiftdhava ), kpl}a, bi<;Ia, samudra, audbhida, pamsuja ( all these are JavaQas or salts ), sisa ( lead ) and k?ara ( alkalies ) form the salt group. 27.
Tikta galla--( group of bitters ) :--

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Patoli, trayanti, valaka, usira, candana, bhunimba, nirhba, katuka, tagara, aguru, vatska, naktamala, the two raJanl, musta, murva, pa\ha, apamarga, kamsya (bronze), ayas ( iron ), guQ.iici, dhanvayasaka, mahat paficamiila, the two vyaghri, visala, vaca etc. form the gronp of bitters.

Kofu garza--( gr_oup

of pungents ) :-11\oll
1

qait

Hingu, marica, krmijit, pancakola, leafy vtgetables such as kutheraka and others ( mentioned in 103 of chapter 6 earlier ), pitta ( bile ), miitra ( urines ), a1 etc. form the pungent grpup. 30-

SOTRASTH.ANA

Kailt)'a varga ( garza )--( group

qq:

of astringents ) : fttqq:
I

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II

Group of astringents consists of pathya, khadira, madhu (honty), kadamba, udumbara, mukta (pearls}, pravala ( coral ), anjana ( antimony ), gairika ( red ochre ), balakapittha, kharjura, his a, padma, utpala etc. 31

General properties of tastes ond exceptions :-!:fPl'T

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.... ..
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Generally, substaqces of sweet taste cause increase of kapha except o\d Mili ( more than one year old ) and yava, mudga, godhiima, ( honey ), sita ( sugar ) and meat of animals of desert-like lands. Generally substances of sour taste cause aggravation ( crease ) of pitta, except d a<jima and amalaka. Generally salts are bad for the eyes ( vision ) except saindhava.
Generally bitters and pungents are non-aphrodisiacs and aggravate ( increase ) vata except for amrta, patoli, sunthi, and rasona. Astringents are usually cold ( in potency } and obstruc .. tive-except abhaya. ·
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Ka\u ( pungent ), amla { sour), laval}a (salt ) are of virya f hot· potency), each one, more so in theij1 succeeding order; similarly tikta ( bitter ), ya ( astringent ) and madhura ( sweet ) are sita ( cold in potency ) each one; more in their succeeding order. Similarly, tikta ( bitter ), katu ( pungent ) and (astringent ) are dry and cause constipation ( each one more so in their succeeding order ) while patu ( salt), amla (sour ), madhura ( sweet ) are unctous and help elimination of faeces, urine and flatus ( each one more so in their succeeding order ). Pa\u ( s!llt ), ( astringent ) and madhura ( sweet ) are heavy ( not easily digestable ) ( each one more so in their succeeding order ) while amla ( sour ), katu ( pungent ) and :ikta (bitter ) are light ( easily digestable ) each one more so in their succeeding order). 36-38{.

Rasa .samyoga samkhyll-( number of combinations
ft't.-mt'ltlq;n ij

of tastes ) :1

1

The combinations of tastes wiJl be fifty seven, but their attual counting will be sixty three, on the bas'is of their usage ( in daily routine of selection of drugs, planning of therapies etc. ) which are explained broadly as follows- 39.
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fii;
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Eliminating one ( rasa at each combination), the number of combination of two rasas each will be 15; in the combination of three rasas each, it will be 10 with swadu ( sweet ), 6 with amla ( sour), 3 with lava\1a and 1 with tikta (bitter )total 20; in the combination of 4 rasas it will be 10 with swadu ( sweet ), 4 with amla ( sour ) and 1 with laval).a (salt) totall5; in the combinations of 5 rasas, it will be 1 with

X]

SOTRASTHANA

151

amla (sour) and 5 with swadu ( sweet ) total 6; in the combi· nation of all the 6 rasas it will be one; each rasa individually will be 6, thus forming 63 combinations in total. 40-42.
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I

( To sum up ) the combination of fives ( rasas ) it is 6, those of six rasa individually; it is 6 of twos and fours it is 15 each; of threes it is 20, of all six tastes together it is 1; thus making a total of 63. 43 ..
Notes :-For the sake of clear understanding the combinations have been explained by A1 un.adatta, in his commentary as follows, which i1 reproduced here:-

I. Combination of

lwo

tastes:-

1,. madhura (sweet)

"'•

2. madhura (sweet) 3. madhura (sweet) 4. madhura (sweet) 5. madhura (sweet) 6. amla (sour) (sour) 7. amla 8. amla (sour) {sour) 9. amla (salt) 10. lavaQa (salt) 1 J. lavaoa 1 L lavat)a (salt) (bittei) I J. tikta (bitter) 14. tikta (pungent) 15. katu

+ amla (sour) + tikta (bitter) + (-\Stringent) + laval}.a (salt) + katu (pungent) + lava1,.1a (salt) + katu (pungent) + (astringent) + tik ta (bitter) + katu (pungent) + + katu (pungent)

+ tikta (bitter)

+
+ + + + + +

t

(astringent) (astringent)

II. combination of tlar6e tastes : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

madhura madhura madhura madhura madhura

+

+ + + +

+

amla amla amla amla lavaQa laval}.a

lavaQa tikta

tikta katu

[ CH.
7. madhura 8. madhUia
9. madhura 10. madhura

+ + + + + + +
+ + + +
+

lavava tikta -ttikta katu JavaJ}a lava:r;ta lavaQ.a tikta
tikta kap1

+
kat u
kasaya

+
+

+

11. 12. .i3. 14. 15. 16. 17. lU. 19.

amla amla amla amla amla amla lavaJ.la
laval}.a

tikta katu
katu

+ +
+ +

+

tikta tikta
katu katu

20. tikta

+

+ + +
+ +

+

katu

.,..,
I

III. combination of four tastes : l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
B.

madhura madhura madhura rnadhura madhura madhura madhura madhura madhura madhura amla am]a amla amla laval)a

+ + +
+ +

+

amla
amla amla

Lwar_1a lavan.a lavan.a ttkta tikta katu tikta tikta katu tikta tikta katu katu ka tu

+

9.
10. I I. 12. 13. 14. 15.

+ + + + + +
+

+

amla amla amla laval)a laval)a laval)a tikta laval}.a laval}.a lavaQ.a tikta tikta

+ +

+

+ + + +
+

tikta katu

katu
kasaya katu

+
+ +
+

+

+

+

+ +
+

+ + +

+ + +

+
+

+

+

katu

I,
ka;aya

I

IV. combination ofjiw tastes : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. amla madhura madhura madhura madhura

+ + +
+

+ +

laval}.a laval)a amla amla amla amla

+
+

+

+
+

6. madhura

+

tikta tikta tikta lavaoa lavaQa

+ +
+

+

+

lavar)a

+ tikta +

katu katu katu katu tikta

+ + +
+

r

+

T
katu

I

X]
V.

SOTRASTHANA
combination of six tastes:-

l
tikta

1. Madhura

+

amla

+

lava:Qa

+ katu +

+

Vl. Each taate seperately : 1. madhura 3. lava:Qa 5. tikta

2. amla 4. 6.

Total -

I group-15 I I group-- 20

III group-15 IV group-6

V group-1 VI group-6 = 63.
'if I

\.=fwqf;a- :rtur;rt

IIWil

These rasa ( primary tastes ) and anurasas ( secondary tastes ) in their proportional ( more, moderate and less ) combinations become innumerable. These are to be selected and used after considering the conditions of the and drugs ( and therapies ). 44.

'(fa

,qi

Thus ends the chapter entitled Rasabhediya, the tenth in sutrasthana of ya Samhita of srimad Vag... bhata son of sri vaid yapati Sinihagupta.

12

l

Chapter--11

D0$ADI VI]FIANl'YA ADHYAYA ( J(nowledge of doflls etc. )
STQRil I

{Rr

w

We shall now expound the chapter entitled vijfta.. niya-knowledge of and others; thus said Atreya and other great sages.

D1hasya milam--( chief constituents

of the body ) :--

1@
Dhatfis ( tissues ) and malas ( waste ) are the roots ( causes, chief constituents, supports ), of the body throughout the span of life. ) l.
Not1s are of two kinds, (a). Sarira ( somatic ) viz, vita, pitta and kapha, (b) • minasa ( psychic ) viz, rajas and tamas. Dhitus ( tissues ) -are aeven viz, rasa (plasma), rakta (blood), mamsa (muscle), medas (fat), aathi (bone), majja (bone marrow) an<l §ukra (semen-the reproductive tiuue in the males and its counter part irtava (ovum) in females). Ojas the essence of the dhitus is counted as the eighth dhitu. In addition, there are some upadhatus (secondary tissues) such as lasika (lymph), stanya (breast milk), kao<;lara (tendons) sira dhamani (vdns and arteries), vali (muscle fat), twak (,kin), snayu (nerves), taruQasthi (cartillages) etc; malls (waste products) are purisa (feaces), miitra ( urine ), aweda (sweat), khamala (dhitu mala-waste products of tissues). excretions of the eyes, nose, ears, of the small and big channels, etc. kda-roma (hair on the head and body), nakba (nails) etc.
All theae are present in the human body always throughout life.

So long as they are normal (in their quantity, qualities and function} they
maintain the health of the person and when they become abnormal, they become causes of diseues. This will be described in this chapter and al10

tbe next.

Prakrta dora karma--( functions of normal dotar ) :-

a._:.
n'
II

XI]

SOTRASTHA.NA

;;r

._ I

ll
I

II

.. : 11

u

Out of them cala ( vata ), in its normal state, protects the body bestowing cnthusiastn ( eagerness, desire ), expiratiotl and inspiration, all activities (of the body, mind and speech), initiation ( and also execution ) of the urges ( of faeces, urine etc. ), maintainence of the dhntus ( tissues ) in their normalcy and proper functioning of the sense organs. Pitta, in its normal state attends to digestion, maintainence of body temperature, vision, production of hunger, thirst, appetite, complexion, intellegence, courage, valour, and softness ( suppleness ) of the body. ( kapha) confers stability, lubrication, colnpactness ( tirmness ) of the joints, forbearance ( capacit.y to withstand or \'Vithhold emotions, strain etc.) and such others. 1}-3.
Notes :--The above are only the chief functions, they also attencl to many others also.

.

Prakrta dhatu-mala karma--( functions malas) :-

of normal dllatus allll
.... 'l...,J\ 1

sr)urvi

ijlq:

W8

.,iiT

nw n

Nourishing ( supplying nutrition ), maintainence of life activities, enveloping ( covering ), lubrication, supporting, filling (the inside of the and production of the embryoare the important functions of the dhatus respectively. 4.
atCf'P¥1':

...

'

ictf'Ef'lm:
Maintainence (of strength of the body ) is the chief fWlC• tion of faeces; elimination of moisture ( water ) is of urine. and retention of is of the sweat. 5. ·'

Ytddha dot a karma-(functions of increased dotas ) •-

,..,• .W.sliRI: II

II

i56

A&T.ANGA
•-t

{CH
I

I

-

Vata, when increased ( more than its normal ) produces emaciation, black dis·colouration, desire for hot things, tremors, d,istention of the ahdomeu, constipation, loss of strength, sleep and of sensory functions, irrelevant speech, giddiness and timidity ( peevishness ). 5!-6.
.-..

N'6'(
Pitta (when increa'ied ) produces yellow colouration of the faeces, urine, eyes, and skin; excess of hunger and thirst, feeling of burning sensation and very little sleep. 61.
II
\9

II

Ji('q(\(q<1JQ(Wfd

I

( kapha } ( when increased ) produces debility of digestive activity, excess salivation, lassitude, feeling of heavyness, white colouration ( of faeces etc. ) , coldness, looseness of the body parts, dyspnoea, cough and excess of sleep. 7-71

Vrddha dhatu karma--( functions

of t"ncreased dhlJtas ) :II t:: II

,I I& II

Rasa ( when increased ) is similar to kapha, ( produces the same symptoms of increased kapha ); rakta ( blood ) when increased produces visarpa ( herpes ), diseases of the spleen, abscesses, leprosy ( and other skin diseases ), vatasra ( gout ), pittasra ( bleeding disease ), abdominal tumors, upakuia ( a disease of the teeth ), kamala (jaundice), vyafiga ( discoloured patch on the face ), loss of agni ( digestive activity ), samntoha ( coma ) , red co laura tion of the skin, eyes, and urine. 8-9.
II11J
'I'
1

XI]

SOTRASTHANA

Mathsa ( tissue when increased ) produces enlargement of ( lymph) glands, malignant tumors ( cancer), incre• ase in size of the cheeks, thighs, and abdomen, over growth of muscles of the neck and other places.

oil
at(!tf.Sfq
I

..

Medas ( fat tissue when increased ) is also similar ( produces the same syn1ptoms ) and in addition, it causes fatigue, increased breathing even after little work, drooping of the buttocks, breasts and abdornen. 9!-10.

Astbi ( bone tissues when increased ) causes over growth of bones and extra teeth.

q;jti
M ajja ( marrow when increased ) produces heavyness of the eyes and the body, increase of size of the body joints and causes ulcers which are difficult to cure.
Sukra ( semen ) when increased produces great desire for the woman ( sexual desire ) and even seminal calculi ( harde· ning of semen. ) . 12.

Vraaha mala karma--( functions of increased<rmalas ) :-...
1

Sakrt ( feaces when increased ) produces enlargement of the abdomen, gurgling noise and feeling of heav}' ness ( of the abdomen ). ·

1{'i

..

Miitra ( urine when increased ) produces severe pain in the bladder and feeling of non-elimitJation even after ¢limination ( of urine ). 13.

..

...·"1:

158

(CH.

Sweda ( sweat when increased) produces excess of pers• piration, foul smell and itching ( irritation ). 13f.

;rar-r_
The increase of ( excretion of the eyes ) and other waste products are to be understood by noting their increased quantity, h("avyness ( of their sites ) and such other symptoms. 14.
K'fl1Ja

doradi karma--(functions decreased doflJS etc. ) :-1

The symptoms of vata when decreased are-debility of the body, the person speak<; very little and d( es very little acti· vity ( ), of sensation ( awareness ) and of consciousness and occurrar,ce of all the symptoms of increased

kapha. 15.
Decrease of pitta produces weakness of digestive activity, coldness and loss of lustre { complf'xion ). 15!.
-=<l..q(J Qq:
"""' lm: I

Decrease of kapha causes dizziness, emptiness of the organs of kapha, tremors of the heart ( palpitation ) and of the joints. 16.
WJI': mq)
i I

Decrr,ase of rasa produces dryness, fatigue, emaciation, exhaustion ( r,veu without auy work ) and inability to bear with noise.
II

Decrease of produces desire for sour and cold loss of tcnsibll of veins (and arteries) and dryness. 17.

..

XI]

SOTR.ASTHA.NA

159

Decrease of marhsa causes debility of the sense organs, emaciation of cheeks, buttocks ( etc. ) and pain in the joinu.

171.
Decrease of medas causes loss of sensation in the waist, enlargement of spleen and en1aciation of the body. 18.
I

Decrease of asthi causes pain in the joints, the teeth, hairs, nails etc. ( prematurely ) 181.

off of

'II
Decrease of majja produces hollowness ( of the bones inside ) giddiness and seeing of darkness ( blindness ), 19.
"' UJG "' (' "'.:l '"'"' UJG• ttuftJto+tcr en 1 '{ffl<t.tdl'f "

Decrease of sukra gives rise to delay in ejaculation, ejacu•, lation accon1panied with bleeding, severe pain in the testcles and a feeling of hot fumes coming out of the urethra:· 20.
....

I

'\l;Jm

Decrease of gives rise to movement of air inside the intestines, accompanied by gurgling uoise coming upwards and causing severe discomfort in the region of the heart and the flanks. 21.
l{St..Siiti

"' 1

Decrease of miitra gives rise to scanty urine, dysuria, urine discoloured or n1ixed with blood. 21}.
(q;J:

Decrease of sweda le,1ds to falling of hair, stiffness of hair and cracking of the skin. 22. V-'-fitQ.
1

160

A&'fA.NGA H\tDAYAM

[OH.

Decrease of malas which are of little quantity is difficult to perceive, it should be inferred from the dryness, pricking pain, empty ness and tightness of their sites ( of production and elimination ). 23.
I

RlqftaMT
JJ(!f(itf

.;

'ftfa

1

The increase and decrease of the and others can be understood by decrease of their opposite qualities and increase of similar qualities respectively; the increase of the malas by their non-elimination ( out of the body ) and their decrease by too much of elimination. 23!-24!.
Body accustomed to accumilation of waste products, their decrease is more troublesome to it, than their increase.

25.
Not1s :-So far, were described the troublesome signs and symptoms
caused by increase and decrease of the dhatiis and malas. Both increase and decrease are abnormal ( vaisamya ), hence the two termsvrddhi and are used to denote abnormalcy only, in maj01ity of the contexts But while describing the properties of certain medicinal formula ', the term "vriddhi" is used to denote even the normal growth of the dhatus and malas, which is wrong, strictly speaking. The appropriate terms to describe normal increase and decrease are upacaya and apacaya respectively.

Vrddha doflJai cikitslJ.-( treatmrnt of increased

etc. ) : I
I

g

In the ( bones ) resides vayu ( vata ), in the sweda ( sweat ) and rakta ( blood ) resides pitta and in the remain· ing ( dhatus and ma1as-tissues and wastes ) resides ( kapha ), in intimate relation as the asraya ( residence, container) and asrayi ( resident, content ) respfctively; the medicines(therapies which cause the increase and decrease of the one, also cause increase and decrease of the other respec· tively, except in the case of asthi and vata. 26-27.

XI]

SOTRASTHANA

161

a-qomr.
I

· iRIITtiif... ia.t:

I

The increase ( of dhatus and malas ) is usually due to tarpaQa ( more of nutrition ) '"'hich is followed later on with ( increase of) slesman ( kapha ) whereas, the decrease ( of dhatus and malas ) is due to loss o: nutrition which is followed, later with ( increase of ) vayu ( vata ). Hence, the diseases arising from increase and decrease of the residence ( container ) and resident { content ) should be treated quick by adopting langhana ( therapy causing thinning of the body, reducing the quantity ) and brmhaQa ( therapy causing stoutening the body, increasing the quantity etc. ) methods respectively. In case of vayu ( vata ) by the other way; its diseases' treated with the same therapies but in the opposite order ( increase of vata by adoptiug bpnhal}a therapy and its dec· rease by adopting laiighana therapy ). 28-29.
Notes :-The relationship between vata and asthi has not been properly understood, each of the modern scho!ars has his own interpretation but no view is found satisfactory so far.

1

11\oll
I

u\'11
...

I

ti\\n In particular ( especially ) the diseases arising from the increase of rakta should be treated with blood letting and pur· gations; the diseases of increase of marhsa by use of sharp instruments ( surgery ) , caustic alkalies and fire cautery; those of the increase of n1edas ( fat ) by therapies indicated for obesity, and its decrease by·therapies indicated fo: ema-

llA

162

[ CH•

ciation; decrease of asthi by enema therapy using milk, ghee { butter fat ) and bitters (drugs ). Tbone arisiiJg from increase of vit ( faeces ) by therapies indice1ted in diarrhoea. those from decrease of faeces by ·the use of abdominal viscera of ram or goat, half steamed puJsess barley and the two varities of etc. ( as food ). Those arising from increase and decrease of miitra (urine) by adopting treatments indicated for diabetes and dysuria respectively; those arising from decrease of sweda ( sweat) by adopting physical exercises oil·bath, sudation therapy ( diarphoresis) and the use of wine. 30-33.

Kl!ylJgni :-

atrr

...

....
"

•#'-

1
II

\lt!J:

tti

e

1

Kayagni ( digestive fire, digestive activity ) present in its own place, has portions of itself, present in the dhatus (tissues) also. Their decrease ( in quantity, qualities or functions) and increase ( in quantity, qualities or functions ) give rise to increase and decrease of the dhatus ( respectively ). The preceeding dhatu which is either increased or decreased gives rise to the succeeding dbatu of the same condition.
Notes :-Kiyigni means the fire·like agency in the body, its site being ( alimentary tract ) it is called jathara { sto· mach ) being its chief seat it is known as ja tharagni. As it to the important (unction of ihira pika-digestion of food- it is also called pica. kigni. It cooke the food and prepares nutrient matetials required for all the dhitus; each one of the dhitu has within it, an agni-fire-like agency-which is described as the portion of the jithadigd, because of identical function; this agni present in the dhatu ( dMitvag. i) cooks the nutrient material prepared by the jatharagni and ti ansfonns it so as to become suitable tct the dhatu. In this function, the dhatvagni' receives stnngth from the jatharagni and both work in unison; if the jatharagni b ve1 y strong or very weak, the dhatvagnis also will be respectively; very strong.agni overcooks the food materials (chars them ), thereby making available, very little amount ofnutrients or no nutrients at all, which in turn leads to dhatuk§aya ( dec:rease or loss of the tissues ). Very weak agni, on the hadd, fails to cook the food materials properly ar'd aJJows ama (uncooked nutrients ) to accumiJate in the dhatu leading on to dhatuvrddhi ( abnormal)ncrease ofthe tissues ) as explained l'arlier; both vrddhi and (of the dh!tus )"are which give rise to many

XI]

SOTRASTHANA

165

1

Rasa dhatu, the first dhatu which gets formed from the food after its digestion, contributes some portion of itself to the succeeding dhitu-the rakta; rakta contributes some portion of itself to the next succeedin1 dhatu-the mamsa. In this manner, each preceeding dhatu helps the succeeding dhatu, when the preceeding dhatu undergoes either vrddhi or by the effect of very weak or very strong agni, the succeeding dhatu will also undergo similar changes respectively.

Dusfa

karma--( functions

of vitiated do$/JS ) : 11\'-\11
1

a-1!qm

11\'11

The which are vitiated [become abnormal undergoing either vrddhi ( increase ) or ya ( decrease )] cause vitiation of the rasa and other dhatus ( tissues ) next; both of them ( and dhatus ) together vitiate the malas ( waste products ) which in turn, vitiate the malayanas ( channels of their elimination ) which are two below, seven in the head, and the channels of sweat; from these vitiated channels develop their connected diseases. :-14!-36.
Notes :-The two channels below are that of urine ( urt. "hra ) and f«eces ( the anus ), the seven in the head are the two of the eyu, two Oi the ears, two of the nose and one o! the mouth; the channels of the sweat are in the skin spread all ovet the body.

- ...

Ojas- ( the essence of dfzatus ) :-I

mum- I
'la'l lfFJT
I

1

n

Ojas is the sara ( essence ) of the dhatfis ending with sukra ( reproductive tissue ); though located in the hrdaya ( heart ), it pervades all over ( the hody) and controls ( regulates ) the working of the body; it is viscus ( unctous, greasy), somatmaka { in bhiita or watery principle), clear (transparent ), slight rf'ddish yellow in colour: by its. loss ( de&truction, ahscence ) the loss of body ( even of life )

164

ASTANGA H\lDAYAM

[ CH.

is sure to happen and by its presence the body ( and life ) are sure to survive; from it are brought about the different states ( conditions, activities etc. ) concerned with ( related to, residing in ) the body.
T'!I'+U(I
r-

"'itat

::\..

..

...

•'

3

'Qffql(j

r-.

r

""t'::

I

!iifT

l;:\it
l I

Ojas undergoes decrease ( in quantity ) by anger, hunger (starvation ), worry, grief. exertion etc., with such a decrease, the person becomes fretful, debilitated, worries much again and again ( without apparent reason), feels discomfort in the sense organs, develops bad complexion, bad n1entation and dryness; the treatment for it, is the use of drugs of jivaniya gaQa ( vide chapter 15 ) milk, meat juice etc. 39-40.
Notes ;-Mc.my more causes of decrease of ojas have been mentioned in other texts of Ayurveda, they are ativyayama (too much of physical activity ), anasana (absence of food), alpasan<t ( very little food), pana ( intake of alcoholic.; beverages which cause dryness ), pramitasana ( ing-.stion or mixtu1 e or good and bad foods ), bhaya ( fear )J prajagara ( loss of aleep ) , abhighata ( injury ) , abhisafiga ( assault by evil spirits; micro organisms like bacteria, virus etc. ), (depletion of tissuet such aa by haemorrhage etc. ), ativisarga ( too much ot elimination) ofkapha, sol).ita ( blood), sukra ( semen ) and mala ( waste producLs ); (ingestion of poison or poisonous substances like tobacco, ganja, bhang, opium, coffee, tea etc. ) .

M
Increase of ojas makes for contentment, nourishment of the body and increase of strength. 41.

ifll

m-

9,

The increase and decrease ( of the ) should be controlled by avoidence and indulgence of foods which ditltked and desired respectively, if such foods are not tlnsuitahle. 42.

N
..
if

I

XI]

SOTRASTHA.NA

165

The which have undergone increase and decrease generally produce desire for foods which are dissimilar and similar ( in properties to those of the ) respectively; ( but ) the uniutellegent pe1son ( patient and physician ) do not recognise them. 43.
:q

fq<:tiiqij I

't(J1Jt1:,

"';¥

I IWII

The when increased produce their respective featu· res ( signs aud symptoms ) depending upon their strength; when decreased ( they ) cast off ( do not produce signs and symptoms ) and when normal, they attend to their normal functions .. 44.

tttf

a Q_ q

ferqm

1

The very same which when normal, are the causes for the ( healthy ) growth of the body, become the causes for its destruction when abnormal. Hence by adopting suitable measures ( foods, activities etc. ) the bod}' should be protected from their decrease ( also ) just as from their increase. 45.

U8
PortrliiTttT

...

....f'W:l<:t ,..

nt t n

Thug ends the chapter called Vijfianiya, the. eleventh in sutrasthana of samhita of srimad Vagbhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta .

..

1

Clzapter-12 Classification of dotas )

11UT8T d'a

q"\J-4

I
1

a

We will now expouud the chapter called divisious/classification of thus said Atreya and other great sages.

_,
I

Dotasthnna-( .'ieats of doflJ.S ) :--

,...

;:;.

,... feruqa-:

I

II

II

Pakvasaya (large intestine ), waist, thigh, ear, bone and the organ of touch ( skin ) are the &eats of vat a, especially, so the pakv!dhana ( large intestine ). 1.

:er

II

II

Nabhi ( umbilicus amasaya ( stomach and intestine ), sweat, lasika ( lyn1ph ), blood, rasa (plasma), eye, and the organ of touch ( skin ) , are the seats of pitta, especially so the nabhi ( region around the umbilicus ). 2.
\Jl:':

mur

I

:;:z

:a-

II

II

Ches1, throat, bead, klorna ( ptiucieas !), bvny joints, funasaya ( stomach and small intestine ), rasa ( plasma ), fat, nose and tongue are the seats of kapha, especially so the chest. 3.

PancarJllta-( five divisions of vllta ) : Vayu ( vat a ), is of five divisions; commencing with praQa etc. ( udana, vyana, samana and apana ).

XII]

SlJTRASTH"NA
1

167

,.

II \J II

I

Pral)a is located in the head and n1oves in the chest, throat; supports ( attends to ) the mind, heart, sense orgar1s and intellegence, attends to expectoration, sneezing, belching, inspiration and swallowing of food. 4.
"' :.s. •
r-r-

ll '-\II 1

The chest 1s the seat ofudana, it moves in the nose, umbilicus and throat; its functions are initiation of speech, effort, enthusiastn, strength (capacity of work), colour (complexion) and memory ( awareness ), 5.
3llni'Cf: II ' II

SJ'P-1:

srfa'11r;t:

1 U \9 II

Vyana is located in the heart, moves all over the body in great speed> attends to functions such as walking, bringing the body parts downwards, liftir1g the body parts upward, opening and closing of the eyes etc. generally all the activities concerned with the body. 6-7.

tW)U
ar'i
q:;rfa'

m: I
II II

Satnanfl. is lo..;ateJ uear the fire (digestive activity), n1oves in the ( alimentary tract and other abdomen viscera ), withholds the food in the ( alimentary tract for some time), cooks ( helps cooking/digestion ) seperates the essence and wastes ( from the food ) and eliminates ( the waste ). 8.

a:rqtilT..sttleftT:
c:: ,.....,

,...

..

I
II

II

Ap.l.na is located in the apana ( large intestine ), , moves in the waist, bladder, penis (genitals) and thighs and to the fuHctions as elimination of sen1en, fluid, faeces, urine and foetlis. 9.

168

[CH.

Pancapitta-( five divisions of pitta ) :-,.....

.

1

.
CflUfa

('

.

,....

lltoll
1

fqcm;:rt
qt:eaei -rn:r

1

Pitta is of hve divisious; that which is locatu1 iu the interior of the pakvasaya ( large intestines ) and amasaya ( sto.. mach and small intestine) though it is composed ofpaficabhiitas because ol increase of ( predon1inance qualities of) tejas bhiita, it is devoid of liquidity ( though it is a liquid it does not possess snigdh a ( viscidity), sita ( coolant ) and such other properties of ap bhiita )) it is called by the term anala ( fire ) because of its function of paka { digestion and transformation of food materials ). It cooks the food, divides it into essence and waste: seperately; beiug localised there, it bestows grace (help) to the other pitta present there ( rafijaka pitta ) also the others ( dhatvag11i present iu tl1e dhatus ) by giving them strength ( power of functioning ); this is n as pacaka pitta. 10-12.

.

,.....

.

I

The pitta located in the amasaya ( stomach ) is known as rai\jaka, because it imparts red colour to rasa ( and converts it to rakta-the next dhatu ). 12!.

.

IF'

.

,......

.

The pitta located in the hrdaya ( heart ) is known as sadhaka, because it attends to ( menta] ) functions such as knowledge, intellegence, self-consciousness11 etc., helping the purposes ( aims ) of life.
Notts :-Ancient Indians held the view that heart is the seat of the mind, hence the mention of the heart here; all these functions are now ascribed to the cerebral part· of the brain, which is the site of higher mental activities.

XII]

sOTRASTHANA
I

l

That ( pitta ) located in the eyes is known as ( pitta ) because it helps seeing the form ( of all things ). That ( pitta ) located in the skin is bhrajaka, becaus'e it helps exhibition of colour ( and complexion ). 14.

Pancakapha--( five divisions

of kapha ) : ... ,qa:
I

!1

:er

.U1tturr

'

( kapha ) also is of five divisions; that which is located in the chest and trika (the meeting place ofshoulder, neck and back ); by its own power and by the power of th«t essence of food ( rasa ) present in the hrdaya ( heart ), it supports \ the body ) by functions of ap bhfita (such as cohestrength sion, softness, moistness, liquidity etc. ) and to the seats of the other kapha, hence cafled avalambaka ( ka pha ) 15.
q of.:tq Hot'

ot-iH:qa:

II

... -.. .

That located in the amasaya ( stomach) is kledaka, for it moistens ( liquifies ) the hard masses of food.
..
1

That located in the tongue is known as bodhaka fdr it bel ps taste perception.
"' c.__ c-.I '"' That located in the head is known as tarpaka, since it nourishes tke sense organs.

(fq!&':

r.

That located in the joints ( of bones) is known 1 as because it lubricates the joints.

m

13

:;:r

I

170

(dH.

Even though they ( are present all over the body, these are to be understood as the ( special ) seats and functions of each of them ( ) generally when ( they are ) normal.
Dotagati--(

of

as ) :--

gOtn 1
and others qualities ( laghu, cala, visada, khara, etc. ) associated with (heat), cause caya ( mild increase) of vata, associated with sita they cause its kopa ( profound increase ). Snigdha and other qualities ( guru, pichila, bring about its Sarna sthira etc. ) associated with ( reduction to normal level ). 19.
II

II

"f'N,

loe.tT!

\UJi

I

and other qualities (rtiksa, laghu, sara, drava etc.) associated with sita (cold) cause caya (tnild increase) of pitta, associated with they cause kopa ( profound increase )a mafida and others ( sita, guru, f nigdha, picchila, sthira etc. ) associated with si· a bring about its Sa.ma ( reduction back to normal). 20.
f._.,.\:.iloe.tt:
I

'fi)q,

gorT

'"'m( I

Snigdha and others ( guru, picchi1a, manda, sita, sandra, mr.du ) associated with sita ( cold ) cause caya ( mild - increase ) of ( kapha ); associated with (hot) they cause kopa ( profound increase ); manda ( dull ) and others (khara, laghu, visada, cala, sara, laghu) associated with sita ( cold ) bring about its sama ( reduction to normal ). '

Caya ( mild increase ) :-

sm.n

Caya is increase in its own sites ( seats ) and produces dislike for things which are the causes of increase and liking for things of opposite qualities. 22.

Xtl]

SOTRASTHANA
.....:.
,....._

171

K opa ( great increase ) :--

I

fwifli'T

...

Kopa is spreading of the to different places, it causes appearance of their own features ( symptoms and signs of the increased dosas }, feeling of ill-health, ·occu.. ranee of premonitory symptoms and manifestation of diseases.

Sarna ( normalcy ) :-1

Sarna is normalcy ( of the ) iu their respective places and non-manifestation of abnormalities. 23.

Do1avrdiJhi kara1)a--( causes for increase

of

) :-1

\

Cay a, prakopa and vayu ( vata ) occurs in the three seasons commencing with respectively, those of pitta, with the three con1mencing with and those of Slesman (kapha) with the three commencing with sisira. 24.
Notes :-The above statement will become clear with the following table:Dosas caya prakopa pralama 1. vata sa rat sarat hemanta 2. pitta 3. kapha vasanta siS ira

..
1

..

Cll)q il' g 'fiTiZttf

I

'I

I

( vata ) undergoes caya ( mild increase ) ·in by the use of plants qualities such as riik*a etc. in the bodies of persons possessing such quabttes, but it ( vata ) does not undergo prakopa (profound increase ) becausf" of the heat of the season (which acts as a hinderance).

172

[ Cli.

Similarly, pitta undergoes caya ( mild increase ) in because of production of anda vip-.ka (sour taste at the end of digestion ) of water and foods but does not undergo prakopa { profound ) because of the cold of the season { which acts as a hinderance ). Kapha undergoes caya by the use of water and plants ( foods ) which possess qualities such as snigrlha and sita in the season ( sisira ) and body of persons of similar nature. but does not undergo prakopa because it ( kapha ) becon1es solidified ( due to severe cold of the ':!easo11 ). 25-27.

""'
I

.:fo
ql " I

ihese are the no1 mal/natural effect of the seasons (on the dosas ); the may attain· caya etc., because of foods etc. immediately, or they may not attain ( these states ) even during those particular seasons. 28.

dota ktJrya ( action

of increased dotiH ) :-m!ST.Si!'tT(!q
I

,
The increased malas ( ) spread throughout body from foot to head ( entire body ) suddenly ( and produce diseases ) but gets out of it slowly just like the floods ( in the rivers ). 29.
;fij5t:

a-!j

1

The increased malis ( ) produce diseasts of various kinds, ofleatures of innumerable number and torment the body. As it is not possible to describe the causes; syrnptotns and treatment of every one of them, seperately, they will only be described generally. 30-31.
q:er
'{tl\' q\fT

fl:
... (q6_l

I

11\':(.11

-

mqT3Jri\'fo

f€ 1m

qt

...

...

1

""-\.''

XII]
(NT

SOTRASTHANA

173

... rq

l

only are the chief causes for all diseases. Just as the bird flying for the whole day throughout the sky, will not be able to transgress its own shade, just as aU the things of the universe can not exist apart from ( devoid of) the three guQas ( sa tva, rajas, tamas ), similar! y, all the different kinds of diseases, can not be apart from ( devoid of) the dosas. Even so, those caused by (arising from ) the of the dhatus, cannot be without the ( involvement ) of the

32-341. Trividha karapa-( three kinds
_!la,

of causes ) :-81ft itit(Gtq_
..

:;:r

1

The causes for their ( de increase are-Artha impro· per correlation of the sensory objects with the respective sense organs; kala ( time, seasons ) and karma ( actions ) im· properly done; each of these, are again of three kinds viz. hina (inadequate insufficient, poor, devoid of), ati (too much excess, over and above, great ) and mithya ( improper, irregular, incorrect, opposite ). 34!-35.

Artka-{ senres and their correlation ) :qT 1

..
fqf!pi
:;r I

Hinayoga association of artha is poor (inadequate, insufficient) contact or non-contact with the objects of senses (sound, touch, sight, taste and smell ) with their respective sense organs ( ears, skin, eye, tongue and nose ). ,A tiyoga is too much contact ( excess, great, hyper). Seeing objects which are very minute, bright, frightening, very close ( neat ), very

174

HI.iDAYAM

[CH.

far, disliked, and etc. are the dreadful mithyayoga ( improper association ) for the organ of sight; similarly, hearing of very loud sound, decomposed smell etc. of the other sense organs are to be understood ( as improper association ).

KtJla ( seasons ) :Jf(f: 11\<::11

tf;r)

'.tUf: ,
I

Kala is of ,three kinds; cold,- hot and rainy. Hinayoga of the kala is appearance ( manifestation ) of ccJd etc. ( heat and rain ) in poor degree, atiyoga is appearance ( manifestation ) in great dtgre<>, and rnitl1yay( ga is manifestation of qualities Clpposites of tbe ratural ones of the

Karma-- ( activities ) :1

.:1ilt
..
m'tUi

..,\.irom:( ,
;:r

11\lou
I

1
I

qt.S!Jst

en

Even the karma ( actions ) are of three kinds viz., those pertaining to the body, the speech and the mind; poor, deficient or absence of activity of each of these three constitute conduct ); excess activity of each conshinayoga; ( titutes atiyoga { excess conduct ); untimely initiation of urges of the body voluntarily, suppression of the urges when patent, improper postures, ( way of keeping the body ) , improper manner of action! ( concerned with this life and of the future), improper way of falling, jumping etc., speaking (too much ) immediately after meals, horbouring of desires ( atta, cbment, passion, hat redness, fear etc. ), activities which endanger life, the ten sinful acts ( enumerated in chapter 2 ) actions performed in this life or in earlier lives-all constitute mithyAyoga ( improper conduct). 40-42!.

-

XII]

SOTRASTHANA

J75

1

These are the causes for the ( increase of) thus increased they produce many kinds of diseases, involving the tissues, viscera, bones, and joints. 43-44.

Rogam'drgas-( pathways

of diseases ) : '

:a-

f( mt,nwu
I 111j'-\ll

arM+ricnu

Rakta ( blood ) and others ( dhatusftissues ) and skin co,pstitute the bahya rogayana { external pathway of diseases ); from it arise diseases such as moles, discoloured patches, gal}Qalaji ( glandular ulcer on the face) malignant tumours, haemorrhoids, abdominal tumours, swellings and other exter· nal diseases. 44}-45.

""WI ...
at;a+rift
:;:r

I

1
I

small intestine), pakvasaya ( large intestine )-known also as aiital) ( internal viscera ) and mahasrotas ( big channel ) constitute the aiitarmargainternal pathway. From it arise, diarrhoea, cough, dyspnoea, enlargement of the abdomen, tever, haemerrhoids, abdonlinal tumours visarpa ( herpes ), abscess etc. 46.
1

Amasaya {stomach and

v
I

ittr;Jtq:

....

1

The head, heart, urinary bladder and such other vital spots, joints of bones, the veins, snayiis (sheaths, aponeurosis), ( nerves, etc. ) big tendons constitute the madhyama rogamarga-middle pathway. From it arise, consumption, plegia, facial paralysis, diseases of the head and other organs,

176

HJ.lDAYAM

[ CH.

pain, stiffness ( loss of movement ) of the joints, bones, waist etc. 47-48.

Vrddha dot a karma--( actions ( effects ) of increased dotlJS ) ! -

.
qqf:
·

I

qt

Ptosis ( drooping down ), dilation, cutting pa1n, loss of sensation, weakness, continuous pain, pricking p·ain, splitting pain, obstruction ( stoppage ), crushing pain, contraction ( constriction ) , twisting, tinglir,g, thirst, tremors, roughness, cavitation, dryness, pulsations (throbbings), curvatures, winding around, stiffness, { rigidity, withholding loss of movement ), feeling of astringent taste in this mouth, appearance of blue or crimson discolouration,--these are the functions ( abnormal signs and symptoms ) of increased vayu ( vata ).

49-50.
... qtf'6<JT: II

!liT$!1: qvj;

m;::

I

Those of pitta are-burning sensation, reddish dis-colouration, heat, cooking ( increased digestion ) , formation of pus, ulcers, etc., perspiration, moistness, exudation, putrefaction ( decomposition), debility, fainting, toxicity, bitter and sour taste in the mouth, appea ranee of colour other than yellowish white and crimson. .
..,_

.-af:b n
,a(f)

..,_

,.....

"'"aot.••

•,

1
1
1

._oi:

Those of ( kapha ) hardness, itching ( irritation), coldness, heavyness, obstruction and coating inside the channels, loss of movement, swelling, indigestion ( of food, non-formation of pus ulcers etc. ) excess
11

-

XII]

50TRASTHANA

177

sleep, white colouration, experience of sweet and salt tastes, and delay in all activities.
1

Thus are enumerated, the features ( signs and symptoms ) which appear in all diseases, these are to be recognised by the physician through ,inspection and others ( methods of examination of the patient). 54.-, In order to gain the knowledge of the different stages of disease the should observe the patieqt minute. 55.
I
if

Knowledge of auccessful treatment is obtained from constant practice just as knowledge of ( determining ) good or bad gems etc. is not obtained only from (knowing) the science. 56.

Trividha roga- -( three kinds of diseases ) :-I

Diseases are of three kinds viz, those born from bad acts which are seen ( committed in the present life ), those born from bad acts committed previously ( ·in earlier lives ) and those born from the combination of both. 57.
I

...

\

Diseases which arise from the· specific ( which bring about increase of ) are known as rogas ( born from ). those which arise without any ( apparent ) cause are known as karmaja (born from the effects of bad acts of previous lives ) ; those which have terrible/profound/severe ( born onset ( and manifestation ) are known from combination of and bad acts of previous lives). 58.
12A

- ' 118

[ OH.

T

The former ( diseases arising from ) get cured from indulgence in the opposite ( foods, drugs, or activities which possess qualities opposite of the incre:1sed do$as ); karmaja ( diseases born from acts of previous lives ) get cured after the end/termination/diminution of the effects of such acts ), those born front the combination of both get cured after the mitigation of the and end of effect of acts of previous lives). 59.

Dvividha roga-( two kinds

of diseases ) :-I
:s:ttm:

Diseases are of two kinds-svatantra ( independent/primary ) and paratantra-( dependent/secondary ), the latter is -again of two kinds-piirvaja-which are born earlier and known as ptirva riipa ( prodromata/premonitory and signs.) and those which are born later, known as upadrava (secondary disease/complications and sequllae ). 60.
I

g
Svatafitra ( independent/primary) diseases have their own specific causes, comforting methods and clearly mani· fest features; the other one {parataotra-secondary, associated) is opposite of this. 61.
f.f(.W)t.-ffq

--"'

II

I

\=(:

Even the maHis ( are also to be known (recognised) likewise, (as svatafitra and paratafitra ) by the physician - carefully in every disease. The secondary ones ( diseases or do,ls ) subside when the primary ones become subsided { cured ).. If they do not get su_bsided then, treatroent has be S,i ven ( for the complications, secondary atfections ); if

to

XII]

SOTRASTHANA

179

l

powerful, they ( secondary affections ) should be treated soon because these ( complication) cause more troubles to the body which is already debilitated by the diseases. 62-63.
fq-t. ••..,...

;:r

'fa\(-.:t-. t

;:r fir ri

... ,...

\1CIT -.::»

The physician should never feel shy for not knowing the nomenclature of the disease, for there is no rulefcustomfstate, that every disease has a name. 64.

1
r

a' "t:Jt ,fa

:er srr:q fer"'irowt:.

t \" tt

ma

c;r I

The very same depending upon the nature of the causative factors, travels to many parts of the body and pro.. duces many diseases, hence treatment should be started soon after determining the nature of the disease, its abode ( site ), its causes etc. 65-66.
factors to be examined ) :qq: 1

'Pl'f1Cfm:
I

:q-) He (the physician ) who minutely examines and deter• mines, the condition of the ( vitiated tissues and waste p1oducts ), desa ( habitat of the patient ), bala ( strength ), kala ( season ), anala ( digestive power ), prakrti ( constitution ), vayas ( age ), satva ( mind ), satmya ( accustoms), ahara ( food and food habits ) and avastha ( stages of the diseases ) and then decides the aggravated and its appropriate treatntent, does not falter ( go wrong ) in treatment. 67-68.
I
....
...

,..ctfattT

The features ( signs and symptoms ) of mild and grtevt• ous diseases might appear differently due to the $:trength and

' 180

HR.DAYAM

[CH.

weakness of the mind and the body, hence the physician should be very attentive. 69.
Notes :--In a p,erson who has a strong body or a strong mind the symptoms of grevious diseases might manifest mildly, whereas in a person who has a weak body or a weak mind the symptoms of even a mild disease might appear powerfully.

®Pfo

stttt\:1'

1

ll\9oll

The unintellegent ph} sician, _who determines a grevious disease as a mild one, goes wrong in treatment because of under estimating thf" condition of the 70.

..
it""

1

11

u"Nci

feitR)a fer'Plit "er<.% er!"'

1

He administeres drugs/therapies in small doses and of mild potency in the treatment of previous diseases, such mild treatment makes for a excerbation of the diseases, because of poor response to so::lh,ana ( purifactory therapy ). In case of the opposite, excess response to sodhana ( purifactory therapy } expels not only the malas ( ) in greater meil- , sure but even troubles the body greatly. 71-72.
I
(N"(

Hence the physician should constantly study the science, determine the exact condition of all factors, all the time and then administer appropriate drugs ( therapies) to restore the health successfully. 73.

Do:ra samyoga sain,kh)lll.-( number of combination
qi

of
I

) :--

..

filf:a
rtf

!J

I

\l'Tatu

11\'11

XII]

SO lRAS'IHANA

181

l

Further on, will be er}umerated, the number ( of combination ) of in their increased and decreased states. In their vrddhi ( increased state ) they are three indivi· dually ( seperately ), in the combination of two they are three and nine in total; three in equal proportion of in· crease and six, with preponderance of one They are thirteen, in combination of all three together, six with preponderance of any one dos.a, one with equal preponderance of all the three and six by disproportionate subdivisions. Thus, in respect of vrddhi-( increase ) they are twenty { decrease ) they are five; similarly so in respect of twenty five. 74-76.
...
1

I1\91911

In the conJbination of increase, normal and decrease of one each will make up for six nurr hers, again they are six in the combination of decrease of one and increase of two 77.
fsrt1l: 1

Thus, the number of combinations are 62 and the 63rd is the one which is the cause of health. 78.
1
I

With the association of rasa, rakta etc. the categories of increase, normalcy and decrease of the in their greater and lesser proportions become innumerable and the physician should understand them by their features ( signs and symp"" toms ) with a attentive mind. 79.
tf(f
. i)

;:rm

r1

Thus ends the chapter known as the twelvth 1-n Siitrasthana of Sa thhita, composed by srimad son of vaidyapati Simhagupta.

I

Chapter--13.

lJ0$0PAKRAMAJylrA ADH:YifrA--( treatment oftlze

ua-

.:

I

1

We shall now expound the chapter called viya-treatment of the thus said Atreya and other great sages.
Vrddha vata cikitsa--( treatment for increased vat a ) :--

•(:

1

et1Fi

ARt\'fl'60fT

;rv

II '

II

II
t

l I \ II

The treatment of ( increased ) vata are-oleation ( internal and external ), sudation ( diaphoreses ) 1 mild purifactory therapies ( emesis and purgation ), ingestion of foods which are of sweet, sour and salt taste; warm oil-bath 1 massage of the body, wrapping the body with cloth, thretltning { frightening ), bath ( pouring of medicinal decoctions, water etc., on the body ) , wine prepared from corn:fluur and jaggery ( molasses ), enema therapy with fat ( oil ), and drugs of hot potency, adherance to regimen of enema therapy, comfor· table activities, medicated fats of different kinds ( sources ) prepared with drugs causing increase of hunger and improving digestion; especially, anuvasana basti ( oleation enema } prepared from juice of fatty meat and oil. 1-3.
Vrdahapitta cikitsa-( treatment for increased pitta ) :--qlif

... l( I II

XIII]

SOl'RASTH..\NA

183

1

tiT'f:lOTT

II '-\ II 1
ll

f+tsi
fsrqt: ...

I

II ._, II

'
II G: II

1 qq:

':lfo :t 1

tt

Those of ( increased ) pitt a are drinking of ghrta (,butterfat ) ( plain or n1edicated ), purgation therapy with drugs of sweet taste and cold potency t intake of foods and drugs which possess sweet, bitter and astringent taste, indulgence in perfumes which are pleasing, coolant and cordial, wearing garlands of similar nature in the neck and of gerns on the chest, anointing paste of karpura, candana and usira over the body minute after minute, residing on terraces lit by moonlight in the evenings, enjoying pleasant rr1usic and soft cold breeze, company of friends who do aot restrain him, of sons who speak heartily and innocently, of the wife who is obedient, pleasing and virtous; residing in houses equipped with fountains emitting cooled water, parks and ponds, spending time ( in houses ) near water reservoirs having clean water, sand, lotu,, flowers, and trees, with a calm mind; especially so are the ir gestion of milk, ghee and purgation therapy. 4-9.

Vradha kapha cikitsa --( treatments for increased kapha ) :- ;

am
JIV

I
oll

1

'rf: '.'lft

1i:\t

ll t t 11
I _

:er
Those of kapha are-strong emesis and purgations in accordance with prescribed procedure, ingestion of foods which

184

ASTA:NGA

[CH·

are dry ( non-fatty ), little in quantity, penetrating and hot, possessing pungent, bitter and astringcut tastes; wines which are very old, sexy desires, keeping a wake without sleep, exercises of diffe1 ent kinds, worry, dry massage of the body; especially so the therapy, drinking of soups (of grains) use of honey, drugs which reduce fat, inhalation of Inedicinal smoke, fasting, mouth gargles and experiencing difficulties are all beneficial. 10-11.

q:;)ffi"a:
0

I

The treatments prescribed for each individually, may be combined appropriately in conditions of combinations of two and three 13.

snit
§

1

Generally the treatment for the combination of maruta ( vata ) and pitta shall be similar to the regimen of ( summer ) ( described in chapter 3 ) and for that of kapha and ·maruta ( vata ) it shall be similar to the regimen of vasafita ( spring ) because maruta ( vata ) is yogavahi; for the combination of kapha and pitta the treatment shall be similar to the regimen of sarad ( autunln ). 14.
Notes : - Yogavahi is defined as the "property of augmenting the quali. ties of the associate material"-vata when associated with heat ( materials possessing hot naturejpr•tency) augments heat and actions ofheat, wheteas when associated with cold ( materia1s of cold nature,'potency) it augments cold and actions of cold, hence the treatment differs in accordance with the nature of the substance with which it combines.

..

rt:cr

1

'-\II

The should be ( by effective treatment ) in their stage of caya ( mild increase ) itself; in their stage of kopa ( great increase } they should be vanquished without opposiug ( interfering with ) one another, in case of prakopa ( great increase ) of all the three simultaneously that ( ) which is powerful ( more than others ) should be controlled 15. without opposing (interfering) with the remaining (

XIIi)

SOTRASTHANA

I
if

mit(f_ 11,\tl

That treatment which alleviates ( cures ) one disease and gives rise to another disease ( sooner or later ) is not 'uddha ( pure/good/appropriate }; a pure one is that_ which cures one ( diseases ) and does not give rise to another. 16.

DoiasaficlJra-( movement of doilJS ) :Sq(ta

;r Ut\9U
t{l'sti

q'Tf;a aQt
1

6

WI\CfT

By ..ile effect of exercise ( physical activity ), increase f>f heat ( atmospheric temperature ), unsuitablefun·healthy .activities and quick movement of vata, the { increased ) move out of the ( gastrointestinal tract ) to thtf &kliis ( tissues ) , asthi ( bones ) and mar mas ( vital &rgans, wlnerable points ).
By the effect of clearance ( wiaening ) of the channels ( minute pores of tissues), great increase in quantity, Jiquifi· cation, cooking ( ) and mitigation of vata, the come into (gastrointestinal tract ). from the sakhas ( tissues, etc. ) ' they will remain there for some time waiting for some powerful ( exciting ) cause. After deriving strength from kala ( season time ) etc .• they ( do,As) get aggravated (increased ):even in other
I

IJgafitu do1u :-( native and foreign

dotiJt) :!11
ll't.aft

-

c:rsJfRl

..

...

.w.n-..n-....

Treatment should be done ( especially on that which has travelled into the seats of 14 ( ) and which is weak, so also for that dota,

} to

wmch

by

fOM.

its own strength overcomes ( subjugates, inactives ) others ). (
it,....

9

srffl$fq

t

Agantu ( foreign, not belonging to a particular seat nor· mally ), d0$a should be1 treated either after treating the sthani:Q, ( native, to a particular seat normally ), or even otherwise ( treating the sthani ). 20.
Notu :-The statement of the above verses can be explained as follows:Pekvlsaya i1 the sthina ( seat ) of vita normally, in that place it is called stbini do,a ( belonging normally to that place) Amasaya is the native lthina ( seat ) of pitta; if vita gets localised in then it becomes lgafitu { foreign; not belonging to that place ) ; in such a condition there are two to be treated, the igantu (external) and sthini (native belonging to that place)
A.gafttu ( foreign ) if can be treated after treating the sthini ( native ) dofa bl!t if strong, it should be treated first ignoring for the time being, the athini because most l:>f the time agaiitu is stronger the sthin1 do,a. If however, the sthani do,a is found to be 1tronger ( which is very rare ) than igantu then it should be treated first, iporing the igaii.tu for the time !;>eing. Vita localised in imisaya and if (<'fund to be strong, 1hould be treated &nt and pitta next, but vita, if found to be weak and pitta found to be atrong, then pitta i1 to be treated first and vita next.

I

Tiryagt:ata doto :--·
I

prv 8'!

1
.. , ...

.,....

itqlwtu• w,i'" 'fi1wqqwna

1

Usually, the tiryaggata ( which are not localised in the gastrointestinal tract but localised in the tissues ) cause troubles to the patient for a long time1 they should not be treated in haste, but only after determining the strength of the body aa·d digestive activity. They should be mitigated with stipulated treatments/or brought into the ( alimentary tract ) by easy methods: after knowing that they have reached the they should be expelled out by the nearby route. 21-22.

\

I

XIII]

SOTRASTHANA

181

l

Samado1a laktarza-( Pjfects cif
l('lt.U"et

associated with ama ) :ll:tl.ll
I

fWW

(.11+t(t1f,

.... ,.,,uri

Obstruction of the channels ( pores etc. ) , loss of strength, feeling of heavyness of the body, inactivity of anila (vita ), lassitude, loss of digestive power, more of expectoration, accumilation of wastes, ( inside their respective places), anorexia, exhaustion-are the symptoms of malas ( ) associated with ( mixed with ) ama ( undigested materials ). The opposites ( of the above symptoms ' are of the nirima . ( not mixed with undigested materials ). 23-24.

Amotpatti-( production
...
...

of llma

) :--

\i

...'tla

1
1

The first dhatu ( rasa ) which by the weakness of the fire ( digestive activity ) remaining uncooked ( not digested, not properly processed ) and becoming vitiated (bad, abnormal), accumulates in the amasaya ( stoinach and small intestine ), is known as ama. 25.

tt:qffa"

I
I

Others ( authorities ) opine, that ama gets formed from intimate mixing with one another of greatly increased just as poison ( gets formed ) from mixing of different kinds of kodra va. 26.
'lTiril'

'

it
The and ( the dhatus and maJas ) which get mixed with this ama are designated as sama ( mixed with ama ); so also the diseases arising from them ( and mixed with ama ) . 27.

Samado1a cikitsa-( treatment of sama -dosiJs) :Sfftt"q,('lfwJ..
.......

iss

[ OH.

ft

...

..

. .uf.tq
I

The sama which are spread alLover· the ·body, which are lurking in the dhatiis and which are not moving out of their places ( of accumulation ) should not be forced out ( by purifdctory therapies like emesis, purgations etc. ). Just as attempts at taking out the juice from an unripe fruit leads to the destruction of the dwelling place itself, so also it will be very difficult to expel them out. 28.

'fn'it

lliUR=fQ

I

They ( sama ) should be treated ( first ) with drugs which are digestive and which increase hunger; next with oleation and sudation therapies and finally they should be expelled out with purifactory therapies ( emesis, 'purgation ) at the proper time, and in accordance with the strength ( of the patient ). 29.
..

.

ll\oll
=;t I

Drugs administered through the rnouth, bring out the malas ( ) from the amasaya ( stomach and small intes· tines); those administered through the nose bring out the from the parts above the shoulders and those admiois· tered through the rectum bring out the from the pakva( large intestine ). 30.
qf if

.,..;..

II

\

· Sam'a which are greatly increased and going out of the boc;ly on their own accord, either in the upward or downward routes ( vomitting and purging respectively) should not be- stopped by medicineJ, for they produee diseases, if they are stopped. 31. \

\

fir

1

fla,r\ •...-:
WT I

Such are going out be ignored. .. beginning ( stage ) _and the patient should be giveJJ suitable foods ( light food.}; next ( in the second stage ) they should be cooked with drugs or removed out by purifactory therapie$. 32.

tmrGt.'ltffifk

..t1 ,.._

atR:r
t(l'Ct'l

11\\H
l

Vayu ( vata ) and Other two have undergone and hemafita should caya ( J!>:ild increase) in be removea- out in the three sadharava months, sravava, kArtika and caitrll tspectively. 33.
Not1s !-SldharaJ.l& leila is the season which lias neither too much nor too less of heat,: cold and rain••
Vita undergoes mild in gri,ma ( summer, mid-may to midjuly) and ahould be treated in to mid-aug.) month; pitta undergoes caya (mild increase) in ( mid·july to mid-aep.) (rainy aeaaon) and ibould be expelled in kirtika ( mid-sep. to mid-nov.); bpha undergoes caya (mild increase) in hemaiita ( mid-sep. to mid-ndv.} (cJ,ewyj eold seuon ) and should be expelled in caitra ( mid-dec. to mid jaa. ).

ft

..... ,,..... ,i
I

and hemanta-have too much of hea!, raia and cold respectively; in the period, in between these, knoWlll as sadharal}a kala, the should cleared out. 34.

. . fuiftq,

Qtfal\.ctil._

This is in respect of regimen of (for healthy persons), in respect of diseases, based on the disease ( as needed for eft'!Ct.ive
!IT&T
;r

-at
1

of health such time ). 35.

After having overcome the effects of coJrl, hot and rainy seasons suitably ( by adopting appropriate protective methods ) necessary treatment (therapies) should be administered; the kriyatala ( period of abnormal activity, stages of disease evolution ) should. not be allowed to progress ( further ). 36.

190

ICH.

.Auradhaktlla--( time

of administration of medicines ) :H=
9Tv

11M

fifm

I

11\\tll

Medicines should be administered, 1 ). when there is no food ( in the stomach ), 2), at the commencement, 3). middle and 4). end of the meal, 5), in morsels, 6). with each marsel, 7). often ( again and again ). 8) mixed with -food, 9'. both before and after food and 10). at night (bed "time ). 37.
I

11\<=11
I

Rl\.m('t"fl•(lq):. snur

Ul,'ll

'

uvou

I

, For diseases arising from increase of kapha, which are severe and for persons who are strong, the time of adminis· tration of medicine shall be when there is no food ( in the sto· mach ); in disorders of apanavata, it shall be at the commencement of meal, in disorders of sa mana vAt a at the middle of the meal, is disorders of vyana va.ta at the end of the morning meal, in disorders of uttara (udana vata) at the end \ of evening meal; in disorders of ( vata ) it shall be at the end of each morsel; in diseases produced by poison, vomitting, hiccup, thirst, dyspnoea and cough, it shall be frequently ( every minute ); in anorexia, ( loss of taste ) it shall be mixed with different kinds of tasty foods; in diseaaes like tremors, convulsions, hiccup it shall be both before and after taking light foods; in of organs above the head, adntinistration at bed time is ideal. 38-41.

n

n

Thus ends the chapter called thirteenth in Siitrasthana of hrdaya samhita, composed by sri mad Vlgbha\a, son of pati Simhagupta,

Ckapter-14.

DVIVIDHPPAKRAMA!YlrA-( Two kinds of treatments)
llf.lt8)

...
I: .....

,Qqt.,..Aqm: f
I

U8'
aages.

We shall now expound the chapter·DvividhopaJtramaniya· two kinds of treatments; thus said Atreya and the other' great

Dulvidha upakrama-( two kinds

r..
wt:'fi:

of therapy ) :...) e: 1 ., fadlc.tamrtiar:.u

..

11

lq.c:t' I

ilpf

Wltleml

II Tt II

Because, that to be treated ( the human body ) is of two

kinds, the treatment is also of two kinds. The first one, santarpan.a-( nourishing) and the second apartarpaJ..la; ( depleting); brmhaoa ( stoutening} and langhana ( thinning, slimming), are their synonyms respectively; brmhal}.a is for atoutening the body, while 1aiigbana is for m"aking the 1lody light ( thin ). 1-2.
Not11 human body is kinds viz. Jr:ri•; ( leanjcmaciated) and sthiila-( stoutfobese) Both thes'e are abnormal and require-treatment to make them normal. Borly is lean or t"machlted mainly due to deficiegcy offood (in quantity and qualitiels) and stoutness or obelittls-maiDlj to over 1feeding ( both in quantity 'and qualities of food ). Brmhal)a aDd lafighana are the treatment for these conditions respeetively.

__ JWit ...
...

if I

Generally, brhmaQa are of prthvi and· ap ( earthy watery elements) whereas the other ( langhana ) is ot others ( elements ).. ,
Notes :_:_Materials ( foods, drugs etc. ) employed for brmhal)a or tafitarpaQa therapy •houldj be of parthiva and apya kind•,

192

[CH.

while those for la.iighana or therapy should be of tejua, viyaviya and nibhasa kinds; the properties of-these kinds of materials have been described earlier in chapter 9.

II

,('l,.,f

I

Functions such as snehana ( lubrication, oiliness) (dryness). swedana (sudation, diaphoresis ), ·Stbambhana ( with·holding, obstruction ) are also of these two kinds ( brhof these two maQa and langhana ), because the elements kinds only; thus all functions are not !!part from these two.

3-31.
( six kinds ) viz. brhmaJ;,la, snehana, ewedana, and athambhana (vide caraka aamhiti, sutrasthana-chapter 22 ). out of these, laiighana and brltrnR93 are given importance,- even the remaining four, serve these two purposes only.

Notu :-Caraka sarllhiti c1assifies treatment as

laftghana-( therapy to make the hoily litht ( thin ) :uq;f
('I'Jt(f\.

v 11

Lanahana is of two kinds-sodhana ( purifactory ) and '-mana ( paJliative ). 4.

"''qi... f..._)

q'iNf

cer

all 1
II '-\ II

Sodhana is that which expels the out of the bod} forcebly, it is of five kinds, viz niriiha, ( decoction enema ), vamana ( emesis ), kaya reka ( purgation for the body ) 'ircreka (purgation for the head) and asra·visruti ( blood letting). 5.
Not11 :-Niriiha is one kind of ( enema therapy ), the other kind being anuvaaana; kaya- reka and are more commonly called u virecana; and nasya is nasal medication. Vamana (emesis), virecana (purgation), the two kinks of basti ( enema) and nasya--these five, are popularly known as panca ( ) karma ( five purit"actory therapies ) Qr'paAcakarma of kiyacikitsa (inner medicine ) in short; aarasruti ( rakta blood letting) is more relevent with sastra cikitsa { surgery ).

if

I

..
.....
?-..

8'11

..

II\ II I

XIV)

SUTRASTHANA

Samana Gpalliative treatment D is that which does not expel the (increased) (out of the body ), does not excite (increase) the normal ( but makes the It is_ 'lf sevPn .kinds-pacaua- t digestive carmin:ltivc.N t, dlpana ( hunger producing, stoiQachic ), Iqut ( hunger, avoidance of food ), trit-( withstand· ing thirst/avoidence of water drinking ), vyayama-(physical activity ), atapa ( exposure to sunlight ) and maruta-( exposure of breeze ).

l

t(Qi

"'

t I \J

II

B.rmhan.a ( stoutening therapy ) also is samana only because it alleviates/mitigates both vata and vata pitta ( combination ). 7.

Brmhat)lja ( persons requiring stoutening therapy ) :II f! II

...
..
C;..

1
II ' II I

Brmhal)a ( stoutening therapy) should be given to persons who are emaciated bv diseases, medicines ( therapies), wine { drinking ) wo -uen ( sexual intercourse ), grief, carrying heavy loads, long distance walk, and injury to chest (lungs ); who are dry ( with loss of moisture ), debiliated and who are of vata predominant constitution, the pregnant woman, the woman who has delevered, children, the aged and even others in summer; by the use of meat, milk. sugar, ghee, enema prepared sweet subst(tnces and fats, sleep, com._ fortable bed, bath, and happiness of the mind.

Langhaniyah-( persons requiriTlg thinning therapy ) :II toil

1
JS A

l94

rca.

Lafighana ( thinning, slimming therapy ) sliould be done daily to persons suffering from diabetes, disorders ofpoor digestive activity; more of moistness ( lubrication ), fever, stiffness of the thighs, leprosy and other skin diseases, visarpa, ( herpes ), abscess, diseases 6f spleen, head, and eyes; those who are obese ( accumilation of fat) and even to others during sisira ( cold season ). 10-11.

..


srp;r:
.... '-' .... ·(1'-1_
e

1 ll t

. . t*l,.
1{\.....

1 II
lltQII

..

l

Those who are very obese, strong and having predomi· nance of pitta and kapha, those suffering from fever, vomitting, diarrhoea, heart disease, constipation, feeling of heavy ness, excess of belching, nausea. etc. by the administration of sodhana ( purifactory therapies such as emesis, purgation etc.); tho!te who are moderately obese etc. (medium in strength of the body and also of the diseases mentioned), first by administration 'of digestives and hunger producing substances generally, (later _with other purifactory therapies); those who slightly obese etc. (poor in strength of the body and of the diseases ) by control of hunger, and the thirst, those are troubled by ( increased ) who are of medium stre· ngth ( of the body and diseases ) and who are Q.rQha ( capable of withstanding strain ) by the control of hunger and thirst; those again of poor strength (of the body and of hy exposing them to breeze, sunlight and exertise. 12-141
if

fU

I
-

1'hose who are to be given la_iighana ( therapy). should not be given brmhan.a ( stoutening- }; those who are to be given brmhaQa sh,ould be given mild langhana, or both lanshana and bfmhaQa together, simultaneously may be

XIV]

SOTRASTHANA

195

given depending upon the nature of habitat, season, strength etc. 15.

ChikitslJphala ( hemfits of thrre treatments ) :-

..

...

ut\u

Brmha9a therapy makes for stength, nourishment of the body, and cure of such diseases which are curable by that therapy. 16.

.. i-

ft:

I

1

Keenness of the sense organs, expulsion of malaa ( datil and wastes), feeling of lightness of the body, good taste perception, appearance of hunger and thirst together, purity of the ( re1ion of the ) heart, belchings and throat, softening of the diseases ( decrease of their severity ), increase of enthusiasm and loss of stupor ( lazyness ) accure from Ianghana therapy.
fst ...

..

.

._

a- ut(!n
1

These ( therapies ) indulged into in great measure than required, lead on to profound obesity and emaciation etc. which will be enumerated now, along with tht'ir trt"atment. 18. The features of persons who had excess of brmhaJ}a and lat\ghana therapies should be understood by these ( profound obesity and emaciation ). 19•

.Atibrmhaoa ( exce1s

of storttenint. therapy ) :-

Excess of brmhaQa therapy produces · profound obesity scrofula, diabetes, fever, enlargement of abdomen, fistula·in· ano, cough, loss of consciousness, dysuria, ama ( disorden poor digestive activities), leprosy ( and other skin diseaae) which 41.re very dreadful. 20.

or

196
8'5f

(en.

I

1
I

H':t\11
ifl'Ti \lR:
I

For these ( diseases ), treatments which reduce medas (kapha) are desirable (required); (fat), anila (vata) and use of kulattha, 'yamaka, yava, mudga, and honeywater; indulgence in worry, purifaction therapies, avoidance of sleep, either tripha1a, guduci, abhaya and ghana, should be liked with honey daily; either rasanjana, mahat paficamiila, guggulu or silajatu, along with the fresh juice of agnimiitha ( and is suitable; powder of viQafiga, nagara, iron filings or IJOwder of yava and amalaka along with honey (should be lickd daily ). 21-24.
t:
ll':t'-\11
I

fi:IU ;p:ttlt t".tt =ttO\

:;:r

'l<i

'«fta

..

fttwf;a hq af.:\l'r-l. '

llrt \II aQ. 1

Powder of ( trikatu ) katvi, vara, sigru, vidanga, sthira, hingu, sauvarcala, ajaji, yavani, dhanya, citraka, roots of patha and the two nisa, the two brhati, of kembuka, should be mixed with honey, ghee ( butter·.fat ) and oil in equal proportion and sixteen parts of saktu ( corn iJout: _), this mixture taken as a drink ( daily ) cures severe <?besi_ty and all other diseases ( mentioned earlier ) and even of sjmilar nature; heart diseases, jaundice, leucoderma, 1yspnoea, cough, obstruction in the throat ( hoarseness of

S"OTRASTHANA

voice etc.), improves power of thinking, intellegence, memort' and kindles the weakened fire ( digestive activity ). 25-28.

Atilanghana ( excess

of thinning therapy) :\111:
... (t-.:4 ..; t

r
of I
qt

tq•d.sfa-RJ®fill(( 1

Profound emaciation, giddiness, cough, severe thirst, anorexia, loss { decrease ) of moistness, and digestive power,- of sleep, vision, hearing, semen, Ojas, hunger and voice; pain in the urinary bladder, heart, head, calves, thighs, upper 'Shoulders and flanks; fever, delerium ( excess of talk ), exhaustion, vomitting, cutting pain in the joints and bones; non-elimination of faeces,' urine etc., arise from excess of laiighana. 29-30.

iJ'ftf

ft en.sc....
WI

itqq ll\
t

Emaciation is better than corpulence ( obesity ), there is no treatment for the obese, for, neither brmhaoa nor langhana are enough to ( capable) of vanquish excess of fat, digestive activity and vita. 31.-

.. ...
IRr.mt


..

11\'=ttr
I

n

ri

....

11\\11

Emaciation gets cured by the use of sweet and unctous ( fatty ) foods and comfortable living, whereas obesity gets cured by, the use of the foods etc., of the opposites ( qualities to the above ) that too, when used in maximum measure. Therein, drinks, foods and drugs which are should be adopted. 32-33.

eroc

"''11\'ill

..--

198

A$TANGA

fCH.

'fhe emaciated person becomes stout like a boar by abse• nee of worry, by happiness, more use of nutritious food and more of sleep. 34.

-.

1

There is other than n1eat to stouten the body, especially so the meat of carnivorous animals, for they feed on meat itself. 35.

Nqifa m:a
'i.4l"q

y;'b 1

Foods which are heavy ( not easily digest able ) and nonnutritious at:e ideal for the obese whereas the opposites ( are ideal ) for the emaciated; yava ( barley ) and godhiima (wheat) are good for both ( when) prepared in a way as suitable to either. 36.

JtTftr
"

I
l

:atfit

Though the s•ates of are innu1neraLle and innume· rable are the kinds of treatments such as grahi (withholding) etc., still they do not surpass these two and Janghana, just as the diseases ( though innumerable· fall into two kinds only, viz sama and nirama ).

mr

... al ..
;m:r

. . in \\l n

Thus ends the chapter named DwividhopakramaQiya·the fourteenth of of hrdaya-samhita of srimad son ofthe sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

l
Chapter-15.

tSODHANADIGAJYA SAMGRAHA
( Groups of drugs for purifactory·therapies etc. )

.tm
Charaana gatza--( group of emetics) :...
'-STUCf(Ql

I

JR:ti't:

n .

We shall now ex pound the chapter named Sodhanadi ga9a sarhgraha-groups of drugs for purifactory and other therapies; thus said Atreya and other great sages.

I II til

Madana, madhuka, 1amba, nh:hba, birhbi, visala, trapusa, kutaja, mi.irva, devadali, krimighna, vidula, dahana, citra, the two kosavati, karafija, kal}.a, lavaJ}a, vaca, ela and are emetics. 1.
Virecana garza-{ group

of purgatives)

:1

:er 1{Sf

IQ'

II \ II

Nikumbha, kumbha, triphala, snuk, sankhinl, niJini, tilvaka, samyaka. kampillaka,· hemadugdha, dugdha, and miitra-are purgatives. 2.

.NirflhafJa garza--( group

of drugs for
...

decoction en1ma ) :1

l1'!J

f....&:Cifti1f II l. II

Madana, devadali, madhuka, vaca, dasa· mula, daru, rasna, yava, misi, krtavedhanam, kulattha, n1adhu, laval}'l and trivrt-are drugs for'deco_ction enema. 3·.

2oo

A$TANGA

rca.
for nasal medication ) :--

Navana galla-( group

of drugs

qr'-1\+u..
m'{'li':

ttt('-f

=a- I
I lVII

Vella, apamarga, darvi, sur ala, bija of and sigru; madhiikasara, saindhava, tru\i and prthvika·purify the head. 4.

brhati the two

V11.taghna ga,a-( group

of drugs which mitigatt vata ) :-

=rRi

p
-fttq_

...

1 11

11

Bhadradaru, nata, dasamiila, the two bala, the drugs of virataradigan.a, and of vidaryadi ga:Qa-subjugate ( mitigate, cause decrease ) vata. 5.

Pittaghna ga!la-( group which mitigates pitta ) :-

r..
qvff4tA::

...

,

i

q'lf qnf it=nR'ftP{a

11\11

Durva, anaiua, nirhba, vasa, atmagupta, gundra, abhiru, priyai'igu, drugs of nyagrodhadi, and padmakadi the two sthiri, padmaka, vanya and drugs of sarividi gaoa-bring about decrease of pitta. 6.

Kaphaghna garza-( group which mitigat1

) :-

.. ..... :

..

II

\I

II

Drugs of aragvadhadi, arkadi, asanadi, sura.. roustadi and vatskadi ga:Qas-bring about of Halasa l ). 7.

]cvaniya

group
lf\"q;cf\'

of

) :-

i

•l
H, II

Jivaiiti, the two kakoli, the two meda, mudgaparl}i, . 'parvl, rsabhaka, jivaka, and madhuka-is known as jivaniya gava-group of 8.

XV]
Vidaryadi garza :-

S0TRA.STHANA

l
1
\ii'r'«t!(IT

'1\q"o.."'it

fSrqt"J'
t I

II

II

W:Vt ttruit

Vidari, pancan.gula, vrscikali, vrsciva, devahvaya, the two siirpaparl}.i, kal}.Qiikari, drugs of jivana paficanl'ala and hrasva paficamiila, gopasuta and tripadi-this vidaryadi groups of drugs are good to the heart { cordials ), stoutening the body, mitigate vata and pitta, cure consumption, tumors of the abdomen, body-ache, upward dyspnoea, and cough. 9-10.
SiJrivlJdi g apa :1

q-g:)

...

II t t II

Sariva, usira, and and fevers. 11.

madhiika, the two sisira, burning sensation, bleeding disease, thirst

Paclmakacli garza :-

ufl.f4.1:g'T:ri-d:

I

lltrtll

Padmaka, pul}.c;lra, vrddhi, tuga, rddhi, sringi, amrita, and the ten drugs of jivaniya gal}.a,-cause production of breast milk, subjugate vata and pitta, are nourishing, enlivening, stoutening and aphrodisiac. 12.
Para,aklJdi gapa : -

...

Cl'U S{T\lT

llt\11

vara, katphala; katakaphala,, rajahva, 15 da<Jima and saka-cure thirst, urinary disorders and mitigate vata. 13.

202

A$TAN"GA

- [ CH.

AlijaniJdi gat')a : -

...

eq;i q;m;i't
... , ....

Anjana, phalini, marhsi, padma, utpala, rasanjana, ela, madhuka, and nagahva,-cure diseases due to poison, burping sensation inside the body, and subjugate pitta. 14.
PtJfolllcli ga!la :1

m

Pa\ola, katurohil}.i, cafidana, madhusrava, gudiici, and subjugate kapha and pitta and cure leprosy ( and other skin diseases ) fevers, poison, vomitting, anorexia and jaundice. 15.
Gud&cylldi garza : -

...
Guc;liici, padmaka, dhanaka and raktacandanamitigate pitta and kapha, cure fever, vomitting, burning .sensation, thirst and improves digestion. 16.

A.ragwacllzadi garza : , ...

1
1

..
-15qi

srihr •

u

Aragvadha, indrayava, patali, kakatikta, nimba, amrta, rnadhurasa, patha, bhiinimba, . sairyaka. the two karanja, saptachada, agni, phala, baf.la and ghol}.ta-this aragvadhadi group cures vomitting, leprosy (and other skin diaeases) poison, fevers, mitigate kapha, itching, diabetes, and cleanses bad wounds. 17-18.

AsaniJdi gap a :-

--

tt.ttll Pi(J'fl(!r'ti1tfi:

-1

'

SOTRASTHANA

at"t-t....
sritt ..,
Asana, kadara,

1

tinisa, bhiirja, swetavaha, prakiryi, khadira 1 sirnsipa, the three hima, tala" palasa, jongaka, saka, kramuka, dhava, kaliiiga, chlgakarJ}.a, a:p.d asvakarJ}.a,-this asanadi group oures leucoderma, leprosy and other skin diseases, mitigates cures disea-

..

ses of worms, anaemia, diabetes, and diseases of fat accumu· lation. 19-20 .

VarutzlJdi ga,a :.. I
I

!XflJi

·

Va:-u.Qa, the two sairyaka, satavari, dahana, morata, bilva, the two brhati, the two karaiija, the two bahalapallava, darbha and rujakara-this varu:w;.tadi group subjugates kapha, fat and dyspepsia, cures a9hyavata ( rigidity ofthe thighs ). headaches, tumors and abscess inside the abdomen. 21-22.

Otakadi garta :-

fq
,...._

""

1

Osaka, tutthaka, hiiigu, the two kasisa, saindhava and silajatu-cure dysuria, uriaary calculus, abdorninal tuntors, obesity, and subjugates kapha. 23.

VtratarlJdi gatJa s-

\
..


I

IITtVII

Vellafttara, ararJ.ika, biika, asmabheda, itkata, sahacara, bat}a, kasa, vrk..,adani, nala, the two kusa, gu:JJ\ha, guftdra, bballiika, morata. kuranta. karAmbha and

[OH.
partha-this virataradi group cures diseases produced by vata, urinary stones and gravel, dysuria, suppression of urine and pain. 24-25.

lfodhrtJai gaf)a : -

.. flur:'
"
fqqfq;:wm;:r:

I

I

Rodhra, sabarakarodhra, palasa, jingiQi, sara\a, yukta, kutsitamba, kada\i, gatasoka, elavalu, paripelava, and moca-this group known as . rodhradika, cures diseases of fat and kapha, disorders of vagina, produces obstruction ( to movement of and maJas ) , good for colour and destroys poison. 26-27.

Arkadi ga1Ja : ...
;r1;ff R'l'"-ri I
:e(

qq:
Arka, alarka, nagadanti, ka\1, prakirya, ' sveta and tapasa vrksa,-this fat, poison, worms, leprosy, ( especially cleanses the ulcers.
surasntli gapa : -

I

visalya, bharngi, rasna, vrsci· pitataila, udakirya, the two arkadi gal)a, mitigates kapha, and other skin diseases} and 28-29.

I 1

ct"loc.i\\l..-.:

I

The two surasa, phal).ijja, kalatnila, vidai'iga, kharabusat katphala, kasamarda, sarasi, bharngi, karmuka, kakamaci, kulahala, bhutrJ)a, bhiitakesithis surasadi gal}a mitigates kapha, fat, worms, common cold, anorexia, dyspnoea, cough and cleanses the wounds. 30-31.

XV]

SOTRASTHANA

205

Mutkakadi garza :..!)

etf.-rr.tm:

I

srug, vara, dvipi, palasa, dhava and simsipathis group cure abdominal tumor, diabetes, renal calaculus, anaemia, obesity, haemorrhoids, disorders of kapha and semen. 32. Vatsakaai garza :-

...
.,.

'f

I

ll\\11
I

Vatsaka, miirva, bharfigi, katuka, marica, ghuJ.lapriya, phala. ajan1oda, siddba. . . ga1J9ira, ela, patha, ajaji, rtha, vaca, jiraka, hingu, vidanga, pasugandha and pancakola-drugs of this group cures disorders of vata, kapha and medas, rhinitis, abdominal tumor, fever, colic, and haemor• rhoids. 33-34.

Vacll.hariarlldi garza :I

iter:
Vaca,jalada, devahva, nagara, and abhaya; the two kalasi, kutajodbhava,-these vaca aad haridharidra, radi gai}.a cure acute diarrhoea (or that caused by accumulations of ama ) diseases of fat, kapha, aQhyapavana ( stiffness of the thighs ) and disorders caused by breast rnilk, 35-36.

Priyangu-amba$/hlldi ga1Ja :1

lll,\911
3 •

I
Ill.c: II

il'\:'i 'l'Urt

'f:ll(JT'$f

I

ftril Ttffl

iNoJ'\

[dH.

Priyai\gu the two afijana, padma, padmaraja, yojanavaUi, manadruma, mocarasa, samaiiga, punnaga, $ita, and madaniya hetu; madhuka, namaskari, naiidivrkfa, kacchura, rodhra, dhataki, bilvapesika, katvafiga and kamalaraja-these ·priyangu and 1"0Up8 cure chronic diarrhoea, heal fractures, good for pitta and are even healers of ulcers. 37-39.

Mustadi gapa ;--

p wtfr \II'Rf\' ,
'
'

I
'II

..

U\Joll

vaca, agni, the two nisa, the two tikta, bhallata, triphalA, trnti and haitnavati-cures ofvagina, breastmilk, and cooks the malas 40.

-

Nyagrodhlldi gapa :....
t

11

"
itt{;

1

Nyagrodha, pippala, sidaphala, the two rodhra, the two jambu, arjuna, kapitana, somavalka, amra, vanju\a, piyala, palaSa, nandi, koli, kadamba, virala, madhuka and madhiika-ihis nyagrodhadi group is good for wounds/ulcers, cause constipation, unites fractures, cures fat accumulation, bleeding disease, thirst, burning sensation, and diseases of vagina. 41-42.

J

El'adi gapa :-

q,C!')'S

fiFi
fttfi

I

1

IIWII

The two ela, tut·u,ka, phalinl, mamsi, jala, dhya.maka, sphrkka, coraka, coca, patra, tagara, sthauJ}eya, jatirasa, iukti, vyaghranakha, amarahva, aguru, kum-

-

XVJ

SOTRASTH.ANA

207

l

kuma, can<;la, guggulu, devadhiipa, khapura, punnaga and nagahvaya-this e1adiga"Q.a cures disorders of vata, kapha and poison, improves colour{complexion, cures itching, pustules and skin rashes. 43-44.

syamlJul

,

gaf)a :-:cq , ....q

....

••

I

1

.....
Syama, danti, c!ravanti, kramuka, kutaraQa, sankhini, carrnasahva, sikhari, rajanaka, chinna· roha, karanja, bastafitri, vyadhighati" bahala, bahurasa and syamadi group cures abdominal tumor, poison, anorexia, diseases of heart ache ( diseases ) and dysuria. 45.
1

...
Thus, were described thirtythree groups.( of drugs )J such of the drugs not available rnay be substituted with others of identical properties and such drugs uot appropriate ( to the group ) may be rejected. 46 .

....

qtit

v.r•r-r.. tl\i\911

I

The drugs of these groups made iftto medicinal formulations such as kaJka ( wet bolus ), quatha (decoction), sneha ( medicated fats ), leha ( confections ) etc., to be used for drinking. nasal drops, oil enema, topical anointing etc .., euher internally or externally, cu'"re diseases which are obstinate. 47.

'(fu

ifm
...

n

n

Thus ends the chapter Sodhanadi gai)a safigraha, the fifteenth in Sutrasthana of Astafigahrdaya Samhita written by Srimad Vagbhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

1
Chapter-16.

SNEHAVIDHl-( Oleation therapy)
I
I

We shall now expound the Snehavidhi adhyaya-chapter on oleation therapy; thus said Atreya and other great sages.

Snehana dravya gutza-( qualities

of oleating substances }1

Srt?l'T, t II Medicinal substances which are heavy ( not easily diges· table ), cold ( in potency ) mobile, ( causing movement ) unctous, dull, thin ( capable of entering into n1inute pores ) soft, and liquid are generally snehana ( oleating, producing oilyness, lubrication ) , those possessing opposite properties are ( producing dryness ). I.

Sneha dravyah-( oleating substances )a'JfTfq ;;:r
II

II

1

Sarpi ( ghee, butterfat ) , majja ( bone marrow ), vasa ( rrtuscle fat ) and taila ( oil )-are considered best among oJeating substances; even among these, sarpi ( ghee, butterfat ) is very best, becJ use it follows ( augments ) the properties of subS'tances with which it is processed, of its sweet taste, not producing burning sensation during and of beiug partaken ( consumed ) from the beginning of life ( infancy ). 2-3a.
tl

They ( majja, vasa, and taila ) mitigate of pitta in their preceding order and the othe1 in their succeeding order. 3b.

XVI]

SOTRASTHANA

209

q-m

aa)..sf1t ._..

1

l

Oil is heavier ( hard to digest } than ghee ( butter-fat ), muscle-fat is heavier than oil, marrow is heavier than all, ,
ar¥l.IT

'1'\t'A:. II \:l I I

Mixture of two, three and four oleating rnaterials is known as yamaka, trivrt and mahan ( sneha) respectively. 4b.

Snehyllh- (persons suitable for oleation ) : 1

qilfim

11 "',. 11

1
Those who are to be administered, sudation and purifactory therapies, who indulge more in wine, wotnen and exercise; who think too much, the aged, the children, the debilitated, the emaciated; who are dry, poor i,n blood and semen, who are suffering from diseases vf vata, ophthalmia, blind·, ness, and who have difficulty in quick awakening-require oleation therapy. 5-6a·

Asnehyll.h- (persons unsuitable for oleation ) :;y

II '
1

II

II \9 II

:v

1

Those who have very weak or very strong digestive activity, who are very obese and very debilitated, who are suffer· ing frorr1 stiffness vf the thighs, diarrhoea, am a, diseases of the throat, artificial poisoning, enlargement of the abdomen, fainting, VOUlitting, anorexia, increase of ( kapha ), thirst and alcoholic intoxication; who have had abnormal delevery, who are to be ad rninistered nasal medication, enetna and purgative therapies. 6-8a.

...

a!f

u u

Ghrta ( ghee, butterfat ) is best suited for those who desire (improvemrnt of) intellect, memory, intellegence etc. 8b.
14 .A

210

A&TA:NGA

[ CH.

..

..

....

Tai1a ( oil) is suited in diseases like tumors, sinus ulcers, worms, diseases produced by ( increased ) kapha, fat and vata, for those who desire thinning and sturdy ness- of the body, and who have hard bowel movements. 9.

...
qt=ft

1

s

f(t (1,(1

:a' .....

• ,

II to II , II t lI

a"'lt )

The ren1aining ( muscle-fat and marrow ) are suited for persons who are depleted of their tissues from ( exposure to ) breeze, sunlight, long dislance walk, carrying heavy load, women (sexual intercourse ) and physical activities; who. are dry, who withstand strain, who have very strong digestive activity, and in whom vata is obstructed in its normal pathways. Muscle-fat is suited for pain of the joints, bones, vital organs and abdominal viscera; so also for pain of assault by weapons, displacement of vagina, earache, and headache. 10-11.

ai.if

I

Oil is ideal for use during pravrt ( first rainy season ), ghee during end of varl;)a ( i.e., sarat-autumn ), the others during madhava ( i.e. vasafita-spring ). 12a.

Snehayogya kala-( proper time for oleation therapy):During sadharal}a ( temperate seasons ) use of oleating materials should be done during day time and when the sun js clear. l2b.

:;:(

I

Oil may be used in emergency even in cold season and ghee, even in summer and even at night. 13a.

firii qerit

J

--------- --·-- ---

In diseases produced by increased pitta and pavana (vata) and in their combiuation with predominence ofpitta ( ghee/) should be used only at nights ( during summer). 13.

l

...,,

R.-ua)fitcn I

Otherwise, diseases due to ( increase of) vata and kapha arise if ( fats are ) used at night-s and ( diseases ) of pitta if used during day. 13-l4a.
Noles ;-Drinking of fats has been specified either at day time or at night depending on the season and this rule should not be violated except in emergency; use of fats at nights in seasons not _indicated to, will lead to increase of vita and kapha and consequent diseases; use of fats at daytime in seasons not indicated to, will lead to increase of pitt a and consequent diseases.

Sneha samkhyll- ( number offat recipes ) :qur:

should be used appropriately either mixed with chewable and other kinds of foods or in the form of ( different ' kinds of) enemas, nasal drops, anointing over the body, holding in the mouth, putting over the head, into the ears

and eyef!... 14b-15a.

..

1

By its use with ( substances of) different tastes and ( sepe. rately, without admixture ), it will be sixty four ( nun1ber of recipes ). Vicara:t:ta ( use of fat mixed with foods ) is poor ( mild in effect ) because ofits mingling with other materials' and of its little quantity. 15b-16a.
;n.....

I

Because of the absence of said reasons, Acchapeya is not ( like ) vicaran.a, this method of administering fats is considered best as it serves the function of fats ( lubrication ) quickly. 16b-17a.
Notes :-Administration of fats for oleation therapy is done in two waya viz a ) small amounts of fats are mixed with foods of different kinds of

212

A&TANGA

[ CH.

tastes, as has been explained in chapter 10 that the total number of combinations ofthe six tastes will be sixty three, any one or more of such food materials, become the medium with which fat may be mixed and given to the patient. This kind of adminiftation of fat is known as vica_ral)a sneha. It is poor in action (effect); b) large amount of fats, rot mixed with any other substances, is given to the patient to drink-this kind is known as Acchapeya sneha (or Acchapilna to be more precise). It is strong in action ( effect ) because its qnantity is more and not diluted with other substances; both these kinds together, make up the number of recipes to sixtyfour. The vicaral)a method is indicated for those who are weak, and who do not require great lubrication it can be continued for many days without much risk. The acchapana method is indicated for the strong, who require great and quick lubrication as preliminaty to one or more purifacto1 y therapies Jike tmeds, purgation etc., as fat materials is given to drink in large quantity, it can be only for seven days at the most, this method is considered as best as it produces good lubrication quickly.

Acchapanamlltra-( dose offats for drinkitzg ) :-

i6Jffil. II t \Ill
l

sttiter g
The quantity of fat which gets digested in two, four and eight yama, is the 1nild, medium and high doses respectively; even among them, the minimum quantity should be administered in the beginning, after considering the ( condttion of) etc. 17b-18.
Notes :-Yama is the period of three hours, the quantity of fat which gets digested in 6, 12 and 24 hours is mild, medium and high doses respectively for Acchapana ( drinking of fat without admixture with food ), respectively. On the first day of oleation therapy, minimum quantity should be given because the nature of the alimentary tract of the patient might not be well understood and the risk of bad effect of fat will be less or not at all.

Snelzapanavidhi- ( procedure of drinking fat ) : -

q-;: 1
For sodhana ( purifactory therapies ) acchasneha ( drinking of fat alone ) should be soon after digestion of food and in large dose ( maximum dose ).
(f;p(:

XVi]

S0TRAS1'HANA

For samana ( mitigation of or diseases) it should be when the person is hungry and without food ( fasting ) and in medium dose. 19. ,

...
For brmhal}a ( stoutening the body ) it should be given mixed with juice of meat. wine etc., and consumed along with food, in small quantity ( minimum dose ). 20a.
U':(ou

'@11

1

:a 't':(

1

It ( oleation ) is suitable to children, the aged, those suffering from thirst, those who have aversion to fat, who indulge in wine, women and fatty foods daily, who have poor digestive who leqd happy life, who are afraid of troubles., who are of soft bowel.. who have little quantity of ( increase of) during hot season and for the emaciated. 20-21.
I

c;r

rtm'I_

Used before, during and after food, it ( fat ) cures the diseases of the lower, middle and upper parts of the body respectively and also strengthens those parts in the same order. 22.

Snehopacara-( care after drinkingfats) :-

I

"''

;r

9 ll':t\11
I

After acchapana ( drinking of fat ) warn1 water should be consumed, for its easy digestion and clearing the mouth of its coating, but not so when oil oftuvaraka and (are consumed ). In case of doubt, either of digestion or indigestion, warm water should be consumed again; by that there

214

[ CH.

will be purity of belchings, feeling of lightness aud desire for food. 23-24.
m;'f).Sai m$1""1'T
,q;

fq•wt_ tf)8qfttN I

II

lt'fl

firqrf;({

Foods which are liquid. warm, not producing excess moisture not very fatty and not a mixture of many food materials, should be consumed by the patient in limited quantity on the earlier day ( prior to the day of drinkiug fat); on that day ( day of drinking fat ) and the day after ( days after stoppage of ). 25.
-.:s

-';I

I

;:r
;;r
\9 II

He should use warm water only for all his activities ( washing, ablutions, bath, drinking etc. ), 1naintain celebecy ( avoid , sexual activities ) avoid desires, not suppress the urges of the body, :10t indulge in exercise, anger, grief, expo· sure to cold, sunlight, breeze, riding on animals, travelling in vehicles, walking long distance, ( too much of) speaking, remaining in troublesome postures for long time, keepjng very low or very high pillow ( under the head ), sleeping during day, contact with smoke and dust; on the days of drinking fats and for same number of days afterwards also. 26-28a.

swn

ifl11:

This procedure ( regimen) is the same generally for all therapies ( purifactory therapies such as e111esis, purgation, enema etc. D and also for those debilitated by diseases. 28b.
-.:s.,.'t:ll .....

mri1

'5td:

1

In case of samana ( sneha ) ( palliative oleation therapy ) the regimen as suggested for the person who has undergone purgation therapy (vide chapter 18) should be adopted. 29a.

xvt 1
';!qQ....

SUTRASTH.ANA

2i5

Acchapana kZJla-( duration offat drinking ) :-

11-:t,ll
....

Acchapana ( drinking fat alone ) should be done for three days for ( persons of) soft for seven days for ( persons of) hard bowels or till the symptoms of good oleation appear. After that period it ( fat ) becon1es accustomed ( to the pati· ent and does not give the desired effect ). 29b-30a

Snigilha lak5arza-( signs of oleation ) :Ul.oll
q:

P'

t

lll.tll

Down ward movement of vata, keen digestive activity, faeces becoming fatty and non formed ( not solid ), aversion to fat, and exhaustion-are the signs of proper lubrication; opposite of these are ( the sign ) of dryness (inside the body). Appea ranee of pallor ( yellowish white colour ) and secretions from the nose, mouth and rectum are the signs of excess lubrication. 30b-31.

Snehavyapat laksaTJa-( bad effects

of improper oleation) :. . ('l: 1
n\-:tu
I

Fat drinking in improper dose, unsuitable kind, improper time, indulging in improper foods and activities produces dropsy, haemorrhoids, stupor, rigidity, ( loss of movement ); loss of sensation/consciousness, itching, leprosy (and other skin diseases ), fever, nausea, pain in the abdomen, flatulence, giddiness etc. 32-33a.

Snehavyo.pat cikitsa-( treatment
..

of had effects ) :ll\\11
...

IllVII I

216

HJ.tDAYAM

(Cit

( Producing ) hunger, thirst, von1itting and perspiration, administering foods, drinks and medicines which are dry { cause dryness ), use of takr ( fermented butter milk ), khala ( menu prepared fronl curds ), uddala, yava, syamaka, kodrava, pippali, triphala, (honey ), pathya, gomiitra ( cows urine,), guggulu and such others ( foods, drugs etc. ) prescribed for each disease-are the n1ethods of managing ( treating) the diseases due to improper therapy.

33b-35a.

Virakfapa ( therapy to cause dryness ) :-The features of proper and excess ( dryness ) are the same as those of proper and excess of laiighana ( making the body thin). 35b.
I

;:,m;i
q:'laTa

!fl; lll.\1 I
4

I

The patient should drink juice of meat of animals of desert-like regions, mixed with fats, made liquid ( tl1in) and warm, then undergo therapy; after three days of such regimen, he should be administered purgation therapy, after a lapse of one day, kapha Ehould be increased by using things ( food, drugs etc. ) which cause its increase and then emesis ( therapy ) should be administered. 36-37a.
llf'3C!5't

it!({
it
...

1

tfi
q(f:

I
I

ani ....

Persons who are n1uscular, fatty, having great increase of kapha and erratic type of digestive activity, who are accustomed to fats and who need oleation therapy, should be made to become dry first ( by use of foods, drugs etc. } and then ( administered ) oleation therapy followed with purifactory therapies; by this (procedure ) complications of olea-


,...

X.Vt]

SOTRASTHANA

tion do not arise. This (method ) is errough to excite the malas.., ( dosas to be elin1inated easily) and the fat (consumed) which has become unaccustomed. 37b-39a.

Sadyassneha;'oga ( recipes for immediate oleation ) : ,..... '"' t:

-av:

SP-JT3r1R( 1

For children, the aged etc., for those who cannot withstand ( the discomforts or ) avoidance of thiugs ( prohibited during ) of oleation therapy, can be administen·d the following recipes which are sadyassneha (in1n1euiate oleation/ lubrication ) and which are non·harming. 39.
I
ift

:er

1

!

Juice of nu,at prepal't:d f1om mo1e quantity of peya ( gruels ) fried with ( more quantity of ) fats, powder of til a mixed with fat and half boiled Inolasses, krsara ( rice cooked along with green gram ) mixed with the sante things as above, ( gruel prepared from milk ) tnixed with more quantity of ghee ( butter fat ) and made warm; dadhi sara ( yoghart water, whey from curds) mixed with guc;la ( molasses treacle, jaggery ), pai'icaprasrta peya ( thin gruel prepared from one prasta each of ghrita ( ghee ), tai]a ( oil ), vasa ( muscle fat ), majja ( marrow ) and tanc;lula ( rice ). These seven recipes are sadyassneha ( fat recipes which produce oleation{lubrication immediate Iy ). 40-42.
Cl"lt(ui)qqvft:

v

:;;r 1

16

And also fats mixed with more amount of salt ( are sadya· ssneha ) because it ( salt ) is ( causes exudation in the tissues ), ( does not cause dryness ), siiksma ( capable of entering into minute V'ores ), ( hot in potency ) and

t ca.
vyavayi ( spreads all ov.er the body first and later undergoes transformation). 43a.

...
if

I

Jaggery, meat of birds of marshy lands, milk, tila. sura ( beer ) and dadhi ( curds, yoghart ) should not be used for purposes of oleation in leprosy ( and other skin diseases ), dropsy and diabetes. 43b-44a. ·
1

For these, fats boiled with triphala, pippali, pathya, guggulu, etc., should be used as found suitable, which will not produce abnormalities. 44-45a.

'"u11t1T
For those who are debilitated by diseasas, fats which are capable of increasing the strength of the body and of the digestive activity should be made use of (for oleation therapy) 4Sb.

Snekapana pkala (,benefits

of drinking fats ) :-I

qfqJ:ae5Ts:
'Umg;:

IIW\11

IQ
I

i

He, who has very keen digestive activity, clean alimentary tract, well developed/strong tissues, physical strength, colour ( complexion) and powerful sense faculties, who is slow in getting old and who lives for a hundred is the person who is habituated to oleation ( in otherwords these are the benefits of oleation therapy if adopted ofteu ). 46.

tm

_,._'Q.,f<w

.q....

ll \

n

Thus ends the chapter named Snehavidhi, the sixteenth in ,q.trasthana of Samhita composed by srimad Vagbhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

'"d

'

Chapter-17

SVEDAVIDHI ( SU'iation T/zerap;p )
aNn=r:
1:

1 11

We shall now expound the chapter called Svedavidhiprocedure of sudation therapy; thus said Atreya and-- other great sages.

Sveaaprai&DrlJ/J ( kind$ tif sudation ) :-Sveda ( sudatipn ) is of four kinds-tapa ( fomentation ), upanaha ( warm poultice ), ( warm stearh ) and drava ( pouring of warm liquid ).

II t II Tapa is done by touching the body with heated cloth, metal plate, palm of the hand etc. 1.
I
II
f'.. ' :.

iRa

...

1

tf,'(.'t"ttfqf'": II\ II ,;": 1

.,

Upanaha is application ofpoultice prepared from vaca, kiJ}va ( yeast ), satahva, devadaru etc., any kind ofgrains, all substances having pleasant smelJ, roots of rasna and era1J.da; or meat; each one added with more of salt, fats (oil, ghee etc. ), cukra ( vineger ), takra ( buttermilk ) and paya ( milk ) in ( increase of ) vata individually; that ( poultice ) prepared with drugs of surasadigava (vide chapter 15) in increase of vata associated with { kapha ), with drugs of padmaka.digaJJa ( vide chapter 15 ) in increase of vata associated with pitta. These poultices are known as upaniha and should be applied often. 2-3.

rca.
fil;

u
I

11

atQlM

qi

11

After applying the poultice, the part of the body should be bandaged with soft piece of leather which has no bad smell, which has been oiled; it sho1..tld be slightly warmed and tied; if leather is not available leaves of plants which mitigate vata, silk cloth, or woollen cloth may be used; poultice tied during -night should be removed during day and that tied during day should be removed during night. 4-5.

3i"'"
qsmW;r
,

.

<-.

1

II

II

I

(steam) may be obtained by utkarika ( boiling pulses, seeds etc., and allowing that steam over the part of the body ) and stone potsherd, mud, cuttings of leaves, grains, dried dung of animals (like cow, sheep, goat etc. }, sand, husk etc. heated well in different ways and administered (warm) as appropriate to the region and season. 6-7a.
::,

II
..

\9 II

...

t

11 <: 11
1

,
I

... :er

It\ ll

'
lTrsi
Drava ( warm liquid ) is prepared by boiling bits of leaves of sigru, varal)aka, eral}Qa, karanja, surasa, arjaka, varhsa, arka, malati or d\t ghavrnta, with drugs of vacadigat}a ( vide chapter 15 ), meat of animals of marshy land and of those living in water, drugs of dasamiila, each one seperately or all together, mixed with fats ( oil, gh<'e etc. ), t=tppropriate to'the mala ( do)a ); sura ( beer ), sukta (fermented gruel ), water--- and milk. This medicated water should be filled into either a tJOt, jug with spel:l-t-, OI" a tune and poured comfortably ( slowly and steadily ) over the painful part covered with cloth. 7b-10.

XVII]
CfT

SUT.RASTHAN A
I

221

r.:-......

Tit

l

,...

I
11!1'

In case of vat a affecting the entire body, the same ( medicated water ) may be filled into a tub and the patient made to sit in it, this method can be adopted in piles, dysuria, and such other painful 11. Svtdavidhi ( procedure of sudation therapy ) :I

Sudation should be adminhtered to him who has been lubricated both internally ( by drinking fats ) and externally ( anointing fats ever the body ), who is staying in a room devoid of breeze and after his meal has been digested. 12a.
II

It ( sudation ) may be mild, moderate n1edium ) or strong depending upon the condition of the disease, patient,' habitat and season. 12b.
I

l Person suff<:>ring from diseases of kapha should be given sudation in dry condition ( without the use of fat internally and externally ) and with dry liquid ( without addition of fats ); in case of kapha and vata ( increased together ) the patient should be in dry condition and liquid mixed with fats ( should be ). 13a.
'iitnta1

R:ll

'6tt
1 When vayu ( vata ) is 1ocalised in the amasaya (stomach)

and kapha in pakvasaya (colon) sudation should be precee1ed by dry therapy and lubrication therapy respectively; based on the seat ( in relation to the which agafitu (foreign) in the.3e organs respectively). 13b-14a.
;:r

II

Sudation should be very mild in 1he groins and also on the eye, scrotum and heart or not at all (on these places) 14b.

Svedanaphala and upacnra ( bem:fits of and care after sudation ) : -

:cr
"::'11(1-t(l(f:

mctit I

222

{OH.

Diminition of cold and pain and softness of the organs accure· from sudation. Afte1 wards tLe body should be massaged 'slowly,·giveu bath ( in warm water ) and allowed comforts as therapy.. 15. prescribf:d in

.
I

I

( ejf1cts of excess su!Iation ) :..
..

n

.......

. . . . ll\,11

Ill II

..

Aggravation (increase) ofpitta and asra ( blood ), thirst, loss of consciousness, \\ eakness of voice and body, giddi· ness, pain in the joints, fever, appearance of black ( blue ), red patches on the skin, and vomitting are produced by excess of sudation therapy; for that, stambhana ( withholding, stopping, hinder111g of elimination ) .is the .treatment, so_ also for paients suffering from poison, caustic alkali and bran· ding by fire; diarrhoea, vomitting and unconsciousness. 16-17. snq:,
1

....'t"t ....

"'

..

11\'n
I

Generally substances which are heavy, penetrating and hot (in potency) are svedana ( sudatory) while aut stances of opposite quantities are sthambhana ( cause witholding, hinderance to elimination); drugs which are liquid, sthira ( static), mobile, unctous, dry and penetrating are svedana ( sudatory ) and those which are smooth, dry, thin, mobile and liquid, bitter, astringent and sweet in taste are generally sthambhana ( withholding eli nination ). 18-19.
..

I

AfLer stambhana therapy, the person gains strength and diseases mentioned abo"e ( due to excess sudation ) disap· pear. 20a.

..

1

XVII]

SOTRASTHANA

223

of skin and tendons, tre.mors, stiffness of ( region of) the heart, choking of voice, lockjaw, black discolouration of the feet, lips, skin and hands-are the signs and symptoms of excess sthambhana therapy. 20-2la.

( persons unruitable for sudation ) :;r

lf-c..Ul:
I

:qw.rfilit Sudation should not be done to persons who are very obese, dry and weak, unconscious, who are to be given stham· bhana ( witholding therapy ), debilitated by injury to chest, emaciation and disec; ses of drinking wine, those suffering from blindness, enlargemeJ?.t of abdomen, visarpa (herpes), leprosy (and other skin diseases ), consumption, and gout, who have just consumed milk, curds, fats and honey a who havro undergone purgation therapy, who are suffering front prolapse and burns of the rectum, exhaustion, anger, grief and fear, excess of hunger and thirst., jaundice, anaemia, dia· betes and diseases of pitta origin; won1en who are pregQant, ntenstruating ( during periods ) and delevered ( recently ). In case of emergency diseases, it should be done mildly ( for the above ). 21-24.

ri'ffivn

I

( persons suitable for sudation ) :I
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For persons suffering from dyspnoea, cough, running in the nose, hiccup, constipation, hoarseness, diseases of vata,

'224

[CH.

( kapha ) , and ama; sti.flness, feeling of heavyness, and aches of tre body ( parts or whole ), catching pain of the waist, back, abdomen and lower jaw; enlargement ·of the scrotum, contn ctions of toes apd fingers, tetanus,1 sprains, dysuria, malignant tumor benign \U n.or, obsti uction to the flow of semen and urine, and adhyamaruta ( rigidity of the thighs ) sudation should be done judiciously with appropriate drugs. 25-27. ·

sveda ( sudation without the agency offire ) :e

I

Sudation without the agency of fire is suitable in diseases ofvata enveloped/inactivated by medas and kapha. Staying in air tight room, fatigue ( from physical activity ), covering oneself with thick a pperal ( bl.ankets etc. ), fear, bandaging ( wrapping with 'cloth, leather, etc. ), fighting (boxing, wrestling, etc. ), anger, heavy drinking (of wine), huuger and sunlight ( these are some such methods devoid of the agency offire ). 28-29a.

Sveila phala ( effe_cts of sudation) :\llgtll qr

=a

I

'filU

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I

which have been lubricated by oleation therapy, residing either in the alimentary tract, tissue!%, or lurking in the channels of the extremities, bones etc , are liquified by sudation therapy, brought into the alimentary cana 1, to be eliminated out of the body completely, by appropriate purificatory therapies, 30.

..

n ti

Thus ends the chapter-Svedavidhi-the seventet"nth of siitrasthana of samhita, written by srimad son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

I

Chapter--18 VA WANA-VIRECA NA VIDHI (Emesis and purgation therapies)
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We shallnow·expound the chapter Vamana virecana vidhiprocedure of emesis and purgation therapies; thus said Atreya and other great sages.

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Emesis should be administered for ( increases of) kapha either alone or in combination ( with other dosas) where l apha is predominant. Similarly purgation should be administered for ( increase of) pitta ( alone or in combination with other where pitta is ). 1. VamyiJQ ( persons suitable for emeJis) :-cuJ-4

II I

II

II
l

H

Emesis should be specially adn1inistered to persons suffc· ring from recent -fever, diarrhoea, bleeding disease of downward trend, pulmonary tuberculosis, leprosy ( and other skin diseases), goitre, tumors, filariasis, insanity, cough, dyspnoea, oppression in the chest {nausea ), visarpa ( herpes ), diseases born fro1n bad breast milk and diseases of the head. I b-2b. AvamylJlJ (persons unsuitable for emesis ) :-

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226

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The pregnant woman, persons who are dry ( not undergone oleation therapy ), hungry, grief-stricken constantly, children, oJd persons; the emaciated, the obese, patient ofheart disease, the wounded, the weak, who are having bouts ·ofvomitting, enlargement of spleen, blindness, intestinal parasites, upward movement of vata and asra (blood ), who have been administered enema just then, who have loss of speech, dysufia, enlargement of the abdomen, tumor of the abdomen, who respond to emesis therapy with difficulty, who have strong digestive activity, who are suffering from ha emorrhoids, upward movement of air ( reverse peristaJisis ), giddiness, enlargement of the prostate, pain in the flanks and diseases caused by vata; excluding ( among the above ) those suffering from poison, gara ( homicidal poison ), indigestion and who have consumed incompatable foods. Jb-6.
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Those persons enumerated ( in the previous verses ) earlier to "prasakta varnathu'' (having bouts of vomrnitting ) and persons who are sufferirjg from recent fevers, are generally to be rejected ( excluded ) for therapies ending with dhiima ( in ba.lation of smoke ) and those suffer jtig from indigestion, from all therapies. 7.
Not1s :--The therapies to be reckoned here are--snehana { oleation ), swedana (sudation), vamana ( emesis ), virecana (purgation), baati (enema ), nasya ( nasal ), dhiima ( inhalation of smoke ) and {mouth gargles).

( persons suitable for pur.galion therapy):-1
II

1

;pplt aun: II ' 11

XVIII]

SOTRASTHANA

.

.

227

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Diseases treatable with ( requiring) purgation therapy are-tumors of the abdomen, piles, (small disL coloured patch on the face, jaundice, chronic fevers, enlarge, - ment of the abdomen, homicidal poisoning, vomitting, spleni( disorders; advanced jaundice, abscesses, blindness, cataract ophthalmia, pain in the large intestines, diseases of the vagin;:, and semen, intestinal parasites, wounds/ulcers, gout, bleeding diseases of upward bout, diseases of the blood, suppression of urine, obstruction of faeces; those persons who are suitable for emesis therapy ( enumerated in earlier verses ) com· mencing with "those suffering from curable ( to be treated) with purgation therapy. 8-IOa .

( persons not suited for purl ation ) :-·
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Persons 1uffering from recent fever, poor digestive activity, bleeding disease of downward bout, wounds, ulcers of the rectum; diarrhoea, and foreign bodies; who have been administered decoction enema, those of hard bowel mo' ement, who are greatly lubricated and those from con• sumption should not be given purgation therapy. IOb-11.

Vamana-vidhi (procedure of emesis therapy) :Vf'l

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ASTA"NGA

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Next, during temperate seasons, after administering oleation and sudation therapies properly, on the day previous to the day of emesis, in order to excite ( increase ) kapha, the patient-who has slept well in the night, who has had his food well digested; should be made to drink peya ( thin gruel ) prepared from fish, (black gram), tila ( -sesamum seeds) etc. added with little quantity of fats, in the morning, after performing auspious rites, either on empty stomach or after ddnking little quantity of ghee. 1'he aged, children, the debilitated, the impotent and the coward, should be made to drink wine, milk, sugarcane juice or meat juice added with honey and saindhava salt, appropriate to the disease, to their maximurn capacity. Afterwards, determining the nature of his bowels the en1etic drug is administered sanctifying it with the following hymn-"let Brahma, Asvins, Rudra, Indra, the earth, moon, sun, air, fire, sages; comity of herbs, and of living beings protect you; let this medicine be to you Jike rasayana for the sages, nector for gods and sudha for the good serpents; Om, salutations to the worshipful the vaiQiirya prabharaja, the Tathagata, the Arhat, the Samyak sarhbuddha; Om, maha bhaisamudgate ( salutation to you the medicine).'' Uttering these hymns, he should drink the medicine, facing east. 12-18a.
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XVIII]

SiJTRASTHANA

229

After consuming the 1nedicine he should await for a muhiirta ( 48 n1inutes ) the commencement of vomitting, with keen intent. With the apvearance of oppression in the chest and salivation he should t1 y to vomit; if the bouts are not con1ing up easily, he should tickle throat either with his fingers or a soft tube wit bout injuring the throat, sitting on a seat oft he height of ones, knee, the bouts of vomitting should be induced, the two flanks and forehead of the patient should be held ( supported by another person), his umbilical region and back being massaged in up'vvard direction. 18b-2la.

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In case of increase <·f kapha, vornitting should be induced with drug3 having properties like penetratiHg, hot and pun• gent; in case of pitta with drugs of sweet aud cold properties

and in case of association of marut ( vata ) with kapha, ... with drugs of unctous, l)OUr and sa It prop 1 tics. 21 b-22a.

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Vomitting should be allowed till the -appearance (coming out ) of pi tta or complete expelling of ka pha. 22b.

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If bouts are insufficient, they should be induced again and again by drinking water boiled with ka:Qa, dhatrl, siddhartha and salt.
Vi1ama yoglJh ( abnotmal bouts):OST

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Non-commencement of bouts, bouts coming on with hinderance or elirnination of the medicine only-are the features of a yoga ( inadequate bouts ); from it arise, excess of expectoration, itching, appearance of skin rashes, fever etc. 23b-24.

2SO

ASTANGA

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Kapha, pitta and vata coming out in successive order, without any hinderance, calmness of the mind and feeling of ease appearing on their own accord, absence .. of features of inadequate bout. and feeling of not too much of discomfort are the features of samyag}'Oga ( proper bout ). 25a.

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I

In atiyoga ( excess bouts ) the vomitted materials will be frothy, with glistering particles and blood; the patient will weakness, burning sensation, dryness of the throat, gidainess, powerful disases of vata origin and even death due to discharge of life supporting blood. 25b-26.

Vamanottara upaclJra (care after emesi.r ) :l

After the patient had proper bouts of vomitting, he should be comforted with encouraging words, made to inhale any one of the three kinds of srnoke ( mild, medium, or strong ), and then allowed to follow the regimen of after·care of oleation therapy. 27.

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Then. either in the same evening or next feeling hungry, after taking bath with wa·rm eat mess prepared with red rice or (if he is not he should adhere to the following regimen gruel ) etc. 28 .

morning, alter water, he can feeling hungry) of peya { thin

Pvadi llhD.ra krama ( regimen

of liquid diet)

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SO'tRASTH.ANA

231

Persons who have had the maximum, medium and minimum purificatory therapies, should conaume peya ( thin gruel), vilepi ( thick gruel ), akrta ( soup not processed with fat, salt, sours etc. ), ( soup processed with fat, salt and sours ) and rasa ( meat juice )-in successive order, for three, two and one annakala (time of meal ) respectively. 29.
Notes :--Aru:Qadatta explains the regimen as follows-each day has two annakila, ( time of meals ) one at midday and the other at night; three annakila will be one and half days, two will be one day and one will be half day. The periOD who has undergone maximum purifactory therapy shou•d drink peya ( thin gruel ) for three times. ( i.e. two meals time on first day and one meals time on the second' day, (midday); then he should drink vilepi '1n the night of second day and for both times on the third day. Then and at both times (midday ,and night) on the fourth day and once (midday) on fifth day; thenafter., rasa once on sixth day (night) and at both times on seventh day; thus by the close of seven days the regimen wdl be completed-anti from the eight day onwards he will be able to take his regular meal. Persens who have ha(l medium and minimum bouts of purifactory therapies may restrict to two and one annakala (time of meals) for each liquid menu tespectively. This regimen of liquid diet is known as Samsarjana krama.

EGRUT I

lll.on
Just as a spark of fire, after being fed by grass, powder of dry cowdung etc., gets augmented gradually and becomes great, steady, and capable of burning/consuming everything, similarly also, the internal fire ( digestive activity ) by the regimen of peya etc., in him who has undergone purifactory , therapies. 30..

Vega samkhya-mllna-number of bouts and quanti!J :-

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..

1

}our, six and eight are the desirable number of vomittinga for minimum, medium and maximum bouts; they are ten, two ten ( 20 ) and three times ten ( 30 ) respectively for purgations; in terms of quantity they are one, two and four prasthas respectively ( in respect of purgations only ). 31.
Not1s the context of therapies, one prastha is 131 palla and not 32 palas as said in the context of ( pharmaceutics); one pala il to 768 gms.

YAM

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Vonlittings are ( can be allowed ) till the expulsions of pitta or half ( in number and quantity ) of purgations; purga .. tions are ( can be allowed ) till kapha con1es out; measurement to be done after rejecting two or three bouts, containing faeces in case of purgation and ( after rejecting ) the medicine ( emetic drug ) in case of emesis therapies. 32.

Virecana vidhi ( purgalion therapy ) :-

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Next, the person who has been administerd en1esis therapy properly and after doing oleation and sudation therapies, should be given the purgation therapy after the expiry of predominant time ( 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. ) and after determining the nature of his ( tract, bowels ). 33.
I

II
Nature of ( alimentary tract ) will be mrdu (soft) with the predominance of pitta and even milk causes purga"' tions; it will be kriira (hard ) with the predominance of maruta ( vata ) and even with ( drugs like ) syama etc. purgations occur "dth difficulty. 34.

..

1

For ( increase of) pitta, purgatiOt1 should be done with drugs of astringent and sweet tastes; for ( increase of) kapha with those of pungent taste and for vata with drugs possessing unctous, hot and salt ( qualities ). 35.

a
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If bouts of purgations do not commence, he should drink hot water and his abdomen should be fomented with warmed palms of the hand. 36a.

XVlii J

SUTRASTHAN"A
t1
I

11\\911
I

If, on the day of consuming the purgative drug, the patient responds poorly, he should be allowed to take his food on that day and the pufgative drugs administered again on the next day; persona who have unstable and unlubticated alimentary tract, should consume the purgative drugs after ten days{during which oleation and sudation therapies should be done) because the body which has been well prepared with oleation, and sudation-therapies, will be able to have, purgations pro· perly; then it ( the purgative drug ) should be administered, after considerin1 all aspects and remembering the procedures described earlier. 36b-38a.

Vijama

( abnormal bouts ) :-q);r'"
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Discornfort in the ( region of) the heart and abdomen, anorexia, too much of ka ph a and pitta coming out ( through the mouth ), itchinga burning sensation, eruption on the skin, rhinitis non·eliminatioo of flatus and faeces, are the features ' . of ayoga ( inadequate bout of therapy ); opposlle of these are the features of proper bouts; in case of atiyoga ( excess bouts ) after the elimination of faeces, pitta, kapha and vata in succeeding order, there will be elimination of watery material which does not contain kapha or pitta, which is white, black or slightly red in colour, the water in which meat has been washed or resemQling 17- a piece of fat; prolapse of the rectum, thirst, giddiness,

[ OH.
sunken eyes and diseases causeq by excess of vomitting·will appear. 40-42a.

.

Virecanottara upaclJ.ra ( care after purgation ) :;;r
88)

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The person who has undergone proper purgation therapy, should be administered all other therapies,' except inhalation of smoke, which are described under emesis therapy; after· wards he should adhere to the regimen of diet, in the same way as of emesis therapy and then resume his normal food. 42-43.

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On the day of consuming the pursative drug.. the patient should be made to fast (abstain from food ) if he has weak digestive activity, poor response to purifactory therapy, if he is not emaciated, not weak by (increase of) and bas not shown symptoms of proper digestion, By this ( fasting ) he . will not be harmed by the discomfort caused by the obstruction of aggravated by oleation, sudation therapies. 44-45a.
...

ai

I

The digestive activity becomes dull ( weak) by puri· factory therapies, blood letting, oleation and fasting; hence the regimen of peya (thin gruel) etc. should be adhered to. 45b-46a.

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fi:a':

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Peya should not be given when only little quantities of pitta and kapha are expelled out, to the person who is addicted to wine, and in whom vata and pitt a are predominant; ' for them regimen or tarpava etc. ( nourishing menu ) are suitable. 46b-47a.

SOTRASTHANA

235

:atqit
q-pi
1

Emesis brings out the which are not cooked ( processed by heat ) whereas purgations brings out. the which have undergoing cooking (process by heat); hence 1n case of emesis (the physician) need not await cooking of the 47.
q:

Person who is weak, who has great amount of ( increased ) dosas develops purgations on his own ( without consuming drug); he should be treated with foods which are purgative. 48.
I

·

ll'\o II

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8'R.. 11'-\\11

Persons who are weak, who have undergone purifactory therapy previously, who have little atnount ot' ( increased ) who are emaciated, and whose nature of the alimentary tract is not known should be given mild purgative drug in a small dose; it is better given in small doses often; the opposite of it ( large dose· given once ) creates doubt f of death); the drug in small and repeated doses will eliminate the circulating little by little; in a weak person, little quantity of only be mitigated by mild drugs, ( they need not be expelled out by purifactory therapies). 49b-51 .
.

1: I

They ( which are more in quantity ) trouble the person greatly and even kill him, if not expelled out ( by puri' factory therapies ).
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[CH.
Persons who have weak digestive activity and bard natured alimentary tract, should be administered ghee ( butter fat ) processed with alkalies and salts, to augment his digestive capacity and vanquish kapha and vita; afterwards he should be given purifactory therapies. 52. ·

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In peraons who are dry, who have great incrtase of vita, who have bard natured a]imentary tract, who do exercises (\ phyaical ) habituaiJy and who have strong digestive acitivity, the ( purgative ) drug gets digested without producing purgations; for them, an eneo1a should be given fint and then purgative drug which ia unctous (should be given); or the faeces should be removed first by using a strong rectal suppository made from fruits; the thus Initiated in their movem-.:nt, the purgative drug t-xpels thf'm t-asily. 53-SS.

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Penons who are suffering from poison, trauma, skiD erup· tiona, leprosy ( and othrr skjn diseases ), dropsy, visarpa ( herpes ), jaundice, aoarmia and diabetes, should be given the purgative thrrapy without too much of oleation ( slight oleatiou itself ia sufficient for the•n ). All of then1 should be given fatty purgatives; those who have had oleation rarlier should be given dry ( non-fatty ) purgatives. 56.

aari

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In between emesis and other purifactory therapies, oleation l1d sudation therapies should be done; ( again ) at the end , pfpurifactory therapies) oleation should be done to impart • 1rengtb. 57. ·

-

XVIII]

SOTR.ASniANA

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1

Malls ( do,!s ) getting loosened from the body by oleation and sudation therapies are out by purifactory therapies just like the dirt from the cloth ( by washing ). 58.

1

'f11i The body of the person who resorts to purifactory therapies without undergoing oleation ahd sudations habitually, gets broken just like a of dry wood while being bent.
Sodhana phala ( benefits

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Clarity of the mind, strength of the sense organs, stabilit} of the tissues, keenness of digeative power and slow ageing accrue from purifactoty therapies, properly 60.

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II

n

ends the virecana vidhi--the eighteenth in siitrasthana of Astlngahrdaya samhita composed by sri mad Vaghhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simbagupta.

1
Chapter-19 BASTIVIDHI ( Enema therapy)
'

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I

We shall now expound the chapter called Bastividhi-procedure of enema therapy; thus said Atreya and other great sages.
I II

I

"

Basti, ( enema therapy ) is desirable for increase of having predominance ofvata or for ( increase;. of) alone, it is the foremost among all treatments, it is of three kinds-viz niriiha, anuvasana and uttarabastl. 1.
Notes :-Basti is the name for the urinary bladder. In ancient time e urinary bladder of animals like buffalo, goat, etc. was being used as a bag to hold the enema materials like decoctions, oil etc. As basti ( bladder ) is used for this therapy, the therapy itself came to be known as basti cikitsi efFect/bene(enema therapy). The term 'Niriiha' literally means that fit cannot be guessed, in other words, highly beneficial. It is administered through tho rectum making use of decoction of drugs mainly. It is also known as a1thapana basti. Anuvasana literally means •that which remains inside the body for some time without causing any harm'. It is also administered through the rectum making use of medicated fat (oil). It is also known as 'snehabasti• ( fat enema Utrarabasti is ''enema of the upper tract"- the urethral and vaginal passages and not of the rectal passage, decoction of drugs and medicated fats ( oil ) both are made usc of for this.

I
.c1l

Asthapylll) ( persons suitable for decoction enema ) -

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XIX]

S'OTRASTHANA

239

By this ( decoction enema ) should be the persons ( who are suffering from ) abdominal tumor, distention of the abdomen, khuda { gout ), diseases of the spleen, diarrhoea unassociated with other diseases, pain in the abdomen, chronic fever, running in the nose; obstruction of semen, flatus and faeces, enlargment of the scrotum, urinary stone, amenorrhoea and grevious diseases of vata origin. 2-3.
AnllSthllPJ'llh ( persons un.ruit'able for decoction enema )
t-

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1
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Those who have had excess of oleation therapy; InJury to the chest, highly emaciated, diarrhoea due to ama ( or diarrhoea ofrecent onset),. vomitting, who have undergone purifactory therapies, who have been administered nasal medication, who are sufff'ring from dyspnoea, cough, salivation, piles, flatulence, weak digestion, swelling of the rectum, who have taken food just then, who are suffering from enlargement of the abdomen due to obstruction ( of the intes .. tines ) perforation ( of alimentary tract ) and water ( ascitis ), leprosy ( and other skin dis-eases ), diabetes mellitus aiio the pregnant woman in the seventh month. 4-5.

(persons suitable for oil enema ) :-tJ:q

ll \ U

All those suitable for decoction enema are for oil enema especially those who have strong digestive power, who are dry ( not undergone therapy ) and those suffering from diseases of vata solely increased (not associated with other dosas ). 6. I
I

(persons unsuitable for oil enema ) :• 1

II " II

240

HI_tDAYAM

[ OH.

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..
.....

II <:: II

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Persons unsuitable for oil enema are-all those unsuitable for decoction enema, those suffering from anaemia, jaundice , diabetes.l rhinitis, lack of food, diseases of spleen, diarrhoea, hard bowels ( constipated ), enlargement of the abdomen due to kapha, ophthalmia, profound obesity, intestinal par a sites, gout; who have consumed poison, those suffering __ trom artificial poison, goitre, filariasis and scrofula. 7-8.
1

Bastinetra (/enema
,

) :-

if,j

II \ II
1

(enema nozzle) should be made from either meta)j like gold etc., wood, bone or bamboo; resembling the tail of the ,cow in shape,-without holes, smooth, straight and with tip shaped like a pill. 9.

....
il'ef I

a.1qt\ee-

'II II

1
For children less than one year of age, it ( nozzle ) should be five afigula ( fingers breadth of patients own finger ) in length; over one year and upto seven years of age, it should be six angula; for seventh year it should be seven afigula, for twelve, it should be eight angula, for sixteen it should be nine afigula, from the age of twenty years and onwards it should be twelve afigulas only. These measurements mayl be increof other age groups based on age, ased ( slightly ) for strength and body build. 10-11.
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51:·

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XIX]

-

Its mouth ( orifice ) at its root should be one aiigula ( in diameter ) for children of one year of age, it {,diameter of the orifice } should be increased by half angula (for different -age groups) and its maximum should be three angula (in· diameter). At its tip, the orifice should be such so as to allow i"ree movement ( it ) of soaked mudga ( green gram 1 ( black gram ), kalaya ( round pea ) and seed of karkandh!l (jujube ) respectively. 12-13.
sn;8'

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Near the orifice at its root, a kart).ika ( ear-like ridge ) of this same size of th'e orifice should be constructed ( at the time of preparing the nozzle ), another second karn.ika (ridge) should be made at a of two afigula ( towards its tip ), the orifice at the tip should be kept closed ( with a plug of cloth ). 14-15. -

Bastipufaka (enema hag):(fW

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nt'll

-

11\\911 To it ( nozzle ) Should be adjusted ( tied ), the urinary bladder of a goat, sheep, buffalo, or other animals, well beaten, but kept sturdy, made red by tanning it with astringent substances, devoid of holes or tears, glands ( hard spots ), bad smell and veins; and made thin, should be filled with drugs ( enema liquids) and fastened tight with threads ( to the big end of the nozzle ). If the bladder is not available, skin of thighs or legs ( of animals ) or thick cloth ntay be utilised ( for making the bag ). 15-17.

.NirfJha

( quantiV' of medicine for decoction enema )
f11•1:¥1Ciiff

SNit lf5.t

I llt_<!ll

,

I& A

t ca.
!II

tttR

u

In the first year of age the quantity of enema materials ( liquid ) for niriiha ( decoction enema ) should be one pra· kunca ( pal a =48 gms. ); for each succeeding. year it should be increased by one prakuiica ( pala ) till it becomes six prasrta (12 pala 576 gms. ); further on it should be in increased by one prasrta ( 2 palas=96 gms. ) each year till it becomes twelve ptasrta ( 24 palas= 1152 gms. ) at the eighteenth year of age; this should be the quantity till the age of seventy. years, after that age the quantity should be ten prasrta ( 20 palas= 960 gms.) ,only. 18-19.

A.nuvasana mlJtra ( quanti!J for oil enema ) :--

q"'

I

'El!e quantity for oil enema should be one fourth of the quantity of that of decoction enema, as prescribed for each . age group. 20.

AnuvtJsana viilhi (procedure

imr
tn1w •

offat enema ) : v:ri

M(f
tNif

q
le(

I

Wf I
1

..

;r
:q

The person suitable for decoction enema should be admi· nistered oleation and sudation therapies followed by purifac· tory therapy ( f'mesis or purgation ). After he regains strength, determining that he is fit for oil-enema he should be given an oil-enema first ( adopting the following procedure ). cold season ( hemanta and sisira rtus ) and vasanta ( spring ) it should be given during day and in other seasons during night. He sbou1d be given abhyafiga ( oil massage ) and then his accustomed food, less by one fourth oftbe

XIX]

usual quantity; suitable, light ( easily digestable ) neither with more of fats nor very dry, followed by' an after-drink of appropriate liquid. Next he should walk for, some time, eliminate faeces and urine and lie on a comfortable cot; neithe!:-too high nor too ]ow, on his ieft side, folding his ). 20-23. right thigh, and extending the other ( left

l

;nr
.,._,q'li " '-"

d

m

q

r...
.....
.

'fl!=

rt

wa.

'

Next, the enema nozzle which is lubricated ( smeared with fat ) should be pushed_ into the which is also lubricated, after the air inside the bag.is expelled out, confir .. ming that it is well fastened (to the nozzle) it should be pressed without shaking the, _hands, in the direction of the vertebral column, neither too fast nor too neither with great force { pressure ) nor with low forte ( pressure ) but in one attempt, a little quantity ( of liquid material ) be allowed to in the bag, for, with it resides the air. 24-26.

qtfvr.n
<IQl

o '11'-to*'t

t

II

mr:
:;:r
it

qtf{uril£ 1

f« UfR

I
l

tf\'R
After the administration ( pushing the liquid inside and removing the nozzle) the person should be placed with his face upwards, his buttocks beaten ( hit by the hands ('of the physician), then "'by his { patients ) own heels; the foot of the cot should be lifted up thrice; next he must lie extending the entire body, with a pillow under his heels, oil should be smeared all over the body and all the parts of it beaten with .fist or massaged especiaJly the painful ones; so that the fat (enema inside the rectum) does not come out soon.

-

At\TANGA

ECH.
. .-

I[ it comes out soon, another oil enema should ·be administered immediately because fat which does not remain inside does not serve the purpose. If the person has keen digestive activity, and if the fat comes out { after the stipulated time ) he can be given light food in the evening. 27-29-l.

r..

q.._ff(.ti.J\

....

itti\.._, ...

er¥1:

11\oll I

nltu

The maximum time for the fat to come out is three yama { nine hours ); after that, it can be a waited for one day and night; later on { after twenty four hours after administration ) attempt should be made to remove it by force, with the help of rectal suppositories made from fruits or strong decoction enema. 30-31.

...t-... .._\i.t,..

Ill:

ffrm

fimt

t

'" 1

Ifit does not come out due to severe dryness inside and does not produce any troubles like etc., it should be neglected ( al1owed to remain inside ) for the night; next morning he is made to drink warm water either processed with nagara and dhanya or plain. 32.

q•if

!iPa'
..

11\\11
I 11\\JU

...-r
qjltl

Again he should be given fat enema on the third or fifth day, or till the fat gets well digested; those who have profound increase ofvata, who do exercises (physical activities) daily, who have keen digestive power and who are very dry can be ,given fat enema daily. 33-34.
1

a;it: After three or four such fat enemas, ifthe body is round to ·be well lubricated, purifactory decoction enema ·should be administt red next, to clear the channels, if not well lubri· cated, fat enema only should be continued.

-

Nirllla !Jasti vidhi (procedure of decoction enema):-;
qt

fils."'r"• •.

...

Jt!.S

...

n
1

lll.\111

1

On the fif, h or third day ( after fat enema ), at an auspicious time, some time after midday, after performing rites, after oleation and sudation, atter elimination of wastes (urine, faeces) after not taking a m 1 (after a light meal), after carefully considering the nature of the person drugs etc., the physician, accompanied ( patient ), the by many experts of the enema therapy, should administer ( decoction ) enema_ to the patient. 36-37! .

.NiraMdravya kalpantJ (preparation

of enema decoction ) :tiM

n: .........

..


ftcrtqu._ I

r.N

• ...r,4(.......
vmi ¥l1'i
'A'ti•-wt
..

esi&sM lll.'YI en qQT 1
a;:r 11"•11

..
Twenty pala (9(;0 gms.) of druga ( enumerated in the pres· cription) and (madana) phala eight in number should be made into a decoction ( with the usual sixteen parts of water and boiled down to one fourth quantity); to the decoction, is added a fat ( oil, ghee, etc. ) one lburth of the quantity; for ( treat· ment of ) vita, one sixth quantity for ( treatment of) pitta and the healthy person and one eighth quantity tor ( treat· •nent of) kapha. The quantity of kalka { paste of some drugs to be added to the decoction ) for aU and the healthy person ) shall be one eighth part ( of the- decoction ) or such quantity which will make the decoction neither too thin nor too thick ( after mixing ), next one pala of ( molasses/ jaggery ) and apropriate quantity of honey and are also

added.

·

'--

I I

<fti
if ifT
(.WSCJuf

ifmnfNuf if en ifNi

I

:a

All these are then mixed together, churned well ',with a churner and made warm by keeping its container either in hot water or by steam from a pot. It should then be filled into the enema bag in that condition, which is neither too hot nor too cold, neither too fatty nor too dry, neither too strong nor mild, neither too thick nor too thin, neither too much nor too less in quantity, neither with too much of salt nor with similarly with sour ( neither too much nor too less ),. too it ia then pushed into the rectum. 41-43. ·

H <Jfilft':

...
'C:t.:Si,.tcl"ll C{U I

Some other experts· ( in enema therapy) say, that the qu.antity of fats ( oil, ghee ) and honey should be three pala Individually; that of mal}imaiitha ( saiiidhava salt ) for hea· lth:y • will be half a (! pala = 12 gms t), .the kalka ( paste of drugs ) be two pala ( 96 gins ) and of all, the other r liquids put togeth€ shall be ten pala ( 480 gms ). 41-'-14j.

mf""
'lS u •-"

aqui

r..,'-•"•

WiNPtf8'

Jmmlll NNl I

f

Honey, salt, fat, paste and decoction are to be mixed in suc;cesslve order respectively (one after the other), this shall be the method of mixing the materials for enema. 45j,.

H firQ:

.......ct

I

-

After receiving the enema, the patient shouJd lie with bis ( under his head), intent face upward "with a

SOTRASTIIANA

of the enema); after getting the urge he should eliminate the faeces sitting on his heels. 46.
itt"ltfi 'RJI: 'EtCI)

g8t
I

vsrfi.aff..ci

IIV<!II

"' ... • 1 The maxiQlum time for the enema material to come out is one muhiirta ( 48 minutes), after that period it is for causing death; hence another purgative enema prepared with fats, alkalies, urine ( of animals like the cow ) and sour substances and possessing unctous, penetrating and hot properties should be administered immediately; or a rectal suppository prepared from fruits should be made use of; sudation therapy and frightening should also be resorted to. 47-48!.

H ftratq)

'l.J\qt..sfil

II'J'II ,I

If the materials comes out of its own accord, then second, third or fourth enema can be given or as rr1any as required he develops symptoms ofproper decoction enema therapy. 49.

....

,..(t...

The symptoms of bouts are similar to those' of purgation therapy. 49!.

"').at'.. 'ltftan •

1

§ ..

t
1

firuf'l

....

After the apperance of the desired symptoms, the patient should take a bath with warm water, and ea_t rice mess along with juice of meat of animals of desert-like land. The com· plications of decoction enema caused by the circulating malas ( dof»as ) will subside by warm .water bath and food.
IN

'fl:

{tV

,If the patient becomes troubled by Oncreased) vita he should be . given a fat enema immediately (on the same-day). 5o-52.

Hij..l>AYAM

t o.a.
1

...tf(lot.i't;:rm

, Mfltdd

. The symptoms of proper, inadequate and excess ( d ecoction enema ) therapy are the same as those of "drinking of fat" therapy. Enema material (fat) coming out along with faeces after staying inside for a short time, followed by flatus moving down are the symtoms of proper fat enema therapy. 53 .

9

.._,. en

en 111re, ...
(Rf:

1

One to three fat enema should be administered for ( the treatment of increased ) balZ.sa ( kapha )J, five to seven for pitta, nine or eleven for anila ( vata ). Again on uneven days { third, fifth, seventh etc, ) decoction enema should be given. 54-55.
I

Food ( rice mess ) should be consumed along with soup of kapha, pitta ( of grains ), milk, and meat-juice in and anila ( vita ) respectively. 55l.
I

In case of (increase of) vata, one enema consisting of decoction of drugs which mitigate vata, trivrt, saindhava mixed with fats, liquids of sweet and sour taste, made warm and administered (will be ideal). S6.
MtMl\4

fili

,rq... ulflif!q't\1

•sJl

...1\ttill

In case of ( increase of ) pitta, two enemas consisting of
dtcoction of drugs ofnyagrodhldigaoa and padmakadigaJ}a (. vide chapter 15 ) made sweet and cold, and mixed with milk, sugarcane juice and honey { will be ideal }. 5""

rh.ec-,

s0TRASTHANA

wt:

.

..rqstt•'(M4=

.......

1

In case of ( increase of) kapha, three enemas consisting of decoction of drugs of aragvadhadigal}.a and vatsakadigal}a' ( vide chapter 15 ) made dry ( not mixed witfr- any fat ) and mixed with h(,ney, cow's urine,. possessing penetrating, hot and pungent properties ( will be ideal ). 58.

Aq-a: a:mr. n'-.'11
In case of ( increase of) all the bring down the kinds of enema after the other. 59.
;f

together, these three respectively one
1

ft

..
ti

smr

Other physicians, do not desire any ,enema other than these th!-:=:, because there is no fourth for which another enema need to be given. 60.
UJI;j srilnq_ I

Yet others say, that only three kinds of enema are to be prepared, that causing increase of the that causing purincation ( by expelling the ) and that causing mitigation ( subsiding them inside. the body ). 61.
1 AU these are to be justified on the basis of strength of the do:zas, drugs etc.
lf'ttll

I

Administration of enemas should not be discontinued till symptoms of proper enema therapy are obtained.

Karma !Jasti :-

...
18

..

.... ff.t 'l I

ll,\11

A course of thirty enemas with one fat enema at the begi• and five at the end, with twelve decoction enema and

250

A$'tAN'GA

t alt.

twelve fat enema alternately in the middle-is called as karma basti. 63.

KDla basti :-

A course of fifteen enemas. with one fat enema at the beginning and three at the end, with six decoction enemas and five fat enema alternateJy in the middle·is known as kala basti. 64.

"

r'(.(1,:

-..

1

ro;abasti :-S11lt ( firut:

A course of eight enemas, with one fat enema both at the beginning and at the end, with three decoction enema and ·three fat enema alternately in the middle is known as-yoga basti.

•at
en

9 11\ijll
1

11\'-\ll

...
ifQJ:

1

11,\11 istf\acb.:
1

Either fat enema or decoction enema alone should not be administered in more number; nausea and loss of digestive power will result from more of fat enema and fear of (increase of) vata arises from ( more of ) decoction enema; hence those who are given decoction enema should also be given fat enema and those who are given fat enema should also be given decoction enema; enema therapy will vanquish the three only when it is both lubricating and purifactory. 65-661.

.i•

Matra bas ti :{oM;

11\\tll

..
Fat enema consisting of enema material ( liquid ) equavalent to the minimum quantity of oil used for ''drinking of fat therapy" is known as matra basti.

sOTRASntAN'A

e: I
I•


It should be used always ·for children, the who are habituated to long walking, carrying load, women and exercises ( physical activities }, who think too much, who are suffering from ( diseases of } vata, fractures, debility, poor digestive activity; for kings, wealthy persons and persons who live happily. It conquers the does not need strict regimen, gives strength, eliminates the wastes ( faeces, urine etc. ) easily and is comfortable. 67-69.

Uttarabasti -( urethral and vaginal enemafdouclze ) :-. -

.mturt

., ,

.... 11\lofl

In diseases of the urinary bladder and of vagina a:nd uterus in we>:men, uttarabasti { urethral or vaginal euema. ) should be to those who have purified by two or three decoction enemas ( per rectum ). 70.

'"'

"'-• 8-a'Sf

.. .... 1
11\ltll
1

'a'fGi ( ...
....

The nozzle should be twelve aiigula in length, in terms of patient's own fingers, round ( tubular ) resembling a cow's tail at its root ( upper part } and endowed .with. a ridge in its, middle·( centre ); its mouth ( at the, lower part ·or tip ) capable- of permitting a g'rain of mustard; smooth, made from gold and other metals, resembling the stalk of flowers· suc;:h as kuilda, asvamara and sumanas and strong. 71-72.
IS

.....

qt I

The material { liquid ) shall be mild (in strength), light ( easily acting }, its quantity one sukti ( two karsa or' gms.) or parts of it.

Af?TANGA

[CH.

Utlarabasti viilhi-( Procedure ) :,

alQ

IIIS\11

ri:

n

errita..r.-d

m"'t

mm

:;J.,
v

..«""
l l
I

I

Next, the patient who has been given bath and food in accordance with the regimen prescribed for fat enema, should be asked to sit erect on a soft seat ( stool ), of -the height of one's knees, his penis should be held straight (by the physician) and a thin probe should be slowly inserted ( into the urethra) to clear the channel; after thus clearing the passage, the enema nozzle should be inserted along the line of the suture, to the entire length of the urethral passage (till the cavity of the urinary bladder is reached ) , without shaking and the enema bag pressell just as ( described for ) rectal enema, pushing ,the fat ( oil, ghee etc. ) into the urinary bladder; this is the ideal method ( for a urethral enema ). 73-751.
..
..

"

I

A{',.;r,

en

''"'II
I

In this manner three or four enemas should be given; aU procedures ( after care, food etc. ) are planned similar to that of fat enema therapy. 76-76i .

• , .......,Jqa H
l'l.ct'talic:t <m

. . •• . . ,,.a: 11\NII
I

For women, vaginal/ uterine enema (douche) should be administered during the menstrual period only for, it is only then that it ( uterus ) is without its closure ( in other words it is open ) and so can retain the enema material; it can be given even apart from the menstual period, in emergency, in -diseases such as prolapse and pain of the uterus or vagina, in other diseases of uterus and vagina and i11 menorrhagia. 77-78.

XIX]

801.'&ASTHANA

25!

1

if.t
.. f

,!!fqmfil n"'"
....
I

I/

The nozzle ( for tl·is enema ) should be ten angulas in length, permitting the entry of a grain of mudga (green gram ), it should inserted to a length of four afigula case of vaginal passage and to a length of two aiigula in case of urethral passage in diseases like dysuria etc., and in case of children it shall be one afigula. 79.

in

Wc"'-m't

anel'ilt

n(oll

The medium quantity of enema liquid is one prakunca ( pala =48 gms ) and for children one sukti ( half pala=!l4 gms ) only. 80.
"1"t'll.. ,.,... =

t(Ptfift'-11:

..11 . . . ,.,., m:i"'' 1

"'
:;r

The woman, who is lieing { on a cot } with her face upwards, and legs folded at the knees and. kept erect, sho.uld be administered, the vaginal/urethral enema, three or four times in a day and night; it should be continued for tl}ree days ouly increasing the quantity of fat (enema liquid }.daily; after a gap of three days it be administered for another three days. 81-82.

Samanya bosti kala-(periods ofadministration t!f enemas

:--

•...._,
Purgation therapy should be resorted to after a after emesis therapy and decoction enema after a fortnight ( af\er purgation therapy ), fat enema ( therapy ) should be administered immediately after decoction enema but after seven days after purgation therapy. 83.
"Plt

tlaJil

AeTARGA HRDAYAM

.

[ CH•
.,.
I

Just as the cloth absorbs the colour from the water mixed with ( boiJed with ) kusumbha etc. ( colouring materials ) similaljly, the enema, absorbs the ( ) from the moistent!d body. 84.

Basti cikitsa sresiiJata-( importance .of enema

) :I

'it' t=rfil&

'"" ;r 9 'ifat({"IT qfqf: qi
\=1

Wft(l'

a.,.cftiftti,t:ft:i
\

1

,For all the· diseases which are localised in the e?Ctremities, 'ali ..neriiary tract, vital organs, all the organs above' the shoulders, there is no other cause, more important than: vayu ( vita ), it ( va.ta ) is the one responsible for and destruction of the increased faeces, slesman pitta and other malas ( wastes ); to mitigate {bring down to normal) the greatly increased vata, there is no treatment ( more .. cient ) other than enema therapy. Hence it is described as half of the treatment (of a\l diseases) while son1e others ( authorities ) say, that it is full treatment even.
\(11Jt ....

IIG\tll

Similarly so, is Si,ra vyadha { venesection ) the treatment (either half or full ) for (the vitiated/ii.lcreased) blood which is the cause for internal and external diseases. 87. --

.rw

••qr
II II

Thus ends the chapter Basti vidhi-the nineteenth in siitra· samhita, composed by srimad sthana of Vagbhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

fcnt)S9fflf: I
Chapter-20 .NASTA VJDHI (nasal medication)

Uo
a.

...
ir

I

1

Vv'e shall now expound tbe chapter Nasyavidhi-procedure of nasal medication; thus said Atreya and other great sages.
ii'113T

ft ftR:«t w

rqiltl ....
aatQf

1
oR;. II

t 11

Nasya ( nasal medication ) is especially desired for ( treatment of) diseases of the parts above the shoulders; nose is the gateway for the head, spreading through this, it (nasal cation ) cures them. I.
Notts :-Nasya is also known as nasta);lkarma and

Tric1idha na.rya-..:..( tlzree kinds

term

of nasal

i,ut

:;:;r

trm"

medication ) :--

aq_ ,

It ( nasal medication ) is of three , kinds·Virecana ( pur• gatory ), Brmhai}.a ( nourishing ) and Samana ( palliative ),
II :t II-

I
Virecana nasya ( purgatory nasal medication ) is required in headache, loss of movement of the head, ophthalmia, disease of the throat, swelling, enlargement of glands, worms; tumors, leprosy ( and other skin diseases ) epilepsy and rhinitis.
elluf

..

Uif

..,.mt,jtt..

II
1

Brmhal}a ( nourishing) is required for headache of vata origin, njgraine, loss of voice, dryness of the nose and mouth, difficulty in speaking, and opening of the eyes and apabahuka ( difficulty of move1nent of the arm ). 3.

256

(OH,.

mPi

.....r.;:f!ln

$j

u

Samana ( palliative ) is required in blue patches ( on the skin ) , discoloured patches on the face, diseases of the hair and of the eyes. 4.

.... A1tV

I

II

II

The first kind ( purgatory ), is by the use of fats (oil ) suitable to the disease and processed with appropriate drugs, in the from of paste, decoction etc., and mixed with honey, salt and asava ( fermented infusion). 5.

..
-


'lT II \ II

Brmhal}a ( nourishing ) is by the use of juice of meat or blood of animals of desert-like lands, mixed with khapura ( plant resin, gums etc. ). Samana ( palliatives ) is by the use of the earlier one (juice of meat, blood ) milk or even water. 6.

Anya nasya

Other kinds

of nasal medication):lll!AT I


I

ltkt ...

ftNl
g

II \9 II

and Pratimarsa are the two subdivisions of sneha nasya ( nasal medication with fat material) based on the quantity ( of fats used ). Avapi9a is from kalka etc. ( paste, fresh juice, decoction ) and it is a strong purgative to the head. 7.
'Q:I1;f

....."il ....
....

1

II
1

is in the form of powder ( to be blown into the nose ) and IS a purgative. It is administered by blowing it with help of from the mouth, the powder held ID a tube of SIX aflgula 1n length, having opening at both its

XX]

S0TRA6THANA

257

end. It pulls out the greatly aggravated (increased) because it is in the forrn of powder. 8.

l

N asya mlJtrlJ-( quantity of nasal drops ) :-

u, n
IRitGJ"' '

...
,;

._. J\fflm(

""<t-..,(:

The amount of liquid that flows down after. immersingtwo digits of the index finger in any /liquid and taking the finger out is ( forms ) one hindu ( drop ). Ten, eight and six, such drops are the maximum, medium (moderate ) and minimum doses, respectively of mar5a kind of nasal medication, In respect of kalka etc. ( paste, fresh juice,. decoction ) the doses are less by two hindu ( drops), ( in other words the maximum, medium ( moderate ) and minimum doses of avapidaka kind of nasya are eight, six and four drops respectively ). 9-10.

}la.rya

persons unmitabl1 to nasal medication):q)3filv
1

.. tt ...

..

..

I
,f{_

u u
1

a..aq.,. ,NN'Iml4.11\1:
Nasal medication should not be adminiatered to peraona who have just then consumed water, wine, artificial poison and fat ( as part of oleation therapy ) or who wish to consume them ( soon ), who have taken food just then, who have already taken bath or who desire to take bath ( soon ), who have had blood letting therapy ( or severe bleeding due to other causes), who are having acute rhinitis, patent nataral urges of the body 1 the woman who has recently delevered, patients of dyspnoea and cough, those who have undergone
17 A

..

258

H\tDAYAM

[ CH.

purifactory therapies ( emesis and purgation ), who have been given enema (just then ), at unsuitable seasons and on sunless days except in emergency during diseases. 11-121.
Nasyakala-( time

of naral m1dication ) :iR!li

..
1

...

t_q-fi\
I

II t \3 ll
I

JQ'fiW

f(':..Plrfol'f(ll.. Cb

,

Nasal medication should be administered in the morning for ( increase of kapha ), during midday for pitta, in the evening or night for vata; for the healthy ( it sliould be ) ( autumn ) and vasaiita (spring) in the forenoons during seasons, during midday in cold seasons, evenings in ·( summer ), when there is sunlight during ( rainy ). In diseases of the head caused by vata, hiccup, tetanus, convul· sive disorders, stiffness of the neck, and hoarseness of it should be done both in evening and morning daily. 13-15.
;q

,,t,ll

In othe1· diseases, it should be with an interval of one day and for a period of seven days. 16.
N asya
t-

procedure of nasal medication ) .:"55 I
...
e

!":

ll,\111

..

1

..
\

r..
..

iftf'idt
1

Il

I
I

XX]

SOTRASTHANA

••

The head of the person who has attended to his essential activities ( elimination of urine and faeces, washing of the teeth and nlouth etc. ) earlier, should be anointed with oil and given fomentation. He should then be made to lie ( on a cot ) in a room devoid of breeze, the parts above his shoulders should be given fomentation once again, made to lie straight with his' face upwards extending his arms and legs, the legs slightly raised and the head slightly lowered; then the medicine slightly warmed with the 1 help of hot water, should be taken either in a tube or soaked in a piece of cloth, ·and. instilled into each nostril alternately, keeping the other one closed. After instilling, his soles, neck, palms, ears etc. should be massaged ( mildly ), he should then turn to his sides and spit out till the entire medicine comes out. In this manner two or three nasal medications should be administered. 17-20!. frtR: If he faints ( loses consciousness ) cold water should be sprinkled over him, avoiding the head 21.

7

Sneha na.rya-( nasal medication withfat materials) :-·

.

I

Nasal medication with fat materials should be given at the end of purgative nasal medications, in consideration of the etc .

..0 ch-.,:ec.td fa8,g;u, ... : '{'i lf\'tert ...

'hUc:.\l-a4 I

A(ter nasal medication is completed, the patient· should lie with face upwards, for a period of uttering one hundred syllables, then inhale smoke (of drugs) and gargle the mouth with lulceworm water many times to cleanse the throat. 21-221.

..._\l
without difficulty, sleep and easy awakening from sleep and keenness of sense organs are the signs of lubricating nasal therapy properly done.

260

Hij.DAYAM

I

Loss of movement of the eyes. dryness of the nose and mouth and feeling of emptiness inside the head are the signs of dryness ( or inadequate lubrication ).

ftirftl..sm
Itching, feeling of heavyness of the head, excess saliva· tion, anorexia and rhinitis are signs of excess of lubrication therapy. 24.
1

:,;f'fffti ...t(li-.:,

... fi

Purgative nasal therapy properly done, bestows lightness of the eyes, clean mouth and clear voice; inadeduate purgative therapy causes exacerbation of the diseases and excess therapy leads to emaciation. 25.

Pratt"marsa nasya :-...
;r nq)

1
I

..sqw)it
:a, a)..

fir e:

PratimarSa. can be administered to the wounded, the · emaciated, the children, the aged and those who lead a happy life; it can be, even during unsuitable time ( season, day etc. ) and rainy season. It is not suitable, in bad ( chronic ) rhinitis, to those who have drunk wine, whose ears ( hearing ) are weak, head infested with worms, in whom the do,as are greatly increased and rnoving from place to place; it is so ( not suitable ) because it is of less quantity. 26-27.
1

rar. . ..:att.= 1
It is to be administered at the end of the night, day, meal, vomitting, daysleep, long distance walk, fatigue, copulation, oil-bath over the head, mouth gargle, micturition, application

..

XX]

stJTR.ASTHANA

of collyrium. defaceation, use of tooth brush and ( bouts of) laughing; its dose is two hindu ( drops ). 28.

tt.._

(('((,

::\.

IIRmQ.
•('

+f ..

l

In the first fiive conditions it cleanses ( clears ) the chan· nels, in the next three it relieves fatigue; in the next five it improves eye sight and in the next one it bestows sturdiness to /the teeth and in the last one, it mitigates the marut (vata). :29.

KriylJ ni#ddha vl!}'as-( unsuitable age for therapies ) ;if
if

11\.oll
'e{Jr:,
il'
"e4

l

;:r

r"<1 vmfln\t"

Nasya ( nasal medication ) should not be administered to those who are less than seven years and more than eighty years of age; dhurna ( inhalation of smoke of drugs ) for those who are less than eighteen years; kava\a ( mouth gargle) for those who are less than five years; sodhana ( purifactory therapies like emesis, purgation etc.) for those less than ten years and more than seventy years of age. 30-31.
I

ft
if '1tlr 't• ._.h: ;nfq Q(4l'f"«4tt

ll\:tU
I

Pratimar'a (kind of nasal medicatioa ) is good from birth to death just like enema therapy, it provides the benefits like maria ( another kind of nasal medication ) if used daily, it does not need any control ( regarding food and activities} nor it has any risks like marSa.. 32.

ftm.:l:

• ..

.

...

11\\n
I

Oil ( medicated ) only is ideal to be used daily for nasal medication, because the head is the dwelling place of kapha and no other fat can keep it healthy. 33.
11\Wil

q "' at'fa ...

.-

at

I

II

[

CH.

riT
.,

tel

1

,

Immediate action and delayed action, benefits and less benefits are the results of marsa and pratimarsa respecti· vely. If there is no difference between thern, who will resort to marsa which is with controls ( regarding food and activities ) and risks ( of complications ) ? In the same way, (drinking of fat alone ) and vicaral}a (intake of fat mixed with foods etc. ) kuti pi avesJka ( one kind of rejuvination therapy ) and vatatapika ( another kind of rejuvination therapy ), anuvasana ( fat enema ) and matra basti ( fat enema with very little oil ) should be considered. 34-36.
Notes :--Immediate action ( effect ) and more benefit are from marsa kind of nasya, but it is difficult and gives rise to complications, pratimarAa kind of nasya is simple, does not give rise to complications but is slow in action { effect ) and of poor benefit; still, many times, mada kind it!elf is resorted to because of its quick effect and greater benefit. Similatly the therapies like acchapina, kutipravesika and anuvisana basti, though difficult and risky are resorted to many times as againlt viciraJ;J.i, vitikapika and mitra basti which are simple and not risky. It is ideal to select the quick and beneficial method and manage it carefully avoiding complications.

A(lutaila-( medicated oilfor nasal therapy ) :-

\lNAtt
q'tit

....

..r ..
'=tl(l!!u.

I
q!i

fi(sit.s....

11\•tt eu\1-l I
11\<!U

Jivanti, jala, devadaru, ja1ada, twak, sevya, gopi, hima, darvltw•k, madhuka, plava, aguru, vari, puoc;lrahva, bilva, utpala, the two surabhi, the two sthira, krmihara, patram, truti, reQuka, kinjalka, kamala and bala-are to be boiled in one hundred parts of rain water ( or pure water ) and decoction reduced to one-tenth part; to it ( decoction ) b added equal qqantity or taila ( oil of sesamum ) and cooked

XX]

SOT.IlASTHANA

for ten times. During the tenth cooking, equal quantity of goats milk ( equal to the quantity of oil ) is added ( and cooking completed ). This oil known as AQutaila, used as nasal. drops, bestows great benefits. 3 7-38.
Notes :--There is differece in the method of preparation and proportion of ingrediants in this formula as against the usual method of- preparing 'Uedicated oils. The drugs for preparing the kalka ( paste ) the same as of the decoction, in the absence of mention of separate drugs.

H asya phala--( benefits of nasal' medication ) :-1

''\'''
The skin, shoulders, neck, face and chest become well developed and bright; the body parts and the organs become strong and disappearance of grey will be obtained by persons who become habituated to medication. 39 . th,ck) sense hairs nasal

.:m

..

I

Thus ends the chapter·Nasya vidhi-the twentieth in Siitra• sthana of A?tafigahrda ya Samhita composed by srimad Vagbhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

l
Chapter-21.

DHO MAP ANA VIDHl--( Inhalation of smoke )

mr

'IQTal

e:

...

1ci
..

I 1

We shalluow expound the chapter Dhiin1apana vidhiprocedure of inhalation of smoke ( of drugs ); thus said Atrey a and other great sages.

'

a<iltQfe.ct.t..._tUIMW;Jtif
• otlc:t

I
Ii

,.,.t

0...

\ II

The person who wishes to take care of himself ( his health ) should always ( daily) inhale the smoke (of drugs) to prevent the onset of diseases of the parts above the shoulders, arising from ( increase of) kapha and vata and for the cure of diseases which have already arisen. 1.

f••l:tllf\"q'&

af(fuaa:e, f!lla-

I

Snigdha ( lubricating ), Madhya ( medium ) and Tiqva (strong), smoke (of drugs) should be administered for (the in· crease of) vata, vatakapha together and kapha respectively. 2.
No111 :--Snigdha dhiima is also known as mrdu ( mild ) dhiima or priyoJika dhuma; madhya dhiima a• (palliative) dhiima and dbOma as 4odhana ( purifictory ) or virecana ( purgative ) dhiima.

DhDma

P1rsons unsuitablefor inhalation) : ;y
... ... ....

II

:t II

...

..

I

firm 1

u\ u

Inhalation of smoke should not be done for persons who are suffering from raktapitta ( bleeding disease), who have undergone purgation therapy, who are patients of enlarge·

SOTR.ASTHANA

265-

ment of the abdomen, diabetes, blindness, upward movement ofvata, flatulence, rohit}i (a dreadful disease of the throat, diphtheria ? ), who have been administered enema, who have eaten (just then ) fish, wine, curds ( yoghart ), milk, honey, fats and poison; who are injured in the head, who are suffering from pa:gQu (anaemia) and those who have kept awake at night. 21-3}.
II
&'!t

ftr"'i'a(l: t

Rakta pitta ( bleeding disease ), blindness, deafness, thirst, faintingt intoxication and delusion-are produced by inhaling smoke at improper time and in excess. For these, cold regimen is the ideal treatment. 5.

Dkama yogya ktJla-( proper time for inhalation ) : e

ll
l

finunn{.ift'filt;tr 11 11 ... ... • Mrdu dhiima (mild, lubricating smoke ) should be inhaled at the end of yawning, defaecation, micturition, copulation, surgical operation, bouts oflaughing and use of tooth brush .

r... Sit

Madhyama (medium strength) smoke should be inhaled at the end of the night, of the meals and of nasal medication, Virecana ( purgative, strong ) smoke should be inhaled at the end of sleep, nasal medication, application of collyrium, bath and vomitting. 5-6.

Dh.ama yantra-( smoking apparatus ) : -

..

'

II

\9

II

I

19

The sn1oke apparatus should be prepared from the materials as of enema nozzle; having three cham hers. stratght ( in shape ), permitting the entry of the thumb and a kolasthi ( stone' of jujube fruit ) through orifices at its root and tip respectively. 7.

YAM

...

cq II ( II

'f'Ci5Ci1r srt:nJI.,.l'l!'lliTfil The length of the tube should be three, four and five, n1ultipled by eight, ( 24, 32, an4 40 ) afigulas respectively for the strong. lubricating ( mild ) and medium kind of smoke . ' respectively. 8.

Dhl2map1Jna vid!zi-( mode

of inhalation ) :II

"'i'....fqf!'t<!-.tll

fqitq_ I The patient should sit straight, attentive, with his mouth open and inhale the smoke through each nostril alternatively, closing one nostril while inhaling through the other. lnha· Jation should be done thrice ( sucking the smoke and letting it out together form one bout ); three such bouts should be done each time ). 9.
Utoll
I

...

lit til

Smoke should be inhaled through the nose first if· the localised in the nose and head are moving from their sites; if they are not moving but ( a dhereing ), ·inhalation should be done first through the mouth to make them move; when the are localised in the throat ( inhalation should be done) in reverse order (first by the nose and later by the, mouth ) . The smoke inhaled should be let out only through the mouth; . if let out through the nose, it produces loss of vision.
14l<tot.4l , ..

t

Smoking should be done thrice, with three suckings and three let outs alternately.

"":

m\lii

Snigdha ( lubricating, mild ) kind of smoke should be taken during day time. once only: the madhya (medium} kind twice, and $odbana f purgative, strong) kind, three or four times.

XXt]

SOTRASTHA.NA

267

l

. l>lzama dra'!)'iJ!li- ( d1 ugs for smoke ) :(f'S{ i{Q"-t

'

td

TiJI$11_

Il
I

q!J6T

.. JJaT q{ll'

I

For mrdu ( mild ) kind of sn1oke, useful drugs are· a guru, guggulu, musta, sthaul}eya J saileya. usira, vilaka, varaiiga, kounti, madhuka, bilvamajja elavaluka, sarjarasa, dhyamaka, madana, plava, sallaki, kurhkuma, yava, kunduruka, tila, oil obtained from fruits and pith of trees, fat, marrow, muscle-fat, and ghee (butter fat). 13-15.
altRt:bl
...
'qVIIJ6

.... I

.

fqm
....
'

'

For samana ( madhyama, medium) kind of useful drugs are-saUaki, p:rthvika, kamala, utpala, barks of nyagrodha, udumbara, asvattha, and rodhra; sita, suvari}.atwak, padmaka, tagara and other scents ( perfumeries ).

fimr llt\111
....

C!St'llt

•a•\r.tSt.oqtfUr

qat rrui\'

"-Q)"'qft..l

For (strong,- purgative) kind of smoke-useful drugs, arenisa, dasamiila, ala, sweta, triphala, substances which have strong smell and drugs of miirdhavi· recana gaJ}a ( vide chapter 15 ). 13-18.

DhO.mavarti-( preparation of smoke wick ) :--

d
qct....

••w•r•'(
:qm

1

11,\11
1 1

fq•f+lf al

ICH.
A reed of kisa, twelve aiigula in length, soaked in water for a day and night, should be wrapped in five layers (one over the other ) with a ribbon of cloth; smeared with ( thin ) paste of drugs, its thickness being that of the middle portion of the thumb. It should be dried in shade, removed of its reed, smeared with any suitable fat material; (next it) should be inserted into the smoking tube, lit with fire and used { smoke ). 19-20f.

Kasagltna dhama-( anti-tussive smoke ) :-qf

ll:tt!ll

A tube either ten or eight aiigula in length should be fixed to a hole made in a capsule of earthen saucers and the person suffering from cough made to inhale smoke ( through the tube). 21.
Not11 :-Burning coal is placed in an earthen saucer and powder of drugs is sprinkled over it and covered with another saucer having a hole in itt centre. A tube is connected to the hole, through which smoke can be inhaled at its other end.

Dhf1.mapana phala-( benefits
JIIJ{f:

of smoke therapy )-. . «i llft":§at
ft''l{t

1

.J

'I'

Cough, dyspnoea, rhinitis, disorders of voice, bad smell { of the nose and mouth ), pallor { of the face ), disorders of hairs; discharges, itching, pain and inactivities ( diminition or Joss of function) of the ears, mouth and eyes; stupor and hiccup do not affect the person who inhales smoke { habitually ). 22.

U8

""

..

fhus ends the chapter-Dhiimapana vidhi-the twenty first of Siitrasthana of sathhita, written by srimad Vagbhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

G. rfcw ttt f(ld +1
Chopter-22

1

GAl:ll)0$A.Dl VIDH/ ( Mouth gargles and other therapies )
I

tRr

1:

I

We shall now expound the chapter vidhiprocedue of holding liquids in the mouth etc., thus said Atreya and other great sages.
Gaptlflttl prakDrlil}-(diiferent kinds
QQ(":

of holding liquids in the
'

f'iP\1:

II
l!fUilr:

t

II

is of four kinds, viz-Snigdha ( lubricating ), Samana, ( palliative ), Sodhana ( purifactory) and Ropal}a ( healing ). The first three are meant for cala ( vata ) and other ( respectively ) and the last is for healing of ulcers. 2.

vt=
Snigdha ( lubricating ) is by the use of oil processed with drugs of sweet, sour and salt tastes•
....ittltt ..

If tt II

Samsana (palliative ) by drugs of bitter, astringent and sweet tastes, Sodhana ( purifactory ) with those of bitter, pungent, sour, salt ( tastes ) and possessing ( hot ) property.

Ropava, ( healing ) with those of astringent and bitter. 3.

270

YAM

( CH.

GaprJB!a arava--( liquids used ) :-

ferqS en II Fats ( oil, ghee etc. ), milk, honey... water, sukta\{ fermented gruel ), wine, juice of meat, urine (of animals) or dhanyamla (wash grains 'fermented _by keeping overnight ), mixed with a kalka of drugs), either cooked or not cooked, and comfortable, to touch G to be held in the mouth ).
q.,a-..:.t

wri ltV

•w:
"

II '\ II
I

:a-

I
II l II

"-.),ur..-'l'll

flihi

..

'fVI'Nroit
In conditions like tingling of the teeth, shaky teeth, and disease of the mouth caused by vita, gaQ<;\iisa ( holding in the mouth ) of water mixed with paste of tila, either lukewarm or. cold, is good. 5.

f.f(q qtit

I
II ' II I

For daily use, either oil or juice or meat ( is When there is burning sensation-local or geueral, ulceration and wounds caused by foreign bodies, contact with poison, alkalies and burns by fire it is best to hold either ghee or milk. 3-6.

.. t:I'N\:lN

...

m ..

·

!JV

qlQ.(l,UI()('<I+I..i

iiGI" .
II

II " II
I

Holding honey in the tnouth, removes the sliminess of the mouth, heals the ulcers quickly, relieves burning sensation and thirst. 7. Holding dhanyamla ( fermented grainwash) in the mouth removes distaste, dirt and bad smell from the mouth. The same ( dhanyamla ) without salt, used cold, is best to remove dryness ofthe mouth.

Nilfia

II "

II

XXII]

SOTRASTHANA

2,71

Holding ( water containing alkalies ) in the {kapha). mouth quickly breaks up the accumilation of cotnfortable warm water furnishes lightnes· { ) of the mouth. 8-9. Ga,tJara vidhi ( procedure ) :1

Holding

, The person should sit in a place devoid of breeze but in sunlight, his shoulders and neck should be massaged and · fomented; keeping his face slightly lifted up, he should hotd _ · the liquid in his mouth till the mouth gets filled with kapha or till the nose and eyes become secretory. 10-11. ,.Ui 'JUI't;, I Filling the mouth ( with liquids ) fully not permitting any movement inside is whereas kavala is ·otherwise ( allowing the movement of liquid inside ( gargling ). Kavala-( mouth gargles) : )t • .._..

1

Diseases of the neck, head, ears, mot,Ith and eyes,· excess salivation, diseases of the throat, dryness of the mouth, nausea, stupor, anorexia and rhinitis are curable especially by· ( mouth gargles ). 12.

Pratisarapa ( (,'oating the mouth with drugs ) : I

u
Pratisara!}.a-applying drugs to the interior of the\ mouth with the finger-is of three kinds, viz. in the form kalka ( paste), rasakriya (solidified decoction) and cii_rJ}.a (powder). It should be done in diseases of kapha origin with the same drugs as are prescribed for 13. Mukhalepa-( application of paste of drugs oz1er the face ) :c{tqRJqg:T

\=1:

,

272

H\tDAYAM

[ OH.

Mukhalepa (application of paste of drugs over the face) is of three (removing the )t ( remo· ving poison ) and Vari}akara (producing normal colour). 14

ernrri ma-:,
f..st+l ,.,,. .g\t
II

1

It should be applied W:lrm for· vata and kapha and for the remaining it should be very cofd. Its three measurements (thickness) ( minimim, medium, and maximum ) are one-fourth, one-third and half·angula ( fingers breadth ) in thickness. 15.

1

u•eit
atttifc4('C(,.sq...

I

11\\U It should be allowed to remain till it becomes dry; when dry, it vitiates the skin colour, it should be removed after moistening, and then ( the skin ) anointed with oil. 16.

..
...

1

The person should avoid day sleep, speaking (for long hours), exposure to fire and sunlight, sorrow and anger.

qq nt\511

It should not be administered to persons suffering from rhinitis, indigestion, who have received nasal medication, in lockjaw, and loss of sleep.
I
oq

ftt!ll..-t1fil'fit:

II\(II

If properly done, it cures premature greying of hair, dis· coloured patches, wrinkles, blindness and bluish vision ( a kind of blindness). 17-18.
tm;sR

.. •
...... R
.. l-l ....
twl;mfi{!

'l'mtn: I
I
1

'f'lt: ll\'.ll

I

:XXII I

SUTRASTHANA

273

The following six recipes enumerated in each half..verse, is ideal for the six seasons commencing with hemanta ( dewy season ) respectively.

1. marrOW of kola, root of vna, sahara, and gauraSar.Japa (for hemanta-dewy season). 2. root ofsimhi, bark of darvi and dehusked yava ( for sisira-winter ). 3. root of darbha, hima; usira, misi and ( for vasanta-spring ). 4. kumuda, utpala, kalhara, di'.irva, madhuka and caiidana ( fhr ). S. kaliyaka, tila, u$ira, n1amsi, tagara and pa.dmaka ( for ). 6. talisa, gundra, kasa, nata and aguru ( for 6arad-autumn ). 19-21.

...

'

...
I

For those who are habituated to aplication of paste of drugs on the face, the vision becomes keen, the face never dull, but smooth { soft ) and brilliant resembling a flower. 72.
Mardha taila --( anointing the head with oil) : I

!I

,
1


;;r

MDrdha taila (anointing the head with oil) is of four kinds· Abhyai\ga (smearing oil and mild massage), (pari) Seka (or pari seka-pouring oil in continuous stream), Picu (keeping cloth soaked in oil) and Basti (or sirobaati making the oil stand on the head). Each successive one being more effective.
18A

'-.74

t CH.
....

Abhyanga (smearing pil and doing mild massage ) should :>e used· in cases of itching and dirtyness. Pariseka ( pouring oil ) in cases of ulcerations of the head ( a.calp ) headache, burning sensation, wounds, and suppurations of the head ( scalp ). Picu (oil soaked cloth) in case of falling of cracking of the skin and feeling of buring sensation. Basti (making the oiJ to stand on the head) case,s of lo-ss of sensation of the scalp, facial palsy, loss of sleep, dry· ness of the nose and mouth, blindness and dreadful diseases of the head. 23-26. ·

..,..
T

sirtJbasti vidhi : -

-

a(l't

.nat

I

cn(l 11\ol t

11\tn
Its procedure ( of sirobasti ) is as follows-the person who has been purified ( with emesis, purgation etc., earlier ) should be anointed with oil and given mild fomentation. Then at the closing of the day ( evening ) he should be made to sit on a stool of the height of the knee, a strap of leather made from the of either cow or buffalo, twelve aiigula in width ( about of 8-9 inches ) and equal !o that of the head ( in circumferance ) should be WI a pped around the head, just above the ears, covered by a piece of cloth over the forehead, and fastened tight with a thread. The joints and intervening spaces should be packed with paste of ( black gram flour in order to prevent leakage of oil). Then, oil _prescribed for the disease, should be poured over the head, in 1uke warm condition, to a height of one afigula over the skirt ( ofthe scalp ).

XXli]

SUTRASTHANA

275

It should be held till secretion ( fluid ), appears in the mouth and nose, or for a period of ten, eight and six thousand matra ( kala defined in verse no. 33 further ) for etc. ( other ) respectively. It shall be one thousand matra ( kala ) for the healthy person. _After this period, the shoulders etc. should be massaged, after removing the oil over the head. Seven days shall be the maximum period for this therapy.

2?-31.
Karpa parapa-( filling the ears with oil ) :•
Q:

·r-

I

The ears should be filled with medicated fat/ oil, root of the ears massaged, till the pain ( or the disease ) subsides and for a period of one thousand matra in case of healthy persons. 32. M1Jtra klJ.la :--

UJi

lml'T

g

{fl

The time required for the finger of the right hand to move around the right knee once or the time required for closing and opening of the eyelids once is defined as a matrakala. 33.

Marclhataila pkala-( benefits of oiling

of the head):.. h-s..l

=er 11\WII Oiling of the head prevents/cures falling, greying and matting of the hair, cracking of skin of the scalp, diseases of the head of vata origin, produces clarity ( keenness ) of sense organs, confers strength to the voice, lower jaw and head. 34.

...

d8'

...

•..-i

,••
Thus ends the chapter vidhi-the twenty second in SiitrasthAna of sarhhita composed by mad , Vagbhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

sri

1

Chapter-23

AsCOTANA-A!I]ANA VIDHI ( ey1-drops, eye-salves therapy)
IINm •nttila ...

c:

i-.

fqf\...,."IW.{,q

1

We shall now expound the chapter Ascotana and Anjana vidhi-procedure of eye-drops and thus said Atreya and other great sages.

n\ u
In all diseases of the eyes, ascotana ( putting drops of medicinal liquids into the eyes) is beneficial, in the beginning itself ( before the manifestation of the diseases ) to prevent bleeding, excess of lacrimation, itching, friction, burning sensation during lacrimation and redness. 1. qM,

..

a

It ( drops) should be warm in ( increase of) vata, luke· warm in kapha and cold in rakta ( blood ) and pitta.

A$cotana

procedure ) :tnit;r
t{U

II \ II

I
88:-

II \ II 'i'hqta._f\: I
II

II

The person lying ( on· a cot) in a place devoid of breeze, his eyes, opened with the left hand ( of the physician ), the medicine dispenser, either a seashell or a wick-is held in the hand ( of the physici 1 n ) just two aiigulas above the inner angle of the eye, ( inner canthus ) and ten or twelve drops are put into the eye. Afterwards the eyes should be cleaned with soft cloth and mild fomentation given with a

.

SOTRASTHANA

piece. of cloth wrinsed in warm water, in disorders of kapha and vata and by other methods in other ( ). 2-4.
't!st

..... l

9

••

qmwr

'SI't .

"''u 'u

II

II

Very hot and strong medicinal drops lead on to pain, red· ness and loss of vision; very cold drops produce pricking pain, loss of movement and discomfort ( pain ); excess therapy produces roughness of the lids, friction and difficulty in opening of the lids; inadequate therapy leads to exacerbation of the diseases, increase of swelling etc. and absence of exudation.

5-6.
:."'\

.....

1 II \1 U

The medicine dropped into the eye, entering into the cha· nnels of the joints ( fornices of the eyes ) head, nose and face, eliminates the malas ( ) which have localised in the upper parts of the body.. 7.

Aftjana vidki-( procedure of applying colfyrium to the f:Ye ) !-

q

I

II ( II

11M

M.Jl.q

\Tcltfiftt l
U \ II

Application of collyrium ' eye-salve ) is suitable for the person who has his body purified (by emesis, purgation etc.), in whom. the are localised in the eyes only, whe-n signs offully rtpened state such as slight oedema. severe itching and sliminess are when the excretions of the eye are thick, in persons who are being troubled by pitta, kapha, asrk ( blood ) and specially by miruta ( vita ). 8-9.

m
Qqof Wi4:

mn 1
11\olt
I

278'

[Cit..

Aiijana is of three ldnds-Lekhana (scarifying), Ropal}a "and ( making the vision clear ); { lekhana kind is prepared fron1 drugs of astringent, sour, salt, and pungent tastes and hot potency; ropai}a from drugs of bitter taste and prasadana from drugs of sweet taste and cold potency.

..

•.1

. .,r..
I

t II

Application of prasadana kind of collyriurn to the eyes which have become fatigued by application of strong collyriums, will derive the name Pratyanjana (counter collyrium).

I"

itvif (l'tV),
:q, U'luifNr

I

:er

II

A metal rod, ten afigula in length, thin in the middle. with face { ) resembling a flower bud is best suited; made of for lekhana ( scarifying recipe), of black metal (iron) for ropana ( healing recipe } or the finger itself ( to be usedfor application ), of gold and silver for prasadana ( vision recipe ). 12-13 .

Alijana bkeda-kinds

of:I

at JRitar

ftlvit

qu

Piv9a dragee ), rasakriya ( gel 1 confection ) and ( powder ) are the three forms of afijanas ( ) to,be used for profound, moderate., and mild ( increase of J respecti yely. 14.
I

i
1

r.gQf
fl

=q

:q

I

The quantity of eye-salve which is in the form of a hard pill and prepared from strong drugs, should be of one haren.u; of that, in the form of. a pill but prepared from mild drugs ' shall of two haret.tu; the quantity of eye-salve which is in

XXIII]

SOTRASTHANA

the form of gel ( confection} shall be that of vella ( vidaiiga ), the of the eye-salve which is in the form of powder shall be of two rods full in case of strong drugs and three · rods full in case of others ( mild drugs ) . 15.

Anjana kala-( time for ) : -

fifm.

...
:er

1

II

, Application of eye•salve should not be · made at n1ghts, during sleep, at midday, when the eyes are fatigued by strong rays of the sun. If done ( c;luring these ) it will lead to diseases of the eyes because the get increased, spread to other sites and get liquifi.ed. So to mitigate the eye-salve should be applied always either in the morning or the evening when the sun is not present. 16-17.
;v

ff{en
sttQf

1

...

'3t({f8' nt<::ll

Others say, that strong eye-salves should not be applied during day, for, the eye which has become weak by purgations (from strong drugs ) will be further debilitated by the presence of the sun. 18.

afflm 1
llt\11

M

The eye is agneyi-( predominant with the tejas bhuta-fire element), being habituated to cold (comforts) it regains its strepgth, after good sleep and nourished by the coolant nature of the night. 19.
,

:.tlll._.;.qfit

n:tou

In condition of increase of balasa ( kapha ) or in diseases which require lekhanjana ( scarifying eye-salve ) anjana ( strong eye salve ) can be put into the eyes even during day time, if desired,' and if the day i3 not · very hot. 20.

280
\if;Jf

Hij.DAYAM

[CH.

Wa' q:q-

<fl1ful(l' I

a'ft

8..

Metals are born from the stones (ores ); from them (ores) only they ( metals ) derive their sharpness (by rubbing on it ) and even their inactivity ( bluntness etc. ) is by them ( stones ) only (by hitting on stone etc. ); so also is the eye with tejas ( fire element ).
Not1s :-The above simili is explained as follows: the eye is made up of { born from ) tejas bhiita, so also the sun; with proper contact with sunlight the eye becomes sharp (gets keen vision), with improper contact it looses its sharpness ( gets dull vision ). In view of lhis close affinity, 1trong eye salves, should be used p1eferably when sunlight is mild.

e:r
...

u)&'• itit

1

When there is severe cold, application of strong eye·salve is not good even at nights, for it does not cause elimination of the ( which are to be eliminated ) but produces itching. inactivity etc., stagnating inside.

Aftjana anarhlllJ, ( persons unfit for application f!f eye-salve ) :-,,

I

...

llft\11

"ri_sti

ri

I

uq,\tu
Application of eye-salve should not be done to persons who are in fear, who have been administered emesis and purgation, who are hungry, under the urges ( of urine, faeces etc.), and anger; during fever, when the eyes are fatigued, during headache, bouts of grief and loss of sleep; when the , sun is not present, soon after bath over the head, inhalation 'of smoke and drinking of wine, during indigestion, from excess exposure to fire and sun; soon after sleep during day and when thirsty. 23-24.

..
-

1

Eye-salve which is very strong or very mild, very little or very large ( in quantity ), very thin or very thick ( in conai· ), very rough, ( coarse ), very cold or -hqt-should ,'not be made use o£ 25•
I _

8ffR
,H}ft'l • 1JI("'¥1f.ri
il

llrit'll
I

itt +1..

\Ill

After applying the eye-salve, the eye balls should be moved up and rotated slowly, the eyelids should also be moved slight ( by massaging over it ); by these acts the strong eye salve to all places. But opening and closing, squeezing or washing of the eyelids should not be done. 26-27.
;p.pf

I

After the cessation of the activity of the drug, when the eyes have regained strength, they should be washed with water suitable/appropriate to the disease. and season. 28.

... ,f\t
'3ft

m

'ttct '""''"

1

Ulwi 'lritll

ll=t'-11

The physician should lift and hold the upper lid of the left eye with a piece of cloth held in his right thumb and fingers and wash the left eye; with his left hand, the other eye. 29.
I

<ft'fli
20

'11

:r.Ow-E( p: 11\oll

Otherwise, ( if n{)t washed ) the eye-salve remaining in the lids, excites the which give rise to diseases. In case of itching and inactivity either a strong eye·aalve should be

[Oil.
applied again or an inhalation of strong smoke ( of drugs ) should be done. 30.

8\''tun.-...

11\oU

When ·the eyes are fatigued by strong eye-salve, applying a pratyaftjana ( counter eye-salve ) which is in the form _of powder and cold in effect should be dorJe.

tRr

f(.

......

..a.cd

end.s the chapter Ascotana•aiijana vidhi-the twenty tLitd .of Siitrasthana in hrda ya samhita- written by son of sri ·vaidyapati Simhagupta.

Ckapter-2d:

TARPAJ:IA.-PUTAPAKA VIDHI
( satiating the eye and other therapies )
I

-ua-

'I

We shall now expound the chapter vidhi-procedure of satiating the eye and other therapies (to the eye); thus said Atreya and other great sages.

T arpapa JJidH.i- -( proc,aure

;rqif

(l'"'"rt.

a• Rri
SI'M't

of tarpana therapy :-1

II

ll

II ft II

d

m

I
II \ II
I

When eyes are fatigued, inactive, dry, rough or inju· red; in patieo_ts of ( ip.crease of ) vata and pitta; when there is irregularity (asymmetry ) or loss of eye lashes, clouded (.not clear ) vision; in of ( diseasea like .) kfchronmila siriharp,, sirotplta, tama, arjuna, syanda, anya;to• vita. vltaparyaya, and Aukraka; after relief from lacrimati.Qn, paitl, swelling and excretions, therapy should be done, to the patients who have been purified both in he.ad { by nasal ) and the body { by pqrgation. and enema therapies ), durillg both in ,the morning and evenings, when the patient ia lying with his face upwards, in a room devoid of breeZe.

1-31 .

'111ft &lt4'l'lf .-,t

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.. ,4._ 11 V II'
I

A$TA:NGA
II
...

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rit 'I
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:q

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8m mi
fqiN

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q.

phr:

II ' II

I :a' II II II
I

II

(!

II

tn9t ••


ri t
II._ II

srf<tfq.t ..
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I

ut•u

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q

I

A wall is constructed with the paste prepared from yava ( barley ) and ( black gram ) around the eye socket ( resembling a well ), to a height of two angula ( finger's breadth). Keeping the eyelids dosed, medicated ghee (butter fat) liquified by hot water, should be poured into the well upto the level of tips of the eye lashes. In diseases like naktandhya, vatatimira, krichrabodha etc., muscle-fat should be used ( instead of ghee ). The patient should then be asked to open his eyes slowly and retain the drug. Then mltrAklla (time required to utter a soft syllab)e) should be counted one; three, five, seven ·and eight hundreds-for diseasea of vartma ( eye lids ) , safldhi ( fornices ), sita ( sclera }, asita (cornea ) and dnti ( pupil) respectively; ten hundred for ( adhi ) mafltha, ten hundred for diseases caused by vita, aix hundred for diseases caused by pitta, five hundred for healthy persons and for diseases caused by ballsa ( kapha J ( theae are the time for retaining the drug ).

Then ( after the expiry cf the stipulated time ) the fat material should be removed through a hole done at the outer angle ( canthus ) of the eye. He should next be given an inhalation of smoke ( of drugs ) and direGted not to look at the briaht sky or bright objects. In this way it ( tarpaqa therapy) should be done daily in ( diseases of) vata, on alternative days in ( diseaiCI of t pitta, with an , internal of

I

XXIV]

S'OTRASTHANA

two days for the healthy persons and in (disease of) kapba, or till the eyes become fully satiated.

-

Ability to withstand bright light, normalcy ( in size, . _ colour etc. ) , clearness ( abscence of sliminess ) , feeling of lightness aJe the symptoms of eyes which are satiated 1 oppoaite of these are the symptoms of inadequate or non-satiation, and appearance of disorders born from ( kapha ) are the symptoms of over-satiation.. 4-11. -

PufafJlJka viahi-(

of pu&apaka ) :l't;m

'-(fWi
..

t

' Just as the body becomes fatigued after "drinking of fats'• therapy 10 also the eyes become fatigued after tarpava therapy; so in order to restore the strength to the eyes, ptqapika therapy should be done in diseases mentioned earlier.

S""'

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I

12.

In disorders of vata, it should be of the Snehana ( kind of
putapAka ), in those of vata associated with ( kapha) the Lekhana kind; in weakness of the eyes { vision ), in diaor· ders of anila ( vata ) pitta and rakta and for the healthy _pe,son, the Prasadana kind ( should be administered ). 13.

ntvu
tM«t
1fact1.1l(l. 1

Snehana ( kind of is done by making use of fat, marrow, muscle-fat and juice of meat of animals which live in burrows, which bite ( cut ) their food ( cow, horse, aa etc. and those which live in marshy lands, or with drugs of jlvaniyagaJ;ta ( vide chapter I 5 ) macerated with milk. 14.,
...

....

• "' I Lekhana ( kind of putapaka ) is by making use of malftl ( wbey, water of yoghart ) macerated- with the paste of liver
II!:

286

A$T.A:F:fGA HR.DAYAM

( OH.

of animals and birds, pearls, ( ash .of) iron and copp,er, saindhava ( salt ), srotonjana ( antimony-sulphide ), jaiikha ( ash co(lch shell ), phena ( seafoam, cuttlefish ) and ala { drpimen t ). 15 .
,.... ...

qt:

,f ..

1' t\n
I

Prasadana (-kind is by the use of milk or breastmilk macerated with the liver, marrow, fat, muscle of intestines and heart of animals and birds and drugs of sweet taste, and mixed with ghee (·butter fat ). 16.

PufaplJka kalpana-( preparing the recipe ) :-

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1
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The meat of animals and drugs should be made into balls, each of the size a bilva fruit or of one pala in quantity; and should be wrapped in leaves of urubiika, or amboja, with fats, and the ball given a coating of mud. After 'l 'ley become dry, they are placed inside the fire, of wood of .dhava or dhanvana or of dried cowdung and cooked till they {balls) become firelike (red in appearance ). After they cool off, the paste of drugs is taken out and juice extracted from it, should be put into the eyes in the manner as that oftarpaoa therapy.

i
.....

llt\U
1

'6twr'

The juice should be retained for a period of two and
three hundred matras for lekhana, snehana and the last kind ( prasadana ), it (juice ) should be luke-warm for the first two tinds ( snehana and Jekhana ) and cold for the other one { prasadana ).

""'

XXIV]

At the end of the first two kinds, inbalatJa,n of smoke of drugs should be done. 19.
Iff

Urton

The signs and symptams of proper, inadequate or excess are similar to those) me1tioned .under tarpava therapy. 20.

.,
nistered to

and pu_tapaka therapies should not be admiwho are unfit for nasal medication.

"

The patient ( who has undergone tarpaJJ.a and putapaka adhere to healthy foods and activities for double the number of days of these therapies. During nights he should bind the eyes with a pa<l of flowers like milati, mallika etc. 21.


e.

;m

AU out efforts should be made to strengthen the eyes by resorting to nasya, ai'ijana, etc., for, once the vision is lost, the different kinds of things of the world will all become one kind only-that of darkness. 22.

•l

ferf'l\1 31'1'11

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Thus ends the chapter Tarpal)a pu\apaka vidhi-the twentyfourth of SiitrasthAnal in sarl:ihita com· posed by srimad son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

)ssqp:r: '

Chapter--:25
YA.!rrRA. YIDHI-( Usage

of blunt iu•ruments 4nd, .appliemtes )
arf¥41+4ifCI I

t.ftr •

•fl(tW'Ii\:4\

I

We shall now expound the chapter·yantravidhi (knowledge and) usage of blunt instruments and appliaaces; thus &said Atreya aJld other great sages.

Tallra

tl':ftnition ofyafttra
11\"fftq\.l,.,j

) :- .

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tnll\h,d'i\""wit 1
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..

II

t

II

Qf&•t•,i••tf •
6

..

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II \ II 1 ,

Contrivance& which are useful to extract the different kinds 'of foreign bodies caUJlng pain in different parts of the body, to inspect (look into ) haemorrhoids, rectal fistula 'etc., to apply sharp instruments, caustic alkalies and fire cautery; lO protect the remaining parts {other than the diseased) in

therapies like enema etc. and the pot, gourd, horn (
animala).,jambavauttba (cylindrical smooth stone) bown as yafttr.a. _1-2,1·
II..IIIC'44uqtf'.• "'........ 44111111

etc;. are all

or

II \ II

Yat\tras (blunt instruments) are of ma11-y shapes and functions, so are of difFerent kinds, hence they are to be fabricated ( got prepared ) with intelJegence. 3.

s-'d-tf.. ...

d'\

II
--.cUlt

., -

.. •
II II

XXV]

SOTRASTHANA

..
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I

ft II
1

They are described, in brief; as follows; those which ha\ their mouth resembling the mouth of kanka ( heron), sithha ( lion ), ( bear ), kaka ( crow ) and other animals and birds should be prepared under the respective names ( of animals and birds ); eighteen angula ( fingers breadth ) in length, made chiefly from iron; shaped like a masiira dala ( cotylidon of a lentil ) at its edges, held by a rivet ( bolt) at their neck, (slightly) bent like an 'ankusa (goad of the elephant) at its root ( handle )-are known as Swastika yantra ( cruciform instruments). These are useful to pull out foreign bodies stuck bard in the bones. 4-6.

..

11

\9

..

,

11

II

Sathdarilsa (forceps) are of two kinds-one with a catch at its tip and the other without a catch. The former, sixteen aiigula ( finger breadth ) in length is used for extracting foreign bodies stuck up on the skin, veins, tendons and muscles; the other, six angula ( fingers breadth ) in length and useful for extracting small foreign bodies and eye lashes. 7-8.

.... 1
'1'

II ' II

MucuJ;;lc;li ( forceps with teeth ) has small teeth, straight, adorned tooth (catch, hook ) at its root (handle )i useful for pulling out the fleshy parts from deep wounds and remnants of flesh from the arma (pterygium) which hal been cut. 9.

i: -'"'itnt't
diiitieR

••• 1

T!layaf'ltras ( instruments with flat discs ) are of two kindS-twelve aflgulas ( fingers breadth ) in length, reserfibling the palate ( fin) of the fish in shape, the first with one flatt
19 A

L U.tt.

disc at its mouth) the second with two flat discs; both useful for removing foreh!n bodies from the orifice of the ear. 10.
111 I

<titlt'1l•r('llt1T
('I

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'I
q I

fa

<tit

( tubular instruments ) are hollow, with one or more openings, useful for looking into (body parts), reGogni .. sing foreign bodies and diseases localised in the channels of the tissues, for facilitating treatments and for Their width, circumferance and length depend upon the size, shape etc. of the channels. 11-12.

;n:i'T
The tubular instrument for seeing the foreign body in the· throat shall be ten angula ( finger breadth ) in length and half afigula in thickness ( diametar ).

aan:rtGro: 1
_ The tubular instrument with five splits ( mouths, orifices ) to hold the arrow with four (feather like ) ears; the other with three split mouths to hold the arrow with the ears ( of the arrow ), the size (length, thickness etc. ) of these instruments suitable to the size of the arrow. "
1

Many other tubular instrutnents may be got prepared to observe the foreign bodies, depending on the shape, thickness and length of the feather like ears of the arrows. 14.
WIRT

...f

The tubular instruments having the shape ofpadma kar:r;_1ika ( the round, :flat central part of the lotus flower studded with

SOTRASTHANA

small holes) at its top, twelve angula C finger breadth) in length, with a hollow area of one fourth ( its- length ) is useful the foreign body. 15. for catching and

-nt

...

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,

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1

1

..

The Ar8oyantra-the instrument to view the haemorrhoid ( pile masses inside the rectum ) is shaped like the nipple of the cow, four afigula ( fingers breadth ) in length, five afigula in circumferance for use in men and six angula for women; with two orifices ( one at each end ) useful for seeing the disease ( pile rnasses ) and with one slit for treatn1ent ( use of surgical instruments etc. ); The slit shall be at its centre, three ai'igula in length and of the size of the middle portion of the thumb in width, a bout half angula above the slit there shall be a karJ}ika ( edge, rim ) . 16-18.
I

The instrurr.ent known as Samiyantra is similar (to the above ) but without the orifices and useful for squeezing the pile masses.

fmrt{-tiJ

11,,11

In the instrument for use in rectal fistula, the lip ( edge, rim ) of the instrument above the slit should not be present at all. 19.
I

.. The tubular instrument for use in ( to see ) the malignant tumor and piles ( polyp) of the nose, shall be with one ori• flee, two afigula in length, of the size of the index finger in circumference ( thickness ) and resembling the instrument meant for rectal fistula. 20.
'ft

1

..

YAM

(CR.

Anguli traJ)aka-finger protector-is made from either ivory or wood, four angola ( in length );with two orifices ( one at each end); shaped like the nipple of the cow and suitable to , extend the finger ( whe.n in use ). 21.
I

11-:t':tll 'lit ' The instrument to look into the vagina and wounds shall be hollow in the middle, sixteen angula ( in length), with four flaps held tight by a ring, resembling the bud of a lotus in shape, fixed with four rods a,t its root { handling place ) and its mouth•opening ( like the opening of the bud ). 22.

Qp
••

1@
Two instruments-one for oiling the sinus ulcer and the other for washing it-shall be six angula in le1Jgth, having the shape of a bastiyaiitra ( enema nozzle ) with an orifice at its root permitting (the entry of) the thumb and the orifice at its tip permitting a round pea; without any kar.l).ika ( edge, rim) at its tip and fixed with soft leatht-r bag at its root. 23-24.
fv.al'(.l ifm'Jit
I

The tubular instrument for use in udakodara ( ascitis } shall haye two orifices (one at each end) or it can be· even the tube of a peacocks feather. 25.

ant

I

111l\tt

The Srnga (animal horn) useful for sucking shall have the orifice af three angula at its root and that at its permitting entry of a siddhartaka ( mustard seed ), eighteen angula in length, well tied ? and resembling a nipple ( of the womans breast ). 26.
Notu : -Animal horn was used for sucking bad blood etc. from the patient's body, the end with the wider orifice is placed at the site of suction

SUTRASTHANA

2!3

and the physician placed his mouth at the other end with the small orifice and did the sucking. The word aunaddha well tied is not underata· · ndable as the horn is a single-piece instrument and has no loose part to be tied.
l

Alabu (the hollowed gourd ) will be twelve angula in length and eighteen afigula in circumferance ( diameter) with a round mouth (orifice ) of four afigula ( in width), with a burning wick placed in its interior, useful for extrac... ting ( kapha ) and rakta ( blood ). 27.

ftcn

91 1

Ghati ( pot ) is similar and useful for making the tumors of the abdomen soft and raise it ( above its low level). 271.
Notes :-Both the above instruments were being made use of Cor the act of suction known now-a-days as 'cupping'. A small burning oil wick used to be placed on the diseased part, and a hollowed gourd Ol' a pot, placed inverted over it on the diseased part. The burning wick created a vaccum inside and the eontents of the diseased part auch as blood, pus, exudate etc. are sucked into the gourd or part, if the diseased part has an opening. If applied over tumors, it helps to make them soft and become superficial.

q.,.,ru,

.-

"' ... ..(\

I

Instruments known as Sa laka yantra (rod like instruments) are of many functions and shapes, their size suitable to the purpose for which they are used. 28.

1:

l

Of them, two are for probing, both having their mouth resembling that of an earth worm; two for removing foreign bodies from the channels having their mouths resembling a lentil, one of eight and the other of nine angula in length. '19.

Ul'f:

it

t.ft-s\tatt{-tn1 C!'j' 11\oU

I

11\tll

294

(CH.

Saflku ( books ) are six, among them two,-one of sixteen and the other of twelve aiigula in length, their mouth shaped Jike the hood o.f a serpent, are meant for bringing together (joining); two more-one of twelve and the other of ten aiigula in length, having the mouth resembling a sarapuiikha ( pin to join two reeds of sara ) and meant for shaking ( loosening the hard objects ) that meant for extraction shall be resembling a fish hook. S0-31.

.mt_m urt

gijq)

I

lll.'ll
The hook known as garbhasafiku, is bent in its tip resem· bling a good, eighteen angula in length and meant for pulling the impacted foetus in women. 32.
l

. That for extracting the stone from the urinary bladde,r., shall be shaped like the hood of a serpent and bent inwards at its tip. That for extracting the tooth bas its face like the sarapunkha ( pin joining two of sara } and is of four aiigula ( in length ). 33.
.....

I

The six rod-like instruments meant for cleaning ( ulcers, sinuses etc. ) shall have their tip covered with a cap .of cotton wool.
""t

I:

.....

11\1:111

Two others-one of ten and the other of twelve angula ( in length ) meant for drawing the rectu "ll near ( by closing the thighs_) and extending it farther ( bv extending the thighs ) respectively. 34.
1:
..... "" "' mar, •

'6Gr.Sl!.-.q•1cn 1

""t.

Two others, of six and seven aiigula respectively for use in the nose; two of eight and nine angola for use in the ears.

XXV]

S6TR.ASTHA.NA

295

..,

..

"\

That meant for cleaning the ear, with its edge like the · leaf of the aswattha tree and face resembling a laddie. 35.
:q

Rods and (cylindrical smooth stones) each three in number, thick, thin and long in shape, shalLbe used for the application of caustic alkalies and branding by fire { therapies ) .
:;zr

"1':4

..,. .__1

ll?t\11

That meant for use in intestinal hernia ( in the scrotum ) shall have a round rod, bigger at its middle and upper portion and its root shaped like the half-moon. 36.
Il?t\91l

That meant for cauterising the polypii and tumors of the nose shall have its m-outh similar to the cotylidon of the stone of kola (jujube fruit). 37. , at

....,.o. .

I
iq..

I
'l\(11

The three meant for applying caustic alkali therapy shall be eight afigula ( in length ), their mouths { tips) resembling the nails of the index, middle and ring finger { in size ) respectively. 38.

'
Those meant for clearing the penis ( urethra ) and apply· ing eye-salve etc. have been described at relevant places. 381.
Anu accessory instrum1nts ) :-

•• l .. le!ltttl

'

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fil!ui

RP.n

IIWoll llVoltt

296

A$TA&GA HE.DAYAM

toH.

Accessory Instruments are-the magnet, rope/thread, cloth, " stones, hammer, leather strap, intestine ( of animals}, tongue, hair, branches of nails, mouth, teeth, time, digestion, hands, feet, fear and pleasure. Their actions Jfunctions to be made use of, by the intellegent physician, judiciously, based on his assessment ( of the condition ). 39-40.

ld'"... '

..
:er

I

'11\n.tll

Nirghatana { pulling out after crushing ), unmathana ( pulling out after twisting ), piiraJ;.Ia ( filling ) , n1argasuddhi ( clearing the passage ), vyiihana ( bringing together ), aharava ( extracting ) , bandhana ( binding ), pic;lana ( rubbing ), ( sucking ), unnamana t lifting up ). namana ( push· ing down), calana (shaking), bhanga ( breaking ), vyavartana ( ov.erturning ), rjiikara:Q.a ( straightening ) etc. are the functions of the faiitras-( blunt instruments). 41.

mu.i ctii!f!i snn;i
:q

cer
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Among the blunt instruments kaiikamukha yantra, is foremost as it can be twisted/turned easily1 dipped deep, can be held firmly, catches the objects firmly and is the authority in all places ( indispensable ). 42.

tf«

..
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0..:

....
...

t31

Thus ends the chapter yaiitravidhi-the, twenty fifth in Sutrasthana of ya Samhita, composed by srimad son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

' C/uJpter-a6
-.mr: tftr c:
...

I

SA.STJU YIDHI { usage of sharp intlruments )

...

iMtt"..r...mr. I

We shall now expound the chapter Sastra Vidhi (knowla;tge and) usaare of sharp instruments; thus said AtJ;'eya and .other great sages.

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II 8 U

21

Sastris ( sharp instruments ) twenty six in number, should be got prepared from skilled metal smiths, in accordanf?e with traditional method ( of preparing surgical instrurnenta ). Yhey should be generally sis aflgula ( fiugers breadth ) loDJ, capable of splitting the hair close/shaving, good to look at; with sharp edgea, good :to bold, firmly; QDt·of lJily shape, prepared from wen J?lown ( remoyed of impurities) strong like iron, the front of their mout_h, i.e ( the sharp ) well hammered (to make them sharp). having the colour

[OH.

of the blue lotus, with shape in accordance with their name. always ready at hand for use, their faces ( cutting edges ) being one-fourth of half ( i. e, one .. eighth ) of their own size (total length ), each (instrument ) two or three in number, to be made use of as suitable to the place ( site of operation ) . 1-4. vrddhipatra, utpala ( patra ), adhyardha· dhira, saroa ( mukha ), ep.Qi, vetasa ( patra ), sarari ( mukha ), trikiircaka, kusapatra, atavadana ( a\hnukhi ), antarvaktra, ardhacaiidraka, vrihi mukha, salaka ( sastra ), anguli sastra, bacJisa. karapatra, kartari, nakhasastra, daiitalekhanaka, siici, kiirca, khaja, the four kinds of ara, and karnavedhanaka-are the names of the six sharp

•••ra ,
hit
.n'-cr.t.J'.c'fitfi{S II '.-. II
Ma9Qalagra sastra ( knife with round edge at its tip ) has its edge in the shape of nail of the index finger, to be made · use of for scraping and cutting ( excision ), in diseases like pothaki ( cyst in the eyelid ), SUQQika ( tonsils ) etc. 5.

...
tnit ,......r,(
ani
1i:1

,

t'lq"f\n II '

II

ocn

1

_ Vtdhipatra (scalpel) is shaped like a barber' knife (razor), useful for cutting ( excision ), splitting ( incision ) and tearing/ seperating, It, with a straight edge, is for use in elevated ( bulging ) swellings, the same with its tip bent backwards, long or short edge for use in deep seated swellings. 6.
W'U II \t II

Utpalapatra and adhyardhadhara ( lancets ) are for the purpose of splitting and cutting. 7.
I

Sarpyasya ( sarpamukha-serpent faced scalpel ) is meant for cutting ( excision ) ofpolyps in the nose and ears and has an edge of half afigula.

xxvt 1

S"OTRASTHANA
II(! II

(sharp 'probe) m.eantfor exploring sinuses, is smooth and shaped like the mouth of an earthworn1. 8.
1

Another kind of ( probe ) meant for splitting, has its face like a needle, with a slit hole ) at its root.
II II

Vetasapatra sastra is for puncturing; Sararimukhi like a heron's beak-a kind of scissors ) and ( three spiked ' brush-like instrument ) are meant for draining out fluids. 9.
Kusapatra ( razor blade of kusa grass ) and A\imukha ( razor resembling the beak of a hawk, bistuary )" are for draining and theu edge is two afigula ( in length).

Similarly the Antarmukha ( is meant for draining ), its edge is one and half afi!ula (in length ) and shaped like half· moon. 10. trit l
:q

Vrihimukha ( with face like a grain of rice, trocar 1its edge being one and half afigula { in length ) and meant for puncturing veins and the abdomen. 11.

ft'

I

ft:rftq;

-

Kuthiri ( axe ) is thick, stout, resembling a cow's tooth, with edge of half angula (in length) having a wooden handle ); from this the vein situated on bones should be cut, keeping the handle of this axe verti_cally over it. 12.

8'Aift
ftaw;c r.ti 8'n

I

[CB.

Salikl ( rod ) made of copper; with two faces ( edges on side }_shaped like the bud of kurabaka, meant for peirciDI the lens in ( couching ). 13.

...,.,JI
, ......

...
tf:a_qitar

a
f(l

.
..

nt\n
"'""

I

.

,

\ .Aftguliiastra ( finger knife ) should be prepared so as to hav.e an orifice, the edges of which form the face (cutting edge ), with its edge half afigula in width, resembling either yrddhipatra or in shape, capable of permitting the entry of the first phallange of the index finger. is tied to the finger with thread and meant for excision and splitting ( of·tbe diseasf'd portion ) in diseases of the passage -of the throat. ·1+-"15.. , ·
qUt .....
I

Ba4isa (sharp hook) with a bent face is meant for holding · enlarged uvula, arma (pterygium) etc.

il

((\lit"' U\\11

«.lf''tt;8 ltarapatra (saw) is meant for cutting of the bone, should have stroua edle, or ten aftgula ( in length ) and width of two algala, with fiinT{\aharp, small) teetb. and with a to be held vnth' fist. 16.

filw(t •

.. •

nt•n'
:otbcra ).
K.artarl ( ) meant for cutting tendens, tbreada, hairs etc., is like aciasora ( which ia commoaty used by
-.!. • ENfitll<

•-s• ii4\M• ......ijj. . ..aiiih'- ntctt

Nakhasaatra ( nail parer ), bas cured or straight edge, two faced 'sharp·edge on 1 both sides), nine aftl')la in length,

--

XXVI]

Sll

to be made use of for removing minute foreign bodles, exei· sion; splitting, scarifying and scraping. 18.'
I

... W;r rt\'11 Dafltalekhanaka ( dental lancet, scapper ). has one edge, four angles, shaped Jike a knot on on'e side,. is meant for scrappi&g the tartar on tht: teeth. 19.

'f81 •t.'l\'01: qM mv:

I

... j

srq"'

••octal I

..

Siici ( needles ) for suturing/sewing is of three kiad'sa round, st1ong and stout; having thread (past-ing in through a hole in their body near its root); that for use in 1Rsby parts will have three edges and length of three angula,. for use in less fleshy places, bony joints and wounds on joints, with a length of two angula. 20..
lft'fi:EiiiU

t=n
Vrihimukha sQci (curved needle) is bent like a bow, meant for use (sewing/suturing ) of intestines, stomach and vital spots and two and half angula (in length). 21.
I

qr t£.qt.l:4-tl: 11\:tll
9

I

Ktirca (brush with sharp spikes) with round spikes fixed on one seven or eight in number and fastened well; it is used for scrapping in · nilika ( blue patches ), vyaftga (dark patches on the face) and loss of hair etc. 22.

..._:

.. I
Khaja ( churner ) has face of half aiigula in length and is of round shape, with eight spikes ( fixed in it) meant for removing the ( vitiated ) blood from ·the nose by churning with the·ba.nds. 23

'tNl. .

302

['QH.

vyadhana-( instrument for puncturing earlobe h should have its face in the shape ofbud of yuthika (jasmine ). 24.

•tJ"il•·

8111 'I'

'I'.:U'Ntal

q.,..

m.m:,
I

Ara ( awl. cutting plate ) has a round face of half angula below and four faces ( above, it should be used for puncturing swellings in case of doubt whether it is ripe or unripe, as also-the earlobe which is thick. In case of thick earlobe, a needle, hollow in. three parts of'it, three aiigul'a in length is best suited for puncturing. 25-26.

Jfnu iastrloi-( accessory instruments ) :-

..

..
-.;r

• .,.,"'q-: I
.. i •

Leeches, caustic fire, glass ( lens, bead etc. ), stone, nail etc. which are non-metallic-are Anusastras ( acce· uory instruments). Many other instruments may be fabri· cated as required for use in special operations and sites. 27.

Sastra kDryarzi--(functions of sharp instruments) :-

tnn
(

df(Sft.,_.,: I

), ( tearing/splitting), ·( suturing ), ( probing ), lekhana ( sera ping ), prachehAna ( scratching, incising ), kuttana ( beating, hitting ) , chedana { excish;tg, cutting ), bhedana ( breaking ), vyadhana ( puncturing ), manthana ( churning ), grahaQa ( 'holding, catching ) and dab ana ( burning, cauterising )-are the functions of sharp instruments. 28.

&.tr• dosa-( defects of sharp instruments ) :-

1-

.......

••eel ••,\.,..... "'

,: II'Dtt:itr.r 1

XXVI]

lOS

Bluntness, brokenness, thinness, stoutness, smallness, leng· thyness, curvedness and rough edge-are the eight defects o[ sharp instruments. 29. .
sastragrahapa 'lidki-( method

of holding sharp instrumtnts) : ,_.a'b¢F<R ll\oll
I

fir._.,qqufit
,ii Jl11i

p

v U'\tll
I

For cutting, breaking and scrapping the instrument be held in between vrntaphaJa ( round wooden handlo )-aud the edge with (the help of) index and middle fingers and thC thumb, carefuUy/attentivelyJ for draining, it should be held a& the tip of the round wooden handle with the help of the finger and the thumb; for scraping the palm it <should be held at the tip of the handle; vrihimukba 'astra should held at its mouth (tip); for extracting, the instruments should be held at their root; others may be held in such a- manner as is convenient to the operation: ( manipulation ).
sastra kola-( instrument wallet):":""'l,_ ...

\1l...

l
'

b\\U
I

mJI'Ittn: 11\ilt The instrument wallet should be nine angula in wldtb, twelve ansula in length, made either from jute, leaves, silk, inner bark of trees or soft leather, endowed with thre$dl (for tieing), well stitched with compartments for instr,umeou, whicn should be kept wrapped in wool; its mouth closed and held tight with a rod ( acting like a bolt) and pleasing to look at. 33-34.
JalauktJ-( le,ches ) : -

...

....i

<$t11'iiiPI

iitN'E( t

Leeches should be m de use of Cor lettkrl' out btood happy persons ( tender, not withstanding pain ).

-ao.

A$l'ARGA IIIJDAYAM
$il"'itN4'

[GH•

-.
Elffi'l

.•

...

......

tnfit: 't
811

...

..

8(:

..,: I

n\\n

Leeches born in dirty contaminated by putrifying dead bodies pf fish, frog and snake, or their exreta; those whicli are red, white or very black in which are very active, thick and slimy, those callid Iiidrayudha, those which have varied lines on their oack, and which are very hairy are Savifa ( poisonous ) . and so should be rejected. If usetb they produce itching, ulceration, fever and giddiness, these (ailments) are to be treated with drugs which mitigate poison, pitta and aara ( ). 35-36j.
""B.l+soh: !": 11\\111

b&U\CIIEI I 'f8T

.... r,..,..: I qor:

Those born in clean water, which are blue like algae, round shape, having blue lines in their back, rough/hard back, thin body, slightly belJy are ( non· poisonous ) ( so can be used ) . -37-38.

in

m

SRRi v sna.r ... .. '-•

rnr

1

tt\'-11

Even these, when they do not vomit the blood fully, when they are applied frequently, and when they are inactive even after getting into should bta considered as blood into· mcated and should be rejected. 39.

Jalaukauacarapa-( procedure of applying leeches ) : -

8JI
e

'IT p.ar-.rf\..o,

q

I IIVoU I

....

Othen ( whieh are suitable) which are kept for short time in water containing paste of niSa ( termuric ),

XXVI]

soma (water in Which grains are washed ) or buttermilk and made eomfortable by putting back in pure water, should be made to stick on ( by bitting ), on the place of the bcidy ('of the patient ) which is rubbed with gbee, mud, brea'Stmilk or blood, or by making· a wound with a sharp instrument. When it starts drinking· blood by raising its shoulders, it should be covered with a soft cloth.,
S(QJi

< uct...

...qr"((

...

, n>

Thus stuck up, the leech will suck only the vitiated blood mixture of vitiated and unvitiated blood, just first from like the swan sucks only the :gtilk from a mixture of milk and water. 40-42. (Application, of leeches mitigates diseases such as, abdo· minal tumor, haemorrhoids, abscess, leprosy and other skin :liseases, gout, diseases of the neck and eyes, poison, visarpa ( herpes ? ) etc ).

IIW\11 When pricking pain or itching develops at the site of the the leech should he removed; they are then made to vomit the sucked blood) by touching their mouth with salt aqd oil, or by gentle rubbing in the direction of their mouth fine rice flour them. 43. after
....

·

'5qf

..

..

...

(JTJJ:_I

m

;r

1

( After makipg them.._ vomit ) they should be protected (prevented) from blood intoxication and should not be used again for seven days.

qi<'T

!Cfi;8'

llijVII I

'After proper vomitting, the leech regains its previous activity and becomes strong; by too much of vomitting it becomes very weak or may even die; ifvomitting is improper, it becomes lazy ( inactive ) and intoxicated. 44.

m:
20A

[OR.

They should be transfered from one pot to another, filled with good mud and water, in order to destroy (avoid) putre· faction by saliva etc. (excrements ofleecbes), for they {leeches) become poisonous with such a contact. 45.

...

'taa••= 1

na\11

When ( in doubt of) impurity, the site of the bite should be made to bleed by applying paste ofharidra, gu4a ( jaggery, 1nolasses ) and ( honey ) , and later a piece of cJoth aoaked in ghee washed a hundred times or _cooling pastes ( prepared from drugs of cold potency ) should be applied ( over the site). n: IIU\111 With the removal of vitiated blood, the redness and pain subside immediately. 47.

•R

1

The vitiated blood, displaced from its site and accumulating in the interior of the wound becomes greatly sour by stagnating overnight; hence it should be expelled out again. 48.

f'i:r6;r
d ......

I

•'f\qrs•" 11"'11

A gourd or pot should not be used ( to remove the vitiated blood ) when the blood is vitia..tl\_d by pitta, for, they are auociated with fire ( burning wick inside ) and so aggravate pitta further more. They should be used in case of vitiation by kapha and vayu ( vatal ). 49.

:§;ll

;r

'!i

1 11'-\oll

The blood vitiated by kapha should not be extracted by using a sucking horn because of thickness ( of the blood ), whereas blood vitiated by vata and pitta should be removed by the horn. 50. Pracchana ( incising to produce bleeding ) :-

..,s

...... tru.

q£.i

it...,.,.,...

'IT

..

XXVI]
;r

SOTRASTHANA

107
I

The part of the body above the site (selected for bleeding) should be tied tightly with either a rope or leather strap; tendons, joints, bones and vital spots are avoided and scratching, ( incision by sharp s«;a lpel ) done from below upwards; the incisions being neither ( very ) deep, ( very ) wide, and not sidewards ( horizontal ).

I

I
e

Blood accumilated, in any localised area ( small area ) can be removed by scratching ( incisions ); that which is impounded ( in tumors, abscess etc. ) by using leeches; that which has produced loss of sensation ( at the site of accumulation ) by using the sucking horn etc. (gourd or pot) and that which is spread all over the body by venesection. 53.

fqfqt

I

..I

. crt I Or ( removal of blood l?y ) insicions is done when' the blood is solidified; by leeches when it is deep seated; by gourd, pot or horn when it is localised in the skin and by venesection when it is pervading the entire body; by using horn, leeches, gourd for the seats of vata and others ( respectively. 541.

.ms.

trit&:

. .it...
..

The site of bleeding should be covered (after the bleeding) with cooling paste etc; for there will be pain, itching and oedema ( at the site ), the area should be bathed with warm ghee ( butterfat ). 55.

.nt...

. ..

(.t( , ...

,"4i

-

qf'I'UtS"'iN: 11 ...

Thus ends the chapter-Sa6tra vidhi-the twentysixth in Sutrasthana in samhita written by srimad V'-gbhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

Chapter-81 SIRAVTADHA VIDHI ( Procedure
.
'

of venesection )
I
I

tllr

1r

Now, we shall expound the chapter Siravyadhavidhi-pro.. cedure of cutting the vein ( venesection ); thus said Atreya /and other great sages.

sutldluzrakta laksa1Ja--( properties

of pure blood ) :wqvf .. I ut litft<i sm'f: g4.i, • f•: a

II

Slightly sweet and salt ( in taste and actions ), neither cold nor hot ( in others words, warm), not coagulated ( liquid ), resembling a lotus, Indragopa insect, gold, blood of sheep and rabbit in colour-are the characteristic properties of pure ( unvitiated ) blood; it is the cause of origin of the body and by it, is determined the condition ( healthy or unhealthy) of the body.
,Notes :-AruQ&datta states that the purpose of' giving many examples is to indicate different degrees of red colour seen in healthy persons. Hemidri interpretes the term 'hema' as plant (Rubia cordifolia Linn.) and not as gold ag done by AruQ.adatta

Dud4rakta karma-( actions

of vitiated blood ) :<m; 11
11

snq)

...

1

••.,l:{q_-s...
it
;r

,, \ "
I

n w11
1

It ( blood ) usually vitiated by pitta and ( kapha ), then it produces diseases such as visarpa (herpes),

xxvtt

J

SOTRASTHANA

309

abscesses, diseases of the spleen, abdon.inal tumors, dyspepsia, fevers, diseases of the mouth, eyes and the head; intoxication ( toxicity )'\thirst, salty taste in the mouth, vata· sra (gout), pittasra (bleeding disease), belchings with pungent' and sour tastes, and giddiness. Even those curable diseases, not getting cured even after appropriate cold or hot, unctous or dry treatments should understood as being born from aggravated ( increased ) bloop.

I
-

a:s
Sirl!V.Jadha anarh41J.-persons unmitahle for rJenesection.
;r

u

In order to drain out the vitiated blood in these diseases, veins should be cut. 5.
I II \ II

...

-.::1

...

l
C!'lt

--.nG
· ..

..,...:§'tlt:tltlt.nf't..,,..,

q-a

i ftro'

a.

" "
I

.•

11

tl

1

But not for those (persons) who are less than sixteen ·and more than seventy years of age, have had no bleeding previously (any time due to ..any cause), who have not under· gone oleation and sudation therapies, who have had excess sudation, those suffering from diseases of vita origin, the pre1nant woman, the woman in parturition, those suffering from indigestion, bleeding diseases, dyspnoea, cough, diarrhoea, enlargement of the abdomen, vomitting, anaemia; oedema of the whole body (dropsy); for those who have been given fat ( ghee or oil) to drink (as part of oleation therapy), and Who are undergoing the five therapies ( purifactory therapies such as emesis,, purgation, oil enema, decoction enema and nasal medication ). The vein should not be cut without .enforcip.g control ( as described further ) on the body, that ·vein which is that which bas not been raised up; not on days which are very cold, very hot,. very windy, or cloudy; except in emergency diseases ( in which venesection can be done, if urgently needed). 6-81 ..
'

AS.\ANGA HR.DAYAM
v,adhana nirdela-( selection

t Cit.
II\ II

of site of venesection) : -

q)it9
-

I

'
_.!\.

.f•tn: Iut tu
CIT :;r
0.,.

as(.1fl41

I

llt\11
sr'ltfacr.tqr
q(Jqqq):

en

1

3i..il
'flt;{"\16. ...


<IQT
('f

JqqltQl erni"t\Vd..

.

'-"

I

f.,dt

:q

...k
ott\liffl.

mttf\'ir

1 11\\911
I

In diseases of the head and eyes, veins situated either on the forehead. O!Jter angle of the eyes or the area around the nose should be cut; in diseases of the ear, the veins near the ear; in diseases of the nose that located at the tip of the nose; in rhinitis that (vein ) located in the nose and in diseases of the mouth, those situated in. the tongue, lips, lower jaw or palate; in tumors of parts above the shoulders, those ( veins ) situated in the neck, ears, temples, or the head; in epilepsy, that {vein ) situated at the junction of the lower jaw; and in all ( diseases of the head ) usually the ( vein ) situated in between the eyebrows ( should be cut); in abscesses an ::I pain in the flanks, that (vein) situated between the flanks, axilla and breast; in fever of every third day (tertian) that ( vein ) in the centre of the shoulders; in fever of every fourth day ( quotadian ) that below the shoulder; in dysentery accompanied with pain that ( vein ) situated two angula away from the pelvis; in diseases ef the semen and penis, that (vein)

-

XXVII]

311

situated in the penis; in glandular enlargement of the neck, that situated in the thigh; in grdhrasi ( sciatica ) that ( vein ) situated at four angula below or above the knee joints; in. apaci ( goitre ) that ( vein ) situated about two afigula below the iftdrabasti ( a vital spot in the centre of the calf muscle ); in pain of the thighs and in ( inflammatory swelling of the knee joint appearing like the head of a jackal ) that ( vein ) situated four angula above the ankle; in pidadaha ( buring sensation of the soles), khu"a ( gout ), plda· ( pins and needles in the feet ) , vipadika ( fissures of the feet ), vatakaiJ.taka ( sprain of the foot/ankle ) and cippa ( a diseases of the nails of the toes ) that. ( vein ) situated two angula above the ( vital spot in between the big toe and the next toe ); in visvaci ( pain in the arms ) in the same way as that of grdhrasi (sciatica ) should be cut. If the veins, so far mentioned, are not visible, another vein situated at a near-by place, which is devoid or vital spots should be cut. 9-17.

Siravyadka vidhi-( procedure of venesection ) :-·
UN

'11ft utc::u
..
I

..)

...

Htct.ll
I U\oU
..'IR'

uf11+Cli .,...

"" 'ITi'
..
..

'l&m
'P\t{pU

"'i4i-i li

II\t II

fi.c._,.,.i

1 llrt'tU

The patient who has his body lubricated {anointed with oil ), equipped with all necessary equipments kept ready; who is strong, who has performed auspicious rites and consu· med meat-juice and boiled rice mixed with fat { ghee ), who has been exposed to sunlight or fire for sweating, be asked to sit on a stool of the height of the knee. A band of soft cloth should be tied round his head at the lower border of the hairs; his elbows kept on his knees, and his neck massa·

tCJt.
ged briskly with fists in which pad of cloth is· held; grinding the ( rows of) teeth, caughiog, inflating the mouth to enlarge the cheeks, should also be done, his body (trunk) should be wound with a band of· cloth, controlled ( by knots .) at the back; his neck should also be tied with a band of cloth and tightened by twisting the left index finger within ita this is the mode of raising the veins, excepting those which are not facing inwards (deep seated ). 18-22. ' aw)
qt...

I

1

uf;r-apq
Ul.Cq-s,.

ml'U

n=tau

...

Then the physician should tap the raised vein with his middle finger tripped off by the thumb; noticing the elevation, or raising it ( OJ;lCe again) by it ·with the thumb; then holding the axe ( cutting instrument ) with his left hand, place its edge on the middle' portion ofthe give a tap on the axe without shaking. It (axe ) should J5e lifted up in the same way, tapping and- kneading it (vein ) out ). 23-24. ( for making more blood to

..

..

ftt\4ai'fl!l4fl fl I

....

1

The vein ( of the nose ) Jhould be cut with the vrlhimukha tastra ( the lancet with its face like a grain of rice) after raiSing the tip and the sorrounding areas of the nose' with the thumb. 25.
'rhe vein situated underneath the tongue, ( ·be cut ) by ·uking the patient keep the tip of the raised ofttbigit 'holding it firmly ( by the two/ rows ). 251 •
....

.

..

.... ',

t

tl'l\tft

XXVIt J
}

SUTRASTHANA

!US

For cutting the veins of the neck, they should be by manipulating the area above the breasts, the patient is made to hold a stone in each of his fists and keep the shoul''ders on his knees and outstretched; the body n1Stssaged comme• · cing with the pit of the stomach (in the upward direction )1 and then the veins cut. 25j-27.
I

!Jr'!...1a·•rtt ...

I

The veins qf the hand be cut, when the patient is comfortably, keeping his arm straight without bending at the -elbow, clenching the fist with the fingers folded inside, a band of cloth tied, four angula the site of cutting. 28-21ij.

stri

.......

R-. . .
I

The of the flanks be cut, by keeping the· arms hanging loose; those of the penis when it is_.flacid; those_of the calves the leg is not folded at the knees. .29-291.

9

.
I
6_of:(1q'Cj('l:

tl\oft

'1R

Those of_,the feet be cut, when the feet are kept steady, the foreleg is massaged briskly the knee downw3rds towards the ankle with the hands, tieing a band similar td '( method described') hand, while the other leg is sUgh1iy bent. 30-31.

q

as

t
a'U"'..._....

By this { description so far ) the clever physician ihould 'ad<?pt such methC?ds (of raising the veins) appropriate to places, 'not mentioned here. 32.
22

Jri'd

R:Rt

t

(OH.

On fleshly parts, the vrihimukha $astra ( lancet ) should be used and the vein cut to the size of a rice grain only; the veins on the Lones should be cut to the size of half of a barley by using the axe. 33.

"""'t<.i
§

..ifq-at
-..»

a " .mr. 1
.....

I

When the cutting is proper, the blood flows out in a steady stream and 'stops when the control is released. When the cutting is inadequate, the flow is only for a short time and less in quantity; then it should be rubbed with oil mixed with (slaked) lime (to promote more bleeding), when the cut ia more, the blood Bows out with a sound and stops with areat difficulty. 34. Asruti kllrapa ( non-flowing):-

+iltt. ..
,:,

11\'-\U
I

Fear, fainting, loose control (tourniquet l,__blunt instru· mentl, over-satiation ( over-eating ), debility, urges (of urine, faeces etc. being manifest) and absenc--e of sudation therapy-are the causes of non-flowing of blood. 35.
-..qro
'EIM+iit;i •
...: :

n\\D
I

11\\tll When the blood is not flowing out in sufficient quantity, the cut end of the vein should be smeared with oil processed with vella, vyop, nisi, nata, agaradhiima or lavaoa, when the blood is flowing out properly, the site should be smeared with warm oil and lavan..a ( salt ). 36-37.
..

Vitiated blood flows out first, just like the yellow (juice ) from the seeds of kusumbha ( before its oil flows out )
11\(U After sufficient bleeding, , flow stops by itself; it should be considered as pure ( unvJtiated blood) and further flow abould not be attempted. 38.,
Ei¥4!1"'!ftt1

..a ..

11a•.. d\"'

.rrn 1

(fRfa

XltVII 1

sOTR.AsrtiANA

9i&

..t

+L t4i ......

1
ill tl\\n

If, during the time of bleedin,, the patient faints, then the controls should be released, he should be fanned with fans ( to make him conscious ) and bleeding continued. If he faints again, bleeding ( venesection ) should be postponed to the next day or third day. 39.

Dulfarakta laktapa-( characteristics of vitiated blood):-

..

......

1

,

..

,

...

. .r....re. • . ._ II'=' u

1

Blood vitiated by vata, will be blue or crimson in colour. dry ( nonslimy ), flows out with force, clear and frothy; ( viti· ated ) by r!tta it will be yellow or black, has foul smell, not thick because of ( increase of) heat and mixed with glistenina particles; (vitiated ) by ka'pha, it will be unctous, pale ( yel· lowish·white ) in colour, has small threads, is slimy and thick; by combination of two dops, there will be mixed £eatures, the blood vitiated by all the dotas (increased simul· taneously ) wiJl be dirty and thick. 40-41.

Sravapramapa-( quanti!J offlow ) :•• , II

I

fl

"" ...

llittll
I

....,tf..

Vitiated blood more than one prastha ( Ill gms. ) should not be allowed to flow out, even in strong persons; excess bleeding will lead to either death or dreadful diseases of vata origin. In such condition, oil massage and bath, drinking of meat juicc1 milk and blood ( of animals are the treatment. 42.

• fciii'Silt 11\1\11 A\UCN ._.-..,"\.,.( I After the flow of blood, the controls should be removed slowly, the site washed with water' the cut end of

116

YAM

tA:I& .

the vein covered with a cotton swab soaked in oil and " bandaged. 43.

'

.,.,_

..
q._,.IS.f

en
..... I

Vitiated blood should be removed again. either in the-"same ,evening or the next day; if the blood is found greatly vitiated ) it should be removed again ( with more quantity of after a fortnight, after administering oleation therapy to the body. 44.

If a small1esidue of vitiated blood remains inside, diseases do not get aggravated and so it can be allowed to stay, but 'excess flow of blood should not be attempted. 45.

1

!'i
Such residual blood may be removed by making use of the sucking horn etc, or it can be purified ( of ) by administering cold comforts, therapies prescribed for raktapitta { bleeding diseases ), purifactory therapies ( emesis, purgation etc. ) and by methods of making the body thin. Even the blood which 1s vitiated ( by the ) but not increased in quantity should be treated by these methods only. 46-47.

't=qfawfa f?(rsi
-

...
I

,

atiN

'IT

I

'"
If the ,bleeding does not stop, methods to stop it should be adopted; the orifice the wound should be smef).red with the powder of either rodhra, priyangu, pattanga, gairika, mrtkapala (potsherd ), afijana, ( ash
(

,.
I

I

XXVII]

SOTRASTHANA

317

of flax ) or of the bark and spro_uts of trees with milky sap; by cold infusion pre-pared from drugs of padmakadi (vide chapter 15 ) should be· taken as a, drink; the same vein should be cui. again and the cut endr of the vein touched with' a red hot iron rod. 48-50.

v;mdtn
J1!1!t lif\Tf

!l;r;i

1

Till such time the aggravated residing in the blood which is circulating in paths other than its usual ones, because ofthe eontrol ( effected by the physician for the purpose ot blood letting ) returns back again to their own seats, the patient should adhere to only such foods and activities· '"hich are suitable for health. 51.

16.(1.........,... '
tR\'i
Foods which are neither very hot nor very cold, which are light ( easily digestable ) and stimulating hunger are sui· table after the removal of blood, because then the body will be unstable in its blood ( in its quantity ) and digestive activity, which have to be especially protected. 52.

..

... r.g__cc

•ad ...

t

.. q_f.u
of colour ( and complexion ), acuity .of the sense organs and ( good) reception of the objects ( by the sense organs), unhindered digestive activity, enjoyment of comforts endowed with good nutrition ( nourishment ) and strength,-are the characteristics of the person having pure ( nonvitiated ) blood. 53.

U8'

<>..

...ht

Thus ends the chapter named Siravyadhat vidhi-the twenty-, seventh in Siitrasthana of sarhhita composed by srimad Vlgbhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

I

Chapter-18

VIDHI-( removal of foreign bodies )
......

Pi

1: I Now, we shall expound the chapter-Salyaharal}a vidhi· methods of removal of foreign bodies; thus said Atreya and other great sages.

Ill:""'

...., I

Sal!a 1ati-( direction of ent7 offoreign bodies J : .r-qqtttf q.-n llfa: I Irregular ( curved ), straight, horizontal, upward and downward-are the five gati ( directions of movement of the foreign bodies ). Sdalya vratza-( ulcer with a foreign body inside ) t -

-.mi
aJ'+§lEt

(q..Q

!JII II ' II
• II U

.,_.,...

Bluishmess, swelling pain, frequent bleeding, elevated like a bubble, studded with eruptions and softening of muscles-are in brief, the features from which a wound having a foreign body, should be 1-2.

u'Nb nf«

-

..
tti(!Ciftl\ft

.m...1ct&* I
if

4\-s.,tcttffut tn1fl:

II \ II I

ftr;n u" II When the foreign body is in the skin, there is discoloura· tion, hard large swelling; when it is in the muscle, there will be sucking pain (steady), progress of the swelling, tender• ness, sappuration and non-healing of the wound or entry of , the foreign body; when it is in between two mus,cles the signs will be similar to that residing inside the muscle excepting the swelling. 3-4. ·

XXVIII]

S0TRAITHANA

319 1

am{tq:

...

-

...
.. )l.k-t

n n
II\ II
1

1:4..

ftp.dftr

etiG\lq,.._

_.Qqt
llt..

11 " 11
8ll'l'
lltm:
'I

I
II< II

.quh-wif I

· ..

fq._,.,...

..

uep.f

n' 11

1

Convulsions, shock, stiffness ( loss of movements ) and (severe) pain manifest when the foreign body is in the teadons and is difficult to remove; when lodged in the veins, there is distention of the vein; when lodged in the channels, there will be loss oftheir respective notmal functioos; when it is lodged in the artery, blood mixed with air and froth comes out with a sound, accompanied with oppression in the chest ( nausea·) and bodyache; wheri, lodged in the bony joints there will be severe shock ( pain ) and filling up of the bone; if lodged in the bone there will be pain of different types and swelling; when it is lodged in bony joints, the signs are the same, along with loss of movement also, When lodged in the abdomen, there will be distention and appearance of food, faecal matter and urine at the orifice of the wound. Foreign body lodged in vital spots should be recognised by appearance of signs of injury to such spots. In addition to the general signs ( of lodging of foreign bodies) in the skin etc. so far), even their dis· charges f fluids ) coming out from them such as JasikA (lymph) from the skin, rakta ( blood ) from veins and arteries,. majja (marrow) from bones etc. should be looked for. S-91.

u
0

"1'1"' 1

n'otl

Foreign body lodged in persons who haV'e-' pure body (-purified.;with therapies such as purgation etc.) and the foreign body placed in a downward direction ( of exit ), a healed wound ( though it is actually !lot healed"). It produces severe distress ( later on ), by exciting factors such as agravation .of do,as, assault etc. 10.

salyastlzana nir,":)'a-(metkoa of aetection Q/the site offoreign

'"
G.qfd

..

...

.U in

'1'51'

I
•.;

I Ill 11\\11

, llt\JU .. The exact site' of lodging of foreign bodies concealed in the akin, is recognised by the appearance of redness, pain, buvning sensation and tenderness after anointing with fomentation or massage; by the melting of (solid) ghee, (placed at the site) or by quick drying of the ( moist ) paste ( of sandal wood etc.); the site of foreign bodies concealed in the muscle can be by recognised by creating looseness (thinness ) of the purifactory therapies ( emesis, purgation etc. ) or by other methods of slimming the body then for sites- pf pain, redness etc; the same is the procedure even for those concealed in between the muscles, in the bony joints and the abdQmen;· the site of those concealed in the bones is recognised by anointing with oil, fomentation, tieing ( with rope or bandage) squezing and massaging; the sites of those concealed in the bony joints by extending or folding of the joint 1n addition to signs similar to those lodged in bones.

q

....i\•'ft=rit

vra ...

....

-cJl'•o,.._,a

qf't

nt"'

'Sites of those concealed in tendons, veins, cbanpels and arteries are recognised by appearance of pain in such place1, when the patient is taken for a swift ride on rough road, in a horse chariet, with broken wheels.

XXVIII]

SOTRASTHANA

321
I

...

tti(11fct

Features of those concealed, in vulnearable spots are not described seperately because such spots are composed of. muscles and other tissues only ( the features ofwhich have been described already. )

9

.

Generally the site of the foreign body is determined by the appearance of distressing symptoms (abnormal movements 17. etc. ) during activity and by the presence of

fit!i 't1'

I

The shape of the invisible foreign body is determined by the shape of the wound, such as round ( cirC'tll.ar ) wide, with four angles, with three edges ( etc. ) to state briefly. t8

salyaharat)a-( removal offoreign bodies ) . -

llfac.w)}.,.,sC!')TJt'""'

1

Ut'll
Method oftheir removal are through upward and downward directions; those entering into the body from above and below should be puUed out in the opposite directions respectively. 19.

\1.,...,a
WI

Those which have entered from sideward ( horizontally ) should be removed by cutting it conveniently. 19!.

t:nP.i

vwi en

iV

I

Foreign bodies ( arrowheads ) which are lodged in the chest, axillae, groins and flanks, which are pointing upwards (outwards), whose tip is not visible, which can be cut, and which have broad faces ( edges ) should not be pulled out; those which lead to death soon after their removal which are iost ( absorbed by the body) and those which do not produce complications-should not be removed. 20-21. 21 A

S22

[OH.

Aharatza vidhi-( means ana methods of removal ) : r

Those which can be held with the hand, should be removed by the hand itself, while others which are visible, should be held by instruments such simha mukha (lion faced), abimukha ( serpent faced ), makara mukha (crocodile faced ) varmi mukha ( fish faced ), karkata mukha ( crab faced ) etc. 22.

••

..
..

I
...

Those which are invisible but can be held (by instruments), thJ ough the wound, should be pulled out by instruments having faces like the kanka (heron), bh:rnga (shrike), kurara ( osprey ), sarari ( a kind of heron ) and vayasa ( crow ). 23.

.....
-;

caq

I
IIJ\JII

I
I

Those which are lodged in the-skin, should be removed with the help of sal}.damsa ( yafitra-pincers, forceps ); those which are hollow, with the help of tala yafitra ( instuments with flat discs), those which are lodged in hollow spaces by using nalaka yafitra (tubular instruments) and the rest by other convenient instruments. 24.

a8T f...

...
Those which cannot be held by instruments, should be removed by cutting open the site with sharp instruments, the wound is next cleared of the blood, soaked with ghee (butterfat), fomented and then bandaged; the patient is advised to follow the prescribed regimen ( described in verses 30·42 of the next chapter ) . 25.

9

-c.•••"'lof.d 1

Those lodged in the veins and tendons (including nerves), should be pulled out after loosening them with the help of salakl ( rod like instruments ).

XXVIII]

SOTRASTHANA

323
lt\,tt I

(l(t:

Foreign body ( arrowhead etc. ) lodged in the heart which is difficult to remove, should be removed after frightening the patient with sprinkling of ice water ( very cold water ) and noting its displacement; should be removed by using appropriate instruments; similarly even others which are difficult to remove lodged in other places should be removed .. 26-27.

q-tri ttqt:

I

Foreign body/arrow head, lodged in the bones should be removed by holding the patient tight ( by the legs <?f the physician ), if not possible (by this method) it should be pulled out by attendents who are strong. 28.
1

WRI.

... ... 1-:tt
.......

q,_n 11\oll

a1l l

If not possible even by that method, the tail end (feathertied end) of the arrow should be bent and fastened tight to the string of a bent bow, and the bow tied to the bridle bit of a horse; the horse should then be whipped so that it raises its head suddenly and with force; by this method the arrow may be removed. 29-30.
!IT

i
\lC!<t...

I

Like wise, the branches of trees may be made use of; in case of arrows with thin or fragile tail ends, thin bamboo poles can be made use of. 31.


...•'aaq•
ltl.1tll

\

1
I
I

324

A&TANGA H}.tDAYAM

[ CH.

If the tail end of the arrow is sorrounded by a elevation, it should be pulled out after cutting off the eleva ted part if the arrowhead has caused a bulging on the body, it should be removed with the help of a tubular instrument after shaking ( hittmg ) the bulging with a hammer$ 32.

....
ri

9

A1ll!l qf 11\\11

By the same instrument ( hammer ), the arf6.W which has no clear passage of exit, should be brought into a { suitable for pulling out ); those which have earlike proje· ctions should be pulled out after cutting off their ears or by fixing them inside tubular instruments. 33•
I

Thoae ( arrowhead ) without earlike projections._ which have created a wide opening in the body and toctged straight, can be removed by making use of a magnet.

m
,rq

11\\111

Foreign bodies which have entered the large intestine can be removed by inducing purgations. 34.

Bad air (gas), poison, breashnilk, blood, fluids etc. (which are acting as foreign bodies) should be removed by sucking by using animal horn etc. 34i.

ta<N
au:

m.:t

1

If the foreign: body has gone into the of the throat, a lotus stalk ( spunge like portion ), tied with a thread should be passed into the throat, and when the foreign body gets stuck to the stalk, the thread should be pulled out slowIy and evenly. 35.

...ad'.dt
I

J5:VJII]

SO'l'RASTHAN A

U tltg fOreign body in the throat is made up of lac, a heated iron rod should be passed through a tubular instrument and made 'to.- touch the foreign body and then 1 emoved out; tho-se- which are not made of lac should be removed by making use oitod smeared with !Jlc ( at its tip). 36.
q)5;r
II\ !II

ermn

1

Thorn-like ( hook-like ) foreign bodies ( which are in tbe throat ) should be removed by inserting a ball of hair fastened , with a thread, making the patient vomit the water which he has been made to drink earlier, the foreign body sticking to the baH of hair during vomitting is removed by pulling the thread quickly. In the same way ha1r and others (foreign bodies should be removed by making use ofthe hook ). 37.

Those foreign bodies which are lodged in the mouth and nose, if not possible to be removed out through their orifices, should be pushed back ( making them to enter into the wider tract ). 38.
I

If a bolus of fooci is stuck up in the throat, it should be made to enter the alimentary tract either by drinking water or by hitting on the nape of the neck.

'ti..._tf+t,f\:R.famiF-rtlir

11\'11

Minute foreign bodies in the eyes or wounds should be removed by using ( thread or cloth ) of flax ( or silk ), hair or water. 39.

ti
crt

,
,

The person who has swallowed water to his full stomach ( by drowning ) should be held with his head down and legs up and shaken well, or laid on the ground with the face bent down and then made to vomit all the water; he should then be immersed in a heap of ash. 40.

H].tDAYAM
I

[ CH.

"" If the ears are full with water, it should be removed by inserting the fingers and oil remover put into the ears or the ear should be facing downwards and the head given a blow from the otner side or water should be sucked out ( with the help oftubular instruments). 41.

en

11

ttiOi
en
e.

t_dtiletGIU!lifl I tiqfQ: ll\j-=tll

If any insect has entered into the ears, the ears should be filled with warm salt water or sour gruel, when the insect dies anti-hydration measures should be adopted. 42.
31TtP

tJt snq'''

:et

I

fitw)qa-

Foreign bodies maoe of lac, gold and other metals remaining for Ion- time. inside the body, get dissolved by the heat of the body. 43.
e.

..

e

;r

1
IIWII
l

am

•'lJq,otattr(lq

Foreign body composed of mud, bamboo, wood, horn, bone, tooth and hair ( of animals or man ) and stone. do not ( get dissolved by body heat ), those composed of horn, bamboo, iron, wood of palm tree or other wooden ones, remaining for long periods inside the body generally get distorted, ( remain undissolved and produce ·putrefaction in the muscles and blood. 44-44}.

am

.. na

il
I

•fii411:

H\t\11

l

If, the foreign body is concealed deep inside fleshy parts, do not putrify; putrifaction should be created in such parts by squeezing, fomentation, purifactory r. "easures, thinning and

SOTRAStHANA

stoutening therapies, use of strong, hot warm foods and drinks, incising and other methods, of sharp instrumenta.. tion, trampling by feet etc. and then the foreign bodies removed by excision, probing or cutting. 45-46.
II $:!\1 ll
...

ll\l•tll

Keeping in mind the different and peculiar features of the foreign bodies, their place of lodging and instruments of removal, the intellegent physician should recognise them and remove them by appropriate methods. 47-471.
,.

.. nufq"tfl..S'Gq'(q:
Thus ends the chapter named Salyaharava vidhi-the twentyeighth of siitrasthana of samhita com· posed by srimad son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

'
Chapter-29 FSASTRAKARMA VIDHI-Procedure

of surgical operation.

atQta:

C'-.

...

. .: 1
I

Now, we shall expound the chapter-Sastrakarma vidhiprocedure of surgical operations, thus said Atreya and other g{eat sages.

qur:

srp;r:

1

srr.rqm:

n\ n

..
develops, usually after putrefaction (pus forntation) which is preceded by swelling, hence it (swelling ) should be treated first, preventing the formation by all efforts, such as application of cold poultices, bathing the part- with cold decoction of drugs, blood-letting, purifactory therapies ( emesis, purgation ) etc. 1.

Trividha sopha-( three stages
...

of swelling ) :II II

Swelling which is mild (slight) with slight heat and pain, of the same colour as of the skin, ha. d and immovable is said to be an Amasotha ( unripe swelling ) . 2
qRof'4..ctldd: 1

nl n
• "

....

Aer<<t-'4tttt1R=I1:: u

C'

11

Swelling which has colours different from that of the skin, usually red, enlarged like a bladder { inflated ), associated with continuous bursting type of pain, aches all over the body, excess of yawning, different kinds of distressine symptoms, anorexia, burning sensation all ovtr the body and

SOTRAS"rHAN.A.

also at the site of swelling, thirst, fever and Joss of sleep, quickmelting of. solid ghee placed on the swelling and intolerance just as in an ulcer--these are the featuto touch ( res of pacyamanasotha ( under going ripening ).
I

..

....

n"' n

I

Pakva sotha ( ripe swelling ) is mild in reduced in 'size, whitish,(·has on it, is depressed all round 'but elevated at its centre associated with itching ( irritation ), mild swelling, movement of pus can be understood by touch as movement of water in a bladder ( fluctuation). 5.

IQi

II\ II
I

-

There is no pain without ( involvement of) vatci, no burning sensation without pitta, and no swellir. g without kapha, no redness without rakta ( blood ); hence paka (ripe· ning and pus formation) is caused by 'aU the dogas and the ' blood combined together. 6.

q(!llff..

1

When pus formation more Cwith lapse there is cavitation ( iq.side the swelling), the skin thin and,eaten away ( destroyed ) by the it is covered wrinkles, black in colour ac.d body hairs fall off. 7•
§

mq

II c II
I II ' II

....
23

I

<&4t'5PtRr smit I In the swelling produced by of kapha, ripening takes place hence signs of ripenin• do not manifest clearly, tpe swelling which is cold to touch, of the same colour as oftbe skin, of mild pain, hard on touch like a stone; such a twclling is given the name by wisemen, who ha:ve no doubts in their mind. 8-9.

tso
Sastra karma vidhi-( Procedure •f surgical operation):q ......

-tOH.

In persons who are of weak ntind, who are deb8itated, in children, or when the swelling is greatly elevated by accumi· lation of pus, when it is located on vulnerable spots, joints etc., the treatment is darat}a ( making the abscess_bunt by appli· of alkalies) whereas in others (patients and conditions) the treatment is ( cutting by sharp instruments ). 10•

..

t

ft.'f:t'41 'It i(1<tl'Wtq: I

.,

tl\ ttl

ft.,.at P

f(,a,...-a:

f\ni

G

I

Cutting an unripe swelling ( abscess ) leads to diseases of the veins and tendons, profuse bleeding, great increase of pain, tearing of the skin or visarpa ( spreading ulcers) develops "from the wound. The pus remaining inside and increasing in quantity, quickly burns a way the veins, tendons blood and muscles just as (spark of) fire burns away a hay atack. 11-12.
N4iilllif'ltt

a

..,••tf<oilt

nt\n

He ( the surgeon ) who by ignorance cuts open an unripe awelling and be who neglects a ripe swelling ( without cutting open )-botb should be considered as meaD fellows performing lndescriminate acts. 13.

PDrvakarma-( Pr•·operative procedures ) :-

SI1"! ..... """" ...... ..." lfr'f'lf
II

... Ji.

..n . ...
W

II prW

"fel '

Before undertaking surgical operation ( opening of an abscess) the patient should be given th'e food he likes; the person accustQmed to alcoholic drinks, may be given a drink or.trong wine which makes him withstand the pain. by contact with food not understand {the. pain of) instrupaentatiop. 14-15:- _

he

XXIK]
'\

Except for suffedng from obstructed delever;r, . renal claculus, of the mouth and the abdomen ( such patients should be given neither food nor before the operation ). 15}.

Pradhana karma-( operation proper ) ;-

wqf-.dl'4'.e,.ui

hf;
....

llt\11
1

...

w;rma

Next, equipping himself with all the appliances needed, the physician should make the patient sit facing east, then sitting in front of him and facing him, the physician shouJd cut (incise the swelling ) with his instrument well sharpened, incision being made in the direction of the hair ( downward), avoiding vulnerable par* etc., deep enough till the pus is seen, and then removing the instrument quickly. 16-17-.

qf!:itq_

a
:qw

1
tl,<=ll

""' qR(f: \1f.t,fqall.l

'Ri\'
"

...
qat

ut'u
liui
..

..
rq '-IQl

r..
at

...

aqq(1' ..

fu-.K,

I

, If the area of pus formation is great, the incisions may be either one, two or three afigula ( fingers brea:dth ) apart; the interior is then thorouahly excavated with either a probe, fin1er, or hairs (of animals) appropriate to the.site an4 area of the swelling, determing thereby the path of the pus, bulging ( of tissues ) making wounds ( cuts ) at 'such bulging, ' creating a well cleaned, wide and deep wound so that no vitiating material can remain inside.

-. .

..

tfNut

••afar ..w t

932

HJ.l,DAYAM

quickness of action ( dexterity ), keeping his instruments very sharp, himself not sweating or trembling, not getting confused-these are the qualities best desjred of the surgeon during a operation. 21.

1 :ttl

"""'


..

The incision should be made horizontially in places such as the forehead, brows, gums of teeth, shoulders, abdomen, axillae, eyesockets, lips, cheeks, throat and groins; horizontal incision, in other places might lead to cutting of the veins, tendons etc. 22-23.

SastrQ/carmottara vidki-palciJt karma-( post· operative proceaur•s) :-

W..s..
\tl.sfq<q l i16fii l-Ui

,na
....
..
.._.

rruf

1 II,WII
lf.J I

.m.i rit
1\.--.tq

..
'Tilt 'fierfint


I
(RI':

atrt'-tal

.. ...r..

.."' t..

...

qf. . . ... ..s

'"

After removigJ the sharp instrumeqts, the patient should be with ( encouraging ) worC:ls and cold water; the area all around aqueezed, the wound *aahed decoction o{ dJUgs and moisture removed by wipenlng with cotton wool. Nat, the wound ·should be, fumigated with the smoke of guggulu, aauru, siddhartha, hiftgu, sarjarasa, pa\'J, sac)graiitha or leaves ofnimba, Jq1ixcd with ghee; then a wick prepared fro"'' paste of til., ghe<t, honey aDd appropriate drugs IOOUld be placed inside tbe wound and also covered over. Next, a plaster prepared from corn flour and gbee is put on and with aheet of cloth, either from right to left or left tQ right but not from · either top or bottom. 24-21. · ·

XXIX]

SOTRASTHANA
qll 'li'f(?.t:

333

I

"Mtfa•i

..,q. fir<n:

ll':t\tl

The bandage cloth should be clean,· thin and strong; the medicinal wick should consist of cotton threads which are fumigated, soft, smooth and devoid of folds, these are beneficial to the ulcers. 29.
I

..(.

Then after, it ( ulcer ) should be protected from ( the invasion of) those causing harm (such as pisaca. ra.k,asa etc.insects, flies which feed on blood) they should be offered oblations. 30.

1pri
aa:
itUt

:;;r \4

J

lll.oll

..,Iq.Qq_ 1

...fq lll.tll

a

The should always wear on his head, potent herbs guha, atiguha, brahrhacaril)i, vaca, such as chatra, atichatra, diirva or siddharthaka. He should be made to follow the regin1en prescribed for the day of oil drinking ( as part of oleation therapy; ) sleeping during day leaas to production of itching, redness, pain, swelling. and. pus in the ulcer. 31-32.

!I

1
ll'i.l.ll

Rememberance, touch and sight of women, which p,roduce ejaculation of semen leads to other bad effects of copulation, though not indulged into actual!y. 33.
(

'E1'

I
\ )

ttl

fqcn't4l'f'Rnla

(Swelling gets increased in an ulcer by strenious activities, redness by keeping awake, both these and also pain by sleeping during day; death occurs by indulging in copulation ).

A$'J'}$1GA .-

[OB.
I
I

qlt!t4f...••ct

..

...

;!)····....
U\"fi

1(

I

I

lr"''
I

qvl+t'fltafd I

The food (of the patient ) shoulH be that which is accustomed such as barley, wheat, rice of.ixty day ripening, masura ( lentil ), mudga ( green-gram ), tu:Vari ( tur dhall ), jivai\ti, tender miilaka, vastiika, karavella, patola, ( fruit of ) saindhava, dhatri, ghrta ( butter fat ), water boiled and cooled. Mess prepared from old -rice added with fats partaken in little quantity along with meat of animals of desertlike regions, follo'Yed by drinking of warm water helps for ' the quick 'healing of the ulcers. 3t-36.

-

...
(RI':

1.ft'fa

tl\\911

.... )
Food partaken in limited qtiantity at the appropriate time and which is healthy, undergoes digestion properly, Indigestion ( by over eating etc. ) lead$ to disorders of vata and other which might be powerful so as to cause ( increas_e of) swelling, pain, putrefaction, burning sensation anq distention of the abdomen. 37-38.

;rei \llRl fa0r-t

.... 'f'll.si

fct!!l.wl
•.,:

"-'l..

II\'' I
1

Nacent grains, tila, meat other than of animals of desertlike' regions)· products of tnilk and sugar canet substances which are sour, salt and pungent should be avoided; and also any other substance which causes constipation, burning sensation during digestion, which are not easily digestable and

-

XXIX]

S'OTRASTHANA

335

which .are cold (in potency ); this group of substances gives rise to aggravation of all the in persons suffering frorn ulcers. 39-40.

...,.... ,!l
Wines which are strong (penetrating), hot ( with higher percentage of alcohol), dry { non-unctous) and sour, quickly cause death of the patient of ulcers. 40-l.
II
:tJ

" "'"" 1hvf.q-..l!ftlt1 ..

....

ll\Jtll
I

f.t..

firqt: trSJ=tll ·

a.nf\l"t\lltr f"si

1

The ulcer ( site of the ulcer ) should be fanned either with tuft of hairs (of animals) or with that of u$ira It should not be beaten, poked, or scratched with naila, it should be protected from injury while doing other activities; he who engages himself in hearing stories, pleasant to the mind. concerned with virtuous elderly persons of the twice born castes, he who is hopeful of cure of the disease gets over the ulcer quiclily. 41-42.
'l

st\tfi1SII'Tfi{,

fi{qi%

l

On the third day, the same treatment such as washing the ulcer etc. done earlier; these should nqt be done on the second day as that will give rise to severe pain, formation of tumors and delayed healing of the ulcer. 43-44.

.at

'"t
il

;:,r
'-lt

I

...

fq'f:il8'
l

IIV\1 I
The wick of cotton threads smeared with paste of drugs and also the paste of drugs should neither be very unctous ( fatty ) nor very dry; neither flabby nor very thick ( hard ) and should not be improP-erly placed; because unctousness

996

HIP>AYAM

It OH.

makes for increase of moistness, dryness make for tears in the muscles, severe pain, lacerations and flabby thick ( hard ) and improperly placed wick produces friction of the edges of the ulcer. 45-46.

I

..
2fVi

I

ll\f\.911

When the medicinal wick remaining long inside the ulcer produces putrefaction of the muscles, elavated surface, loss of , tissues and accumilation of pus inside, then the ulcer should be cleaned ( cleared of its contents ) quickly. 47.

g

I

illRmorfrof"eTm:
When an Unripe swelliug has been cut open (by ignorance) it shculd be treated with foods and- poultices about ripening but which are not very opposed ( greatly harmful ) to the ulcer. 48.

Satlyovrarza cikitsa-( treatment

of traumatic wounds ) :-

rft«f•a .....
,

!:ftq
Traumatic wounds which are recent and wide should be sutured immediately; so also the ulcers which are made by scraping fatty tumors, pinna of the ears w.Qich are thin, ulcers locctted on the head, eye-sockets, nose, lips, cheeks, ea1 s, arms neck, forehead, buttocks, penis, rectum, abdomen etc. which are situated on important fleshy and immovable parts ( should be suturerl ). 49-50. '
;r

H
1

'ITPetifl:ur:

But not those which are on the groins, axilla, etc. which are Jess muscular and movable, ulcers which emit air -" ( gas ), which have foreign body inside, which are produced by alkalies, poiso11s and fire ( should not be sutured ). 51.

XXIX]

SOTB.ASTHANA

337
lllt.:tll
I

....
il '11

11'-\\lt
I

q

Suturing should be done only after removing loose pieces of bones, dried blood clots, grass. hairs etc; by placing the torn and banging pieces of muscles in their proper places, keeping the joints ( of bones ) and bones ( fractured ) in their normal positions and after the stoppage of bleeding; by making use of tendons, ( of animals ), threads (of cotton, silk, flax etc.) or inner fibres of bark of trees; being done neither very far ( apart ) nor very close, holding neither very n1uch ( of the tissues ) nor very little. 52-53j.
Efu•

,
After suturing, having comforted the patient (with encouraging words, cold water drink, fanning etc. ) the ulcer should be covered with cotton swab soaked in a mixture of honey, ( flax ), melted ghee, afijana ( srotofijana ), ash of phalini, fruit of sallaki, rodhra, and madhuka; then bandaging and other measures done as described· previously. 54-55.
81(1
..

The lips (edges) of the ulcer which are not bleeding should be scraped a little to induce bleeding and sutured when the blood is flowing; for the blood is the cause (agent) for healing of the ulcers. 56.

Banahana-( bandages anil bandaging ) :-

...
q •

9

..

9;Sl'8

q. I
...
f"'
......

..
zr0t
22A

I

.....

Jl'-\t;l1

:er 1

3!8

[CH.

Bandages suitable to the site of the ulcer (organs of the body) should be made use of, among them, that prepared from sbeeps skin, and silk is hot (producing heat'), that from flax is cold, that from silk-cotton, cotton, tendons of animals ( aponeroses, sheaths, thin layers of tendons etc.) and bark of trees- is both hot and cold; wounds which have mo:rt of fat and kapha, should be covered with thin sheets of copper, iron. zinc or lead; so also the fractures; in case of fractures banda· ging' should be done by using leather, bark of trees aud splints ( hard and flat pieces of bamboo, wood, metal etc.). 57-58.

....i

"
.•
1
:::...r:-

,.,..

• f.l"-5(.11)l1Ri'

..

cer

(
:;:r

q••oC.tq_ I 1 II t ll
t

...

"'on
II

!fE')tff

11

qq.
fc.(.ll)f+.qf;.
(plt,

Rqfti

1
11

n

..

na 11
I

ll
q) :q'SI' w;{f'fl!:

"

a,y g;F-lllA:.

Bandages are of the same shapes implied in their very names and are fifteen in number; they are kosa, swastika, muttoli, cina, dama, anuvellita, khatva, vibaiidha, sthagika, vitana, utsafiga, yamaka, sthagika, mai'iQala and pancaiigi; kosa kind should be used for the joints of fingers, swastika for the ears, axilla etc. for breasts and joints; mittoli for the penis, neck etc.; cina for the outer canthus of the eyes; dama at places of junction of body parts (such as groins etc.); anuvellita for the extremities, khatva for cheeks, lower jaw and temples; vibaiidha for the back and abdomen 5 stbagika for the thumb, 1ingers, tip of the penis, and in in the groins); vitana for organs which are thick and also for the head;

XXI:X l

SOTR.ASTHXNA

SS9

utsafiga for hanging for the nose; lips, joints etc; yamaka for places having two adjacent ulcers; mat}Qala for parts which are round; pai\car..gi for parts above the shoulders.. An intellegent person ( physician) should apply, that type of bandage which is most suitable to the place of the body.. 59-61.
Not1s :-Present-day scholars of Ayurveda have tried to furnilhmodem equivalents for the different kinds of bandages described above but 1till , of correct meanirigs of the terms :much uncertainty remains; used for naming the bandages, the criteria or judgement of their they are furnished \herein as obtained from authoritative shape Sanskrit-Engli1b dictionaries {as of Monier \Yilliap, V. S. Apte).
(1} ko,a=cacoon, scabbard, envelop, sac,-. (2) svastika:=crou shaped

(cruciform, like a plus mark, (3) muttolijpratoli=broad road or path, (5) dima:=thread, rope or cord wound round, (4) cina=thread, (6) anuvellita=bent down, bent underneath, like carlaud or belt twisted, (7} khatvl=swing, hammock, swinging cot, (8) vibaiidha= binding, ob1tructive, binding from bo_th 1ides, (9) sthagika=make invisible, to conceal, to hide, {10) vitina=tent, canopy, awn, cover over the top, {11) utsanga=horizontal, level with the upper part, brought up, (12) ofa cow, like the horns of cow, (13) yamaka=twin, double, two-folded, (14) mal}.c;lala:_circu1ar, round like a ring or wheel, (15) paiichingi=with five parts, divisions, folds or Baps.

a

.

I
It

itS:i1!{45i6 "t,

itif
qR

:er

I

11\\ll I

rq

...Nt-ntt

at
aQT

n\'-\11
I

...

Bandage should be tied tight over the thighs, buttocks, axillae, groins, and head; it should be modfrate over the extremities, face, ears, chest, back. flanks, neck, abdomen. penis and scrotum; it should be moderate over the eyes, joints .etc; so also on places which are flaby, on places where the ulcer has been produced by vata and slesma (kapha) it should be moderate, on places which are even (neither hard nor

340

[CH.

flabby) it should be tight, it should be very tight if the ulcer is situated on the seats ( organs ) of vata and ( kapha ), bandage should be removed once in three days during sita (cold·) and vasaiita ( spring ) seasons. Bandage should be tied moderately tight on hard parts if the ulcer on them are produced by pittc and rakta, and on even.. parts, it ahould be loose; on places where ldose banda· ging is prescribed, it should not be tied at all; during (summer } and sarat ( autumn) bandage should be removed in the evening and morning. 62-65j.
:qfir
if

"' If the ulcer is not bandaged, it gets contaminated by the bite of mosquitoes, cold breeze etc., the fats and medicines applied to the ulcer do not stay the ulcer requires long time to become clean ( without pus etc. ) and get healed, and even after healing it will be discoloured (the skin over the area does not get back the normal colour of the body). 66-67.

'IT

m

I
11\\tll

wi
...
if

1 11un 11\C:II
I
1

fqq:

'Uta

${Uf:

Bandaging helps easy and quick healing of wounds in which the bones are found crushed or fractured, joints are dislocated, which are cut up ( by the physician ), in which tendons and veins are severed, by bandaging there will be no pain during getting up, lieing down and such other acts; swelling ( of the part of the body ) which are either uneven, hard and very painful or even soft, and painless-aU become clean and heal quick. 69.

XXIX]

SUTRASTHANA

341

l

Ulcers which are persisting long, which have very little of muscular tissue, which do not heal to ·dryness (absence of moisture ) should be applied with medicines which are· wrapped in leaves of trees, appropriate to the involved and the seasons; the leaves should not be ripened ones but should be young ( tender not having holes, good in all respects, washed well and not rough, should belong to trees which have milky sap, bhiirja, arjuna or kadamba. 70-71.

. . ,tt
...

I
...
:t:t

. . ,uu: '(.1t!llqlat:'

;r

l

Bandaging should not be done for ulcers which are of leprosy or burns by fire, of diabetes mellitus, of rat bite, burnt by alkalies, caused by poison, which have putrefaction of the muscles, severe u1cerations,of the rectum, which are degener• 'ating (.with loss of tissues ) which have pain and burning sensation, which retain the swelling ( over long period) and which. spread other parts. 72-73.

w

i:tot
...

...
WQUIV
qt

I

ll\9\11

2I1Ji

I

Flies deposit worms {bacteria etc.) inside the ulcers which ate not protected (by bandaging), they (bacteria) by devouring the tissues produce pain, swelling and bleeding; for washing and filling of such ( septic ) ulcers the drugs of SurasadigaQa ( vide chapter 15 ) should be made use of. A paste of bark of karanja, arka, nimba, and rajadana prepared with cows urine should be applied, bathing ( the ulcer ) with solution of alkalies is beneficial or scarification of the muscle tissues, by these measures the worms ( bacteria) etc. should be removed out quick. 74-76.

s42
;r

A$T.A:NGA
11\1\911
qa"t '

[ca.

Hasty healing of the ulcer which has residue of the inside, should not be attempted; for, it will flare up greatly even with slight improper regimen. 77.

wJ'

m
{!Ill

11\1<:11
I

en fqftr:

ll\1\11

lven after the ulcer has he..tled the pattent should avoid indigestion, physical activities, copulation etc; great rejoicing, anger, fear etc .. till he attains his full strength, he should lead a disciplined life for at six or seven months. 78-79.
;:r 8l\i

I

Mot.f<.'lf-.f ...
I

ll<!oll

Such other conditions whic,P manifest should be managed with methods appropriate to the strength of the etc., in the light of the details furnished on the Uttara tafitra..the last section of this treatise ( vide chapter 25-27 ) 80.

dW

·f"":

....

.....

""l.

ntt'u
Thus ends the chapter named Sastrakarma vidhi-thc twentyninth of Siltrasth!na of samhita com· posed by sri mad Vagbhata son of sri vaidyapati simhagupta.

l

Chapter--30 K$ARAGNIKAR Y'A VIDHI-{ Procedure qf cauterisation )
upmr: 11:

I
I

Now, we shall expound the chapter agni karma vidhi·proceduie of cauterisation by alkalies and fire; thus said Atreya and other great sages.

K$llra sre5fhata-advantages of alkali ( alkaline cautery):-

W11T
6';:r
q1l'

I

II
Iff

I

qrit.sf'l

u u

Of all the sharp instruments· and accessary instruments. caustic alkali is the best, for, it performs many functions as incising, excising etc; even in inaccessable places it can be used, success can be obtained by its use even in diseases which are very difhcult to cure and also because it can be used even in the from of a drink. 1-2.
I

In a drinkrtble form it is used in haemorrhoids, dyspepsia, renal calculus, abdominal tumors, enlargement of the abdomen, homicidal poisoning etc.

t-at&fi.:a n \ n

In the form direct application it can _be used in moles ( warts ), leucoderma, external piles, leprosy and other skin diseases, anesthetic patches, rectal fistula, cancerous growth, tumors, foul and sinus ulcers etc.

A$TANGA H].tDAYAM

rca.
II
I
..

Krara nitedha-( contra-indications ) :;:r

fq:il

e

....

.i:
,...

II '-\ II
1

II
I II II

Neither of the two forn1s should be made use of during aggravation of pitta and rakta and diminishes of cala (vata); in fevers, diarrhoea, diseases of the heart and head. aneamia, anorexia, blindness; in those who have been administered puri· factory therapies, who have swelling of the entire body, who are fretful, the pregnant, the menstruating woman, woman who has difficult menstrual flow, ( or woman who has displacement of either vagina or uterus); when the food remains undigested, for infants and old persons, on places of the body such as the arteries, joints, vulnerable spots, cartilliages, veins tendons / nerves, sutures, throat, umbilicus and places which are poor of muscles, the testes, penis, orifices, passages, interior of the nails; in diseases of the eyes except those of the eyelids; during cold, rainy and hot seasons and on days when the sun in not seen. 4-7.

KttJra nirmarza-( preparation of caustic alkali ) :-

-.••
... ..... RF't=rc!eJetir-l.

11 c::
I

u

II ' II 1
:eT I

-....t$\l1..

qft"'fflqeJR_I I\ o II

UEt · ;yf(i
mf-1
:;:r

11\\11
1

'

... i
..... t iRJl tttoi ... ft.\lq I

llt\ll

""

!:t.

:;:r

a'(\ I

..
NiT

-mP-Pt.. ,

11

....... ... , 1 pei\f• tl\,11 snftcr11i 1 .. llt\911 1·
1
......Q...,.."\, ' '

4UI('II

11{\11

\m]
Moist roots, branches and other parts of trees such as kalamuslcaka, samyaka, kaQ.ali, paribhadraka, asvakarl).a, palasa, asphota, arka, piitika, nak amala, asvamaraka, kakajafigha, apamarga, agnimaiitha, agni or til vaka-are cut into small pieces and placed on cJean stone seperately, in heaps; pieces of the four kinds of plants, the sp1kes and reeds of yava plants are also similarly heaped. Into the heap of kalamu*kaka, pieces of lime stone are put in. All the heaps are set' on fire by making use of dried chaff of tila plant. After the heaps have been well burnt and fire has disappeared, one drol}a ( 12,288 gms. ) in quantity of ash of lime stone together with ash and one and a quarter drol}a of ash of others are taken, mixed together, dissolved well in half bhara ( 48000 gms. ) of water and cows urine seperately, and filtered through a thick cloth till a slimy, reddish, clear and penetrating alkaline material ia obtained. It is then transferred into an iron cauldron and cooked, stirring it constant! y w_ith a laddie; to this is added one ( 192 gms. ) of ash of lhnestone, shells of mother of pearls, ( khatika or clay ), spiral of conch she11each made red hot over a pan, fine powder of excreta of cock, peacock, falcon, heron and piegon, bile of quadrupeds and birds, ala haritala-rea1gar ), manohva ( orpiment) and salts, all these are ground into a paste and mixed with the= boiling
I

24

[CH.

solution, stirring it all the while from all sides. When it begins to emit fumes, bubbles come up and attains a solid consistence iike a confection, ,the cauldron should be taken out of fire. When it gets cool, it is stransferred into an iron vessel which is kept concealed inside a heap of yava (barley) for some madhyama ( alkali days. This is the mode of ·of medium potency ). 8-19}. _

f..
(Nf

...

'

9

Sfl(ICfl'f.Wtt ll:toll

l

......1
9

•=

1

6: I

For 'preparing (alkali of mild potency) the admixture ( ash of shells, powder of excreta, biles etc. ) should not be made into a paste and added but put in powder form . and taken out (filtered) and thrown away. For preparing tik,Q.a k,ara ( alkali of strong potency) the admixture should be similar to that of previous (alkali of medium potency ) and also the paste of langaliki, daiiti, citraka, vaca, svarjika, kanakalqirl, hingu, sprouts of putika, talapatri and bi4a (and alkali prepared as usual) and used after a lap8e of seven days. 20-21-k·
I •

"""'

Trividha kf4rayojana-( indications of three kinds of alkdli :-

dl.,i\..sf....
ll'fits;qa

,,,:t,,
I

'lfS1i

......

U:t\ll

Alkali of strong potency should be used in diseases artsanc from anila (vita}, $letma ( kapha ), medas (fat ), arbuda ( cancerous growth) and such others which are very diffic;ult to cure, alkali of medium potency shall do in those diseases when they ,lclre of moderate strength ( not very difficult to ). In diseases arising from pitta and ( rakta ) and the other kind of alkali ( of mild potency ) should be used,, when the alkali loses its water content some added to strengthen quantity ·of alkali sOlution should it. 22-13.

XXX]

SOTRAS't'HXNA

properties and action! of alkali ) :-

fqf'Qg

1

"'u

41

tro!lor:

dti,
I

..

-

· Neither too strong nor too ntild, smooth, slimy, spreading quick, white in colour, remaining like a mountain peak (at the site of application), easily removable, producing neither too much of exudation nor severe pain-'these ate. the ten ( ideal ) qualities of the caustic alkali. It does all the function!· ofthe sharp instrument and also the fire. By actions as sucking quickly, tormenting the whole body, spr'eading every where, it pulls out all the ( vitiating materials )_ by their root; after such actions ',¥hen the pain. ( diseases ) disappears. it ( alkalj ) also subsides of its own accord. 24-26. K1ara prayoga-( procedure of ) :-

"R
...
ill':lllttl<J!i

ftril

I

l'he disease ( leison ) treatable by alkali should either be cut, scraped or niade to exude fluid first and then the alkali taken in an iron rod is placed on the spot, the other (surrounding) of the body kept covered (protected) by cotton swabs and a time (period) of one hundred matra awaited. 27.
• :q'li

5'lfa

...

...

'tt!j.-+<usclltfq'I'P{ I 'fP1t fet\el.,_t: U\oll In haemorrhoids if their mouth ( face ) is I found covered' ( concealed ) it should be by the hand ( in such way as to- place the alkali on them)'. In diseases of the eyelids,

,.,.,,,i,s •

,.i

t

the lids arc to'

ever.ted, the

area ( cornea ) kept

too.
covered with cotton swab \as protection") and then alkali applied as thin as of a lotus petal (to the interior Ol the lids.) In cancer of the nose, the patient is made to sit facing the sun, tip of the nose is raised up and alkali applied into the nostril and a time of fifty n1atra awaited; in case of piles ( polyp ) of the ears also it shall be similar. 28-30.

sraififls

:q I

1

qft{
..

:iii

•\.i

if

U\'q I

1 11 'a:t=ffi) p{tqur: .1 Afterwards (after the prescribed time) the alkali is wiped off with a wiper ( cotton swab etc. ) and perceiving- that the site has been properly burnt by the alkali, a mixture of ghee and honey should be appJied, made cool by pouring milk, whey. oi sour gruel, and then applying a paste of drugs ofsweet taste and cold potency. The patient should partake ' foods which produce more secretions (in the tissue cells) in order to moisten (the site of burn ). If the site of the burn , does not get torn (form an ulcer) because of being deep rooted, then a paste of seed of dhafi yam Ia ( sediment of the sour gruel), and tila should be applied; paste oftila, and madhuka mixed with ghee heals the ulcer. 31-331.
(I'

"\!
I

.

... '

11\"11
I

Attaining black colour similar to the ripe fruit of jambu, depression of the sitf-are the feature ot a samyag dagdha ( proper burning ); the opposite of it, that is appearence of coppery red colour, pricking pain, itching etc. are the features of durdagdha impqwer ( inadequate ) burning, such an area should be burnt -again. 34.
1

I
d ....

11\1.911

XXX]

SOTRASTHANA

!49

Atidagdha ( over-burning ) produces bleeding, fainting, burning sensation, fever etc. Over burning of the anus (rectum) especially produces obstruction for passing of faeces and or their excess elimination, loss of mascu1ar and sexual power ( impotency ) and death surely by the destruction of the rectum. In case of nose, there will be severe burning s 'nsation, contraction of the naCJal bridge and loss of sense of smelJ; similarly so in case of ears etc. 35-37.
..

aR-t fC

..,.... ,

fffiir. ' ftrf\"Rt fitp.n 11\<: 11
\'If'(.
I

''\'u

In such bathing the part with sour fluids, applications of paste of honey, ghee and tila, activities ( foods other comforts) which mitigate vata and pitta and all others which produce cold, should be adopted. As sour is cold to touch, combining wida the alkali it quickly attains the properties of sweet taste, hence it (the burn caused by alkali) should be washed with sour substances quickly. 38-39.

.(
.. rs3.1!!"*')

"'it

I

'FlRr-t:. 11 't 11

(Alkali ( cautery by alkali ) ad ministered by the physician of poor intellect is like death caused by poison, fire, sharp weapon, or thunderbolt; whereas done properly by an intelligent physician it cures even dreaded diseases quickly. )

Agni karma-( thermal cautery-branding ) :-

:atftr:
if

I I'J:ft:tiff

Fire (thermal cautery) is better than even the alkali, for the diseases burnt by it ( treated ) do not reccur 'and it can be used even ( in diseases ) which have not been successful treated by drugs, alkalies and knife. 40.

Jtgnikarma yoJana ( indications ana contraindications for thermal cautery ) :-

350

H:(U)AYAM

[ CH.

. .,,r...
tq-•qnil
I

It is used on the skin, muscle, vein, tendon, joints and boneL In..diseases like black moles, weakness of body parts, headache, adhimaiitha (a disease of the eye), cysts etc. burning of the skin should be done either with a wic,k, tooth of a cow, rock crystal, arrowhead or others ( such as pippali, excreta of goat, iron-rod, piece 0f bangles ). 41.

..

I Haemorrhoids, rectal fistUla, tumors, sinus ulcers and bad ( septic, longstanding, foul ) ulcers etc. should t e treated by burning of the muscles with ( hot ) honey, fats, jarhbavostha ( an iron instrument with-a spoon shaped tip ), jaggery ( tre· acle) etc. 42.

Slistavartma ( exudative disease of the eyelids ), bleeding, blue mole, improper cutting ( surgical \\<OU!ld ) etc. burning of the veins should be done by ( using ) the same materials enumerated in the previous verse ). 43.
;r

1
II II

ar;a-:

3rT fime&TUl;r.

Burning should not be done for those (persons or diseases) upsuitable for caustic alkali, wounds which have foreign body or accumilation of blood inside, persons who have perforation of abdominal viscera and those who are suffering fro1n severe wounds. 44. The site which has been burnt properly (by fire ) should

be given a coating of ghee and honey and an application of
, paste of drugs which are unctous and cold in potency.
'

laktatJa-(feature.t

'

of proper and improper burning ) :"
ttat-..11
I

f.W

XXX]

SOTR.ASTHANA

SSl

1 ne signs of sam yak dagdha ( proper burning ) arestoppage of bleeding, emergence of crackling sound accompa-= nied with lymph, the area having colour resembling a ripe tala fruit or a piegon ( dark grey ), ( the wound ). healing easily and not too much of pain. 45.

...

. u: 11\j,. I
I
;f

{f6ir.l
;:z

'lfaqtC(l': •

i
, I

The signs of inadequate burning excess burning are similar to those of improper burning. It (improper burning) is of four kinds, together-with tuccha dagdha-( bad J mean/ / inadequate burning ). The sign! of tuccha dagdha are disco1ouration of the skin, severe burning sensation and non emergence of boils, signs of durdagdha ( improper burning ) are appearance of boils, and severe burning st"nsation, signs of atidagdha t over burni,,g) are drooping down of the muscles, constriction, burnirJg sensation feeling ofhot fume1 out, pain, destruction ofyeins etc., thirst, fainting, exacerbation of the wound and death. 46-481.
_ :er

fqtftif ....q(ll Q:

'

A dagdha ( bad / adequate burning ) should be burnt once again and (paste of) drugs which are hot in potency, should be when the blood is coagulated there is severe pain and when it is dissolved pain is mild. 49. In' case of durdagdha f improper burning) cold and hot should be used, the hot one first and the cold one next.
I

am

....
In case· of samyaaagdha ( proper a paste of plak!?a, candana, gairika and amrta mixed with

S52 .

[ CH.

ghee 1bould be applied ( on the area o_f ?.and then therapies indicated for an abscess of p1tta or1g1n should be adopted. 51,

fi

I

In case of atidagdha ( over-burning )•.all the therapeutic prescribed for visarpa of pitta origin should be done

't1Dtfi Vtf n

!I

In case of burning by fats ( hot oil, ghee etc. ) measures which are very dry (cause severe dryness ) should be adopted. 52.

(

'

Co

.. ....

I
ll

t'fW;!tr-{

ll )

_. (The knife, alkali and fire are chief weapons of the lord of death; hence the physician should, aqminister them with great care ).

..
..._

...

fC

m:

I

Thus will be concluded, this section of hrdaya which is full of secrets, for i"\ it are codified all the chief ' doctrines which are described in detail everywhere ( in the entire treatise ) . 53.
:-Siitrasthina-thc first section is, the most important part of the similar to the head to the human body. All the important precepts and practices of Ayurveda arc mentioned here, in brief and so this section is considered as an epitome of .Ayurveda; without a study of Sutrasthana in beginning it will be ,very difficult to understand the contents of the other sections of the treatise, because the doctrines are mentioned in this first aection and only their details are foupd in other sections, for e.g. the ehief causes, dift"erent stagt's of evolution, and principle-s of treatment of diseales in general are explained in the sutrasthana, while specific causea, stages, appropriate and therapies etc.; of each signs in disease are described in the Nidina and Cikitsi athlnis and mode of preparatioDI of recipes in Kalpasthina, without a prior knowledge of doctrine• montioned in the siltrasthana, it will be impoSBibJe to undtrstand the relevence of therapies and drugs.

XXX]

SOTRASTHANA

!53

The Sutrasthina of hrdaya-is considered as the best among those of the other ancient treatises viz. Sutruta samhiti and araka samhiti. The vertes composed by Vagbhata are in simple and easily understable language, suitable to be learnt by heart and retained in memory for lon& and combining both beauty and brevity, composed in popul•r metres, arranged in a manner convenient to the study. Vigbhata has *hown his erudition not only in poetical excellence but also in the echnical knowledge in the selection of an essential information from other ancient texts, in clearing the of the busy medical practitioner regarding the many doctrines and therapies etc. All these merits have made later authorities to acclaim that ''Vigbhata is best in Siitrasthina''
I
I

-=-.

...
o...


ll\oll

...tS9'.1"Pt:
Thus ends _the chapter named
by srimad

karma vidhi-the

thirtieth in Sutrasthina of samhita composed son of sri vaidyapati Sinlhagupta.

(

:;R Sl''fJf

Thus ends Siitrasthana-the first section •

....

21 A

SECTlON-2 sARI RA STHANA. ( section on Anatomy and Physiology )

Sl'-r4ttSWI4! t
Chapter-1

GARBHAVAKRA!ITI sARlRA (embryology)
it•.ua) 'Iff1 ttPh'lf.-a

ua-

,

oq ,._. lf4:CI-fl:

I

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development

Further, we_ shall expound the Garbhavakranti sarlra· of the embryo; thus said Atreya and other great sages.

Garbhotpatti (formation

Of tlze embryo ) :uccr:
I II

rrd:

t II

Satva ( atma or soul ) impelled by the afflictions of his own past actions, entering into the {union of) pure (unvitiated by the sukra (semen, the male seed) and lrtava ( menstrual blood-the female seed) gives rise to the formation of the embryo; in an orderly ( predetermined ) manner, just like'the fire from two pieces of wood (rubbing together). 1.
', Notes : -Atmaa (soul) undergoes a series of births and deaths depending upon his owa good or bad actions The effects of the actions of the previoua life are carried by him to his next life, these are known as kldaa {afllictions, (hatred), avidyi miseries), also called as visanis; riga (desire), ( ignorance ), asmiti. ( egoism ) and abhinive&a { intentness, mingling, attachment ) are the klesas which are the results of good or bad actions. He bas to get rid of these aftlictions by doing only good actions which ia not possible in any oae life-time. So he goe1 into the cycle of births and deatha; movement from one life to the next is achieved instanteneously at the time of the union of the sukra (male reproductive element vi.r a tlis the spermatozoon contained in the semen ) and irtava ( female reproductive element, vis a vis the ovum produced by the ovary ) . The term 'irtava• i1 commonly applied to the discharge of blood from the woman's body once in every twentyeight days known as menatruation. Ancients held the view that the menstrual blood is responsible for the production of the embryo, this view is erroneous. Menstrual blood is a waste material containiag degraded ovum which has not been fertilised by the 1pcrmatazoon. The spermatazoa ( §ukriQ.u ) produced by the testes ( vrfal)a ) of the man and ovum ( aQ9i\lu) produced by the ovaries of the woman are actually the

-

sss

ASTA"&GA

tclt.
..

male and female seed respectively, the union of the spermatozoon and the ovum gives rise to the formation of the embryo. Once the embryo gets formed its nature of growth, the qualities it has to acquire etc. manifest in a planned pre--determined manner by the effects of the visanis. Both the spermatazoa and ovum contain minute structures called •gene&' which are the carriers of heriditory features.

-=

9: 1

II

II

The embryo formed from the causative and subtle mana· ( prthvi, ap, tejas, vayu and ikasa ), followed by (later associated with ) satva ( soul ) grows gradually ( slow 1y } in the abdomen ( womb of the mother), nourished by the essence of the food of the mother. 2.
Notes :-Simkhya,philosophy postulates that every substance of the universe is composed of paiica mahibhutas·the five primary elementsprthvi, ap, tejaa, viyu and ikisa. Accordingly these five elements are present in the male seed {spermatozoon) and the female seed (ovum). In the presence of the paiica mahibhiitas, the presence or the ( vita, pitta and kapba ) should also be inferred since these are the product• of paficabbiitas itself. Thus the embryo formed by the union of the spermatozoon and the ovum becomes pificabhautika; with the entry of itman (soul) it becomes cetani (active, conscious, living) and grows steadily to become the future child.

tnn

..,;facii

1 tnn II \ II

Just as the rays of the sun intercepted by the lens is not seen getting on to the fuel ( blades of grass. pieces of wood or paper etc. on which it is focussed ) similarly is the entry of satva ( atman•soul ) into the womb.
J(olll :-The beam of sun's rays passing througb a lent converging on a piece 9f paper is not yet we notice the paper catching fire, similarly t}lC entry o(thc soul into the embryo though invisible can be blferred by the tonunencement ofHfe activity in it.

'I I'C.

ttet.1cd-.l i

I

ri..sat lt'J\-q('l. II Y II

'l'he effect being similar to the cause, by nature, the satva ( takes on different ( sp,ecies, category of birth\) and, akrti { shapes ) just like the molten metal. 4-.

SARIRASTHANA
Noles :-Si&hkhya philosophy describes the effect to be similar to the cause, in other words the qualities of the cause are discernable in the effect; good actions bring forth good effects while bad actions the bad efFect. Good actions or the soul in his previous life grants him birth in good apecies (divine, human, etc.) whereas bad actions make for his birth in bad species (animal, vegetative, inanimate objects de.) in hia next life. The size, shape, qualities elc. differ from one species to the other and from one 1ub8tance to the other even in the same species. This is explained by the example of the molten metal assuming different sizes and shapes, similar to the shape of the mould into which it is poured.

Garbha lingotpatti karotta ( cause
818 .-

of determination of sex ) :-

tflnt

By the same doctrine ( of the efFect being similar to the cause ), a male ( child ) will be produced when $ukra (semen) is more, a female when rakta ( menstrual blood) is more and a eunuch ( child neither definitely male nor definitely female but having features of both sex, in other words a hermophro· dite ) when both are equal. 5.
Noles :-Determination of the Jex of the child is due to tlie union of ICX chromosomes present in both the spermatozoon and ovum, and not on the quandty of semen and menstrual blood as thought b7 the ancients. As known now, each spermatozoon and ovum contains minute structures called cbromo10mes, 23 pairt in total, divided into two kinds, viz. 22 pain of autolomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. The ses chromoaomes are apiD of two kindt •X' and •Y'. The spermatozon contains either en •X' chromoaome or an 'Y' chromoaome whereat the ovum contabas •x• only. When a apcrmatozoon containing an 'X' chromosome unitel with ovum, the combination of •XX' chromo10mes gives rite to a female; when a tpei'ID&toaoon containing •Y• ehromoaome unitea with the ovum the combination of •XY' chromosomea gives rise to a male; rarely abnormal combiuations of sex cbromoaomea lead to two kinds of hermapbrodiduntrue and pseudo.

•·=

!liN:. I

Gihift- p: II

II

q.tt nN

'IC'iMErt 1

II \ 1,

Sukra (semen) and irtava {menstrual blood) getting into many parts ( after their union ) by viyu ( vita ) gtves nse to multiple embryos. Embryo dissimilar to the yoni
'

360

[CH.

(species, kind·) or of abnormal shapes-are produced bv the abnormal ( vitiated) malas ( ). 5b-6b.
Nolu :-Formation of more than one embryo is due to fertilisation of more than one ovum. The exact reason for birth of foetus of non-human kinda and of ah'1ormal human shapes ( momters) is yet a subject of iQvestigation.

Rdjodarlana ( menstruation ) :-

mft:t m

1

"lTRr

\9

II

In women, the rajas ( menstrual blood ) which is the pro· duct of rasa ( the first dhatu ), flows out of the body for th'ree days, every month, after the age of twtlve years and under• goes diminision by the age of fifty years. 7.
Notes :-Discharge of a small quantity of blood through the vagina is known as menstruation. It commences between 12 and 1!> years of age in girls and heralds the onset of period of procreation. It occurs usually at intervals of 28 days regularly. It does not occur during pregnancy and, period of lactation. It commences again and continues till the. age of 45 .. 48 years, then after it becomes irregular and stops finally by about the age of 50-52 years. The period of flow is usally three days but variations arc common.

'3iaT 1

-mitA'

II

II

, The \\"Oman, who has completed sixteen years of age, mating with a man who has completed twenty years, uterus. the channels, the bfood { menstrual ), semen, anila ( vata ) and hrdaya { the mind, in this context ) all being pure ( unvitiated ), gives birth to a valient son.

aa)

1

ftq CIT II' ll
On the other hand, if the age less, the offspring will be either sick, of short life, of inauspicious nature or there may be no formation of foetus at all. 9.
Notes :-Less of age, refers to both the woman and man, similarly sickness, short life and inauspicious nature applie11 both to the foetus and to the forthcoming chUd.

tJ
I

S6l

Vikrta lukra-artava (abnormalities of semen and menstrual blood):-

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9

'

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Retas ( semen ) and asra ( menstrual blood ) known by names such as that vitiated by vata etc. ( pitta- and kapha }, that having the smell of a dead body, that formed into balls ( masses, pellets ), that resembling pus, that decreased in ·quantity, that resembling the wastes ( .Iniitra•urine ) and purip.' ( faeces ) ( in smell )-are incapable of producil).g the embryo. These are designated as (vitiated by the when specific features of each are found; as kUQapa (having cadaveric smell when vitiated by rakta (blood ); as granthi (pellet like ) when vitiated by slesma ( kapha ) and vata together; as piiyabha ( resembling pus ) when vitiated by rakta ( blood ) and pitta together; as ( decreased ) when vitiated by maruta ( vata ) and pitta \together. All these are difficult (to purify ); that vitiated by all the three together, those having features of urine and faeces are impossible (to purify ). 10-12a.

r

Suddhikran:.a ( methods of purification ) :-

pq !if:

...
fip.n

1 11\\ll,r'
I

I

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Those vitiated b.y vata aod others ( two ). should be treated with drugs; that having cadc;veric smell; 25 by making pe.rson drink ghee processed with

[ cii.
khadira, da4ima and arjuna or with the drugs of asanadigal}a ( vide chapter 15 of siitrasthana ); that pellet-like ( with medicated ghee ) processed with ash of palasa and semen resembliug pus with medicated ghee processed with and vata; dicrease of semen with ( and drugs ) which produce more of semen; semen having the features of faeces,. be given a drink of medicated ghee processed with hiiigu, sevya etc., after ( administra· tion of) purifactory therapies. In case of pellet like menstrual blood, the woman should be and in case administered the decoction ofpatha, of menstrual blood having cadaveric smeH or pus, the decoction of candana should be given to drink, and all the therapies including uttarabasti (vaginal douche ) prescribed for veneria] diseases to be _described later (in chapter 34 of Uttarasthana ). 12b-16.

suadha sukra-lJ,rtava lak,arza (features trual hlood ) :-

of normal semtn'and
'l£ci

mens·

p
':11\fllq

11,\111
lf.l1fl

fq..,.wqd I

( semen ) which is white in colour, heavy, unctous, sweet, thick, more in quantity, resembling either ghee, honey or oil (of sesame) is suitable for producing the embryo. Artava (menstrual blood ) which resembles the juice of lac or the blood . of rabbit and which does not stain the cloth after washing (is suitable for producing the embryo). 17-18a.
Notes :--The quantity of semen per ejaculation is about 3 mi. 1he number of spermatozoa per cml, of semen ranges from 25,000,000 to the average being 60,000,000. It i1 not che quantity of aemeu that ia important for the formation of the embryo but it is the number and 'agility of the apermatozoa. count less than 25,000,00. is not condu· / cive fur co1-;cepuon The quantity of menstrual blood variet f!l)m a few dropl to about ten ml per day, is dark-red in colour and doos not clot uaually; cloth stained by it becomca clean after

at':

..t IWfli P

f1rsli flN:
I

cnu

... ..

1

The man and woman who are having pure sukra (semen) and artava ( menstrual blood) respectively, who are healthy. who are in love with each other, who are indulging in pumsa· vana ( things which are helpful for begetting a male child_J, oleation and purifactory therapies, who are administered' enemas (should be nourished well ); the man especially with the use of milk and ghee processed with drugs of sweet taste, the woman with; the use of oil ( of sesame ), (black gram) things (?rugs etc. ) which increase pitta. 18a-20a.

R.tuma,ti lakrapa (Jiatures of the menstruating woman) :....

II:toll

S8MT

Jei'I.II-&!J..dt

I

,
1

Y'he woman whose face is rundown ( slightly ) but pleasant ( calm); pelvis and breastl having throbbings, .eyes and abdomen slightly drooping down and who longs for', a ( for company and copulation ) should be as a woman. 20b-2la.

'Ri •mq'TRJ
..
;rm:

aut
I

just as the lotus closes at the of the day, so alsq, the yoni ( uterus, vaginal tract ) after the rtu kala ( the perio1 suitable for conception ); thereafter she will not be to sukra ( semen ). 21 b-22a. \
Nol1s :-A period of twelve days commencing with the first, day of menstruation is known as rtu ki1a-period suitable foJ' conception or fertile period.

The blood accumulated ( inside the uterus ) during the month, which is slightly black and of unusual smell, brought into the dhamanis ( arteries) during the rtu (menstrual period ). 'expelled out by vayu ( vita ), through the orifice ; of the yoni, and vaginal tract). 22b-23a.

.-

1

ls

[ Qd.

R..tumat! carya ( regimen of the menstruating woman ) :1

11,\jll

!l'1i

I

From the moment of appearance of the me:Qstrual flow, for a period of three days, the woman should harbor only good thought$;avoid bath and decorations, sleep on mattress of darbha grass, eat little qua.Rtity of food prepared from milk and small barley; holding it ( food ) either in a leaf, earthen plate or the hands, in order to purify the alimentary tract and to make herself thin ( slightly emaciated ). She should also observe celibecy (avoid sexual activites). 23b-25a.
a(l':

atm ....

qftn:t. I

On the fourth day, she should take bath, put on white dress and remain clean, and see her husband first, bar- boring the desire for a son resembling her husband. 25b-26a.

/J.tukala (period suitable for

period) :--

...,.<\.._i\ "f, S

"'....
4 +tl\1

u-t'u
'EAl'Et I

, (period sutiai?Ie for c,onception) is twelve nights (day and night ); the first three days of it are insuspicious, so also the eleventh day; copulation on even days leads to birth of a son and on other (odd) days to a daughter. ( 26b-27a)

Garbhlldllrza ( ceremo'V concerned with conception ) : -

!§elm
UltRT
*1•'11f.(

..

11'PRf;

ll:t\911

I

q;it

The priest should perform the of bege(ting a son, in accordance with the prescribed procedure (fror persons of upper castes) and for siidra's.. (persons of lower castes) ·by making__ them bow to gods, without uttering sacred hymns;

I]

SARIRASTHAN,f&

by doing this rite, it ( copulation ) wtll not become futile •nd the couple will beget a son of their liking. 27b-28.
\!.U$"-qo-(q,ij ,
I

"""

.. ,(.qN

n-=t,ll

Wis men say, that in order to beget a ( good ) offspring, the couple should indulge in copulation in solitude ( in a secluded place, free from embarassment by others). A bad offspring, though of reputed pedigree, is like fire to the family. 29.

1."'ik. i

qfuj

ill

a'

I

U\oll

Whichsoever, the kind of son ( in colour, appearance, conduct etc. ) the parents desire, they should always think of ( horbor in their mind ) the fQrm and accomplishments ( health, wealth, reputation etc, ) of persons who possess these ( qualities ) and conduct themselves accordingly. 30.
.. til
I

81Rtn 'Jft
(f!\1

,
ll\':tll

After the end of the ceremony ( ritual of begetting a male offs·:.ring) the man who has partaken food consisting of ghee, milk and boiled rice, should climb on the bed, keeping his right foot first, and at the auspicious th'e woman should climb next, keeping her left foot first, from the right side (of her husband}, after partaking food consisting chiefly, of oil (of sesame) and ( black gram). ·Then after, the following holy hymn- should be recited { by the h-qsband ). 31-32.

tqnn

..., . .

Pfell!l

('"f

__
if

1

t'O Lord, you are the procurer, you are life, you are present everywhere, may Dhata bestow {/me good ), may

966

[OIL

Vidhati bestow the brahmavarcas ( divine radiance ), may Brahman, Brhaspati, Soma, Siirya, Asvin-twins, Bhaga, Mitra and a valiant son.'' 33.

L .

Maithuna-( copulation ) :!i'-'n;qJ\ •
... '
(plt

d"«.,.

'lltfi:r .U-:

I

Next, the couple should engage themselves in', copulation, appeasing each other with love-play and keeping themselves, cheerful. The woman should lie with her face up, attentive: ( intent on receiving the Jllale seed ) and keeping the parts of\ her body ( especially the .genitals ) poised well ( convenient and suitable position ). In such a state, when the are in their nor-nal abodes, she c.an receive the male seed. 34-3Sb.

Grhita garbha lakla,a-( signs of conception ) :-

p.qf !I • s;:_
\tltt!A..ttt

""'"'··+rkr• '""''

ll\'-\11
I

" ....

8"«t 11\\11 The signs of conception are-implantation of the seed in the yoni (uterus and vaginal tract), a sense of contentment, heavyness and throbbings (in the lower abdomen and vaginal tract ), cessation of of semen and blood ( n1enstrual), throbbing in the heart, stupor, thirst, fatigue and horripi· lations. 35b-36.

-

Pumasavana vidhi-( methods for hegetting a male child) :-

'Rf;
, 1Aft

-

'l1'fw
9;4411'6C(\

I 11\\111

M ,

krttdd I

In the first month, during the first seven days, the embryo becomes akalala (jelly mass) and is unmanifest ( undetermi· ned in sex}; hence pumsavana ( methods to beget a o.ffspring) should be done before manifestation ( differenta· powerful ( potent) puru!}akara (actions tton of sex), of the present hfe) wiJl even overcome daiva (efFects of actions of previous lives ). 37.

J]

SARIR.ASTHANA

S67

:-According to Indian philosophy, the soul entering into the womb of a particular speciea to take birth, the determination of sex and other qualities of the embryo etc. are due to the effects of actions of his prevloualives. No doubt they are powerful. But sometimes the effects activities of the present life, done properly and at appropriate time become more powerful than the effects of actions of previous lives. Hence the above verse, to perform the pumaavana rites before the the advice determination of sex of the embryo; once sex differentiation becomes patent ( after seven days of conception ) it impossible to change it and pumsa· vana ritet done later will be futile.

s" . pn.sfftitj

lti
f., ...

An icon of man prepared from either gold, silver, or even iron should be heated to red colour and immersed iiJ milk; one anjali ( about 75 ml. ) of this milk should be consumed during pu,ya constellation. 38.

...

••

11\'-.11

apamarga, jivaka, and sairyaka, either individuaJly or in combinations of two, tliree. or all should be made into a nice paste with water and consumed during constellation. 39.

The woman, herself should instill drops of juice of roots of brhati made with milk, into her right nostril if she desires a son and into the left nostril, if she desires a daughter. 40.
tJQ[

113-,
..

t

I

Juice of roots of prepared with milk, instilled into the nose or consumed by mouth, bestows male progeny and its safety ( retention ). Sprouts of eight in number alao act similarly. Drugs of jivaniya group ( vide chapter IS of Siitrasthana) should be used both externally and

41-42.

368

-

[ CH.

Garbhi!Jf&ary_lJ-f care- of the pregnant woman ) : -

I 1111J\U

The woman, who has conceived shou-ld be looked after affectionately by her husband and attendants, supplied with things she likes and which are. good for health, nourished vlith more of butter, ghee and milk, always. 43
ifktoqq,ot.ut\q,.._.i

1

:atE5ttt\ft,..

11aa11

..
..
a"J1'

...

"
1 --

.....

... 1 ttl

The pregnant woman should avoid excess of sexual activities, exertion carrying heavy loads, heavy coverings, sleeping or keeping awake at improper time, sitting on hard seats, and heels; grief, anger, fear, emotions, suppression of urges of the body and controlling of desires; fasting, long distance walk, .eating foods which are strong {pungent, eroding the stomach) hot, heavy f hard for digestion ) and constipating; wearing red cloth, peeping into deep pits or wells, alcoholic drinks, , eating meat, lieing with face upwards, and any such acts which elder women forbid; similarly, blood letting, purifac.. tory therapies and enema therapies should be avoided till the eighth month. By these ( activities ) , the embryo will be either expelled premature, dries up inside or even dies. 44-47.

._\a:l..

I

.-eld-: ffftf:,

...'tuf...U.:

By indulgence in foods which increase vata, the offspring
either a hunchback, blind, lazy (inactive) or dwarf; bv. foods which increase pitta, it will be either bald headed or brown eyed; by foods whiGh increase kapha, it will be either of white skin or of ( yellowish-white). -+8.

11

SARlRASTHANA

369

II

Her diseases should be treated with drugs ( or therapies ) which are soft, easy to consume and mild ( in action ). 49a. ·

;nft:r
During the second 1nonth, from the kalala state (jelly mass ) are produced the ghana ( hard mass )r pesi ( muscle ) and arbuda ( ant-hill ) to be born as a rn,ale, female or eunuch ( herf!lophrodite ), respectively. 49b-50a.
Notes :-The have given the common place o.r popular meanings of the terms referring to the shape of the aoetus. It has been observed that the developing foetus resembles some common objects. The term, ghaua also means a club or mace, pesi also means -a;,bud and an egg, and arbuda means a, serpent-like shape. Hence it is appropriate to take the term ghana to denote a club shaped, round mass with a handle; peSi to denote a oval shaped fiat sheath and arbuda to denote serpent shaped, long, round mass.

Garbhitzi laktal)a-(Jeatures
qfbn

of the pregnant woman ) :1

sr9tE:
tf\';r)

...

st'6TUit" .1 '

I The features (of the pregnant woman) during this month are feeling of emaciation, heavyness of the abdomen, fainting, vomitting, loss of taste ( or appetite ), more of ya wnings and salivation, debility, appearance of lines of hair ( especially over the abdomen ), desire for sour things, enlargement of the 'breasts with little amount of milk and black colour of the nipples; others ( authorities ) include swelling of the feet, heart-burn and desires ( longings ) of different kinds. 50-52a.
Dauhrda-( longings ) ;.......;
mijl:l
ll,qql"(

S'l'
24A

-

q
'

I

en 1

S70

Hl_tDAYAM

[ CH.

Since its ( foeta 1 ) heart is maternal in origin and is connected with the heart of tq-e mother , the desires ( longing ) of the pregnant woman. should not be dishonoured (refused, denied ); even unsuitable ( unhealthy ) things should be given to her, mixed with healthy ones and in small quantity; refusal ofthe longings may lead to abnormalities in the foetus or its premature expulsions. 52b-54a.
1

Garblza vrdillzi krama-( foetal dfve/opment )

1@:i i
...

1

illl:

...
"'

'l I

fl:

During the third month, the five parts of the body become manifest, viz., the head, two legs, and two arms, and also an the minor parts. Simultaneously with the head etc., the knowledge of pleasure and pain also. 54b-55. tml) .:f'{ I
:r.p;n

A tube q>nnects the umbilicus of the foetus and the heart ofthe mother; from which it (foetus) derives nourishment just like a cornfield from the aqueduct. 56.

.q
iQ$

..

!v.mr

I 11'-.\.911

Gtrit

I

In the fourth month, all the parts become manifest ( clea• rly ), and in the fifth month, the cetana ( consciousness, life activity ). In the sixth, the tendons, veins, hair, strength, colour, nails and skin ( become manifest J, In the seventh, it (foetus ) is developed in all its parts, and nourished well. 57-57J.
1

fiifS9tfillil
The being pushed up by foetus and getting localised in the heart (of the mother) produce itching, vidiba ( burning sensation ) and also kikkisa. 58.

I]

SARiRASTHANA

'371

Notes :-Vidlha is feeling of burning sensation in the palms, soles shoulders, kikkisa is appearance of linear marks (straie) on the abdomen, thighs and breasts. , ·

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In \J.lat condition, ingestion of butter processed with of kola and drugs of sweet taste is beneficial; the food prepared with little quantity of salt and fats, easy to digest and sweet in taste { is ideal ). With the paste of candana and usira, her thighs, breasts and abdomen should be anointed, or with the ( triphala) prepared with the blood' of black paste of antelope, fawn or rabbit. The body should be anointed the oil processed with leaves of asvaghna ( karvira) and then massaged, followed by pouring of decoction of patola, nimba, and surasa; then after given a bath in water processed with darvi and madhuka. 59-611.

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During the eighth rronth, ojas travels between the mother and the child alternately; because of this, they become fatigued or contented respectively; the child born during this month, does not survive, and life of the woman is doubt· ful, because of the absence of ojas. 62-63.
Notes :-Ojas, is the chief material ( essence ) of the body responsible for strength { natural resistence ) and is considered essential for life; it i1 said to be present in the heart and its loss or absence leads to death. Its presence in the foetus and the mother produces strength and contentment and its abacence leads to fatigue and anxiety of life; ie. child born, when ojaa is not present in its body; dies, because of total absence of natural resistence and the life of the mother also may become after a delevery because of the same reason.

372
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During this n1onth peya ( thin gruel ) prepared with milk and a_4ded with ghee should be partaken by the mother, Anuvasana ( lubricating enema ) with ghee processed with drugs of sweet taste is ideal; likewise enema with t-he decoction of dry miilaka, kolamla, mixed with paste of satahva, oil, ghee and saiodhava is ideal ( to remove the old faeces ). 64-65.
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\ltror: Anytime, after even one day after this month, is the time for the birth or the child; if it ( foetus ) is retained inside the abdomen for a year by vita, leads to abnormalities (disorders for b!>th the mother and the child). 66. ,
Nol1s :-Foetal c;!evelopment as known in the present day, is furnished below for comparison and correct knowledge.

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End of first month of pregnsncy-Embryo is about 1 em. long and_ weight about 1 gm. rudiments of the eyc11, ears and nose are visible, buds corre• sponding to the limbs are distinct, umbilical co1 d is short and thick. End of second month-Embryo is 2.5 to 3 em. long and weighs about 4 gms. fingers and toes begin to appear, heatl portion is dispropm tionately development of the brain. External genitalia are seen large due to but sex is not differentiated in them, face and external ear begin to develop. End of third month-Foetus is about 8 em. long, weighing about 30-45 gms. fingers and toes can be seen distinctly and arc having nails, centres of ossification have appeared in most of the bones; there is beginning of sex: differentiation. The foetus can be moved inside with a gentle tap on the sides of abdomen of the mother ( ballotment ): the face is well formed, lip movements typical of sucking appear.
I

End of fourth month-Foetus is about 16 em, long and weighs about 100 gms. sex is now distinctly differentiated. Lanugo ( soft hair ) appear on the skin, umbilical cord is thin, long and exhibits twisting, placenta is well formed. Heart begins to beat.
Entl offifth month-Foetus is about 25 em. long and weighs about 300 gma. akin is covered with vernix cascosa (fatty materal on the skin), a few appea:r the head. Foetus makes movements. causing mild flutter

I ]

SARlRASTH}.NA

373

in the lower abdomen ( quickening ) of the mother, child if born alive may live for 5 to 10 minutes only with strong heart beats.
End of sixth month-Foetus is about 30 em. long and weighs about 6SO gms., the nails are distinct, eyebrows and eyelashes are formed, fb:Cal movements are apperent and even v1sible; the child if born alive, may live for some hours but cannot be rared by artificial means, since its respiratory, digestive and assimilatory organs are underdeveloped. End of seventh month--Foetus is &bout 35 em long and weighs about 1100 gms, the eyes are open, the heart rate varies between 120 to 140 and heart sounds can be distinctly heard, the child, if born alive, has a feeble cry, make& vigorous movements but seldom survives as the lungs are not developed adequately for respiration. End of tighth month-Foetus is about 40 em long and weighs about 1570 gms, bones of the head are soft and flexible, child, if born alive, can be rared with great care. End of ninth month-Foetus is about 45 em. long and weighs about 2.5 kg. respiratory, digestive and circulatory organs are well developed, skin is smoothened by deposition of fatty substances. The cartilage of the nose is distinct, the ears are soft, the child if born alive can survive without any difficulty. End oftentla\month-Foetus is about 50 em. long and weighs about 3.5 kg hairs on the head are more, nails project out of the finger, tips. There is urine in the bladder and excreta (meconium ) in the lower bowel; akin is pink, body plump and covered with fat •

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During the ninth tnonth, food mixed with tat (ghee) along with juice of meat is ideal; or yavagu ( thick gruel) mi.xed with more of fat, and anuvisana ( lubricating enema ) mentioned earlier. 67.

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Then onwards, a diaper (soaked in medicated ghee menti· oned earlier ) should be kept in 1her vagina daily." Water cessed with leaves which mitigate vata and then cooled is suited for bath, frequently. 68.

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From the ninth month onwards she should never remain without fat ( anointing the body with medicated oil 681.
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The woman who gels milk first in her right breast; prefers that side (right side) for all her activities, who develops longings of things of masculine name (anrl character), and greatly interested in enquiring about them always, who sees masculine objects in dreams, whose abdomen is more elevated on the right side and appears to be round, wil1 give birth to a male child. She who exhibits opposite features, who desires the company of ( or copulation ) of males, who is fond of dance, instrumental music, vocal music,. perfumes and garlands will delever a female child. 69-71.
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...
With the mixture of both the features she gives birth to a eunuch ( hermaphrodite ) in that case her abdomen is found more elevated in its centre. In case of twin foetus, the abdomen appears bulged in both its sides and depressed in th,. middle, like a trough. 72.

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Even earlier to. the ninth month, the woman shouJd reside in the satikagrha ( lieing-in-chamber, maternity apartment ) situated at an auspicious place, equipped with all necessary things, entering it on a day ensuring success; residing there she should anticipate del every, accompanied with a retinue of women, skilled in delevary ( midwives ). 73-74a.

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SARIRASTH.ANA

37S

As anna prasava latiarza ( signr of impending delevery) :p: ll\1\:111
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Delevery taking place today'or its next day, the woman develops fatigue, looseness of the abdomen and eyes, exhaustion ( without physical activity ), feeling of heaviness in the lower pat ts, loss of appetite ( or a taste ), more of salivation, increased urination (frequency), discomfort/pain in the thighs, abdomen, waist, back, ( region of the ) heart, bladder and groins, pain in the vaginal tract such as tearing, continuous, pricking and pulsating and discharge of fluid, followed by the onset of IJvl ( labour pains ) and qischarge of fluid from the womb ( show ). 74b-76.

Prasi"lti vidhi ( management of labour ) :---

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Next, the woman-in-Ia hour should be protected by performance of auspicious rites, made to hold a fruit bearing a masculine name in her hands, anointed with oil and given bath in warm water; should be gi a drink of PtJ'! ( thin gruel) mixed with ghee. Then, she is made to lie on a bed spread on the floor, with her legs folded ( at the knee ) and kept erect; her body should be anointed with oil again and again, parts below the umbilicus massaged and told to yawn and do brisk walking. 77-79a.

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-By these, the foetus makes an easy descent, its signa ate; getting detached from the ( region of ) heart and occupying I • the Just above the urinary bladder. 79b-80a.
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When the avi ( labour pain ) starts manifesting in quick succession, the won1an should be made to lie on a cot, when the foetus is being squeezed out, her vagina should be dilated ( by application of oil ). She should be asked to bear down mildly in the beginning and forecebly afterwards till delevery; she should be made happy often uttering words such as "son is born''; by water ( drinking, sprinkling etc. ) and air (fanning). By these her life (strength ) returns and gets relieved of the exhaustion of delevery. 80b-82.

Garbhasanga ( obstructed labour ) : t'

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In case of obstruction df dele very of the foetus, the vaszina should be fumigated by using the peel of a black snake, the root of should be tied to the hands and feet or the roots of suvarcala or visalya; this may done even in non·delevery of the jarayu ( foetal covering ). She should 'be lifted up by the arms and shaken1 her waist hit hard by ( her own ) heels, buttocks squeezed hard ( by otherS' ), palate and throat tickled with plait of hair, milky sap of snuhl , over the scalp, paste of either anyone) two or .all of bhiirja, langalika turhbi, sarpatwak ( snake peel ), and

SARIRASTHANA

377

should be applied to the vag ina and fumigated; paste of and talisa, along with suramal)<)a ( supernatant fluid of beer ) or "vith ( soup ) 0f kulattha or wi1 h asava · of balvaja ( fermented infusion of balva ) should be given to drink. 83-:-87.
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Medicated oil prepared with ( decoction and paste of) satahva, ajaji, citraka, hingu. and madana, added with cows urine, milk and oil of should be used for anuvasa na (fat enema) through the rectum or vagina ( douche ) 88-89a.

Apara patana ( delevar)l

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A decoction enema prepared from vaca, kai}a and ( used for preparing decoction and paste ) mixed with oil and salt ( saindhava ) and administered , ( through the rectunt ) causes quick delevery of the apara ( placenta ). Vata is the cause for its obstruction and by winning it over ( vata ) it ( the placenta ) comes out quickly.
Experts, can even remove it ( placenta ) by their hands (introduced into the vagina ) smeared with oil and with the nails pared ( cut close }. \ After the apara ( placenta } has come out, the vagina and entire body, should be anointed with oil and n1assaged. 89b-91.
-

Aiakkalla ( post-partum pain ) :--

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In case, the disease known as makkalla (characterised by) pain in the head, region of the urinary bladder and the abdo· men manifest, the woman should be administered yavak§lra, nicely powdered, mixed with gh,.ee or warm water pr sour gruel prepared from corns and mixed with powder of guQa, and trijataka. 92-93a.

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The 'new born child should then be nursed by women, by adopting regimen of baby care (described in chapter 1 of Uttarasthina ). 93b.

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If the woman who has delevered feels hungry, she should - be given oil or ghee co11:taining the ( powder of j paficakola, in the maximum dose ( a,.s prescribed in oleation therapy ) followed by warm water in which molasses is dissoved or decoction -of drugs which mitigate vita; by these the vita does not get aggravated and the bad blood becomes purified. This regimen should be continued Jor two or three days. 94-95.
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If the woman is unfit -fat t>leation therapy, the same regi· men ( as described above ) should be adopted without the use of fats ( oil or ghee ) for drinking. After she has consumed the drink, her abdomen should be anointed with yamaka (mixture of two fats, oil and ghee ) and tied with a band of cloth. 96.

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. SARlRASTHANA
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After the digestion ( of the oil consumed ) she should take a bath and given a drink of peya ( thin gruel) processed with drugs mentioned earlier.. From the third day onwards, yavagii ( thick gruel ) processed with decoction of drugs of vidaryadi gaJ}a ( vide chapter 15 of siitrasthana ) added with more of fat ( ghee ) should be given as found suitable; or yavagii prepared from milk should be given., After seven days, the use of nourishing foods to be given gradually, is ideal. Meat should not be used earlier to the lapse of twelve days. 97-98j..

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The .,yoman who has delevered should be nursed very carefully, for her diseases are difficult to treat because of the exhaustion caused by growth of the foetus, its birth, pain ( of delevery ), discharge of fluid and blood ( in large quantities) . 99.
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. In this manner • the woman should remain under control, with the use of foods etc described so far; for a period of OI:J.e and half months, or tiJl she gets over being called "the woman "who has delevered'' and till the appearance of (next) menstruation. 100-1001.

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. Thus ends, the chapter called Garbbavakrafiti, the first in Sarira sthana of hrdaya samhita composed by srimad Vagbha\a son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

C/zapter-2 GARBHAVYAPAD .S:AR!RA (Disorders rif pregnancy)
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We shall now leXIJOUnd thc- chapter Garbhavyapat sariradisorders of pregnancy; thus said and other great sages.

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If pregnant woman, by indulgence in forbidden things ( foods and activities described in the previous chapter ) or due to other diseases, develops discharge of menstrual blood or pain (related to it), she should be administered lubricating and coolant things both externally and iuternally; a diaper smeared with the paste of sevya ( usira ), arhbhoja, hima, bark of ( trees with milky sap ) should be inserted into the vagina and also kept over ( the region of) the urinary bladder, made very n1oist ( wet ) often. 1-2.
Notes :-External lubrication cooling methods are; anointing of oiJ, bath or tub bath in cold water, exposing to cold breeze etc; Internal methods a1e use of foods and drinks which are cold to touch and also in

I

potency.

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SXRIRASTHANA

381

The woman should be anointed with satadhauta ghrta and made to lie in a tub filled with water processed with those drugs ( sevya etc. mentioned in the previous verses ), made to lick milk and ghee mixed with sugar, honey, kesara {filaments) of kamala, and utpala; eat and kaseruka, drink mi.lk boiled with kaiita {gandhapriyangu), abja (kamala), saliika, and tender fruits ofudurhbara or with sali, kakoli, the two bala, madhuka and mess prepared from red rice mixed with honey and sugar should be partaken along with milk or juice of meat of animals of desert-like land. Blood letting should be done without administering purifactory therapies. 3-6a.
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In women, who have not completed three months { of pregnancy ) and in those who get menstrual flow prematurely, treatment should be done after informing the refusibility ( of the treatment because of doubt of success). Treatments desirable then are : the use of sita { coolants ) associated with ( drugs causing ) dryness; fasting, drinking water processed with ghana, uslra, gudiici, aralu, dhauyaka, duralabha, parpata, candana, and bala; food prepa· red from trJJ.a dhanya ( corn from plants ) along (soup) of mudga after the prematqre bleeding with is controlled, use of lubricants mentioned previously should be adopted. 6b-9a.

Garbha pll.ta-( miscarriage) :II

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If the embryo gets expelled Q_!_!t, the women should drink strong wine as much as 'she can-, in order to clear the cavity \ of the uterus and to prevent the experience of pain; should drink peya (thin gruel ) procet?sed with laghu pancamiila and kept dry ( adding fats ); woman who is not accustomed to _wine should drink peya ( thin gruel ) processed with the paste of pancakola or peya processed with decoction of bilwadi paficaka ( mahat pancamiila ), along with broken tila and uddalaka ( a variety of rice ); this regimen of peyi drinking should be for that number of days as the number of the month (of pregnancy ); the peyi which is easily digestable, devoid offat and salt, and processed with drugs kindling is best suited. These methods ( of treatment ) are meant to remove the / excess moisture present in the and dbatus. Afterwards, the use of fatty foods and enema therapies, which are stren::gthening, improving digestion and rejuvinating (should be ··adopted ). 9b-13.

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Foetus grown in strength but not grown in size, because of fluid discharge from the vaginal ( genital ) tract, remains inside the abdomen producing throbbings and no enlargement of the abdomen. This is known as

By grief, fasting, dryness or excess of fluid discharge from the vaginal ( genital ) tract, vita undergoing aggravation ( increase ) causes emaciation and dryness of the foetus. This

tl]

SARIRASTHA.NA

!85

is known as niJgodara. Even though the abdomen is enlarged the foetus gets diminished, there will be throbbings ( of th; abdomen ) after long time. 14-16.

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. For the woman should be ·comforted with ghee, mtlk and JUice of meat processed with drugs possessing properties such as stoutening, mitigating vata and sweet taste and made to eat eggs. After she gets contented by these, she should be given a ride on vehicles or on animals ( horse, elephant etc. ). 17.

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For Linagarbha ( foetus ting, ppearing, dissol· ving ) not having throbbings, the won1an should be given either the juice of meat of hawk, cow, fish, utkrosa (fishing eagle) or barhi (peacock) added with more of ghee ·or the soup of and m'iilaka; or drink a mixture of tender fruits ofbilva, tila, and flour of along with milk; or partake fatty meat or honey. Her waist should be anointed with oil daily, and she must be kept happy always; by these, the foetus begins to grow. 'rhe foetus nourished otherwise ( by the usua 1 food of the mother ) descends ( int0 the genital tract ) with difficulty in about a year or not at all. 18-201.

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Udavarta of the pregnant \\'Oman should be won over, very quick by the use of appropriate fats and enemas, otherwise it will kill both'the foetus and the 'mother. 21.

384

[ CH.

Notes :-Udavarta is upward movement due to suppression of natural urges of the body; too many erectations, oppre!lsion in the chest and back, enlargement of the abdomen are its chief symptoms.

Mrtagarbha (foetal death ) :II

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in the foetus, indulgence in unhealthy foods etc. ( by the mother ) or by divine intent, the foetus dies inside the abdornen. The abdomen is cold, stiff, ( without moven1ent ), bloated and very there is absence of foetal movements; giddiness, thirst, difficulty in exhaustion,. restlessness, of the eyes (Iids)'-find non-appearance of avl (labour pains). 22-24a.

By accumilation of large amount of

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( In that condition ) her genital tract should be washed with luke-warn1 water, a paste prepared from jaggery ( mola· sses ), fermented yeast, little of salt, ghee and the slimy rna terial inside the fruit of sal mali and atasi should be filled into the vagina followed by recitation of sacred hymns meant for the expulsions of the foetal membr(lnes. If ( by these n1ethods ) the impacted (dead ) foetus does not come out, the physician, after obtaining permission from her master, should pull it quickly, by force, by inserting his hand which is well lubricated into the genita] tract which is also lubricated, with the paste, with the paste of slimy material of salmali fruit if the fi>etus is suitabfe to he pullerl out by the hand .. 24b-27b.
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SARIRASTHANA

385

If the body of the foetus is irregularly placed, it should be made to get a down ward lie, by manipulations such as aficchana\ ( from horizontal to vertical position ), utpiQana ( raising from below ) sa mpiQana (rotating), (pushing sidewards ), ( pushing upwards) etc. and pulled out when it descends into the genital tract. 27!-28.

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Foetus descf'nds into the genital tract obstructing it by the hands. head, or with one leg con1ing out through the vagina and the other through the rectum-both these conditions are named as these deserve to be pulled out by the use of sharp instruments ( surgical operation )i mafiQ.alagra ( lancet ) and anguli sastra ( finger knife ) are best suited for this work, vrddhipatra which has a sharp blade should not be inserted into the vagina. 29-31 a.
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First, the scalp should be punctured and then cleared out ( pulled out of the uterus ). Next, the axillae, chest, palate. or chin, any one should be held tight by the foetal hook ( foetal forceps) and pulled out by an expert. Foetus, whose head has not been crushed should be held by its eye sockets or temples ( and then pulled out ); the foetus, if impacted by its shoulders ( it should he pulied out ) by cutting off its arms; if its £-,.1.. abdomen is bloated by air, the alimentary tract should be sp1it,
25 A

S86

A$T.A:NGA

[ CH.

intestine pulled out ( and the foetus extracted ); if impacted by the waist, the blades of the pelvic bones should be cut; whichever the parts of the foetus that is obstructing the tract, they shou1d be cut to pieces and the mother saved with all out efforts. 31 b-35.

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anila ( vata ), produces different kinds of foetal postures (lie); hence the intellegent physician should adopt appropriate methods ( of pulling out the foetus ) depe· nding on the condition. 36.
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The dead foetus should be cut ( and pulled out quickly ) because it will kill the mother also; even a second should not be ignored after its death. 37. "

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The won:.an who has impacted foetus associated with contraction and prolapse of the vaginal tract, makkala (pain after delevery, peut peral pain ), dyspnoea, foul smelling erectations and cold body should be refused. 38•

.A.parapatat)a ( extracting the placenta ) :attt
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The non-descending apara (placenta) should be pulled out by the same methods ( described earlier); after it is expelled (the entire body) should be sprinkled with warm water and anointed with oil; diaper soaked in fat ( ghee or oil ) should be inserted into the vagina; by this the vaginal tract becomes soft and the pain subsides. 39-40.

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Dipyaka, rasna, hingu, ela and pancakola-made into powder should be licked along with fat ( ghee ) or their wet bolus or decoctio-n may be consumed. Similarly pa\ha, saka twak, hingu and tejani may be used for draining out the and for relief of pain; this regimen is/ for three days; for the next seven days, the woman should drink only fats ( medicated ghee or oil ) in the evenings; or well prepared asavas ( fermented decoctions and infusions respectively ) should be consumed; diaper soaked in the decoction of or kakubha should be kept in the vagina; other secondary disorders/complications should be treated by appropriate methods. 41-44.

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Milk boiled with drugs which mitigate vata is ideal as food for ten days; meat juice is ideal for the next ten days, these after little quantity of easily digestable food. For the next four months, she should resort to sudation therapy, oleation therapy, make use of bala taila and others ( medicated oils) daily. By these, the woman attains hap pi· ness ( health ) gradually. 45-46.

Balll taila :-

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..

II

Six parts of decoction of roots of bala, same quantity of milk, decoction of yava, kola, ku]attha and dasamiila-all these drugs fo::ming one part and equal to the quantity of drug of the decoction (i.e. bahi one part, the total of all the above will be 13 parts viz 6 of decoction of bala, 6 ofmi1k, one of decoction of yava, kola, kulattha and dasamfila ); taila ( oil of sesame) making the fourteentp part (one part individuallyr) nice pasi:e ofthe tWO Ineda, daru, the tWO kakoJi, Cafidana, sAriva, tagara,jivaka, saindhava, kaHinusari, saileya, vaca, aguru, punarnava, asvagaiidha, sukla, vara, rasa ( bola), satahva, siirpapari]i, ela, twak and patra-all these made use of to prepare a medicated oil which is cooked over mild fire; this oil ( Bala taila ) approved by Dhafivantari, cures all diseases caused by vata, highly beneficial for diseases of women in peurperum, for children, persons suffering from injury to vulnerable spots and bones and ernaciated persons; it cures fever, abdominal tumors, seizures by evil spirits, insanity, retention of urine, intestinal hernia (inside the scrotum), disorders of the genital tract and consumption ( tuberculosis ). 47-52.
Notes --AruQ.adatta clarifies the quantity of each of the constitutents_ follows-to obtain 16 pala of medic<Lted oil, roots of bala. should be 24 pala, wat\.r 384 pala ( 16 times of bala ), decoction reduced to 96 pala ( .l of water ), milk 96 pala, 4 pala of decoctior1of yava etc.,! kaqa each of\he two meda etc. and oil 96 pala (equal to the decoction).
fErqifl'Pln
1

<=r<=r:

'Jtfi

II

II

Il]

SA.RlRASTHA.NA

389

When throbbings are seen over the abdomen near tbe orifice of the urinary bladder during dele very in the 'WOillan who is dead ( during the course of delevery ), it ( abdomen ) should be cut open and the child taken out quickly. 53.

MasanumlJ.sika yoga-( monthly recipes ) :'-&ottotoqt ...

ertift
:q

atif•tn

qvr

I 11 I II

11
II

!At._.uif

T:O"!;

'(11(.. 1 II

R=Rrt t
11 ''

If during the seven months of pregnancy, there is ( the risk of ) abortion then the decoction of drugs enumerated in the following seven half-verses mixed with milk, should be consumed, in sequential order ( of months and half-verses, respectively ). 1.
""'

madhuka, sakabija, payasya and suradaru, Himravalli and satavari, vrksadani, payasya, lata ( gandhapriyangu ), utpala and sariva,

2. asmafitaka,
3.

4. aoafita, sariva, rasna, padma and 5. the two brhati, kasmarya, sprouts and bark of trees having milky sap and ghee,

6.
7.

bala, sigru, srfigataka, bisa,
q'{6.

and madhuparl}ika, kaseru, madhuka and sita,

54-58 a.
II (: II
Q.,

\

ii'P:Jit
mfu
a:rq;n

'
tl
I

:I
ll

II

390

[ OH.

During the eighth month, milk boiled Viith the roots of kapittha. bilw , brhati, patola, ik?u and nidigdhika be administered; during the ninth month with sariva, anafita, payasya and during the tenth month with payamadhuka, nagara and amaradaru. 58b-60. sya or with

Garbkabhasa-false pregnancy :-etta;:f

rrrif
;r

ikerC!S' q:cr

nt

'l.a;t

\:t ll Finding the retention of (menstrual ) blood inside, by vata, in women and observing the signs of pregnancy, the unintellegent sa.y that it is pregnancy. By noting the discharge of blood only after the administration of drugs which possess pungent, hot ( in potency ) and penetratiug properties, the fools say that the foetus has been snatched away by bhiitas ( evil spirits ), because they feed on ojas ;(essence of the dhatus ), or because they are beyond control. But at no tin1e ( bhutas ) are seen eating solid bodies and why do they forego the mother of the foetus ( if they are really so ) ?. 61-62.
II
1

.at

I

II 1

II

Notes :-The above statements intimate, that mere cessation of menstrual flow temporarily is not actual pregnancy even though signa of pregnancy such as enlargement of the abdomen etc. are present. In .such conditions administration of powerful d1 ugs brings out discharge of blood but no mass from the uterus. So ignorant persons blame evil spirits for destroying the foetus. is not true as evil spirits cannot destroy solid things, only . blood coming out merely means that there is no formation of foetus at all and the condition is nothing but false pregnancy ( pseudocyesis).

tfcr

It\

U1

II

II

Thus ends the called Garbhavyapat-the secoud in Sarira stl).ana of samhita composed by srimad Vagbl),ata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

-

t
Chapter-3

A!tQAVIBH.iJGA Sil.Rl RAM-( Different parts of the body)
1
C:
+16.,.:"'1: I

,We shall now the chapter-Angavibhaga sariradifferent parts of the body; thus revealed Atreya and other great sages.

Anga-pratyanga-( major and minor parts ) : tmtt=m: 1
II

t II

Head, trunk, two arms and two legs-are in brief, the six afiga ( major parts ) of the body; eyes, heart etc. are the pratyafiga ( minor parts ) attached to them. 1..

. :q

...:::...

qn.{: ihf{t,!!ult: I

II Tt II

Sabda ( sound ), sparsa ( touch), riipa (form), rasa (taste) and gaiidha ( smell ) are the qualities of kha ( akasa. ), anila ( vayu ), agni ( tejas ), ambu ( ap ) and bhu ( prthvi ) respectively. Increase of one quality more !s found in each ( bhfita ). 2.
Noles spada, riipa, rasa and gaiidha are the natural characteristic guQa { qualities/properties ) of the five primary elements ( paiica bhiita) when they are in their paramaJ)u riipa (atomic state). In the next stage or evolution, akisa bhuta gives origin to vayu bhiita, which baa two guQa viz. sabda or ikaja bhiita and spada ( Ita own ) • From viyu hhiita is born the agnibhiita which has three viz sabda, spada and 1 riipa ( its own ). From agni bhiita is born the ap bhiita-which bas four gul)a viz. sabda, spada, riipa and rasa ( ita .own ). From ap bhiita is born the prthvi bhiita which has five guQa-viz. spar,a, 'riipa, rasa and gandha ( its own ) .

Bhautika sartra-( Bhuta-body relation ) :l

A$l'ANGA
C!

YAM
""('

[ OH.

attt?.tl I In this human body, from prthvi bhuta are ( produced) the orifices ( tubes, channels, pores ) , the ears ( organs of sound perceptipn ) , the sound ( voice, sound of the heart, lungs, etc. ) and empty spaces. From vayubhiita are ( the touch, the skin ( organ of touch percep .. tion ) and respiration. From agnibhuta are ( produced ) the eyes { of perception of light ), vision, and d1ge_stion. From ap b_quta are ( produced ) the tongue ( organ of taste perception ), taste, fluids, and moisture. From p:rthvi bhfita, are ( ) the nose ( organ of perception of smell ), the smell and the bones. 3-3l.
Notes :-il'he above is a very brief description. There many aubstancea in the body belonging to each bhiita category which can be understood by their physical properties and functions; ear, skin, eyes, tongue and nose are the of sense organs ( iiidriya ), the ear has (organ of sound perception), the skin has sparsanefidriya ( organ of touch perception ), the eye has riipeiidriya ( organ of perception of light/form), the tongue has rasaneiidriya ( organ of taste perception ) and the nose has ghril).eiidriya (organ of smell perception).

""'

ll \ ll

Matrpitr bhava-( maternal and paternal derivations ) :-. .'!1'

...... 11

II .11

H
-

...

t
eel' II

Soft parts such as blood, n1uscle, marrow, the rectum etc. are ( derived from the mother ); those which are static ( compact, bard ) such as the semen, arteries, bones, hair etc. are pitrja ( derived from the father); from cetana ( atma-soul ) are derived the mind, the se;llse organs and birth ( ordeal of being born· ) in various species of living beings. 4-5. Notes- The doctrine of ''cycle of births and deaths" is indicated in the last sentences. Atman ( soul ) who is immortal, undergoes the 01 deal of being born in different species of living beings depending upon th· · good or bad actions he performs, good actions lead to birth in good 1 noble species while bad actions lead to birth in bad, mean species. The effects of do not w;ith-death in any one life but are carried b"y

1

III)

SARIRAS'l'HANA

him to his next birth alflo. These are known as vasana. Because of this only same persons sometime exhibit extraordinary capacity of remembering and revealing incidents of their earlier lives.

SlJtmyaai bhava-( derivations from habituation etc. )-.. I

From satmya ( habituation) are derived the life (duration of life ), health, enthusiastic activity, radiance ( brilliance in all activities, colour and complexion etc. ) and strength ( physical and mental ). 6a.
Notes :-Satmya is the effect of getdng habituated to foods, drinks, activities, climate, place of living etc.

From rasa ( nutrient portion of food ) is derived the birth ( origin ) of the body ( formation and development of foetus), its maintainance ( continuance of life activity ), growth and non-attachment Cto sensual ). 6b.
Notes :--Food is the cause for man's behaviour in respect of his sensory activities. Certain foods make for great involvement in sensual activities even neglecting one's routine imperative duties. Thus they drive the person away from persuing the path of righteousness.
I '

Satvndigupa bhava-( derivaties from primary qualities ) :1

<•.'lli
tRr

1

il!mf'.r(cf

11 "' 11 •

Cleanliness, belief in gods, inclination to follow the path of pure virtue ( righteousness ) a,re satvika ( derivations from satvagu\la ) ; talkativeness, pride, anger, vanity and. jealousy 'are rajasa-( derivations f:rom rajogui}a ); fear, ignorance, sleep, lazyness and grief are' tamasa-( derivations from tamoguQa ). Thus the body is composed of the bhiitas. 7-Sa.
Noles :--Cleanliness is of three kinds-kiyika (of the body),_ ( of speech ) and minasika ( of mind ) ; gratefulness, obllgatlon, valour, nobility, good memory and many such ous qualities' are also from satvagul)a. Bravery, ungratefulness, sensuality (pleasure seeking, especially in sexual' aetivities) unsteadyness, and other
1

27

394

tOH.

vices are from rajoguoa. Committing errors, poor intellect, memory, courage- and strength are some derivations from tamoguQa. The human body like aU the 1ubstances of the universe is made up ofpancabhiitat on!y.

Sapta tvilca-( the seven skins ) :tnt t=ltt
lWit<'statq;:8' ""{f<'i.:r"t''tfif'lt

II C: II .

S:'l I

{ ), seven skins { layers of}- are produced during the fOOking ( metabolic heat activity ) of blood just as the Ia yer of scum, during the cooking of milk· . 8.
Notes :--The names and feature of these layers of the skin is rurniahed by Susruta samhiti { chapter 4 of siriraathan ) as follows-the first layer is 1f18 in 1ize (thickness} of a paddy grain, and exhibits colours and shades; the second i1 1/16 in tbicknesa, Jveta the third it 1/12 in thickness; Tamra, the fourth is 1/8 in thickness; vedini, the fifth is 1/5 in thickness, RoAiP}l the sixth is of the size of a paddy, • Mamsat1Aar6 the seventh, is double the aize of a paddy. Each layer is the teat for many diseases.

In this

Sopta kalll-seven membranes :....

m:

.....

...

Nqfli': ChiS I

._

II t,. II I

The moisture present inside the dhatu ( tissues ) and asayag (organs) cooked ( processessed) by their own heat. ( of each dhatu and asaya ) become transformed into.'" structures called Kala, just as essence gets formed in the, trees. ( kapha ), These are covered ( coated, smeared ) with snayu ( tendenous waxy material ) or apara ( chorion ); these are seven. 9-10.
Notes :--Identification of these structures known as kala has still \ remained a problem. These are generally auumed to be thin membrance, responsible for certain specific functions. Their names and detail• as furnished in su5rut samhiti ( chapter 4 of 'arirasthina ) is as follows-( I) Mamsadkarl kal4--present inside the muscles and allow the formation of net work of veins, arteries, tendons and other tubular ttructure. (2} RaJdtJd.. l&ara kala- present inside the muscles and more so in the liver and 1pleen and holding blood inside them. (3) Medodhari kali-present in the abdomen and interior of the bones holding the bone marrow-(red marrow in amall bones and yellow marrow in big bones). (4) Sleftn"'cl"-a.ri kali-prctent ioaidc the bony joints providing for euy

I ......

iti]

SARIRASTHANA

395

movement. (5) kala-present inside the pakvasaya ( intestines) and attends to the function of separation the waste { faecal matter ) at the uiJ<;luka ( caecum ). (6) Pittadhara kala-present inside the amasaya (stomach and duodenum) with holds the ingested food for sometime 'in the amasaya and attends to cooking of food ( digestion ). (8) Suk_radhara kala-present in the right s\de, two anguli (fingers breadth) below the opening of the orifice of the urinary bladder. Spoken in terms of modern anatomicai knowledge, they may be identified as {I) mimsadhara kala -sheaths or seperating membranes of individual muscles. /2) raktadhari kati-heamopoitic membranes of liver and spleen. (3) secreting bone marrow. (4) kala-membrane secreting synovial fluid. (5) kala-mucus membrane of the intestines attending to absorption. (6) pittadhara kalamucus membrane of the !to mach, duodenum and small intestine attending to digestion of food. (7) sukradhara kala-·membrane Inside the testes and seminal ducts, producing and transporting semen.

Sapta Dfl!,ya ( seven containers ) : II
:;:.r
1

II
II

II

Adhara ( a ya )-containers/recepticles-are seven; the sa first is of rakta ( blood ), followed by those of kapha, ama (undigested food), pitta, pakva (digested food), vayu ( vata ), and miltra ( urine ); in women garbhasaya (uterus), the eighth situated in between pittasa ya and pakvasa ya. 10-11.
Notes is the yakrit ( liver ) and plihan ( spleen ); is the stomach and small intestine; pittasaya is duodenum, live:r and gall bladder; pakvasaya is the large intestine inclusive of caecum; vatisaya is large intestine inclusive of rectum; and miitrasaya is the urinary bladder.

KotlhlJnga ( viscera ) : -

Cb"'hsltrdir
'(ii)

5m
II II

(organs inside the chest and abdomen) are the hrdaya kloma {? ), phuphpltusa (lungs), yakrit ( liver ), plihan ( spleen ) UIJ.QUka ( caecum), two vrikka ( kidneys ),. nabhi ( umbilicus ) , dimhba ( uterus ? ), antra ( int«stines ) and basti ( bladder). 12.

396

A&TANGA HE.DAYAM

[ OH.

Notes : --Kloma has been variously identified as trachea, right lung, gall bladder, or pancreas of these, pancreas is accepted by the majority of scholars. Similarly the identification of dtmbha; generally it is identified as uterus.

]fvitadhama ( seats
C{U

of life ) :-

..

I II

t II

The ten jivita dhan1a are the siras { head ) , rasana ban· dhana { attachment of the tongue ), kantl}.a ( throat ), asra ( blood ), hrdaya, ( heart ), nabhi ( umbilicus), basti (urinary bladder), sukra (semen ),, ojas ( essence of dhatiis ) and guda (rectum and anus ).

]ala-kmpJ,arJdi ( net-like structures, tendons etc. ) :-

I
II

at:

1

fl(gun

;:rq II

II

There are in the body sixteen jala ( net like structures ) . and kal)Qara (big tendons ) seperately; six kiirca {brush-like structures }, seven sivani ( sutures, raphae ) located in the penis, tongue and head ( ,skull ) , these should be spared from sharp instruments; ( there are ) four mathsa rajju ( muscular ropes), fourteen asthisaiighata (confluence of bones), eighteen simanta (border lines, dividing lines, demarcations). 14-15.

.Asthi ( hones )-snayu ( tendons )-peJi ( muscles ) :qfl!R

'l'tfUr

'li'TUli'TI",

q• !c femfa': .uri

-

II

t\ II

i

..

I

u t" u
I

Three hundred aad sixty is the number of asthi ( boaes ) inclusive of teeth and nails. Dhafivaiitari ( divodasa ) says tbe'y are three hundred only. The number of sandhi ( bony

Ill)

SARIRASTH:ANA

397

joints ) is two hundred and ten. Atri's son ( Atreya ) says they are two thousand; snayu ( tendons) are nine hundred, pesi ( muscles ) are five hundred, in men and twenty more in women located in the vaginal tract and breasts. 16-17}.
Sirll ( veinr ) : Q..._

·t

11
11

11
11

__

llqf.a

!I 1

Mula sinl ( root veins ) are ten located in ( attttched to ) the hrdaya (heart), they transport the rasa ( first fluid tissue ) and ojas ( essence of tissues) to the whole body; on them all the activities of the body depend. They are big at their roots and very small at their tips, and appear like the lines of a leaf ( net like ); thus divided they become seven hundred ( in number ). 18-19.

Aved hyl! sir a ( veins not to be cut for venesection )
cq

:na, amr;sr
ii'T"

II I -

II

R:fti

ii: i
:_

9

11

11
II

iJ: 1I

at:

1

1
II Ir

i
"" a
ll
.....
.....

,,
..
iT

u ":($4
1

11 11
II II

9

..
;r;:it

11

1
ifT.
alt=IT
II 1 II

i

A&TANGA

YAM

[CH.

In each extremity the ( number of) siras ( veins) are one hundrqd; out of them, the four viz, one by name jalandhara and three situated deep inside, should not be cut ( for performing venesection). In the srol}i ( pelvis ) there are thirty two sirasi of them, two each in both (groins ), two each in both katika taruJ}a, ( crest of pelvic bone ); these eight should not be t0uched by the sharp instrument (of venesection ). In the parsva ( flanks ) there are sixteen; of them one on either side going upwards should be avoided. In the ( back ) these are twentyfour on either side of the vertebral column; among them two each on either side going upwards should not be the sharp instruments.
ill

t

In the ja\hara ( abdomen ) their number !s same""as in the back; out of them two on either side located above the penis on either side of the line of hair should not be touched by the sharp instrument. In the uras ( ch"est) there are forty; out of them the four• teen viz. two each situated at stanarohita ( upper border of the brest ), stanamiila ( lower border of the breast ), htdaya , ( region of the heart ), one each at apasthambha ( left and righ. borders of the chest) and apalapa (left and right borders of the back ) should not be cut. In the griva { neck) their number is same as in the back; among them, sixteen viz. two nila, twq manyA, two krkatika, two vidhura, and eight matrka·should be avoided. In the hanu ( lower jaw ) there are sixteen; of them, two which binds of joint ( of the lower jaw with the skull ) should not be cut ). 20-27. -· ,
f;w•tqi

i •

i
.... 1 "'

fiR:

' n
wt§trt'J:. 1
II

u
II

-

-

Ill]

SARIRASTHANA

399
1
'

i: .,
..
....

:q 8MT

i aqt..s.scta1,
._."•ot.t•:
'lffi

:1 l.o 11 t
11 I
II I

"\

it •

11
II

WJ:EI

:qrfwar: g

CffOrat:

II\\ II
I

..._..'ltu1 i m'fm:

Cllfit:

:;;nfSRat: II

II

In the jihva ( tongue ) their number is same as in lower jaw ( sixteen ); of them two lower ones which make for taste perception and two which make for speech ( should not ._:be cut ). In the nose there are twenty four; of them, the responsible for smell perceR!ion and one in the palate should not be cut.. In the eyes they are .fifty six; of them, six viz, two each which do the closing and opening of the eyelids; the two situated at the a ( outer angle of the eye ) ( one in each eye ) should be

In the forehead there are sixty; out of them, the one loca, ted at the sthapani, two at the avarta, four at the border line of the hair-these seven should be avoided.
In the ears there are sixteen; ofthem two responsible for perception of sound should be avoided. In the ·Sa.iikha ( temples ) also they are of the same number ( sixteen ); of them, two situated at the of the temples should not be cut. In the head there are twelve; of them, one each located at the ( at the border line of hairs ), simafita ( sutures in the skull) and adhipati (bregma in the centre of tlie skull). eight ) should not be cut. ( was described the siras ( veins ) in each part of the body, ninetyeight (in total) for the whole body which are not 'tO be cut ( for venesection ); apart from those ( siras )

400

[CH.

which are fused together, formed into lumps, very minute, curved and located inside joints also should not be cut ( for blood letting). 28-34.

....

Sirll vibhaga ( classffication
atG'T

of veins ) ·:g.i

ualift

cmr

'
ii6$t: '' \'" ''
1

Out of the seven hundred siras ( veins) one fourth of them (one hundred carry blood vitiated by vata, pitta, kapha and pure ( unvitiated ) blood seperately. The mala ( ), remaining. so ( within their normal state) the body, while, on the other band ( in their abnormal state ) they cause troubles to the body. 35.

a-sr
illiiq)(ft:

II l.\ II 1

i.ft<n:

n l,\S n

1 II l_(! II

Those (veins) which are bluish .. red in colour, small, (sometime) full and {some time) empty momentarily and having throbbing (pulsations ) are carrying blood mixed with vata; those which are warm to touch, of quick pace ( rate ), bluish-yellow in colour are carrying blood mixed with pitta; those which are white in colour, smooth, static ( immo• vable, firm, hard) and cold to touch are carrying blood mixed with kapha; mixture of these signs indicate mixture of Those which are deep seated, evenly placed, smooth and of slignt red colour are carrying pure blood ( unmixed with the ) 36-38.
Notes :-Thr. ancient view of the exisence of seperate veins and different kinds of blood is misleading, there is only one venous network covering the entire body and only one kind of blood. The blood. is the medium Cor vata, pitta and kapha) also to travel throught the body. When the are in their normal quantity, the blood is said to be pure. When one or more of the do*is undergo increase in their quantity which is obnonnal, the blood is said to be vitiafedjimpure. When such vhiated

III]

SARIRASTHANA

401

blood the veins, they ( exhibit their characteriostic signs in the also, which can be recognised in in the one and- the same vein .. Jt should also be remembered that the term 'siri' stands for both veins and arteries.- Recognition of increase of is attempted b.y ( examination of the pulse ) which is actually noting the features of the radial artery at the wrist.

( arteries ) : 1

atf+r:

11

11

Dhamanis, attached to the nabhi (umbilicus ) are twenty· four; surrounded by them, the umbilicus resembles the axle hole of a wheel sorrounded by spokes. By ( dhamanis) spreading upwards, downwards and sidewards·the entire body is maintained ( with supply of nourishment).
Notes :-The term 'dhamani' literally means 'that which throbs' "having pulsation" hence denotes aiJ artery; the above description of the umbilicus being the centre of the arterial system pertains to foetal life. After birth, the heart becomes the centre.

FJahya srotas ( external orifices, channel$ ) :11
1

11

Srotas ( orifices, channels, passages ) are : the two in the nose, two in the ears, two in the eyes, one of the rectum, one of the mouth and one of the urethra; in women; there are three more, two in the breasts and one of the passage of blood ( menstrual fluid ). 40. \
\ N otts :-These orifices are big ( wide ) in size, open to the exterior and nine in number, hence, these are also called as sthiila srotas, bahya srotas, nava dvara, nava chidra (nine cuts or doors of the body ).

Abhyantra srotas ( internal channels ) :-II
..
26 A

II
II

I

mf'il

\1•tq

II

402

A$TANGA

.[ CH.

Srotas which are internal are said to be thirteen and are seats of ljfe ( activities essential for existence of life ); they are, one each of pral}a ( respiration ), the dhatus ( the seven ( the three chief wastes ), athbu basic tissues ), the ( water ) and anna ( food ). These getting vitiated ( becoming abnormal ) by indulgence in unsuitables (foods and activities) give rise to diseases; when unvitiated ( normal ) these make for health. 41-42.
'I I

'l ll1jl, II

These possess the same colour as their__ dhatu {tissue in which they are present)) are circular, big (wide ) or small ( minute ) , long and resemble the net· like lines of a leaf. 43.
fef&Ra:l
q1:1

l

!1'\"'!6: 11

11

Foods and activities which possess qualities similar with of the and dissimillar with those of dhatus are the vitiators of the srotas. 44.....
Srota dusti ( ahnormilities

ferm;la)

of the channels ) : en m:rti

erT I

u a'\ u

Atipravrtti ( increase of structure or function Saiiga ( decrease of structure or function ), Sira ( srotas ) grafithi ( formation of lumps. tumors, thickening, etc. ) and Vimarga gamana (movement in unusual or wrong paths) are, the Sroto ( signs of abnormality of srotas ). 45.

v_l'(.tfu•

•t=rt

..

.- 1 _II

II

The orifices ( openings/mouths) of the srotas are minute small, spread long and far, like those in the lotus stalk; through them rasa ( fluid tissue carrying nutrition ) nourishe• ( all the parts of the body ). 46.

III]

SARIRASTH}.NA

403

9

1 _crT ll
II
II

e

II

If the srotas are injured; delusion/loss of consciousness, tremors, flatulence, vomitting, fever, delerium, pain in the abdomen, suppression of feaces and urine and even death may occur. Hence the physician should first inform the rela.. tives of the person who has injury to srotas, about the incurability and then do treatment, remove the foreign body with all out efforts and treat the wound in the same way as treating a recent/fresh wound. 47-48.
Notes :-In addition to the above, some more details about these internalatotas available in saiigraha ( chapter 6 of Sarirasthana ) are furnished here : ''Srotas are thirteen in number viz, 1. PraJ)avaha-srotas -its chief organs are the hrdaya ( heart ) and the mahasrotas (alimentary tract ), it gt ts vitiated ( becomes abnormal ) by dryness and depletion ( oftissues ), suppression of thirst, and other urges ofthe body etc. Respiration-increased, dicreased, difficult or interrupted, acompanied with pain and sound are the ( chief) signs of vitiation; treatment for these is the same as that of (dyspnoea). 2. Ambuvaha ( udakavaha) srotasits chief organs are talu ( palate ) and kloma (pancreas), it gets vitiat<'d by ima (uncooked food), fear, excess of alcoholic drinks, dry foods, supprrssion of thirst etc; severe thirst, dryness of the mouth, ringing in thr rart& and unconsciousness are signs of its vitiation, tn-atment for thf'sc i• namr as that of (thirst ). 3. Annavaha srotas-its chief ar(" amasaya { stomach) and vamapar5va { left flankfocsopltagc" ). -1. Ramvaha srotas its chief organs are the hrdaya ( heart ) and the ten dhmnani ( blood -vessels ). Rakta.vaha srotas-its chi1 f organ• are yakrt ( livrr ) and pliban ( spleen } 6. Mamsavaha srotas-chicf organs are the snayu (tendons) and tvak (skin). 7. Medovaha srotas chief organs arc the two - vrkka ( kidneys ) and mimsa (muscles ). ( vapavahana or pancrras in Caraka ). B. Asthivaha cheif organs the jagh;ma ( pelvis ) and medlla (fat ). 9. Majjavaha· srotas-· chi.ef organs are the parsva (joints ) and asthi 10. Sukravaha-srotas-chief organs are the two stana (breasts), the two (scrotum or the testes to be more precise). Caraka includes §ephas { penis ) also. 11. Miitravaha srotas-chief organs are the basti (urinary bladder-) and the two {groins). 12. srotascbief organs are ( large intestine ) and· sthfilaaiitra ( sthiila according to Caraka.' 13. Svedavaha'srota's-chief are madas (fat) and romakiipa ( hair follicles). -

,...,

404

[ CH.

Srotas are so called because they have sraval)a ( secretion, exude fluid materials ) . From the foregoing description and other relevant information from other treatises, modern scholars are inclined to understand the internal srotas as minute pores in the wall of the cells of the primary tissues of the body and the thirteen kinds of srotas thus to the functional system of the body, viz.; prAI}avaha srotas-respiratory system, annavaha srotasdegestive system and so on.

]lltharllgni ( fire ..like agency in th1 stomach .. duodenum ) :--

fl

\

ll

Pacaka pitta, as described earlier ( in chapter 12 of siitra· sthana ) is the one that cooks ( digests ) the food; Atreya proclaims that there is ( heat, fire-like agency ) in {each one of) the dhatu and mala .. 49.
Notes :-Pacaka pitta is present inside the jathara and cooks the inge.. sted food, hence it is variouslt called as jith:uagni, kayigni, audaryigni and also as vaisvanara.

...
"'ieiST

;rat 1
ll "-.o II
I
II
1 fqij.rcr II

'ltbrttrqa.d1:
GJ(.WSewtqi!n

II II

staQot.fl

tciVJnt:ritq ... f,.ft cqtfq

I

!l!T

ittttb,t(uf\ n \l\ 11
II II

Its ( pacaka pitta vis a vis jatharagni ) seat is _grahaiJ.i duodenum) so called because it withholds the food (for a certain time inside the amasaya ( stomach ) to fecilitate digestion). In the opinion is the kala known as pittadhara. Situated at the entrance of the pakvasaya ( intestines ) and acting as a bolt to the door of pathway' /channel of food, it is responsib!_e for duration of life, health,

-

III]

S.ARIRASTHANA

valour, ojas ( essence of the dhatu), strength of ( all ) the" bhiitagni and dhatvgni. When it ( graha:Qi ) is strong, it with .. holds the ingested food in the amasa ya ( stomach ), cooks ( digests ) it well and then briQgs it down [into the pakvasaya ( intestines)] but when weak it allows even q.ncooked ( undigested) food [ into the pakvasaya ( intestines ) ]. The strength of the graha:r;li is from agni itself, and itself ( strength of agni ) is from grahal}i; when the agni undergoes vitiation, it (grahaiJ.i) also gets vitiated and produces diseases./ That food which bestows nourishment to the dhatus of the body, ojas, strength, colour (and coll}plexion ) etc. is really made so by the agni, which is the cause for its cooking ( dige• stion ); rasa and others ( dhatu ) do not get ( formed and nourished ) by uncooked ( ) food. 501-54.
AhlJraplJka ( digestive processes ) :-

am
arm:

/

eli
q,..(q •...,

1

11
1

11

IL

The food ingested at the proper time, is drawn into the alimentary tract by the praQavata; its hard/big masses split and made soft by the liquid; then the audaryagni (jatharagni· fire-like agency ) activated by samanavata cooks the iood present in the amasaya ( stomach like thefire cooks the rice and water kept in the pot. 55-56. )
I

qra fqC\,.lC{+iSaf ffi:r: u

11

"men

I'

qtt

q

....

u

n

Although the food consists of all the six tastes, it first becomes madhura ( sweet ) and gives rise to the production of kapha, of frothy nature; next undergoing further cooking

466

ASTANGA HRDAYAM . .

.

[CH.

it becomes amla ( sour ) and gives rise to the production of pitta; then getting expelled frorr; the amasaya ( stomach ) it gets dried, solid and katu ( pungent ) and gives rise to the production of vata. 57-58.
Notes :-The three successive stages of transfotmations-the macQlUra, amla and katu-are known as Avasthapaka. each one leading to the production of kapha, pitta and vata respectively. All these three stages together form the first phase of digestion of food.

I
ll

The five (agni) (fire-like agency) viz, bhauma, apya, agneya, vayavya and nabhasa, cook the, parthiva and other qualities of foods; each of its own kind, 59.
Notes :-Bhauma ( pa1 tbiva ), apya, agneya, vayavya and nabhasakinds ofagni are known as bhii.Uignis. They are present in the jatharagni itself and ·derive strength from it, and commehce their actions after the three avasthapaka are completed. Each bhiitagni acts upon its own kind of materials the food, parthivagqi acts on parthiva materials, apyagni on apya materials and so on. This actj1 vity of the bhiitagni is known as which is the second phase of digestion.

a- •
qtf'lqt:

qifit

itqt:

11

u

They ( qualities of food ) after undergoing cooking, nourish the qualities ( materials of the body i.e, and mala ), parthhra qualities ( of the food) nourish qualities (materials of the body ) only, and the rest the others ( respectively ). 60.
Notes :-After the parthiva qualities ofthe food become the nourishment of the par thiva category of materials ( such as bones, muscles etc); ipya qualites nourish only apya materials (kapha, rasa las-ka, medas, majja, mutra etc ), vayaviya qualites nourish viyiv!ya materials ( vata skin, etc ), nibhasa qualities nourish nabhasa materials ( empty spaces, ears etc ), In this manner the different qualities of food provide nourishment to the materials of the }>ody.

I
t{,si felur.fl;f II

,iu l

SARIRASTHANA

4o7

The digested food ( after both phases of digestion) gets divided into two parts viz, kitta ( waste ) and sara (essence). The fine {liquid ) portion of waste product of food becomes ( urine ) and the solid becomes sakrt ( feaces ).

_

tfQ!M..sfstm: 1

'll

The s,ara (essence) undergoes further cooking ( transfor· mation ) by the seven agnis of their own, { dhatvagni present in each dhatu ).

Dkatu paritJama ( tissue metoholism ) :--

aa)

a:rm
(l'(f:

um

:q 11

n

I

From rasa, rakta gets formed, then mamsa (from rakta ), from mamsa, medas gets formed,. then asthi from medas; from asthi, majja gets formed, then the $ukra ( from majja ). from sukra the garbha (embryo) gets formed.'
Nolu :-The sara (essence) offood also known as ahararasa gets absorbed in the pakva§aya ( the small and large intestines ) and undergoes further transformation and becomes rasa dhitu-the first dhitu. It contains nutritive materials ( po§aka amh ) required by all the other dhitus. It travel& to all the tissues through the internal srotas present in the dhitus and supplies them their nutrition. These nutritive materials are acted upon by the dhitvgni, present in each dhitu. After this, two kinds of mate· rials get formed viz, sara (essence ) and kitta (waste ). The sara {essence) is again of two kinds viz 1. sthiila (gross ) which is more in quantity, is made use of by the same dhitu for its own growth. 2. {Bne)-which ialess in quantity, is the moity required for the formation of the next succeeding dhitu. Thus rasadhitu contributes some materials to mimsa and so on. Hence it is said that one dhitu is the food for the other. The rasa dhitu, so called because it is constantly circulating, carries these materials also from one dhatu to the other. Hence the above description of "the proceeding dbatu giving birth to its succeeding dhatu". The last dhitu the-sukra-leads to the formation of the embryo. ,

,

Rasa dhitu carrying nutrition to all the dhitus and the o( the seven dhitus has been explaineq by commsmtators like Cakrapal)idatta, with three Nyiyas ( analogies ) d;tdiu nyiya, kedirikulyi nyiya and khalekapota nyaya. 1. nyiya-just as the milk ·gets converted into curds, into butter and b1.1tter to ghee, the rasa dltitu 9ecomes raktadhitu, rakta

[CH·
becomes mamsa and so on. This explaination has been rejected as it cannot explain the formation of sara and kitta. 2. khale kapota nyaya-just as pegions from far and near come to the heap of corQ kept at one place, pick up their requirement and go back to their so also each dhatu picks up its requirement from the pool of rasa dhatu ( in the pJkvasaya ). This anology has also been,, rejected as it does not provide for circulation of rasadhatu. 3 Keddrikulya nyaya-just as a vast field of crops, divided into small plots, each one supDlled with water by small channels, thus supplying at their own places; the water of one plot flowing nutrition to all into its next in small quantities, rasa dhatu also flows through small cha· nnela (internal srotas ), supplyng nutritioa to all the dhatus remaining in their own places. This anol?gY answering to all the provisions ( chie'fl y the circulation of rasadhitu, existence of srota1 contribution of moities from one dhatu to the other etc. has been accepted. The presence of fiire Jike agency in each tissue, the process of paka ( cooking, digestion, transformation ) the production of essence and waste in each dhatu, formation and development of dhatu one after the other, ensuring the growtb of the bofty all these are known as Phitii pariJ,.lima ( metabolism ).
Cfi'J;:

fqc6 ,
\1't<lift

tltf II ' \ II
Jrill= 1

Kapha, pitta, kha mala (the waste products of the external srotas) sweda (sweat), nakha (nails) and roma fatty material of the eyes, skin and feaces; and the ojas ( essence of dhatu ) are the mala ( wastes ) of the dhatus respectively. 63.
Notes :-kapha is the waste product of rasadbatu, pitt a is of rakta, excre· tions of the eyes, nose, mouth are the wastes of mamsa; sweat is of medas; nails and hair are of asthi; fatty material of feaces, eyes, skin etc. arc of majja, and ojas is the waste product of sukra.
\

The essence and wastes of dhatus are produced only 'after paka ( in the dhatus ). 64.
1

n
m$ii

u

qtffi'

1

n

u

111 j

SARlRASTHA.NA

The continuity of evolution of dhatus is of the intimate interrelationship ( between the preceeding and the succeeding dhatu ). ·Some ( authorities ) say, that the food gets to sukra ( dhatu ) in one day; some say, after six days; and yet others. after one after undergoing series of paka ( digestion and transformation ), The transformation of bhojya dhatus ( nutrient tissues, small quantities of essence of the preceding tissue ) goes _on uninturrpted like the ( movement of) wheel. 65-66.

smNar ,
sntt: ·
Aphrodisiacs ( drugs etc. ) by their special effects, produce sukra etc. immediately. Probably other medicines also produce, their actions ( effects ) by a day and night. 67.
eq1:.-f

I

iti

\<= 11

Rasa dhatu itself gets circulated by the proper ( normal ) activity of vyanavata, throughout the body, continuously, at all times. ,
f{t1tq ... tult
..... fq

t:liilfa'

:q'5(

-

mer: II \ ' II
I

..-r: I

When the rasa dhatu accumulates/stagnates at any place due to the abnormality of the kha ( srotas inside the dhatus ) it gives rise to diseases in that place, just as clouds ( stagna· ting at one bring about rain. Like wise the also under_go aggravation {increase ) at' any one place (due stagnation ). 69-70a.
'Not,s :-The chief1eaCI of rasa is hrdaya (heart) which is the vyina -vita al1o. Vyina pushes the rasa through the siris and dhamanll (blood vessels), and causes its circulation inside the srotas present . 28 - in the dh\tua. When the1e srotas become abnormal ( the 'four kinds of sroto mentiQned earlier ) due to indulgene in unhealthy foods and

410

HR.DAYAM

[CH.

activities, the circulation of rasa is obstructed ( partially or completely ) at the site of such abnormality. Obstruction leads to accumilation. Rasa 4_hatu is the medium of transport of the ( vita, pitta and kapha ) also. 'So when there is accumilation of rasa at any place there is accumilation of also. Both the two together give rise to the onset of diseases at that place.

Jtilharagni prlJahanayam ( importance oj gastric fire ) :-

....
qmUJmf\lcit

II \to II
1

fa
.:.

II 1
II

\tt II

II

Thus, was described the activities of the agni of anna, ( fire•like agency · responsible for digestion of food known as kayagni etc.), the bhiita (the five bhiitagni) and the dhatu ( the seven dhatvagni ). Among all these dige· stive agencies, that which cooks the food ( i. e. jatharagni, kosthagni ) is great ( in strength), it is the root ( chief cause ) for them (bhiitigni and dhatvagni); its increase and decrease make for their increase and decrease respectively; so it should be preserved ( maintained .normal ) with great effort ( care ), by the proper use of suitable foods and drinks; on its normalcy depend the life span, and condition of strength ( of the person ). 71-72.

,.,.

]atharllgni hheda ( kinas of gastric fire ) :--

{:fmit

...

fq.msfVRimdi\'

1

'' "' ''
It ( ) is sama ( normal ) when sarnana vata is in its normal seat ( or condition ) ; it becomes (erratic) when samana vata is in the wrong path ( or increased ); it is tiksl}.a ( very powerful ) when ( the samanavata is ) associated wit'l pitta, and i! is mat}da ( weak ) when ( samana vata is ) associated with kapha. 73.

Ill)

SA.RlRASTHi\NA

411

Thus the agni is of four kinds-Sama ( normal ), ( erratic, unsteady }, ( strong ) and Manda (weak),
q:
II II

1 II
I

It

11

u

That which cooks (digests) the properly ingested food at the proper time is Samagni ( normal ) J that which cooks the food sometimes too quickly though it is improperly consumed ( at improper time, more in quantity etc. ) and some times too slow, though the food is properly consumed { at proper time and in usual quantity ), is is that which digests the food too quick even though the food is improper (or more in quantity); Mandagni is that which digests the food even though proper, after a long time produ· cing dryness of the mouth, noise in the abdomen, gurglings of the intestines, :flatulence, and heavyness. 76.
Notes :-Ayurvcda attaches great importance to the jatharagni-digestive ac.tivity in the gastrointestinal tract. Health and ill-health depend on it. Almost all organic diseases ( of both the body and mind ) are said to arise from abnormal states of digestive activity. Hence the utmost need to preserve its normalcy.

Triviaha bala ( three kinds

of strength

) :-

(a..

Rl\lt I
\t\9 II

,
I

:a

1 11 \SC: 11

Sahaja, kalaja and yuktikrta-are the three kinds of strength of the body. Among them, !iahaja is that which is due to satva etc. ( body having excellence of aU the tissues and of the mind ) and which is natural { born with, innate to the body ); Kalaja is that due to season and age ofthe person ), Yuktija is that due to ( accruing from ) activities, foods and effect of rejuvinators ( drugs etc. ). 77-78..

[CH.
Notes :-BaJa or strength is of two kinds viz, ( 1) karmdakti-capacity to do work and (21 vyidhik*amitva-capacity to resist or withstand diseases. Both these, are included in the three fold classification mentioned in the above verse-. Sahaja is the inborn or natural strength and is attri· buted to the predominance of satva guQa. lriilaja or seasonal strength during winter and youth man,s strength is optimum while during summer, infancy, young age and old age it is minimum, due to the effect of climate and condition of tissues and organs of the body, Tuktikrta means artifi. cially created; by habitual use healthy foods and activities, avoidance of unhealthy or poison-like foods and drinks, and u11e of medicines ( rejuvinators, tonics, aphrodisiacs, serums· and vaccines etc. ). Habitat, race, familial traitr, planetary influences at the time of birth, condition of the seeds ( spermatozoan and ovum ) , the womb, and also ot the mind are the other factors influencing the strength of man.

Trividlza dela ( three kinds

of habitat ) :--4:'te!14..J••q: I

..

..,:

11

The country (reigun of land) which has less of water (resou• rces ), vegetation and mountains is (known as) Jaiigala (arid, dry, desert like), It produces few diseases ( in man and animals ). Anupa ( marshy, wet, water logged ) is its opposite. Sadhara:v.a ( moderate) is that whicb is sama ( moderate} neither too less nor too much of these features ). 79.

Nolss :-Number of diseases affecting man is great in iniipa (marshy) region, leBB in jaiigala ( arid ) and of moderate number in Bidhirava ( mode,rate ) regions; so also the longevity of life, people of iniipa regions have short span of life, people of jangala regions have long span and thoae of sadharana regions haye moderate span. Vita ia predominant injafigala and people suffer from more of vita diseases; kapha is predominant in inup!l and kapha diseases are more in the people of this region; in sidha· raQa region, .there is no such predominance, any may get aggravate i by the effect oi the foods activities indulged.
I

1
I

Dhatu pramarza ( quantity
...

of tifsues ) :-Iii

fi
9
t=m'ltatf't(

..
.m;i

...
-:.

.

I II
t

II

:;nttro

u
·II

n

Ill]

SARIRASTHANA

413

( The quantity of) majja C n1arrow ), medas ( fat ), vasa ( muscle fat ), miitra ( urine ), pitta, ( kapha ) 1 sakrt ( feaces ) asrk ( blood ), rasa (plasma ) and jala {water, body fluids like lymph ) are in this body, one anjali more their successive order ( quantity of); ojas ( essence of dhatu ), ( brain matter) and retas (semen ) are,one prasrta each; in women stanya ( breast milk ) is two afijali and rajas ( menstrual fluid ) four anjali; these are the measures when they are normal and on these (measure ) the increase and decrease ( of dhatu and others ) have to be understood ( determined ).

in

Nol1s :-Anjali is 192 ml. and prasrta 96 ml. approximately.

Deha prakrti (human constitutionftemperc·ment ) :I

'-'":

sr•fa':

11 (!\

n

Depending on the that is predominant in the sukra ( semen or the spermatozoan to be more specific), asrik ( menstrual blood or the ov9m to be more specific ) at the time of their union ), in the bhojya ( food), ( activities ) of the garbhii}i (pregnant woman), garbhasaya ( uterus ) and rtu ( season )-seven kinds of prakrti ( human constitution ) are produced. 83.
Notes :-The seven kinds of prakrti are counted as follows; three -one from each viz ; vataja, pittaja and kaphaja; three or samsargaja-from the combination of t\yo viz vata+pittaja, vata+kaphaja and kapha+pittaja; one or sannipataja'-fr.om the combination ot all the three The features of these kinds are described further.

Vata praktti ( Nervous temperament ) :---I

II
SlNT..stt

II

... Clit:
'I

i
11

( CH.

I
'IRTil

tat'-li if :;:r

Ell II

ihnfUr 'IF1ftfiilat;i\er

Utr

..
qq;f "f

1
II

R:
enfaE6t:

1
\1

Because of ( properties like )-all pervading ( in all the parts of the body ). quick acting, strong ( powerful ), tendency to aggravate others ( dhatus and malas etc. ), acting independently, and producing many diseases vata is powerful among the Hence persons born with the predominance of pavana ( vata) generally have, hair and body which are cracked and dusky (lustreless), they hate cold, are unsteady in respect of courage, memory, thinking, movement ( walking and others ), friendship, vision and gait; talk more and irrelevent, possess little of wealth, strength, span of life and sleep; their voice (speaking ) is obstructed, interrupted, unsteady or harsh; they are atheists, gluttons, pleasure seeking; desirous of music, humor. hunting or gambling; desirous of habituation to sweet, sour, salty and hot foods; are lean and tall in shape, produce sound during walking ( kunkles in joints of the leg ) ; are not steadfast, cannot control their senses, not \civilised ( brutish, impolite ), not liked by women, not have \ many children; their eyes are rough ( dry ), lustreless, round, unpleasant and resemble those of the dead; lids kept open while sleeping; they dream as though roaming on the mountains, dwelling on trees and moving in the sky; persons ofvatapra· kriti are non-magnanimous, bloated wi•.h jealosy, of stealing nature and having bulged calves; they resemble (in move· ments, mental behaviour etc. ) animals such as the dog, jackal, camel, vulture, rat and crow. 84-89.

1

Pitta prakrti ( bilious temperament ) : -

qT

... tft...

1
iUil'\'
It

'o

II

ITI l

S.AR!RASTBXNA

415 1

..-set: !i•R:a:
..... at(c.c...-.:

11 \t tl
I

\is:
fqtitftt :eJ(!5tf;t

,
a;q(!q'tl?(+ltfi,• I fWF;(qlU fcret"liltfil' II qfqan 1

u'ftn

'\ 11
II

Jf\1\T.:r

ttf:a'6T:

II'"" II

Pitta is fire itself or born from fire; hence persons having predominance of pitta, have very keen (severe) thirst and hunger; are white ( in the colour of the skin ) and warm in body; possess coppery red soles and face; are brave and proud; have brown and scanty hair; are fond of wo1nen, garlands, unguents ( perfumeries ); are of good behaviour, clean, affectionate to dependents, desirous of grandeour, adventure have mental power ( ability) of facing fear and enemity; highly intellegent, possess very loose and lean joints and muscles; do not like women; possess less of semen and sexual desire; possess grey hair, wrinkles, and blue patches on the skin; consume food which is sweet, astringent, bitter and cold; hate sunlight ( and heat ); perspire emit bad smell from the body; expel faeces frequently, have more anger, eating, drinking ( wine ) and jealosy; while in forest fire, sleep dream of ( flowers of) kar:r;tikara and meteor, lightening/thunder bolt, bright sunrays and fire; their eyes are thin ( small ), brown, unsteady with thin and few eyelashes; eyes desirous of cold comfort, becoming red very quick by anger, drinking wine and exposure to sunlight. Persons of pitta prakrti are of medium Jife-span, medium strength, highly learned, afraid of discomfort and resemble ( in behaviour ) animals like the tiger, bear, ape, cat and 90-95.

Kapha prakrti (phlegmatic temperament) :-

m11:
.....

0,.

..

1

!J;:&:€11

[ CH.

1

;r

fil!{ ra- 3YfH
;r •

:q ;r

CiS'm:

I

I
ooll

qqf•q: l

'11':i\'
6qVtWJ:.

. . -c.-il"e.q__.
qfiqfa'

lltotfl 1

1

,

llt•\ll

( kapha ) is soma ( cool, mild ); hence persons of' kapha prakrti are mild in nature, possess deep ,seated ( not prominant1y seen), unctous and well-knit joints and muscles; are not much troubled by huger, thirst, unpappi· , ness (troubles) strain and heat; endowed with intellegence, right and truthfulness; p6ssess colour like that of priyaiigu, diirva sarakal}<;la, sastra (iron, steal weapon), gorocana, padrna suvarl)a; have long arms, big and elevated chest, big (wide) forehead, thick and blue hair; soft, even ( symmetrical ), well defined and good looking body, of great vigour, sexual prowess, desire in tastes; more of semen, children and atten· dents; are of righteous, benovalent nature, do not speak harsh abusively; horbour enimity, and deep for long tinte; their gait is like that of an elephant in rut; their voice like the roaring of clouds, ocean, mridanga, ( drum ) or lion; possess good memory, humbleness, do weep ( cry ) much even in childhood; are not grerd y ( clinging to pleasures) consume food which is hitter, astringent, pungent, hot. dry and less in quantity, and still remain strong; their eyes are red at the angles, unctous, wide, long, with well degined white and black spheres (sclera and cornea) and with more eye lashes; have less of speech, anger, desire for drink ( wine ), food and activities; endowed with more life ( Jongi-

,,.....

III]

SARIRASTHAl'IA

vity ), wealth, foresight and rniJnificience; liave faith ( in god, granting gifts, chc:'-rity etc. ); dignified, greatly charitable; of forgiving nature, civilised; very sleepy/drowsy, slow, gratefu_l, learned, to look at, bashful, obedient to teachers ( and elders ) and of fast friendship; see reservoers full of lotus and rows of birds and clouds (in dream)· persons prakrti are similar (in nature) with Brahrha; Rudra, Indra, Varul}a, ( garuQa ) hamsa ( swan) Gajadhipa {the elephant Airavata ), lion, horse, and bull. 96-103.

Persons born with predominance of two do$as and all three possess features of two or all the' together. as cleanliness, belief in god etc. Likewise, by features persons are tE> be understood as belonging to the {category of the) gut}as (the three rnahaguoa-satva, rajas and tamas). 104.
Notes :-Among the seven kinds of prakrti, persons of sammiSra prakiti (combination of all the three in equal proportion) are the best in health and other aspects but very few in number. Persons of samsarga prakriti (combination of any two are moderate (in health etc.) and form highest percentage numerically, persons of prakriti (single dosa origin) are poor in health and other aspects. Among these three, kapha prkriti is best, pitta prakrti moderate and vita prakrti is least.
Caraka sarnhita describes seven kinds of sitvika prakrti, six kinds of rijasa prakrti and three kinds of tamasa prakrti, designating them as ''kiya" such as brahma kiya etc. (vide chapter 4 of sarira sthaoa )· These are known today as psychological temperaments.

V'!)'ah { age )
(11"!1

qi

ttN:

The period upto sixteen years of age is Balya ( childhood ) in which there occurs the of dhatu { tissues ), indriya { sense perception ) and ojas { essence of dhatus responsible for strength ); the period upto seventy years is Madhya (middle age, youth ) in which there is no increase of tissues 27 A

418

[CH

etc; then ( after seventy years ) it is of tissues etc .. or old age ). 105.
Not1s :-Su§ruta, further sub-divides each of the above throe P.eriods u follows-

1. Bilya ( ehildhood ) : a. k,irapa (drinks only milk ) 1st day of birth upto 1 year. (milk and solid food) 1-2 years. b. c. annada ( only solid food )-2 to 16 years. Kapha is the predominant during balya and so diseases of kapha are more common. The tissues are undergoing the process of growth and development, and so poor in strength (capacity to work and resist diseases).
2. Madhya (middle age):a. vrddhi ( adolescence ) 16-20 years. b. yauvana ( youth ) 20-30 years. c. sampiir:Qata ( full grown ) 30-40 years. d. parihaQi ( degeneration) 40-60-70 years.

All the tissues will have attained optimum growth and development, are capabte of any hard work and resist diseases. Pitta is the pred<'minant in this period and so diseases of pitta origin are more common.
3. Jtrt}a (old age ) :-

a.

from 70 tilJ death ).

All the tissues will slowly undergo decrease and degeneration, lose their strength and capacity to resist disease. Vata is the pi edo.minant in this period and diseases of vata origin are common.

Sartra lakfatza-plfysio gnomy :-q{s{
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1 Three and a half basta ( arms length ) in one's own arm is th·e height of the body suitable for a happy life. This measurenent does not apply to those who belong to the eight kinds of 'J'indita ( abnormal, bad, physique ) such as Lroma ( hairless ) , asita ( black ) , sthfila ( big, obese ) and lirgha ( tall ) , with their opposites. 106i'.

.,
I

III]

SARIRASTHANA

419

Notes :-One basta is 45 ems; three and half basta ( 157 ems} is the average height of an adult male; height varies depending on many factors such as sex, habitat, race, heredity etc. The eight kinds of body configurations considered to be bad to health are: ( 1) arOip.a-no hair on the body, (2) atiloma-too of hair o? body, (3) black in skin color. (4) atigaura-very white 1n colour. (:>) atlsthiila-very stout/ obesefcorpulent. (6) atikrsa-very thin/emaciated. {7) atidirgba-very tall and (8) ati-hraswa-very shortfdwarflpigmy; As known now, these are the effects of increased or decreased activity of the various endocrine glands ( hormonal disorders ) • Some persons of these kinds lead a fairly healthy life while others suffer.

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Hair ( on the head ) should be smooth, soft, thin, with only one root and firm. The forehead should be high, with well joined temples and resemble the half moon ( curved in front ). The ears should be thin at the bottom and thick at the top. broad sidewards, well joined and muscular. The eyes should have the white and black areas clearly visible, with well joined and thick eyelashes. The nose should hava ele-

420

YAM

[ CH.

vated tip, capable of deep breathing, with straight bridge and even ( neither depressed nor elevated ). The lips should be red and not bulging out. The lower jaw should be big but not protruding. The mouth should be big, teeth should be thick (firm), unctous, smooth, white and evenly placed. tongue be red, broad, and thin; the chin be muscular and big. 'Fhe neck be short, thick and round; the shoulders bulged out and muscular. 'The abdomen should have the umbilicus with a right whirl, deep and bulged evenly ( in all places ). The nails should be thin, red, elevated, unctous ( smooth ), coppery-red aU over and muscular. The fingers should be long and seperate. The hands and feet should be big; the back should have the vertebral column concealed and big, the joints should be deep and firm. The voice should be courageous ( loud, commanding attention ) and vibrating. The colour (of the skin) should be unctous/greasy and with good lustre. The mind (mental activities) 'Should be natural, firm ('teady) and not undergoing change even at times of danger ( remaining steadfast even in trying situations ). The body which has better features in successive states, than those described so far, which has remained disease free since birth, which possesses the ( normal ) height, intellegence ( common sense ), scholarship and growing slow is auspicious ( best for health and long life ). In such a body, endowed with all good featutes, the span of life is one hundred springs( years), full of wealth, desires and all other comforts c learly assured. 108-116.

Alia vidka sara ( eight excellences ) :I

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Eight kinds of Sara commencing with (that of) twak and rakta and ending with ( that of) sa tva, each succeed one better than its preceding, have been enumerated-- for determi· ning the quantity of strength of the body. The person endowed

iit 1

SARIRASTHANA

421

with all the sara is to earn great respect, hopeful of success in all his activities, capable of withstanding troubles, will be wise and steady.
Notes:- Sara literally means essence, possessing all good qualities in excellent standard and no defed:s, the eight kinds of sira are-( 1) twak sara or rata sara-excellence in skin, (2) raktasira- excellence blood, { i) mamsa sara-excellence of muscles. (4) medas sara-excellence of fat, (5) astbisara-excellence in bones, (6) majja sara-excllence of marrow (7} sara-excellence of semen and (8) satva sira-exceilence of mind. Caraka sa:rilhiti ( chapter 8 of viminasthina ) enumerates the, features of each of these eight sara which may be referred. The dhatu (tissues) which has been such an excellence will have capac1ty to resist diseases and do all its normal functions efficiently.

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, The person with predominance of sa tva guQa, experiences, ( enjoys) happiness and misery without agitation (getting upset emotionally ) and humility (depression, miserable mind) respectiveJy; whereas persons of r.i!jas and tamas ( guQaS predominant) do not do so. Habit of charity, compassion, truthfulness, celebacy, grati· tude, rejuvinators ( drugs, tonics ), friendship ( with all) and benovalent activities form the group which enhances the span oflife. 119-120.

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.

Thus ends the· chapter called the third in Sarlra sthana of sathhita composed by srimad son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

I Ckapter-d

MARMA VIBEIAGA silRlRA ( classification of vital spots )

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We shall now, expound the chapter Marma vibhaga sarira· classification of vital spots; thus said ( revealed) Atreya and other great sages.
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Marmas ( vital spots, vulnerable places) are one hundred and seven; of thezn, eleven are present in the thighs and arms seperately in each ( thus fortyfour in the four extremities ); three in the abdomen, nine in the chest, fourteen in the back ( thus twenty six in the trunk ); and thirty seven in parts above the shoulders ( neck and head ).

snkhn. marma ( vital spots of the extremities) :-

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SARlRASTitANA

423

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In the centre of the sole, in the line of the middle toe is Talahraaya, injury to this will lead to death from (severe) pain. In between the big toe and the first toe, is a vital spot known as K;ipra, injury to this leads to death from convulsions. Above the two afigulas on either side is Knrca. injury to this will produce inability to move and rotate the foot. Just below pain and swelthe ankle joint is Kurca Sira, its injury ling. At the junction of the foot and calves is Gulpha, its injury causes pain, stiffness ( or loss of control ) of the leg or impote· nce. In line with the heel, twelve afigulas above, in the centre of the calf muscle is lniJrabasti, its injury leads to death by ( severe) loss of blood. At the junction of calves and thighs is the Jllnu, its injury produces lameness. Three angulas· above on either side of the janu are the Apf, its injury causes increase of swelling and stiffness ( or less of control ) of the leg, In the centre of the thighs is Urvf its injury causes emeciation of the thigh from loss of blood. Above the iirvi, below the angle of the groin and at the root of the thigh is Lohit1Jk1a, its injury causes hemiplegia from loss of blood. In between the groin and scrotum is Vilapa, its injury causes impotence. Thus, are enu111erated, the vital spots of the leg.
1

Marmas of the arms are similar to those of the thighs, especially gulpha is ca11ed as M apibaiidha and janu as Karpara, injury to these causes distortion of the arm. In between the axilla and collar bone is Kaktllilhara, similar to vitapa, its injury also causes distortion of arm. 2-9. ..Atfadhayamanga marma ( vital spots of the trunk ) : -

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424

HE.DAYAM

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Attached to the large intestine is Guda, which expels the flatus and faeces, its injury leads to quick death, Mutrasaya ( bladder ) curved like a bow, made up of very little of muscle tissue and blood, located inside the pelvis, with one orifice pointed downwards 1 it ie the Basti (marn1a); injury to it, causes death quickly, even without formation of ulcer caused by urinary .stone, if it is injured on both sides the per· son does not su1tvive; if injured on one side an ulcer develops through which u.rlfie flows out, it heals with difficulty after great effort { treatment ). In between the large intestine and the stomach ·is the NIJhhi, the seat of all the siras ( veins ), even its injury causes death quickly.

In between the abdonten and chest, between the two breasts and at the opening of the stomach is the Hrdaya, which
is the seat of satva etc. ( soul/life ) injury to it also causes quick death. Stanarolzita and stanamula are situated two afigula, above and below the breast respective! y; injury to these leads to death from accumulation of blood and ka ph a in the ( chest ) respectively. On either side of the tube of the chest ( trachea ) are the ·two tubes which carry air, known as Apastambiza, injury t these causes death from accumulation of blood inside the chest, 'cough and dyspnoea. Below the shoulder joints, on the upper l(>art of each flank, are the two vital spots known as ApallJpa, 'their injury cause death from blood turning into pus.· 9}-16!

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On either side of the vertebral column, on the earlike bones of the pelvis the buttocks, are the two katJkatarut}a, , injury to these causes pallor due to loss of emaciation and death. On either side of the vertebral column, on the two meeting p1aces, outside the buttocks are the two Eukundara, injury to these leads to loss ofsensation and movement in the lower parts of the body. Above' the ear· like bones of the pelvis, concealing the visceral organs and composed of cartilages, Jre the two Nitamba; -their injury to swelling and debility of the lower parts and death. At the lower end of the flanks and attached at the centre of the sides of the front part of the pelvis, located sideward's and upwards are the PlJrsva.randhi, injury to these leads to death from accumulation of blood in the abdomen ..
......

In straight line with the stanamii on either side of the vertebral column are the two Bykat;, .rira, injury to them leads 29 to death by complications arising from severe loss 'of blood. At the root of the arms, on either side of the vertebral column

[OH.

are the two Amsaplzalaka, injury to these causes loss of tactile sensation and emaciation. On either side of the neck, the sinews ( tendons ) binding the root of the shoulder with the nape of the neck, are the two Amsa, injury to the.se causes loss of function of the arms. 16!-25.

Jatrardhva marma (vital spots in the head and neck) :-

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-- On the two sides of the trachea, there are four siras ( of them two are called Nila and two, Manya, injury
to theqt produces loss or disorder of speech and of taste perce· ption. On either side of the throat are the four siras ( veins ), located in the tongue and nose seperately, known as Matrka, their injury leads to quick death. At the junction of the throat _and the head are the two Krkatik1l, injury to these causes, tremors ( shaking ) of the head. Below the back of the ears are the two Vidlzur1l, injury to these causes deafness. On either side of the nostrils, a:djoi'ning the opening of the ears, inside the throat, are the two P haplJ, injury to these causes loss of perception of smell. At the outer angle of the eye, at the_ tail end of the eye-brows and below them are the, two AplJftga, injury to these results in b1indness. In the depression above the eyebrow, on the forehead are the two Avarta. injury to these causes either blinciness or disorders of vision. Above the tail end of the brows, adjoining the ears, on the forehead are the two $aftkha, injury to these causes death. 25i-3lf.

SARIRASTHANA
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Above the saiikha, at the lower border of the hairs, are the two. Utk1epa; between the two eyebrows is the Stkapant; in these three (when injured) the person can live with the foreign body still intact, or when it falls of after putrefaction· ' while its removal causes sudden death. 32-33.
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At the meeting place of orifices of the tongue, nose, eyes ears and the palate is the vital spot, by name ,S,;iglJfaka, four in number, injury to these causes quick death. The five joints in the head ( skull ) spread sidewards and upwards is known as Stmanta marma, injury to these leads to death from insanity. giddiness and loss of intellect. Inside the head, at the meeting place of the joints of veins, on the top and at the spiral of hairs is located the· Adhipati, injury to this causes quick death. 34-37!

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Marma is that place which has unusual throbbings and pain on· touch. The marmas (vital spots) are so called because they cause death; and they are the meeting place of muscle, bones, tendons, arteries, veins and joints, life entirely resides in them ( 't.DY injury or assault to these causes danger to life ). They; are by the predominaqt structure found- in

42S

{ OI:l.

them; on this basis the marmas { vital spots ) are of six kinds; They are one kind only on the common factor "as seats of life.''
Not1s :-Mimsa marma have predominance of muscle tissue, asthi marma have bone, have tendons, dhamani nave arteries, siri have veins and safidhi have bony joints; thus they are six kinds structurewise.

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Mamsa marma are ten viz, indrabasti (2), talahrdaya (4), and stanarohita (2). Asthi niarma are eight; sai'ikha (2), (2), nitamba (2), and amsaphalaka (2). Snayu marma twenty three; avi (4), kiirca (4), kurc.asira (4) apanga (2), (4), (2), amsa (2), and basti (1). Dhamani marma are nine 1 guda ( 1 ), apastharhbha ( 2 ), vidhura (2), and srngataka (4 ), Sira mar mas are thirty seven; (2), brhati (2), matrka (8), nila (2), manya {2), pha:Ql (2), vitapa (2), hrdaya (1),' nabhi (1), parsvasandhi (2), stanadhara (2), apalapa (2), sthapani (1), iirvi (4) and lohi· {4). Sandhi ntarma are twenty; avartha (2), maQibandba (2), IQJ.kundara(2), simaiita (2), kiirpara (2), gulpha (2) (2), janu adhipati (l)c In opinion of some, guda is mamsa marma; kakp.'are sn§.yu marma along with and vidhura;

IV]

SARIRASTHANA

429

is Slfa marma, together With apastambha and apalapa and not dhamani marma. 40-46.

Marma vidilha lak$atla { signs
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mamsa marma are injured, there will be continuous bleeding, blood being thin, resembling water in which meat is washed; pallor ( of the skin \, loss of function of the sense organs and quick death. When asthi marma are injured there is discharge of thin fluid mixed with bone marrow and intermittant pain. When snayu marma are injured there will be bending ( contractions ) of the body, convulsions, very severe pain, inability for riding, sitting etc. distortions or even death. When dhamani marma are injured , the blood which is frothy and warm flows out w·ith a sound, and the person becomes. uncon6ti(:ious. In case of injury to sira marma, blood which is----thick flows out continuously aiid in large quantity; from its loss, thirst giddiness, dyspnoea, delusion ( unconsciousness )t and hiccup manifest leading to death. In case of injury to sandhi marma, the site ( of injury ) feels as though (ull of thorns, even after healing ( of the wound ) there is shortening of the arm, lament ss, of strength and movement, and emaciation ( of the body ) and swelling of the joints. ( 47-51 ).

Marmabkeda ( types, of 'lJital spots ) :-

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430

HF..DAYAM

[ CH.

Nabhi (1), saiikha (2), adhipati (1), apana ( guda ) (1), hrdaya el) ( 4), basti (1) and the eight matrka (8); these nineteen, take away life immediately; (hence) these are known as Sadyahpra1)ahara. Seven days is the maximum time for death to manifest.
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Apastarhbha (2), talahrdaya (4), parsvasaiidhi (2), katitaruJJa ( 2 ), simanta ( 5 ), §tanamiila (,2 ), indrabasti (4), {4), apalapa (2), brhati (2), nitamba ( 2) and stanarohita (2); these thirtythree are KallJntara prlJrzahara ( take away the life after some time ); one or one and half months is the period of life ( when these are injured ). 53-54!.
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The two (2) and sthapani (I)-these three are ViJa!J'aghna-injury to them will cause death when the arrow (foreign body) is removed, by the exit or vayu; mamsa, vasa, majja and mastulunga get dried up, dyspnoea and cough develop and destroy the life ( of the person ). 55-56.
Nol11 :-As long as the arrow or any foreign body is in the place of injury, the person is alive and immediately on its removal, he dies aa described above.

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PbaQ.a (2), apanga (2), vidhura (2),'- nili {2), manya (2), krka\ikl (2), amsa (2), amsaphalaka (2), (2), vitapa (2), iirvi (4), kukuiidara (2), janu (2), (4), al}i (4), kakfadbara (2), kurca (4) and kilrpara (2), these forty-four are

IV]

SARIR.ASTHANA

431

Vaika!yakara ( causing distorison, irregularity etc. ); they might also destroy life sometimes when injured. 57-581.
" 11 Kiirca$ira (4), gulpha (2) mai.,tibandha \(2)-these eight are Rujakara { causing pain ). 59. ·

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M orma pramiJpa ( size of tlte vital spots ) :--

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Among them, iirv!, are twelve aftgula ( finger breadth ) in size; maJ)ibaiidha, gulpha and stanamiila are two ai'igula; janu, and kiirpara' 'are three angula; apana ( guda ), basti, hrdaya, nabhi, nila, simaii.ta, mitrka, srngatak,, manya-these twentynine are equal in size of ones own palm; the remaining fiftysix are each half an'gula, In the opiniQrt of some others, the size of the vital spots are equivalent to those of ( sessamum seed ) and vrhi (paddy grain). 60-63!.

MarmlJhhighlJta phala ( effect

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fhe four types of siras mentioned previously (verses 19·37 of chapter 3) which nourish the entire body, are seated when they ( vital ( located ) in the marma ( vital spots), spts ) are injured, depletion/decrease of dhatus (tissues ) takes place due to copious loss of blqod; by that vayu ( vata ),

432

[ CH.

getting incEeased produces severe causes increase ofpitta which in produces thirst, emaciation, toxicity ( uncons), severe perspiration, weakness and looseness of the bodya such a body gets carried away by death.
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The injured part ( the vital spot ) should be cut ( incised) immediately near its place of joining; by cutting the sira ( veins ) get contracted and the bleeding stops, by stoppage of blood, (the life ) stays on. 67.

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Though wounded greatly in places other than marmas ( vital spots ), the person survives but not so when injured on the vital spots; for, these :1re destroyers of life, some may survive by the expertise of the physician and partial injury to them, even then they cause distortions ·( irregularity ). Hence the use 1of ( application of caustic alkali ) ( poisonous drugs ). agni ( cautery by fire ) etc.. on the vita] spots should be avoided as far as possible. 68-69.

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Injury to vital spots, though slight (mild) usuaJJy produces severe pairi. (trouble); so also the diseases which are localised in the vital spots do not get cured inspite of great effort. 70.


df,uu•n ii'M
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Thus ends the chapter called Marmavibhaga the fourth in Slrira sthana of Astal}gahrdaya samhita composed by srimad son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

I

Chapter--5

VIKIJ.Tl VIJNA.NlrA (knowledge of baa /)rognostics)

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We shall now, expound the chapter VikrH vijnaniya· knowledge of abnormalities vis a vis bad prognostics; thus said (revealed ) Atreya and other great sages. 1.

Ritta nirukti _ definition offatal signs ) :-(
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Just as the flower, smoke and appearance (and of clouds are the signs of future occurance of the fruit, fire and rain respectively. Ri.fta are the definite signs of on coming death ( fatal signs). I.

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All the treatments properly administered by the physician to the person who has long life become successful just Jike the grateful person (becomes faithful) to the king. Treatments administered to the person whose life is waning ( short ), become a waste, just as the help done to a mean person. By that, the physician gets bad reputation, doubt of life and loss of own desires. herein are dtscribed, the signs of the person who is losing his life. Abnormal changes of the prakrti ( normal features of the body and mind ) are called, by the learned, as Rifta ( fatal signs ). 1-3.
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' n :t u

There is no death without ri11a ( without the appearance of fatal signs ) and no life when rilla ( fatal signs ) are seen. Understanding non-fatal signs as fatal signs and fatal signs as non-fatal, happen due to unexperience (of the physician). 2.

Ritta bltedh.a (kinas

offatal

signs) : 1

ilf;:r"!
!J

t1 \ 11
I

r

Some opine that these ( fatal signs ) are )f two kinds, viz, sthayi ( permanant, non-changing ) and asthayi ( temporary, changing. ). ( signs resembling fatal signs ), manifest even due to increase of the they subside ( disappear ) while the sthayi ( perma· with mitigation of the nent fatal signs ) are sure to cause death. 3-lf.
RitfahhlJvlJIJ, (factors under fatal signs ) : -

II Y II
...
I

....

fci dfctfd

n

n

Riipa (appearance, size, shape, colour etc.), indriya (sense organs ) , svara ( voice, speech ); chaya ( shade, complexion ), pratichaya { image ), kriya ( activities, functions) and many other factors undergoing change frorn their norma]cy ( beco- ' ming abnormal) without any cause ( apparant reason )-are all to be considered as Ritla ( fatal signs ) . 4-5.

RUpa rill a {fatal signs connected with appearance ) :-

... ...

... . . tt •
ifiit

..

II ' II
1

..

U \9 II

V]
q.q')a(if

Sl\RlRASTH;\NA

W _,

I II
1

II

... ,
...
C{;a"t:

ffla)tr:
q69;qf

!lf'fS1:1a...fca'i: 1 fqefatufl II
fW8t

u' u
o

It
II

u;n

gli:
q)1
qt

1:-t

'!1i
..

ql

1 l-1•-c..•h(+t.,.; II if 'EI' I
'It II

fqqc{NffFrt

. jcqJ8 I

t:t II

u \\ 11

en

6 ..

1

He, whose hair on the head and on the body appearing as though smeared with oil, though not actually smeared. Wl_lose eyes are unsteady or having no movement at aU; which have gone deep inside or protruding out, become irreregular ( asymmetrical ) either expanded or contracted; eye brows are contracted or bent down; sight either increased, decreased or becomes like that of a mungoose, pegion and burning coal; tears flowing profusely, the eye lashes getting twisted. Whose nose, is very greatly dilated or contracted; having eruptions, having severe swelling at the top, cracked and lustreless. Whose upper lip, droops down ( very greatly ) and lower lip moves upwards greatly; both lips having colour of a ripe jambuphala ( dark blue in colour )· Whose teeth, are full of tarter, black or coppery, have Bowers ( spots of different shapes ) coated with dirt, and which fall off suddenly. Whose tongue, is irregular, having more of movement, swollen, dry, heavy ( thick), blue in colour, coated, sleeping ( having no sensatibn) and having thorn-like eruptions.

496

[CH.

Whose head and neck, are unable to__ bear their own weight; whose lower jaw is unable to hold the bolus of food put into the mouth. Whose body and body parts, become either very heavy or very light without any cause. From whose orifices ( eyes, ears, nose, mouth, urethra, and anus ) blood flows out, without the effect of poison. Whose penis, has moved upward greatly and testes (scrotum) moved downward greatly or both of them are in the opposite, (penis. moved downward and scrotum moved upward greatly ). All such persons are nearing death. 6-14a.
...
qy

u

""-rm •

crt II tV II

He, on wh9se forehead, urinary bladder or head, lines of veins or patches resembling the young moon appear afresh ( which were not present before ) does not live even for six months. 14 b-15 a.
II II

He, on whose body, water floats like floating on the lotus leaf, ( without moistening it ) , his life is for six months only. 15 b-16 a.

""

....

.t:
I
a

II

He, ihose veins are greenish ( or yeilowish ), hair folli· cles are contracted, who desires sours {things of sour taste in food ), attains death from ( increase of) pitta. 16 b-17 a.

-WW,

llfil
qt,

'" ll \\9 II

He, wbose head or face become covered with unctous ( greasy ) powder like the powder of cowdung, or whose head

V-}

SARlRASTHANA

4S1

becomes smoky ( emitting the smell of smoke ) his life ends within a ntonth.- 17 b-18 a.

tt.fif

5etPa'

ilitft II

II

..

H'

Bifircating lines and patches apearing afresh on the head or the brows, produce death within six days in a healthy mao and within three days in a sick xnan. 18 b-19 a.
f3ft;t tp;l'fqf

'{fa'
<i

f.,. ....ra II t\ II
1

l[ffi

He, whose tongue becomes blue; mouth becomes foul smelling; left eye goes deep inside; on whose head birds alight, should be rejected ( as dead ) 19 b-20 a.

'ti

II ;r 3ftq{ir I

o

II

He, in whom the chest dries up very soon, after the person has bathed and smeared with unguents, while the other parts of the body ren1ain moist does not live for even half of a month. 20 b-21 a.

Indr!Ja ri$ta (fatal signs connected with sense organs ) : II II

Sudden appearance w.ithout any other reason, of normal and abnormal colours together, in the body causes death. Likewis_e, increase of strength or debility, dryness or moistness etc.. appearing suddenly lead to death. 21 b-22 a.
;r
(Nf

.-')qfd ll

II

q'Cf:qt'l_eR

'l.fa:

\iCffilll.€ 1.' n

u

He, whose fingers do not produce sound ( knukles ) wheh pulled, does not live; unusual sound which were not present before, appearing in sneezing coughing etc. ( belching, passing flatus ), the respiration becoming either very short or very

[CH. long, and having either foul smell or sweet smell. (does not live). 22 b-23.
...., .....

'P1tl..sfalt•.;,a ...
'It

I

11

U

He who, emits non·human smell from his body with or without bathing, in the waste products '( of his body ), dress, wounds etc. his life is only till the end of one year. 24.
(q;rf';a-

ri If

....

1
II 11

He, whose body becomes very sweet attracting lice, ftiea etc. or becomes very unpleasant in taste, making the insects to depart from the body; even he does not live for one year. 25.

'fNs
'It

l

II

U

He, who has the appearance of cold suddenly and without any cause, on the parts of the body which are warm always and appearance of warmth on the parts which are cold severe perspiration or rigidity ( loss of movement ) ( does not live for one year), 26.

..: ttftatwl en f. . . a
... liJ' ...

'3

U

:t.\111

He, who has cold eruptions ( eruptions caused by increase Qf kapha ) and whose body is cold, but yet experiences severe sensation; he who is suffering from cold but yet hates warmth, at:e being seen by the lord of the dead.

fmi p

....

a
Q;Wrr Iff

:;nfa.(naat 1
tt: II rt<: II

He, whose chest is very warm and abdomen ( inside ) very cold, who has severe diarrhoea and thirst is just a cadaver. 28.

,....-..

filu4Rf P

I

fir84!!f

if

H

u

He, whose urine, feaces, sputum or semen, sink in water; the aputum being of many colours, dies within a month. 29-t
q)
'Q;fll_l

att&.Jf.rc.

u
'-1

II \o II

t
II

\t It
t1

31TRS{\1Tf6

Sft1f-t•qi._
...

cq,'&kt

I II

He, who sees the sky ( sorrounding empty space) as a solid body and solid ( bodies ) as the sky ( empty space )a those ( objects ) which have form ( size, shape etc. ) as less, and the lormless ones as having form; similary the lumi· niscent and n9n-luminiscent, white and black. non-existing and existing; who even without diseases of the eyes, sees the moon having many shapes ( and number ) and covered with dust; who· even when awake, sees gafidharva, preta and such others (non-hun1an beaings) and those which are terri· fyiug to look at; is going to perish.. 30-32.
if qJ(q('q

'

\i'q+U"btec.l4lftJ 'It
....:)

;r

at

'\'\ It

He, who does not see the star Arundhati, which is near the saptaqi ( group of seven stars ), who does not see the dhruva (pole star ) or akasa-gaiiga (river of the sky/stellar galaxy ), does not live for a year. 3'3.

•-s..
;v

1 '11' II \\t II I

..OJ,
q)

11
;r ;r

11

en fcrf\l;n
q:

;r q),

fmtm

I

II\' II

itfca en 1
11 11

flT

8-qt

3R'Jltttfqi\u,_l

[ CH.

He, who hears the sound of the cloud, sea waves, the vina, pal}.ava and vei}.U ( flute ) all ( musical instruments ) or such others even though it ( sound) is not present; or does not hear the sound which is actually present; who does not hear the iJhukdhuk sound when he blocks his ears ith his fingers. Similarly with regard to sn1el1, taste and touch; he who under· stands these in the opposite manner either fully or partially; he who does not understand the smell of the lamp wick (which is extinguished just then ), who does not recognise the parti· cular tastes (of drugs ) which have been administered in ( to them ) and those tastes accordance to the which are consumed during health without observing the rules; he whose body gets coated with sand ( dirty powder ), who does not understand injury ( cut, blow and such others ) of his body, who without doing severe penance or yoga as per proper procedure, begins to experience of extra .. sensory knowledge-all of them are going to die. 34-37}.
Svara ritla (fatal sign.f concerned with the c1oice ) :--

tf\';it
9(t:rt , fer!)1illt

rcrerwl

en II
{=[

II

3f'tqfa

I

He.. whose voice becomes low ( feeble)., peevish, inaudible, stammering or who is anxious to speak but loses his voice suddenly, does not survive. 38.
'tqoc..-Eq

m;r
... g'Q''-11'
V "'

It

II \'- II
I

••

I

Voice becoming ·feeble, along with loss of strength and colour ( of the body ).. increase in the severity of the dhease:these happening without any known cause-should be noted as ( the signs ) of the death.

s:mi
wmti

fi'(.Vttt'mlf: II \to II
1

He,, who in an unusual \loice proclaims his own death repeatedly or he who hears such a sound (talk by others that he is going to die ) should be at a distance ( physician should refuse treatment to such persons since they are going to die. ). 40.

V]

441

Chaya pratichayil riila (fatal signs connected with shades and shadow ) :-Sl'llTUtif

qOt;r

Sl¥fltt.Sfq

'IT II

II

UNr

ferri8'

iia q:er u: 1

He, whose chaya (shade) undergoes change (abnormal) in its featureS ( sliape }, size, colour, or brilliance even 1n dreams { more so at other times ) is a dead man. 41.
II t:t":t U

m
g m

I

It

II

Tl;le form emanating from the body ( or its parts ) having the ( natural ) features and size, through the medium of sunlight (rays), mirror, water etc. is called pratichaya (shadow, image ); it is not connected with colour and radiance, th€ se ( colour and radiance ) are connected/related to the body only. 42-43.
Noles :-Pratichiya is the shadow of the body created by sun's rays on the ground, the image seen in the mirror and water. , It is of the same charactoristic features in shape, colour and radiance at ()f the body or its parts, when seen in the mirror or water. But the shadow created by sunlight varies in size in accordance with the time of the day. Some unusual changes occuring in the shadow and images also indicate the oncoming death, these are described further •

..

I fuVl f'ilvt.sNt6t..s.sSWf r

a

rq

f'fiiat
'il &"::t

11
I
•"'4•f ll

11
II

;:r

He, whose shadow/image is found to be cut, torn, more in number, unsteady, headless, duble headed, irregular, distorted or unnatural should be considered as completing his life, if these a-re not due to known causes G intentional creation ). He, whose image is not seen in the eyes of others ( irnage on the cornea of another man's eye) should be taken as 30 completing his life. 44-45.

Chn.ya ri.JttZ (fatal signs

vt(t;rt

i, q.

-f

I

tea.
iJlq{

skail,fcomplexion,) : I II \j\ II

,

((l'srm '
1 • Qtf"'Ri II \1<! II

taf••\11'
'

wm

II V.J II

Airntt

'Pmlt

l,

u..ftqqt: a The five (shade, J complexion ) related to the five , mahabhiitas such as kha ( Akasa etc. are each of different features; nabhas ( related to akasa bhiita ) is transparent blue, unctous and radiant; vataja (related to vayu bhiita ) is dirty, crimson, blue, dry and non-radiant; agneyi (related to ' tejas bhiitas ) is bright red, glistening and pleasing to look at; toyaja ( related to ap bhiita ) is like the pure vaiQiirya, transparent, slightly unctous and good; parthivi ( related to prthvi bhiita ) is stable, unctous, thick, transparent, black or white. Among these vayaviya chaya produces diseases,death or misery, while the others are for producing happiness {health). 46-48.

sn:mnt

t.Ai, a '··ntfct\«f cftal mat rf1:at
fatQ'lW

I

U
I

\t' II

aR=JT q-r:

fc.if01Atqt: II
1

II

at: um,

/

Prabha ( complexion ) is of seven kinds viz, red, yellow1 white, blue,_ green, yellowish-white and black; all these are described to tejobhiita. Among them, those which art> rll.diating, unctous, and transparent are beno: vaient ( doing goo ) and those dirt,y, dry, and brief ( constri· cted, non-radiating )-are malevalent (doing harm). 49-50
I' ,

cromtij)tJrfcr
ane;)
iW-11

snn

11 '-\t 11
m
1

fertiil

!J
'tort
1

II

' Cliaya ( shade ), engulfs \masks ), the var1}a ( coluor ) white prab,ha (complexion ) brightens the, colour; chaya is

443

( understood ) from nearness ( close by ) whereas prabha is noticeable even fi·om a distance. Neither, chaya nor prabha indicate at any time\ the special features of man, that is, . his attaining good or bad (health or illhealth )". But at that time (of death) they do so, getting associated--with chaya.

Kr!YD ritea (fatal signs connected with activities ) :------'

II
I

iPm 'lao:

..s<Nmt
.....

fc(f Grl Grl«mt 'E'fiilta1

ll

II

1

q)
' U
I

11

q:

:q)

'1'0T
__
Q. q

q-: Qti.{)

--efT II ra' I
1

II

II
q)
,

qRf0irWf..

q:

u
I 11
l

u
u

it
,

ri -

r

He who walks by dragging his feet on the ground ( scrat· ching the ground ) as though his feet have dropped off; who suddenly loses his strength , though consuming good food in large quantity; he who eats very less but excretes large quantities of feaces and urine; who eats more but excretes less quantities of feaces _a,nd urine; he who eats less but suffer from ( increase of') kapha, breathes out deep ( long . , expiration ) and rolls on the bed; who takes long exptration "but has very short inspiration and becomes unconcious; he whose; respirations are short ( shallow ), chest is throbbing,

.rt-44

YAM

[ CH.

and appears as though irregular; who rolls his head with difficulty, holds out his forehands contracting them; who has heavy perspiration on his forehead, looseness of joints, and tendons; he who becomes unconscious by standing up, whether he is or weak; he who sleeps with his face kept upward and moving his legs awkwardly; he who tries to hold the bed, chair, wall etc. which are actua1ly not present; who laughs at things which do not evoke laughter or which are not to be laughed at; who faints and licks the lips, who licks the upper lip and whistling sound; he to whom either black, yellow or crimson shades £Un quick ( manifest suddenly ); who develops. hatredness towards the physician, medicine, drhiks, food, pr.eceptors and friends-all these are to be considered as conquered by samavarti-the god of death. 53-60!.

(
[

Rqo.:tfir
0.,

II \t 11
t )
I

ti

II t II )

He, whose neck, forehead and ( region of) the heart arb sweating and cold while the other parts are hot, is to be prote· cted by the gods only. 61-61 He, who develops all the prodromal symptoms in diseases such as jvara ( fever ) etc. will succumb to death followed by fever. I.

"
:;r

u
II

f.r\ll
1

He, who has an aQU--jyoti ( very little of consciousness ), who has many points' ( subjects of worrx ), who has bad complexion and a bad mind always; he for sake ( desiring good ) offerings of eatables are prepared but is not par.. ,by those biq::ls, animals etc. which are offered; he, who any cause, attains great intellegence. radiance, deve·

V]

SAR1RASTHANA

445

topment of the body and wealth, suddenly or loses all these suddenly, goes to the residence ofyama (lord of death). 62-63.
... .,_.-,

cr1 11
JttdW: .
t3'

u

I

Prakrti ( natural features ), related to the gul}a ( satva, rajas and tamas ) or to the ( vata, pitta and kapha ), whether of a healthy person or a sick person, if becomes abnormal, such a person does not live for six months. 64b-65a.
Il It

..

.,

l

Faith, good conduct, memory, charitable nature, intellegence and strength-these six qualities abandon the person who is going to die in six months. 65 b-66 a.
II
II

,Gait, speech, tremors ( movemeuts of the body parts ) and uncon,ciousness resembling those of an intoxicated personare the features of the person going to die within a month. 66b .

Q1f"a

II

\-3 II

He, who dQes not understand the pain when his hair are - plucked; he in whom the food does not pass through the throat. though he is not suffering from any disease of the throat-is going to die within six days. 67.

St'Ql: !Rftq(fj

Sft1tlhfa
q"l if {J

1

afterf(f U
not sleep at
1

He, whose attendents turn against him, in whom fatures
of a cadaver appear, who sleeps always or all ( even for a moment ) does not survive. 68.

n

II

Orifices of tears getting filled up ( become obstruc.ted leading to absence of tears ), palms and soles sweating profu·

446

A!)T.ANGA

[CH.

sely; eyes becoming unsteady-are the features of the person, going to the kingdom ofyama ( death). 69.

\iltqm

a

He, who does not relish things (food, activities etc ) which he used to relish previouly-does not survive.

T)'adhil af:sarza ri $Ia (fatal si?,ns in symptoms
,

if diseas1s ) :-I I \9o II

,

en

1

He, in whom all the signs and symptoms of the oncoming disease manifest suddenly or disappear suddenly-dies soon. 70.

f;t-af..-a

u
I II I II

n
II
II

at\tPi
tit

I

Jvara ( fever) which is powerful, deep seated ( vitiating many tissues and organs ), persistant, accompanied with delerium, giddiness and dyspnoea; fever in him who has emaciation or swelling ( oedema ) and loss of digfstive capacity; in him who is not too emaciated but has obstruction of speech, redness of the eyes, pain in the heart; in him who has dry cough either in the morning or the evening and is deprived of strength, muscles and suffering from cough born of ( kapha ) ( cough with expectoration ) kills the patient. 71-73.
11
11
11

a:tfi::

:q 11

Rattapitta (bleeding diseases), in which the blood coming out has colour such as bright, red, black, like those of the rainbow, coppery, yellow, or green; blood coming out from hair follicles; blood accutnulating in the throat, mouth and

V]

447

( region of) the heart; blood not the cloth, emitting foul smell; coming out in bouts and in,large quantity in olcL persons and in those having anaemia, fever. vomitting. cough, swelling (dropsy ) and diarrhoea is going to kill.
.. II II

Kasa (cough> and svasa (dyspnoea> are fatal in person · having fever, vomitting, thirst, diarrhoea and swelling , ( dropsy ). 76. ,
,.....

t

Yalqma ( pulmonary tuberculosis) is fatal, in persons who are having pain in the flanks, flatulence; vomitting of blood and burning sensation at the back of the sqoulders. 77..·
II \9\S t'1
1

1

Chardi { vomitting ) is fatal, which has powerful bouts, the vomitt ed , material having the smell of urine and feaces; glistening particles, blood, feaces and pus; associatep with pain, coughl dyspnoea,,and which is persisting for long dl;lration. 78.
II II

T ( thirst ) is fatal, in persons who are de bili ta ted by other diseases, in whom the tongue is protruding and who are unconscious. 79.
Madatyaya ( alcoholic intoxication ) is fatal, jn persons who are suffering from sevete cold feeling, emacJation and whose face appears to be smeared with oil. 79!.

1

II \9t It/
a

I

('haemorrhoids, piles ) is in persons who have oedema in the hands, feet, rectum, scrotum and face; pain in the region of the heart, flanks and other parts ofthe body, vomitting, ulcerations of the rectum and fever. 80.
;Ill

448 II <:o II I

[ CH.

...

....

...aq. . :

II

II

1
It

II II

a•gfoll-l.. m\1-..l'hl"<<l ,

I
II

._

I

II

II

Atisara ( diarrhoea ) is fatal, when the feacaJ matter resembles ( has colours like that piece of liver, mutton wash, peacocks feather, oil, ghee, curds, bone marrow, muscle-fat, fermented infusion, brain matter, soot, pus, fluid of vesavira ( a menu prepared from meat ), ( iron pyrites ); is either very red, very black, very unctous, with very foul smell, very thin/clear ( hke water ); eliminated with severe pain, and with inany colours; tissues expelled either without feacal matter or with large quantity of feacal matter; feaces conta· _ining thread ( like bodies, invaded by flies, broken by dividing lines, containing glistening particles; who has protru· sion of the rectal folds, anal orifice always remaining open, - pain in the joints and bones; pro] apse of the rectum, loss of strength, eliminating food undigested ) itself, accotnpanied with thirst, dyspnoea, fever, vomitting burning sensation, flatulence/distention of the abdomen and dysentery. 80-84.

I

'ti(Jitfci,,tt..l

.
...
qr
'f

" t;" u
II

I

ri

I
II ' " U

Asmari ( urinary calculus) kills, the person who has swelling of the scrotum, of urine and pain. Meha ( diabetes, polyurea ) is fatal, in him who has thirst, -burning sensation, eruptions ( corbuncles ), putrefaction of

,.-..

I

V]

SA.RIRASTHANA

449

muscles (gangrene ) and diarrhoea; pitaka (corbuncle) which are situated on vital spots, region of the heart, back, breasts, shoulders, rectum, head, joints, feet and hands. In him, who has no enthusiasm { for physical activities), and in all persons who have putrefaction of t\le muscles, burning sensation, thirst, toxicity, fever, visarpa ( herpes ), obstruction of vital organs, hiccup, dyspnoea, giddiness and exhaustion. 85-87.
i_q)-..(1: I II
I

U

Gulma ( abdominal tumor ) is fatal; when it is of large size, hard ( stony ) , elevated lilce the tortoise shell, studded with prominent veins, accompanied with fever, vomitting, hiccup, tympanitis, pain ( in the abdomen ), cough, nasal catarrh, oppression in the region of the heart, dyspnoea, diarrhoea and swelling ( dropsy ). 88-89a.
,.. ... !J;f:

u <=\ 11
1

II
I

II

Jathara ( enlargement of the abdomen ) ki1ls a debilitated
person when associated with suppression of urine and feaces, dyspnoea, oedema (dropsy), fever, giddiness, vomiting and diarrhoea; whose eyes are swollen, penis is curved, body and skin are moist, abdomen getting enlarged again and again even after purgations. 89-91 a.
II

II

PanQuroga ( anaemia ) is fatal in the person who has oedema, yellow eyes, nails and vi !:=ion. 91 b.

1 u

u
II

;na
29A

I

II

[ CH.

(dropsy ) is fatal, to the person who has drowsiness, burning sensation, anorexia, vomitting, fainting, flatulence, diarrhoea, and many complications; other secondary diseases; oedema spreading from the Jeg ( upwards ) in man and from the face ( downwards ) in woman, from the abdomen and (genitals in both kills them; swelling having radial lines ), exudations, fever, dyspnoea and dia· ( { kills ). 92-93.

..

1ti\'t.1•d Ml"'!l'li aq): " ' I
II

• INP.-&ib I
fi
llf't;f;i
'" N'll

II \ '-'\ 11

:;;r

II,,

I

II

Fever and diarrhoea af the end of dropsy and dropsy at their end, in a weak person is going to kill him. The physician should reject him who 'has swelling {dropsy) of the feet. oC the calves and thighs getting exhausted. He whose face, hands an'd feet especially getting dried, o:r the!se getting swollen without the patts of the body-is going to die within a month. 94-96.

ffR=I1i;
-

I II \\9 II

-

Visarpa ( herpes ) kills, the person who has discolouration, fever, fainting, cutting pain in the body, giddiness, sweJling of the face, oppxession in the ( region of the) heart, debiJity of the body and diarrhoea. 97.

p r...
'*M(cra

..i1!

.... l

11

Kuttha (leprosy) kills, the person whose body parts are falling off, eyes are red; has loss of voice, loss of digestive diarrhoea. 98. power, wounds vitiated by worms, thirst
I Vayu (diseases caused by increase ofvata nervous" disorcters_) kills the patient, whose skin has lost the, sen.sation,

!Ff

1

S.ARIRASTH.ANA

4:51

whose body id bent (curved/contracted) and having swelling and pain. 99a.
H 't',. U l

Vatasra ( gout ) kills the person, wiio has delusion, fainting, toxicity, sleep (too much), fever, catching pain in the head, anorexia, dyspnoea, contractions, cracking noise and putrefaction ( of the toest fingers etc. ). 99b-100a.
srf;a

...

....

..

'

II 1

too

II

All diseases are going to kiU the person, who has disease of the head ( head-ache ), anorexia, dyspnoea, delusion, diarrhoea, thirst, giddiness, feeble voice, depletion of tissues; loss of strength and digestive power. lCOb-IOla ..

!Filif

m

II

tot II

Persons suffering from vata vyadhi ( nervous diseases) apasmira ( epilepsy)) ( lt!prosy ), raktapitta (bleeding diseases), udara _( enlargement of the abdomen ), k,aya (tuberculosis), gulma ( abdominal tumor ), meha ( diabetes ) and who are weak, even though they have very few, mild abnormal symptoms, should be rejected. 10lb-102a.
..·.'tf II toft II

«lctkt

l,

Profound loss of strength and depletion of tissues, exacerbation of the diseases and anorexia, seen in the patient, such a person will not survive for three fortnights. 102b-103a.·

ctl(lttJfwt..sk.ot:i,..a.t faF<ft u-(o'\ II i !iwrtr(l '11 I (enlargement of the prostate caused by increased vita ) which is very big and stands in the heart ( abdomen to be more correct ) causing severe pain and the patient troubled with severe thirst, takes· away his life immedia1ely. 103b-104a.·

452

I
),1

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ti,.,,,kaq;rd\'
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1

,

[ OH.

n
II

II
'tilT 1

II
1

utt
l!lil'i¥(

II

o\9 II

Vata producing looseness of the calf muscles, irregularity or the nose, or benping of the head in an emaciated person-is going to kill him immediately. Ball ( vata) getting localised in between the umbilicus and the rectum or the groins, produ.. cing catching pain in the rectum and ( region of ) the heart, in a weak person ( is going to kill him immediately ). Vata causing suppression of the waste products, obstructing the head of the urinary bladder and the umbilicus, produces pain in groins,- thirst and diarrhoea or produces dyspnoea, catching pain of the rectum and groins ( is going to kill him immediately ). 104b-l07.

'ltit !Jwttffl

I II

II

Ma.ruta ( vata ) causing expansion of the tips of the ribs, catching pain in the chest, loss of movement of the chest and wide opened eyes-is going to kill him immediately. 108.
't'lati•

I

U

II

Sudden increase of fever, thirst, fainting (loss of conscious· ness), loss of strength,· and looseness of bony joints appear in the person who is going to die soon. 109.
I

II

Severe perspiration of the face and other parts at the time or letting out the cows ( in the morning ) and the person suffering from fever, coating { enveloping ) the body ( mild
I

SARIRASTHANA

453

increase of thf! body temperature )-the life of definitely unobtainable. 110.
if.

a man is
1 II \

II

He, on whose body, :m a!surika ( chicken-pox ) appear resembling beads of pearls disappear suddenly, dies soon. 111.
I

II

II

Visphotc:a. ( small-pox ) erupting resembling the cotylidon of masiira ( lentil ) or bead of coral, having, their mouth inwards and producing sound ( on touch ), is going to destroy the body. 112.

'Of
:q

I
(#'

..

u t t\ II

He, whose eyes have kamala deep yellow colour) and face full (with that colour or face swollen), ,loss of muscles in the temples, severe debility and ( great ) warmth in the body should be rejected. 113.

·

111'-tiJ.. 1

So also the person, whom ( abrasion, wound ) invades the skin suddenly ( without any cause ).
[

I

:it

if
if "'

'(T(N

t II aun: 1] II
II

II

q:

I II

II
11

trrqui

.. u t

Vrat}a ( ulcers ) which emit odours like that of candana, uSira, madira, ( wine ) kuJ}.apa ( cadaver ) and dhvafik$a ( crow ); colours like saivala ( algae ), ( cocks comb ), kuntkuma, ala, and masi ( soot ); producing b_urning sensation inside but not hot to touch, that which is caused

H].tDAYAM

[CH.

by vata but not painful, that caused by pitta but not having burning sensation, that caused by kapha but not- having pus, that situated on vital spots but not causing pain, that which is not fissured but appears as having fissures or filled with powdery materia], that resembling a sakti (a kind 6f weapon), dhvaja (flag ) etc.., without any reason-all these should be rejected. Bbagandara ( fistula-in-ano) through which faecal matter, urine and flatus is coming out and in which worms ( bacteria) are present ( should be rejected). 116. ,
qf@t 31fi if "
I

\illerfir II t

II

The patient who beats one knee joint with 'the other, -raiSes the feet and drops it down, turns his face away (without any apparant reason) does not survive .. 117.

ffitiwr

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uv.ri

1 11

t1
t1

m:

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cf';a,
"'

n tt\

fq._"-...

1

He, who bites the tips of his nails, hairs, grass etc. with
his teeth, who scratches the ground with a stick; beating one stone with another one, who has horripilations, thick urine, dry cough and fever; who laughs for a while and weeps the 11 ext moment, who kicks the bed with his legs, who intently examines the orifices ( such as ears,,nose, anus, urethra, mouth etc. ) does not survive.

ui«,

!rq,

Rrfere1t:

II t:to lt
1

Sudden appearance of tila ( black mQles ), vyafiga (black patches"), piptu ( discoloured rashes ) on the face, flower-like· spots on the teeth and nails, raised veins of different kinds ( colours ) on the abdomen-are for causing death of the patientsoon. 120b-12la.

ui

qa-)1SJITUf

II I

t

II

sr!im: qft.:h,€ t"
1

u

Vj

435

Profound expiration, loss ofbody tempf:rature, and severe pain in the groins not ( with any treatment } should be rejected by the wise physician. He, in whom abnormalities undergo sudden increase; the normalcy ( natural ) become destroyed suddenly, his life will soon be taken away by death. 121-I23a. 'v: II II

I

vr tOiitfo

1

He, for whose sake, the physician tries to obtain the medi· cines but does not succeed in getting them-such a persons life is definitely hard to retain. 123b-124a.

.. m:o i He, in medicine which is well known, found effective many times an«J according to proper procedure..sti11 does not prove effective, there is no other treaunent for him. ·124b-I25a.
;:r

fcr111(j

II

II

en
..

vr

{:r

afterm 1

II

II

Either the medicine or food, prepared for a person, undergoing change into the in their colour, smell e.tc, without any ( othelr ) reason-such a person does not survive. even if he is a healthy man. 125b-126a.

ft

filu•it

II U, 'It \fttf.tt en 1 · II t:t\1 II

If in the patients house, the fire gets extinguished even though there is no breeze, and of sufftcient fuel; (such as vessels, furniture etc.t break orifall down in great bouts. the life of such a patient isdiffit:u1t to be retained.

d

'3nn

,_-,

II He, who is very debilitated and whose diseases disappear sud.. dep ly, such a life is surely uncertain-coqsiders Atrey a .128.
;J

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"

31"'

u t:t' n

I

Thct physician, though questioned, should not inform the details of the death of the patient to the relative:. and friends of the patient who are liable to become griefstriken f get shocked by the news ). 129.
lll1f""a

qftew1iRf.u

1

tl

In a patieut who is going to die soon, the attendants of Yama ( lord of death ), the pisacas ( goblins) e1c. destroy the potency of the medicines; hence such a patient should bt" rejected. 130. p I
II t\t II '"" In the physician, who und·erstands the knowledge oflife,

the entire effects of Ayurveda is treasured; without the knowledge ofrhta ( fatal signs) it is incomplete, h'ence the physi· cian should always be well conversant with it. 132.

JroJf snfur;yt

1
II II

Death is, sure to be seen in living beings at the expiry of the period life and effects of benovalent deeds ( good acti· ons of previous and present lives ) or of both; even without expiry of these two ( ;Period of life and effect of benovalent acts ) death may ensue by unavoidable irre'gularities (incidents which occurs accidentally ).
Notes :-Arunadatta enumerates the following as some unavoidable events : assault by wild animals, animals in heat and bouts of anger; bites by snakes, scorpions etc., eating poisonous roots, fruit etc., falling from a precipice, mountain peak, treetop, fast moving animals, vehicles, etc. To that list we may also add natural calamities such as lightning, thu· nderbolt etc., events which destroy communities such as wars, epidemics
etc •

.

.m

..
ifl3:1

fi:at'
II '-\ II

Thus ends the chapter named Vikrti vijnaniya-knowledge of fatal signs-fifth in Sarira sthana of hrdaya samhita, composed of srimad Vagbhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

,...,

Cltapter.-6

DOTADI VI]!IA.NlrA ( knowledge about the messenger etc. }

a'Pl'Ttn t_cnfqrcc-·...

1
1

We, shall now expound the chapter Diitadi vi.Jnaniyaknowledge about the messenger etc. ( omens, dreams ); thus said Atreya and other great sages. qt•uvtitflccvri... t
a'

\=rcrvri:

I

II

II

The messenger ( the person who comes to call the physi· cian to visit the patient ) if belonging to the same class as of the pakhaoQ.a ( low caste ), ( stages of life ) and var:v.a ( caste ) portends success in treatment; but if he belongs to a different class, he portends failure in treatment. 1.
Notes :-PakhaQ.Qa is the name of people belonging to a low cute who were serving as slaves of the persons of higher castes. As1 ama means the four stages of life-brahmacarya ( studentship ), grhastha ( bop.e. · holder ), vinaprastha ( forest dweller ) and sanyasa l ascetic). refers to the four castes-brabmaiJ.a, vaiSya and siidra.

Aluhha dilta-( inauspicious messenger )

Ff
f.{fv:s;f 'f1Ji

..

II
1

II

...
...

iR.._tbfti-.r ....
...

II \Ill

11

v 11

1

The physician should not follow the messenger, such' as; he who· is depressed, frightened, in hurry 1 exhausted, speaking harsh and inauspicious words, carrying weapons, or 31 bat?n; who is impotent, of shaven head and Inustache, or

[Cit

having big locks of hairs; whose very name itself is inauspicious, who is committing cruel acts; is dirty, a woman messenger, more than one; a sick person, of mutilated body, putting on red coloured garlands and unguents; smeared with oil or mud cl.a. the body; wearing old ( tor:n ), discoloured, wet cloth and single cloth; who is seated on a donkey, camel, or buffalo; who is beating (hitting) wood, stone etc. and who is beckoning from a distance. 2-Sa.

Tll"{Rr II'"' II
I
<JQt II \ II

iiU

1

The messenger who comes when the physician is thinking or speaking when he is naked, tearing or cutting things, lighting the fire, offering oblations to the manes, sleeping, untied his hairs, taking oil bath, weeping and unclean; such a man is the messenger of a person who is going to die. 5b-7a.
11 '"' 11

I
The physician should not treat the patient whose messe· nger is similar to the sick person ( sufferin ... from the diseases ) who approaches in such place and time which are similar to the sickness ( of the patient ). 7b-8a.
\ ", Not1s :-Similar to the sick person-means both the patient and his messenger suffering from the same or similar disease. Similar place and time means the patient sufFering from a disease ofkapba and his messenger the physician near a reservoir ofwater, and in the morning, both these being similar in nature to kap:1a; patient suffering from disease of pitta origin and his messenger meeting the physician near fire, and in the midday both these being similar in nature to pitta.
II<: II

tf.r.:
"'' ...

I

II
t

II

II

to

II

VI].

459
I'

I II

II

The messenger who, at the very first appearance before the physician is seen touching ( his own ) umbilicus, nose1 teeth, mouth, hairs of the head and of the body, nails, secret parts ( genitals, anus), back, breasts, neck, abdomen, and the ring finger; cotton, lead, bone, skull, pestle, stone, brcom, winnowing basket, old cloth, ash of cloth, burning coal, wick made of cloth, husk, rope, leather foot wear, ropes of the balance etc., which are broken or displaced; such persons are surely messengers of the dieing person. So also he, who approaches ( the physician) at midnight, midday, sunrise and sunset, on a crucial ( bad ) day; on the sixth, fourth, and ninth days ( of the two fortnights ) , on days of rise rahu and ketu, on days of stars like bharaJ,ti, krttika. purva, ardra, paitra ( magha ) and nairrta ( miila ).

8-12.

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I

If, the physician finds the time to be inauspicious when the messenger tells details of the patients condition or sees inauspicious omens at that time, then he should not go with such , a mc;:ssenger. Such ( inauspicious omens ) are : the messenger being one of mutilated body, appears like a cadaver, adorned like a dead ,man, speaking of torn, burnt or lost objects, of pungent taste 1 very strong smell or cadaveric smell; ' of touch such as, very hard or cruel or a similar one; either earlier to or along with and repeatedly with the intimation of d.etails of the patient. 13-16.

AStANGA aaDAYAM

[OH.

Pathi aJuhha nimitta-( inauspicious omens on the way )

.
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t\9 II
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11 \ ' u 1 :q II II
I
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tT

II

.

I

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I

II

Hearing sounds like ha, ha ( screams of torture etc. ), of very high pitch (such as of explosion, splitting, thunderbolt), of great anger, of slipping or falling down, of sneezing; of \ loss of dress, umbrella, footwear etc. Seeing persons in danger ( being tortured, murdered ), ·sinking of the holy tree, flags and filled vessels; person announ· cing in high pitch the death of some one or loss of something; the physician getting sorrounded either by ash or sand (mud); snake, cat, lizard, ignumon or monkey crossing his path in front of him; voice of cruel animals and birds coming from the east, sight of black grains, jaggery ( mollasses ), butter milk, salt, alcoholic beverages, leather ( hides and skin ), black mustard, muscle-fat, oi1, grass ( or hey ) , slush ( mud ), fuel, a eunuch, cruel man, man of lowest class; a net, or cage, a person who is vomitting, defaecating, emitting foul smell; one who is unwitnessable ( terrific, grotesque, frightening, etc. ), who is devoid of vitality, engaged in copulation, vendor of cotton etc., enemy; bed, chair, vehicle etc. being seen with the legs up while others like the vessels, etc. seen with their legs ( or mouths ) bent down-aU these_ are inauspicious. 17-23a.

V\lon qmt:
Jr({f\fui

fP'T; 11
Nfi!R!IIIET: I

u

vt]

S,ARIRASTHANA

461

Birds masculine names ( and of masculine gendt"r ) sitting on the left side (to the physician walking on the road) and those with feminine names ( and of feminine gender ) on the right side are auspicious; birds and animals going from the left to the right is auspicious, put not so with the dog and jackal; 23b-24a.

lirn:
.....

fil('-f

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n '
I1

11

II

Animals in group of even number are auspicious. Seeing ( blue jay ), bhasa ( vulture ) , bharadvaja ( sky lark ), nakula ( mangoose ), chaga ( goat ) and barhi ( peacock ) is always auspicious whereas seeing uliika ( owl ), biQala ( cat ), saratha ( heron ) is always inauspicious. 24b-2S.
Sf'let:

'fftait
if

r

if

II

II

Hearing the voice of the boar, lizard, snake, rabbit and chameleon is auspicious, while their look and weeping is not so; whereas those of the monkey and bear is otherwise. 26.
I

-:t'tfut

ferffO{ItTif

II

II

Seeing the rainbow in front is inauspicious whereas at other places ( back or on the sides ) is auspicious; seeing pots filled with fire, which are broken and which are empty is inauspicious. 27.

GrhapraveJa nimiUa ( omen at the house of the patient ) :-I;J'

l

11

Curds, rice grains used for auspicious rites etc. ( flowers, perfumes, turmeric, camphor ) and such other auspicious things being brought out ( of the patients house at the time when the physician enters the house ) is seen only in the house of the patient who is going to die. 28.

'
It-

462

t CH.

witnessed inauspicious omel?s such as th__e messenger etc. ( described so far) the physician should reject such a patient, but on seeing auspicious ones he should trea·t him with compassion and good will. 29.

sublza ,nimitta ( auspicious _omens ) :l"'l_

II

IL
1

..
.. I

:q ll \

II
II

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q:
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11

.:'31'Wft ty(l'q'Situi'T
"\.


II \'-\ II

Q;\1:

If \\ fI

if!roct-n'fa ••

,.,,ti
WifT
liT -

f

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1
111.<: II
I

qf1f

..

II \\ II

Curds, rice grains used for auspicious rites, priyaftgu, madhu ( honey ), sarpi ( ghee ), yavaka, anJana, bell, lamp, lotus, diirva grass, fresh fish and meat, laja (fried -Paddy), fruits, eatables, gems, elephant, vessels which are full, virgin, chariot, prosperous man, gods, kings, virtuous man, fly 'wick of white hairs, white cloth, white horse, and white conch, ascetics, the twice born, the head dress, garlands, avastika sign, fertile land, fire with flames, pleasing foods and drinks, carts full of men; cows, horses and women with their birds which hoot malodiously such as jivaftjlva

VI]

S.ARlRASTH.ANA

( partridge ), saraiiga ( ring neck parakeet ), sarasa ( crane ), bathsa ( swan ), satapatra ( peacock or parrot ), a solitary animal kept fastened (to a peg), sight of the armlet (jewellary), mirror, siddhartha ( white mustard ), gorocana ( ox gall), pleasing perfumes, things of white colour, things of sweet taste, bellowing of the bull and the cow which are in pleasant mood; pleasing and melodious words of animals ( pets ), birds and men ( friends etc. ); umbrella, flags and banner being held high; words of praise and good wishts, sound of kettle drum, cymbal and conch, sacred incantations, uttering of vedic hymns, comforting breeze fron1 the left moving towards the right-all these seen by the physician either on the way or at the time of entering the house of the patient are the signs of health ( auspicious omen portending health of the patient ). 30-39. I So far were described the good and bad of the messenger and further the good and bad dreams. 40a.
0..

AJubha svapna ( inauspicious dreams ) : fqq;r_
1::1
....

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II

II
II

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II

" 31'tcrfa srf\R""q

1

II

ll

[ CH.

He, who dreams of drinking win.e with the dead, being dragged by the dog will soon be dragged away by death in the guise ofjvara ( fever). He, who dreams of wearing coloured garlands, his body is coloured red, wearing red cloth, ',is laugh and being overpowerd by women will die from asrapitta ( bleeding disease ). He, who dreams of going towarrls the west riding on a buffalo, horse, boar, camel or donkey, is going to die from (pulmonary tuberculosis). He, who dreams as though thorny creepers, bamboo or , palm tree has grown from ( the region of ) his heart dies from gulma ( abdominal tumu ) soon. He, who dreams of oftering oblations to fire is not burning, his body smeared with ghee, o[ being naked, and lotus growing from his chest, dies soon from ( leprosy· and other skin diseases). He, who dreams or drinking different kinds of fats ( oil, ghee, marrow etc. ) in the company of men. of lowest caste, is going to die from prameha (diabetes). He, who dreams of drowning in water and dancing in the company of is going to die from unmada ( insanity He, who dreams of dancing with and being carried away by the dead, dies from apasmara ( epilepsy ). He, who dreams of riding on the donkey, camel, cat, monkey' sardula ( leopard ), pig, spirit of the dead or jackal, is inside the mouth of the death. He, who dreams of eating sweet pudding, pastries and vomitting sirnilar things after waking from sleep, does not survive. He, who dreams of seeing the eclipse of the sun and moon gets diseases of the eyes and seeing the sun and moon falling down destroys the eye ( vision ). 40b-48.

'lfi
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II

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VI]

S}r.RIRASTHANA

465

srqm:
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1
1

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1

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• iiWTtiiT
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Bamboo, creepers etc. growing on the head, birds alightDing on it, ( head ), head being shaven; surrounded by crows, vultures etc. or by the spirit of the dead, pisaca, women, dravi· <;las, andhras, and those who eat cow's flesh; getting entangled among vetra ( water reed/cane ), creepers, bamboo, grass or thorns; sleeping on a ravine or burial ground, falling on a heap of sand or ash; drowning in water, slush etc; being carried away by swift current in rivers; getting engaged in dancing, playing musical instruments and singing; wearing red colored, garlands and dress; increase of age and of body parts; getting anointed with oil and taking bath, getting married; engaged in shaving the mustache, eating cooked foods fats and wine, engaged in vomitting and purging; acquiring gold and iron, getting defeated in dice ( gambling ) and sports; destruction, loss of both the pillows, ( one of the head and the other of the feet ); falling off ( loss of) the skin of feet; being in ectacy of joy, getting rebuked by the angry manes ( dead ancestors ), falling or loss of bright ]amp, planets, star, teeth, gods or the eyes; splitting of the mountains; entering into forests with red flowers-, places of sinful act.::, places concerned with the funeral, of darkness, of torture and that of the mother ( probably the temple of mother goddess where animals are slaughtered ); falling from the ( terrace of) palace, mountain ( peak ) etc; getting held up by a fish, seeing persons who are ascetics, cruel, nude, holding baton, of reddish eyes and of black body-none of these should be seen in dreams. 49-58a.
'lttn'Pft;:Jla" ..,
I

30A

1fn'Cififtll

mtt'

466

A&TA:F:fGA

[ CH.

Seeing a woman who is blacka sinful, not performing tradi· tional rites ( indulging in misconduct ); having long hairs, nails and hanging breasts, wearing discoloured garlands and dress-is like seeing kalanisa ( goddess of death&). 58b-59a•

-

....ihtaleti
8R]q:
SftQI

llt..'ll
I ,

11\oll

Bad dreams occur due to the blockage of the manovaha srotas ( channels of the mind ) by the strong ( aggravated, -greatly increased ) , mal as ( ); by these ( dreams ) the person if a patient is going to die and if not a patient, he becomes uncertain about his health or life; very few of such persons escape from death. 59b-60.

Svapna hlzeda and phala ( kinas and effects

n:

'

mffia: =-:eur:

of dreams ) :a
JRr! 11'\\H

-

The seen ( witnessed ), the heard, the experienced, the desired, the imagined, the futuristic ( going to happen in future) and that born from (aggravated) the dream is of seven kinds. 61.
Ul
I

?ftJs-.:ei).sfa'

a: ...

:q

rita;J

1

' "\II

Of them, the first five aie fruitless ( ineffective, do not produce good or bad effects). So also those which are similar (in nature ) to ones own constitution (natural temperament), those which are forgotten soon and those which are either too long or too short. Those seen in the early part of the night yeild their result after a long time and in sma11 measure; those seen at the time of letting the cows out ( that is in the early morning) gives the result on the same day and in great measu're; so also which are not carried away (destroyed) either by sleep (person getting sleep again after the dream) or by unhelpfu] words (awakened by harsh words of others). 62-63.

VI]
c..

S!RIRASTH1.NA •

467

...
(I''IS(q

1

:q-; !if;,
I

u+f

Bad dreams become less effective by indulging in charity, · sacrifice. incantations etc. He, who sees good ( auspicious ) dreams immediatly after an inauspicious one, will derive the good effect only. 64-65a.
subha svapna ( auspicious dreams) :-

I
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q)

t\wilt't-1 tq,

f't"la-...._f._ 'fiW(
, ................,..,....... .;

I II

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11\loll
:;J

..

fl:qaj fcr8 q

1

He, who sees (in dream) gods, the twice born, (brAhmal}a), the living cow, or bulJ; friends, kings, persons of good nature and prosperous, fire with flame, reservoirs of water which are clean; the virgin, yo.ung boys, those who 're white, wearing white dress and of radiant complexion; who are besmeared with blood; of bright complexion and devouring human beings; the umbrella, mirror, poison (roots such as aconite etc.), meat, flowers, white cloth, body smeared with dirt, fruits; climbing on hills, palaces, fruit trees; riding on lion, man, elephant, bull or horse; swimming in a river, 1ake or sea; tra\ elling either to the east or north, copulating with a forbidden women, death (of some one else), getting relieved from troubles, being praised by the gods and dead ancestors, weeping, uplifting the sinners and subdueing those who hateattains long life, health and great wealth. 65-7la.

468

[ CH.

ll'ff•l-.,oc..'tt+._-..:

ll\9tll
I

,

The patient endowed with auspicious conduct, having
attendants of similar qualities, having faith ( in the physician and treatment ), helpful with plenty of money, combined with good qualities, obedience in the physician, and the twice born ( brahmal}a ), enthusiastic ( optimistic ) about the treatment· these are features of ( the sick person getting back his health ). 71 b-73a.
...... '(.tC.ti

ifl<.n:( 11\9\ll
lllll.\11

aa: •

As birth and death ofthe hurr1an body have been descri· bed in this section, it is called as Sarira sthana.

t:fa
i1m

,q,...
II

a tqi'
II

Thus ends the chapter named Dfitadi vijnaniya, the sixth in Sarira sthana of hrdaya samhita composed by srimad Vagbhata, son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

..

l

Thus ends Sarira sthana-the second section.

APPEND/X-i
INDEX OF DIET ART:{CLES AND DRUGS

( sii = siltrasthana,

sa=sarirasthana, Hem = Hemadri. )

Aru=AruQadatta,

( only one reference furnished )

-AAbhaya-sii. 15/35-haritaki Terminalia chebula Retz. Abhiru-sii. 6/170-satavari-Asparagus racemosus Willd. 6/120-fruit-Pistacia vera Linn. Accha sura. sii 3/12-suramai}Q.a-scum of beer. Acjhaki-sii, 6/17-Cajanus indicus Spreng. Agiradhiima-sii. 27/37-chimney soot. Agni-su. 15/17-citraka-Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Agnimaiitha-sii. 14/23-Premna integrifolia Linn. Aguru-sii. 15/43-Aquil\aria agallocha-Roxb. Ahi-sil. Ahikaiicuka-sa. I /83-snake peel. Aiiidrambu-sa.. 5/4-rain water. Airavata-phala-:;'ii. 6/138-naranga-Citrus reticulata Blanch. Aja 5/24-goats milk. ma111sa sii. 6f63-goats flesh. - miitra-sii 5/82-goats urine. 30/17-goats excreta. Ajaji-su. 15(33-jiraka-Cuminum cyminum Linn. Ajamoda-sii, I 5/33-Carium roxburghiana-Dc. Ajya-su. 19/58-ghee/butterfat. 6/158-vibhitaki-Terminalia belerica Roxb. taila-su. 5f60-oil of Vibhitaki. phala-sft. 6/120-Juglans regia Linn.. Ala-sii. 21/18-haritala-mineral-orpiment. Yellow sulphide . \ o f arsenic. .. .. 25/3-Lagenaria vulgaris Linn. Alarka-sii. 15j28-5vetarka-Calotropis gigantea R. Br. Aluka-sii. 6[94. yam/tuber of many Dioscorea species. Ama-ra w, uncooked. unripe material.

-

470

Amalaka-sii. 6/158-Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Amapayas-sii., 5j28-uncooked milk. Amaradaru-Amarahva-sii. 15/43-Cedrus deodar Roxb. ( Aru pariera Linn. mayiirasikha (Hem) Tamarix articulata Vahl. Ambhas-sii. 1/13-water. Ambhoja-sii; 24/18-kamala.,Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Amlakanjika-sii. 8/48-fermented gruel. Amlavetasa-sii. 10/25. parcinia pedunculata Roxb. Amlika-sii. 6/139- fama.rindus indicus Linn. Amra-sii. 6/128. Mangifera indica, Linn. Amrata phala-su. 6/137-Spondias mangifera Willd. Amrta sU.. 6/7 5-Tinospora cordifolia Miers. Amsumati-sii. gangeticum D. C. Amsumatidva ya-saliparl}i & AnaiiUi-su. 15/6.37-duralabha ( Aru & Hem ) Alhagi came· lorum Fisch. Afijana-sii; 1 sulphide. yugma-sii. 15/37-srotaiijana & sauviraiiJana. Aiikola/ankota phala-su. 6/120-;Alangium lamarcki Linn. Anna-su. 18{43-food, cooked rice. Anupana-sft. 18/51-an after-drink.. , Anu yava-sii. 6/15-snlall barley-Hardeum vulgare Linn. Apamarga-sii. 10/29-Achyranthes aspera Linn. Apeya jala sii. 6/6-8-non-potable water. Apiipa-sii. 6/42-baked cakefroasted flour paste. Aragvadha. sii. 15/17-Cassia fistula Linn. Aralu-sa; 2/7-syonaka-Oroxyllum indicum Vent. Aillanthus exceJsa Roxb. AraJ:uka-sii. 13/24-agnimai'itha-Premna integrefolia Linn. Ardraka-sii. 6/164-green ginger-Zinziber officinalis Linn. Ardrika-sii. 6/109.:...green coriander leaves-Coriandrum sativum Linn. decoction. 6/75-nimba-Azadirachta indica Juss. Arjaka saka-sii. 6/106/surasa-Ocimum gratissimum Linn. ,Arjuna-sii. 15/41-Terminalia arjuna Roxb. Arka-sii. 15/28-Calotropis procera Ait-R Br. Aruka phala-su. 7/37-bhaJlataka-Semecarpus anacordium Linn. '_ Asana-sii. 15/19-Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

APPENDIX I

471

,-

Asava-sii. 5/74-fermented infusion. Asmabheda-Asmafitaka-sii. 15/24-sa. 2/54-Saxifraga ligulata Wall. Asphota-sii. 30/9-Girikarnika ( Aru ) Clitora ternatea Kovidara (Ilem) Bauhinia variegata. Linn. Asurisaka-sii. 6/106-Brassica nigra Linn. Asva-horse. 5/27-horses milk. mamsa-sft. 6/48 horses miitra-sii. 5/82 horses urine. 30/17-horses dung. Asvagaiidha-sa. 2/50 \Vithania somnifera Dunal. Asvakar1.1a sii. 15/19-kusika-Diptero carpus turbinatus Geartn . . 19/72-Narium indicum Mill. Asvatara-animal-sa. 6/48-Mule. Asvattha-sii. 21/16-Ficus religiosa Linn. Atasi-5a. 2/25 Linum usitatissimum Linn. 10/29-vasa·Adhatoda vasaka-Nees. Aticchatra-su . 29/31-v:isanika U\ru) Gymnema sylvestre-R.Br. (Hern) Anethum sowa-kurz.. Atiguha-sii. 29/31-saliparni (Aru) Desmodium gangeticum De Prisniparni ( Hem ) U raria pecta Desv. Atisrta paya-sii. 5/29-over-boiled milk. 15/35-Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Atxnagupta-sii. 15/6-Mucuna pruriens De phala-sii. 6/22-fruit of atmagupta. Audbhida laval)a-sii. 6/148-salt obtained from soil. 5f25-camel's milk. Avalguja saka-sii. 6f75-Psoralea corylifolia Linn. bija-sii. 7/26-seeds of avalguja. A vi ghrta-su. 5-42-sheep's ghee. ksira-sii. 5/26-sheep's milk. mamsa-sii. 6/54-sheep's meat. miitra-su. 5/Sl-sheep's urine. 5akrt-sii. 30/17-sheep's excreta. Ayahfayas-sii. 10/29-iron.

-BBabhru-su 6/48-large mungoose. Badaraphala-sii. 6-120-fruit of Zizyphus jujuba Plank.

HE.DAYAM

Bahala/bahula-sii. 15/45-sigru-Moringa ptergosperma. Geartn. paHava-sii. 15/21-tender Jea_ves of sigru. Bahurasa-sii. 15f45-ik$u·Saccharum officinarum. Linn. Baibhitakisura-sii. 5/49-beer prepared from the bark of vibhitaki, Terminalia balerica Roxb. 6/51-bird-heron, Bakara-sil. 6/45-bird·small crane. Bala-su. 6/16a-Sida cordifolia Linn. dvaya-sil. 15/5-bala & atibala. traya-sil. 10/23-bala, atiba]a & nagabala. Balaka-sil. 6/51-bird-domoiselle crane. Balan1iilaka-sii. 8-42-tenderfyoung.. raddish ..Raphinus sativus Linn. Bllvaja-sil. 1/87-1. Eleucine indica Geartn. 2. Imperata arundanacae Cyrill. Bai}a':"'sii. 15/17-nilasahacara. Barleria strigos.a WiJld. Barhata bija-sii. 15/4-seeds of brhati-Solanum indicum Linn. Barhi·bird. sa. 2/18-peacock. sali-sil. 6/6-a kind of rice, Oryza sattva Linn. Gardenia gummifera-Linn. Bastaiitri-sii. (Aru) Ipomea pescaprea-Sw. vrddhadaru (Hem) Argyrea speciosa·Swet. Bhadradaru-sii. 15/5-Cedrus deodara. :Loud. Bhallataka phala majja-su, 6/134. fruit marrow of Semecarpus anacordium-Linn. asthi-sii. 15/40 seed of Semecarpus anacordium-Linn. Bhalliika-su. 15/24-syonaka-Oroxylum indicum Vent. Bhai}Qi-sii. lebbeck Benth. Bhariigi-sii. 15/28-Clerodendron serratum Linn. Bhasa-sil. 6/49 bird-white headed vulture. Bhavya-sii. 10/26-DeHinia indica Linn. Bheka-sii. 6f47-frog. BhrQgahva bird-sii. 6{46-forktailed shrike. Bhiikanda-sii. 6/114-mushroom. Bhumyathbu-sii. 5/4-underground water. Bhunimba-sii. 15/17-Andrographis Nees. Bhiirja-sii. 15/19-Betula bhojpatra Wall.
I

APPENDIX I

Bhiitakesi-sii.lS/30-mamsi (Aru) Nardostachysjatamansi..D.C. nirgUJ}.Qi (Hem) Vitex nigundo Linn. Bhiitroa-sii. 15/30-atichatra ( Aru ) not identified correctly bhiirika ( Hem ) cymbopogon citratus D.C . Bi4a lavaJ}.a-sii; 6/146-black salt. Bilesaya])-sii. 6/47-animals living in burrows. Bilva phala su . 6/25-fruit of Aegale mar-nelas Linn. pesika-sii. 15/38-marrow of fruit of bilva. _ Bimbi phala-sii. 10/24-fruit of Coccina indiGa W &. A. Bisa-sii, 6/91-rhiz:lme of Nelumbium speciosum Willd. BrahmacariQi-sii. 29/31-sraval)i mUQQi-Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Brhat pancamiila-see pancamiila. Brhati-sii. 6/76-Solanum indicum Linn .. Brhati dvaya-sii. 6/79-brhati and kaQtakari. Buka-sii. 15 Osmanthus fra· -grans Loud.
I

-CCakora-sii. 6J44-bird-greek phaesant. 6/51-bird-ruddy sheldrake. Camera-sii. 6/51-animal-yak. Cancusaka-sii; 6/85-Corchorus fascicularis-Lam. Cai}Qa-sii. 15/43-kopana (Aru) Angelica glouca-Edgw. Candana-sii; album Li'nn. Candrika matsva-sii; 6/53-a kind of fish. Cafigeri saka-sii. 6/74 oxalis corn.culata-Linn. Carmasahva-sii, 15/45-satala. concinna. D. C. 6/49-bird-blue jay. Cataka-sii; 6/60-bird-tree sparrow. and Catasra parJ}i-sii. 10/23-salipar:Q.i, mudgaparl,li. Caturjataka-sii; patra, ela, and nigakesara. Cavika-sii; 6/165-Piper chaba Hunter. Chagakart)a-sii; 15/19 ajakarn.a, Dipterocarpus tubbinatu. Geartn. Chatra-sii; 29/31-satapuspa, Anethum sowa. Kurz. Chinnaruha-sii. 15/45-gudiici, Tinospora cordifolia Miers.

32

Cilicima matsya-sii; 6f67 a kind ofred fish. Citti-sii. 6/93-5aka-a variety of Chinopodium album Linn. Cina ( vrihi )-sii. 6/6/9-a variety Linn. 6/87-Cucumis utilissirnus Roxb. - Cirabilva-sii. 6/98-Holoptela integrifolia Planch. Cirbhala-sii. 6/89-Cucumis memordica Roxb. Citta-su ( Aru) Ipomea remiformis Chois (Hem) Trichosanthes diocia-Roxb. Citraka-sii. 1/166-Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Coca-sii. 3/31-panasa ( Aru ) Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. narikela (Hem ) Cocos nucifera Linn. Coca-sii. 15/43-Tvak-Cinnamomum tamala Nees. Coraka-sii. 15/43-grafithiparl}i·Angelica glouca Edgew. 10/26-Fermented gruel. puluki-sii. / Cuiicu-sii_. 6/83-Saka-See Caiicu.

-:oDadhi-su: 5/29-thick sour milk/curdled milk/yoghartfcurds. phaJa-sii. 6/117-Fruit of Punica gran tum Linn. Dahana-sii. 15/1-citraka-Plumbago zeylanica-Linn. 30/17-bird-Cock. Sakrt-r,ii. 30/17-exc'Teta of cock. Daiitajatha-sii. 6/138-jambira-Citrus limonum Spreng. Daiiti-sii. 15/45-Baliospermum monatum Muell-Arg. Dar_bha-sii. IS/21. Bragrotis cynasuroides-Beau. Darduta 6/9 a kind of paddy-Oryza sativa. Linn. Darpa-sfl. 3/11-Kastilri-musk. Daru-sii. 15/3-devadaru..Cedrus deodara Roxb. 15/4-daruharidra-Barberis aristata·D. C. Da5amiila-sil. 15/3-ten roots. viz1. Bilva. 2. Agnim1aiitha. 3. Syonaka. 4. Ka$marya. 5. 6. SaliparQi. 7. 8. Brhati. 9. KaDtakari. 10. Datyiiha-su. 6/46-bird·gallinule. Devadlfi-stl. 15/1-Luffa echinata Roxb. Devadhiipa-sG. 15/43 sar'jarasa-resin of Vateria indica Linn. Devihvafdevahva ya-su. 15/3-see daru. Dhana-sii. 6/38. fried grams or grains. Dhanaki-sii. 1,5/16-Dhanyaka-Coriandrum sativum-Linn.

Ill

APPENDIX I

Dhanvayasa-sii. 10/29-Alhagi camclorum Fisch. Fagania arabica Linn. Dhanyaka-sfi. 15/16-see dhanaka. · Dhanyamla-sii. 5/79-sour rice-wash, fermented gruel. payas-sii. 5/29-fresh warm milk directly from the udder. Dhataki-sii. 15/38-Wood fordia floribunda-salisfW. fruiticosa Kurz. Dhatri-stl. 3/51. amalaki-Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Dhava/dhavaka-sii . 15/19-An.ogeissus latifolia-Wall. Dhavaniya-sii. 20/38-brhati and ka1)takari together. Dhumika-su. 6/49-bird·owlet. Dhiipa-sii. 3/13. sarala niryasa-resin of Pinus longifolia 'Roxb. Dhyamaka-sii. 15/43-devadagdhaka (Aru), (Hem)Cymbopogon Schoenanthus-Lin!\. sii. 21/14-kattrii}.a ( Hem )-Cymbopogon - citra . tus-D. C. 2/41-ajamoda·Apium graveolens Linn. Dirghasiika sali-su. 6/1-a kind of paddy-Oryza sativa Linn. Dirghavrfita-sii. 17/8-tiQtuka-Oroxyllum indicum-Vent. Divyodaka-::,ii. 8/43-rain water, pure ""ater. phala-sii. 6/136-grape-Vitis vinefera Linn. Dravafiti-sii. 15/45-unduru lkar:Qika (Aru), daiitibheda (Hem)· a variety of Croton tiglium...Linn. Dugdha-see Duralabha-sa. 2-8-Fagonia arabica Linn, Alhagi camelorum , Fisch. Diirva-su. 15/16-Cynodon dactylon Pers; Dusaka sali-sii. 6/2-a kind of paddy-Oryza sativa Linn. Dvipi-sii, 6/48-animaE-Panther. sii. 15/32-citraka. Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Dvin1sa-sii. 15/40-haridra and daruharidra. Dvi tikta-sii. and kakatikta/kakajangha ( Aru ) KatukA and Karanjika (Hem.) Edagaja saka-sii. 6/94-Cassia tora Linn. Ela. sii. 15/1. Elettaria cardomomum Maton. l.ladvayafelayugma. sii. ela and Elavaluka-sii. 15/26-Prunus cerasus

-·-

AST.A'f:iGA

EJ}a-sii. 6/43/67-animal-black deer. Bra1}."4a..:su. 6/169-Ricinus communis Linn. EraQ<.ia taila-sfi. 5/57-castor oil. , Ervlru-sii. 6/89-Cucumus utilissimus Roxb.

-GGairika-sii. 10/32-mineral;•red ochre. Oaja ,miitra-sii. 5/82-elephant's urine. Gandhana vrihi-sii. 6/9 a kind of paddy-Oryza sativa Linn. GaQ.Qiram-sii. 15/33-snuhi-Euphorbia nerrifolia Linn. Gafigambu-sii. 5/2-rain water. Gatasoka-su. 15/26-asoka-Saraca indica Linn. Gauda sura., Gauda arista-sii. 5/74-Liquor prepared from trea cle/jaggery. Goura 1/39-not identified correctly. Goura sali-sii. 6/2 a kind of white rice-Oryza sativa Linn. Gaura 22/19-Brassica compestriss Var. IS/2-liidravaru:J}i·Citrullus colocynthis Schrd. Gavaya-sii. 6/51-animal, goyal ox. Gavedhuka saka-sii. 6/93-Coix lachrymajobi Linn. Gavyam-sii. 5/21-cow's milk. Ghana-sii. 14/22-musta. Cyperus rotundus Linn. 15/17 piiga ( Aru ) Areca catechu Linn. Badari ( Hem ) Zizyphus jujuba Lam. Ghrta-sii. 5/37-ghee, butterfat. Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Girivartaka-sii. 6/45-bird-mountain quail. Golqira-sfi. 5/21-cow's milk. - mamsa-sii. 9/65-cows or ox flesh. - miitra-sd. 5/82. cows urine. - rocana-5a, 3/ J1. ox gallfox bile. - S3krt-sii. 30/! 7-cow dung. Godha-sii. 6/4 7f6 7-animal.- Iguana lizard. Godhiima-sii. 6/15-wheat·Triticum vulgare. Linn. Gojihva saka-sii. 6/77-0nosma bracteatum Wall. Gokar9-a mrga-sii. 6/43-cow-eared deer. Gokav\aka, Golqura-sii. Tribulus terristris Linn. Gonarda.-sii. 6/45-bird-hill partridge. Gopasuti-stl. 15/9 sariva. Hemedesmus indicus Roxb. Gopl-sii. 20/38-knva siriva•lchnocarpus fruitescens. R. Br.

APPENDIX I

477

Grdhra-sii. 6/49-bird-vulture. sakrt-sii. 30/17-excreta of the vulture. Granjana ( ka )-sii. 6/112-Daucus carrota-D C. GuQa. sii. 5/47-molassessfjaggeryftreacle. I 0/29-Tinospora cordifolia Meirs•ex-Hook. Guggulu-sii. 15/43-Resin of Balsamodendron mukul Hook. Uraria logopoides-Dc. · Guha-sii. Gundra. sii.-15/6-padaeraka (Aru) Typha elephantina Roxb. 15/24-vrttatrl)a, ( Aru. ) Typha angustata. Bory & chab. -HHaimavati-sii. 15/40. sveta vaca. Acorus calamus Linn. Hamsa-sii. 6/51-bird. Common mute swan. Hamsodaka-sii. 3/52-rain water, pure potable water. 14/26 juniperus communis-Linn. Haren.u-sii. 23p 15. rel].uka-1. Piper aurantiacum.·Wall. 2. Syrnphorema poluandrumWight. 3. Vitex agnus castus-Linn. 4. Clitora ternatea.-Linn. Haricandana-sii. 3f40-pitaca:iidana. Santalum album Linn. Haridra-si.i. 15/35-Curcuma longa Roxb. dvaya-su. 15/35-haridra and daruharidra. Haridra-sii. 7/41-a kind of yellow plant or tuber, not identified. Harin.a-sii. 6/43-animal-deer. Harita-sii. 6/47-bird. a kind of pigeon. Haritaki-sii. 6/153-Terminalia chebula-Retz. 5/27. elephant's milk. Hayanaka sali-sii. 6f6-a kind of rice-Oryza sativa. Linn. Hema-sii. 10/22-metal-gold. Hemadugdha-sii. 15/2-Argemona mexicana Linn. Hingu-sfi. 6/152-Asafoetida, resin ofFerula foetida. Regl.' Himam-sti. 20/37-caiidana-Santalum album Linn. Hiran.ya 1/83-la:iig_ali-Gioriosa superba Linn. , ' Hrsva paiicami.ila-sii. 6/1681. salipailJ.i. 2. prsniparn.f. 3. brhati. 4. kafilakari and 5. gob.ura. -15/42-sugar cane-Saccharum officinarum, Linn. lktu rasa-sii. 5/44-rugar cane juice.

"t/H

YAM

Iiidravha-su. 6/45-bird. hedge sparrow. 30/9-kutuja (Aru) Holerrhina antidysenterica Wall. Arjuna (Hem) Terminalia arjuna-W. & A. lndrayava-sii. 15/17-seeds of kutaja. Holerrhina antidysenterica Wall. 21/19-kasa-Saccharum spoutanueum Linn. Itkata-sii. 15/24-a kind of grass. Sesbania bispinosa F. & R.

-JJala-water-sii. 15/43-Hribera-Coleus vettiveroides Jacob. Jalada-sii. 15/35-musta-Cyperus rotundus Linn. Jaladimbu-sii. 3/23-water boiled with musta. 26/35-animal-leech. Jarhbira-sii. 6/106. Citrus limon Linn. Burm. Jambiipbala-sii. 6/127-Eugenia jambolana-Lam. Jambu dvaya-sii. 1$/41-Raja jambu-Eugenia jambolana_-Lam. and jambu-Eugenia heyneanaWall. Jambuka-sil. <i/49. animalgickal. 29/Sl-Nardostachys jatamansi-D. C. Jatlrasa-sil. 15/43. bola. resin of Commiphora myozha (Nees)

Eng1.
Jatu-sil. 28/36. shell lac. Jatumukha vrihi-sii. 6/8. a kind of paddy .. Oryzasativa Linn. Jayl. agliimaflth. Premna integrifolia Lian. dvaya-sii. 14}21. Agnimaiitha, Premna integrefolia Linn. and qudragnimafitha -Clerodendron phlomoides Linn. Juiijhu sika-sii. 6/94-not identified correctly. ,Jingin.f-st\. ( Aru )· Salmalia malabarica Schott. Modaki ( Hem )-Odina woodier-Roxb. Jlraka-sii. 15/34-Cuminum cyminum. Linn. Jivaka-sii. 6/170. Microstylus wal1aehii-Lindl. ]Ivana paiicamiila-su. 6/170-(1) Abhiru. (2) vlra. (3) jivaiiti . ' (4) jivaka. (5) nabhaka. _jivaiijivaka-sii. 6/46-bird. chukar. Jivanta lika-sii. 6/94-not identifed correctly. Jivanti Slka-sii. 6/86-Leptedenia reticulata. W & A.
I

_!-

APPENDIX-I

479

Jofigaka-sii. 15/19-aguru. Aquillaria agallocha Roxb. 14/21-Sorgum vulgare-Linn. , JviHi vrihi-sii. 6/9-a kind of paddy-Oryza 'sativa Linn. J 21/17-Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

-K15/38-dha:iivayasa... Fagonia arabica-Linn. Kadali-sii. 15/26-Musa sapientum-Linn. Kadamba-su, 15/41-Anthocephalus cadamba-Miq. Kadamb-sii. 6/51-bird. grey legged goose. Kadara-sii. 15/19-Svetakhadira-Acacia suma Kaka-su. 25/4-bird-crow. . Kakajangha-sii. 30/10 Peristrophe bicalyaculata Nees. Kakamaci-su. 6j7 4-1. (Aru) Cardiospermum haJicacabum. Linn. 2. lraraiijika ( Hem ) Caesalpinia bonduccel1a-Fleming. Kakar;a9olapha1a-sii. 6/22-katabhtfsvetasirisa, Albizzia procera Benth. Kako\i-sii. 15/8-Roscoea prucera Wall. dvayafkakolayau-kakoli-Roscoea procera Wall. and rakakoli-Roscoea procera Wall. Mimusops kauki Linn. Kakubha-sii. 2/2-arjuna-Terminalia arjuna W & A. Kala loha-sii. 14/24-metal-iron. Kalama sali-sii. 6/1-a, variety of rice, Oryza sativa Linn. Kalamala-sfi. 15/30-arjaka-Ocimum basilicum Linn. 30/8-Schrebera sweitinoides Roxb. Elae· dendron glaucum-Pers. Kalamba saka-sii. 6/93-Ipomea aquatica Krosk. Kalanusirya-sa. (Aru) Hemedesmus indi· cus R Br. Kalasaka-sii.. 6/97-Cochorus capsularis KaJasi-sii. U raria Iogopoides-Dc. Kaliya-st\. 6/18-Pisium sativum Linn. Kalhara-ad. 3/35-Nymphea alba Linn. Kali:fida-sii. 6/87-CitruiJus vulgaris Schrd. Ka\ingaka-sii. 15/19-ifidrayava. seeds of Holerrhina antidy· senterica Wall. Kaliyaka-sii. 22/20-pita caftdana. (Hem) 'Coscinium tum Gartn; , · diru haridra-Berberis aristata De.

480

6/92-Padmabija. seeds of Nelumbium speciosum Willd. K.amala-sii. 3/35-Nelumbi\lm speciosum Willd. Kathpilla ( ka )-sii. 15/2-raktafiga-Mellatus philippinensis · Muell· Arg. Ka.msya-sii. 7/37-metal·bronze.-bell metal. -KaQa-sii. l5fl-Piper longun1. Linn; Kao.akapota-sii. 6/60-bird. wood pigeon. 30/21-Argemona mexicana Linn; Kancana sili-sii. 6/2-a kind of rice-Oryzasativa Linn. Kal}4iikari-sii. 15/9-Mucuna prurens D. C. Kangu-su. 6/11-Panicum italicum-Linn. Kaiigu-sii. 7/32-Priyangu (Hem) Aglalia roxburgiana W & A. Kaiika-sii. 25/4-bird-heron. Kaiiti-Si. 2/4-gafidha priyafigu-Prunus mahaleb Linn. Kaiitira ik$u-sii, 5/46-a kind of sugarcane-Saccharum officinarqm Linn. Kapifijala-sii. 6/44-bird-grey partride. Kapittha elephantum Correa. · F. limonia ( Linn) Swingle. Kapltana-sii, 15/41-Tbespesia populnea-Correa. Kapota. sii. 6/47-bird-pigeon. Karamardak-sii. 6/138-Carissa carrandas Linn. Karathbha-sii. 15/24-uttamarani-Pergularia exten&a N. E. Br. va-stl. 6/51-bird-Coot. Karaiija-sii. 15/1-Pongamia glabra. Vent.. yugn1a/dvaya-sii. 15/17-karanja-Pongamia glabra Vent. putikaranja. Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. Karavella saka-sii. 6/80-Memordica chirantia Linn. Kardama sali-sii 6f3-a kind ofpaddy-Oryza sativa. l.inn. Karlra-sii. 6/77-Capparis,aphyUa. Roth/C. desidua Edgew. Karkai\dhu-:;il. 6/137-Zizyphus nummularis 'W & A. Karkaru saka-sii 6/87-Cucumis melo Linn. IC.ark$a Sika-sii. 6/78-Kampillaka. Mallotus philippinensis / Muell-Arg. Karkata-sii. 5/52-.animal-Crab. , Karkot;a s!ka-sii. 6/76-Memordica mixa Roxb. K&rmuka-stl. 15/30. atimuktaka.- Hiptage bengalensis Kurz. IC.am.ikira-6A. 3/ fistula_ Linn.

-

APPENDIX I

481

Karpasa-stl. 25/34-Gossypium herbacum. Linn. Karpiira-stl. 3 /20-camphor-oil extract of Cinnamomum cam' ph ora Nees. Kasa-sil. 15/24-Saccharum spontaneum. Linn. Kasamarda-sil. 6/1 00-Cassia occidentallius Linn. Kaseruka saka-sil. 6/92-Seirpus kysoor Roxb. Kasisa dvaya-sil. 15/23-Dhatukasisa & mineralferrous sulphate. 6/122-Gmelina arborea Linn. Katabhi-stl. 7/25-svetasirisa-Albizza procera. Benth. Kataka phala-sO.. 15/13-Strychnos potatorum Linn. 6/78-rakta punarnava-Boerhavia diffusa Linn. 15/13-rohh}i/somavalka ( Aru )-Myrica nagi· Thumb. . stl. 15/26-kumudafrohiQihheda ( Aru )-Careya arborea. Roxb. 10/38-:-Picorrhiza kurroa Royle. taila-sil. taila-oil of Brassica nigra. Linn. Katvafiga-sil. 15/33-syonaka-Oroxyllum indicum-Vent. Kat vi -sii. 14/25-see katuka rohini. Katutraya-see trikatu Kaufiteya. Kauiiti-sO.. 21/14-harenu.. Piper aurantiacum-Wall. Kebukam, Kembukam-stl. 6f78-Costus speciosus-Koem. Kelilta-stl. 6/92-jalodumbara-a variety . of Ficus glomerata Roxb. KhaQgamrga-stl. 6f51-animal-rhinocerus. Khadira-stl. 15/19-Acacia catechu Willd. Khala-stl. 16/34-butter-milk processed with spices etc. Khal}Qava-stl. 3/30-syrup of fruits of all tastes. Khal}Qasita-stl. 5/49-sugarcandy. Khara-stl. 6/48-animal-donkey. 5/82-urine of donkey. sikrt-stt. of donk«y. Kharabusa-stl. 15/30-marubaka. Ocimum basilicum Linn. Kharjtlra phala-stl. 6/119-dates-Phoenix sylvestris Linn. Kharjtlra 5/73-liquor made from dates. Khapura-st1. 15/43-§allakiniryasa, kunduraka: rt'sin of Boswellia serrata Roxb. 5/41-inspissated milk.
31 A

482

AeTAi'tGA H].tDAYAM

Kinjaltta-sil. 20/37-Padmakesara-stamen of lotus flower, Nelumbium speciosum- Will d. KiQva-2/25. brewing yeast, sediment of wine. Kodrava-sil. 6/10-Paspalum scorbiculatum. Linn. Kokila-sil. 6/46-bird. Indian cuckoo. Kola phala-sil. 6/139-fruit of Zyziphus jujuba Lamk. Kola majja-sil. 6/124-marrow of jujuba fruit. Koli-st1. 15/41-badari-Zyziphus nummularia W & A. 6/13-see kodrava. Kosataki, Kosavati-su. 6/78-Luffa acutangula Roxb. Kosatakidvaya-sn. 15/1-Kosataki and Raja kosataki-Luffa ae... gyptica Mill-Hook. and Luffa cylindrika Linn. Krakara-stl. 6/45-bird. a kind of partridge. Kramuka-.!lil. 15/19-pi\ga {Aru)-Areca catechu. Linn. su. 15/45-Pattika rodhra ( Hen1 ) : Syn1plocos era· taegoidesBuch. Krau:fica-sil. 15/51-bird-pond curlew. Krau:ficadana-sO.. 6/91-Tamedarn (Aru)-TembuHka. (Hem)· Scirpus articulatus Linn. Kravyada mamsa-sii. 6/62-meat of carnivorus animals. Krimighna.} sit. 15/1 Krimihara. su. 20/38-Vidafiga. Embelia ribes. Burm. stl. 10/38 Krimijit. Krsara-sii. 7/38-rice boiled along with sesamum, green gram etc. Kp;Q.a-su. 10/35. pippali-Piper longum Linn. · Kp;I}a-sil. 10/27-laval}.a-black salt. Kp;Qa tila-sil. 6/23-Sesamum indicun1 Linn. Kr!;!IJa vrihi-sil, 6/8-black paddy-Oryza sativa. Linn. Krtarasa-stl. 3/45-meat soup processed with spices. etc. Krtavedhana-sil. 15/3-Luffa acutangula-Roxb. 6/151-alkalies. ' 7/41-pudding prepared with milk. K?avaka-sil. 15/30-Centipida minima Linn. 5/20-milk. 30{16-Khatika-clay. 10/24-kaficanah.;iri (Aru) Argemona mexicana Linn. b.;irakakoli-( Hem )-Roscoea-procera Wall. Dugdhika. (Hem). Euphorbia hirta Linn. Ksirodbhava navanita-stl. 5/36-butter obtained from milk. 3/20-honey.

APPENDIX I

483

.-

27 /48-any product of Atasi ( usually fibre or cloth ). Linum usitatissumum Linn. a-sil. 10/24parQi- U raria p'icta. Desv. Kucaila/kurcika sak'\-su. 6/77-pathabheda. a variety of Cissampelos Periera. Linn. l{iicika/kiircika-su. of buttermilk. Kukkubha-sii. 6/41-bird. wild cock. 6/59-bird. domestic fowl. Kukkutai].Qa-sil. 7/26-hens egg. l{ukkuta:QQaka v1ihi- ft. 6/8-a variety of paddy. Kulahala-sD. ( Aru ) mui}Qi (Hem )·Spheranthus indicus·Linn. Kulaka-sil. 6/77-kakatifiduka. Strychnos nuxvomica Linn. l{ulattha-st\. 6/9-Dolichos biflorus Linn. Kulingaka-st\. 6/49-bird. tree-sparrow. 7/42-steanl coaked pulses. Kumbha-sil. 15/2-trvrt. Ipomea terpethum R. Br. Kumbhira-stt 6/52-animaJ-true gharia I.-crocodile. Kumkuma-st\. 15/43-kesara. Crocus sativuswLinn. Kumuda-sii. 6/91-Nymphea alba-Linn. Kunda-sii. 15/72-Jasrninum pubescens willd. Kuiiduruka-stl. 21/15-sallaki niryasa-gum of Boswellia serrata Cor b. Kuraiiga-sii. 6/43-anima l-Roe deer. 15/24-Barleria preonitis. Linn. Kurara-su. 6/49-bird. Osprey. 5/41-see kucika. 6/52-animal-tortoise. Kurubaha-sil. 6/44-bird-a species of wild fowl. saka-sil. 6/93-sitivaraka-Marselia minuta Linn. Kuruvinda-st\. 6/10-a variety (.f paddy. Oryzasativa. Linn. Kusa dvaya-sft.IS/24-sthula kusa Desmostycha bipinnata Stapf. spontaneum. Linn. 6/78-Beninkasa cerifera. Savi. sali-sii. 6/1-a kind of rice. Kusumbha saka-stl. 6/101-Carthamus tinctorium Linn. Kusumbha taila-stl. 5/61.-oil of Kusumbha. seeds. 15/5-Soussera lappa-BC & Hf. · Kutaja-stl. 15/3-Holerrhina antidysenterica Lirn. Kutajodbhava-st\. 15/35-seeds of kutaja.

484

A:;TX"&GA HR.DAYAM

Ku\arana-stl. 15/45-sukla trivrt-Ipomea terpethum-R. Br. Kutheraka 6/106-vaiku.Q.thaka-Ocimum basilicum Linn. Kutili-stl. 6/76-Corchoras capsularis Linn. saka-stl. 6/93-Digeria muricata Linn. Kutsitamba-stl. 15/26-kadamba-Anthocephalus Cadamba Mig. saka-stt. cephalates Spreng.

-LLlja-sti. 6/36-fried paddy. 21{16-lac. crust on Cocus lacca. Kerr. 1/41-not identified correctly. 6f94-madhuya$tika-Glycerhiza glabra-Linn. 29/31-PadmacariQi (Aru)-Clerodendrum indicum Linn. sami ( Hem )·Prospopis spicigera-Linn .. Lakuca-stl. 6/140-Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. Lamba-sil. 15/1-Katutumbi-Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. Langala sali-sn. 6/3-a kind of rice. Lasuna-sfl. 6{109-Allium sativum-Linn. Lata-sa. 2/55-gaiidhapriyangu. Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. Latva-stl 6/47-bird. a species of bouse sparrow. Latvaka saka-stl. 6/93-guggulusaka-Balsmodendron mukul Hook. Lava-sti. 6/44-bird-common quial. L!vakhya vrihi-stl. 16/8-kind of paddy·Oryza sativa. Linn. Laval)a. sti. 6/143-salt. Lohavala sali-si1. 6/3-a kind of rice-Oryza sativa-IJinn. LoJJ.ika saka-stl. 6/93-Portulaca quadrifida· Linn. 6/49-animal-fox.

-MMadana-stl. 15-1-phala-Randia dumetorum Lamk. stl. 21/14-bees wax. Madaniya hetu-stl. 15/37-dhataki-Woodfordia ftouribunda

Sab.
Madgu-stl. 6/51-bird·small cormorant. MAdhava-stl. 3/22-wine prepared from honey. Madhavi-stl. 3/33-vasanti-Hiptage bengalensis·Kurz.

APPENDIX I

Madhu-sii. 5/51-honey. Madhu sarkara-sii. 5f51-solidified honey. Madhu udaka-su. 8/49-hoaey water. Madhuha-sii. 6/49-bird-honey buzzard. Madhuka-sil. 15/1-Glycerhiza glabra Linn. Madhiika-sil. 15/41-Bassia latifolia-Roxb. Madhiika sara-sii. 15/4-essence of flowers of Madhiika. Madhuparl}ika-sa. 2/56-guQiici-Tinospora cordifolia MeirsHook. Madhu£asa-sii.l5/17-murva·Marsedenia tenacissima W & A. Madhusrava-sii. 15/15-murapgi pterygosperma Gearth. miirva ( Hem, 1)-see milrva. Madhavambu-su. 3/23-honey water. Madhvasava-sii. 5/75-fermented liquor prepared from honey. Madhyama paficamiila-sii. 6/169- 1. bala. 2. punarnava. 3. era:Q.Qa ..j;4. mudgaparl}.i. 5. .. par:Q.i. Madya-su. 5/62/65-wine. intoxicating alcoholic beverages. Maha meda-sil. 10/23. 15/8-Polygonatum verticillotum Wall. Maha saha-sil. labialis Spreng. Maha 3/33-S horea robusta Greatn. Maha sali-sil. 6/1-a kind of rice Oryza sativa Linn. Maha vrihi-sii. 6/8-a kind of paddy·Oryza sativa Linn. Mahat vrksa-sti. 30/9-snuhi-Euphorbia nerrifolia Linn. Mahat miilaka-stl 6/103-big variety of Raphinus sativus Linn. Mahat pancamiila-sti. 6/167- 1. bilva. 2. kasmarya. 3. tarkari, 4. 5, tin.tuka. 6/50--animal-buffalo. :ksira-sn. 5/23-buffalos milk. ·mamsa-sil. 6/50, 8/40-buffallos flesh. mutra-stl. 5/82-buffallos urine. Mahisa sali-. il, 6/2-a kind of rice-Oryza sativa-Linn. Maireya-sti. 7/40-liquor prepared from kharjiira. ( dates) Majja-stl. 5/61-bone marrow. Maka ra-stl. 6/53-anixnal-crocodile. 7/40-honey. 7/32-Phaseolus aconitefolius J acq. Malati-sO.. 17/8-Jasminum grandiflorum Linn.

486

Hl_U)AYAM

Mamsa 6/43-group of meat. Mamsa, sev}'a-sii. 6/68-rdible meat. ascvya-sii. 6/68-non-edible rne.1t. Mamsada mamsa-sil. 14/35-meat of carnivorus anima1s. 1 Mamsi-sii. 15(14-Nardostachys jaUimansi-Dc. Mahadruma-sii. 15/37-salmali-Bombax malabaricum·Dc. MaQQa-sti. 6/26-scum of boiled rice; of any liquid-gbee etc. Mai}Q.iika pari].i saka-su. 6{76-brahnli-Centella asiatica Linn. , MaQ.imafitha-stl. 19/44=saindhava-Rock salt. 1/61-ltubia cordifolia Linn. Manohva-sil. 21/18-mineral, realgar, Arsenous red sulphide. Mantha-sii. 7/41-drink prepared fro1n cornflour, milk, sugar, etc. 5/26-human milk . . Mardvika-su .. 5/72-a liquor prepared from grapes. Marica-sii. 15/33, 6/61-Piper nigrum Linn. Marjara-stl. 6/48-animal.. cat. Mat:;;a saka-si.i. 6/93-Amaranthus blitum. Linn. Ma:;;a-su. 6/21-Phaseolus radiatus-Roxb/P. mungo-Linn. dvaya-su. mungo-Linn. and rajama$a· Vigna catiang-Walp. Ma$aka-sil. 5/92-Vastula (Aru). not identified correctly. 15/8-Teranlnus labialis·Spreng. Mastu-sii. 5/53-water of curds-whey . . Mosiira-sil. 6/17-Ervum lens-Linn/Lens culinaris-Linn. Matsya-sti. 6/52-Fishes .. 5/49-crystal sugar. Matulunga phala-sil. 6/131-Citrus n1edica Linn. Meda-su. 10/23-Polygonatutn verticillatum-All. Mcda dvaya-sii. 15/8-meda and maharueda. lVledas-sti. 5/61-fat. 15/19-Gymnema sylvestre-R. Br. 1\.dsi-sti. 15{3-Foeniculuni vulgare-Mill. 6/ 119:::Kadali-Musa sapientum-Linn. __. sii. 15/26-sallaki·Boswella serrata. Linn. Mocarasa-sil, 15/37-gum of sallaki. _ Modaka-st\. 8/45-sweet pQdding made from jaggery. Mok$aka-st1. swietenoides_Roxb Mora\a-sil. Marse¥nia tenacissima W & A. __

'"'

APPENDIX I

Morata, moral).a-5/41-fermented buttermilk. Mrdvika-sii. 8/43-see Mrga-stl. 6/43-·antelope, deer. Mrga matraka-su. 6/43-reddeer, fawn. MrgalinQaka phala-su. 6/138-vibhitaka Terminalia belerica Roxb. Mrl].ala-sii. 6/91-stein of lotus plant. Nelumbium speciosum Will d. Mudga-sii. 6/18-Phaseolus aureus Roxb. Mudgaparl}i-!:> ti· 15/8-Pbaseolus trilobus Ait. Mukta-sii. 10/32-pearl. Mukillaka-sii. 6/120-a fruit resembling dantiphala ( Aru & Hem )·not identified correctly. Millaka-sil. 6/102-Raphinus sativus Linn. Munjata-su. 6/83-a tuber. Orchis Iatifolia Linn. Mtirva-stl. 15/33-Marcedenia tenecissima. W & A. 6/48-animal·rat/ mouse. Mu$kaka-sii. Schrebera sweitenoides Roxb. Musta-sil. 15/40-Cyperus rotundus-Linn. MtUra-sii. 5-82-U rine ( of animals like the cow, goat, sheep, / ass, horse, etc.

-NNadijala-sil. 5/8-river water. Nac}.i kalayasaka-stl. 6/77-sakulak§aka (Aru), tnatsyak$i (Hem) Alternanthera sessiles. R. Br. Nagabala-sil. 10/23-Sida veronica folia Linn. NagadaiHi-sii. 15/28-parva oblongifolius Nfigahva-sil .. 15/14 } M esua c terrea L'Inn .. sara-su. 15141 N agake' Nagara-sti 6/163-Zinz\ber officinale Linn. Nakra-sii. 6/53-animal-Crocodile. Naktamala-s\1. 10/29-Karanja. Pongamia glabra .. Vent. Nala-sil. 15/24-Arundo donax .. Linn. Nalada-sil. 21/13-Nardostachys jatamansi-Dc. Nalika 6/93-Ipomoea acquatica-Forsk. Namaskari-sii. 15/38-Mimosa pudica-Linn. Narikelodaka-sii. 5/19-tender coconut water. Nata-st\. 15/5-Yaleriana wallichii-Dc. Nava dhanya-stl. 6/25-freshly harvested grains.

488

Navanita-sii. 5/35-butter. Nidigdh1ka-sa. 'l /58-KaQtakari-Solanum xanthocarpum. Nikocaka phala-sfi. 6J20 saralaphala ( Aru )·Pinus longifolia. Roxb. N1kumbha-sil. 15/2-daiiti-Balispermum monatum-Muell-Arg. Nili Nilini sii. 15/2-Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Nimba-sil. 15/1-Melia azadirachta. Linn. Nirhba taila-sii. 5/60-oil ofnimba-Neem oil. Nisa-sil. 21-17-Curcuma longa Linn. Nisa dvaya-su. 15/40-Haridra & daruharidra. 6/25-Dolichos lablab-Linn. Nivara-sii. 6/1 0-H ygroryza aristata-Nees. Nyagrodha-sil. 15/41-Ficus bengalensis-Linn. Nyaiiku-su .. 6/50-animal-hog deer._

-00dana-stl. 6/26-boiled

-PPadma-sil. 15/37-kamala-Nelumbium speciosum-Linn. PadmacariJ}.i-padma-sil. 15/37. stha lapadma-Ionidium suffruiticosum-Ging. indicum-Linn. Padmaka-sil. 15/12-Prunus puddam-Roxb. Padmini-sii. 3/39-see padma. Palakyafpalaiikva saka-sil. 6{84-Spinacia oleracea-Linn. Palat}Qu-sfl. 6/112-Allium cepa·Linn. Pamsu laval).a-sii .. 6/149-salt from alkaline soil. sali-s«. 6/6-a kind of rice-Oryza sativa-Linn. Pafica kola-sti. 6/166-pippali, pippalimiila, cavya, citraka, nagar a. Pancamulaa. Mahat/brhat-su. 6/167-1. bilva, 2. 3. tarkari, 4. pa\ala, 5. b. Madhyama-sii. bala. 2·. punarnava, 3. eraoQa, 4. 5. mudgaparn.i. 3. salic. Hrasvaflaghu-su. 6/168-1. brhati, 2. parl}.i, 4. 5. d. Jivana-s\1. 6f11P- 1. abhiru, 2. vira, 3. jivafiti, 4. jivaka.

'"t'

I

5.

APPENDIX

t

33

e. Trl}.a-sil. 6/l71-1. darbha. 2. kasa, 3. ik$U, 4. sara, s. sali. Pancangula-sii. 15/9-erai}.Q.a. Recinus communis. Linn. 3/31-syrup prepared fruits. Pal}QUsali-su. 6/2-a kind of rice·Oryza sativa. Linn. Paravataka vrihi-sii. 6/8-a kind of paddy. Paribhadraka-sil. 30/8-Erythrina variegata Linn. Paripelava-sii. 15/26-Kutannata (Aru)-Cyperus rotund us Linn. (Hem)-Cyperus scariosus R. Br. Parpata-su. 6/76-Fumaria officinalissLinn. Partha-sil. 15/24-suvarcala ( Aru )-Gynandrois pentaphyllaps DC. adityabhakta (Hem)-Cleome viscosa Linn. 6/136-Grewia Pasugafidha-st\. 15/34-ajagandha-Gynandropsis gynandra· Linn. Patala-sil. 3/32-Stercospermum souvelens-Dc. , vrihi-sii. 6/10-a kind of _paddy. Oryza sativa•Linn. Patanga sali-sil. 6/3-a kind of rice. Oryza sativa. Linn. Pa\ha-stl. 6/72-Cissampelos periera-Linn. Pathina matsya-sil. 6/52-boal fish. Pathya-sii .. 8/43-haritaki-Terminalia Patola-sil. 6/79-Trichosanthes diocia-Roxb. Patra-stl. 15/43-tamalapatra. Cinnamgmum tamala-Nees. PatraQhya-stl. 7/43-bird-peacock. Pattanga-sti. 27/48-Cesalpinia sappan-Linn. Pattt1ra saka-sil. ( Aru ), lohamara ( Hem ). Alternanthera sessalis-Linn. · 5/45-a kind of sugar cane-see iksu. Pa yaQ.-sii. 5/20-milk. Payasam-stl. 7/38-milk pudding. Payasya-sii. pomea digitata..Linn. Peya-sil. 6/28-thin rice gruel. Phala-si\. 15/17-rnadanaphala.. Randia dumetorum•Lam. ' Phalatraya-see triphala. Phalgu phala-sil. 6/ 120-Fieus carica-Linn. Phalini-sil. 15/14-priyaiigu ( Aru ) see priyangu. Phal}ijjaka 15/30-maru baka-Origanum majorana-Linn. Phal}ita-stl. 5/47-half kooked treacle. Phena-stl. 24/15-samudraphena-Sepia officinalis.

H:({DAYAM

Pilu-su. 6/I 30-Salvac.;lora persica Linn. PiQQalu-sil. 6/105-D·ioscorea alata .. Linn. Pil}yaka-sil. 6/40-(a) sweet eatable prepared from sesan1um and molasses. (b) sesamum residue after taking out the oil .. Pippala-sii . 15/41-asvattha. Ficus religiosa-Linn. Jlippali-sil. 6/161 Piper longurn. Linn. Pippalimtlla-si\. 6/165. root of pippali. 15/28-kakadani (Aru} A\;>rus precatorius-Linn. j ( Hem )... Celastrus paniculatus· Willd. Pitta-stl. 10/30-30/18-bile (of animals and birds ). Piyala-stl. 15/41-Buchanania latifolia-Roxb. 5/41-milk during. the first week of calving. Plak$a-stl. 14/41-Ficus lacor-Buch-Ham. Plava-stl. 6/51-bird. Pelican. sti. 20/38-gopaladamanaka (Aru), (Hem}Cyperus scariosus-R. Br. Praldrya-sil. 15/19-pittikarafija. Cesalpinia bonducella. Fleming. Pramoda 6/2-a kind of rice . . 15/28-a pamarga-Achyranthes aspera Linn. Pravala-sil. 10/32-Coral. Priyala phala-sil. 6-121-Buchanania latifolia..Roxb. Priyafigu-s\1. 6/12-dhanya-Setaria indica-Bear. Priyaftgu-stl. 15/6-Callicarpa macrophylla VahJ. gaiidhapriyaiigu..prunus mahaleb Linn. Pnata-sl. 7/33 -animal. spotted deer. PnniparJ}i-sa. 2/56-Uraria picta·Desv, · Prthuka-st\ 6/37-paddy half cooked & flattened. . Prthvika-su. 15/4-hingupatri. Gardec1ia gummifera-Lirln. Punarnava-sfl. 6/169-Boerhovia diffusa. Linn. , PUJ}4arika sali-stl. 6/2-J. kind of rice-Oryza sativa-Linn. 6/2-a kind of rice. Oryza sativa-Linn. 15/ 12-Pra poul}.Qar'ika·Cassia a bsus-Li nn. Punnaga-sil. 15/43-Colophyllum inophyllum·Linn. ·Ptlral}aghrtct-sil. 5/40-ghee old by many years. gu4a-stl. 5/48-molasses old by many years. godhu1na-st1. 3{20-old wheat. -- yava-stl. 3/20-old barley.
1

..-"

APPENDIX l

491

Puskara-:,ii. 7/40-padma. Nelurnbium speciosum. Willd. Iris germanica-Linn. . · 2. Tnula racemosa·Linn. 3. Iris fl.orentina-Lino. ) Cornpound of zine; brass. Putikr.-su. 30/9-ptHikaraiija ( Aru ). Cesalpinia bonducella. Linn.

-QQuatitha jala-sii. 5/18-boiled water.

-RRaga-sil. 3/30-syrup having sweet, sour and salt tastes. Rajadana-sil 6/119 -phala-Mimuspos hexandra. Roxb. Rajahvam-sii. 15/13-karl}ikara (Aru)·Cassia fistula Linn. rajadana ( Hem ) Mimuspos hexandra , Roxb, Rajak!?ava.Ka. sil. 6/7 2-Centipeda orbicularis-Loud. , .cylindrica. skeels/V. catiang-Walj): Rajanaka-sil. 15/45-kampllla. Mallotus philippenensis MuellArg. Rajani, Rajani dvaya-sft. 10/29-see haridra. Rajata-sil. 10/26-metal·silver. Raji-st\. 6[54-fish with stripes. Raktacandaua-sii. 15/16-Pterocarpus santalanus-Linn. Rakta sali-sii. 6/1. a kind of red rice. Oryza sativa·Linn. -- vartma-sil. 6/44-bird-red jungle fowl. -Rubia cordifolia-Linn. Rasa-sii. 6/32-juice of meat, soup, broth. RasaHi-sii. 6/35-a drink -'having curds, sugar, fruits, and spices. Rasanjana-s11. 2/5-extract of Berberis aristata. DC. Rasna-st\. 15/3- 1. Pluchea lanceolatCi·Oliver. 2. Vanda roxburghii-R. 3. Inula racemosa-Hook. Rasona-stl. 10/35-Allium sativum. Linn. R.ddhi-su. 15/12-sravaQi (Aru)·Sphaeranthus indicus-l.inn.:. Re:Quka-su·. 20/37-see harenu. 6/43-animal-:-blue deer. sa. 6/48-animaL'"Ibear.

Rodhra-stl. 15/26-Symplocos crataegoids-Buch. Rodhra yugma-sii. 15/41- 1. rodhra-Symplocos cratae goides Buch. 2. sabararodhra -Syrnplocos race- mosa. Roxb. Rodb.rasilka sali-sii. 6/1-a kind of rice. Oryza sativa-Linn. Rohita-stl. 6/67-Fish-red carp. Romaka-sii. 6/149-laval}a-salt from lake. 6J170-Microstylis wallachii Lindl. Rujakara-stl. 15/21-hintala ( Aru) Kgn}asaireyaka-Acanthusilicifolius-Linn. Ruru-sil 6/50-animal-barking deer.

-SSabara rodhra-sft. 15/26-Symplocos racemosa-Roxb. 15/41-Udumbara-Ficus racemosa. Linn. Sa4graiitha-sii. 9/26-vaca .. Acorus calamus-Linn. \ Sagarambha-sil. 5/2-sea water. fsahe-sf1. 10/24-Mahasaha..SaliparQi, Desmdium gangeticum, De .. sahi/prsl}iparl)i. Uraria picta. Desv. Sahacara-sii. 15/24-Barleria cristata. Linn. · · Sahakara-sii. 3/21-amra-Mangifera indica Linn. Saila jaJa-stl. 5/13-water flowing down from the mountain. Saiiidhava-sfl. 6/144-Rock salt. Saireyaka-sairyaka-sf1. 15/17-Barleria prioni tis-Linn,. Saireyaka yugma .... sf1, 15/21- 1. kurubaka-Barleria cristataLinn. 2. prionitsLinn. Saka varga-stt. 6/72-group ofvegetable plants. 15/13-5akataru ( Aru ) Tectona grandis Linn.

I

--('

Satrt-sa.
Saktu-sl. 6/38-corn flour. Sakulldani-su. Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle. Sakunihrta 6{1-a kind of rice-Oryza Sila-stl. 1Sf19-Shorea robusta. GeartnfVateria indica-Linn. SAli-stl. 6/1/4-rice-Oryza sativa-Linn. Si1Ipaq;d-stl. 10/23-Desn odium gangeticum: De. Sallald-atl. 21/15-Boswella serrata. Roxb.

APPENDIX I

493

Salmali-sft. 2/25-Bombax ceiba. Linn; Salmalia malabarikaSchott. Sa1tlka-sii. 6{91-padmamfllam (Aru) root of. !'{elumbium speciosum-Willd. Samafiga-sil, 15/37-·Mimosa pudica Linn. Sambora-sil. 6/43-animal-sambhar deer. Sambtika-sii. snail. Sami-sil. 6/1 30-Prospopis cineraria-Druce. Samudra jala-st\. 5/4-sea water.. 6/147-sea salt·cornmon salt. phena-st\. 24/15-seafoam. Sepia officinaJis. Samyaka-su. 15/2-aragvadhaNCassia fistula-Linn. . sat}c;\aki sukta-sn. 5/78-fermented drink prepared from fried paddy balls mixed with spices. vataka sil. 6/34-balls of fried paddy mixed with spices and dried in sun. Sankha-sti. 6/53-krimi. animal 6f conch • . Sankha-st\.-24/16-cofich shell .. nabhi-si\. 30/16-central part of conch shell. Sankhini-s{t. 15/2-yavatika ( Aru ). not identified correctly Nilini (Hem) .. Indigofera tinctoria. Linn. Saphari-sl\ .. 6/53-a kind of small fish. Saptachada { sii. 15/17 AI · h z · B _ " Sapta parl}a su. 29176- stonta sc o arts R. r. Sapta1a-sti. 6f75-Acacia concinna. De. Sara-stl. 6/171-Saccharum munja. Roxb. Sarabha-6/43-animal-kashmir deer. Sarada vrihi-stl. 6/9-a kind of paddy-Oryza sativa·::inn. ' Sarala-sil. 15/26-Pinus roxburghii-Sargent. Sarambu-su. 3/23-water boiled .1ith the pith ( , rees such as cafidana, asana etc. Saramukha sali-sii. 6/1-a kind of rice, Oryza sativa. Linn .. Sarapada-sil. 6{46-bird-stork. Sarapufikha-st\. 25p 33-Tephrosia purpurea. .Linn. Sarasa-stt 6/51-bird-saras crane. Sarasi-sfl. 15/30-tumbuparni ( Aru ), kapittha parni ( Hem ) not correctly identified. Sarika-s1l. 6/46-bird. comrr.on mynah. Sariva sa1i-sil. 6/2-a '.kind of rice..Oryza sativa. Linn. Sarjarasa-sft. 21/14-ri\a. resin of Vateria

494-

Sarjika/svarjika-sil. 30/21-alkali. Sodium carbonate. Sarkari.. sil. 5/50-sugar. Sarkara madya-sil. 5/73-liquor prepared from sugar. 6/75-angav:ava)li-bharngi-Clerodendron serratum Spreng. Sarpis-sil. 7/36-ghee, butter-fat. Sar$apa 6/101-Brassica compestis-Linn. Sar$apa taila-su. 5/59-mustard oil, Bra.,sica Sasa-sii. 6/56-animal. rabbit. Sasaghni-su. 6/49-bird-golden eagle. Sasaiika kiral}.a-sft. 3/82-paste of rice flour fried in oil used as a snak. sali-su. 6/6 paddy maturing in sixty day!. Satahv.:-su. 17/2-Anethum sowa Kurz. Sataparvaka sil-. 5/46-a kind of sugar cane. Sataparvika-sil. 7[25-vaca-Acorus calamus-Linn. Satavari-sil. 6/99-Aspargaus racemoses-MTilld. 6/72-Hedychium spicatum (Ham) Smith. Satina-stl. sativum. Linn. Sauvarcala-sil. 6{145-a kind of salt. Sauviraiijana-sil. 2/5-ore. Antimony sulphide. Sauviraka phala-sti. 1/120-badara-Zizyphus jujubejZ. sativaGeartn. Sauviraka madya-.:til. prepared from dehusked barley. Sevya-si.l.. 7/20-usira-Andropogon muricatus-Retz. Siddhartha-stl. 15/33-goura compestris. Linn. Sidhu-stl. 5/74-liquor prepared from sugar cane juice. Sigru-sil. 6/106-Moringa Geartn. . Sikhari-;,il. 15/45-apamarga.. Achyranthes aspera Linn. S1khi-sil. 6/58- bird-peacock. Silajatu-sil. 14/23-bitumen. mineral exudate from rocks. Simbi dhanya-sft. 6/17-legumes-pulses. Simha-sil. 6/48-animal. lion. Simhi-sil. 22pfl9-brhati-SoJanum indicum. Linn. Simsipa-stl. 15/19-Dalbergia sissoo Roxb .. Sinduvara sinduvarita-sil. 7/25-Vitex nigundo Linn. Siri§a-sfl. 15/4-Albizza lebbeck Roxb. 6/90-tr apusa. Cucumis sativus Linn. Sisa-stl. 10/27-metal-lead.

APPENDIX I

495

15/11. cafidana-Santalum album Linn .. dvaya-sii. 15/11-sveta ca:iidana.. Santalum album-Liqn. and rakta ca:fidana. Pterbcarpus santalinusLinn. Sisumara.. sil.. 6/53-animal-dolphin or alligator. Sita-sii. 21/16-sugar. Sita-sO.. 15/37-ca:iidana-Santalum album. Linn .. Sitabhiru sali-sil. 6/3-a kind of rice·Oryza sativa-Linn .. Sitapaki-sii.. 15/6-guiija-Abrus precatorius-Linn. Slesmataka-sii. 6/20-Cordia dichotoma-Frost. · Snukfsnuhi-sii.. 15/2 Euphorbia nerrifolia-Linn. Somavalka-sii. 15/41-svetakhadira {Aru)-Acacia suma Kurz. katphala (Hem)-My,rica nagi Thumb. Sphrkka-su. 15/43-Anisonteles malabarica-R. Br. Srava:Qi yuga-sii.. 10/24-sraval}i-Sphaeranthus indicus-Linn. and mahasriVai].i-Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Burm.; Srestha-sa.. 1/160triphaJa. Srivasaka-stl. 15/43-sarala niryasa-:resin of Pinus longifolia·· Roxb.. 21/14-sarala . .Pinus longifolius-Roxb. Srmara-sii. 6/51-animaJ .. wild boar. saka-sil. 6/92-Trapa hispinosa-Roxb. Srngavera-sil.. 3/23-green ginger-Zinzeberis .lfficinale-Linn. , Srfigaverambu-sii. 3/23-water boiled with ginger. Srfigi-sti. integerrima-Stew. Srotofijana/srotoja-sil. 24/15-ore-Antimony sulphide. Sruva vrlqa-sil 15/17-vikankata-Flacourtia ramonichi-Hert. Sthaut}eya-sf:l. 15/43-ClerodendrQn infortunatum-Linn. Sth ira-s\1. 14/25-salipa rvi.-Desmodium gangeticun1-Dc. dva ya-sil. 15/6-salipar:Qi & Sudhasma-sft. 30/12-ore-Limestone. Sugandhakisali-Jft. 6/1-a kind of rice-Oryz 1 sativa-Linn. $uka-sft. 6/46-bird-parrot. 6/1-group of corns with spike. Sftkasati-sii. 6/2-a kind of sativa-Linn. Sukta sil. -6/76-fermented liquor prepared from tubes, fruits, honey etc. Sukti-sfl. 6/53-animal-shell oyster.

496

15/43-oyster shell, mother of pearls. 3/20-meat,. piereed to an iron rod and burnt in fire. Sumani pu$pa-sil. 19/72-jati.Jasminum grandifiorum-Linn. Sumukhi-stl. 6/105-katupatraka ( Aru ), ku\heraka ( Hem ). Ocimum basicilicnin-Lhin. Suni$al)I}aka-sil. 6/72- ·tarselia mhiuta Linn. Stlpa-stl. 7/34-soup. Sura-sil. Sf67-Beer. liquor prepared from flour. Surabhi-stl. 20/38-sallaki (Aru)-Boswellia serrata. Roxb. rasna (Hem)-Pluchea Ianceolata-Oliver. Suradiru. 2/54-Cedrus doedara-Roxb. Surala-sii. 15/4-sarjarasa. resin of Vateria indica-Linn. Siirat)a-sii. 6/113-Amorph.ophallus companul atus-B\ume Surasa-sii. 6/108-tulasi-Ocimum sanctum-Linn. surasa. yuga-sfl. 15/30-sveta surasa, & labialis-Spreng. Stlrpapari}i-sii. labialisdvaya-su. Spreng. , . mudgaparl).i-phaseolus trilobus-Ait. S«sa-su. 6/72-kasamarda-Cassia occidentalis-Linn. 15,17-karavella (Hem). Memordica chirantia-Linn. karavifpaniyavalli {Aru)-Carum carvi·Linn. Survarcala-sii. 6/93-siiryavarta saka-1 .. Gynandropsis pentaphylla. De 2. Cleome viscosa-Linn. 3. Cleome monophyllaLinn. Suvarl}a/svarJ}a-stl. 3/97-metal-gold. 21/17-lragvadha (Hem) ..Cassia fistula-Linn. 2/56-goksura-Tribulus terrestis-Linn. Svarjiki Qara-stl. 30/21-ore-Alka li-sodi urn carbonate. Svatnak$iri-st\. 15/45-Argemona mexicana-Linn. Svavid-sl. 6/47-anima!-Porcupine. Sveta-stl. 21/18-kil}ihi, apimarga-Achyranthus aspera-Linn. yugma-su. 15/28-kinihi-Albizza procera (roxb) Bentb: and katabhi/kumbhi-Careya arborea-Roxb. Svetabrhati.fi. 1/40-Solanum xanthocarpum..S-chrd & Wendl. Svetaviha-sl. 15/19-arjuna-Terminalia arjuna-W & A. Syiml-su. 1SJ4S-kr3na trivrt. Operculina terpethum-R. Br.

Al>PENDIX I

497

Syamaka sfi. 6/11-dhanya-Panicum frumenticium-Roxb. Syena sil. 6/49-bird-hawk .

-TTaQ.agajala-su . 5/13-water of pond or lake. Tagara-siL 15/33-Valeriana walJachii-Dc. Taila-sii. 5/55-oil of sesatnum seeds, any oil such as of aksa, eranda, kusumbha, nimba, sarsapa, uma (atasi) etc. Takra-sfi. 5/33-buttermilk. I 6f34- Fermented buttermilk. Tala-sil. 6/119, 122-Borassus flabeliformis-Linn. Talapatri-sii. 30/22-musali ( Hem )-Svetamusali-Asparagus adsendens-Rox b. orchioides-Geartn. Talisa-sil . 7/20-Abies webbiana-Lindle. Tamra-sii. 7/27-metal-copper. Tamracilda-sO.. 6/45-bird-cock. Tamravalli·sa. 2/54-manjistha. Rubia cordifolia Linn. TavQula-sii. 22/20-sali-Oryza sativa Linn. Tal].Quliyak l-6/83-Amaranthus spinosus Liun. Tapaniya sali6/3-a kind' of rice. Tapasa 15/28-Balanites roxburghii Planch .. Tarak!?u-sil. 6/48-animal-hyena. Tarkari-sii. 6/97-agnimaiitha. Premna integrefolia-Linn. Tark!?ya rasanjana-dry extract of Berberis aristata-Dc. 30/51-arrow root powder. Maranta arundinacae. Linn. Curcuma angustifolia-Roxb. Tejini-sa. 2-42-Zenthoxylum alatum-Roxb. 1/88-marica-Piper nigrutn Linn. vrb.a-sil. 15/45-pilu-Salvadora persica Linn. Tikta dvaya-sil. 15/40-katuka..Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle. kakatikta } Peristroplae bicalyculatakakajangha Nees. 6/23-Sesamum indicuro. Linn. Tila parQika-stl. 6/76-badaraka. Zyziphus jujuba-Lam. pil}yaka-sft. 6/34-sesamum and jaggery pounded together. taila-sO. 5/55-oil of sesamum. · Tilvaka-sil. 1S/2-lodhra-Symplocos racemosa Roxb.
32 A

b

1

b.

498

A&TA

Timiiigi1a-s0.. 6/53-animal-whale.. :· Til}9i$a $aka-sft. 6/87-Citrullus vulgaris Var. Tinisa-sii. 15/19-0ugeinia dalbergoides Benth. TiJ}.tuka/tuQtuka-Oroxylum indicum-Vent. Tittiri-su. 6/45-bird-Black partridge. Trapusa-sii. 6/87-Cucumis sativus Linn. Trayaiiti-sii .. 10/28-Gentiana kurroo Royle. Trihin1o.-sil. 15/19-(1) caiidana. (2) rakta cafidana (3) daru• haridra .. 6/160-(1} tvak. (2) patra. (3) ela. Trikatu-( 1) sunthi. (2) marica, (3) pippali .. Tripadi-sii. 15/9-hamsapadi-Adiantum Iunilatum-Burm. Triphala-sii. 6/159-(1) h aritaki, (2) vibhitaki, (3) amalaki. Trivrt-sii. 15/3-0percuJina terpethum Linn .. Trl}a pancarr,iila-ffi. 6fl71-see paficamiila.. Truti-sii. 15/40-ela-Elettaria cordomommum Maton. dvaya-sfi. 15/4- 1. siikt?nla ela .. Cordomornmum Maton. 2. sthula ela-Amomum subulatumRoxb. Tilda phala-sil. 6/138-amrataka-Spondias mangifera-Willq. 15/12-vamsarocana ( Hem ) .. Ikunboo manna. Tumba-sil. 6/89-alabu-Lagenaria vulgaris-Ser. Tiirnaka sali. sil. 6/1-a kind of rice. . 15/43-silhaka·resin of tree Liquidamber Orien.. talis.. Miller. Tusodaka-su. 5f80-liquor prepared from barley with husk. Tutthaka-sil. 15/23-Kharpara (Aru) mineral. ore of zine. Tuvari-sil. 29/34-ac}haki-Cajanus indicus Spreng. Tvak-sii. 20/37-bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum-Biume.

,

I
I

-U15/28-1 .. karafija (Aru)-Pongamia glabra. Vent. 2. ptlt1karanja (Hem )-Cesalpinia bonducella-Fieming.. 3. karanji ( Bhavaprakash )·Holopetelia integrifolia Planch. U damantha-stl. 3/48-syrup prepared from flour and sugar having more of water.

APPENDIX I

,

499

Uddalaka vrihi-sil. 6/9-a kind ofpaddy-Oryza sativa. Linn. Udra-sii. 6/53-animal, Otter. Udumbara-sii. 10/31-Ficus glomerata Roxb. Ugra-sft. 8/15-vaca. Acorus calamus Linn. Ujvala vrihi-sii. 6/9-a kind of paddy. Ulftka-sa. 6/49-bird ...owJ. Vma-s\1. 6/24-atas.i. usitalissin1um-Linn. taila-sii. 5/61-Linseed oil. U pacakraka-sfl. 6{44-bird-a species of partridge. Upodaka-sii. 6/84-mayali, khaQQa palaiikya ( Aru ). Spinacia oleracea Linn. potaki (Hem)-Basella rubra Linn .. Urubilka-sti. 24/18-eral}Qa-Ricinus communis. Linn. Urumal}aphala-sil .. armeniaca-Linn. ( Aru ), ( Hem ). alkaline mud. 7/35-marica-Piper nigrum. Linn. Usira-sii. 15{11-Vetiveria zizanoides-Linn. 6{48-animal-camel. Jqira-sil. 5f25-camels milk. mO.tra-stl. 5/82-camels urine. 30/17-camels dung. Utkarika-sil. 8/45-a menu prepared from wheat flour fried in oil. sil. 17/6 a poultice tnade of wheat flour. Utkata-stl. ( Hem ) a kind of sugar cane-see iksu. Utkrosa-sO.. 6/51-bird-fishing eagle. Utpala-sil. 6/91-Nymphaea stellata willd. kafida-sfl. 6/91-tuber of N. stellata. sariva...Sa. 2/55-kr3:Q.asariva. Hemedesmus indicus

R. Br.

-V\ Vaca-sil. 15/33-Acorus calamus Linn. Valaka sil. 10f28-Colus vettiveroides-Jacob. Valla-sil. Dolicos lablab-Linn. Vamb-stl. 17/7-Bambusa arundinacea Willd. karira-stl. 7/99-young shoots of Bambusa arundinacea. yava-stl. Sf4S-a kind of sugar cane. Saccharum officinarum. Linn. Vanara-sa. 6/48-animal..-monkey.

500

I

Vanatiktaka-·sft. 6-77-Vatsaka { Aru )-Holerrhina antidysenterica-Wal. Kiratatikta ( Hem )-Swertia chirata-Buch. Vafijula-sil. 15/41-Vetasa. Salix capra-Linn. Vafitada-su. 6/49-animal-dog.. Vanyam-sil. 15/6-kutannata (Aru)-Cyperus rotundus-Linn. ksudrarnusta (Hem) Cyperus scariosus-R.Br. Vara-sil. 15/32-triphala. Varaha-sO. 6/50-animal-boar . Varaka vrihi-sft. 6/9-a kind of paddy-Oryza sativa. Linn. 10/27-saiodhava salt. Vira))a-sO.. 6/50-animal-elephant. VaraQaka-sil. 17/7-kaJJtaki karafija-Cesalpinia bonduellaFieming.. Varanga tvak-sil. 21/14-bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum-Blum<". Varata-sii. 6/45-bird. a kind of swan. Vari-sil. 20/38-satavari-Asparagus racemoses-Willd 6/53-a kind of fish. 6-97-the two kinds of punarnava1. rakta punarnava-Boerhaevia diffusa. Linn. 2. sveta punarnava-Trianthema-portulacastrumLinn. Vartaka-sil. 6/45-bird-Indian button quail. Vartaka saka-sii. 6/77-Solanum melongena-Linn. Vartika-stt. 6/44-bird-bush quail. Vartira-sil. 6/44-bird-rain quai) .. VaruQa-sfl. 6/97-Tamala (Aru). Garcinia morella. Desr. VaruQi si1. 5/68-sura mal}.Qa-scum of beer. Vasa. s«. 5/61-fat in the muscle. Vasa/vasaka-sil. 6{76-Adhatoda vasaka. Nees. Vasti.ika-sii. 6/73-Chenopodium album. Linn. Vata-stl. 24/18-Ficus bengalensis. Linn. Vatama phala-st1. 6/120-123-Prunus amygdalus-Batsch. Vatsaka-sii. 15/33-kutaja-Holerrhi na antidysen terice-Wall. Viyasa-sft. 6/49-bird-crow. Vella-sil. 15/4-vidanga. Embelia ribes Burm. V-t11aiitara-sft. 15/24-usira ( Aru ) , Andropogon muricafus. Retz.

I

r
APPENDIX I SOl •

Vesavara-sii. 6/41-minced meat steam-cooked and mixed · with spices, salt or ghee, molasses etc. or steam cooked vegetables, pulses, etc. mixed with spices. Vetasa-su. 26/9-Salix caprea Linn. Vetragra saka-sii. 6/76-sprout of Calamus tenuis Roxb. Vibhitaka-sii. 6/158-Terminalia belerica-Roxb. ViQafiga-sii. 15/30-Embelia ribes Bunn. Vidari-sii. 6/85-Pueraria tuberosa-Dc. Vidula-sil. 15/1-Vetasa-Salix caprea-Linn. Vilepi-sil. 6/26/29-rice gruel having more of boiled rice grains. Vira-sii. 6/170-kakoli. Roscoea procera. Wall. Vira\a-sil. 15f41-Tinduki·Diospyros tomentosa-Roxb. 15f40-5uklakanda ( Aru )-Aconitum heterophy· Bum-Wall. ' Visala-sii. Citrullus colocyanthes-Schred. Visalya-sii. 15/28-Langali-Gloriosa superba-Linn. 15{30-karkotifmahanimba ( Aru )-Strychnos ouxvomica-Linn. sylvestre-R. Br. Vrddhi-sii. 15/12-mahasravani ( Aru )·Sphaeranthus indicus· Linn., Vrihi-stl. sativa. Linn. Vrka-sil. 15{24-Horanthus longiflorus-Desr. 30/9-see kuta,ja. 6/29-Garcinia indica-Chois. 6/BC-see vasaka. 15/30-mii$akakanii. Ipomea reniformis-Chois. Vrscikali-sil. 15/9-see Vr$civa-sii. 15/9-see punarnava. Vyadhighati-sii. 15/45-aragvadha.. Cassia fistula Linn. Vyaghra-sil. 6/48-animal-tiger. Vyaghranakha-sft. 15/43-snail shell. Helix aspera. Vyaghri 10/30-brhati-Solanum indicum-Vent. and kaJ}\akari. Solanum xanthocarpum-Schrd. 15f4. trikatu. Vyu$ita jala-su. 5/18-water stale by more than a day.
11

502

-YYasa sarkari-sil. 5/50-sugar from dhanvayasa plant 1. AJhagi camelorum-Fuch. 2. Fagonia arabica-Linn. Yastifyastimadhu-stl. 15/11 } Gl h" 1 b L" .. 15/35 ycer Iza g a ra.. tnn. Yava-sii. 6/13-dhanya. barley-Hardeum vulgare-Linn. Yava sukta-fermented liqor made from barley. sura. sii. 5/49-beer prepared from barley. Yavakasali-su. 6/5-kind of rice-Oryza sativa-Linn. Yavak$ara-su. 6/150-alkali prepared from spikes of barley. Yavani-sft. 14/25-Trachyspermum ammi-Linn. Yavasaka-sii. 6/94-Hrsvapatra cilli-Chenopodium album-Linn. Yojanavalli-su. 15/37-manji*tha-Rubia cordifolia-Linn. Yukta-sO.. 15/26-rasna. see rasna. Yil$a-sii. 6/33-soup of grains, pulses, meat etc.

l

IDdex of Sanskrit headings
A Abhyaiiga Abrahmacarya Acchapana Adanakala AcJhak.i AdharaJ}iya vega Adhipati rnarma Adhovata rodha AdhyaSa.naAdhyaya sangraba Agaiitu roga .. dravya Agni karma cikitsa Ahara kala matra paka vidbi Aiiidrambu Airavat a phaJa AjirJ}a bheda cikitsa karal}a phala tail a putapaka tarpaJ}.a phala Alasaka Alocaka pitta Aluka Ama cikitsa 127,
--:--

A phala

98 24 121 212
33

Ama Ainajir:Qa Amalaka

77 45 427
45

187 128 105 ga!)a 205 Amla rasa 143, 144, 145 gal}a 148 Amlika phala 101

130 17 51 137 349 134
124

405

130 54 101 128' 129 130 129 105
67

285 283
98

125
169
:93

187 188

Amra phala 99 Amrataka phala 98. 101 Amrta saka 90 Amsa marma 426 phalaka marma 426 Anagneya sveda 224 A:iiga-pratyafiga 391 A:Qi marma 423 23, 2,77 An.jana cikitsa anarha 280 bheda 2i8 kala 279 lekhana 278', prasadana 278 282 pratya:iijana 278 ropal}a 202 A:iijanadi gal}.a 98 Aiikola phala 132 Anupana 16 Anupakrama roga 136 Anu rasa 302 sastra 295 -- yaiitra 76' yava 262 AJ}.u taila '86 AnGpa mamsa 424 Apalapa marma 167 Apana vata

-

504

HRDAYAM

Apa:iiga marma Apara patana 377, Apasthambha marma Apatarpal}a cikitsa Apcara varga Api\rva vaid ya Apya dravya Aragvadhadi ga:Qa Ardraka Ardrika saka saka Arjaka saka -Arkadi gai}.a Artava-suddha suddhikrama vai.Iqta Artha Aruka phala Asanad i gaQa Asannaprasa va Asava A5aya Ascyotana Asru rodha Astbi dhatu kanra

426

386

424 191
85 3

Avalambaka kapha A valguja saka Avarta marma Ayurveda vataral}a B Badara phala Bala Bala taila Ba.la cikitsa Baiidha Basti cikitsa-anuvasanafsneha asthapana/niruha kala karma matra uttara yafitra

169
91
426 5

'I'

4

--

137 202 106 95 70 90 95 204 362 362 361 173 100 yoga 202 Basti marma 375 72 Bhalla·taka phala 395 cikitsa 276 Bhautika sari ra
48

98
411 387
5

337

"-'

238 238 250 249 250 251 240 250 424 100
50

.....-JI

.

9 Bhrajaka pitta
155

sankhya vrddhi
I

;

Asuri saka Atmagupta phata Audbhida laval}a bheda _gui}a kala varga

159 396 157 161 95 78 103 14 15 190 102

Bhtikafida Bhutagni Bhutrl}.a saka BiQ.a Ia vaJ}a Bilesaya mamsa varga Bilva phala Bisa Bodhaka kapha B:rhati saka Brhatisira marma Brmhai}.a cikitsa

391 14 169 96 406
95

103
87

84 99
92

169 90 425 191

...;.-.
r

INDEX OF SANSKRIT HEADINGS

509

vid Mar$a saka Ma$a saka Masanumasika yogah Mastu Masiira Matapitr bhava Mitra basti kala Matrka marma Matulufiga phala Medas Medo dhatil karma praman.a vrddhi vrddhi cikitsa Moca phala Mora:Qajmorata Mrgalifit;laka ph ala Mri}ala Mrta garbha Mudga silpa Mukha lepa Mukulaka phala Mulaka Mufijata saka Murdha taila Mu$kakadi ga:Qa Mustadi gai}a 'Miitra karma

429 93 78
92

prama:Qa vrddhi cikitsa Mutrarodha Miltra varga N Nabhasa dravya Nibhi marma Nadi jala Nadikalaya saka Nagara Nagodara Nalika saka Namaskara sloka Nandi saka Naiidimukha Narikela phala udaka Nasya vidhi bheda matra phala Na-wa dhinya 'Na'vana gai}a Navanita Nidra rodha Nikocaka phala Nila malma Nimittaasubha subha =Niruha basti Niruha:Qa ga:Qa Ni$pava Nitamba marma Ntvira

412'
157 161 46

389 61 77 392 250 275 426 64 100 68
9

73
138

424 55
90 106

155 159 412 157 161 98 62 101 92 384 77 80
271

382 93 3

90,92
77

98

2SS, 258
255

57

257 263 79

200
61 119 47 98

98 94 91 273
206

426 459

459
462 :238

206
9

199
.78 ·425 76

155 159

506

Diltaasubha subha E

EQ.agaja saka Eladi gat}.a Eral).Qa tai Ia Ervaru saka

G Gar dilsa cikitsa dravya bheda vidhi Gafigambu Garbhabhasa Garbhadana Garbha .. g.rhita Jak$al}.a Lin a rnrta pal a sa fig a srava vrddhi krama GarbhiQ.i carya

..

Gavedhuka saka Ghrta pural).a Godhiima Gojihva saka Graha ciki ba GrJ.mya dharn1a carya Grnjanaka Guc_ia

Guda marma GuQucyadi gaQa 457 Gulpha marma 457 Gurvadi g UI).ah H 93 Hamsodaka 206 Haridradi gal).a 67 Iiatitaki 92 Hemafita rtucarya Hifigu Hrdaya marma 270 Hrd viSodhana I 269 rasa 271 varga 53 Iiidrabasti marma 390 J 364 Jala (toya) varga pan a '366 panavarjya 383 ]ala 384 Jalauka 381 avacaral}a 376 Jambira saka 380 Jambii phala 370 Jafigala mamsa 368 Janu marma 369 Jara cikitsa 71 Jatharagni 93 bheda 61 pradhanya 62 Jhunjhu saka 77 Jivaniya gal}a 90 Jivaiita saka 5 Jivanti saka 121 ·Jivitadhama 38 J rmbharodha

91

424 202 423
11

42
205

104 35 104 424
113

rr

63
63

423
53 56

56
396

303
304
95

99 86
423 5

""

404 410
410

93 200
93

93 396
48

,.,.......

96
64

K
Kakamaci saka

89

lNDEX OF SANSKR.lT',I1HEADINGS

501

..-_,

Ka tu rasa g karma utpatti 430 77 varga 92 Kathilla saka 92 KatikataruJ}.a, marma 87 Kausumba saka 76" Kava\a 5 Kaya cikitsa 155 Kayagni amsa 158 Kebuka 8 Keluta saka paiicavidha 169 Kilata prakrti 415 Kharjiira phala ari$ta sthana 166 156, 176 Kodrava vrddhi vrddhi cikitsa 182 Kola majja phala Kapbagbna gai}a 200 Kosataki saka Kapittha phala 99 Ko$tha Karamardaka phala 101 Karavella saka 90 Krakara n1a1nsa Karira saka 91 Krauiididana saka phala 101 Krcchrasadhya roga, Karkaru saka 92 Krkatika marma Karkasa saka 90 lava:Qa Karkota saka 90 Krtanna varga Karma 174 Kriya ni$iddha vaya basti 249 K$ara Kart:ta ptlral}.a 275 karma Kartlt ka saka 93 nirmai}a Kasamarda 94 prayoga
93

Kakafi<;\ola pha1a marma Kala_ bheda basti Kalah Kalasaka Kalamba saka Kalantara pral}.ahara manna Kalaya KaJinga saka Kalodya saka Kal}a kapota Kangu Kapha karma k$aya

78 Kasa rodha 423 Kasaya gut}.a 174 karma 13 250 -- varg31 394 Kaseruka scika 93 ,*hala

47
144 '4, 147 143 149 92 98
I

144

146 143 148 90 425
94

271
5

162

I

90 92 62 98 7_1 76 99 101 90 i 7 395 87 92
16

426 103 79 261 104
343

344
,347

512

H].tDAYAM

201 SArivadi ga:t:la Sarkara 64 71 ari$ta 90,92 Sariige$\a 93 saka . 51 Sarva roga cikitsa Sastra 298 anu 302 do$a 302 303 graha9a 302 karma -' kosa 303 Sastra karma vidhi 328 330 piirva karma pradhana karma 331 pascat karma 332 93 satavari saka j!ka 89 Satinaja saka 89 Satmikarai}a 117 Satmyadi bha vah 393 Satiida phala 101 Satvidi bhavah 393 Sauvarca lavaoa 102 Sauviraka 72 annapana 109 Sidhu 71 sigru saka 95 Simaiita manna 41:1 Simbi dhlnya 77 Sira 397 avedhya 397 marma 428 vibhaga 400 ·Siravyadha 310 274 Sirobasti 36 flU cary i S6 Stta jala
<

phala Snana Snayu Sneha vidhi phala -

98 25
396

208 218 217

213 upacara 212 vidhi 215 vyapat Sodhana cikitsa so, 192,237 , 328 Sopha 48 Sramasvasa rodha , 427 Sriigataka marma 92 saka 401 Srotas 424 Stanamula marma 424 Stanarohita marma Sthambhana· cikitsa 222 427 Sthapani marma 74 Suka dhanya Sukra dhatu 9 155 karma

'1
I

pramaiJ.a rodha suddha suddhi krama vikrta vrddhi Sukta Sutnukha saka Suni$an.l}aka saka Sura Suran.a Surasa saka Surasldi gai}a saka SiuikA grha

159 412 49
362

.A

361
361

157 71
95

89
69

96
95 204

t.,.,.

374

89

INDEX OF SANSKRIT HEADINGS

505

c
Caficu saka Caiigeti saka Ca\aka tnamsa Caturjata Cavika Chardana gan.a Chaya bheda Cikitsa bheda pad a Cilli saka Cil}aka saka Cirabilva saka saka Citraka saka D Dadhi Dacj.ima phala yal}.a cikitsa DaocJakalasaka Dafitadhavan a Dafttasatha phala Deha prakni Desa·bheda Dhamani marma Dhana Dhanya simbi silka ,troa Dhanyamla Dharal}iya vega Dhatu karma ksina . 34 pari:Qama

pramal}a

-

91 vrddhi 89 vrdl:lhi cikitsa 87 Dhatvagni 106 Dhiimapana cikitsa bheda 107 199 dravya 442 varti 191 vidhi ya:iitra 14 93 Diuacarya 92 93 agafttil 92 bhed(,l. 107 caya
60

412 161 161 162 264 267 267 266 265 22
5, 8,

98 34 5 126 22 101 7, 413 13, 412 401 4:28 81 77 74 7i 72 49 9 155 158 407

gati gu:Qa kala

186 166 171 170
8 6

158 12 manasika 171 prakopa 167 prakrta karma 171 prasama 187 Samyoga sankhya 180
6, 166 sthana 185 sthani 186 tiryaggata upakrama J 182 ( cikitsa ) 173 vrddhi karav.a 163 vrddha karma 160 vrddha cikitsa 97 phala, 10 Dravya bheda 135 prAdhanya 130 aSa.na 54 jala

-,

.

510

p Padmakadi gal}.a Palat].Q.u Palaiikya taka Palevata phaJa Panaka ' Panasa phala Paiicakola Pafica mula hrasva jivana madhyama rna hat ,,trn.a Papa-dasavidha faricaraka Parik$ya bhava Parpata saka Parthiva dravya parii$ak.a phala gaiJ.a Parsvasafidhi marma Patola saka Patoladi gaiJ.a Patha saka Pattura saka Pesi Peya Phala varga Phalgu pha]a -Phal}i marma Ph aI} i jjaka

Nyagrodhidi gaQa 0 Odana Ojas k$aya vrddhi

206

80
163

164 164 201 96 91 100
81 98

Phal}ita Pilu phala Pii}Q.alu Pil}yaka Pippali mula Pitta karma

\too

63

J"

\95
I

106

182 I

106

5

155 158 8
168

107 107
108

pancavidha prakriti sthana vrddhi 156, vriddhi cikitsa Pittaghna gal}.a

-1

415 166 176 182 200
62

201 425 92
201

Prabha-bheda 107 Prabhava 107, Pral).icarya 108 Prasaha varga 27 Prasuti vi dhi 15 Pratarutthana 179 Pra tisaral)a 90 Pratuda varga 137 Pri yala ph ala 98 Priyaiigu Prthuka Puri$a karma rodha vrddhi vikriti cikitsi R Rajadana phala Rajak$ava saka Rajama$a

442 141 109
84

375
22

271 84
gaiJ.a 205 81

..;.

98 76

89 94 396 79 97 98 426
95

9 155 159 45

156
161

98
89

-

77

INDEX OF SANSKRIT HEADIN&S

511

Rajodar$ana Rakta dhatu karma-prakrta vikrta

360 9
155

-

suddha vrddhi vriddhi cikitsa Rakta mok$ai}a vidhi Raktapaka Rasa anu safikhya samyoga utpatti Rasa dhatu karma k$aya pramai}a vrddhi Rasala

308 158 412 308 156 161 306 329 136 136 10 150 143 9 155 158 412 156 81 434

carya sandhi saiikhya R..tu kala Rujakara marma

33
44

33

s

364 363 431
26

bheda 434 Rodhrad i ga)}.a 204 12 Roga asadhya 15, 16 bheda 12, 15, 177, 178 11 karaQ.a 15, 16 krcchrasadh ya marga susadhya yapya
Rogi

13 15
16

15 12
16

tyajya Romaka lava)}.a

103

Sadvrtta Sadyal).praJJ.ahara marma Sad}'ovra\la cikitsa Saiiidhava laval}a , Saka varga Saktu Sakuladani Sali-bheda gui}.a Salya cikitsa gati sthana vral}a SalyaharaJ}.a Saluka Samagni Samana dkitsa Samana vata Samasana Sarrli phala Sarhsarjana krama Samudra jala !aval}.a Sal}Qaki asava Sandhi n1arma Saiikha marma Saiitarpal}a Saptala saka Sara-a$tha vidha Sarat rtu carya Sarlra
I

430 336 102 89 82 90 74 74
5

J18 320 318 321 92
6

192
167

130 100 230
54

103 72 428
426

191 90 420
42

418

!>os
rodha · marma varga rodba Kucaila saka Kilcika/Kilrcika nnaznsa Kukufidara marma Kuluka saka Kulattha sup a Kumuda saka Kiirca marma Kiircasira marma Ku$mal}t;la saka Kutheraka $aka Kutili saka. saka KU\Umbaka saka L Laja ·Lakuca phala , Lalt$mana saka Laiigbana cikitsa Lasuna La\vaka saka Lava1.1a rasa gul}a karma utpatti varga Lina garbha Lohitak$a marma / LoQika saka
1

YAM
46 423
58

47

90 62 87
425 90

77
81

·karma utpatti varga Madhvasava Madya gul}a varga Maithuna Majja Majja dhatu 'karma

144
143

147 71

68 68 121, 366

68
9

155

92
423

423

92
95

90

93 93
81

101

93 191 95 93 144 145
144

102 383
423 93

M
Madhu Sa.rkara Madhi1ka Madhura r3;sa guoa

65 · \ 65
1

159 prannaoa 412 vrddhi 157 161 vrddhi cikitsa Makkalla 377 Mala 9, 408 161 cikitsa 159 k$aya 157 vrddbi 9 Mamsa dhatil karma 155 k$aya 158 safikhya 396 157 vrddhi v:rddhi cikitsa 161 Mamsa rasa 80 marm.a 428 varga 83 MaDQa 79 Maii.digni 6, 410 parl}isaka 90 Mal)ibafidha marma 423 426 Manya marma 70 Mardvika Marica-/' 106
nirvacana pramaJ}a saiikhya

'4

/

98
.

143

428,429 427 431 422,428

,.--

INDEX OF SANSKRIT HEADINGS
sex of 359 Emesis therapy 225 drugs for 199 procedure 227 End product of digestion 11 Enema therapy drugs for 199 importar. . ce 254 kinds 238 procedure 252 urethral 251 vaginal 251 Essence of tissues 163 Examination of the disease 13 patient 12 24 Exercise 401 External orifices Eye therapv drops 'l:/6 salve ( collyrium ) 276 283 satiating therap)' Fishes

517

_.

....

F Factors to be examined Faeces decrease functions increase suppression False pregnancy Fat tissue deercase functions increase treatment Fatal signs definition factors of kinds of Fertile period

179
.9 159

155 157
45

390
9

159
155

properties of 85 Flatus suppressi,)n 45 Foetal death 384 development 370 Food incompitable 114 improper quaniity 124 p1 oper quantity 124 . proper time 134 regimen of 130 Foreign body 318 detection 320 removal 322 Fruits group of 97 G Gastric fire 404, 410 General treatment of diseases 51 Getting up in the morning 22 Ghee 61 Good conduct 26 H Habitat 13, 412 Heavy breathing suppression 48 Hemadri xvii Honey 65
I

157 Hrdayabodhika commentary xviii 47 161 Hunger supp:ression 433 434 434
364

I Incising for bleeding Indigestion lndu Infusion-fermented

306

128
XV

72

514

saka Varu:Q.idi ga:Q.a Varuni Vasa Vasa saka Vasafita rtu carya Vlsttika saka Vata karma

93 203 70 68
90

37 59 Virva 5 Visada 155 158

Vilambika Vilepi Vipaka Virataradi gaQ.a Yirecana vidhi

129

80
II, 140

203 225 216 11, 139
Ill 430

marma

8 laksal}.a paficavidha 166 413 prakrti 166 sthanet 156 vrddhi vriddhi karal)a 171 176 v:rddhi karma vrddhi cikitsa 160,182 200 Vataghna gan.a Vatama phala 98 Vatsaktadi gal}a 205 417 Vaya Vayaviya drava 138 Vesavara 82 91 vetragra saka 105 Vibhitaka sura 70 Vicitrapratyayara bdha142 dravya Vidagdhajirl).a 129 91 Vidari saka 201 Vidaryadi gaQa 426 Vidhura marma

6, 410 109
Ill 112

...

-

vikara Visarga kala Viskira varga jirl).a Visucika Vitapa 1narma Vrksarnla phala Vr;;a cikit':la Vyayama

34
34

129 125, 127 423
98

5

24 288 295 289
16

y
Yaiitra anu bheda Yapya roga YasJ. sarkara Yava
al).u

,

76
76 76

saka sura

104 93 70

General lndsx
A

Abortion 380 Accustornisation 117 After drink 132 Age-kinds of 417 unsuitable } 251 for therapie(,! Alimentar)' tract-kinds of 7 Alkali-properties of 104 Alkaline cauteryadvantages 343 preparation 344 procedure 347

Am a

dosa - cikitsa 272 Anointing the head 271 Application on the face 401 Arteries XVI AruQ.adatta xt nighantu AtllJiiga sahgraha v, vii A:rfiJftglJ vat ar a X Astringent taste group 149 properties 144$ 147 Attendant 14, 15 42 Autumn season regimen Avoiding drinking water 56 Ayurveda 5 branches of 4 origin of RaslJyanacommenta"y xvn

187 126, 187 127, 188

B Bandages-kinds of 337 prJcedure 339 Basic tissues 9 Bath 25 Beer 69 Begetting a male child method of 366 Belching suppression 46 Betel chewing 23 Bhatta Narahari xix Bitter tastegroup of 148 properties 144, 146 Blood tissue : decrease 158 functions 155, 308,317 increase 156 quantity 412 vitiated 315 Bodyconstituents 154 major and minor parts 391 materna! and paternal derivations 392 strength 411 temperament 7, 413 Bone tissue 159 decrease 155 functions 157 increase 396 number 61 Butter

HI,tDAYAM

46 Sneezing suppression Sour taste 144, 145 148 group of 34 Southern solastice Spring season regimen 37 Stoutening therapy 193 411 Strength Substanceskinds of 10 135 importance of 219 Sudation therapy 64 Sugar cane juice 63 38 Summer season regimen 119 Supports of life 45 of urgt>s 330, 332 Surgical operation - pre-operative 331 332 post operative 9 Sweat 159 decrease 155 functions 157 increase 144 Sweet taste 147 group of 328 Swelling-kinds of T Tastes-150 combipations 143 formation 10 number 149 proper lies 136 primary 143 qualities 136 secondary xzx Tatvabodha commentary 48 Tears· suppression of 7, 413 Temperaments 414 bilious

nervous phlegmatic Tendons Therapykinds_ Thermal cautery Thirst suppression Time·kinds of of giving medicines Tissues

413 41'5 396
14, 191

349 47 13 190
XV

....

9

.

decrease of 158 excellences 420 functions 135 increase 156 metabolism 407 quantity 412 treatment 161 408 products Todaramalla Kanhaprabhu XVlll 51 Traumatic diseases 336 wounds 64 Treacle 5, 8, 154, 166, 183 Tridosas

u
45 Urges of the body 49 to be controlled not to be controlled 45 46 UriQe73 group of Urine 9 159 decrease 155 functious 157 increase 412 quantity

INDEX OF SANSKRIT HEADINGS

513

-

Sutikopaci\ra Suvarcala saka Svadu rasa Svapnaasubha bheda ph ala subha ..., Sveda karma cikitsa vrddhi Sveda vidhi ana.gneya bheda phala upacara vidhi Syamadi ga:Q:t Syamaka T Taila varga Takra Talahrdaya marma Tala phala Tambala Tai}c;luliyaka saka Tarkari saka Tikta rasa gul}.a karma utpatti varga Tila TilapaiT}ika saka Ti'QQi5a saka Toya varga
33 A

378 93 143 463 466 466 467
9

Trapusa Trijata . Triphala TriJadhan)'a rodha Tuda phala Tumba saka Tvaca Tyajya rogi

92 106
105 76

155 159 161 157 219 224 219 224 221 221 207 7G

u

47 101 92 72 394 16 45
25

U dgara rodba Udvartana Umibija U pakramaJ ciki tsa Upanaha Upasthambha Upasthata Upodika saka u rumai}a phala Orvi marma gal)a jala marma U ttafa basti U ttarayaJ}.a

78 191 219 119 14, 15
382

66
61

91 98 423 203
57

-

423 98 23 91 93 6, 410 10 144 146 143 148
78
90

427 251
33

v

92 53

Vacaharidradi gai}a Vaikalyakara marma Vamana vidhi Vamathu r<;>dha Vamsa karira Vana tiktaka saka Var jya d baaya saka rtu carya Vartaka 5aka

205 430 225
48

93
90

101 93
40

90,91

518

ASTAN"GA

Inhalation therap) Instrutnentsaccessary blunt sharp wallet

264 295,
Q88 297
303

J aggery /treacle J ejjata
Joints ( bon)' )

J

64
XV

396

Kapha do!a

K.

169 divisions 158 decrease 155, functions 156,176 increase mitigating drugs 200 8 properties 415 temperament 183 treatment L Labour management of obstructed Leafy vegetables Leeches application of Life seats of supports of Limbs of treatment M Massage Marrow tissue decrease functions 375

376
89

303 304
396

119 14

Massage Maternity apartment Meat gtoup soup Membranes Menstrual blood Menstruation Menstruating woman Messenger Milk cooked group properties products . uncooked Miscarriage Molasses Mouth gargles wash pasting Muscle tis·sue decrease functions increase number treatment Muscle fat N Nasal medication drugs for Net like structures

375 83 80 394 361
360

25

363

457
60

58 58
60
60

-"'
i I

381
63

271 271
271

9

158 155 157 396 161 208 255 200
396

_,.a.,

25 cammentary 9 Non-celibac) 159 Northern solastice
155 157 157 166
0

Nidana cintllmani

xvzu

...

121 34
3

tncrease
quantity treatment

Obiessances Oils group Oil massage

66 24

INDEX OF SANSKRIT HEADINGS

519

Oiling the ears OJeation therapy Omens Orifices Origin of Ayurveda

275

208
460 401 4

benefits importance

237 50 11

'

Q
Qualities

R
Rain water Rainy season regimen Rasa dhatu ( plasma ) decrease functions Incfease quantity Rasa ratna samuccaya Rejectable grains etc. Restorative drugs Ricekinds of properties River water Royal physician
53

p

40

9 Palliative therapy 193 158 Pathways of disease 175 155 Peurpurern 378 156 Physician 14 Physiognomy 418 412 Pitta ilofa 5, 8 xz divisions J68 101 decrease 158 200 functions 155 74 increase 156, 176 mitigating drugs 200 74 55 properties 8 109 seats 166 s temperament 414 144, 145 treatment 182 Salt taste group of 148 Placenta-delevery of 377, 386 Poison giver Ill Sarvanga sunilara commentary xvi Poisoned food 109 54 Post-partun1 pain 377 Sea water 33 Potency 139 Seasons 33 Seasonal regimen Pregnancy longings 369 9. 155, 362 Pregnant woman 369 SemeP 159 decrease care of 368 157 monthly recipes 389 1ncrea"e Prepared foods 78 . 361 purification Prevention of diseases 45 49 suppression Pungent taste 144, 146 361 vitiated group of 148 Sins 27 xix PurFation therapy 226 Sivadasasena 394 Purgatives 199 Skin 1119 Purifying the heart 113 Sleep, 47 Purificatory therapies 192 suppression

.

516

of placenta 377 Desire for longevity 3 Dewy season regimen 36 c xviii Dh!J,tu ( tissues ) Candranandana 161, 162 decrease XV 135 functions Causes of diseases and 160 increase 11 health 407 metabolism Cauterisation-alkaline 343 9 names 349 Channels-thermal 412 quantity 401 external 401 161 internal treatment 130 Diet kinds of abnorbad kinds 130 402 maties 130 regimen 17 Chapters of the treatise Dosa of the body 5 Cleaning the teeth 22 divisions 166 Cocoanut water 51 functions 167 Cold water 56 properties 8 Collyrium 6, 166 seats advantages 23 time 6 kinds 277 decreased 158 , procedure 277 increased 171 Conceptioncauses 173 ceremon) 364 1( 0 combinations signs of 366 eftects 163 395 Containers movement 185 74 Corns treatment 160, 182 cereals 76 Dosa of the mind 12 inferior 16 Dreams pulses 77 auspicious 467 spiked 74 effects 466 Copulation 121' 366 inauspicious 463 Cough suppression 47 kinds 466 .Curds/coagulated milk 60 Drugs 15 D different Daily regimen \22 groups 102, 199 Decoction fermented 70 E 'belevaryEmbryo impending 375 for,mation 351 fat milk
61 61

I

I

"'

INDEX-OF SANSK.llrl' HEADINGS

521

v

vi, vii Laghu lt madhya w vrddha vii Waste products Yagbhafa mafl4an4-WaterVata do1a avoidance of decrease cold divisions 166 contaminated 1SS functions effects of increase 156. 176 rain mitigatiDgs drugs 200 river 8 sea warm 166 seats Whey (water of curds) temperament 413treatment 182 Wine groups of 397 Veins y Venesection 308 39S Yawning suppression of Viscera

Vital spots 422 Vomittibg supl'J'ession of 48 · XIJiii

9

s

56 S6
S4 S6 S4

54 57
61' 68

ss

70
48

Corrigendum
Page Line Incorrect No. No. xviii 24 in Tibetan 25 languge " 5 24 ( verification ) 52 2 propitiary 65 7 increases Correct into Tibetan language ( virilification ) pripitiatory decreases add The word ''cures'' before the word 'rashes' reduces the disorders of urine ada The word "non-unctous" after •• absorbent'' add The words-''sweet and sour in taste'' after the word "vata on a lotus sexual prowess implicitly add The word ''only'' after •'occurs" seen avoid grievious
1 '

67 27
76 25 reduces the urine

86 20
29

114 5 in a lotus 119 J4 sexual prowers 123 25 implicity
129 142 18 2 soon

173
180 198

5 trangress
18 previous 16

22B 28
270 ,, 284
9 22 23

add The word ''svaha"' after
"san1udgate'' (to be held.... should be beld .... poison, alkalies and poison, burns by alkalies and (time required to (vide, verse 33 of chapter 22) utter a soft syllable) delete The word ''sthagika'' diminishes dimunition caraka samhita technical a cycle of births venera! preceding dhatu

338 29 344 11 6 345 353 2 araka samhita 353 7 ecbnical 357 18 a series of births 362 15 venerial 407 31 proceding dhatu

\

( 523 )

Page Line Correct Incorrect NQ. No. of un-even number 461 10 of even number 464 11 (abdominal tumu) (abdominal tumor) cilli 474 2 citti 476 11 Gauda sura GauQa sura 486 Manadruma 6 Mahadruma 486 24 Mosiira Masi\ra 489 11 Gynandrois Gynandropis pentaphylla pentaphyllaps 493 6 Sambora Sam bar a 504 24 Ascyotana Ascotana 506 20 pala -pat a 515.A. 17 XVI xxxi Xl 18 xvii 19 v. vii, xi; xiv; X 20 XVl 30 XVll xxiii 515.B. 10 XlX XXV 516 3 xviii xxiv
4 517.B. 28 30 34 518.A. 8 B.31 519.B. 11 21 32 520.A. 35 520.B. 11 21 52I.A. 2
XV
XVll XVlll XXl

xxiii
XXIV

xv
XV

XXI
XXl XXIV

xviii

xi
xvi
XIX

xvii xxii
.XXV

xix
XV

XXV
XXl

xviii vi, vii,
X

xxiv
X1i

3
4 5 52 I.B. 3

xvi

vi, vii
XIX

xii
XXV
XXh7

xviii

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