# 114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems

Author: Sagar Sonker

ℵ Numbers ℵ H.C.F & L.C.M of Numbers ℵ Surds & Indices ℵ Percentage ℵ Profit & Loss ℵ Ratio & Proportion ℵ Partnership ℵ Chain Rule ℵ Time & Work ℵ Pipes & Cisterns ℵ Time And Distance ℵ Trains ℵ Boats & Streams ℵ Alligation or Mixture ℵ Simple Interest ℵ Compound Interest ℵ Logarithms ℵ Area ℵ Volume & Surface Area ℵ Stocks & Shares ℵ True Discount ℵ Banker’s Discount ℵ Copyright Notice

1)d Sum of first ‘n’ terms.sonker. [(a + d)]. if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by 8 5. (a + b)2 .r] 17. (a + b)2 8. P. A number is divisible by 11. (a3 – b3) = (a + b)(a . An Arithmetic Progression (A. (a2 – b2) 12. A number is divisible by 3. (Sum of its digits at the odd place) – (Sum of its digits at even place) is equal to 0 or 11x 7.b)2= 4ab 10.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Ratio ‘r’ is given by: a. ar. arn-1 nth term. or 8 2.b)(a2 + ab + b2) 14. if.b) = (a + b)(a2 . starting from the RHS. … … ….b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 = a2 . if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9 6.1)d] nth term. Sn = n/2 (First Term + Last Term) 16.b)2 = 2(a2 + b2) 11. Tn = arn-1 Sum of first ‘n’ terms Sn = [a(1 .(a . 4. [a + (n . Tn = a + (n . 2. A number is divisible by 2. ar2. Results on Division: Dividend = Quotient × Divisor + Remainder 15. A number is divisible by 8. P. if the number formed by its last two digits is divisible by 4 4.ab + b2) = (a . (a + b)2 + (a . A Geometric Progression (G. A number is divisible by 4.2ab + b2 9. (1 + 2 + 3 + … … … + n) 18. (12 + 22 + 32 + … … … + n2) 19.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Numbers 1.com . ar3. A number is divisible by 9. [(a + 2d)]. if its unit’s place digit is 0.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Difference ‘d’ is given by: [a]. (a3 + b3) 13. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3 3. (13 + 23 + 33 + … … … + n3) = [n(n + 1)] / 2 = [n(n + 1)(2n + 1)] / 6 = [n2(n + 1)2] / 4 Page 2 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. (a . … … ….rn)] / [1 .

( 31. Surds & Indices 21. then ‘B’ is less than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity increases by R%. (ab)m 24. × Their L.n) = a mb m = an / bn =1 = a1/n = (a1/n)n =a = = )m = = Percentage 32. Product of two numbers = Their H. we have a / b = (a / b × 100) % 34. C. If ‘A’ is R% more than ‘B’.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker H. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 + R] } % 35. C. then its population after ‘N’ years is P (1 + R/100)N Page 3 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. If ‘A’ is R% less than ‘B’. To express a / b as a percent. M.F & L. . (a / b)m 25.R] } % 36. To express x% as a fraction. then the increase in consumption. F. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 . then ‘B’ is more than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity decreases by R%. then the reduction in consumption. am × an 22.com / 28.C. 30.M of Numbers 20. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. 27.C. we have x% = x / 100 33.sonker. am / an 23. 29. a0 26. = a(m + n) = a(m .

The equality of two ratios is called a proportion. (e : f) is (ace : bdf) 45. : is a sub-duplicate ration of a : b 47. 42. d are in proportion.d). x α y. If a : b = c : d.b) / b = (c . If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. If a / b = c / d. If a / b = c / d. then its value ‘N’ years ago at a depreciation of ‘R’ p. which is called the componendo. then its value after ‘N’ years at a depreciation of ‘R’ p. which is called the componendo & dividendo.p.c. 51.R/100)N] 40.d) / d. (a + b) / (a . then. which is called the dividendo.a is P / [(1 .c. c. 52.b) = (c + d) / (c . Page 4 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Product of extremes = Product of means 43.Loss%) × Cost Price] / 100 Ratio & Proportion 41. then its population ‘N’ years ago is P / [(1 + R/100)N] Profit & Loss 38.R/100)N 39. b. while the second and third are known as means. Mean proportion between a and b is 44.sonker. then. Variation: We say that x is directly proportional to y if x = ky for some constant k and we write. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. a3 : b3 is a triplicate ratio of a : b 48. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. Selling Price = [(100 + Gain%) × Cost Price] / 100 = [(100 . (a + b) / b = (c + d) / d. a1/3 : b1/3 is a sub-triplicate ratio of a : b 49. (a .p. we write a : b :: c : d and we say that a. The compounded ratio of the ratios (a : b). then. 53. (c : d).a is P (1 . Also. 50. the first and fourth terms are known as extremes. a2 : b2 is a duplicate ratio of a : b 46. we say that x is inversely proportional to y if x = k / y for some constant k and we write x α 1 / y.com .114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 37. In a proportion. If a / b = c / d.

If A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n.sonker. The cost of articles is directly proportional to the number of articles. moving at ‘u’ kmph and ‘v’ kmph (where.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Partnership 54. The time (number of days) required to complete a job is inversely proportional to the number of hours per day allocated to the job. If A can do a piece of work in n days. the net part of the tank filled in 1 hour is (1/x – 1/y) Time And Distance 63. 57. Suppose a man covers a distance at ‘x’ kmph and an equal distance at ‘y’ kmph.v)] hrs 65. 60. Ratio of times taken by A & B to finish a work = 1 : 3 Pipes & Cisterns 62. then A can finish the work in n days. then on opening both the pipes. 58. then Share Of Partner = (Total_Profit × Part_Share / Total_Share) Chain Rule 55. If two trains start at the same time from two points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b hours in reaching B and A respectively. u > v) in the same direction.com . If a number of partners have invested in a business and it has a profit. then the time taken y the over-taker train to cross the slower train is [(x + y) / (u . If A is thrice as good a workman as B. Lengths of trains are ‘x’ km and ‘y’ km. The work done is directly proportional to the number of men working at it. 61. then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1. Time taken to cross each other is [(x + y) / (u + v)] hrs 66. then average speed during his whole journey is [2xy / (x + y)] kmph Trains 64. Time taken to cover a distance is inversely proportional to the speed of the car. 56. Time & Work 59. then A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. Page 5 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. If a pipe can fill a tank in ‘x’ hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in ‘y’ hours (where y > x).

Speed upstream = (u . = ( 100 × S. a. ) / ( P × T ). Boats & Streams 69. ) / ( P × R ).sonker. x kmph = (x × 5/18) m/sec. b. 73. Rate of stream = ½ (a .I. Alligation: It is the rule that enables us to find the ratio in which two or more ingredients at the given price must be mixed to produce a mixture at a given price. If the speed downstream is a km/hr and the speed upstream is b km/hr. 72. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. If the speed of a boat in still water is u km/hr and the speed of the stream is v hm/hr. Page 6 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. We represent the above formula as under: 75. Alligation or Mixture 71. = ( 100 × S.: (Cheaper quantity) : (Dearer quantity) = (d .m) : (m . S. 68. A’s speed : B’s speed = ( 67. Rule of Alligation: If two ingredients are mixed. . P R T = ( P × R × T ) / 100 = ( 100 × S.com . 70. 74. ) / ( R × T ).114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Then.b) km/hr.I.c) Simple Interest 76. c.I. Let Principle = P. then: : ). Mean Price: The cost price of a quantity of the mixture is called the mean price. then: Speed downstream = (u + v) km/hr.I.v) km/hr. d. Then. then: Speed in still water = ½ (a + b) km/hr. y metres/sec = (y × 18/5) km/hr.

e. loga x g. When interest is compounded Half-yearly: Amount = P (1 + R/2/100)2N III. loga x h. say R1%. loga (x/y) c. logx x = loga x + loga y = loga x . 2nd. then we write m = loga x and say that the value of log x to the base a is m. Then. x due n years hence is given by: Present Worth = x / (1 + R/100)n Logarithms 81.loga y = 1 (i. it is taken as 10 i. loga (xp) f. loga 1 e. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. The integral part is known as characteristic and the decimal part is known as mantissa. When interest is compounded Annually. When interest is compounded Quarterly: Amount = P (1 + R/4/100)4N 78. Log of 1 to any base is 0) = p loga x = 1 / logx a = logb x / logb a = log x / log a (Change of base rule) d. R2%. The logarithm of a number contains two parts. Then. Logarithms to the base 10 are known as common logarithms j. Amount = P (1 + R1/100) (1 + R2/100) (1 + R3/100) 80. loga (xy) b. namely characteristic and mantissa. Then. 82.sonker. Log of any number to its own base is 1) = 0 (i.com .e. but the time is in fraction. Properties of Logarithms: a. I. When interest is compounded Annually. Let Principle = P. When base is not mentioned. R3% for 1st. other than 1 and am = x. say 3⅞ years. and 3rd year respectively. Present worth of Rs. When Rates are different for different years. Logarithm: If a is a positive real number. Page 7 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Amount = P (1 + R/100)N II. Amount = P (1 + R/100)3 × (1 + ⅞R/100) 79.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Compound Interest 77.

Rectangle: a. Area of a square = ½ (diagonal)2 85. Area 83. Area of a parallelogram = Base × Height Page 8 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Area of square = (side)2 b. II. Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 2 e.g. Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 87. IV. Case 1: When the number is greater than 1. Characteristic 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 For mantissa. Area of 4 walls of a room = 2 (length + breadth) × height 86.34 0. the characteristic is one more than the number of zeroes between the decimal point and the first significant digit of the number and it is negative. Square: a. Triangle: a. we look through the log table. then antilog y = x.sonker. Area of a rectangle = (length × breadth) b. and a. Area of an equilateral triangle = / 4 × (side)2 d.00234 III.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker I. Number 234. Antilog: If log x = y. b.0234 0. c are the sides of the triangle c.com .456 2. Case 2: When the number is less than 1.56 23. In this case. where s = ½ (a + b + c).234 0. Area of a triangle = . the characteristic is one less than the number of digits in the left of decimal point in the given number. e. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2 (length + breadth) 84. Parallelogram/Rhombus/Trapezium: a. Area of a triangle = ½ × base × height b. In this case.

Page 9 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker b. 92. Area of a circle = πR2 b. Area of a sector 91. Cuboid: Let length = l. Volume b.sonker. Diagonal = a3 cu units = 6a2 sq. a. units . Circle/Arc/Sector. Circumference of a circle = 2πR c. = ½ × (Product of diagonals) The halves of diagonals and a side of a rhombus form a right angled triangle with side as the hypotenuse. Area of trapezium 88. = ½ × (sum of parallel sides) × (distance between them) d. units = units d. Volume = (πr2h) cu. a. where R is the radius of the circle: a. units =( × a) units Diagonal = (l × b × h) cu units = 2 (lb + bh + hl) sq. Area of a rhombus c. Length of an arc = Ө/360 × 2πR = ½ (arc × R) = Ө/360 × πR2 Volume & Surface Area 89. Then. Curved Surface Area = (2πrh) sq. Cube: Let each edge of a cube be of length a. Then. Cylinder: Let radius of base = r & height (or length) = h. breadth = b & height = h units Then.com Total Surface Area = 2πr(r + h) sq. units c. Then. Surface Area c. Cone: Let radius of base = r & height = h. a. 90. Surface Area c. Volume b. units b.

below par (or at discount). True Discount (T. units 93. 100. Total Surface Area = πr(r + l) sq. Then. When the stock is sold. annual interest is 9% of the face value and the market price of a Rs. b. 95. Curved Surface Area = (2πr2) sq. 100 exactly. Total Surface Area = (3πr2) sq. if S.) Page 10 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. 100 now will clear off the debt of Rs. 97.) = Rs. By ‘a Rs. 800. units Curved Surface Area = (πrl) sq. 156 due 4 years hence. units b. (156 .P. 100 stock is said to be: a. a.P. is more than Rs. units c. Clearly. l b. we mean a stock whose face value is Rs. True Discount 100. is less than Rs. if S.W. = units = (⅓ πr2h) cu. 100. above par (or at premium). the payment of Rs. Suppose a man has to pay Rs. 100. 156 due 4 years hence. Present Worth (P. Volume = (2/3 πr3) cu. Hemi-sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. So. brokerage is subtracted from the selling price. Brokerage: The broker’s charge is called brokerage. We say that: Sum due = Rs. units = (4/3 πr3) cu. 100 stock is Rs. 9% stock at 95’. 98. 100 at 14% will amount to Rs. Volume b. Rs. Volume c. 156 after 4 years and the rate of interest is 14% per annum. if S. units d. Surface Area 94. 800. Sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r.W. 96. units Stocks & Shares 95.D. units = (4πr2) sq. 156 in 4 years.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker a. When stock is purchased.sonker. at par. brokerage is added to the cost price. The selling price of a Rs. 99. c.P.100) = (Sum due) – (P. a. Slant height. is Rs.com .) = Rs. Then.