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4DOF parallel architecture for laparoscopic surgery

Mohammad Aamir Khan, Matteo Zoppi, Rezia Molfino University of Genova, DIMEC, Via Opera Pia 15A, 16145, Genova, Italy, e-mail: [aamirkhan,zoppi,molfino]@dimec.unige.it

Abstract. This paper analyzes a new laparoscopic surgical setup with two surgical robots. Requirements and constraints are outlined and the architecture selected for the surgical robots is presented and discussed. Analytical models of the inverse and forward kinematics are provided together with a detailed analysis of mobility and constraints. The velocity kinematics is addressed and singularity analysis outlined. Key words: Parallel mechanisms, Robotic surgery, Minimally invasive surgery

1 Introduction and Surgical Requirements
In minimally invasive surgery (MIS) surgeon manipulates tissues using tools inserted through small incisions. It has become standard for various surgical and diagnostic procedures owing to minimal trauma caused to healthy tissues resulting in less post-operative pain and shorter hospitalization. Drawbacks occurs are in the form of drastically reduced haptic feedback, motion reversal effect and hand tremor. Use of telerobotics restores the tactile cues and intuitive dexterity of the surgeon and improves accuracy through force feedback, filtering of hand tremor and motion scaling, [Darzi et al., 2006, Asao et al., 2004]. In spite of extensive research, very few systems are fully commercially available and are expensive and bulky, for instance Da Vinci System. Hence the intention to design a low cost and portable system for laparoscopic surgical and diagnostic procedures. In a standard laparoscopic surgery generally 4 or more key holes are required, [Faraz et al., 2000]: one for scope, two for tools manipulated by surgeon and one for surgical tool handled by assisting nurse. In diagnostic and minor surgical procedures (gynecological) two or even one hole(s) could be sufficient, [Darzi et al., 2006]. In an ideal setup, tools should be placed at equal azimuth angles along a semi circular line (about 160 to 180mm long) centered on the projection of the target organ and π /3 elevation angle, [Ferzli et al., 2006]. The inter-port distance can be as close as 50mm, but it is generally around 140mm, [Cavusoglu et al., (2001)]. Angle be1

.. and a modified architecture may result in a preferable setup for surgical applications requiring two robots. 2005] appears to be feasible for diagnostic setups where only one robot is used. As shown in Fig. The extrusion of 100mm is adequate. Fig. with 4 legs of the same architecture. The result is new architecture shown in Fig. [Zoppi et al. Two such virtual mock-ups were assembled to realize a surgical configuration with two surgical robots and the possible collision of links was investigated for movements of the robots in their entire work spaces. 2005] was constructed. 1(a) and 1(b). 2006]. Matteo Zoppi. laterally and longitudinally. Due to the force requirements each robot has a large footprint and in the surgical configuration with two units. 2005]. even with a design specifically developed to avoid collisions. at inter-trocar distance of more then 300mm there are configurations in which arms are still inevitably interfering with each other. Workspace required to reach the full extent of the abdomen cavity.2 Mohammad Aamir Khan. a 4 degree of freedom (3 rotational and 1 translational) purely parallel architecture was selected. Also surgeons spend 95% of the time in a conical workspace with vertex angle of π /3. On the bases of these requirements.. Rezia Molfino tween tools should be π /3. 1 Original (a) and new architecture (b) and (c) 2 Review of the Original Surgical System A preliminary 3D virtual mock-up of the architecture in [Zoppi et al. . The conclusion is that the architecture in [Zoppi et al. Various modifications of the original architecture were attempted to preserve the advantageous characteristics for surgical application. it is very hard to find a design avoiding collisions. 1(a). based on drive components and link design selected through force requirements. [Lum et al.. is π /3 and π /2 cone angle respectively.

ξ L . 2 (with details of the geometry and configuration parameters).1 Geometry and Configuration Parameters Consider Fig. B) have architecture (RRR)R|R) and each comprise of a spherical sub-mechanism formed by the revolute joints ξ L . In the surgical setup with two robots. ξ L ⊥ ξ L . ξ L ) 1 2 3 connected to the end effector by a prismatic joint ξ L with direction parallel to ξ L . 2 (a) Heave sub chain for leg A and B. Compared to the original mechanism in [Zoppi et al. the work-spaces of the robots are oriented in a way that for any feasible torsion angle the legs A and B of both robots are maintained away from each other while shorter and easier to design legs C and D move in the space between the robots without collisions. Points P4 and P5 5 . We consider geometries with 4 4 5 5 ξ A ⊥ ξ B because there seem to be no advantage in different orientations to obtain 5 5 the desired symmetric workspace. Two of the legs (labeled L = A. Other two legs (labeled 4 5 4 3 4 5 L = C. in the new architecture the orientation of the tool is commanded by the spherical legs C and D without heave sub mechanism which in the original mechanism created most of the collision problems. ξ L (with directions 1 2 3 kL . B is through O and orthogonal to ξ L . kL .4DOF parallel architecture for laparoscopic surgery 3 Fig. 4 3 ξ C and ξ D are parallel and orthogonal to ξ A and ξ B . The L L L heave plane πe for L = A. A fixed base coordinate frame Oib jb kb and a rotating frame Oio jo ko are introduced.. (b) Schematics of the leg C and D 3 Modified Architecture The new architecture proposed is purely parallel with 4 serial leg chains. Following sections present the main steps undertaken to check the feasibility of the new architecture for surgical application and elements of its design. D) with architecture (RRR)|P) comprise of a spherical chain (ξ L . ξ L (with direction kL kL ). ξ L . kL ) intersecting at point O and a heave sub mechanism with two parallel 1 2 3 revolute joints ξ L . Legs A and B maintain the heave sub-mechanism required to command tool extrusion and torsion. 3. 2005].

VL = Span (ϕ L . C L . TL and PL .875 0. ψ }) is used for the more realistic depiction of constant torsion movements of the surgical tool compared to other representations e. B.t. C L . B are also mentioned in [Zoppi. respectively.01229 L Table 1 Geometry parameters (dimensionless referred to l45 ) 3.09774 0. hL is the distance between P4 o 5 h A L πh and πh (hA = 0). The classes for legs A.69813 0 1.01229 B 1. where i = 1. In any leg L. B and C. C L . transmitted by the leg with the actuated joint locked).01229 1. r4 is the distance between 4 5 L and O. is defined by the additional i i1 5 5 L condition kL π23 . The constraint applied by each leg to the endeffector is analyzed and the overall end-effector constraint and mobility is discussed. B. C L . ξ L .69813 1.375 0. Matteo Zoppi. tion k5 L L L 11 23 0 45 .14159 1.01229 C 0.69813 3. L L L L L L L L L leg l45 /l45 hL /l45 r4 /l45 α34 α1 β1 α12 A 1 -0. A set of values shown in Tab. of the feasible leg configuration space.71239 1. Oib jb kb the tilt-and-torsion (T&T) representation mentioned in [Bonev et al. αiLj is the angle between ξ i and ξ L . 1 for the geometry parameters has been heuristically selected from kinematics and work-space analysis.125 1. ϕ L ).01229 1.75 2. D.C. with different relative i location of the passive joints and consequently different types of constraint systems.09774 0. a subclass. the twist systems spanned by all joint screws and by the passive joint screws are labeled.r. 2 and j j = i + 1. ξ L and π0 through O 2 3 4 5 parallel to ξ A . Euler angles. The tilt angle α1 and azimuth angle β1 place the base joints ξ L . ϕ L force along π L ∩ π L . W = V else W = Span (ϕ L ). Rezia Molfino L L are at the intersection of ξ L and ξ L with πe . For each class. ξ B . π L is the plane orthogonal to k through ξ L . Legs A. 1 L L L L L C 1 = {q | k4 ∦ π23 and O ∈ π45 }.01229 1. π45 defined by ξ L . The extrusion of the end effector is measured by the distance h A L L between πh and O.69813 0. 1 L L = A. Consider firstly legs A. 2002] (angles {θ .4 Mohammad Aamir Khan. ϕ L force at O with direc0 0 L .125 0.g. 2004]. the leg can transmit to the base with all joints ⊥ free to move) and VL = PL (wrenches..01229 D 0. The leg postures qL are described geometrically reL L ferring to the planes π23 through ξ L .01229 L α23 1.69813 4. To orientate Oio jo ko w. D are analyzed separately distinguishing for each of them different subsets. in Oib jb kb . If qL ∈ C L . φ . The corresponding reciprocal wrench systems are WL = TL⊥ (wrenches. respectively.2 Mobility and Constraint Analysis The mechanism is purely parallel. These values have been used as reference to investigate the suitability of the new mechanism in surgical setups with two robots.

ϕ L ) WL ⊂ VL . [Zlatanov et al. In any leg singularity Span (ϕ L ) WL ⊂ VL . with ϕ x and ϕ y two forces at O lying in π0 with directions io .4DOF parallel architecture for laparoscopic surgery 5 L L C L = {qL | kL π23 and O ∈ π45 }. If qL ∈ C L . 1995]. onal to π23 L L L 21 0 L L C L = {qL | kL ∦ π23 and O ∈ π45 }. L = C. we discuss the localization of RO-type singularities in the interior boundary and show that with the set of geometry parameters selected the desired workspace is singularity-free. Configurations with qL ∈ C L ∪C L . D. while kL can be computed as linear combination of kL .3 Inverse Position Kinematics The base joint angles are computed for given tool pose (B Ro .. WL = VL 41 4 0 4 ⊥ L . D. µ L ). D. VL = Span (ϕ L . WL = VL everywhere in C L . If qL ∈ C L . VL = Span (ϕ L . ko is along the axis of the tool. 0 Consider now legs C. 11 21 or qL ∈ C L . ϕ L ) = WL VL . µ L pure moment orthog2 0 4 L ). dim VL = 2. jo . kL × kL : 3 1 3 . W = 4 4 0 0 01 02 01 02 W0 = Span (ϕ x . In conclusion. Mechanism configurations with at least one qL ∈ C L ∪ C L . µ L ). W = V else W = Span (ϕ L ). They can be singular although no leg is singular. L L L L L T In each leg kL = cβ1 cα1 sβ1 cα1 −sα1 . and qL ∈ C L . B. B. 3 2 1 kL . D. ϕ D . WL = VL else 11 4 WL = Span (ϕ L . L = A. ϕ L and ϕ L forces 1 4 01 02 01 02 L at O orthogonal to kL . L = C. µ L moment orthogonal to π23 . L = A. ϕ y ). 2002]. ϕ C . dim VL = 3. 3 4 L L C L = {qL | kL π23 and O∈ π45 }. µ L . All mechanism configurations with at least one singular leg are singular. D in any nonsingular posture (with linearly independent leg joint screws) Span (ϕ L . and actuated constraints. Because ξ C ξ D ⊥ π0 . VL = Span (ϕ L . 01 02 For leg C. If qL ∈ C L . ϕ C . [Zlatanov et al. L = A. ϕ L ). ϕ L ). ϕ L pure force through O 3 4 0 ⊥ ⊥ L on π45 orthogonal to kL . In any leg singularity 01 02 Span (ϕ L . The following discussion of position and velocity kinematics is mainly addressed to these mechanism configurations. VL = Span (ϕ L . belong to 3 4 the extrusion boundary of the 4-dimensional workspace of the mechanism. else WL = Span (ϕ 0 ⊥ In any nonsingular posture (linearly independent leg joint screws) Span (ϕ L ) = 0 WL VL . B. h). dim V = 6 and the mechanism is correctly actuated.. We have only one class with subclass: L L C L = {qL | kL ∦ π23 and O ∈ π45 }. If no leg is singular. ϕ L . For 1 legs L = C. W = Span (ϕ A . The remainder of the boundary contains configurations with qL ∈ C L ∪ C L . 01 02 The WL and VL of the single legs combine in the end-effector spaces of structural constraints. 3. All boundary configurations are at least IO-type (Impossible 11 Output) singular. ϕ D ). ϕ B . kL =B Ro ko . ϕ L ). V = ∑L VL . There are no constraint singularities because dim W < 3. ϕ L ). W = ∑L WL . belong to the 1 2 1 interior of the workspace. dim W0 = 2 and the mechanism has 3 rotational and 1 translational freedoms.

3. t1 = cL − cL kL · kL . In Oio jo ko . B. t2 = cL − cL kL · kL . P4 = r4 kL .5 Velocity and Singularity Analysis We use the rotating reference frame Oio jo ko for ease. ψ3 . the io and jo components of the translation velocity are ¯ always zero due to W0 and we can consider the simplified end-effector twist ξ with . 3 jo = ko × io . ko can be obtained by linear 3 3 combination of kC .t. h is 3 3 3 calculated from Eq. kC = kD = ko . Here j′ is the unit vector along the T&T tilt axis. Matteo Zoppi. jb · j′ = cos θ . P5 = (h + hL )ko . The input-output velocity equation is of the form: T T T ˙ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Za Zc ξ = Λ θ a 02 . (1). 3. kB = kB = jo . kC × kD as outlined in Section 3. φ . the angle ψh is derived as: L c ψh = h + hL 2 L L L + r4 − l45 / 2hL r4 2 (2) while kA = kA = io . kL · kL = cos α A (L = A. Za = ϕ A ϕ B µ C µ D . h) of the end-effector is computed from given actuator angles. ϕ B ◦ ξ B .6 Mohammad Aamir Khan. Then io = kA × ko . k3 . A B A A B When legs A. B) kA · solving a system of 7 equations: ko · k3 3 2 3 23 3 A A A kB = cos2 ψ3 plus the unit vector equations for kA and kB . t3 = i i 12 23 1 3 23 12 1 3 δL |s12 s23 | + eL AB |s12 s23 | − eL . 1 1 1 1 The different entries of Za and Λ can be calculated using the geometry of the mechanism. kb × ko = j′ .. k3 are computed L = cos ψ A . T ˜ ˜ Zc = ϕ x ϕ y (with the symbol ∼ on a wrench denoting switching of force and moment components). µ D ◦ ξ D }. µ C ◦ ξ C . Λ = diag{ϕ A ◦ ξ A . (2). B have same geometry. cLj = cαiLj . ψ3 = ψ3 and h. The kL are available from the actuated joint angles. Through vector projection we obtain: kL = 4 4 4r 5 5 L L L L L L −sψh jo + cψh ko and kL = −s(α34 + ψh ) jo + c(α34 + ψh ) ko 3 L L L Vector kL is obtained as in Eq. kD . Rezia Molfino kL = 1 − kL · kL 2 1 3 2 −1 L L L kL kL kL×kL t1 t2 t3 1 3 1 3 T (1) L L L with. and apply the method detailed in [Zoppi et al. kL the actuation angles can be finally computed.r. where.4 Forward Position Kinematics The pose (B Ro . 2006]. Finally ψ is obtained from jo ·jb = cos ψ . From Fig. Finding B Ro requires determination 2 of angles {θ . Knowing the direction AB 1 3 12 23 AB of kL w. Angles φ and θ come 2 2 2 2 from kb · ko = cosφ . 2 1 L For legs L = A. 3. out of singularities. ψ }. eL = kL · kL − cL cL . 2 4r A graphical mock-up was constructed based on inverse kinematics in Maple to verify the mathematical model. ψh = ψ3 − α23 . sLj = sαiLj . 2b.

1. Results for some workspace sections (at constant h and torsion) for the torsional and extrusion range are shown in Tab. . The final form of the simplified velocity equations is:  (kA × kA )T 3  2  kB × kB T 3  2  kC × kC T  2 3 T kD × kD 2 3 A A A k2 k3 k4 A A A A k1 k2 k3 0 0 −r45  B B B  0 kB kB kB 0 k2 k3 k4  ¯  1 2 3 B  −r45 ξ = 0 0 kC kC kC 1 2 3   0 0 0 0  A  ˙ θ1 0 ˙B 0  θ1    ˙C 0  θ1  D D D ˙D 0 k1 k2 k3 θ1 (3) L L where r45 in leg L = A. it is targeted to extend the capacities of the mechanism by further refinements.5) l45 Table 2 Conformal conditioning maps (the smaller the darker) for given extrusion and torsion – no singularities are present the only three rotational and ko translational components. though. Color maps were generated to highlight the surfaces of singularity in the workspace.75) l45 A (2.4DOF parallel architecture for laparoscopic surgery Extrusion hA 7 τ = 2π /3 τ = 11π /12 τ = 1π /4 τ = 5π /12 τ = 1π /2 A (1. which is sufficient for many surgical tools and procedures. The torsional range of the mechanism is 2π /3. White colors represent singular configurations while colors from light gray to dark gray show conditioning of the matrices. The analysis checked for RO-type singularities and was performed through C++ code based on conditioning of Z and Λ matrices in Eq. 2. B is the distance between π45 ∩ π0 and O. Since the analysis performed is at discrete locations it is not proven that no singularity exists in the workspace between the examined configurations but the lattice of configurations examined is very dense. Extensive iterations of singularity analysis were performed before getting the geometry parameters listed in Tab. As the entries of matrix Z are non-homogeneous.125) l45 A (2. (3). the conditioning only determines the presence or absence of singularities. The singularity free workspace obtained is a A truncated cone with half angle 13π /90 and extrusion range 90mm (if l45 is taken as 120mm).

.M.... no. D.. pp. Matteo Zoppi. C. vol.. (2001)] Cavusoglu.. Kuwano. vol. PhD Thesis.31-34. S. Proc. A. Conf. velocity patterns and singularities are discussed.S. USA. [Darzi et al. [Faraz et al..1140-1445. On the vel. 2006] Lum. Analytical Kinematics Models and Special Geometries of a Class of 4-DOF Parallel Mechanisms. [Cavusoglu et al. pp. M.. Conf. [Zlatanov et al. 2005] Zoppi. S. The architecture proposed overcomes some of the drawbacks of a previous version from which it is derived. Zlatanov..117. pp.. B.J. ASME J. Proc..163-173. (2004). J. All favorable characteristics of the original mechanism are maintained. Optimization of a spherical mechanism for a minimally invasive surgical robot: Theoretical and exp. [Zlatanov et al. Mochiki. (2004).. [Zoppi. High dynamics parallel mechanisms: Contribution to force transmission and singularity analysis.496-502. D. D.A.7. pp.21. Kinematics models. 2004] Asao. Payandeh. (2002). .. Gosselin. [Zoppi et al. H. Rezia Molfino 4 Conclusion This paper presents a parallel architecture selected to develop a slave manipulator for laparoscopic surgery setups employing two manipulators. C...198. Int. Engineering Approaches to Mechanical and Robotic Design for Minimally Invasive Surgeries.324. Engg. I.G. Kluwer Acad. Gosselin.53. [Lum et al..309-318. vol. M. Zlatanov.11. Advantage of the modified Euler angles in the design and control of PKMs. Benhabib.C. Hannaford..M. analysis of interconnected chains mechanism.566-572.. Publ. vol. 1995] Zlatanov..6. [Zoppi et al. approaches.41. (2005). of Mech. 2006] Zoppi. R. 2002] Zlatanov. USA. pp. Rosen.N. Molfino.1046-1055. J. pp. Trocar Placement for Laparoscopic Abdominal Procedures: A Simple Standardized Method. I. IEEE TRO. vol. D. (2006). on Robotics and Automation ICRA02.. DIMEC. on Biomed. (1995). pp.. M. Constraint Singularities of Parallel Mechanisms. 2000] Faraz. Sinanan. Bonev. pp... A.8 Mohammad Aamir Khan. M. Chemnitz. D. (2002). Gosselin.. B. of Genoa. IEEE Trans.. Design. J.. MMT. I. Univ. References [Asao et al. A unifying framework for classification and interpretation of mechanism singularities. Int. (2004). Washington. E. Journal of Gastroenterology.. (2001). vol. n. T.H.. 2002. BMJ. (2006). M... G. Villanueva. R. 2002] Bonev. M. Recent Advances in minimal access surgery. PKS02. [Bonev et al. (2000). Germany. 2006] Ferzli. n.1346-1358... C. (2006).. 2006] Darzi. Mackay.39.Fenton. Zlatanov. A. Workspace Analysis of Robotic manipulator for a teleoperated suturing task.1. Fingerhut. Tendick. IEEE Int. no. vol. Proc. Italy. Laparoscopic surgery update for gastrointestinal malignancy. 2004] Zoppi. of American College of Surgeons. F. [Ferzli et al. of IEEE/RSJ IROS.

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