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Plants of the Gods - Their Sacred Healing and Hallucinogenic Powers

Plants of the Gods - Their Sacred Healing and Hallucinogenic Powers

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Published by Julian Palacio

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Published by: Julian Palacio on Nov 30, 2012
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•• A
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. I




H eal ing

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Cau tion: T his book is not intended as a g u ide to the u se of
hal l u cinog enic pl ants. Its pu rpose is to offer scientific, his-
torical , and cu l tu ral docu mentation concerning a g rou p of
pl ants that are or hav e been of importance to many societies.
Ing estion of some of these pl ants or pl ant produ cts may be
dang erou s. T he remedies, approaches, and techniq u es de-
scribed herein are meant to su ppl ement, and not be a su b-
stitu te for, professional medical care or treatment. T hey
shou l d not be u sed to treat a seriou s ail ment withou t prior
consu l tation with a q u al ified heal thcare professional .
H eal ing A rts Press
One Park Street
Rochester, Vermont 0 5 7 6 7
www. l nnerT raditions. com
First pu bl ished by H eal ing A rts Press in 1 9 9 2
A produ ction of E M B -Serv ice for Pu bl ishers,
L u cerne, Switzerl and
Copy rig ht © 1 9 9 8 ( u pdated v ersion) E M B -Serv ice for
Pu bl ishers, L u cerne, Switzerl and
E ng l ish transl ation second edition Copy rig ht © 2 0 0 1
A l l rig hts reserv ed. No part of this book may be reprodu ced
or u til ized in any form or by any means, el ectronic or me-
chanical , incl u ding photocopy ing , recording , or by any infor-
mation storag e and retriev al sy stem, withou t permission in
writing from the pu bl isher.
L ibrary of Cong ress Catal og ing -in-Pu bl ication Data
Schu l tes, Richard E v ans.
Pl ants of the g ods : their sacred, heal ing , and hal l u cino-
g enic powers I Richard E v ans Schu l tes, A l bert H ofmann,
Christian Rbtsch. — 2 nd ed.
p. cm.
Incl u des bibl iog raphical references
ISB N 0 — 8 9 2 8 1 — 9 7 9 — 0
1 . H al l u cinog enic pl ants. 2 . H al l u cinog enic pl ants— U ti-
l ization. 3 . E thnobotany . I. H ofmann, A l bert, 1 9 0 6 - II.
Rä tsch, Christian, 1 9 5 7 - Il l . T itl e
Q K 9 9 . A 1 S3 9 2 0 0 1
3 9 4 . 1 '4 — dc2 l
2 0 0 1 0 0 4 4 2 5
1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
H eal ing A rts Press is a div ision of Inner T raditions
International
Pictu re on titl e pag e: M ay an stone" from
E l Sal v ador, l ate formativ e period ( 3 0 0 c. — & . D. 2 0 0 ) ;
heig ht 1 3 ¼ in. ( 3 3 . 5 cm) .
Orig inal concept and desig n: E mil M . B Ohrer, Franz G isl er,
J oan H al ifax , and Robert T obl er
New material transl ated by : A nnabel L ee and
M ichael B easl ey
Composition: SatzW eise, FOhren, G ermany
Photol ithog raphY : Pesav ento A G , Z u rich, Switzerl and
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T he dreaming smok er stretched ou t
comfortabl y on his chaise enj oy s v isions
indu ced by H ashish. T his eng rav ing is
from M . v on Schwind's A l bu m of E tch-
ing s, pu bl ished in 1 8 4 3 .
Pag e 4 l eft: T he witches of mediev al
E u rope indu ced inebriation with a g reat
v ariety of brews, most of which had at
l east one of the Nig htshades as a
psy choactiv e constitu ent. Du ring their
intox ications, they eng ag ed in many
aspects of hex ing , both mal ev ol ent and
benev ol ent. T his il l u stration, a woodcu t,
pu bl ished in 1 4 5 9 , portray s two witches
cal l ing for rain and thu nder, possibl y
du ring a dry spel l , and preparing a brew
to hel p them achiev e this g oal .






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For the H u ichol Indians of M ex ico, the Pey ote cactu s ( L ophophora wil l iams/ i)
( see pag e 7 ) is not a pl ant bu t a g od, a g ift from the E arth G oddess to hu -
mans to assist them in attaining a connection to her in the
my stical real ms.
T he H u ichol cel ebrate a g reat Pey ote festiv al ev ery y ear ( be/ ow) , at which al l
members of the tribe partak e in eating the freshl y harv ested Pey ote cactu s.
A
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bil l ion



























7
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T he shamans of the H u ichol Indians u se the sacred Pey ote cactu s so that
they may attain a v isionary state of consciou sness in the al ternate real ity
which is cau sal to occu rrences in mu ndane real ity ; what affects the former
8
wil l chang e the l atter. T he shaman in the middl e of the y arn painting is
depicted with a sk u l l becau se he is a " dead man" and thu s has the abil ity to
trav el into the nether real ms.
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Datu ra has l ong been connected to the
worship of Shiv a, the Indian g od asso-
ciated with the creativ e and destru ctiv e
aspects of the u niv erse. In this ex traor-
dinary bronze scu l ptu re from Sou th-
east India of the el ev enth or twel fth
centu ry , Shiv a dances the A nandatã n-
dav a, the sev enth and l ast of his
dances, which combines al l infl ections
of his character. U nder his l eft foot,
Shiv a cru shes the demon A pasmã ra-
pu ru sa, who is the personification of
ig norance. In Shiv a's u pper rig ht hand,
he hol ds a tiny dru m that sy mbol izes
T ime by the rhy thm of his cosmic
dance in the fiel d of L ife and Creation.
H is l ower rig ht hand is in the abhay a-
mu drã , ex pressing Shiv a's q u al ity of
safeg u arding the u niv erse. In his u pper
l eft hand, he hol ds a fl ame that bu rns
the v eil of il l u sion. H is l ower l eft hand is
hel d in the g aj ahasta and points to his
raised l eft foot, which is free in space
and sy mbol izes spiritu al l iberation.
Shiv a's hair is bou nd with a band, and
two serpents hol d a sk u l l as a central
ornament, thu s showing Shiv a's de-
stru ctiv e aspects of T ime and Death.
On the rig ht is a Datu ra fl ower. G ar-
l ands of Datu ra bl ossoms are wov en
among the l ock s of his whirl ing hair.

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B el ow: T his painting by the Peru v ian shaman Pabl o A maring o depicts the
creation of the drink A y ahu asca, the most important medicine of the A mazo-
nian Indians. T he mag ical drink has powerfu l v isionary properties, which re-
v eal to the participant a g l impse of " tru e real ity ," the fantastic real m of v isions.


















Pag e 1 3 top: T he hal l u cinog enic u se of H emp ( Cannabis) can be traced far
back into history . It is possibl e that the ing estion of this pl ant was responsibl e
for the wil d dances of the M ong ol ian shaman.

















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l ics,

— —

















. che-















B el ow rig ht: In India the fl owers of the potent hal l u cinog enic T horn A ppl e
( Datu ra metel ) are brou g ht as an offering to the H indu g od Shiv a. T hey are
al so ritu al l y smok ed.
B el ow l eft: H enbane ( H y oscy arnu s al bu s) is one of the most important hal l u -
cinog enic pl ants of E u rope. It was u sed for oracl es and ritu al l y bu rned in
ancient G reece.
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B el ow: M aria Sabina rev erentl y ing ests the niñ os santos, hol y chil dren," as
she l ov ing l y refers to the v isionary and heal ing M ag ic M u shrooms.
either






















Pag e 1 5 : T he M azatec shaman M aria Sabina incenses sacred mu shrooms
prior to their ing estion du ring the heal ing ceremony of the y e/ ada.
frog s,












































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— —









































H al l u cinog enic species occu r among the hig hest-ev ol v ed
fl owering pl ants ( ang iosperms) and in the div ision fu ng i of
the simpl er pl ants. A ng iosperms are su bdiv ided into mono-
cots ( one seed l eaf) and dicots ( two seed l eav es) .
Sweet Fl ag , H emp ( M arij u ana) , and Deadl y Nig htshade
( abov e, rig ht) as wel l as Fl y A g aric ( bel ow, rig ht) are repre-
sentativ e psy choactiv e species.

rcap M oss
Pr,! ,,,trirh, rn rnrnrn, nfl
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Spermatophy tes are the seed pl ants, su bdiv ided into
cone-bearers ( g y mnosperms) and fl owering pl ants
( ang iosperms) .
Seaweeds
A l g ae
Dicots ( fl owering pl ants with two seed l eav es) are separated into
A rchichl amy deae ( petal s absent or separate) and M etachl amy -
deae ( petal s j oined) .
M u shrooms and mol ds ( fu ng i) , seaweeds ( al g ae) , mosses
and l iv erworts ( bry ophy tes) , and ferns ( pteridophy tes) are
simpl er pl ants.
1 7
W hite H ne
Pinu s strobu s
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B el ow: A fl ower and l eav es of the hal l u cinog enic Datu ra innox ia, which be-
l ong s to one of the most hig hl y ev ol v ed famil ies of the fl owering pl ants.
Pag e 1 9 l eft: T his fossil of bl u e-g reen al g ae ( Co/ l en/ a) is approx imatel y 2 . 3
bil l ion y ears ol d and is one of the earl iest k nown specimens of l ife on E arth.
Pag e 1 9 rig ht A fossil ized al g ae col ony from the Cambrian period in B ol iv ia
demonstrates that l ife-forms can be su ccessfu l l y preserv ed ov er bil l ions of
y ears.













































































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Some psy choactiv e compou nds are al so produ ced by animal s. T he Col orado
Riv er toad ( B u fo a/ v a riu s) secretes considerabl e amou nts of 5 -M eO-DM T .
isol ated





































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M escal ine— H CI Psil ocy bine
( mescal ine-hy drochl oride, cry stal l ized from al cohol ) ( cry stal l ized from methanol )
psy chiatry ,
















Psil ocine
( cry stal l ized from methanol )
M any al k al oids cry stal l ize poorl y as free bases. T hey wil l separate as a cry s-
tal l ized sal t, howev er, when neu tral ized with a su itabl e acid, either by cool ing
the satu rated sol u tion or by ev aporation of the sol v ent. Cry stal l ization of su b-
stances from sol u tions is carried ou t mainl y fpr pu rification, since by -produ cts
remain in the sol v ent.
A s each su bstance has its own specific cry stal l ine form, this form serv es for
identification and characterization of a su bstance. A modern method for the
el u cidation of chemical constitu tions is the X -ray stru ctu re anal y sis. For the
appl ication of this method, al k al oids and other su bstances mu st be av ail abl e
in cry stal l ized form.
2 3
/
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. . B y












B e/ ow: T he photog raph depicts an aerial v iew of the K u l u ene Riv er, the sou thernmost tribu tary
of the X ing ü Riv er, a main affl u ent of the A mazon.
Rig ht: " T here were enormou s trees, crowned with mag nificent fol iag e, deck ed with fantastic
parasites, and hu ng ov er with l ianas, which v aried in thick ness from sl ender threads to hu g e
py thon-l ik e masses, were now rou nd, now fl attened, now k notted and now twisted with the
reg u l arity of a cabl e. Intermix ed with the trees, and often eq u al to them in al titu de, g rew nobl e
pal ms; whil e other and far l ov el ier species of the same famil y , their ring ed stems sometimes
scarcel y ex ceeding a fing er's thick ness, bu t bearing pl u me-l ik e fronds and pendu l ou s bu nches
of bl ack or red berries, q u ite l ik e those of their l oftier al l ies, formed, al ong with shru bs and
arbü scl es of many ty pes, a bu shy u nderg rowth, not v isu al l y v ery dense or difficu l t to penetrate
It is worthy to be noted that the l oftiest forest is g eneral l y the easiest to trav erse; the l ianas
and parasites. . . being in g reat part too hig h to be mu ch in the way . .
— Richard
2 4
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T op: A t the Shiv a T empl e of Pashu patinath near K athmandu , Nepal , Indian
y og is smok e M arij u ana in preparation for the ardu ou s body practice and
meditation.









B el ow: Visions rev eal ed by hal l u cinog ens can be su bseq u entl y
processed
and rendered artistical l y . In this way the ex perience is carried into and
con-
nected with ev ery day l ife. ( H al l u cig enia by Christian Rä tsch, watercol or, circa
1 9 9 3 )










u sed















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• NA T IVE U SE OF M A J OR I
H A L L U CINOG E NS
Notwithstanding the g reater ag e of cu l tu res and the
widespread u se of hal l u cinog ens in the E astern • • - -
H emisphere, the nu mber of species so u sed is far
the W estern H emisphere. A nthropol og ists
hav e e pl ained this disparity on cu l tu ral
T here does not, to be a sig nificant
difference between the two hemispheres in the nu m
ber of pl ants possessing hal l u cinog enic pnricipl es
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T here are few cu l tu res in the W estern H emisphere that
did not v al u e at l east one hal l u cinog enic pl ant in
mag ico-rel ig iou s ceremonies. M any cu l tu res had
sev eral . In addition to hal l u cinog ens, a nu mber of
otherwise psy choactiv e pl ants shared the honors:
T obacco, Coca, G u ay u sa, Y oco, G u arancá . Some of
these— especial l y T obacco and Coca— rose to ex al ted
positions in the sacred nativ e pharmacopoeias. T hese
maj or hal l u cinog ens are cu l tu ral l y sig nificant in the
areas indicated by the sy mbol s.
e
H y oscy amu sspp.
A manita mu scaria
A tropa bel l adonna
Cannabis sativ a
CIa v iceps pu rpu rea
Datu raspp.
T abernanthe ibog a
0
A nadenanthera pereg rina
4 '
A nadenanthera col u brina
4 ,
q 3 Q B anistenopsis caapi
4 ,
B ru g mansiaspp.
L ophophora wil l iamsii 0
Psil ocy bespp
T u rbina cory mbosa et l pomoea v iofacea
4 '
Virol aspp
Du boisia spp.
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Rig ht: Shamans remain the g u ardians of wisdom concerning the mag ical ef-
fects of the psy choactiv e pl ants. T his photog raph was tak en at the hol y
mou ntain K al inchok ( 4 ,0 0 0 m) in the H imal ay as of Nepal .
famil y .

— —



















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T he botanical inv estig ation of medicinal
pl ants has, ov er the y ears, become
more and more ex act and sophisticated.
In 1 5 4 3 , the writer of one of the most
beau tifu l l y il l u strated herbal s, L eonard
Fu chs, presented this accu rate sk etch
of Datu ra stramoniu m, the T horn A ppl e
( l eft) . three hu ndred y ears l ater,
K ohl er, in his M edizinal Pfl anzen, pu b-
l ished a more detail ed pharmacog nostic
rendering of this v ery important thera-
peu tic pl ant ( center) . In the 1 2 5 y ears
since the establ ishment of L innaeu s's
herbariu m and the binomial sy stem of
nomencl atu re, ou r herbaria hav e g reatl y
enhanced the u nderstanding of the
morphol og ical v ariation of v eg etal
species throu g h the col l ection of dried
specimens arou nd the worl d. T he third
il l u stration depicts a ty pical herbariu m
specimen of the T horn A ppl e repre-
senting the k ind of material that now
au thenticates botanical identification.
M odern technol og y ( for ex ampl e, the
el ectron-scanning microscope) is mak -
ing av ail abl e morphol og ical detail s,
su ch as the l eaf su rface hairs of the
T horn A ppl e, which prov ide g reater ac-
cu racy in the work of pl ant identification.
3 1
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hal l u cinog enic pl ants are il l u - A cacia 1 E l A hij ado 2 1
strated and described on the fol l owing pag es A g ara 3 5 E l M acho 2 1
( 3 4 — 6 0 ) .
A g u acol l a 9 4 E l Nene 2 1
T he l ex icon is in al phabetical order by g enu s
A j u ca 5 6 E pená 9 6
name. E ach tex t in the l ex icon incl u des the fol - A ng el 's T ru mpet 1 1 , 1 2 E reriba 3 9
l owing information in its heading :
A rbol de Campanil l a 4 2 E rg ot 2 0
• G enu s, au thor, and, in brack ets, the nu mber of A rbol de l os B ru j os 4 7 E sak u na 2 5
species k nown to ex ist in the g enu s. A x ocatzin 8 6 Fal se Pey ote 7
• B otanical name of the species shown. T he A y ahu asca 9 , 9 3 Fang -K 'u ei 7 2
species k nown to contain hal l u cinog enic A ztec Dream G rass 1 6 Fl ag Root 2
properties orto be u sed as hal l u cinog ens wil l B adoh 9 5 Fl oripondio 1 1 , 1 2
be fou nd in the reference section " Ov erv iew of B adoh Neg ro 4 3 Fl y A g aric 3
Pl ant U se," pag es 6 5 — 8 0 , which is org anized B ak ana 2 4 , 8 4 Frij ol es 8 8
by common name. T his reference section! B el l adonna 8 G al ang a 4 5
chart prov ides the botanical names of the B hang 1 7 G anj a 1 7
pl ants and describes the history , ethnog raphy , B iak — B iak 5 7 G enista 2 6
contex t, pu rpose of u sag e, and preparation, B l ack H enbane 4 1 G ig antOn 9 4
as wel l as chemical components and effects. B l ood-Red A ng el 's T ru mpet 1 2 G i'-i-Sa-W a 5 2
• Pl ant famil y . B l u e M eanies 6 3 G i'-i-W a 5 2
• Reference nu mber. B l u e W ater L il y 6 0 G ol den A ng el 's T ru mpet 1 1
• G eog raphical distribu tion of the g enu s. B orrachero 1 1 , 1 2 , 3 0 , 4 2 H ashish 1 7
Common names are l isted here bel ow with the B ov ista 5 2 H awaiian W ood Rose 6
nu mber desig nating each pl ant's l ocation in the B ru nfel sia 1 3 H emp 1 7
l ex icon. Caapi 9 , 9 3 H enbane 4 0 ,4 1
Caapi-Pinima 9 3 H ierba de Ia Pastora 8 2
Cahu a 8 0 H ierba de Ia Virg en 8 2
Cal amu s 2 H ierba L oca 7 0
Cawe 6 2 H ik u l i 2 4
Cebil 4 H ik u l i 5 1
Cebol l eta 6 1 H ik u l i M u l ato 3 3
Chacru na 8 0 H ik u l i Rosapara 3 3
Chacru na B u sh 8 0 H ik u l i Rosapara 5 3
Chal ice Vine 8 7 H ik u l i Su namé 7
Channa 8 3 H ik u ri 5 3
Charas 1 7 H ik u ri 3 2
Chau tl e 7 H ik u ri Orchid 6 1
Chichipe 8 6 H ong o de San Isidro 7 6
Chil icote 3 4 H oop-petticoat 6 4
Chiricaspi 1 3 H u acacachu 1 1 ,1 2
Chiric-Sanang o 1 3 H u anto 1 1 ,1 2
Cohoba 5 H u edhu ed 7 0
Col eu s 2 1 H u el patl 8 7
Col orines 3 4 ,8 8 H u il ca 1 4
Common Reed 7 4 Ibog a 9 0
Conocy be 2 2 J ambu r 6 3
Copel andia 6 3 J imsonweed 2 9
Coral B ean 8 8 J u rema T ree 5 6
Coral T ree 3 4 K anna 8 3
Cowhag e 5 8 K iel i 8 7
Cu mal a T ree 9 6 K ieri 8 7
Dacha 4 8 K it 1 7
Dag g a 1 7 K oribo 9 2
Dama da Noite 1 9 K ou g u ed 8 3
Dark -rimmed M ottl eg il l 6 5 K ratom 5 7
Datu ra 2 8 K u ma M u shroom 1 0
Deadl y Nig htshade 8 K washi 6 6
Div iner's Sag e 8 2 L ady of the Nig ht 1 9
Dog G rass 1 6 L atu é 4 7
Du tra 2 8 L atu y 3 0
3 2
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L emong rass
L iberty Cap
L ion's T ail
M ace
M aconha
M ag ic M u shroom
M aicoa
M aiden's A cacia
M al v a Col orada
M ammil l aria
M anak a
M andrak e
M araba
M arij u ana
M arij u anil l o
M ashihiri
M atwO
M escal
M escal B ean
M escal B u tton
M orning G l ory
Nig htshade
Ninfa
Nonda
Nu tmeg
Ny ak wana
Ol ol iu q u i
Pag u ando
Painted Nettl e
Paiq u l
Petu nia
Pey ote Cactu s
Pey ote Cimarrdn
Pey ote de San Pedro
Pey otil l o
Pincu shion Cactu s
Pipil tzintzintl i
Pital l ito Cactu s
Pitu ri
Pitu ri B u sh
Piu l e
Poison B u sh
Pok eberry
Q u etzal ax cchiacatl
Rape dos Indios
Red B ean
Red Canary G rass
Reed G rass
Sag u aro
Sanang o
San Isidro
San Pedro Cactu s
Scopol ia
Screw Pine
Shang -l a
Shanin
Shanshi
She-to
Siberian L ion's T ail
2 5 Siberian M otherwort
7 9 Sinicu ichi
4 8 Straw Fl ower
5 9 Sweet Cal omel
1 9 Sweet Fl ag
7 6 , 7 9 Sy rian Ru e
1 1 . 1 2 T abaco del Diabl o
1 T abernaemontana
8 6 T ag Il i
5 3 T aiq u e
1 3 T ak ini
5 4 T aM a
4 5 T amu
1 7 T ecomax ochitl
4 9 T eonanà catl
4 4 T epescohu ite
1 4 T hIe-pel ak ano
8 8 T horn A ppl e
8 8 T l il il tzin
5 1 T oe
4 3 T ol oache
8 5 T ol oatzin
6 0 T ong a
1 0 T o-shk a
5 9 T otu bj ansu sh
9 6 T su wiri
9 5 T u pa
4 2 T u rk estan M int
2 1 T zompar. q u ahu itl
1 9 Vil Ica
7 1 Voacang a
5 1 W av y Cap
7 W ichowak a
5 3 W ichu ri
6 9 W ichu rik i
2 4 , 5 3 W il d Dag g a
8 2 W ood Rose
3 2 X tabentu m
3 1 Y ahu tl i
3 1 Y aj é
4 3 ,8 1 Y ak ee
3 1 Y el l ow H enbane
7 5 Y opo
6 0 Y U n-shih
5 5 Z acatechichi
8 8
7 3
7 3
1 8
8 9
7 6
9 4
8 5
6 7
7 5
7 1
2 3
6 4
4 9
4 9
3 6
3 7
2
2
6 8
5 0
8 9
7 0
3 0
3 8
1 7
2 2
8 7
7 8
5 6
1 6
2 9
4 3
1 1
2 7
2 7
1 1 ,1 2
6 4
4 2
7
5 0
4 6
3 4
4
9 7
7 7
6 2
2 4
5 3
4 8
6
9 5
9 1
9
9 6
4 0 A Sou th A merican Indian harv ests a ev en mil l ennia. T he Indians cau tion
pl ant of the g ods, a B l ood-Red A n- ag ainst the thou g htl ess u se of this
is
g el 's T ru mpet ( B ru g mansia sang u i- pl ant, which cau ses su ch strong
1 6 fl ea) . T his al k al oid-rich pl ant has hal l u cinations and del iriu m that onl y
been cu l tiv ated and u sed for psy - ex perienced shamans can u se it for
choactiv e pu rposes for centu ries or div ination and heal ing .
3 3
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A CA CIA M il l .
A cacia maidenii F v on M u el l .
M aiden's A cacia
A coru s cal amu s L .
Sweet Fl ag
A raceae ( A ru m Famil y )
T emperate and warm zones
2
of both hemispheres
A M A NIT A L .
A manita mu scaria ( L . ex Fr. ) Pers.
Fl y A g aric
A manitaceae
E u rope, A frica, A sia,
3
A mericas
A NA DE NA NT H E RA Speg .
A riadenanthera col u bru na
( Vel l ozo) B rennan
Cebil , Vil l ca
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
Northwest A rg entina
4
T he g enu s A cacia is widel y dis-
tribu ted throu g hou t the tropical
and su btropical reg ions of the
worl d. It encompasses for the
most part mediu m-sized trees
with pinnate, occasional l y
smooth l eav es. T he fl owers
g row in cl u sters and the fru it is
pea-l ik e. M any acacias are a
traditional additiv e to psy cho-
activ e produ cts, su ch as betel ,
beer, bal ché , pitu ri, and pu l q u e.
Some of the species are su ited
for the preparation of A y ahu as-
ca anal og s. Nu merou s A u stra-
l ian species ( A . maidenii,
A . phl ebophy l l a, A . simpl icifol ia)
contain hig her concentrations of
DM T in their bark and, l eav es.
A cacia maidenii, a beau tifu l
erect tree with a sil v ery spl en-
dor, contains different try pta-
mines. T he bark contains
0 . 3 6 % DM T . T he l eav es are
u sabl e as a DM T -del iv ering
component of A y ahu asca ana-
l og s. T hese acacias are easy to
cu l tiv ate in temperate cl imates
su ch as in Cal ifornia and sou th-
ern E u rope.
Some ev idence, al thou g h weak
and indirect, su g g ests that the
Cree Indians of northwestern
Canada may occasional l y chew
the rootstal k of Sweet Fl ag for its
psy choactiv e effects.
Sweet Fl ag is a semiaq u atic
herb with a l ong , aromatic,
creeping rootstock produ cing
shoots of erect, l inear, swordl ik e
l eav es u p to 6 ft ( 2 m) in l eng th.
T he tiny fl owers are borne on a
sol id, l ateral , g reenish y el l ow
spadix . T he rootstal k or rhizome
contains an essential oil re-
sponsibl e for the pl ant's medic-
inal v al u e.
It has been su g g ested that the
activ e principl es are a-asarone
and T here is a stru c-
tu ral resembl ance between
asarone and mescal ine, a psy -
choactiv e al k al oid. No ev idence
has ev er been produ ced, how-
ev er, that asarone can be asso-
ciated with psy chotomimetic
activ ity .
A manita mu scaria is a beau tifu l
mu shroom g rowing in thin for-
ests u su al l y u nder birches, firs,
and y ou ng pines. It may attain a
heig ht of 8 — 9 in. ( 2 0 — 2 3 cm) .
T he somewhat v iscid, ov ate,
hemispheric, and final l y al most
fl at cap measu res 3 — 8 in. ( 8 —
2 0 cm) when matu re. T here are
three v arieties: one with a bl ood-
red cap with white warts fou nd in
the Ol d W orl d and northwestern
North A merica; a y el l ow or or-
ang e ty pe with y el l owish warts
common in eastern and central
North A merica; and a white
v ariety that is fou nd in Idaho.
T he cy l indrical stem, which has
a bu l bou s base, is white, ½ — i in.
( 1 — 3 cm) thick , with a conspicu -
ou s cream-white ring cov ered
basical l y with encircl ing scal es.
T he white v al v e adheres to the
base of the stem. T he g il l s v ary
from white to cream col or or
ev en l emon y el l ow.
T his mu shroom, perhaps
man's ol dest hal l u cinog en, has
been identified with Soma of
ancient India.
T his tree g rows 9 — 5 0 ft ( 3 — 1 8 m)
and has an al most bl ack bark
often adorned with conical
thorns. T he l eav es are finel y l o-
cu l ar and reach u p to 1 ft ( 3 0 cm)
l ong . T he y el l owish white fl ow-
ers are rou nd. T he l eathery dark
brown fru it pods g row to 1 ft
( 3 5 cm) l ong and contain v ery
fl at red-brown seeds ½ to 1 in.
( 1 — 2 cm) wide, with rou nded to
rig ht ang l es.
T he seeds hav e been u sed as
a hal l u cinog en by the Indians of
the sou thern reg ion of the A n-
des for approx imatel y 4 ,5 0 0
y ears. T hey are either work ed
into a snu ff powder, smok ed, or
u sed as an additiv e for beer.
Primaril y they are u sed in
shamanism.
T he seeds of the CebIl or Vil l -
ca contain try ptamines, espe-
cial l y bu fotenine.
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
A u stral ia
3 4
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A NA DE NA NT H E RA Speg . ( 2 ) A RG Y RE IA L ou r.
( 9 0 ) A RIOCA RPU S Scheidw. ( 6 )
nadenanthera pereg rina ( L . ) Speg .
L eg u mifl OSae ( Pea Famil y )
T ropical zones of Sou th
5
A merica, W est Indies
A nadenanthera pore g rina is a
mimosa-l ik e tree, mainl y of open
g rassl ands, attaining a heig ht of
6 5 ft ( 2 0 m) and with a tru nk 2 ft
( 6 0 cm) in diameter. T he bl ack -
ish bark is coarsel y armed with
conical mu cronate proj ections.
T he l eav es hav e from 1 5 to 3 0
pairs of pinnae with many v ery
smal l hairy l eafl ets. M any min-
u te white fl owers in spherical
heads arrang ed in terminal or
ax il l ary cl u sters comprise the
infl orescence. Fl at, thin, g l ossy
bl ack , rou ndish seeds occu r in
rou g h, woody pods, from 3 to 1 0
in a pod.
A potent hal l u cinog enic snu ff
is made from the beans of A na-
denanthera pereg rina in the Or-
inoco basin, where it is cal l ed
Y opo. Its former shamanic and
ritu al u se in the W est Indies, u n-
der the name Cohoba, was re-
ported as earl y as 1 4 9 6 . Sadl y ,
this u se has disappeared du e to
the ex pl oitation of the nativ e
peopl e.
T he tree nativ e to the edg es of
the l arg e forested areas of
G u y ana is stil l u sed by different
tribes, primaril y the Y anomano
and W aik a, for the produ ction of
E pená . T he shamanic snu ff is
made from cu l tiv ated trees in
addition to other su bstances
and pl ant ashes. T he seeds
contain mostl y N,N-Dimethy l -
try ptamine ( DM T ) as wel l as
5 -M eO-DM T and other try pta-
mines. T he shaman of the rain
forest peopl e of the Orinoco re-
g ion ( for ex ampl e, the Piaroa)
cu l tiv ate this tree which is not
nativ e to that area. T hat way
they secu re their snu ff su ppl ies.
A rg y reia nerv osa ( B u rman f. ) B oj er,
H awaiian W ood Rose
Conv ov u l aceae
( M orning G l ory Famil y )
India, Sou theast A sia,
6
H awaii
T he matu re stems of this v ig or-
ou sl y g rowing twining bindweed
cl imb u p to 3 Oft ( l Om) hig h and
carry a l atex l ik e mil k . T he
stemmed, heart-shaped l eav es
are finel y haired and hav e a
sil v ery appearance du e to a
dense white down that cov ers
the y ou ng stems and the l eaf
u ndersides. T he fu nnel -shaped
fl owers are v iol et or l av ender
and are carried in the l eaf ax is.
T heir sepal s are finel y haired.
T he rou nd fru it are berry l ik e and
contain smooth brown seeds. In
each seed capsu l e there are 1 —
4 seeds.
T he pl ant orig inates in India,
where it has been u sed medic-
inal l y since ancient times. A tra-
ditional u se as an entheog en
has not y et been discov ered.
Phy tochemical research is to
thank for the awareness of its
potent psy chedel ic constitu tion.
T he seeds contain 0 . 3 % E rg ot
al k al oids ( erg ine and l y serg ic-
acid-am ides) . M ost psy cho-
nau ts describe L SD-l ik e effects
after tak ing 4 — 8 seeds.
A riocarpu s retu su s Scheidw.
Fal se Pey ote
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
M ex ico, T ex as
T hese pl ants are smal l , g ray ish
g reen to pu rpl ish g ray or brown-
ish cactu ses, 4 — 6 in. ( 1 0 — 1 5 cm)
in diameter. T hey hardl y appear
abov e the g rou nd. Often cal l ed
L iv ing Rock s, they can easil y be
mistak en for rock s in the stony
desert where they g row. T heir
horny or fl eshy , u mbricated,
three-ang l ed tu bercl es are
characteristic of the g enu s.
Dense masses of hair often fil l
the areol es. T he fl owers v ary
from white to pink and pu rpl ish
and measu re approx imatel y
2 1 / 4 in. ( 6 cm) l ong and u p to
1 ½ in. ( 4 cm) wide when fu l l y
open.
Indians in northern and cen-
tral M ex ico consider A . fissu ra-
tu s and A . retu su s as " fal se
T hese species of cactu s, re-
l ated to L ophophora, are ty pical
desert pl ants, g rowing preferen-
tial l y in the open su n in sandy or
rock y stretches.
Sev eral psy choactiv e pheny -
l ethy l amine al k al oids hav e been
isol ated from A . fissu ratu s and
A . retu su s.
3 5
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A T ROPA L .
A tropa bel l adonna L .
Deadl y Nig htshade
( 4 )
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
E u rope, North A frica, A sia
T his mu ch-branched perennial
herb u p to 3 ft ( 9 0 cm) tal l may be
g l abrou s or pu bescent-g l andu -
l ar. T he ov ate l eav es attain a
l eng th of 8 in. ( 2 0 cm) . T he sol i-
tary , drooping , bel l -shaped,
brown-pu rpl e fl owers, approx i-
matel y 1 1 / s in. ( 3 cm) l ong , pro-
du ce shiny bl ack berries 1 ½ —
1 ½ in. ( 3 — 4 cm) in diameter. A l l
parts of the pl ant contain potent
al k al oids. It g rows in thick ets
and woods on l ime soil s and is
natu ral ized especial l y near ol d
bu il ding s and hedg es.
It is bel iev ed that B el l adonna
fig u red as an important ing redi-
ent in many of the witches'
brews of antiq u ity . T here are, of
cou rse, nu merou s records of
accidental and pu rposefu l poi-
soning associated with the
Deadl y Nig htshade.
T his pl ant pl ay ed a maj or rol e
in the war of the Scots u nder
Du ncan I ag ainst the Norweg ian
k ing Sv en Canu te abou t A .
1 0 3 5 . T he Scots destroy ed the
Scandinav ian army
by sending them food and beer
to which " Sl eepy Nig htshade"
had been added.
3 6
T he main psy choactiv e con-
stitu ent is atropine bu t l esser
amou nts of scopol amine and
trace amou nts of minor tropane
al k al oids are al so present. T he
total al k al oid content in the
l eav es is 0 . 4 % , in the roots
0 . 5 % , and in the seeds 0 . 8 % .
In addition to the u su al B el l a-
donna there is a rare, y el l ow
bl ooming v ariety ( v ar. Iu tea) as
wel l as l ithe k nown rel ated k inds.
T he Indian B el l adonna ( A tropa
acu minata Roy l e ex L indl . ) is
cu l tiv ated for pharmaceu tical
pu rposes becau se of its hig h
content of scopol amine. In A sia
the Cau casian B el l adonna
( A tropa cau casia K rey er) and
the T u rk menish B el l adonna
( A tropa k omaro v ii B l in. et Shal )
are fou nd. B el l adonna is stil l
cu l tiv ated for the pharmaceu ti-
cal produ ction of atropine.
B A NIST E RIO PS IS
C. B . Robinson et Smal l
( 2 0 — 3 0 )
B anisteriopsis caapi ( Spru ce ex G ri-
seb. ) M orton, A y ahu asca
M al pig hiaceae
( M al pig hia Famil y )
T ropical zones of northern
9
Sou th A merica, W est Indies
T hese g iant forest l ianas are the
basis of an important hal l u cino-
g enic drink ( A y ahu asca) ritu al l y
consu med in the western hal f of
the A mazon Val l ey and by iso-
l ated tribes on the Pacific sl opes
of the Col ombian and E cu ador-
ean A ndes. T he bark of B anis-
teriopsis caapi and B . inebrians,
prepared in col d water or after
l ong boil ing , may be tak en al one,
bu t v ariou s pl ant additiv es—
especial l y the l eav es of Dipl op-
tens cabrerana, k nown as Oco-
Y aj é , and of Psy chotria v iridis—
are often u sed to al ter the effects
of the hal l u cinog enic drink .
B oth species are l ianas with
smooth, brown bark and dark
g reen, chartaceou s, ov ate-l an-
ceol ate l eav es u p to abou t 7 in.
( 1 8 cm) in l eng th, 2 — 3 in. ( 5 —
8 cm) wide. T he infl orescence is
many -fl owered. T he smal l f l ow-
ers are pink or rose-col ored. T he
fru it is a samara with wing s
abou t 1 % in. ( 3 . 5 cm) l ong .
B . inebrians differs from B . caa-
pu n its thick er ov ate, more at-
tenu ate l eav es and in the shape
of the samara wing s. T he l iana
contains M A O inhibitors.
B OL E T U S Dil l . ex Fr.
B ol etu s manicu s H el m
K u ma M u shroom
B ol etaceae
Cosmopol itan
1 0
( 2 2 5 )
Sev eral species of B ol etu s are
inv ol v ed in the cu riou s " mu sh-
room madness" of the K u ma of
New G u inea. B ol etu s reay i, one
of these, is characterized by a
hemispherical , strong brownish
red cap that is cream-y el l ow at
the periphery ; it measu res from
3 / 4 to 1 ½ in. ( 2 to 4 cm) in dia-
meter. T he fl esh of the cap is
l emon-col ored. T he stipe v aries
from orang e at the top, to a
marbl ed g reen and g ray -rose in
the middl e, to a g reen at the
base. T he spores, which are
el ong ated el l ipsoidal , hav e a
y el l ow membrane bu t are ol iv e-
col ored within.
B . manicu s is a wel l -k nown
species that, as its name im-
pl ies, has somewhat tox ic prop-
erties, ( mania = insanity ) . H al l u -
cinog enic properties hav e not
y et been prov en.
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B RU G M A NSIA Pers. ( 9 — 1 0 )
B ru g mansia sang u T hea
( l Ru iz et Pav ó n) D. Don
B l ood-Red A ng el 's T ru mpet
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
Sou th A merica,
1 2 Col ombia to Chil e
B RU NFE L SIA L . ( 4 0 )
B ru n fe/ s/ a g rand/ fl ora D. Don
B ru nfel sia
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
T ropical zones of northern
1 3 Sou th A merica, W est Indies
Cl osel y rel ated to Datu ra, the
species of B ru g mansIa are ar-
borescent, and it is su spected
that they are al l cu l tig ens u n-
k nown in the wil d. B iol og ical l y
v ery compl ex , al l species ap-
pear to hav e been u sed as hal -
l u cinog ens for mil l ennia. B ru g -
mans/ a su av eol ens and
B . Insig nis occu r in warmer
parts of Sou th A merica, espe-
cial l y in the western A mazonia,
where they are empl oy ed al one
or mix ed with other pl ants,
u su al l y u nder the name T oo.
M ost of the species, howev er,
prefer the cool , wet hig hl ands
abov e 6 ,0 0 0 ft. ( 1 ,8 3 0 m) . T he
most widespread species in the
A ndes is B ru g mansia au rea,
with both y el l ow and, more com-
monl y , white fl ower forms. In the
horticu l tu ral l iteratu re it has fre-
q u entl y been misidentified as
B ru g mansia ( or Datu ra) arbor-
ea, which is in real ity a mu ch
l ess common pl ant. B ru g mansia
au rea is a shru b or smal l tree u p
to 3 0 ft ( 9 m) tal l with obl ong -el -
l iptic, often minu tel y hairy
l eav es, the bl ade measu ring 4 —
1 6 in. ( 1 0 — 4 0 cm) l ong , 2 — 6 ½ in.
( 5 — 1 6 cm) wide, borne on a pe-
tiol e u p to 5 in. ( 1 3 cm) l ong . T he
fl owers are nodding , not whol l y
pendu l ou s, u su al l y 7 — 9 in. ( 1 8 —
2 3 cm) l ong and v ery frag rant,
especial l y in the ev ening . T he
tru mpet-shaped corol l a fl aring
broadl y at the mou th is white or
g ol den y el l ow, its sl ender basal
part compl etel y encl osed by the
cal y x , its teeth 1 in. ( 4 —
6 cm) l ong , recu rv ing . T he el on-
g ate-ov oid, smooth, g reen fru it,
which is v ariabl e in size, re-
mains fl eshy , nev er becoming
hard or wool l y . T he ang u l ar,
bl ack ish or brownish seeds are
rel ativ el y l arg e, measu ring
abou t ½ by % in. ( l 2 by 9 mm) .
In addition to their u se as hal l u -
cinog ens, al l species hav e
pl ay ed maj or rol es as medicines
for a l arg e spectru m of il l s,
especial l y in the treatment of
rheu matic pains. T hey contain
potent hal l u cinog enic tropane
al k al oids.
T his perennial B ru g mansia is
heav il y branched and reaches 6 —
1 6 ft ( 2 — Sm) , dev el oping a v ery
woody tru nk . T he g ray -g reen
l eav es are fu rry and rou g hl y ser-
rated at the edg e. T he B l ood-Red
A ng el 's T ru mpet does not emit
scents in the nig ht. U su al l y the
fl owers are g reen at the base,
y el l ow in the middl e, and hav e a
red edg e arou nd the top. T here
are al so g reen-red, pu re y el l ow,
y el l ow-red, and al most compl e-
tel y red v arieties. T he smooth
ov al fru its are bu l bou s in the cen-
ter and pointed at the ends and
are u su al l y partial l y protected by
the dried cal y x . In Col ombia this
powerfu l shaman pl ant was ri-
tu al l y u sed in the cu l t of the su n of
pre-Col u mbian times. T he pl ant
is stil l u sed as a hal l u cinog en by
the shamans and Cu randeros of
E cu ador and Peru .
T he entire pl ant contains tro-
pane al k al oids. T he fl owers
contain essential l y atropine and
onl y traces of scopol amine
( hy oscine) . In the seeds ap-
prox imatel y 0 . 1 7 % total
al k al oids are present; of those,
7 8 % are scopol amine.
Sev eral species of B ru n fe/ s/ a
hav e medicinal and psy cho-
activ e rol es in the Col ombian,
E cu adorean, and Peru v ian
A mazon as wel l as in G u y ana.
Scopol etine has been fou nd in
B ru n fe/ s/ a, bu t this compou nd is
not k nown to be psy choactiv e.
B . chiricaspi and B . g rand/ -
fl ora are shru bs or smal l trees
reaching a heig ht of abou t l oft
( 3 m) . T he obl ong or l anceol ate
l eav es, measu ring 2 1 / 2 _ 1 2 in.
l ong ( 6 — 3 0 cm) , are scattered
al ong the branchl ets. T he f l ow-
ers hav e a tu bu l ar corol l a, l ong er
than the bel l -shaped cal y x and
measu ring abou t 4 — 4 ¾ in. ( 1 0 —
1 2 cm) across, bl u e to v iol et,
fading with ag e to white. B . chir-
icaspi differs from B . g rand/ fl ora
in hav ing mu ch l arg er l eav es,
l ong er l eaf stal k s, a few-f l ow-
ered infl orescence, and de-
fl ex ed corol l a l obes. B . chiricas-
p/ occu rs in the west A mazonia
of Col ombia, E cu ador, and
Peru . B . g rand/ fl ora is wide-
rang ing in western Sou th A mer-
ica from Venezu el a to B ol iv ia.
B ru n fe/ s/ as serv e as A y ahu asca
additiv es.
3 7
B RU G M A NSIA Pers. ( 7 — 8 )
B ru g mansia au rea L ag erh.
G ol den A ng el 's T ru mpet
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
W estern Sou th A merica
1 1
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Cacal ia cordifol ia L . f ii.
M atwü
Compositae ( Su nfl ower Famil y )
E ast A sia, North A merica,
1 4 M ex ico
Caesal pinia sepiaria Rox b.
Y ü n-Shih
Cal ea zacatechichi Schl echt.
Dog G rass
Cannabis sativ a L .
H emp
Cannabaceae ( H emp Famil y )
W arm-temperate zones,
1 7 worl dwide
A smal l shru bby cl imber,
Cacal ia cordifol ia has du sty -
pu beru l ent, six -ang l ed stems.
T he l eav es are thin, ov ate, and
basal l y cordate, 1 ½ — 3 ½ in. ( 4 —
9 cm) l ong . T he fl owering head
is su bsessil e or pedicel l ate,
abou t % in. ( 1 cm) l ong .
T his and sev eral other spe-
cies of Cacal ia hav e been re-
ferred to in parts of northern
M ex ico as Pey ote and may pos-
sibl y hav e once been empl oy ed
for hal l u cinatory pu rposes. In
M ex ico Cacal ia cordifol l a is a
presu med aphrodisiac and cu re
for steril ity . A n al k al oid has been
reported from the pl ant, bu t
there is no ev idence of a chemi-
cal constitu ent with psy cho-
activ e properties.
T his l ittl e researched pl ant is
apparentl y often confu sed with
Cal ea zacatechichi.
Caesal pinia sepiaria or Y ü n-
Shih, a shru bby v ine with retro-
rsel y hook ed spines, is repu t-
edl y u sed as a hal l u cinog en in
China. T he roots, fl owers, and
seeds al so hav e v al u e in fol k
medicine.
T he earl iest Chinese herbal —
Pen-ts'-ao-ching — — stated that
the " fl owers cou l d enabl e one to
see spirits and, when tak en in
ex cess, cau se one to stag g er
madl y ? ' If consu med ov er a l ong
period, they produ ce l ev itation
and " commu nication with the
spirits? '
T his pl ant is an ex tensiv e
cl imber with pinnate l eav es 9 —
1 5 in. ( 2 3 — 3 8 cm) l ong and
l inear-obl ong l eafl ets in 8 — 1 2
pairs. T he l arg e, erect, u n-
branched showy racemes, 2 1 in.
( 5 3 cm) l ong , bear canary y el l ow
fl owers. T he smooth, el ong ate-
ov oid, pointed fru it has 4 to 8
ov oid, brown- and bl ack -mottl ed
seeds, % in. ( 1 cm) l ong . A n al -
k al oid of u nk nown stru ctu re has
been reported from Caesal pinia
sepiaria.
K nown in M ex ico as Z acatechi-
chi ( " bitter g rass" ) , this incon-
spicu ou s shru b, occu rring from
M ex ico to Costa Rica, has been
important in fol k medicine. It has
al so been v al u ed as an
insecticide.
Recent reports su g g est that
the Chontal Indians of Oax aca
tak e a tea of the cru shed, dried
l eav es as a hal l u cinog en. B e-
l iev ing in v isions seen in
dreams, Chontal medicine men,
who assert that Z acatechichi
cl arifies the senses, cal l the
pl ant T hIe-pel ak ano, or " l eaf of
g od? '
Cal ea zacatechichi is a heav -
il y branching shru b with
triang u l ar-ov ate, coarsel y
toothed l eav es in. ( 2 —
6 . 5 cm) l ong . T he infl orescence
is densel y many -fl owered
( u su al l y abou t 1 2 ) .
No constitu ent with hal l u cina-
tory properties has as y et been
isol ated from C. zacatechichi.
T he pl ant contains g ermacra-
nol ides. T he su btil e psy choac-
tiv e effect can be described as
dreaml ik e.
Cannabis sativ a has become
v ery pol y morphic, bu t it is
u su al l y a rank , robu st, erect,
l oosel y branched annu al herb,
sometimes attaining a heig ht of
l 8 ft ( 5 . 4 m) . T he sex es are nor-
mal l y on separate pl ants, the
staminate weak er and dy ing
after shedding pol l en, the pistil -
l ate stock ier and more fol iose.
T he membranaceou s l eav es are
dig itate, with 3 to 1 5 ( u su al l y 7
to 9 ) l inear-l anceol ate, serrated
seg ments commonl y 2 ¼ — 4 in.
( 6 — 1 0 cm) wide. T he fl owers are
borne in ax il l ary or terminal
branches, dark g reen, y el l ow-
g reen, or brownish pu rpl e. T he
fru it is an ov oid, sl ig htl y com-
pressed, often brownish ak ene
cov ered by a persistent cal y x ,
env el oped by an enl arg ed bract,
u su al l y l ack ing a strong marbl ed
pattern; it is firml y attached to
the è tal k withou t a definite ar-
ticu l ation. T he seed is ov oid,
mostl y ½ by 1 / 6 in. ( 4 by 2 mm) .
Cannabis indica is py ramidal
or conical in form and u nder 4 —
5 ft ( 1 2 0 — 1 5 0 cm) in heig ht.
Cannabis ru deral is is smal l
and is nev er cu l tiv ated.
CA CA L IA L . ( 5 0 ) CA E SA L PINIA L . ( 1 0 0 ) CA L E A L . ( 9 5 ) CA NNA B ISL . ( 3 )
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
1 5 both hemispheres
Compositae ( Su nfl ower Famil y )
T ropical zones of northern
1 6 Sou th A merica, M ex ico
3 8
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CA RNE G IE A B ritt. et Rose ( 1 ) CE ST RU M L . ( 1 6 0 ) CL A VICE PS T u l asne ( 6 ) COL E U S L ou r.
( 1 5 0 )
Carneg iea g ig anfea ( E ng eim. ) B ritt.
at Rose
Sag u aro
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
Sou thwestern North
1 8 A merica, northern M ex ico
T his l arg est of the col u mnar
cactu s pl ants, Sag u aro, reach-
ing a heig ht of some 4 0 ft ( 1 2 m) ,
is a candel abra-branched " tree. "
T he many -ribbed stems and
branches attain a diameter of 1 —
2 ½ ft ( 3 0 — 7 5 cm) . T he spines
near the top of the pl ant are y el -
l ow-brown. M easu ring 4 — 5 in.
( 1 0 — 1 3 cm) in l eng th, the white,
fu nnel -shaped fl owers open
du ring the day . T he fru it, red or
pu rpl e, is an ov oid or el l ipsoid
I
berry spl itting down the side into
two or three sections and mea-
su ring 2 ½ — 3 ½ in. ( 6 — 9 cm) l ong .
T he nu merou s smal l seeds are
bl ack and shining .
A l thou g h there are no reports
of the Sag u aro as a hal l u cino-
g en, the pl ant does contain
pharmacol og ical l y activ e al k a-
l oids capabl e of psy choactiv ity .
Carneg ine, 5 -hy drox y carne-
g ine, and norcarneg ine, pl u s
trace amou nts of 3 -methox y ty r-
amine and arizonine ( a tetrahy -
droq u inol ine base) , hav e been
isol ated from Sag u aro.
T he nativ e peopl e mak e a
wine from the pressed fru it.
Cestru m parq u i L H é rit.
L ady of the Nig ht
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
Chil e
1 9
Cestru m parq u i has been u sed
medicinal l y and ritu al l y for sha-
manic heal ing since pre-
Col u mbian times by the M a-
pu che in sou thern Chil e. T he
pl ant has the power to withstand
attack s of sorcery or bl ack ma-
g ic. T he dried l eav es of Cestru m
parq u i are smok ed.
T he shru b g rows to 5 ft ( 1 . 5 m)
and has smal l , l anceol ate matte
g reen l eav es. T he bel l -shaped
y el l ow fl owers hav e fiv e pointy
petal s. T hey hang from the stem
in cl u sters. T he fl owers bl oom in
Chil e between October and No-
v ember and rel ease a powerfu l ,
heady aroma. T he pl ant has
smal l ov al berries that are a
shiny bl ack col or.
Cestru m parq u i contains so-
l asonine, a g l y coside steroid-al -
k al oid, as wel l as sol asonidine
and a bitter al k al oid ( Farq u in's
formu l a C2 1 H 3 9 N0 3 ) , which has
a simil ar action to stry chnine or
atropine.
Cl av iceps pu rpu rea ( Fr. )
T u l asne
E rg ot
Cl av icipitaceae
T emperate zones of E u rope,
2 0 northern A frica, A sia,
North A merica
/
E rg ot is a fu ng al disease of cer-
tain g rasses and sedg es, pri-
maril y of ry e. M eaning " spu r,"
E rg ot refers to the scl erotiu m or
fru iting body of an ascomy cete
or sac fu ng u s. T he spu r is a
pu rpl ish or bl ack , cu rv ed, cl u b-
shaped g rowth ½ — 2 ½ in. ( 1 —
6 cm) l ong , which parasitical l y
repl aces the endosperm of the
k ernel . T he fu ng u s produ ces
psy choactiv e and tox ic al k a-
l oids.
T here are two distinct periods
in the l ife cy cl e of this fu ng u s: an
activ e and a dormant stag e. T he
E rg ot or spu r represents the
dormant stag e. W hen the spu r
fal l s to the g rou nd, the E rg ot
sprou ts g l obu l ar heads cal l ed
ascocarps from which g row
asci, each with threadl ik e as-
cospores that are disseminated
when the asci ru ptu re.
In the M iddl e A g es and earl ier
in E u rope, especial l y where ry e
was u sed in bread-mak ing ,
whol e areas freq u entl y were
poisoned, su ffering pl ag u es of
erg otism, when fu ng u s-infected
ry e k ernel s were mil l ed into
fl ou r.
Col eu s bl u mei B enth.
Painted Nettl e
L abiatae ( M int Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
2 1 E u rope, A frica, A sia
T wo species of Col eu s hav e sig -
nificance in M ex ico. Rel ated to
Sal v ia div inoru m is L a H embra
( " the woman" ) ; C. pu mi/ u s is E l
M acho ( " the man" ) ; and two
forms of C. bl u mei are E l Nene
( " the chil d" ) and E l A hij ado ( " the
g odson" ) . C. b/ u mei attains a
heig ht of 3 ft ( 1 m) and has
ov ate, marg inal l y toothed l eav es
u p to 6 in. ( 1 5 cm) in l eng th; the
bottom su rface is finel y hairy ,
the u pper su rface u su al l y with
l arg e dark red bl otches. T he
more or l ess bel l -shaped bl u e or
pu rpl ish fl owers, measu ring
abou t ½ in. ( 1 cm) l ong , are
borne in l ong l ax , whorl ed
racemes u p to 1 2 in. ( 3 0 cm) in
l eng th.
Recentl y , sal v inorine-l ik e su b-
stances ( diterpene) were dis-
cov ered. T he chemical stru ctu re
has not y et been determined, It
is possibl e that by dry ing or
bu rning the diterpene, its che-
mical stru ctu re is modified into
potent material . T he chemistry
and pharmacol og y mu st be re-
searched fu rther.
3 9
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CONOCY B E ( 4 0 )
Conocy be sil l g ineoides H eim
Conocy be
A g aricaceae ( B ol bitiaceae)
( A g aric Famil y )
Cosmopol itan
2 2
Conocy be sil ig ineoides has
been reported as one of the
sacred intox icating mu shrooms
of M ex ico. Psil ocy bine has not
as y et been isol ated from this
species, bu t Conocy be
cy anopu s of the U nited States
has been shown to contain this
psy choactiv e al k al oid.
T his beau tifu l mu shroom, u p
to abou t 3 m. ( 8 cm) tal l , l iv ing on
rotting wood, has a cap u p to
1 in. ( 2 . 5 cm) in diameter that is
fawn-orang e-red, with a deeper
orang e at the center. T he g il l s
are saffron-col ored or brownish
orang e with chrome y el l ow
spores.
M any species of the g enu s
Conocy be contain psil ocy bine,
are psy choactiv e, and are u sed
ritu al l y . Recentl y a ru dimentary
cu l t arou nd T amu ( a Conocy be
species, " M u shroom of A ware-
ness" ) has been discov ered.
Conocy be sil ig eneoides is an
obscu re mu shroom which has
not been fou nd or anal y zed
ag ain since its first description.
CORIA RIA L . ( 1 5 )
Coriara thy mifol ia H B K ex W il id.
Shanshi
In the hig hest A ndes from Co-
l ombia to Chil e, Coriaria thy mi-
fol ia adorns the hig hway s with
its frondl ik e l eav es. It has been
feared in the A ndean cou ntries
as a pl ant tox ic to browsing ani-
mal s. H u man deaths hav e su p-
posedl y fol l owed ing estion of the
fru it. Reports from E cu ador,
nev erthel ess, su g g est that the
fru it ( shanshi) may be eaten to
indu ce an intox ication charac-
terized by sensations of soaring
throu g h the air.
Coriaria thy mifol l a is a shru b
u su al l y u p to 6 ft ( 1 . 8 m) tal l . T he
l eav es are obl ong -ov ate, 1 / 2 _
3 / 4 in. ( 1 — 2 cm) in l eng th, borne
on sl ender, arching l ateral
branches. T he smal l , dark pu r-
pl e fl owers occu r densel y on
l ong drooping racemes. T he
rou nd pu rpl ish bl ack fru it is
composed of fiv e to eig ht com-
pressed fl eshy parts, or carpel s.
T he whol e shru b has a fernl ik e
appearance.
No psy choactiv e properties
hav e been isol ated y et.
CORY PH A NT H A
( E ng el m. ) L em.
Cory phantha compacta
( E ng el m. ) B ritt. et Rose
Pincu shion Cactu s
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
Sou thwestern North
2 4 A merica, M ex ico, Cu ba
A smal l , sol itary , g l obu l ar bu t
somewhat fl attened, spiny cac-
tu s u p to 3 ¼ in. ( 8 cm) in dia-
meter, Cory phantha compacta
g rows in dry hil l y and mou ntai-
nou s reg ions. It is hardl y v isibl e
in the sandy soil where it occu rs.
T he radial spines are whitish,
in. ( 1 — 2 cm) in l eng th; the
central spines are u su al l y ab-
sent. T he crowded tu bercl es are
arrang ed in 1 3 rows. A rising
from the center of the crown
either sing l y or in pairs, the y el -
l ow fl owers measu re u p to 1 in.
( 2 . 5 cm) in l eng th. T he T arahu -
mara of northern M ex ico con-
sider Cory phantha compacta a
k ind of Pey ote. T he pl ant, cal l ed
B ak ana, is tak en by shamans
and is respected and feared. It is
u sed as a su bstitu te for Pey ote.
Cory phantha pal merii has
l ik ewise been reported as a hal -
l u cinog en in M ex ico. Variou s al -
k al oids, incl u ding the psy choac-
tiv e pheny l ethy l ammnes, hav e
been isol ated from sev eral
species of Cory phantha: horde-
nine, cal ipammne, and macro-
merine.
CY M B OPOG ON Spreng el ( 6 0 )
G y m bopog on densifioru s Stapf
L emong rass
G ramineae ( G rass Famil y )
W arm zones of A frica and
2 5 A sia
Nativ e medicine men in T anza-
nia smok e the fl owers of Cy m-
bopog on densifl oru s al one or
with tobacco to cau se dreams
that they bel iev e foretel l the fu -
tu re. T he l eav es and rhizomes,
pl easantl y aromatic of citron,
are l ocal l y u sed as a tonic and
sty ptic.
T his perennial g rass has
stou t, erect cu l ms with l inear to
l inear-l anceol ate l eav es, basal l y
wide and rou nded and tapering
to a fine point, 1 ft. ( 3 0 cm) in
l eng th and 1 / 2 _ i in. ( 1 — 2 . 5 cm) in
width. T he fl owering spik es are
sl ender, ol iv e g reen to brownish.
T his species g rows in G abon,
the Cong o, and M al awi.
L ittl e is k nown abou t the psy -
choactiv e properties of the
g rass. T he g enu s Cy mbopog on
is rich in essential oil s, and ster-
oidal su bstances hav e been
fou nd in some species.
( 6 4 )
Coriariaceae ( Coriaria Famil y )
Sou thern E u rope, northern
2 3 A frica, A sia; New Z eal and;
M ex ico to Chil e
4 0
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CY T ISU SL . ( 3 0 )
I
DA T U RA L . ( 1 4 — 1 6 ) DA T U RA L . ( 1 4 — 1 6 ) DA T U RA L . ( 1 4 — 1 6 )
Cy tisu s canariensis ( L . ) 0 . K u ntze
G enista
Rarel y are foreig n pl ants incor-
porated in ceremonial u se in
aborig inal A merican societies.
Nativ e to the Canary Isl ands,
G enista was introdu ced into
M ex ico from the Ol d W orl d,
where it has no record of u se as
a hal l u cinog en. It apparentl y has
acq u ired mag ical u se among
the Y aq u I Indians of northern
M ex ico, where medicine men
v al u e the seed as a
hal l u cinog en.
A coarse, ev erg reen, mu ch-
branched shru b u p to 6 ft ( 1 . 8 m)
tal l , Cy tisu s canariensis bears
l eav es with obov ate or obl ong ,
hairy l eafl ets ¼ — ½ in. ( . 5 — 1 cm)
l ong . T he frag rant, brig ht y el l ow
fl owers, in terminal , many -fl ow-
ered, dense racemes, measu re
abou t ½ in. ( 1 cm) in l eng th. T he
pods are hairy , in. ( 1 —
2 cm) l ong .
Cy tisu s is rich in the l u pine al -
k al oid cy tisine, which is com-
mon in the L eg u minosae. Cy -
stifl e has simil ar properties as
nicotine. For this reason, pl ants
that contain cy stine are often
smok ed as a su bstitu te for
T obacco.
Datu ra innox ia M il l . ( D. metel oides)
T ol oache
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
T ropical and warm-
2 7 temperatu re zones of both
hemispheres
T he most ex tensiv e u se of Da-
tu ra centers in M ex ico and the
A merican Sou thwest, where the
most important psy choactiv e
species seems to be Datu ra in-
nox ia. T his is the famou s T o-
l oache of M ex ico, one of the
pl ants of the g ods among the
A ztecs and other Indians. T he
modern T arahu mara of M ex ico
add the roots, seeds, and l eav es
of D. innox ia to tesq u ino, a cere-
monial drink prepared from
maize. M ex ican Indians bel iev e
that, u nl ik e Pey ote, T ol oache is
inhabited by a mal ev ol ent spirit.
Datu ra innox ia is a herbac-
eou s perennial u p to 3 ft ( 1 m)
tal l , g ray ish becau se of fine
hairs on the fol iag e; the l eav es,
u neq u al l y ov ate, repand or su b-
entire, measu re u p to 2 or 2 ¼ in.
( 5 cm) in l eng th. T he erect,
sweet-scented fl owers, 5 ½ — 9 in.
( 1 4 — 2 3 cm) l ong , are white with
a 1 0 -pointed corol l a. T he pen-
dant fru it is nearl y g l obose, 2 in.
( 5 cm) in diameter, cov ered with
sharp spines.
Datu ra mete! L .
Datu ra
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
T ropical and warm-
2 8 temperate zones of A sia
and A frica
In the Ol d W orl d, the most cu l -
tu ral l y important species of Da-
tu ra for medicinal and hal l u cino-
g enic u se is D. mete! .
Datu ra mete! , nativ e probabl y
to the mou ntainou s reg ions of
Pak istan or A fg hanistan west-
ward, is a spreading herb,
sometimes becoming shru bby ,
3 — 6 ft ( 1 — 2 m) tal l . T he triang u -
l ar-ov ate, sinu ate, and deepl y
toothed l eav es measu re 5 ½ —
8 ½ in. ( 1 4 -2 2 cm) l ong , 3 —
4 ¼ in. ( 8 — 1 1 cm) wide. T he sol i-
tary fl owers, which may be pu r-
pl e, y el l owish, or white, are tu b-
u l ar, fu nnel - or tru mpet-shaped,
al most circu l ar when ex panded,
may attain a l eng th of 6 ½ in.
( 1 7 cm) . T he drooping , rou nd
fru it, u p to 2 ¼ in. ( 6 cm) in dia-
meter, is conspicu ou sl y tu ber-
cu l ate or mu ricate, opening to
ex pose fl at, l ig ht brown seeds.
T he fl owers are primaril y v iol et
and g row at an ang l e or u prig ht
to the sk y .
A l l ty pes of Datu ra contain the
hal l u cinog enic tropane al k al oids
scopol amine, hy osy amine and
someatropine.
Datu ra stramoniu m L .
T horn A ppl e
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
T ropical and moderate zones
2 9 of both hemispheres
T his annu al herb g rows to abou t
4 ft ( 1 . 2 m) and has many -fork ed
branches and branched, l eafl ess
stems. T he rich g reen l eav es are
coarsel y serrated. T he fu nnel -
shaped fl owers are 5 -pointed,
stand erect, and open u pward.
T he common v ariety carries
white fl owers that at 2 — 3 in. ( 6 —
9 cm) l ong are among the smal -
l est of the Datu ra species. T he
tatu l a v ariety has smal l er v iol et
fl owers. T he g reen eg g -shaped
fru it is cov ered with thorns and
stands erect. T he fl at, l iv er-
shaped seeds are bl ack .
T he orig ins of this powerfu l
hal l u cinog enic species of T horn
A ppl e is u ncertain and its bota-
nical history ardentl y arg u ed
ov er. Some au thors su g g est that
Datu ra stramoniu m is an ancient
species that orig inates in the re-
g ion of the Caspian Sea. Others
bel iev e that M ex ico or North
A merica is the orig inal habitat.
T oday the herb is fou nd
throu g hou t North, Central , and
Sou th A merica; North A frica;
Central and Sou thern E u rope; in
the near E ast; and in the
H imal ay as.
4 1
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
Sou thern E u rope, northern
2 6 A frica, western A sia; Canary
Isl ands, M ex ico
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DE SFONT A INIA R. et P.
Desfontainia spinosa ft et P.
T aiq u e
( 1 — 3 )
Desfontainiaceae
H ig hl ands of Central
3 0 A merica and Sou th A merica
One of the l east-k nown A ndean
pl ants, Desfontainia spinosa is
sometimes assig ned to a differ-
ent famil y : L og an iaceae or P0 -
tal iaceae. B otanists are not in
ag reement as to the nu mber of
species in the g enu s.
Des fontainia spinosa, a beau -
tifu l shru b 1 — 6 ft ( 3 Ocm-1 . 8 m) in
heig ht, has g l ossy g reen l eav es,
resembl ing those of Christmas
hol l y , and tu bu l ar red fl owers
with a y el l ow tip. T he berry is
white or g reenish y el l ow, g b-
bose, with many l u strou s seeds.
It has been reported as a hal l u -
cinog en from Chil e and sou th-
ern Col ombia. In Chil e it is
k nown as T aiq u e, in Col ombia
as B orrachero ( " intox icator" ) .
Col ombian shamans of the
K amsá tribe tak e a tea of the
l eav es to diag nose disease or
" to dream. " Some medicine men
assert that they " g o crazy " u nder
its infl u ence. Nothing is as y et
k nown of the chemical constitu -
ents of Des fontainia.
In sou thern Chil e Des fontai-
nia is u sed for shamanic pu r-
poses simil ar to L atu a pu bifl ora.
4 2
DU B OISIA R. B r.
Du boisia hop wood/ i F. v . M u el l .
Pitu ri B u sh
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
Central A u stral ia
( 3 )
T he branched ev erg reen shru b
with woody stems g rows to ap-
prox imatel y 6 — 9 ft — Its
wood has a y el l ow col or and a
distinct scent of v anil l a. T he g reen
l eav es are l anceol ate, with a con-
tinu ou s marg in tapered at the pe-
tiol e and are 4 — 5 in. l ong ( 1 2 —
1 5 cm) . T he fl owers are white, oc-
casional l y with rose speck l es, and
bel l -shaped ( to 7 mm l ong ) and
hang in cl u sters off the tips of the
branches. T he fru it is a bl ack ber-
ry with nu merou s tiny seeds.
T he psy choactiv e Pitu ri has
been hedonistical l y and ritu al l y
u sed by the A borig ines since their
settl ement of A u stral ia. T he
l eav es are g athered in A u g u st
when the pl ants are in fl ower.
T hey are hu ng u p to dry or roasted
ov er afire. T hey are either chewed
as Pitu ri or smok ed in cig arettes
rol l ed with al k al ine su bstances.
Du boisia hopwoodii contains
a v ariety of powerfu l and stimu -
l ating bu t tox ic al k al oids: pitu r-
in du bosine, D-nor-nicotine,
and nicotine. T he hal l u cinog enic
tropane al k al oids hy oscy amine
and scopol amine hav e been
discov ered in the roots.
E CH INOCE RE U S E ng el m. ( 7 5 )
E chinocereu s trig l ochidiatu s E n-
g el m.
Pital l ito Cactu s
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
Sou thwestern North
3 2 A merica, M ex ico
T he T arahu mara Indians of Chi-
hu ahu a consider two species as
fal se Pey otes or H ik u ri of the
mou ntainou s areas. T hey are
not so strong as A riocarpu s,
Cory phantha, E pithel antha,
M ammil l aria, or L ophophora.
E chinocereu s sal mdy ck ianu s is
a l ow, caespitose cactu s with
decu mbent, y el l ow-g reen stems
in. ( 2 — 4 cm) in diameter.
T he ribs nu mber 7 to9 . T he 8 or
9 radial spines are y el l ow, ½ in.
( 1 cm) l ong , central spine sol i-
tary and l ong er than radial s. T he
orang e-col ored fl owers mea-
su re 3 1 / 4 — 4 in. ( 8 — 1 0 cm) l ong
and hav e obl anceol ate to
spathu l ate perianth seg ments.
T his species is nativ e to Chi-
hu ahu a and Du rang o in M ex ico.
E chinocereu s trig l ochidiatu s dif-
fers in hav ing deep g reen stems,
fewer radial spines, which tu rn
g ray ish with ag e, and scarl et
fl owers 2 — 2 ¾ in. ( 5 — 7 cm) l ong .
A try ptamine deriv ativ e has
been reported from E chinocer-
eu s trig l ochidiatu s ( 3 -hy drox y -4 -
methox y phenethy l amine) .
E PIT H E L A NT H A W eber
ex B ritt. et Rose
( 3 )
E pithel antha micromeris ( E ng el m. )
W eber ex B ritt. et Rose
H ik u l i M u l ato
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
Sou thwestern North
3 3 A merica, M ex ico
T his spiny cactu s, one of the so-
cal l ed fal se Pey otes of the T ara-
hu mara Indians of Chihu ahu a,
has acidic, edibl e fru it cal l ed Chi-
l itos. M edicine men tak e H ik u l i
M u l ato to mak e their sig ht cl earer
and to permit them to commu ne
with sorcerers. It is tak en by ru n-
ners as a stimu l ant and " protec-
tor," and the Indians bel iev e that it
prol ong s l ife. It is reportedl y abl e
to driv e ev il peopl e to insanity or
throw them from cl iffs.
A l k al oids and triterpenes hav e
been reported from E pithel antha
micromeris. T his v ery smal l ,
g l obu l ar cactu s g rows to a dia-
meter of 2 ½ in. ( 6 cm) . T he l ow
tu bercl es, 1 A 6 in. ( 2 mm) l ong , are
arrang ed in many spiral s. T he
nu merou s white spines al most
hide the tu bercl es. T he l ower ra-
dial spines measu re 1 A 6 in.
( 2 mm) l ong , the u pper abou t
% in. ( 1 cm) . T he smal l fl owers,
which arise from the center of the
pl ant in a tu ft of wool and spines,
are whitish to pink , ¼ in. ( 5 mm)
broad. T he cl av ate fru it, in.
( 9 — 1 3 mm) l ong , bears rather
l arg e, shining bl ack seeds, 1 A 6 in.
( 2 mm) across.
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E RY T H RINA L .
E ry thrina americana M il l .
Coral T ree
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
3 4 both hemispheres
T zompanq u ahu itl of the ancient
A ztecs may hav e been from the
many species in the g enu s E ry -
thrina, the seeds of which are
bel iev ed to hav e been empl oy ed
as a medicine and hal l u cinog en.
In G u atemal a the beans are
empl oy ed in div ination.
T he beans of E ry thrina
constitu te a T arahu mara
Indian medicinal pl ant of many
v aried u ses, which may hav e
been u til ized as a hal l u cinog en.
E ry thrina fl abe/ / iformis is a
shru b or smal l tree with spiny
branches. T he l eafl ets are 2 1 / 2 _
3 ½ in. ( 3 — 6 cm) l ong , u su al l y
broader than l ong . T he densel y
many -fl owered racemes bear
red fl owers 1 1 / 5 _ 2 1 / 2 in. ( 3 — 6 cm)
l ong . Sometimes attaining a
l eng th of 1 ft ( 3 0 cm) , the pods,
shal l owl y constricted between
the seeds, contain from two to
many dark red beans. T his spe-
cies is common in the hot, dry
reg ions of northern and central
M ex ico and the A merican
Sou thwest.
G A L B U L IM IM A F. M . B ail ey
G al bu l imima beig rav eana
( F. v . M u el l . ) Sprag u e
A g ara
H imantandraceae
Northeast A u stral ia,
3 5 M al ay sia
Nativ es in Fapu a boil the bark
and l eav es of this tree with a
species of H oma/ omena to pre-
pare a tea that cau ses an intox -
ication l eading to a deep sl u m-
ber, du ring which v isions are
ex perienced.
T his tree of northeastern
A u stral ia, Papu a, and M ol u cca
is u nbu ttressed, attaining a
heig ht of 9 Oft ( 2 7 m) . T he hig hl y
aromatic, g ray brownish, scal y
bark measu res ½ in. ( 1 cm) in
thick ness. T he el l iptic, entire
l eav es are a g l ossy , metal l ic
g reen abov e, brown beneath,
and are normal l y 4 1 / 2 — 6 in. ( 1 1 —
1 5 cm) l ong and in. ( 5 —
7 cm) wide. L ack ing sepal s and
petal s bu t with many conspicu -
ou s stamens, the fl owers hav e a
pal e y el l ow or brownish y el l ow
hu e with a ru sty brown cal y x .
T he el l ipsoidal or g l obose fru it is
fl eshy -fibrou s, reddish, ¾ in.
( 2 cm) in diameter.
A l thou g h 2 8 al k al oids hav e
been isol ated from G al bu l imima
beig rav eana, a psy choactiv e
principl e has not y et been fou nd
in the pl ant.
H E IM IA L ink et Otto
H eimia sal icifol ia
( H . B . K . ) L ink et Otto
Sinicu ichi
L y thraceae ( L oosestrife Famil y )
Sou thern North A merica to
3 6 A rg entina, W est Indies
T his g enu s has three v ery simi-
l ar species, and al l pl ay impor-
tant rol es in fol k medicine. Sev -
eral v ernacu l ar names reported
from B razil seem to indicate
k nowl edg e of psy choactiv ity ,
e. g . , A bre-o-sol ( " su n-opener')
and H erv a da Vida ( " herb of
l ife" ) .
Sinicu ichi ( H el m/ a
is 2 — 6 ft ( 6 Ocm-1 . 8 m) tal l with
l anceol ate l eav es ¾ _ 3 1 / 2 in. ( 2 —
9 cm) l ong . T he y el l ow fl owers
are borne sing l y in the l eaf ax il s;
the persistent bel l -shaped cal y x
dev el ops l ong hornl ik e appen-
dag es. T he shru b g rows abu n-
dantl y in moist pl aces and al ong
streams in the hig hl ands.
In the M ex ican hig hl ands, the
l eav es of H . sal icifol ia are
sl ig htl y wil ted, cru shed in water,
and the preparation is then al -
l owed to ferment into an intox i-
cating drink . A l thou g h it is be-
l iev ed that ex cessiv e u se of
Sinicu ichi may be phy sical l y
harmfu l , there are u su al l y no
u ncomfortabl e aftereffects. T his
pl ant contains q u inol izidine al -
k al oids ( l y thrine, cry og enine, l y -
fol ine, nesidine) .
H E L ICH RY SU M M il l
H el ichry su m ( L ) M oench.
Straw Fl ower
Compositae ( Su ntl ower Famil y )
E u rope, A frica, A sia,
3 7 A u stral ia
T wo species are u sed by witch
doctors in Z u l u l and " for inhal ing
to indu ce trances. " It is pre-
su med that the pl ants are
smok ed for these effects.
H e/ ichry su m foetidu m is a tal l ,
erect, branching herb 1 0 — l 2 in.
( 2 5 — 3 0 cm) in heig ht. It is sl ig htl y
woody near the base and is v ery
strong l y scented. T he l anceo-
l ate or l anceol ate-ov ate, basal l y
l obed, entire l eav es, measu ring
u p to 3 ½ in. ( 9 cm) l ong and
¾ in. ( 2 cm) wide, basal l y en-
cl asp the stem; they are g ray -
wool l y beneath and g l andu l ar
abov e. T he fl owers occu r in
l oose, terminal , cory mbose
cl u sters of sev eral stal k ed
heads ¾ — 1 ½ in. ( 2 — 4 cm) in dia-
meter, su btended by cream-co-
l ored or g ol den y el l ow bracts.
T hese species of H el / chry su m
are some of the pl ants k nown in
E ng l ish as E v erl asting .
Cou marine and diterpenes
hav e been reported from the
g enu s, bu t no constitu ents with
hal l u cinog enic properties hav e
been isol ated.
4 3
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H E L ICOST Y L IS T ré cu l
H el icosty l is pedu ncu l ata
B enoist
T ak ini
M oraceae ( M u l berry Famil y )
Central A merica, tropical
3 8 zones of Sou th A merica
H OM A L OM E NA Schott
H omal omena l au terbachii E ng i.
E reriba
A raceae ( A ru m Famil y )
Sou th A merica, tropical
3 9 zones of A sia
H Y OSCY A M U S L .
H y oscy amu s al bu s L .
Y el l ow H enbane
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
M editerranean, Near E ast
4 0
H Y OSCY A M U S L .
H y oscy amu s nig er L .
B l ack H enbane
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
E u rope, northern A frica,
4 1 sou thwestern and central
A sia
T ak ini is a sacred tree of the G u i-
anas. From the red " sap" of the
bark a mil dl y poisonou s intox i-
cant is prepared. E x tracts from
the inner bark of two trees el icit
central nerv ou s sy stem depres-
sant effects simil ar to those pro-
du ced by Cannabis sativ a. T he
two species responsibl e for this
hal l u cinog en are H . pedu ncu l ata
and H . tomentosa.
T hese two species of trees are
simil ar. B oth are cy l indrical or
v ery sl ig htl y bu ttressed forest
g iants 7 5 ft ( 2 3 m) tal l with g ray ish
brown bark ; the l atex is pal e y el -
l ow or cream-col ored. T he l eath-
ery l anceol ate-el l iptic l eav es at-
tain a l eng th of 7 in. ( 1 8 cm) and a
width of 3 in. ( 8 cm) . T he fl eshy ,
pistil l ate fl owers are borne in g b-
bose cau l ifl orou s heads.
Very l ittl e is k nown abou t these
trees and they are rarel y stu died.
T he hal l u cinog en cou l d theoreti-
cal l y orig inate from either of the
rel ated g enera B rosimu m or Pir-
atinera. E x tracts from the inner
bark of both trees hav e been
pharmacol og ical l y stu died; they
hav e a softening or dampening
effect, simil ar to Cannabis sativ a.
4 4
In Papu a New G u inea the na-
tiv es are said to eat the l eav es of
a species of H omal omena with
the l eav es and bark of G al bu l i-
mima beig rav eana to indu ce a
v iol ent condition ending in sl u m-
ber, du ring which v isions are ex -
perienced. T he rhizomes hav e a
nu mber of u ses in fol k medicine,
especial l y for the treatment of
sk in probl ems. In M al ay a an u n-
specified part of a species was
an ing redient of an arrow
poison.
T he species of H omal omena
are smal l or l arg e herbs with
pl easantl y aromatic rhizomes.
T he l eav es are obl ong -
l anceol ate or cordate-ov ate,
borne on v ery short stems,
rarel y ex ceeding 6 in. ( 1 5 cm) in
l eng th. T he spathe u su al l y per-
sists in fru it. T he mal e and fe-
mal e portions of the spadix are
prox imate. T he smal l berries are
few or many -seeded.
T he chemistry of this g rou p of
pl ants has not y et discl osed any
hal l u cinog enic principl e.
A l thou g h the herb has erect
stems, it often appears bu shy . It
g rows to approx imatel y 8 — 1 2 in.
( 4 0 — 5 0 cm) hig h. T he l ig ht g reen
stems and serrated l eav es, as
wel l as the fu nnel -shaped f l ow-
ers and fru its, are al l pil eou s.
T he herb bl ooms from J anu ary
to J u l y . T he col or of the fl owers
is l ig ht y el l ow with deep v iol et on
the interior. T he seeds hav e a
whitish or ocher col or, occasion-
al l y a g ray col or.
T his henbane was the most
widel y u sed mag ical herb and
medicinal pl ant. T he hal l u cino-
g en was an important mediu m in
antiq u ity , u sed to promote a
trance and tak en by oracl es and
div initory women. In the ancient
earth oracl e of G aia, it is the
" drag on's herb? ' T he g oddess of
the witches, H ecate, u ses " crazy -
mak er" in the K obch oracl e. L ate
antiq u ity g iv es u s " Z eu s's B eans"
in the oracl e of Z eu s-A m mon and
the Roman g od J u piter. In the
Del phi oracl es of A pol l o, who is
the G od of " prophetic insanity ," it
is k nown as " A pol l o's Pl ant? '
T he entire pl ant contains the
tropane al k al oids hy oscy amine
and scopol amine.
H enbane is a coarse annu al or
biennial , v iscid, hairy , strong -
smel l ing herb u p to abou t 3 0 in.
( 7 6 cm) tal l . T he l eav es are en-
tire or occasional l y hav e a few
l arg e teeth, ov ate, 6 — 8 in. ( 1 5 —
2 0 cm) l ong , the l ower cau l ine
ampl ex icau l l eav es being obl ong
and smal l er. T he fl owers, y el l ow
or g reenish y el l ow v eined with
pu rpl e, attain a l eng th of abou t
1 ½ in. ( 4 cm) and are borne in
two rank s in a scorpioid cy me.
T he fru it is a many -seeded cap-
su l e encl osed in the persistent
cal y x with its fiv e triang u l ar
points becoming rig id. T he
seeds rel ease a powerfu l and
distinctiv e odor when sq u eezed.
In antiq u ity and the M iddl e
A g es, H y oscy amu s nig er was
empl oy ed in E u rope as an im-
portant ing redient of the witches'
brews and ointments. . It not onl y
redu ced pain bu t al so indu ced
obl iv ion.
T he activ e principl es in this
sol anaceou s g enu s are tropane
al k al oids, especial l y scopol a-
mine. Scopol amine is a potent
hal l u cinog enic ag ent.
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0 CH ROM A B enth, ( 2 4 ) IPOM OE A L . ( 5 0 0 )
J U ST ICIA L .
( 3 5 0 )
: chroma fu chsioides ( B enth. ) M iers
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
T ropical and su btropical
4 2 zones of Sou th A merica
the K amsá Indians of
the Col ombian A ndes, I. fu ch-
sb/ des is tak en by shamans for
difficu l t diag noses.
T he intox ication is not pl ea-
sant, l eav ing aftereffects for
sev eral day s. T he shru b is v a-
l u ed al so as a medicine for
treating difficu l ties with dig estion
or bowel fu nction, and to aid in
cases of difficu l t chil dbirth.
l ochroma fu chsboides, a
shru b or smal l tree 1 O— l 5 ft ( 3 —
4 . 5 m) tal l , bu t sometimes l arg er,
occu rs in the Col ombian and
E cu adorean A ndes at abou t
7 ,0 0 0 ff ( 2 ,2 0 0 m) al titu de. T he
branches are reddish brown,
and the l eav es, obov ate-obl ong ,
measu re 4 — 6 in. ( 1 0 — 1 5 cm) in
l eng th. T he cl u stered tu bu l ar or
bel l -shaped fl owers are red, 1 —
1 ½ in. ( 2 . 5 — 4 cm) l ong . T he red
I fru it is an ov oid or py riform berry
abou t ¾ in. ( 2 cm) in diameter,
partial l y encl osed in a persistent
cal y x .
T he pl ant contains
withanol ide.
l pomoea v iol acea L .
M orning G l ory
Conv ol v u l aceae
( M orning G l ory Famil y )
M ex ico to Sou th A merica
4 3
In Oax aca, in sou thern M ex ico,
the seeds of this v ine are es-
teemed as one of the principal
hal l u cinog ens for u se in div ina-
tion as wel l as mag ico-rel ig iou s
and cu ring ritu al s. T he Chinan-
tec and M azatec Indians cal l the
seeds Piu l e; the Z apotecs, B a-
doh Neg ro. In pre-Conq u est
day s, the A ztecs k new them as
T l il il tzin and empl oy ed them in
the same way as Ol ol iu q u l , the
seeds of another M orning G l ory ,
T u rbina cory mbosa.
l pomoea v bol acea, k nown
al so as I. ru brocaeru l ea, is an
annu al v ine with entire, ov ate,
deepl y cordate l eav es 2 1 / 2 — 4 in.
( 6 — 1 0 cm) l ong , ¾ — 3 m. ( 2 — 8 cm)
wide. T he infl orescence is three-
or fou r-fl owered. T he fl owers
v ary from white to red, pu rpl e,
bl u e or v iol et-bl u e, and measu re
2 — 2 ¾ in. ( 5 — 7 cm) wide at the
mou th of the tru mpet-shaped,
corol l a tu be, 2 — 2 ¾ in. ( 5 — 7 cm)
l ong . T he ov oid fru it, abou t ½ in.
( 1 cm) in l eng th, bears el ong ate,
ang u l ar bl ack seeds.
T his v ariabl e species rang es
throu g h western and sou thern
M ex ico and G u atemal a and in
the W est Indies. It can be fou nd
as wel l in tropical Sou th A meri-
ca. It is wel l k nown in horticu l -
J u st/ cia pectora/ isJ acq . v ar.
stenophy / l a L eonard
M ashihiri
A canthaceae ( A canthu s Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
4 4 Central and Sou th A merica
J u sticia pectoral / s v ar. steno-
phy l l a differs from the wide-
spread j . pectoral / s mainl y in its
smal l er statu re and its v ery nar-
rowl y l anceol ate l eav es and
shorter infl orescence. It is an
herb u p to 1 ft ( 3 0 cm) tal l , with
erect or ascending stems,
sometimes rooting at the l ower
nodes. T he internodes are
short, u su al l y l ess than ¾ in.
( 2 cm) l ong . T he nu merou s
l eav es measu re normal l y ¾ —
2 ¼ in. ( 2 — 5 cm) l ong , % — l in. ( 1 —
2 cm) wide. T he dense infl ores-
cence, cov ered with g l andu l ar
hairs, may reach a l eng th of 4 in.
( 1 0 cm) bu t is u su al l y mu ch
shorter. T he inconspicu ou s
fl owers, abou t ¼ in. ( 5 mm) l ong ,
are white or v iol et, freq u entl y
pu rpl e-spotted. T he fru it, ¼ in.
( 5 mm) l ong , bears fl at, reddish
brown seeds.
Chemical ex amination of J u s-
t/ c/ a has been inconcl u siv e.
Prel iminary indications that the
l eav es of J . pectoral / s v ar. ste-
nophy / l a contain try ptamifl eS
( DM T ) need confirmation. T he
dried herb contains cou marin.
4 5
tu re.
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K A E M PFE RIA L .
K aempferia g al ang a L .
G al ang a
u sed as
a hal l u cinog en in New G u inea.
T hrou g hou t the rang e of this
species, the hig hl y aromatic rhi-
zome is v al u ed as a spice to fl a-
v or rice, and al so in fol k medi-
cine as an ex pectorant and
carminativ e as wel l as an aph-
rod isiac. A tea of the l eav es is
empl oy ed for sore throat, swel -
l ing s, rheu matism, and ey e in-
fections. In M al ay sia, the pl ant
was added to the arrow poison
prepared from A ntiaris tox icaria.
T his short-stemmed herb has
fl at-spreading , g reen, rou nd
l eav es measu ring 3 — 6 in. ( 8 —
1 5 cm) across. T he white fl ow-
ers ( with a pu rpl e spot on the
l ip) , which are fu g aciou s, appear
sing l y in the center of the pl ant
and attain approx imatel y 1 in.
( 2 . 5 cm) in breadth.
B ey ond the hig h content of
essential oil in the rhizome, l ittl e
is k nown of the chemistry of the
pl ant. Psy choactiv e activ ity
mig ht possibl y be du e to consti-
tu ents of the essential oil s.
L A G OCH IL U S B u ng e
L ag ochil u s inebrians B u ng e
T u rk estan M int
L abiatae ( M int Famil y )
Central A sia
4 6
On the dry steppes of T u rk estan,
the T aj ik , T atar, T u rk oman, and
U zbek tribesmen hav e u sed a
tea made from the toasted
l eav es of the mint L ag ochil u s in-
ebrians as an intox icant. T he
l eav es are freq u entl y mix ed with
stems, fru iting tops, and fl owers,
and honey and su g ar may occa-
sional l y be added to l essen the
intense bitterness of the drink .
T his pl ant has been wel l stu -
died from the pharmacol og ical
point of v iew in Ru ssia. It is re-
commended for its antihemor-
rhag ic and hemostatic effects to
redu ce permeabil ity of bl ood
v essel s and as an aid in bl ood
coag u l ation. It has al so been
considered hel pfu l in treating
certain al l erg ies and sk in pro-
bl ems. It has sedativ e
properties.
Phy tochemical stu dies hav e
shown the presence of a cry s-
tal l ine compou nd cal l ed l ag ochi-
l ine— a diterpene of the g rinde-
ian ty pe.
T his compou nd is not k nown to
be hal l u cinog enic.
L A T U A Phil .
L atu a pu bifl ora ( G riseb. ) B ail l .
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
Chil e
4 7
L atu a, 6 — 3 0 ft ( 2 — 9 m) tal l , has
one or more main tru nk s. T he
bark is reddish to g ray ish brown.
T he spiny branches, rig id and
1 in. ( 2 . 5 cm) l ong , arise in the
l eaf ax il s. T he narrow el l iptic
l eav es, dark to l ig ht g reen
abov e, pal er beneath, are mar-
g inal l y entire or serrate and
measu re 1 3 / 8 — l ¾ in. ( 3 ½ —
4 ½ cm) by % — 1 ½ in. ( 1 . 5 — 4 cm) .
T he fl owers hav e a persistent,
bel l -shaped, g reen to pu rpl ish
cal y x and a l arg er, mag enta to
red-v iol et, u rceol ate corol l a 1 s/ a—
1 ½ in. ( 3 . 5 — 4 cm) l ong , ½ in.
( 1 cm) wide at the mou th. T he
fru it is a g l obose berry abou t
1 in. ( 2 . 5 cm) in diameter, with
nu merou s k idney -shaped
seeds.
T he l eav es and fru it of L . pu b-
ifl ora contain 0 . 1 8 % hy oscy a-
mine and atropine and 0 . 0 8 %
scopol amine. -
L E ONOT IS ( pers. ) R. B r.
L eonotis l eonu ru s ( L . ) R. B r.
L ion's T ail
L abiatae ( M int Famil y )
4 8
Sou th A frica
T his Sou th A frican shru b has
orang e-col ored fl owers and is
reported to be " hal l u cinog enic? '
In A frica it is cal l ed Dacha, Dag -
g ha, or W il d Dag g a, which
means " wil d hemp? ' T he H otten-
tots and the B u sh peopl e smok e
the bu ds and the l eav es as a
narcotic. It is possibl e that this
pl ant is one of the narcotic
pl ants cal l ed K anna ( compare to
Scel etiu m tortu osu m) . T he resi-
nou s l eav es, or the resin ex -
tracted from the l eav es, are
smok ed al one or mix ed with to-
bacco. Chemical stu dies are
l ack ing .
In Cal ifornia the pl ant has
been g rown and tested, rev eal -
ing a bitter-tasting smok e and a
l ig htl y psy choactiv e effect that is
reminiscent of both Cannabis
and Datu ra. In eastern Sou th
A frica, the cl osel y rel ated L eo-
notis ov ata is reportedl y u sed for
the same pu rpose.
Z ing iberaceae ( G ing er Famil y )
T ropical zones of A frica,
4 5 sou theastern A sia
4 6
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L eonu ru s sibiricu s L .
Siberian M otherwort
Famil y )
Siberia to E ast A sia, Central
4 9 aid Sou th A merica
( fiatu ral ized)
T his herb g rows erect and tal l ,
reaching ov er 6 ft ( 2 m) often on
a sing l e stem. It has max il l iform
branches and finel y serrated,
dark g reen l eav es. T he v iol et
fl owers appear on the ends of
each stem and the infl orescence
can be l ong and attractiv e.
T he Siberian M otherwort is
mentioned in the ancient Chi-
nese Shih Ching ( the B ook of
Song s, written approx imatel y
1 0 0 0 — 5 0 0 B . c. ) , where it is
cal l ed t'u ei. L ater it was occa-
sional l y praised as a medicinal
pl ant in ol d Chinese herbal s.
T he dried l eav es, harv ested
from the fl owering pl ant, are
smok ed as marij u ana su bstitu te
in Central and Sou th A merica
( 1 — 2 g per cig arette) .
In the pl ant, 0 . 1 % of the fl av o-
noid g l y coside ru tin has been
ascertained. Of particu l ar inter-
est with reg ard to the psy ch oac-
tiv e properties was the discov -
ery of three new diterpenes:
l eosibiricine, l eosibirine, and the
isomers isol eosibiricine in
essential oil .
L obel ia tu pa L .
T abaco del Diabl o
Campanu l aceae ( L obel iaceae)
( H arebel l Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones
5 0
T his beau tifu l , red- or red-pu r-
pl e-fl owered, 6 — 9 ft ( 2 — 3 m) hig h
pol y morphic L obel ia is wel l re-
cog nized as tox ic in the A ndes
of sou thern Peru and northern
Chil e, where it is cal l ed T u pa or
T abaco del Diabl o ( " dev il 's to-
bacco" ) . It fl ou rishes in dry soil ,
and its stems and roots hav e a
white l atex that irritates the sk in.
T he l u x u riant fol iag e cl othes
nearl y the whol e l eng th of the
pl ant with g ray ish g reen, el l iptic,
often minu tel y hairy l eav es 4 —
9 in. ( 1 0 — 2 3 cm) l ong . 1 ¼ — 3 1 / 4 in.
( 3 — 8 cm) wide. Carmine red or
pu rpl e, the fl owers, 1 ½ in. ( 4 cm)
in l eng th, are borne densel y on a
stal k 1 4 in. ( 3 6 cm) l ong . T he
corol l a is decu rv ed, sometimes
recu rv ed with the l obes u nited at
the apex .
T u pa l eav es contain the pi-
peridine al k al oid l obel ine, a re-
spiratory stimu l ant, as wel l as
the dik eto- and dihy drox y -deri-
v ativ es l obel amidine and nor-b-
bedamidine. T hese constitu ents
are not k nown to possess hal l u -
cinog enic properties. Nev erthe-
l ess, the smok ed l eav es hav e a
psy choactiv e effect.
L OPH OPH ORA Cou l t.
L ophophora wil l iams/ i ( L em. ) Cou l t.
Pey ote
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
M ex ico, T ex as
5 1
T wo species of L ophophora are
recog nized: they differ morpho-
l og ical l y and chemical l y .
B oth species of L ophophora
are smal l , spinel ess g ray -g reen
or bl u ish g reen top-shaped
pl ants. T he su ccu l ent chl oro-
phy l l -bearing head or crown
measu res u p to 3 ¾ in. ( 8 cm) in
diameter and is radial l y div ided
in from 5 to 1 3 rou nded ribs.
E ach tu bercl e bears a smal l , fl at
areol e from the top of which
arises a tu ft of hairs ¾ in. ( 2 cm)
l ong . T he whitish or pink ish
campanu l ate, u su al l y sol itary ,
in. ( 1 . 5 — 2 . 5 cm) l ong fl ow-
ers are borne in the u mbil icate
center of the crown.
T he Indians cu t off the crown
and dry it for ing estion as a hal -
l u cinog en. T his dry , disk l l k e
head is k nown as the M escal
B u tton or Pey ote B u tton.
L ophophora wil l iams/ i is
u su al l y bl u e-g reen with from 5 to
1 3 ribs and normal l y straig ht
fu rrows. It has u p to 3 0 al k a-
l oids— primaril y M escal ine— as
wel l as fu rther psy choactiv e
pheny l ethy l amines and isoq u i-
nol ines. L . diffu sa has a g ray -
g reen, sometimes ev en a rather
y el l owish g reen crown with in-
definite ribs and sinu ate fu rrows.
T he fl owers are u su al l y mu ch
l arg er than in L . wil l iams/ i. T he
chemical constitu tion is mu ch
simpl er.
B oth species of L ophophora
inhabit the driest and stoniest of
desert reg ions, u su al l y on cal -
careou s soil . W hen the crown is
remov ed, the pl ant wil l often
g row new crowns and thu s
Pey otes with mu l tipl e heads are
commonl y seen. T he hal l u cino-
g enic effects of Pey ote are
strong , with k al eidoscopic, richl y
col ored v isions. T he other
senses— hearing , feel ing ,
taste— can al so be affected.
T here are reportedl y two stag es
in the intox ication. A t first, a per-
iod of contentment and sensitiv -
ity occu rs. T he second phase
bring s g reat cal m and mu scu l ar
sl u g g ishness, with a shift in at-
tention from ex ternal stimu l i to
introspection and meditation.
4 7
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L Y COPE RDON L . ( 5 0 — 1 0 0 ) M A M M IL L A RIA H aw. ( 1 5 0 — 2 0 0 ) M A NDRA G ORA L . ( 6 )
L y coperdon mix tecoru m H eim
L y coperdon marg inatu m Vitt.
B ov ista
L y coperdaceae
( Cl u b M oss Famil y )
T emperate zones of M ex ico
5 2
In northern M ex ico, among the
T arahu mara of Chihu ahu a, a
species of L y coperdon, k nown
as K al amoto, is tak en by sor-
cerers to enabl e them to ap-
proach peopl e withou t being de-
tected and to mak e peopl e sick .
In sou thern M ex ico, the M ix tecs
of Oax aca empl oy two species
to indu ce a condition of hal f-
sl eep, du ring which it is said that
v oices and echoes can be
heard.
L y coperdon mix tecoru m,
k nown onl y from Oax aca, is
smal l , attaining a diameter of no
more than 1 ¼ in. ( 3 cm) . Itis
su bg l obose, somewhat fl at-
tened, abru ptl y constricted into
a pedu ncl e scarcel y ½ in.
( 3 mm) l ong . T he ex terior su r-
face is densel y cobbl ed-pu stu l i-
form and l ig ht tan in col or. T he
interior su bstance is straw co-
l ored.
T he spherical spores, brown-
ish tawny with a su btl e ting e of
v iol et, measu re u p to T his
terrestrial species g rows in l ig ht
forest and in pastu res.
Psy choactiv e constitu ents
hav e not y et been isol ated.
4 8
M ammil l aria spp.
Pincu shion Cactu s
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
Sou thwestern North
5 3 A merica, Central A merica
A mong the most important
" fal se Pey otes" of the T arahu -
mara Indians are sev eral spe-
cies of M ammil l aria, al l of them
rou nd and stou t-spined pl ants.
N-methy l -3 ,4 -dimethox y -phe-
ny l ethy l amine has been isol ated
from M . hey derii, a species do-
sel y rel atedtoM . craig ii. H orde-
nine is present in many species.
M ammil l aria crai,g ii is g l obose
bu t apical l y somewhat fl attened
with conical , ang l ed tu bercl es
abou t ½ 1 n. ( 1 cm) l ong and ax il s
and areol es at first wool l y ; the
central spines are abou t ¼ in.
( 5 mm) l ong . T he rose-col ored
fl ower attains a l eng th of % in.
( 1 . 5 cm) . M . g rahamii may be
g l obose or cy l indric, 2 ½ in.
( 6 cm) in diameter with smal l tu -
bercl es and nak ed ax il s; the
central spines are 3 / 4 in. ( 2 cm) or
l ess in l eng th. T he fl owers,
which attain a l eng th of 1 in.
( 2 . 5 cm) , hav e v iol et or pu rpl ish
seg ments, sometimes with
white marg ins.
M andrag ora officinaru m L .
M andrak e
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
Sou thern E u rope, northern
5 4 A frica, western A sia to
H imal ay as
Probabl y no pl ant has had a
more fantastic history than the
M andrak e. A s a mag ical pl ant
and hal l u cinog en, its ex traordin-
ary pl ace in E u ropean fol k l ore
can nowhere be eq u al ed.
K nown for its tox ic and real and
presu med medicinal properties,
M andrak e commanded the fear
and respect of E u ropeans
throu g hou t the M iddl e A g es and
earl ier. Its fol k u ses and attri-
bu tes were inex tricabl y bou nd
u p with the Doctrine of Sig na-
tu res, becau se of its anthropo-
morphic root.
W hil e there are six species of
M andrag ora, it is M . officinaru m
of E u rope and the Near E ast
that has pl ay ed the most impor-
tant rol e as a hal l u cinog en in
mag ic and witchcraft. It is a
steml ess perennial herb u p to
1 ft ( 3 0 cm) hig h, with a thick ,
u su al l y fork ing root and l arg e,
stal k ed, wrink l ed, ov ate l eav es,
marg inal l y entire or toothed and
measu ring u pto 1 1 in. ( 2 8 cm) in
l eng th. T he whitish g reen, pu r-
pl ish, or bl u ish bel l -shaped fl ow-
ers, 1 ¼ in. ( 3 cm) in l eng th, are
borne in cl u sters among the
tu fted l eav es. T he g l obose or
ov oid, su ccu l ent y el l ow berry
has a del ig htfu l frag rance.
T he total content of tropane
al k al oids in the root is 0 . 4 % .
T he principal al k al oids are
hy oscy amine and scopol amine,
bu t atropine, cu scohy g rine, or
mandrag orine is al so present.
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M A Q U IIRA A u bI.
M aq u ira scl erophy l l a ( Du ck e) C. C.
B erg
Rape dos Indios
M oraceae ( M u l berry Famil y )
T ropical zones of Sou th
5 5 A merica
M IM OSA L .
M imosa hostil is ( M art. ) B enth. ( M i-
mosa tenu ifl ora)
J u rema T ree
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
M ex ico and B razil
5 6
In the Pariana reg ion of the B ra-
zil ian A mazon, the Indians for-
merl y prepared a potent hal l u ci-
nog enic snu ff that, al thou g h no
l ong er prepared and u sed, is
k nown as Rape dos Indios ( " In-
dian snu ff" ) . It is bel iev ed
hav e been made from the fru it of
an enormou s forest tree, M a-
q u ira scierophy l l a ( k nown al so
as Ol medioperebea sciero-
phy l l a) .
M aq u ira scierophy l l a attains a
heig ht of 7 5 — l OOft ( 2 3 — 3 0 m) .
T he l atex is white. Very thick and
heav y , the ov ate or obl ong -
ov ate, marg inal l y inrol l ed l eav es
are 8 — 1 2 in. ( 2 0 — 3 0 cm) l ong , 3 —
6 ½ in. ( 8 — 1 6 cm) wide. T he mal e
fl owering heads are g l obose, u p
to abou t ½ in. ( 1 cm) in dia-
meter; the femal e infl ores-
cences are borne in the l eaf ax -
Is and hav e one or rarel y two
fl owers. T he dru pe or fru it, cin-
namon-col ored and frag rant, is
g l obose, in. ( 2 — 2 . 5 cm) in
diameter. T he tree contains
cardiac g l y cosides.
In the dry caating as of eastern
B razil , this bu sy , sparsel y spiny
treel et fl ou rishes abu ndantl y .
T he spines are basal l y swol l en,
½ in. ( 3 mm) l ong . Its finel y pin-
nate l eav es are 1 ½ — i ¾ in. ( 3 —
5 cm) l ong . T he fl owers, which
occu r in l oosel y cy l indrical
spik es, are white and frag rant.
T he l eg u me or pod, abou t 1 —
1 ¼ in. ( 2 . 5 — 3 cm) l ong , break s
into 4 — 6 sections. A n al k al oid
was isol ated from the root of this
treel et and cal l ed nig erine. It
was l ater shown to be identical
with the hal l u cinog enic
N, N-dimethy l try ptamine.
Sev eral species of M imosa
are cal l ed J u rema in eastern
B razil . M . hostil is is often k nown
as J u rema Prê ta ( " bl ack j u re-
ma" ) . It is identical to the M ex i-
can T epescohu ite ( M . tenu i-
fl ora) . T he rel ated M . v erru cosa,
from the bark of which a stu pe-
facient is said to be deriv ed, is
freq u entl y cal l ed J u rema B ranca
( " white j u rema" ) .
T he tropical tree or shru b g rows
in marshy areas. Often it g rows
onl y to 6 — 9 ft ( 3 — 4 m) hig h, oc-
casional l y to 3 6 — 4 2 ft ( 1 2 — 1 6 m) .
It has an erect stem with fork ed
branches that g row obl iq u el y
u pward. T he g reen ov al l eav es
( 8 — 1 2 cm) are v ery broad and
become narrower toward the tip,
which is pointed. T he fl owers
are deep y el l ow and hang in
g l obu l ar cl u sters. T he seeds are
wing ed.
T he dried l eav es are smok ed,
chewed, or work ed into an ex -
tract cal l ed K ratom or M ambog .
T he psy choactiv e properties
of k ratom are paradox ical . Per-
sonal research, the descriptions
of it in the l iteratu re, as wel l as
the pharmacol og ical character-
istics of the material hav e re-
v eal ed k ratom to be simu l ta-
neou sl y stimu l ating l ik e cocaine
and soothing l ik e morphine. T he
stimu l ating effects beg in within 5
to 1 0 minu tes of chewing the
fresh l eav es.
A s earl y as the 1 9 th centu ry
the u se of K ratom as an opiu m
su bstitu te and a cu rativ e for
opiu m addiction was reported.
T here are nu merou s indol e al -
k al oids present in the pl ant. T he
primary constitu ent is mitrag y -
nine, which is apparentl y easil y
tol erated and shows barel y any
tox icity ev en in hig h doses.
M IT RA G Y NA K orth.
M itrag y na speciosa K orthal s
K ratom
Ru biaceae ( M adder Famil y )
Sou theast A sia ( T hail and,
5 7 northern M al ay Peninsu l a to
B orneo, New G u inea)
4 9
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M u cu na pru riens ( L . ) DC.
Cowhag e
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
5 8 both hemispheres
M Y RIST ICA G ronov .
M y ristica frag rans H ou tt.
Nu tmeg
M y risticaceae ( Nu tmeg Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
5 9 E u rope, A frica, A sia
NY M PF-IA E A L .
DC.
W ater L il y
Ny mphaeaceae
( W ater L il y Famil y )
T emperate and warm zones
6 0 of both hemispheres
ONCIDIU M Sw.
Oncidiu m cebol l eta ( J acq . ) Sw.
H ik u ri Orchid
Orchidaceae ( Orchid Famil y )
Central A merica, Sou th
6 1
A merica, Fl orida
M u cu na pru riens has not been
reported as a hal l u cinog en, bu t
the pl ant has been chemical l y
shown to be rich in psy choactiv e
constitu ents ( DM T , 5 -M eO-DM T ) .
T his stou t, scandent herb,
with acu te ang u l ate stems, has
three-fol iol ate l eav es. T he l eaf-
l ets, obl ong or ov ate, are den-
sel y hairy on both su rfaces. T he
dark pu rpl e or bl u ish fl owers, ¾ —
1 1 / 4 in. ( 2 — 3 cm) l ong , are borne
in short hang ing racemes. T he
pods, with l ong , stiff, sting ing
hairs, measu re abou t 1 ½ — 3 ½ in.
( 4 — 9 cm) l ong , ½ in. ( 1 cm) thick .
T he total indol e al k y l amine
content was stu died from the
point of v iew of its hal l u cino-
g enic activ ity . It was fou nd that
mark ed behav ioral chang es oc-
cu rred that cou l d be eq u ated
with hal l u cinog enic activ ity . It is
possibl e that Indian peopl es
may hav e discov ered and u ti-
l ized some of these psy choac-
tiv e properties of M . pru riens.
T he powdered seeds are con-
sidered aphrodisiac in India.
T he seeds contain DM T and are
u sed as an A y ahu asca anal og
today .
5 0
Nu tmeg and mace can, in l arg e
doses, indu ce an intox ication
characterized by space and time
distortion, a feel ing of detach-
ment from real ity , and v isu al and
au ditory hal l u cinations. Fre-
q u entl y with u npl easant effects
su ch as sev ere headache, dizzi-
ness, nau sea, tachy cardia, nu t-
meg intox ication is v ariabl e.
M y ristica frag rans is a hand-
some tree, u nk nown in a tru l y
wil d state, bu t widel y cu l tiv ated
for nu tmeg , from the seed, and
for mace, from the red aril su r-
rou nding the seed. T he two
spices hav e different tastes
becau se of differing concentra-
tions of components of their
essential oil s. T he aromatic
fraction of oil of nu tmeg is made
u p of nine components bel ong -
ing to the g rou ps terpenes and
aromatic ethers. T he maj or
component— my risticine— is a
terpene, bu t its biol og ical activ ity
is bel iev ed to be that of an
irritant.
T he psy chotropic activ ity is
thou g ht to be du e primaril y to
aromatic ethers ( my risticine and
others) .
T here is ev idence that Ny m-
phaea may hav e been empl oy ed
as a hal l u cinog en in both the Ol d
and New W orl ds. T he isol ation
of the psy choactiv e apomor-
phine has offered chemical su p-
port to this specu l ation. Nu cifer-
me and nornu ciferine are al so
isol ated from N. amp/ a.
Ny mphaea amp/ a has thick ish
dentate l eav es, pu rpl e beneath,
measu ring 5 ½ — il in. ( 1 4 —
2 8 cm) across. T he beau tifu l ,
showy white fl owers, with 3 0 —
1 9 0 y el l ow stamens, become 3 —
5 1 / 4 in. ( 7 — 1 3 cm) across at ma-
tu rity . T he E g y ptian nativ e
N. caeru / ea's ov al , pel tate
l eav es, irreg u l arl y dentate,
measu re 5 — 6 in. ( 1 2 — 1 5 cm) in
diameter and are g reen-pu rpl e
bl otched beneath. T he l ig ht bl u e
fl owers, du l l white in the center,
open three day s in the mid-
morning ; they measu re 3 — 6 in.
( 7 . 5 — 1 5 cm) across; the petal s,
acu te-l anceol ate, nu mber 1 4 to
2 0 , whil e the stamens nu mber
5 0 or more.
Oncidiu m cebo/ / eta is an epi-
phy tic orchid that g rows on
steep, stone cl iffs and trees in
the T arahu mara Indian cou ntry
of M ex ico. It is empl oy ed as a
temporary su rrog ate of Pey ote
or H ik u ri ( L ophophora wi/ / l am-
sii) . L ittl e is k nown, howev er, of
its u se.
T he tropical orchid is widel y
distribu ted in the New W orl d.
T he pseu do-bu l bs appear as l it-
tl e more than a swel l ing at the
base of the fl eshy , erect, rou nd
l eav es, g ray ish g reen, often
spotted with pu rpl e. T he fl ower-
ing spik e, often arching , has a
g reen stal k with pu rpl ish or pu r-
pl e-brown spots. T he fl owers
hav e brownish y el l ow sepal s
and petal s spotted with dark
brown bl otches. T he three-l obed
l ip, 3 / 4 in. ( 2 cm) l ong by 1 1 / 8 in.
( 3 cm) across the mid-l obe, is
brig ht y el l ow with reddish brown
mark s.
A n al k al oid has been reported
from Oncidiu m cebol / eta.
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PA CH Y CE RE U S ( A . B erg er)
B ritt. et Rose
Pachy cereu s pecten-aborig inu m
( E ng el m. ) B ritt. et Rose
Cawe
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
M ex ico
6 2
PA NA E OL U S ( Fr. )
Panaeol u s cy anescens B erk . et B r.
B l u e M eanies
Coprinaceae
W arm zones of both
6 3 hemispheres
PA NA E OL U S ( Fr. )
Q u é l et
Panaeol u s sphinctrinu s ( Fr. ) Q u bl et
H oop-petticoat
Coprinaceae
Cosmopol itan
6 4
A pl ant of many u ses among the
Indians, this tal l , treel ik e col u m-
nar cactu s, arising from a 6 ff
( 1 . 8 m) tru nk , attains a heig ht of
3 5 ff ( 1 0 . 5 m) . T he short spines
are characteristicafy g ray with
bl ack tips. T he 2 — 3 in. ( 5 — 8 cm)
fl owers are pu rpl ish in the ou t-
ermost petal s, white in the inner
parts. T he fru it, g l obose and
measu ring 2 1 / 2 — 3 in. ( 6 — 8 cm) in
diameter, is densel y cov ered
with y el l ow wool and l ong y el l ow
bristl es.
T he T arahu mara, who k now
the pl ant as Cawe and W icho-
wak a, tak e a drink made from
the j u ice of the y ou ng branches
as a narcotic. It cau ses dizzi-
ness and v isu al hal l u cinations.
T he term W ichowak a al so
means " insanity " in the T arahu -
mara l ang u ag e. T here are a
nu mber of pu rel y medicinal u ses
of this cactu s. Recent stu dies
hav e isol ated 4 -hy drox y -
3 -methox y pheny l ethy l amine
and 4 -tetrahy droisoq u inol ine
al k al oids from this pl ant.
Panaeol u s cy anescens is a
smal l , fl eshy or nearl y membra-
naceou s, campanu l ate mu sh-
room. T he sl ender stipe is fra-
g il e and the l amel l ae are
v arieg ated, with metu l oid co-
l ored, pointed cy stidia on the
sides. T he spores are bl ack . T he
fru iting bodies tak e on bl u ish
fl eck s with ag e or after bru ising .
T he isl anders of B al i pick
Panaeol u s cy anescens from
cow and water bu ffal o du ng and
ing est them for cel ebrations and
artistic inspiration. T he mu sh-
room is al so sol d as a hal l u cirio-
g en to strang ers as they pass
throu g h on their trav el s.
A l thou g h this mu shroom is
primaril y tropical , the discov ery
that it contains psil ocy bine was
made with material col l ected in a
g arden in France. U p to 1 . 2 % of
psil ocine and 0 . 6 % of psil ocy -
bine has been fou nd in this
species.
One of the sacred hal l u cinog enic
mu shrooms empl oy ed in div ina-
tion and other mag ic ceremonies
in northeastern Oax aca, M ex ico,
among the M azatec and Chi-
nantec Indians is this member of
the smal l g enu s Panaeol u s. It is
k nown in M azatec as 1 -ha-na-
sa, She-to, and T o-shk a. She-to
means " pastu re mu shroom" and
T o-shk a, " intox icating mu sh-
room. " W hil e not so important as
the sev eral species of Psil ocy be
and Stropharia, P sphinctrinu s
is on occasion u sed by certain
shamans. T his and other spe-
cies of Panaeol u s hav e been re-
ported to contain the hal l u cino-
g enic al k al oid psil ocy bine.
G rowing on cow du ng in for-
ests, open fiel ds, and al ong
roads, P sphinctrinu s is a del i-
cate y el l owish brown mu shroom
u p to 4 in. ( 1 0 cm) in heig ht. It
has an ov oid-campanu l ate, ob-
tu sel y pointed, tan-g ray cap u p
to 1 ¼ in. ( 3 cm) in diameter. T he
stipe is dark g ray ish. T he dark
brownish bl ack g il l s bear bl ack ,
l emon-shaped spores that v ary
in size; they can measu re 1 2 to
1 5 by 7 . 5 to 8 . 3 1 1 .
T he fl esh is thin, in col or simi-
l ar to the su rface, with scarcel y
any bdor. Sev eral inv estig ators
hav e at times arg u ed that
P sphinctrinu s is not among the
hal l u cinog enic mu shrooms
u sed by shamans in Indian
commu nities of Oax aca, bu t this
v iew is contradicted by ampl e
ev idence. Its u se by Oax acan
Indians al ong with so many
other mu shroom species de-
monstrates the tendency among
shamans to u se a su rprising l y
wide rang e of different mu sh-
rooms, depending on season,
weather v ariation, and specific
u sag e. Inv estig ators now be-
l iev e that there may be more
species and g enera of mu sh-
rooms in u se among M ex ican
Indian popu l ations than those
now k nown.
In E u ropean Panaeol u s
sphinctrinu s no psil ocy bine has
been detected. Neither hav e
psy choactiv e effects been de-
termined in hu man pharmacol o-
g ical ex periments. It is possibl e
that chemical l y different ty pes
ex ist.
5 1
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Q u é l et
Panaeo/ u s su bbal teatu s B erk . et
B roome
Dark -rimmed M ottl eg il l
Coprinaceae
E u rasia, North and Central
6 5 A merica
T he Dark -rimmed M ottl eg il l is
widel y distribu ted throu g hou t
E u rope. It g rows in du ng -ferti-
l ized, g rassy earth, in particu l ar
in horse pastu res and in con-
j u nction with horse manu re. T he
cap is in. ( 2 — 6 cm) wide
and somewhat smooth. T his
mu shroom spreads rapidl y . It is
at first damp brown and g rows
drier toward the middl e, so that
the edg e often appears mark edl y
dark er. T he red-brown l amel l ae
are cu rv ed and ev entu al l y be-
come bl ack du e to the spores.
T here is no information
passed on abou t a traditional
u se of this mu shroom. It is pos-
sibl e that it was an ing redient in
the mead or beer of the G er-
mans. Nev erthel ess, this mu sh-
room has a sy mbiotic rel ation-
ship with the horse, the sacred
animal of the G erman g od of
ecstasy , W odan.
T he fru iting body contains 0 . 7 %
psil ocy bine as wel l as 0 . 4 6 %
baeocy stine, a fair amou nt of ser-
otonine and al so
tophane, bu t no psil ocine. A ctiv ity
is ex perienced with 1 . 5 g dried
mu shroom; 2 . 7 g are v isionary .
5 2
Pancratiu m trianthu m H erbert
K washi
M any of the 1 5 species of this
pl ant are potent cardiac poi-
sons; others are emetics; one is
said to cau se death by paral y sis
of the central nerv ou s sy stem.
P trianthu m is repu tedl y one of
the most tox ic species.
L ittl e is k nown of the u se of
Pancratiu m trianthu m. In Dobe,
B otswana, the B u shmen report-
edl y v al u e the pl ant as a hal l u ci-
nog en, ru bbing the sl iced bu l b
ov er cu ts made in the scal p. In
tropical west A frica, P trianthu m
seems to be rel ig iou sl y important.
T he species of Pancratiu m
hav e tu nicated bu l bs and l inear
l eav es, mostl y appearing with
the fl owers. T he white or g reen-
ish white fl owers, borne in an
u mbel terminating in an erect,
sol id, stou t scape, hav e a
fu nnel -shaped perianth with a
l ong tu be and narrow seg ments.
T he stamens, l ocated at the
throat of the perianth, are j oined
tog ether at the base into a k ind
of cu p. T he seeds are ang l ed
and bl ack .
In the bu l b of P trianthu m the
al k al oids l y corine and hordenine
hav e been detected.
Pandanu ssp.
Screw Pine
Pandanaceae
( Screwpine Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
6 7 E u rope, A frica, A sia
Nativ es of New G u inea empl oy
the fru it of a species of Panda-
nu sfor hal l u cinog enic pu rposes,
bu t l ittl e is k nown of this u se.
Dimethy l try ptamine has been
isol ated and identified in Panda-
nu s nu ts. Pandanu s is a v ery
l arg e g enu s of the Ol d W orl d
tropics. It is dioeciou s, treel ik e,
sometimes cl imbing , with pro-
minent fl y ing -bu ttress- or stil tl ik e
roots. T he l eav es of some spe-
cies attain a l eng th of 1 5 ft
( 4 . 5 m) and are u sed for matting :
they are commonl y l ong , stiff,
swordl ik e, armed with prick l es,
hook ed forward and back ward.
T he nak ed fl owers occu r in l arg e
heads encl osed in spathes. T he
ag g reg ate fru it or sy ncarpiu m, is
a l arg e, heav y , hard, composite
bal l -l ik e, orconel ik e mass com-
prising the u nion of the ang l ed,
easil y detachabl e carpel s. M ost
species of Pandanu s occu r
al ong the seacoast or in sal t
marshes. T he fru its of some
species are u sed as food in
Sou theast A sia.
T he Sy rian Ru e is an herb nativ e
to desert areas. It is a bu shy
shru b attaining a heig ht of 3 ft
( 1 m) . T he l eav es are cu t into
narrowl y l inear seg ments, and
the smal l white fl owers occu r in
the ax il s of branches. T he g b-
bose, deepl y l obed fru it contains
many fl at, ang l ed seeds of a
brown col or, bitter taste, and
narcotic odor. T he pl ant pos-
sesses psy choactiv e principl es:
t3 -carbol ine al k al oids— harmine,
harmal ine, tetrahy droharmine—
and rel ated bases k nown to oc-
cu r in at l east eig ht famil ies of
hig her pl ants. T hese constitu -
ents are fou nd in Peg anu m har-
ma/ a in the seeds.
T he hig h esteem that P har-
ma/ a enj oy s in fol k medicine
wherev er the pl ant occu rs may
indicate a former semisacred
u se as a hal l u cinog en in nativ e
rel ig ion and mag ic. It has
recentl y been postu l ated that
P harma/ a may hav e been the
sou rce of Soma or H u oma of the
ancient peopl es of Persia and
India.
PA NA E OL U S ( Fr. ) ( 2 0 — 6 0 )
I
PA NCRA T IU M L . ( 1 5 )
I
PA NDA NU S L . fil . ( 6 0 0 )
I
PE G A NU M L . ( 6 )
A mary l l idaceae
( A mary l l is Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
6 6 A frica and A sia
Peg anu m harmal a L .
Sy rian Ru e
Z y g ophy l l aceae
( Cal trop Famil y )
W estern A sia to northern In-
6 8 dia; M ong ol ia, M anchu ria
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PE L E CY PH ORA E hrenb. ( 2 )
Pel ecy phora asel l iformis E hrenb.
Pey otil l o
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
M ex ico
6 9
T here are su spicions that this
rou nd cactu s may be v al u ed in
M ex ico as a " fal se Pey ote" It is
l ocal l y k nown as Pey ote and
Pey otil l o.
A beau tifu l cactu s, P asel l i-
formis is a sol itary , g ray -g reen,
tu fted, cy l indric-conical pl ant 1 —
2 ½ in. ( 2 . 5 — 6 . 5 cm) , al thou g h
rarel y u p to4 in. ( 1 0 cm) india-
meter. T he l ateral l y fl attened tu -
bercl es are spiral ed, not ar-
rang ed on ribs, and bear v ery
smal l , scal el ik e, pectinate
spines. T he apical bel l -shaped
fl owers measu re u p to 1 ¼ in.
( 3 cm) in width; the ou ter seg -
ments are white, the inner red-
v iol et.
Recent inv estig ations hav e
indicated the presence of al k a-
l oids, mescal ine among others.
W hen consu med, the cactu s
has a simil ar effect to Pey ote.
PE RNE T T Y A ( 2 0 )
G au d. -B eau p.
Pernetty a fu rens ( H ook . ex DC. )
K l otzch
H ierba L oca
E ricaceae ( H eath Famil y )
M ex ico to the A ndes; G al a-
7 0 pag os and Fal k iand Isl ands;
New Z eal and
Nu merou s reports indicate that
Pernetty a is intox icating . T he
fru it of P fu rens, the H u edhu ed
or H ierba L oca of Chil e, cau ses
mental confu sion, madness,
and ev en permanent insanity .
T he effects of the intox ication
are said to be simil ar to those
cau sed by Datu ra. T ag l Ii, or
P parv ifol ia, has tox ic fru it cap-
abl e, when ing ested, of indu cing
hal l u cinations as wel l as other
psy chic and motor al terations.
It has been su g g ested that
Pernetty a was empl oy ed by
aborig inal peopl es as a mag ico-
rel ig iou s hal l u cinog en.
T hese two species of Pernet-
ty a are smal l , sprawl ing to su b-
erect shru bs with densel y l eafy
branches. T he fl owers are white
to rose-tinted. T he berry l ik e fru it
is white to pu rpl e.
PE T U NIA J u ss. ( 4 0 )
Petu nia v iol acea L indl .
Shanin
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
W arm zones of North
7 1
A merica, Sou th A merica
A recent report from hig hl and
E cu ador has indicated that a
species of Petu nia is v al u ed as a
hal l u cinog en. It is cal l ed Shanin
in E cu ador. W hich g rou p of In-
dians empl oy s it, what species,
and how it is prepared for u se
are not k nown. It is said to in-
du ce a feel ing of l ev itation or of
soaring throu g h the air, a ty pical
characteristic of many k inds of
hal l u cinog enic intox ications.
M ost of the cu l tiv ated ty pes of
Petu nia are hy brids deriv ed from
the pu rpl e-fl owered Petu nia v io-
l acea and the white Petu nia ax -
il l aris. T hese species are nativ e
to sou thern Sou th A merica.
Phy tochemical stu dies of the
horticu l tu ral l y important g enu s
Petu nia are l ack ing , bu t as a so-
l anaceou s g rou p al l ied to Nicoti-
ana— the tobaccos— it may wel l
contain biol og ical l y activ e
principl es.
PE U CE DA NU M L . ( 1 2 5 )
Peu cedanu m j aponicu m T hu nb.
Fang -K 'u ei
U mbel l iferae ( Parsl ey Famil y )
T emperate zones of E u rope,
7 2 sou thern A frica, A sia
Peu cedanu mj aponicu m is a
stou t perennial , bl u e-g reen herb
with-thick roots and short rhi-
zomes. T he sol id, fibrou s stems
attain a l eng th of 2 0 — 4 0 in. ( 0 . 5 —
1 m) . T he thick l eav es are 8 —
2 4 in. ( 2 0 — 6 1 cm) l ong , twice or
thrice ternate with obov ate-
cu neate l eafl ets 1 ¼ — 2 ½ in. ( 3 —
6 cm) l ong . T he fl owers are
borne in u mbel l ate cl u sters. T he
1 0 to 2 0 ray s are ¾ — 1 ¼ in. ( 2 —
3 cm) l ong . T he el l ipsoid fru it is
minu tel y hairy , 1 1 / 2 — 2 in. ( 3 . 5 —
5 cm) l ong . T his pl ant is com-
mon on sandy pl aces near sea-
shores.
T he root of Fang -K 'u ei is em-
pl oy ed medicinal l y in China as
an el iminativ e, diu retic, tu ssic,
and sedativ e. A l thou g h thou g ht
to be rather del eteriou s, it may ,
with prol ong ed u se, hav e tonic
effects.
A l k al oidal constitu ents hav e
been reported from Peu ceda-
nu m. Cou marin and fu rocou -
mann are widespread in the
g enu s and occu r in Pj aponi-
cu m.
5 3
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PH A L A RIS L .
Phal aris aru ndinacea L .
Red Canary G rass
G raminaea ( G rass Famil y )
Cosmopol itan
7 3
PH RA G M IT E S A dans.
Phrag mites au stral is ( Cay . ) T rin. ex
Steu d.
Common Reed
G ramineae ( G rass Famil y )
Cosmopol itan
7 4
PH Y T OL A CCA L .
Phy tol acca acinosa Rox b.
Phy tol accaceae
T ropical and warm zones of
7 5 both hemispheres
PSIL OCY B E ( Fr. ) Q u é l et
Psil ocy be cu bensis ( E arl e) Sing .
San Isidro
Strophariaceae
Nearl y cosmopol itan in the
7 6 tropics
T his perennial g rass has g ray ish
g reen stal k s that g row to 6 ff ( 2 m)
and can be spl it l eng thwise. T he
l ong , broad l eav es hav e rou g h
edg es. T he pan ol e can tak e on a
l ig ht g reen or red-v iol et col ora-
tion. T he cal y x hol ds one fl ower.
T he Red Canary G rass was
k nown al ready in antiq u ity . T hu s
far, no traditional u se of Phal aris
aru ndinacea as a psy choactiv e
su bstance is k nown.
T he psy choactiv e constitu -
ents of Phal aris were first no-
ticed by a phy tochemical stu dy
on g rasses done for ag ricu l tu ral
pu rposes. It is possibl e that in
the past few y ears " cel l ar sha-
mans" mig ht hav e been ex peri-
menting with a possibl e psy -
choactiv e u se for the g rass in
A y ahu asca anal og s and DM 1
ex tracts.
T he entire g rass contains in-
dol e al k al oids, which are hig hl y
v ariabl e according to their spe-
cies, tribe, position, and harv est.
In most, DM T , M M T , and 5 -
M eO-DM T are to be fou nd. T he
g rass can al so contain hig h
concentrations of g ramine, an
ex tremel y tox ic al k al oid.
5 4
T he Common Reed, the l arg est
g rass in Central E u rope, often
g rows in harbors. It has a thick ,
many -branched rhizome. T he
stal k s are 3 — 9 ft ( 1 — 3 m) hig h; the
l eav es hav e rou g h edg es and
g row u pto 1 6 — 2 0 in. ( 4 0 — 5 0 cm)
l ong and in. ( 1 — 2 cm) wide.
T he v ery l ong pan ide, 6 — 1 6 in.
( 1 5 — 4 0 cm) l ong , has many dark
pu rpl e fl owers. It fl owers from
J u l y to September. Seeds matu re
in winter, at which point the l eav es
drop and the panicl e tu rns white.
T he Common Reed had many
u ses in ancient E g y pt, particu -
l arl y as fibrou s material . T radi-
tional u se for psy choactiv e pu r-
poses has been docu mented,
onl y as a fermented ing redient in
a beerl ik e drink .
T he rootstal k contains DM T ,
5 -M eO-DM T , bu fotenine, and
g ram me. Reports concerning
psy choactiv e properties are pri-
maril y from ex periences with an
A y ahu asca anal og made from an
ex tract of the roots, l emon j u ice,
and the seeds of Peg anu m har-
ma/ a. U npl easant side effects
su ch as nau sea, v omiting , and
diarrhea hav e been described.
Phy tol acca acinosa is a g l ab-
rou s perennial with robu st,
branching g reen stems u p to 3 ff
( 9 1 cm) in l eng th. T he el l iptic
l eav es av erag e abou t 4 % in.
( 1 2 cm) l ong . T he white fl owers,
abou t % in. ( 1 cm) in diameter,
are borne on densel y fl owered
racemes4 in. ( 1 0 cm) in l eng th.
T he pu rpl e-bl ack , berry l ik e fru it
bears smal l bl ack k idney -
shaped seeds ½ in. ( 3 mm) l ong .
A wel l -k nown Phy tol acca in
China, Shang -l u ex ists in two
forms: one with white fl owers
and a white root and one with
red fl owers and a pu rpl ish root.
T he l atter ty pe is considered to
be hig hl y tox ic, al thou g h the for-
mer is cu l tiv ated as a food. T he
fl owers— Ch'ang -hau '— are es-
teemed for treating apopl ex y .
T he root is so poisonou s that it is
normal l y u sed onl y ex ternal l y .
Phy tol acca acinosa is hig h in
saponines and the sap of the
fresh l eav es has been reported
to hav e antiv iral properties.
T his mu shroom, k nown in Oax -
aca as H ong o de San Isidro, is
an important hal l u cinog en,
al thou g h it shou l d be noted that
not al l shamans wil l u se it. T he
M azatec name is Di-shi-tj o-l e-
rra-j a ( " div ine mu shroom of
manu re" ) .
T he mu shroom may attain a
heig ht of 1 % — 3 m. ( 4 — 8 cm) , v ery
rarel y u p to 5 % in. ( 1 5 cm) . T he
cap, u su al l y % — 2 in. ( 2 — 5 cm) in
diameter ( rarel y l arg er) , is conic-
campanu l ate, at first especial l y
papil l ose, then becoming con-
v ex to pl ane. It is g ol den y el l ow,
pal e tan to whitish near the mar-
g in; in ag e or u pon inj u ry , it may
become cy anaceou s. T he stipe
is hol l ow, u su al l y thick ened at
the base, white bu t y el l owing or
becoming ashy red, and
strong l y l ined. T he g il l s v ary
from whitish to deep g ray -v iol et
or pu rpl e-brown. T he el l ipsoid
spores are pu rpl e-brown.
T he activ e principl e in Psil o-
cy be cu bensis is psil ocy bine.
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Psil ocy be cy anescens is rel a-
tiv el y easy to identify by its wav y
brown cap in. ( 2 — 4 cm)
wide. It doesn't l iv e on du ng , bu t
on decay ing pl ants, coniferou s
mu l ch, and hu mu s-rich earth. In
ol der mu shroom g u ides it is of-
ten cal l ed H y phal oma cy anes-
cens. It is v ery cl osel y rel ated to
the species Psiocy be azu res-
cens and Psiocy be bohemica,
both al so v ery powerfu l
hal l u cinog ens.
A traditional or shamanic u se
of this hig hl y potent Psil ocy be
has not y et been docu mented.
T oday , Psil ocy be cy anescens
is u sed in Central E u rope and
North A merica in neo-pag an
ritu al s. In addition, cu l tiv ated
mu shrooms that hav e a v ery
hig h concentration of psil ocy -
bine are eaten. Visionary doses
are 1 g of the dried mu shroom,
which contains approx imatel y
1 % try ptamine ( psil ocy bine,
psil ocine, and baeocy stine) .
P mex icana g rows at al titu des
of 4 ,5 0 0 — 5 ,5 0 0 ft ( 1 ,3 7 5 —
1 ,6 7 5 m) , especial l y in l ime-
stone reg ions, isol ated or v ery
sparsel y in moss al ong trail s, in
wet meadows and fiel ds, and in
oak and pine forests. One of the
smal l est of the hal l u cinog enic
species, it attains a heig ht of 1 —
( rarel y ) 4 in. ( 2 . 5 — 1 0 cm) . T he
conic campanu l ate or freq u entl y
hemispherical cap, ¼ — 1 ½ in.
( 1 — 3 cm) in diameter, is a weak
straw col or or g reenish straw
col or ( sometimes ev en brownish
red) when l iv ing , dry ing to a
g reenish tan or deep y el l ow; it
has brown striations, and the
terminal nippl e is often reddish.
T he fl esh of the cap tu rns bl u ish
on bru ising . T he hol l ow stipe is
y el l ow to y el l owish pink , red-
brown near the base. T he
spores are deep sepia to dark
pu rpl e-brown.
Psi/ ocy be semil anceata is the
most common and widespread
mu shroom in the Psil ocy be
g enu s. T he L iberty Cap prefers
to g row in fiel ds with ol d manu re
pil es and on g rassy , fertil e mea-
dows. Its cap, in. ( 1 — 2 . 5 cm)
wide, is conical and often
peak ed. It u su al l y feel s damp and
sl imy . T he " head sk in" is easy to
peel off. T he smal l l amel s are ol -
iv e to red-brown; the spores are
dark brown or pu rpl e-brown.
P semi/ anceata contains hig h
concentrations of psil ocy bine
( 0 . 9 7 % u p to 1 . 3 4 % ) , some psi-
l ocine, and l ess baeocy stine
( 0 . 3 3 % ) . T his species is one of
the most potent Psiocy be
mu shrooms.
T oward the end of the M iddl e
A g es in Spain, P semil anceata
was probabl y u sed as a hal l u ci-
nog en by women who were ac-
cu sed of being witches. A l l eg -
edl y the nomads of the A l ps
named P semil anceata the
" dream mu shroom" and tradi-
tional l y u sed it as a psy cho-
activ e su bstance. T oday this
mu shroom is ritu al l y tak en in
certain circl es.
T he ev erg reen shru b can g row
into a smal l tree with a woody
tru nk , bu t u su al l y remains at a
heig ht of 6 — 9 ft ( 2 — 3 m) . Its
whorl ed l eav es are l ong and
narrow with a col or rang ing from
l ig ht g reen to dark g reen and a
shiny top side. T he fl owers hav e
g reenish white petal s on l ong
stal k s. T he red fru it is a berry
that contains nu merou s smal l
l ong ov al seeds, abou t 1 in.
( 4 mm) l ong .
T he l eav es mu st be g athered
in the morning . T hey are u sed
either fresh or dried in the pro-
du ction of A y ahu asca. T oday
they are al so u sed as an A y a-
hu asca anal og .
T he l eav es contain 0 . 1 —
0 . 6 1 % DM T , as wel l as traces of
simil ar al k al oids ( M M T , M T H C) ;
most of the l eav es contain
arou nd 0 . 3 % DM T .
pSIL OCY B E ( Fr. ) Q u é l et ( 1 8 0 ) PSIL OCY B E ( Fr. ) Q u el et ( 1 8 0 ) PSIL OCY B E ( Fr. ) Q u é l et ( 1 8 0 ) PSY CH OT RIA L . ( 1 2 0 0 — 1 4 0 0 )
Psi/ ocy be cy anescens W ak efiel d Psi/ ocy be mex icana H el m
emend. K rieg el steiner T eonaná catl
Nav y Cap
Strophariaceae Strophariaceae
North A merica, Nearl y cosmopol itan
7 7 Central E u rope
7 8
Psil ocy be semil anceata ( Fr. ) Q u é l et Psy chotria v iridis Ru iz et Pav dn
L iberty Cap Chacru na
Strophariaceae Ru biaceae ( M adder Famil y )
Cosmopol itan, A mazonia— from Col ombia
7 9 ex cept M ex ico 8 0 to B ol iv ia and eastern B razil
M any species of Psil ocy be are
empl oy ed in sou thern M ex ico as
sacred mu shrooms, P mex ica-
na being one of the most widel y
u sed.
. . ' '
• — . , ) _ _ '_ •
5 5
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RH Y NCI-IOSIA L ou r.
Rhy nchosia phaseol oides DC.
Piu l e
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
8 1 both hemispheres
SA L VIA L . ( 7 0 0 )
Sal v ia div inoru m E pi. et
J á tiv a-M .
Div iner's Sag e
L abiatae ( M int Famil y )
Oax aca, M ex ico
8 2
SCE L E T IU M
Scel etiu m tortu osu m L .
K ou g u ed
A izoaceae ( Carpetweed Famil y )
Sou th A frica
8 3
SCIRPU S L .
Scirpu s atrov irens W il Id.
B ak ana
Cy peraceae ( Sedg e Famil y )
Cosmopol itan
T he beau tifu l red and bl ack
beans of sev eral species of
Rhy nchosia may hav e been em-
pl oy ed in ancient M ex ico as a
hal l u cinog enic. Painting s of
these seeds on frescoes dated
A . 3 0 0 — 4 0 0 at T epantitl a su g -
g est former u se as a sacred
pl ant.
T hese two species are simi-
l ar— scandent v ines with fl owers
in l ong racemes. T he fl owers of
R. l ong eracernosa are y el l ow;
the seeds are mottl ed l ig ht and
dark brown. R. py ramidal l s has
g reenish fl owers and handsome
hal f-red, hal f-bl ack seeds.
Chemical stu dies of Rhy nch-
osia are stil l prel iminary and in-
decisiv e. A n al k al oid with cu r-
are-l ik e activ ity has been
reported from one species.
E arl y pharmacol og ical ex peri-
ments with an ex tract of R. pha-
seol oides produ ced a k ind of
semi-narcosis in frog s.
In Oax aca, M ex ico, the M azatec
Indians cu l tiv ate Sal v ia div inor-
u rn for the l eav es, which are
cru shed on a metate, dil u ted in
water, and dru nk or chewed
fresh for their hal l u cinog enic
properties in div inatory ritu al s.
T he pl ant, k nown as H ierba de
Ia Pastora ( " herb of the shep-
herdess" ) or H ierba de Ia Virg en
( 'herb of the Virg in" ) , is cu l ti-
v ated in pl ots hidden away in
forests far from homes and
roads.
Sal v ia div inoru m is a peren-
nial herb 3 ft ( 1 m) tal l or more,
with ov ate l eav es u p to 6 in.
( 1 5 cm) and finel y dentate al ong
the marg in. T he bl u ish fl owers,
borne in panicl es u p to 1 6 in.
( 4 1 cm) in l eng th, are approx i-
matel y 5 / 8 in. ( 1 5 mm) l ong .
It has been su g g ested that the
narcotic Pipil tzintzintl i of the an-
cient A ztecs was Sal v ia div inor-
u rn, bu t at present the pl ant
seems to be u sed onl y by the
M azatecs. T he pl ant contains the
potent compou nd sal v inorin A .
Ov er two centu ries ag o, Du tch
ex pl orers reported that the H ot-
tentots of Sou th A frica chewed
the root of a pl ant k nown as
K anna or Channa as a v ision-in-
du cing hal l u cinog en. T his com-
mon name is today appl ied to
sev eral species of Scel etiu m
that hav e al k al oids— mesembr-
me and mesembrenine— with
sedativ e, cocainel ik e activ ities
capabl e of indu cing torpor.
Scel etiu m ex pansu rn is a
shru b u p to 1 2 in. ( 3 0 cm) tal l with
fl eshy , smooth stems and pros-
trate, spreading branches. T he
l anceol ate-obl ong entire,
smooth, u neq u al l eav es, mea-
su ring 1 ½ in. ( 4 cm) l ong , ½ in.
( 1 cm) wide, are ofafresh g reen
col or and v ery g l ossy . B orne on
sol itary branches in g rou ps of
one to fiv e, the white or du l l y el -
l ow fl owers are 1 ½ — 2 in. ( 4 —
5 cm) across. T he fru it is ang u l ar.
B oth S. ex pansu rn and S. for-
tu osu m were formerl y M esem-
bry anthemu m.
One of the most powerfu l herbs
of the T arahu mara of M ex ico is
apparentl y a species of Scirpu s.
T arahu mara Indians fear to cu l -
tiv ate B ak ana l est they become
insane. Some medicine men
carry B ak ana to rel iev e pain.
T he tu berou s u nderg rou nd part
is bel iev ed to cu re insanity , and
the whol e pl ant is a protector of
those su ffering from mental il l s.
T he intox ication that it indu ces
enabl es Indians to trav el far and
wide, tal k with dead ancestors,
and see bril l iantl y col ored
v isions.
A l k al oids hav e been reported
from Scirpu s as wel l as from the
rel ated g enu s Cy peru s.
T he species of Scfrpu s may
be annu al s or perennial s and
are u su al l y g rassl ik e herbs with
few- to many -fl owered spik el ets
that are sol itary or in terminal
cl u sters. T he fru it is a three-
ang l ed ak ene with or withou t a
beak . T hey g row in many habi-
tats bu t seem to prefer wet soil
or bog s.
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SCOPOL IA
J acq Corr. L ink
Scopol ia carniol ica J acq u es
Scopol ia
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
A l ps, Carpathian M ou ntains,
8 5 Cau casu s M ou ntains,
L ithu ania, L atv ia, and
U k raine
T his herbaceou s annu al often
g rows 1 — 3 ft ( 3 0 — 8 0 cm) . T he
du l l g reen l eav es are l ong ish,
pointed, and sl ig htl y pil eou s.
T he fl eshy root is tapered. T he
smal l , bel l -shaped fl owers are
v iol et to l ig ht y el l ow and hang
down indiv idu al l y from the ra-
chis and l ook simil ar to the fl ow-
ers of henbane ( H y oscy amu s
al bu s) . It fl owers A pril to J u ne.
T he fru it dev el ops a capsu l e
with dou bl ed div iding wal l and
many smal l seeds.
In Sl ov enia, Scopol ia was
possibl y u sed for the prepara-
tion of witches' sal v es. In E ast
Pru ssia, the root was u sed as a
nativ e narcotic, beer additiv e,
and aphrodisiac. W omen al l eg -
edl y u sed it to sedu ce y ou ng
men into being wil l ing l ov ers.
T he whol e pl ant contains
cou marins ( scopol ine, scopol e-
tine) as wel l as hal l u cinog enic
al k al oids ( hy oscy amine,
scopol amine) and chl orog enic
acid. T oday the pl ant is g rown for
the indu strial harv est of
L -hy oscy amine and atropine.
SIDA L . ( 2 0 0 )
Sida acu ta B u rm.
A x ocatzin
M al v aceae ( M al l ow Famil y )
W arm zones of both hemi-
8 6 spheres
T hese two species are herbs or
shru bs often u p to 9 ft ( 2 . 7 m) in
heig ht, fou nd in hot l owl ands.
T he stiff branches are empl oy ed
in mak ing rou g h brooms. T he
eav es, l anceol ate to obov oid
and measu ring abou t 1 in.
( 2 . 5 cm) wide and u pto 4 in.
( 1 0 cm) l ong , are beaten in
water to produ ce a soothing
l ather for mak ing sk in tender.
T he fl owers v ary from y el l ow to
white.
Sida acu ta and S. rhombifol ia
are said to be smok ed as a sti-
mu l ant and su bstitu te for M ari-
j u ana al ong the G u l f coastal re-
g ions of M ex ico. E phedrine is
fou nd in the roots of these spe-
cies of Sida. T he dried herb
smel l s distinctl y l ik e cou marine.
A l u x u riant cl imbing bu sh with
showy fl owers resembl ing those
of B ru g mansia, Sol andra is v a-
l u ed for its hal l u cinog enic pu r-
poses in M ex ico. A tea made
from the j u ice of the branches of
S. brev ical y x and of S. g u errer-
ensis is k nown to hav e strong
intox icant properties. M entioned
by H erná ndez as T ecomax ochitl
or H u el patl of the A ztecs,
S. g u errerensis is u sed as an in-
tox icant in G u errero.
T hese two species of So/ an-
dra are showy , erect, or rather
scandent shru bs with thick el l ip-
tic l eav es u p to abou t 7 in.
( 1 8 cm) in l eng th and with l arg e,
cream-col ored or y el l ow, fra-
g rant, fu nnel -form fl owers, u p to
1 0 in. ( 2 5 cm) in l eng th and
opening wide at matu rity .
T he g enu s Sol andra, as
wou l d be ex pected in v iew of its
cl ose rel ationship to Datu ra,
contains tropane al k al oids:
hy oscy amine, scopol amine,
nortropine, tropine, cu scohy -
g rine, and other bases hav e
been reported.
T he beau tifu l red beans of this
shru b were once u sed as a hal -
l u cinbg en in North A merica.
Sophora secu ndif/ ora seeds
contain the hig hl y tox ic al k al oid
cy tisine, bel ong ing pharmacol o-
g ical l y to the same g rou p as ni-
cotine. It cau ses nau sea, con-
v u l sions, and ev entu al l y , in hig h
doses, death throu g h respira-
tory fail u re. T ru l y hal l u cinog enic
activ ity is u nk nown for cy tisine,
bu t it is probabl e that the power-
fu l intox ication cau ses, throu g h
a k ind of del iriu m, conditions
that can indu ce a v isionary
trance.
Sophora secu ndif/ ora is a
shru b or smal l tree u p to 3 5 ff
( 1 0 . 5 m) in heig ht. T he ev er-
g reen l eav es hav e 7 to 1 1 g l ossy
l eafl ets. T he frag rant, v iol et-bl u e
fl owers, borne in drooping ra-
cemes abou t 4 in. ( 1 0 cm) l ong ,
measu re u p to 1 ¼ in. ( 3 cm) in
l eng th. T he hard, woody pod,
constricted between each seed,
bears two to eig ht brig ht red
beans.
( 3 -5 ) SOL A NDRA Sw. ( 1 0 — 1 2 )
Sol andra g randif/ ora Sw.
Chal ice Vine
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
T ropical zones of Sou th
8 7 A merica, M ex ico
SOPH ORA L .
( 5 0 )
Sophora secu ndif/ ora ( Ort. ) L ag . ex
DC.
M escal B ean
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
Sou thwestern North
8 8 A merica, M ex ico
5 7
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T abernaemontana spp.
Sanang o
A pocy naceae ( Dog bane Famil y )
T ropical zones of both
8 9 hemispheres
M ost species of T abernaemon-
tana are bu shy shru bs, cl imbers,
or smal l trees. T he l eav es are
ev erg reen, l anceol ate, often
with a l eathery top side. T he
fl owers consist of fiv e pointed
petal s that mostl y g row in cl u s-
ters ou t of the cal y x . T he two
sy mmetrical fru its are div ided
and mark ed with fairl y v isibl e
v eins. B ecau se of this, they are
easil y confu sed with the testes
of a mammal .
In the A mazon, the Sanang o
( T abernaemontana sananho R.
et P. ) is considered a panacea.
T he l eav es, roots, and the l atex -
rich bark are u sed in fol k medi-
cine. T he tree g rows as tal l as
l 5 ft ( 5 m) . T he l eav es are u sed
as a psy choactiv e additiv e to
A y ahu asca. It is u sed in combi-
nation with Virol a in the produ c-
tion of an oral l y effectiv e hal l u ci-
nog en. In the A mazon, Sanang o
is al so considered a " memory
pl ant. " A y ahu asca is enhanced
with it in order that the v isions
can be better recal l ed.
Phy tochemical research has
recentl y been done on the
g enu s. Indol e al k al oids are the
primary constitu ent, in some
ev en ibog aine and v oacang ine
hav e been ascertained. For this
reason, this species is of parti-
cu l ar interest for the discov ery
of new psy choactiv e pl ants. A
few of the species ( T abernae-
montana coffeoides B oj er ox
DC. , T abernaemontana crassa
B enth. ) hav e al ready rev eal ed
psy choactiv e properties and
u ses.
T aberrianthe ibog a B ail l .
Ibog a
A pocy naceae ( Dog bane Famil y )
T ropical zones of western
9 0 A frica
T a be rnanthe ibog a is a shru b 3 —
4 ½ ft ( 1 — 1 . 5 m) tal l , fou nd in the
u nderg rowth of tropical forests
bu t often cu l tiv ated in nativ e
doory ards. T he shru b has co-
piou s white, v il e-smel l ing l atex .
T he ov ate l eav es, u su al l y 3 ½ —
4 in. ( 9 — 1 0 cm) l ong , abou t
1 1 / 4 in. ( 3 cm) wide ( bu t occa-
sional l y u p to 8 ½ by 2 ¾ in. or 2 2
by 7 cm) , are y el l owish g reen
beneath. T he tiny y el l owish,
pink ish, or white- and pink -
spotted fl owers, which g row in
g rou ps of5 to 1 2 , hav e acra-
teriform corol l a ( a l ong , sl ender
tu be abru ptl y fl aring at the
mou th) with twistG d l obes ¾ in.
( 1 cm) l ong . T he ov oid, pointed
y el l ow-orang e fru its occu r in
pairs and become as l arg e as
ol iv es.
Chemical stu dies on T aber-
nanthe ibog a hav e shown at
l east a dozen indol e al k al oids,
the most activ e being ibog aine,
the effects of which, in tox ic
doses, l ead to ex traordinary
v isions; an ov erdose, to paral y -
sis and death.
T A G E T E S L . ( 5 0 )
T ag etes l u cida Cay .
Y au htl i
Compositae ( Su nfl ower Famil y )
W arm zones of the A mericas
9 1 mostl y M ex ico
T he H u ichol of M ex ico indu ce
v isions by smok ing a mix tu re of
Nicotiana ru stica and T ag etes
l u cida. T hey freq u entl y drink a
fermented beer from maize
al ong with the smok ing in order
" to produ ce cl earer v isions. "
T ag etes l u cida is occasional l y
smok ed al one.
T ag etes l u cida is a strong l y
scented perennial herb u p to
1 ½ ft ( 4 6 cm) tal l . T he opposite
l eav es are ov ate-l anceol ate,
toothed, and pu nctated with oil
g l ands. T he fl owering heads are
produ ced in dense terminal
cl u sters ½ in. ( 1 cm) in diameter,
u su al l y y el l ow to y el l ow-orang e.
T his species is nativ e to M ex ico,
where it is v ery abu ndant in the
states of Nay arit and J al isco. No
al k al oids hav e been isol ated
from T ag etes, bu t the g enu s is
rich in essential oil s and thio-
phene deriv ativ es; / -inositol ,
saponines, tannins, cou marine
deriv ativ es, and cy anog enic g l y -
cosides hav e been reported.
T A B E RNA E M ONT A NA L . ( 1 2 0 ) T A B E RNA NT H E B ail l . ( 2 — 7 )
5 8
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T A NA E CIU M Sw. ( 7 )
noctu rnu m ( B arb. -Rodr. )
3 u r. et K . Schu m.
K oribo
B ig noniaceae ( B ig nonia Famil y )
T ropical zones of Central
9 2 A merica and Sou th A merica,
W est Indies
T anaeciu m noctu rnu m is a
mu ch-branched cl imber with
broadl y el l iptic l eav es 5 ½ in.
( 1 3 . 5 cm) l ong , 4 in. ( 1 0 cm)
wide. T he white fl owers, 6 ½ in.
( 1 6 . 5 cm) l ong , are tu bu l ar,
borne in fiv e- to eig ht-fl owered
racemes 3 m. ( 8 cm) l ong , aris-
ing from the stem. T he stem,
when cu t, emits an odor of al -
mond oil .
T he Pau mari, who l iv e on the
Rio Pu ru s, create a ritu al snu ff
that they cal l k oribo-na fu n/ ou t of
the l eav es. T he shamans sniff it
when they are deal ing with diffi-
cu l t cases— for ex ampl e, in or-
der to ex tract a mag ical obj ect
ou t of the body of the sick per-
son. T hey al so sniff it du ring a
ritu al for protection of chil dren,
du ring which they fal l into a
trance. T he snu ff is u sed onl y by
the men. T his species is said to
be prized as an aphrodisiac by
Indians of the Col ombian
Chocó .
Saponines and tannins hav e
been fou nd in T anaeciu m. T he
l eav es contain pru ssic acid and
cy anog l y cosides, which disinte-
g rate when roasted.
It is u ncertain as to whether
the tox in's waste produ cts con-
tribu te to the psy choactiv e effect
of T noctu rnu m. It is not y et
k nown if there are other activ e
compou nds in the l eav es or
other parts of the pl ant. It is
possibl e that this pl ant contains
su bstances of u nk nown chemi-
cal stru ctu re and pharmacol og i-
cal effect.
T E T RA PT E RIS Cay . ( 8 0 )
T etrapteris methy stica R. E . Schu l t.
Caapi-pinima
M al pig hiaceae ( M al pig hia Famil y )
T ropical zones of Sou th
9 3 A merica, M ex ico,
W est Indies
T he nomadic M ak ü Indians of
the Rio T ik ié in the northwestern
most A mazonas of B razil pre-
pare a hal l u cinog enic drink , a
sort of A y ahu asca or Caapi,
from the bark of T etrapteris
methy stica. Reports of the ef-
fects of the dru g wou l d su g g est
that ( 3 -carbol ine al k al oids are
present.
T etrapteris methy stica ( T mu -
cronata) is a scandent bu sh with
bl ack bark . T he l eav es are char-
aceou s, ov ate, in. ( 6 —
8 . 5 cm) l ong , 1 — 2 in. ( 2 . 5 — 5 cm)
wide, brig ht g reen abov e, ashy
g reen beneath. T he infl ores-
cence is few-fl owered, shorter
than the l eav es. T he sepal s are
thick , hairy withou t, ov ate-Ian-
ceol ate, with eig ht bl ack ov al -
shaped g l ands; the petal s,
spreading , membranaceou s,
y el l ow with red or brown in the
center, el ong ate-orbicu l ar, ½ in.
( 1 cm) l ong , 1 / 1 6 in. ( 2 mm) wide.
T he fru it, or samara, is ov oid, ¼
by ½ by 1 A 6 in. ( 4 by 4 by 2 mm) ,
with brownish wing s abou t ½ by
Y l 6 in. ( l oby 2 mm) .
T RICH OCE RE U S ( A . B erg er)
Riccob.
T richocereu s pachanoi
B ritt. et Rose
San Pedro Cactu s
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
T emperate and warm zones
9 4 of Sou th A merica
T his cactu s is a branched, often
spinel ess, col u mnar pl ant 9 —
2 0 ft ( 2 . 7 5 — 6 m) in heig ht. T he
branches, which hav e 6 to 8 ribs,
are g l au cou s when y ou ng , dark
g reen in ag e. T he pointed bu ds
open at nig ht to produ ce v ery
l arg e, 7 ½ — 9 ¼ in. ( 1 9 — 2 4 cm) ,
fu nnel -shaped, frag rant fl owers
with the inner seg ments white,
the ou ter seg ments brownish
red, and l ong , g reenish stamen
fil aments. T he fru it, as wel l as
the scal es on the fl oral tu be,
hav e l ong bl ack hairs.
T richocereu s pachanoi is rich
in mescal ine: 2 % of the dried
material or 0 . 1 2 % of the fresh
material . Other al k al oids hav e
been reported from the pl ant:
3 ,4 -dimethox y pheny l ethy l a-
mine, 3 -methox y -ty ramine, and
traces of other bases.
T richocereu s pachanoi ( E chi-
nopsis pachanoi) occu rs in the
central A ndes between 6 ,0 0 0
and 9 ,0 0 0 ft( 1 ,8 3 0 — 2 ,7 5 0 m) ,
particu l arl y in E cu ador and
northern Peru .
5 9
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T U RB INA Rat. ( 1 0 )
VIROL A A U bI. ( 6 0 ) VOA CA NG A ( 1 0 — 2 0 )
T u rbina cory mbosa ( L . ) Raf.
Ol ol iu q u i
Conv ol v u l aceae
( M orning G l ory Famil y )
T ropical zones of the
9 5 A mericas, mostl y M ex ico
and Cu ba
T he seeds of T u rbina cory mbo-
sa, better k nown as Riv ea cor-
y mbosa, are v al u ed as one of
the maj or sacred hal l u cinog ens
of nu merou s Indian g rou ps in
sou thern M ex ico. T heir u se
g oes back to earl y periods.
K nown as Ol ol iu q u i, they were
important in A ztec ceremonies
as an intox icant with repu tedl y
anal g esic properties.
T u rbina cory mbosa is a l arg e
woody v ine with heart-shaped
l eav es 2 — 3 ½ in. ( 5 — 9 cm) l ong
and in. ( 2 . 5 — 4 . 5 cm) wide.
T he cy mes are many -fl owered.
T he bel l -shaped corol l as, 3 / 4 _
1 ½ in. ( 2 — 4 cm) l ong , are white
with g reenish stripes. T he fru it is
dry , indehiscent, el l ipsoidal with
persistent, enl arg ed sepal s, and
bears a sing l e hard, rou ndish,
brown, minu tel y hairy seed
abou t 1 / s in. ( 3 mm) in diameter.
T he seeds contain l y serg ic acid
amide, anal og ou s to L SD.
Cl assification of g enera in
the M orning G l ory famil y or
Conv ol v u l aceae has al way s
been difficu l t. T his species has
at one time or another been
assig ned to the g enera Conv ol -
v u / u s, Ipomoea, L eg endrea,
Riv ea, and T u rbina. M ost che-
mical and ethnobotanical stu -
dies hav e been reported u nder
the name Riv ea cory mbosa,
bu t recent critical ev al u ation in-
dicates that the most appropri-
ate binomial is T u rbina
cory mbosa.
V/ rota theiodora ( Spr. ) W arb.
Cu mal a T ree
M y risticaceae ( Nu tmeg Famil y )
T ropical zones of Central
9 6 A merica and Sou th A merica
M ost, if not al l , species of Virol a
hav e a copiou s red 'resin" in the
inner bark . T he resin from a
nu mber of species is prepared
as a hal l u cinog enic snu ff or
smal l pel l ets.
Probabl y the most important
species is Viro/ a theiodora, a
sl ender tree 2 5 -7 5 ft ( 7 . 5 — 2 3 m)
in heig ht, nativ e to the forests of
the western A mazon basin. T he
cy l indrical tru nk , 1 ½ ft( 4 6 cm) in
diameter, has a characteristic
smooth bark that is brown
mottl ed with g ray patches. T he
l eav es ( with a tea-l ik e frag rance
when dried) are obl ong or
broadl y ov ate, 3 1 ,4 . 1 3 in ( 9 —
3 3 cm) l ong , 1 ½ — 4 ½ in. ( 4 —
1 1 cm) wide. T he mal e infl ores-
cences are many -fl owered,
u su al l y brown- or g ol d-hairy ,
shorter than the l eav es; the v ery
smal l fl owers, borne sing l y or in
cl u sters of 2 to 1 0 , are strong l y
pu ng ent. T he fru it is su bg l obose,
3 / $ _ 3 / 4 in. ( 1 — 2 cm) by ¼ — % in. ( . 5 —
1 . 5 cm) ; the seed is cov ered for
hal f its l eng th by a membranac-
eou s, orang e-red aril .
T he resin of the Virol a con-
tains DM T and 5 -M eO-DM T .
Voacang a spp.
Voacang a
A pocy naceae ( Dog bane Famil y )
T ropical A frica
9 7
T he Voacang a g enu s has re-
ceiv ed l ittl e research. T he spe-
cies are simil ar to one another.
T hey mu l tipl e-branched,
ev erg reen shru bs or smal l trees.
T he fl owers are mostl y y el l ow or
white with fiv e u nited petal s.
T here are two sy mmetrical
fru its. L atex ru ns in the bark .
T he bark and seeds of the
A frican Voacang a africana
Stapf. contain u pto 1 0 % indol e
al k al oids of the ibog a ty pe ( v oa-
camine is the primary al k al oid,
ibog aine) and shou l d be simu -
l ating and hal l u cinog enic. In
W est A frica the bark is u sed as a
hu nting poison, stimu l ant, and
potent aphrodisiac. Su pposedl y
the seeds are u sed by A frican
mag icians in order to produ ce
v isions.
T he seeds of the Voacang a
g randifl ora ( M iq . ) Rol fe are u sed
by mag icians in W est A frica for
v isionary pu rposes. U nfortu -
natel y the detail s are not y et u n-
cov ered, as the k nowl edg e of
the mag icians is a cl osel y
g u arded secret.
6 0
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col l ect


Pag e 6 1 : T he Fl y A g aric is u sed for shamanic pu rposes worl dwide. It has
ev en been l ink ed to the ancient Indian Soma.
Sou th













— —

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A bov e: T he sy mbol s in H u ichol my thol og y are v iv idl y depicted in their popu l ar
sacred art. T he beau ty of the forms has as a basis the ceremonial u se of
Pey ote. T he y arn painting abov e, l ik e an A ztec Codex , is a chronicl e of the
creation of the worl d. T he g ods emerg ed from the U nderworl d to M other
E arth. T his was possibl e becau se K au y u mari, Ou r E l der B rother Deer, fou nd
the nierik a, or portway . T he nierik a of K au y u mari ( top center) u nifies the spirit
of al l thing s and al l worl ds. T hrou g h it al l l ife came into being .
B el ow K au y u mari's nierik a, Ou r M other E ag l e ( center) l owers her head to
l isten to K au y u mari, who sits on a rock , bottom rig ht. H is sacred words trav el
down a thread to a pray er bowl and are transformed into l ife energ y , depicted
as a white bl ossom.
A bov e K au y u mari, the Spirit of Rain, a serpent, g iv es l ife to the g ods. T atewari,
first shaman and Spirit of Fire ( top center rig ht) , is bending down toward K au y u -
marl l istening to his chant. B oth are connected to a medicine bask et ( center
rig ht) , which binds them tog ether as shamanic al l ies. Ou r Father Su n, seen op-
posite T atewari on the l eft, is connected with the Spirit of Dawn, the orang e fig u re
bel ow. T he Su n and Spirit of Dawn are both fou nd in W irl k u ta, the Sacred L and of
Pey ote. A l so in W irik u ta is K au y u mari's nierik a and the templ e of E l der B rother
Deer T ail . T he templ e is the bl ack fiel d, l ower center. Deer T ail , with red antl ers, is
seen with his hu man manifestation abov e him. B ehind Deer T ail is Ou r M other
the Sea. A crane bring s her a pray er g ou rd containing the words of K au y u mari.
B l u e Deer ( l eft center) enl iv ens al l sacred offering s. A stream of energ y g oes from
him toou rM other Sea's pray erg ou rd; he al so offers his bl ood to the g rowing corn,
the staff of l ife g erminating bel ow him. A bov e B l u e Deer is the First M an, who
inv ented cu l tiv ation. First M an faces a sacrificed sheep.
Pag e 6 2 : T his earl y -six teenth-centu ry A ztec statu e of X ochipil l i, the ecstatic
Prince of Fl owers, was u nearthed in T l amanal co on the sl opes of the v ol cano
Popocatepetl . T he sty l ized g l y phs depict v ariou s hal l u cinog enic pl ants. From
l eft to rig ht, the g l y phs represent: mu shroom cap; tendril of the M orning G l ory ;
fl ower of T obacco; fl ower of the sacred M orning G l ory ; bu d of Sinicu iche; and,
on the pedestal , sty l ized caps of Psil ocy be aztecOru m.
6 3
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K ey sy mbol s desig nating pl ant ty pes in
Ov erv iew of Pl ants U se
X E ROPH Y T E S A ND
SU CCU L E NT S
L IA NA S
VINE S
A ND
H E RB S
PL A NT S
FU NG I


T RE E S
A Q U A T IC PL A NT S
L eft: T he E ng l ish botanist Richard
Spru ce spent fou rteen y ears in fiel d
research in Sou th A merica du ring the
1 8 0 0 's. A n insatiabl e pl ant-ex pl orer, he
mig ht be cal l ed the prototy pe of ethno-
botanists of tropical A merica. H is
stu dies l aid the fou ndation of research
on the hal l u cinog ens Y opo and Caapi—
research stil l in prog ress.
Pag e 6 4 : T he cu l tu re of Col ombia
( from 1 2 0 0 to 1 6 0 0 ) has y iel ded many
enig matic g ol d pectoral s with mu sh-
rooml ik e representations. T hey may
impl y the ex istence of a cu l t u sing these
intox icating fu ng i, species of which
occu r in the area. M any of the pectoral s
hav e wing l ik e stru ctu res, possibl y
sig nify ing mag ic fl ig ht, a freq u ent char-
acteristic of hal l u cinog enic intox ication.
6 5
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RE F
NU M B E R
COM M ON
NA M E
T Y PE OF
PL A NT
B OT A NICA L
NA M E
U SA G E :
H IST ORY A ND E T I-INOG RA PH Y
A g ara
G al bu l imima beig rav eana ( F. M u el l . ) Sprag u e Nativ es in Papu a
I I
A ng el 's T ru mpets
Fl oripondio
B ru g mansia arborea ( L . ) L ag erh. ;
B . au rea L ag erh. ; B . x insig nis ( B arb. -Rodr. )
B ru g mansia are empl oy ed in the warmer parts of Sou th
A merica, especial l y in the western A mazon, u nder the
1 2
B orrachero
H u acacachu
L ock wood ex R. E . Schu l t. ;
B . Sang u ifl ea ( R. et P. ) Don;
name of T oe.
A l so u sed by the M apu che Indians of Chil e, the Chib-
H u anto
B . su av eol ens ( H . et B . ex W il Id. ) cha of Col ombia, and k nown to Peru v ian Indians as
M aicoa B ercht. et Presl . ; H u acacachu .
T oe B . v ersicol or L ag erh. ;
T ong a B . v u l canicol a ( A . S. B arcl ay ) R. E . Schu l t.
( see al so pag es 1 4 0 — 1 4 3 )
A y ahu asca
Caapi
B anisteriopsis caapi ( Spru ce ex G riseb. ) M orton;
B . inebrians M orton; B . ru sby ana ( Ndz. ) M orton;
U sed in the western hal f of the A mazon Val l ey and by
isol ated tribes on the Pacific sl opes of the Col ombian
Y aj é Dipl optery s cabrerana ( Cu atr. ) B . G ates and E cu adorean A ndes.
( see al so pag es 1 2 4 — 1 3 9 )
A ')
B adoh Neg ro
piu l e
Ipomoea v iol acea L . Oax aca, sou thern M ex ico.
K nown to the A ztecs as T l il il tzin and empl oy ed in
T l il il tzin
the same way as Ol ol iu q u i, Ipomoea is cal l ed Piu l e by
( see al so pag es 1 7 0 — 1 7 5 )
the Chinantec and M azatec, and B adoh Neg ro by the
Z apotec.
2 A
B ak ana
H ik u l i
Cory phantha compacta ( E ng el m. )
B ritt. et Rose; C. app.
T he T arahu mara Indians of M ex ico consider C. corn-
pacta ( W ichu ri, al so referred to as B ak ana or B ak ana-
W ichu ri
wa) a k ind of Pey ote or H ik u l i ( see Pey ote) .
o A
0 '1
B ak ana Scirpu s sp. A species of Scirpu s is apparentl y one of the most
powerfu l herbs of the T arahu mara Indians of M ex ico.
T he Indians fear the pl ant becau se of possibl e
insanity .
6 V
B l u e W ater L il y
Ninfa
Ny mphaea amp/ a ( Sol isb. ) DC. ;
N. caeru l ea Say ,
W ater L il ies enj oy ed an ex ceptional l y prominent pl ace in
the my thol og y and art of M inoan and dy nastic E g y ptian
Q u etzal ax ochiacatl
cu l tu res, in India and China, as wel l as in the M ay an
worl d from the M iddl e Cl assical period u ntil the inception
of the M ex ican period.
A mong Ol d and New W orl d simil arities is the rel ation
of N. amp/ a to the toad, itsel f associated with hal l u cino-
g enic ag ents, and the rel ation of the pl ant to death.
Caapi-Pinima
Caapi ( see A y ahu asca)
T etrapteris methy st/ ca R. E . Schu l . ;
T mu cronata Cay ,
Caapi-Pinima is empl oy ed by the nomadic M ak ü Indians
of the Rio T ik ié in the northwestern A mazon of B razil .
.
T hey cal l it Caapi, the same as B anister/ opal s. Sev eral
writers hav e mentioned " more than one k ind" of Caapi in
the Rio Vau pé s area of B razil and adj acent Col ombia.
6 2
Cawe
W ichowak a
Pachy cereu s pecten-aborig inu m ( E ng eim. )
B ritt. et Rose
E mpl oy ed by the T arahu mara Indians of M ex ico, W icho-
wak a means " insanity " in the l ocal l ang u ag e.
A
Cebil
Vil Ica
A nadenanthera col u brina ( VeIl . ) B renan;
A . col u brina ( Veil . ) B renan v ar.
A . pereg rina is u sed today by tribes of the Orinoco basin
( Y opo) and was first reported in 1 9 4 6 . No l ong er u sed in
5
Y opo
( see al so pag es 1 1 6 — 1 1 9 )
Cebl / ( G riseb. ) A l tschu l ;
A . pereg rina ( L . ) Speg . ;
A . pereg rina ( L . ) Speg . v ar. fa/ cata ( B enth. )
A l tschu l
the W est Indies.
Indians of A rg entina ( Vil Ica or H u il ca) and sou thern
Peru ( Cebu l ) are bel iev ed to hav e empl oy ed A . co/ u brina
in precol onial times.
i
'j I
Cebol l eta
'* '
Onc/ diu m cebo/ / eta ( J acq . ) Sw. It is su spected that the T arahu mara of M ex ico mak e u se
of this orchid.
8 V
Chacru na
Chacru na B u sh
Psy chotria v / rid/ s Ru iz et Pav ó n U sed for ag es in the A mazon reg ion as a sig nificant in-
g redient of A y ahu asca.
Cahu a
6 6
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U SA G E :
CONT E X T A ND PU RPOSE
PRE PA RA T ION CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
A ND E FFE CT S
H al l u cinog enic intox ication T he bark and l eav es of this tree are boil ed with a spe- A l thou g h 2 8 al k al oids hav e been isol ated, a psy choac-
cies of H omal omena to prepare a tea. tiv e principl e has not y et been fou nd.
Visions of men and animal s to be k il l ed are ex peri-
enced.
T he Indians of Sibu ndoy u se B ru g mansia for mag ico- T he dru g is u su al l y tak en in the form of powdered A l l species of B ru g mansia are chemical l y simil ar, with
medicinal pu rposes, the M apu che as medicine for seeds added to fermented drink s, or as a tea made of scopol amine as their principal psy choactiv e constitu -
recal citrant chil dren, the l eav es. ent. Content of l esser al k al oids is al so simil ar.
T he Chibcha formerl y g av e fermented Chicha with A dang erou s hal l u cinog en, B ru g mansia bring s on an
B ru g mansia seeds to wiv es and sl av es of dead chief- intox ication often so v iol ent that phy sical restraint is
tains to indu ce a stu por before they were bu ried al iv e necessary before the onset of a deep stu por, du ring
. v ith their hu sbands or masters, which v isions are ex perienced.
Indians in Peru stil l bel iev e that B ru g mansia permits
them to commu nicate with ancestors and that it can
rev eal treasu res preserv ed in g rav es.
U su al l y dru nk in rel ig iou s ceremonies. T he bark , prepared in col d or boil ing water, may be T he hal l u cinog enic activ ity is primaril y du e to harmine,
In the famou s T u k anoan Y u ru parI ceremony in Co- tak en al one or with additiv es— especial l y the l eav es of the maj or 3 -carbol ine al k al oid in the pl ants.
l ombia— an adol escent initiation ritu al for boy s. T he B . ru sby ana ( Dipl optery s cabrerana) and of Psy chotria E ffects of tak ing the bitter and nau seating drink
J iv aro bel iev e that A y ahu asca mak es possibl e corn- v / rid/ s— which al ter the effects. rang e from pl easant intox ication with no hang ov er to
mu nication with ancestors and that, u nder its infl u - T he bark can al so be chewed. Recent ev idence from v iol ent reactions with sick ening aftereffects. U su al l y ,
ence, a man's sou l may l eav e the body and wander the northwestern A mazon su g g ests that the pl ants are v isu al hal l u cinations in col or occu r. T he intox ication
free, al so u sed in the form of a snu ff. ends with a deep sl eep and dreams.
In sou thern M ex ico, this v ine is respected as one of A drink is prepared from abou t a thimbl efu l of the T he al k al oid content is fiv e times that of T u rbina
the principal hal l u cinog ens for u se in div ination, cru shed seeds. cory mbosa; according l y nativ es u se fewer seeds. T he
mag ico-rel ig iou s, and cu ring ritu al s, same al k al oids are fou nd in other M orning G l ories bu t
u sag e is restricted to M ex ico. ( See Ol ol iu q u i. )
M edicinal pu rposes. T he abov eg rou nd T eu il e ( " meat" of the cactu s) is eaten Variou s al k al oids, incl u ding pheny l ethy l arnines, hav e
T ak en by shamans as a potent medicine and g reatl y fresh or dried. E ig ht to twel v e cactu s " tops" are an been isol ated from Cory phantha, a promising g enu s for
feared and respected by the Indians. adeq u ate dose. fu tu re stu dies.
Scirpu s pl ay s an important rol e in fol k medicine T he tu berou s roots of Scirpu s are often col l ected from A l k al oids hav e been reported from Scirpu s and rel ated
snd as a hal l u cinog en; it mu st be treated with g reat faraway pl aces. sedg es. T he Indians bel iev e that they can trav el to dis-
'ev erence. tant pl aces, tal k with their ancestors, and hav e col ored
v isions.
T here ex ist nu merou s interesting paral l el s between Dried fl owers and bu ds of Ny mphaea amp/ a are T he al k al oids apomorphine, nu ciferine, and nornu ci-
the ritu al istic ( shamanic) sig nificance of Ny mphaea in smok ed. T he rhizomes are eaten raw or cook ed. T he ferine, isol ated from the rhizomes of N. amp/ a, may be
the Ol d and the New W orl ds, su g g esting that Ny m- bu ds of N. caeru / a are u sed to mak e a tea, responsibl e for the psy chotropic activ ity .
phaea may hav e been u sed as a narcotic, possibl y a
hal l u cinog en.
N. amp/ a has recentl y been reported to be u sed in
M ex ico as a recreational dru g with " powerfu l hal l u ci-
natory effects. "
H al l u cinog enic intox ication. A drink is prepared from the bark of T methy stica in
col d water. T he infu sion is y el l owish, u nl ik e the brown-
ish col or of the bev erag e prepared from B anisteriopsis.
It has not been possibl e as y et to carry ou t chemical
ex amination of T met hy stica, bu t reports of the effects
of the dru g wou l d su g g est that the same or simil ar
j 3 -carboiine al k al oids are present as in B anisteriopsis.
T here are sev eral pu rel y medicinal u ses of this A hal l u cinog enic drink is prepared from the j u ice of the 4 -hy drox y -3 -methox y pheny l ethy l amine and fou r tetra-
cactu s, y ou ng branches of P pecten-aborig inu m. hy droisoq u inol irie al k al oids hav e been isol ated.
It cau ses dizziness and v isu al hal l u cinations.
Now smok ed as a hal l u cinog enic intox icant by Indians T he snu ff is prepared from the beans, which are T ry ptamine deriv ativ es and j 3 -carbol ines.
n northern A rg entina. u su al l y moistened, rol l ed into a paste, and dried by
toasting .
W hen pu l v erized to a g ray -g reen powder, it is mix ed
with an al k al ine pl ant ash or snail shel l l ime.
A twitching of the mu scl es, sl ig ht conv u l sions, and
l ack of mu scu l ar coordination fol l owed by nau sea,
v isu al hal l u cinations, and distu rbed sl eep. M acropsia.
Reportedl y u sed as a hal l u cinog en, 0 . cebo/ l eta is U nk nown. A n al k al oid has been reported from 0 . cebol / eta.
empl oy ed as a temporary su rrog ate for Pey ote.
T his bu sh has g reat cu l tu ral sig nificance as a DM T - Fresh or dried l eav es are mix ed with v ines or the hu sk T he l eav es contain 0 . 1 % to 0 . 6 1 % N,N,-DM T , as wel l
prov iding ing redient of the hal l u cinog en A y ahu asca, of B anisteriopsis caapi and cook ed. T he preparation is as traces of other al k al oids.
which has a central pl ace in the shamanic tradition of dru nk as A y ahu asca ( Caapi, Y ag d,) .
; he A mazon.
6 7
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RE F
NU M B E R
COM M ON
NA M E
T Y PE OF
PL A NT
B OT A NICA L
NA M E
U SA G E :
H IST ORY A ND E T H NOG RA PH Y
3 I
Chiricaspi
Chiric-Sanang o
B ru nfel sia chiricaspi Pl owman;
B . g randifl ora Don;
B ru nfel sia is k nown as B orrachero ( 'the intox icator" ) to
Col ombian Indians, and as Chiricaspi ( col d tree" ) in
M anak a B . g randffl ora Don su bsp. schu l tesii Pl owman westernmost A mazonia ( Col ombia, E cu ador, and Peru ) .
3 A
Col orines
Chil icote
M il l . ;
E . coraioides M oc. et Sesse ex DC. ;
T he beans of v ariou s species are freq u entl y sol d with
those of Sophora secu ndffl ora ( M escal B eans) in
T zompanq u ahu itl E . fl abel l iformis K earney M ex ico. T hey are u sed as amu l ets or charms.
7 A
'+
Common Reed Phrag mites au stral ia ( Cay . ) T riniu s ex Steu del U sed for medicinal pu rposes since ancient times. Psy -
choactiv e u se is a recent phenomenon.
Copel andia
J ambu r
Panaeol u s cy anescens B erk . et B r. ;
Copel andia cy anescens ( B erk . et B r. ) Sing er
Cu l tiv ated on cow and bu ffal o du ng in B al i.
5 0
0
Cowhag e ( L . ) DC. India. U sed in A y u rv edic medicine. T he seeds are u sed
worl dwide as charms or amu l ets.
I
Dams da Noite
( L ady of the Nig ht)
Cestru m Iaev ig atu m Schl echt;
Cestru m L 'H erit.
Coastal reg ions of sou thern B razil , sou thern Chil e.
Pal q u i
M aconha
2 0
Datu ra
Du tra
Datu ra metel L . D. metel is mentioned as a hal l u cinog enic pl ant in earl y
Sansk rit and Chinese writing s.
( see al so pag es 1 0 6 — 1 1 1 ) K nown as a dru g to the A rabian phy sician A v icenna in
. the el ev enth centu ry .
E mpl oy ed today especial l y in India, Pak istan, and A f-
g hanistan.
D. ferox , a rel ated Ol d W orl d species, pl ay s a minor
rol e.
8
Deadl y Nig htshade
B el l adonna
A tropa bel l adonna L . E u rope, Near E ast.
Deadl y Nig htshade fig u red as an important ing redient in
( see al so pag es 8 6 — 9 1 ) many of the witches' brews of the M iddl e A g es.
A tropa pl ay ed a prominent rol e in the my thol og y of
most E u ropean peopl es.
2
E l Nene
E l A hij ado
Col eu s bl u mei B enth. ; C. pu mil u s B l anco Nativ e to the Phil ippine Isl ands, two species of this pl ant
hav e acq u ired sig nificance simil ar to Sal v ia in sou thern
E l M acho M ex ico among the M azatec Indians.
'v '-'
E pená
Ny ak wana
Virol a cal ophy l l a W arb. ;
V cal ophy l l oidea M ark g r. ;
In B razil , Col ombia, Venezu el a and Peru a nu mber of
species of Virol a are u sed, the most important of which
Y ak ee V el ong ata ( Spr. ex B enth. ) W arb. ; appears to be V theiodora.
( see al so pag es 1 7 6 -1 8 1 ) V theiodora ( Spr. ) W arb. T he hal l u cinog enic snu ff has v ariou s names depend-
ing on the l ocal ity or tribe, with the most commonl y re-
cog nized terms being Paricá , E pená , and Ny ak wana in
B razil , Y ak ee and Y ato in Col ombia.
E reriba H omal omena sp. T he nativ es of Papu a are reported to u se H oriial omena.
2
E rg ot C/ av j ceps pu rpu rea ( Fr. ) T u l asne It has recentl y been conv incing l y arg u ed that E rg ot
'-' ( see al so pag es 1 0 2 — 1 0 5 ) pl ay ed a rol e in the E l eu sinian my steries of ancient
G reece.
W hen accidental l y g rou nd u p with ry e fl ou r du ring the
M iddl e A g es, E rg ot ( which g rows primaril y as a fu ng al
disease on ry e) poisoned whol e districts with erg otism.
T hese mass poisoning s became k nown as St. A ntho-
ny 's fire.
6 8
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U SA G E :
CONT E X T A ND PU RPOSE
PRE PA RA T ION CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
A ND E FFE CT S
n A mazonian fol k medicine, B ru nfel sia pl ay s a maj or T he K ofá n of Col ombia and E cu ador and the J iv aro of
Scopol etine has been fou nd in B ru nfel sia, bu t this
mag ico-rel ig iou s rol e. E cu ador add B ru nfel sia to Y aj é , prepared basical l y compou nd is not k nown to be psy choactiv e.
U sed as an additiv e to the hal l u cinog enic drink Y al e from B anisteriopsis ( see A y ahu asca) . It heig htens the
A sensation of chil l s fol l ows ing estion, an effect that
( see A y ahu asca) . hal l u cinog enic effects, has g iv en rise to the name Chiricaspi tree" ) .
T he pl ant may once hav e been u sed by the T arahu - T he red beans are often mix ed with the simil ar ones of Some species of E ry thrina contain al k al oids of the er-
mara, who v al u e the beans medicinal l y . Sophora secu ndifl ora. y thran ty pe, produ cing effects simil ar to those of cu rare
or cy tisine.
U sed today as a DM T -del iv ering ag ent for A y ahu asca T wenty to 5 0 g of roots are boil ed with 3 g of seeds from T he roots contain the psy chedel ic or v ision-indu cing
anal og s. Peg anu m harmal a and the preparation is consu med as
a drink ,
al k al oid N, N-DM T , 5 -M E O-DM T , B u fotenin, and the
tox in g ramine.
U sed in nativ e festiv al s in B al i and reportedl y sol d to T he mu shrooms are eaten fresh or dried. U p to 1 . 2 % of psil ocine and 0 . 6 % of psil ocy bine hav e
l oreig n v isitors as a hal l u cinog en, been fou nd in C. cy anescens, which is the hig hest
content of these al k al oids fou nd in hal l u cinog enic
mu shrooms.
Indian peopl es may hav e u til ized the psy choactiv e Powdered seeds. Sou rce of DM 1 for A y ahu asca A l thou g h M u cu na has not been reported as a hal l u ci-
properties. anal og s. nog en, it is rich in psy choactiv e al k al oids ( su ch as
M u cu na is considered an aphrodisiac in India. DM T ) capabl e of indu cing behav ioral chang es eq u ita-
bl e with hal l u cinog enic activ ity .
T he M apu che of sou thern Chil e smok e Pal q u i. T he l eav es are smok ed as a su bstitu te for M arij u ana. T he u nripened fru it, l eav es, and fl owers contain sapo-
nines that are not k nown to be hal l u cinog enic.
U sed as an aphrodisiac in the E ast Indies. Powdered seeds added to wine. See T ol oache.
Val u abl e dru g . T he seeds are added to al cohol ic drink s, to Canna-
Ceremonial intox ication and recreation. bis cig arettes or tobacco, and occasional l y to the betel
chew mix tu re.
W itches' brews; the sabbat. T he entire pl ant contains psy choactiv e constitu ents. T he pl ant contains al k al oids, capabl e of indu cing hal -
T oday , A . bel l adonna is an important sou rce for l u cinations. T he main psZ choactiv e constitu ent is
medicinal dru g s. hy oscy amine, bu t l esser amou nts of scopol amine and
trace amou nts of minor tropane al k al oids are al so
present.
H av ing mag ico-rel ig iou s sig nificance, Col eu s is u sed T he l eav es are chewed fresh or the pl ants are g rou nd, No hal l u cinog enic principl e has y et been discov ered in
as a div inatory pl ant. then dil u ted with water for drink ing , the 1 5 0 k nown Col eu s species.
E pená or Ny ak wana may be snu ffed ceremonial l y by Some Indians scrape the inner l ay er of the bark and dry T ry ptamine and 1 3 -carbol ine al k al oids, 5 -methox y di-
al l adu l t mal es, occasional l y ev en withou t any ritu al the shav ing s ov er a fire. W hen pu l v erized, powdered methy l try ptamine and dimethy l try ptamine ( DM T ) ,
connection. T he medicine men u se the dru g in diag - l eav es of J u st ic/ a, the ashes of A masita, the bark of being the main constitu ents, are responsibl e for the
nosis and treatment of il l nesses. E l izabetha princeps may be added. hal l u cinog enic activ ity . E ffects of the intox ication v ary .
T he u se of Y ak ee or Paricá is restricted to shamans. Other Indians fel l the tree, col l ect the resin, boil it to a
paste, su n-dry the paste, cru sh and sift it. A shes of sev -
eral bark s and the l eaf powder of J u sticia may be added.
A fu rther method is to k nead the inner shav ing s of
freshl y stripped bark and to sq u eeze ou t the resin and
boil it to a paste, which is su n-dried and prepared into
snu ff with ashes added.
A g rou p of M ak ü Indians in the Col ombian Vau pé s
ing est the u nprepared resin as it is col l ected from the
bark .
T hey u su al l y incl u de initial ex citabil ity , setting in within
sev eral minu tes from the first snu ffing . T hen fol l ows
nu mbness of the l imbs, twitching of the facial mu scl es,
inabil ity to coordinate mu scu l ar activ ity , nau sea, v isu al
hal l u cinations, and final l y , a deep, distu rbed sl eep.
Pl ants are u sed in traditional medicine and to create T he l eav es are eaten with the l eav es and bark of G al - L ittl e is k nown stil l of the constitu ents of this g enu s.
hal l u cinog enic dreams. bu l imima be/ g rav eana ( see A g ara) . Viol ent derang ement is fol l owed by sl u mber with
v isions.
It appears that E rg ot has nev er been u til ized pu r- U sed for psy choactiv e pu rposes. T ak en as a col d- E rg ol ine al k al oids, mainl y deriv ativ es of l y serg ic acid,
posefu l l y as a hal l u cinog en in mediev al E u rope. water infu sion. Dosag e is difficu l t to determine and can are the pharmacol og ical l y activ e constitu ents of E rg ot.
E mpl oy ed ex tensiv el y as a medicine by midwiv es in be dang erou s! E rg ot al k al oids or deriv ativ es of them are the basis of
cases of difficu l t chil dbirth du ring the M iddl e A g es, important medicines u sed today in obstetrics, internal
E rg ot indu ced contractions of inv ol u ntary mu scl es medicine, and psy chiatry . T he most potent hal l u cino-
and was a strong v asoconstrictor. g en, l y serg ic acid diethy l amide ( L SD) , is a sy nthetic
deriv ativ e of E rg ot.
6 9
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RE F
NU M B E R
COM M ON
NA M E
T Y PE OF
PL A NT
B OT A NICA L
NA M E
U SA G E :
H IST ORY A ND E T F-INOG RA PI-IY
2 5
E sak u na Cy mbopog on densffl oru s Stapf U sed by medicine men in T anzania.
7 2
Fang -K 'u ei Peu cedanu mj aponicu m T hu nb. China
Fl y A g aric
( see al so pag es 8 2 — 8 5 )
A manita mu scaria ( L . ex Fr. ) Pers. Finno-U g rian peopl es in eastern and western Siberia.
Sev eral g rou ps of A thabask an peopl es of North
A merica. A . mu scaria cou l d v ery wel l be the my steriou s
g od-narcotic Soma of ancient India, tak en by the
A
5
G al ang a
M araba
K aempferia g al ang a L . T here are v ag u e reports that G al ang a is empl oy ed as a
hal l u cinog en in New G u inea.
2 V
G enista Cy t/ su s canariensj s ( L . ) 0 . K u ntze A l thou g h nativ e to the Canary Isl ands, G enista was in-
corporated in aborig inal A merican societies.
G enista has apparentl y acq u ired an important rol e
among the Y aq u i Indians of M ex ico.
5 2
G i'-i-W a
G i'-i-Sa-W a
L y coperdon marg inatu m Vitt. ;
L . mix tecoru m H el m
In sou thern M ex ico, the M ix tec of Oax aca empl oy two
species to indu ce a condition of hal f-sl eep. T here seems
to be no ceremony connected with the u se.
In northern M ex ico, among the T arahu mara of Chi-
hu ahu a, a species of L y coperdon, k nown as K al amota,
is empl oy ed.
A
''J
1 -l enbane
( see al so
H y oscy amu s nig erL . ; H . a/ bu s L . Du ring the M iddl e A g es, H enbane was an ing redient of
the witches' brews and ointments.
A . 1
'+ I
In ancient G reece and Rome, reports of " mag ic
drink s" indicate that H enbane freq u entl y serv ed as an
ing redient. It has been su g g ested that the priestesses
Del phi prophesied u nder the infl u ence of H enbane.
8 2
H ierba de Ia Pastora
H ierba de Ia Virg en
Sal v ia div / foru m E pI. et J ativ a-M . U sed by the M azatec Indians of M ex ico as a su bstitu te
for psy choactiv e mu shrooms, S. div inoru m ( " of the dl v i-
Pipil tzintzintl i ners" ) is cal l ed " herb of the shepherdess: ' It is commonl y
bel iev ed to be the narcotic Pipil tzintzintl i of the A ztec
Indians.
3 3
H ik u l i M u l ato
H ik u l i Rosapara
E pithel antha micromeris ( E ng el m. )
W eber ex B ritt. et Rose
One of the " fal se Pey otes" of the T arahu mara Indians of
Chihu ahu a and the H u ichol of northern M ex ico.
7
H ik u l i Su namé
Chau tl e
A riocarpu s fissu ratu s Schu mann;
A . retu su s Scheidw.
T he T arahu mara Indians in northern and central M ex ico
assert that A . fissu ratu s is strong er than Pey ote ( L o-
Pey ote CimarrOn phophora) .
T su wiri H u ichol Indians of M ex ico.
'-"
Ibog a
( see al so pag es 1 1 2 — 1 1 5 )
T abernanthe ibog a B ail l . In G abon and the Cong o, the cu l t su rrou nding Ibog a
prov ides the nativ es with the strong est sing l e force
ag ainst the missionary spread of Christianity and Isl am
in this reg ion.
5 6
J u rema
A j u ca
M imosa host/ / is ( M art. ) B enth. ;
M . v erru cosa B enth. = M imosa tenu / f/ ora
Val u ed in eastern B razil , where sev eral tribes in Pernam-
bu co u se the pl ant in ceremonial s; al so empl oy ed by v ar-
T epescohu ite
( W il Id. ) Poir. bu s now ex tinct tribes of the same area.
Ov er two centu ries ag o, Du tch ex pl orers reported that
the H ottentots of Sou th A frica empl oy ed the root of a
pl ant k nown as Channa or K anna.
8 3
K anna
M esembry anthemu m ex pansu m L . ;
M . tortu osu m L . = Scel etiu m tortu osu m ( L . )
N. E . B r.
7 0
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Ibog a is k nown to be u sed as a hal l u cinog en in mag ico-
rel ig iou s contex t, especial l y the B witi cu l t, and serv es
to seek information from ancestors and the spirit worl d,
hence 'a coming to terms with death. " M oreov er, intox -
ication is practiced in the initiation ceremonies.
T he dru g al so has the repu tation of a powerfu l
stimu l ant and aphrodisiac.
T he hal l u cinog enic u se of M imosa hostil is in ceremo-
nies seems to hav e nearl y disappeared today . E m-
pl oy ed in connection with warfare.
Probabl y once u sed as a v ision-indu cing hal l u cino-
g en.
T he root of Fang -K 'u ei is empl oy ed medicinal l y in
China.
Fresh or dried roots are eaten pu re, or added to pal m
wine. Rou g hl y l og of dried root powder indu ces a
psy chedel ic effect.
T he root of M imosa hostil is was the sou rce of a " mira-
cu l ou s drink ," k nown l ocal l y as A j u ca or Vinho de J u re-
ma.
In the hinterl ands of Sou th A frica, the roots and l eav es
are stil l smok ed.
A pparentl y , the l eav es are sometimes dried after
fermentation and chewed as an inebriant.
CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
A ND E FFE CT S
It is not k nown to which compou nd the al l eg ed hal l u ci-
nog enic activ ity has to be attribu ted.
A l k al oidal constitu ents hav e been reported from Peu -
cedanu m, bu t whether or not they are of hal l u cinog enic
ty pes is not k nown. Cou marins and fu rocou marins are
widespread in the g enu s; both occu r in P j aponicu m.
Ibog a contains at l east a dozen indol e al k al oids, ibo-
g ame being the most important. Ibog aine is a strong
psy chic stimu l ant that in hig h doses produ ces al so
hal l u cinog enic effects.
One activ e al k al oid identical with the hal l u cinog enic N,
N-dimethy l -try ptamine has been isol ated.
T he common name is today appl ied to
sev eral species
of Scel etiu m and M esembfy afl ttl emu m that
hav e al k a-
l oids — mesembrine and mesembrenine
— with sedativ e
activ ities capabl e of indu cing torpor.
K anna produ ces a strong intox ication.
7 1
U SA G E :
CONT E X T A ND PU RPOSE
PRE PA RA T ION
E mpl oy ed to cau se dreams in order to foretel l the fu -
tu re.
Fol k medicine.
Smok ing of the fl owers, either al one or with tobacco.
Shamanistic inebriation.
One or sev eral mu shrooms are tak en su n-dried or Ibotenic acid, M u scimol e, M u scazone.
Rel ig iou s sig nificance; heal ing ceremonies.
sl owl y toasted ov er a fire. T hey may al so be dru nk as E u phoria, col ored v isions, macropsia; on occasion
Rel ig iou s ceremonies,
an ex tract in water or reindeer mil k or with the j u ice of
Vacciniu m ol ig inoru m or E pil obiu m ang u stifol iu m. Ri-
tu al istic drink ing of the u rine of intox icated indiv idu al s
in Siberia al so occu rs.
rel ig iou s ferv or and deep sl eep may occu r.
H al l u cinog enic intox ication ( ? ) ,fol k medicine, aphro-
T he hig hl y aromatic rhizome is v al u ed l ocal l y as a B ey ond the hig h content of essential oil ( to which hal -
disiac.
condiment; a tea from the l eav es is empl oy ed in fol k
medicine,
l u cinog enic activ ity mig ht be du e) in the rhizome of this
rel ativ e of G ing er, l ittl e is k nown of the chemistry .
Ceremonial u se in Nativ e A merican tribes.
T he seeds are v al u ed by Y aq u l medicine men. Cy tisu s is rich in the l u pine al k al oid cy tisine.
E mpl oy ed especial l y by the medicine men as a hal -
H al l u cinog enic activ ity has not been reported
l u cinog en in mag ic ceremonies.
cy tisine, bu t it is k nown to be tox ic.
U sed as au ditory hal l u cinog en. T he fu ng i are eaten.
T here is as y et no phy tochemical basis to ex pl ain the
T ak en by sorcerers to enabl e them to approach
psy chotropic effects.
peopl e withou t being detected and to mak e peopl e
sick .
W itches' brews; mag ic infu sions.
T he dried herb is smok ed as a cig arette or smok ed in a T he activ e principl es in this sol anaceou s g enu s are
Indu ces a cl airv oy ant trance.
smok ehou se. T he seeds are mainl y smok ed. T he
seeds are u sed as a su bstitu te for hops in mak ing beer.
Dosag e v aries from person to person.
tropane al k al oids, especial l y hy oscy amine scopo-
l amine, the l atter being mainl y responsibl e for the
hal l u cinog enic effects.
In Oax aca, M ex ico, the M azatec Indians cu l tiv ate
T he l eav es are chewed fresh or cru shed on a metate, T he main activ e ing redient, sal v inorin A , can bring
S. div inoru m for its hal l u cinog enic properties in div i-
then dil u ted with water and fil tered for a drink ,
abou t ex treme hal l u cinations when inhal ed in amou nts
natory ritu al s,
of 2 5 0 to 5 0 0 mcg .
It is apparentl y u sed when T eonaná catl or Ol ol iu q u i
seeds are rare.
M edicine men tak e H ik u l i M u l ato to mak e their sig ht Cactu s fl esh is eaten fresh or dried.
A l k al oids and triterpenes hav e been reported.
cl earer and permit them to commu ne with sorcerers, It
T his cactu s is reportedl y abl e to driv e ev il peopl e
is tak en by ru nners as a stimu l ant and " protector" and
insanity and throw them from cl iffs.
the Indians bel iev e that it prol ong s l ife.
Val u ing it in witchcraft, the T arahu mara bel iev e that
Consu med either fresh or cru shed in water.
Sev eral pheny l ethy l amine al k al oids hav e been
thiev es are powerl ess to steal when this cactu s cal l s
isol ated.
its sol diers to its aid.
T he H u ichol consider A riocarpu sto be ev il , insisting
that it may cau se permanent insanity .
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T anaeciu m noctu rnu m ( B arb. -Rodr. )
B u r. et K . Schu m.
E mpl oy ed by the K aritiana Indians of the Rio M adeira in
A mazonian B razil .
5 7
K ratom
B iak -B iak
M itrag y na speciosa K orthal s In the 1 9 th centu ry , K ratom was k nown as an opiu m
su bstitu te in T hail and and M al ay sia.
Q U
K washi Pancratiu m fr/ ant hu m H erbert K washi is empl oy ed by the B u shmen in Dobe,
B otswana.
A 7
1
L atCie
A rbol de l os B ru j os
L atu a pu b/ fl ora ( G riseb. ) B ail l . Formerl y u sed by the M apu che Indian shamans of
Val div ia, Chil e.
I
L iberty Cap Psil ocy be semi/ anceata ( Fries) Q u el et It is possibl e that this fu ng u s has been u sed for psy cho-
activ e pu rposes in Central E u rope for abou t 1 2 ,0 0 0
y ears. E arl ier, it was u sed as a hal l u cinog en by the A l pen
nomads and has al so been u sed in E u ropean witchcraft.
A 8
L ion's T ail
W il d Dag g a '
L eon/ f/ s l eonu ru s ( L . ) R. B r. T his herb has been u sed as a narcotic in sou thern A frica
since ancient times.
Dacha
i
'
M aiden's A cacia A cacia maidenii F. v on M u el l . ;
A . phiebophy l l a F. v on M u el l . ;
A . simpl icifol ia Dru ce
M any A cacias are u sed in traditional medicine. T he
psy choactiv e u se of A cacia, W hich contains DM T , is v ery
recent and has been dev el oped especial l y in A u stral ia
and Cal ifornia.
8 6
M al v a Col orada
Chichibe
Sida acu ta B u rm. ; S. rhomb/ fol ia L . Sida acu ta and Sida rhomb/ fol ia are said to be smok ed
al ong the G u l f Coast of M ex ico.
A x ocatzin
5 A
M andrak e
( see al so pag es 8 6 — 9 1 )
M andrag ora off/ cinaru m L . M andrak e has a compl ex history in the Ol d W orl d.
T he root of M andrak e can be l ik ened to the hu man
form, hence its mag ic.
7 I
M arij u ana
B hang
Cannabis sat/ v a L . ; C. md/ ca L am. In India, u se of Cannabis has had rel ig iou s sig nificance.
Specimens nearl y 4 ,0 0 0 y ears ol d hav e tu rned u p in an
Charas E g y ptian site.
Dag g a In ancient T hebes, the pl ant was made into a drink with
G anj a opiu m-l ik e effects.
H ashish T he Scy thians, who threw H emp seeds and l eav es on
H emp hot stones in steam baths to produ ce an intox icating
K if smok e, g rew the pl ant al ong the Vol g a 3 ,0 0 0 y ears ag o.
T a M a Chinese tradition pu ts the u se of the pl ant back 4 ,8 0 0
( see al so pag es 9 2 — 1 0 1 ) . y ears.
Indian medical writing , compil ed before 1 0 0 0 B .
ports therapeu tic u ses of Cannabis.
T he G reek phy sician G al en wrote, abou t A . 1 6 0 , that
g eneral u se of Cannabis in cak es produ ced intox ication.
In 1 3 th-centu ry A sia M inor, org anized mu rderers,
rewarded with H ashish, were k nown as hash/ shins, from
which may come the term assassin in E u ropean
l ang u ag es.
M ashihiri
J u st/ cia pectoral / s J acq . v ar.
stenophy l l a L eonard
T he W aik á and other Indians of the u ppermost Orinoco
and the adj acent parts of northwestern B razil cu l tiv ate
J u st/ cia.
7 2
RE F COM M ON
T Y PE OF B OT A NICA L U SA G E :
NU M B E R NA M E
PL A NT NA M E H IST ORY A ND E T H NOG RA PH Y
8 7
K iel ifK ieri
Sol andra brev / cal y x Standl . ; M entioned by H erná ndez as T ecomax ochiti or H u eipatl
H u eipatl
S. g u errerensis M artinez of the A ztec Indians.
T ecomax ochiti
In the my thol og y and sy mbol ism of the M ex ican H u i-
chol and other tribes, sev eral species of Sol andra are
important.
9 2
K oribo
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Cannabis has a l ong history of u se in fol k medicine
and as a psy choactiv e su bstance.
It is the sou rce of fiber, an edibl e fru it, an indu strial
oil , a medicine, and an intox icant.
U se of Cannabis has g rown in popu l arity in the past
4 0 y ears as the pl ant has spread to nearl y al l parts of
the g l obe. Increase in the pl ant's u se as an inebriant in
W estern cou ntries, especial l y in u rban centers, has
l ed to maj or probl ems and dil emmas for E u ropean
and A merican au thorities. T here is a sharp div ision of
opinion as to whether the widespread u se of Canna-
bis is a v ice that mu st be stamped ou t or is an innoc-
u ou s habit that shou l d be permitted l eg al l y . T he su b-
j ect is debated hotl y , u su al l y with l imited k nowl edg e.
E x tracts from the hu sk and l eav es of A . maidenii, the
bark of A . simpl icifol ia, or the l eav es of A . phiebophy l l a
are combined with the seeds from Peg anu m harmal a.
M ethods of consu ming Cannabis v ary . In the New
W orl d, M arij u ana ( M aconha in B razil ) is smok ed— the
dried, cru shed fl owering tips or l eav es are often mix ed
with tobacco or other herbs in cig arettes. H ashish, the
resin from the femal e pl ant, is eaten or smok ed, often
in water pipes, by mil l ions in M u sl im cou ntries of
northern A frica and western A sia. In A fg hanistan and
Pak istan, the resin is commonl y smok ed. E ast Indians
reg u l arl y empl oy three preparations: B hang consists of
pl ants that are g athered g reen, dried and made into a
drink with water or mil k or into a candy ( maj u n) with
su g ar and spices; Charas normal l y smok ed or eaten
with spices, is pu re resin; G anj a, u su al l y smok ed with
tobacco, consists of resin-rich dried tops from the
femal e pl ant.
M any v arieties of A cacia contain the psy chedel ic su b-
stance, DM T . T he bark of A . maideniicontains 0 . 3 6 %
DM T ; the l eav es of A . phiebophy l l a contain 0 . 3 % DM T .
T he bark of A . simpl icifol ia can contain u p to 3 . 6 % al -
k al oids, of which DM T accou nts for rou g hl y one third.
T he psy choactiv e principl es— cannabinOtic com-
pou nds— are fou nd in g reatest concentration in a resin
produ ced most abu ndantl y in the reg ion of the pistil l ate
infl orescence. A fresh pl ant y iel ds mainl y cannabidiol ic
acids, precu rsors of the tetrahy drocannabinOl s and re-
l ated constitu ents, su ch as cannabinol and cannabi-
diol . T he main effects are attribu tabl e to
tetrahy drocannabinol .
T he principal effect is eu phoria. E v ery thing from a
mil d sense of ease to hal l u cinations, from feel ing s of
ex al tation and inner j oy to depression and anx iety hav e
been reported. T he dru g 's activ ities bey ond the central
nerv ou s sy stem seem to be secondary . T hey
consist of
a rise in pu l se rate and bl ood pressu re,
tremor, v ertig o,
difficu l ty in mu scu l ar coordination, increased
tactil e
sensitiv ity , and dil ation of the pu pil s.
T he nativ es mix J u sticia l eav es with the snu ff pre-
pared from Virol a ( see E pena) to " mak e the snu ff
smel l better'
T he l eav es are dried and pu l v erized.
T ry ptamines hav e been su spected from
sev eral spe-
cies of J u sticia.
7 3
U SA G E :
CONT E X T A ND PU RPOSE
PRE PA RA T ION CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
A ND E FFE CT S
T he H u ichol worship and fear Sol andra as a g od-nar-
cotic, K iel i, a powerfu l aid in sorcery . Real izing the
cl ose rel ationship of Sol andra, Datu ra, and B ru g man-
sia, the H u ichol sometimes combine their u se: they
disting u ish between Datu ra inox ia or K iel itsa ( " bad
K iel i" ) and the real K iel i or Sol andra.
S. g u errerensis is k nown to be empl oy ed as an
intox icant in the state of G u errero.
A tea made from the j u ice of the branches of both spe-
des is k nown to be empl oy ed as an intox icant.
T he g enu s Sol andra, cl osel y rel ated to Datu ra, con-
tains hy oscy amine, scopol amine, nortropine, tropine,
scopine, cu scohy g rine, and other tropane al k al oids
with strong hal l u cinog enic effects.
Fol k medicine.
T his species is said to be praised as an aphrodisiac
by Indians of the Col ombian ChocO.
A tea is made of the l eav es of this l iana and those of an
u nidentified pl ant as a remedy for diarrhea.
Reports from botanical col l ectors of the odor of T noc-
tu rnu m su g g est that cy anog enesis occu rs in this spe-
des. Saponines and tannins hav e been isol ated.
In Sou theast A sia, the l eav es are chewed or smok ed
for u se as a stimu l ant or a narcotic,
Fresh l eav es are chewed, dried, and smok ed, or tak en
internal l y as atea or ex tract. T he l eav es are sometimes
u sed tog ether with B etel .
T he entire pl ant contains al k al oids, of which M itrag y -
nine is the main activ e ing redient. M itrag y nine, which is
chemical l y simil ar to y ohimbine and psil ocy bine, is a
v ery powerfu l psy choactiv e su bstance.
Reportedl y u sed as a hal l u cinog en and in fol k medi-
cine.
Rel ig iou simportanceassu medintropical W estA ftica.
T he bu l bs are cu t in two and ru bbed ov er incisions on
the scal p. T his cu stom most cl osel y approaches the
W estern habit of inj ecting medicine.
M any of the 1 5 species contain v ery tox ic al k al oids.
T he tox ic state may be accompanied by hal l u cinog enic
sy mptoms.
is a v iru l ent poison once u sed to indu ce del ir-
l u m, hal l u cinations, and ev en permanent insanity ,
Dosag es were a secret cl osel y g u arded. T he fresh fru it
was preferential l y empl oy ed.
T he l eav es and fru it contain 0 . 1 5 % hy oscy amine and
0 . 0 8 % of scopol amine, responsibl e for hal l u cinog enic
activ ity .
T his mu shroom has been u sed worl dwide for its hal -
l u cinog enic and v ision-indu cing q u al ities,
E aten fresh or dried. T hirty fresh mu shrooms or
rou g hl y 3 g of dried mu shrooms is a su fficient psy che-
del ic dose.
Contains hig h concentrations of psil ocy bin, and some
psil ocine and baeocy stine ( the total al k al oid concen-
tration is rou g hl y 1 % of the dried mass) . T his is a
potent hal l u cinog en.
T he H ottentots and bu sh peopl e smok e the pl ant as a
narcotic or as a su bstitu te for Cannabis.
T he dried bu ds and l eav es are smok ed either al one or
mix ed with tobacco.
T here hav e been no chemical stu dies to date.
A cacia resin is u sed in conj u nction with Pitu ri by the
A u stral ian A borig ines. T oday , v ariou s v arieties of
A cacia are u sed as DM T sou rces and al so in the pre-
paration of A y ahu asca anal og s for hal l u cinog enic
ex periences.
E mpl oy ed as a stimu l ant and su bstitu te for M arij u ana. Smok ing .
E phedrine, which indu ces a mil d stimu l ating effect, has
been reported from these species of Sida.
U sed as a panacea, M andrak e pl ay ed an ex traordin-
T here ex isted v ariou s precau tions in pu l l ing the root
T ropane al k al oids with hy oscy amine as the main con-
ary rol e as a mag ic pl ant and hal l u cinog en in E u r-
from the earth becau se the pl ant's u nearthl y shriek s
stitu ent besides scopol amine, atropine, mandrag orine,
T he total
opean fol k l ore. A n activ e hal l u cinog enic ing redient of
cou l d driv e col l ectors mad.
and others are the psy choactiv e
is 0 . 4 % .
the witches' brews, M andrak e was probabl y the most
content of tropane al k al oids
potent admix tu re.
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RE F.
NU M B E R
COM M ON
NA M E
T Y PE OF
PL A NT
B OT A NICA L
NA M E
U SA G E :
H IST ORY A ND E T H NOG RA PH Y
• 4 A
M atwO
H u il ca
Cacal ia cordifol l a L . f ii. M ex ico
8 8
M escal B ean
Coral B ean
Col orines
Frij ol es
Red B ean
Sophora secu ndifl ora ( On. ) L ag . ex DC. U se of M escal B ean g oes far back into prehistory in the
Rio G rande basin, where they hav e had ritu al u ses for at
l east 9 ,0 0 0 y ears.
T he A rapaho and Iowa tribes in the U nited States
were u sing the beans as earl y as 1 8 2 0 .
A t l east a dozen tribes of Indians in northern M ex ico
and sou thern T ex as practiced a v ision-seek ing dance.
0 0
Nig htshade Scopol ia carniol ica J acq u es Probabl y u sed as an ing redien. t of witches' sal v es and
ointments; u sed in E astern E u rope as a su bstitu te for
M andrak e; al so u sed as an intox icating ing redient in
beer.
I U
Nonda B ol etu s k u meu s H el m; B . manicu s H el m;
B . nig rov iol aceu s H el m; B . reay i H eim
New G u inea
5 9
Nu tmeg
M ace
M y ristica frag rans H ou tt. K nown as " narcotic fru it" in ancient Indian writing s.
Occasional l y u sed as a su rrog ate for H ashish in
E g y pt.
U nk nown in cl assical G reece and Rome, Nu tmeg was
introdu ced to E u rope in the first centu ry A . 0 . by the
A rabs, who empl oy ed it ass medicine.
Nu tmeg poisoning was common in the M iddl e A g es,
and du ring the 1 9 th centu ry in E ng l and and A merica.
9 5
Ol ol iu q u i
B adoh
X tabentu m
( see al so pag es 1 7 0 — 1 7 5 )
,
T u rbina cory mbosa ( L . ) Raf.
[ = Riv ea cory mbosa]
T he seeds of this M orning G l ory , formerl y k nown as
Riv ea cory mbosa, are v al u ed as one of the maj or sacred
hal l u cinog ens of nu merou s Indian g rou ps in sou thern
M ex ico. T heir u se g oes back to earl y periods, and they
were important in A ztec ceremonies as an intox icant
and as a mag ic potion with repu tedl y anal g esic
properties.
A 2
Pag u ando
B orrachero
T otu bj ansu sh
A rbol de Campanil l a
Iochroma fu chsioides M iers U sed by the Indians of the Sibu ndoy Val l ey of sou thern
Col ombia and the K amsá of the sou thern A ndes of
Col ombia.
5 1
Pey ote
H ik u l i
M escal B u tton
( see al so pag es 1 4 4 — 1 5 5 )
L ophophora diffu sa ( Croizat) B rav o;
L . wil l iamsii ( L em. ) Cou l t.
Spanish chronicl es described u se of Pey ote by the A z-
tec Indians. L ophophora is v al u ed today by the T arahu -
mara, H u ichol , and other M ex ican Indians as wel l as by
members of the Nativ e A merican Chu rch in the U nited
States and western Canada.
Pey otil l o Pel ecy phora asel l iformis E hrenb. T here are su spicions that this rou nd cactu s may be
v al u ed in M ex ico as a " fal se Pey ote: '
3 2
Pital l ito
H ik u ri
E chinocereu s sal mdy ck ianu s Scheer;
E . trig l ochidiatu s E ng el m.
T he T arahu mara Indians of Chihu ahu a consider both
species as " fal se Pey otes. "
3 -1
Pitu ni
Pitu ri B u sh
Poison B u sh
Du boisia hopwoodii F. con M u el l . Pitu ni l eav es hav e been u sed for at l east 4 0 ,0 0 0 y ears in
A u stral ian ritu al s and are u sed for both medicinal and
pl easu rabl e pu rposes.
8 1
'
Piu l e
Rhy nchosj a l ong eracemosa M art. et G al . ;
R. phaseol oides; R. py ramidal is ( L am. ) U rb.
T he red/ bl ack beans of sev eral species of Rhy nchosia
may hav e been empl oy ed in ancient M ex ico as a
hal l u cinog en.
Rape dos Indios
M aq u ira scl erophy l l a ( Du ck e) C. C. B erg Indians of the Pariana reg ion of the B razil ian A mazon
formerl y u sed M aq u ira, bu t encroaching civ il ization has
ended this cu stom.
7 4
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U SA G E :
CONT E X T A ND PU RPOSE
PRE PA RA T ION CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
A ND E FFE CT S
Presu med aphrodisiac and cu re for steril ity .
T he dried herb is smok ed. One al k al oid has been reported.
No ev idence of hal l u cinog enic properties.
T he arriv al of the Pey ote cu l t, centering on L opho-
A drink was prepared from the red beans of T he seeds contain the hig hl y tox ic al k al oid cy tisine,
phora, a safer hal l u cinog en, l ed the nativ es to aban- S. secu ndifl ora.
which pharmacol og ical l y bel ong s to the same g rou p as
don the Red B ean Dance, which had made u se of the
nicotine. H al l u cinog enic activ ity from cy ti-
beans as an oracu l ar, div inatory , and hal l u cinog enic
sine, bu t the powerfu l intox ication may cau se a k ind of
mediu m.
del iriu m comparabl e to a v isionary trance.
In hig h doses, respiratory fail u re may l ead to death.
Pitu ri has been of central importance in A u stral ian
A borig inal society as a su bstance for social enj oy -
ment, a shamanic mag ic dru g , and a v al u abl e g ood for chewed.
trade. Pitu ri is chewed for its narcotic effects, as a
stimu l ant to dreams and v isions, and simpl y to be
enj oy ed.
H al l u cinog enic intox ication ( ? )
T he l eav es contain v ariou s psy choactiv e al k al oids
( pitu rine, nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine, and others) .
T he roots al so contain nornicotine and scopol amine.
T he chewed l eav es can act as a narcotic, stimu l ant, or
hal l u cinog en.
Chemical stu dies of Rhy nchosia are stil l indecisiv e. A n
al k al oid with cu rare-l ik e activ ity has been reported
from one species. Pharmacol og ical ex periments with
R. phaseol oides produ ced a k ind of seminarcoSis in
frog s.
U sed as an aphrodisiac and psy choactiv e l ov e potion
T he roots are u sed as an ing redient in beer. T he dried
in L ithu ania and L atv ia.
herb can be smok ed al one or mix ed with other herbs.
T he whol e pl ant contains strong hal l u cinog enic tro-
panal k al oids, especial l y hy oscy amine and scopol a-
mine. A l so contains scopol etine.
Sev eral species of B ol etu s are inv ol v ed in the re-
ported madness" of the K u ma.
T he dried, g rou nd fru it is eaten. A ctiv e principl es u nk nown.
T he most notabl e u se of Nu tmeg is fou nd in W estern
society , especial l y among prisoners depriv ed of other
dru g s.
A t l east one teaspoon is u sed when tak en oral l y or
snu ffed for narcotic pu rposes, al thou g h u su al l y mu ch
more is req u ired to bring on fu l l intox ication. Nu tmeg is
on occasion added to the betel chew.
T he main activ e ing redient of nu tmeg 's essential oil s is
my risticine; safrol and eu g enol are al so present.
In hig h doses ex tremel y tox ic and dang erou s, the
components of Nu tmeg oil so u pset normal body fu nc-
tions that they ev ok e a del iriu th comparabl e to hal l u ci-
nations, u su al l y accompanied by sev ere headache,
dizziness, nau sea, etc.
A t the present time the smal l rou nd seeds are u til ized
in div ination and witchcraft by Chinantec, M azatec,
M ix tec, Z apotec, and others and, as has recentl y
been stated, in al most al l v il l ag es of Oax aca
one finds seeds stil l serv ing the nativ es as an ev er-
present hel p in time of trou bl e! '
T he seeds, which mu st be col l ected by the person who
is to be treated, are g rou nd by a v irg in on a metate,
water is added, and then the drink is fil tered. T he
patient drink s it at nig ht in a q u iet, secl u ded pl ace.
E rg ol ine al k al oids were fou nd to be the psy choactiv e
principl es, l y serg ic acid amide and l y serg ic acid hy dro-
x y ethy l amide, cl osel y rel ated to the potent hal l u cino-
g en L SD, being the most important constitu ents.
A ccording to shamans, the aftereffects are so strong
that the pl ant is u sed for div ination, prophecy , and di-
ag nosis of disease onl y when other medicines" are
u nav ail abl e, or for especial l y difficu l t cases.
T he fresh bark is rasped from the stem and boil ed with
an eq u al amou nt of l eav es, u su al l y a handfu l . T he re-
su iting tea, when cool ed, is dru nk with no admix tu re.
T he dose is said to be one to three cu pfu l s of a strong
decoction ov er a three-hou r period,
A l thou g h chemical inv estig ation of this g enu s has not
been carried ou t, it bel ong s to the Nig htshade famil y ,
wel l recog nized for its hal l u cinog enic effects.
T he intox ication is not pl easant, hav ing after effects
of sev eral day s.
M y thol og ical and rel ig iou s sig nificance; heal ing cere-
monies.
In the U nited States, u se of Pey ote is av ision-q u est
ritu al with a combination of Christian and Nativ e el e-
ments and hig h moral principl es.
T he cactu s may be eaten raw, dried, or made into a
mash or a tea.
From 4 to 3 0 tops are consu med du ring the
ceremony .
Contains u p to 3 0 al k al oids of the pheny l ethy l amine
and tetrahy droisoq u inol ine ty pe. T he main constitu ent
responsibl e for the hal l u cinog enic activ ity is trimethox -
y pheny l ethy l amine, named mescal ine.
H al l u cinations are characterized by col ored v isions.
T he cactu s is u sed in northern M ex ico as Pey ote
( L ophophora wil l iams/ i) .
Cactu s fl esh is eaten fresh or dried.
Recent inv estig ations hav e indicated the presence of
al k al oids.
T he T arahu mara sing to Pital l ito du ring col l ection and
say it has " hig h mental q u al ities! '
Cactu s fl esh is eaten fresh or dried.
A try ptamine deriv ativ e has been reported from
E . trig / ochid/ atu s.
T he fermented l eav es are mix ed with al k al ine pl ant
ashes and other resins ( su ch as A cacia resin) and
T he snu ff was tak en du ring tribal ceremonial s.
T he seeds are referred to by Indians of Oax aca by the
same name u sed for the hal l u cinog enic seeds of
M orning G l ory ( T u rbina cory mbosa) .
T he method of preparation from the dried fru it is ap-
parentl y remembered onl y by the v ery ol d.
No chemical stu dies hav e been carried ou t on
M . scierophy l l a.
7 5
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RE F COM M ON
NU M B E R NA M E
7 3
Reed G rass
T Y PE OF B OT A NICA L
PL A NT NA M E
Phal aris aru ndinacea L .
U SA G E :
H IST ORY A ND E T H NOG RA PH Y
A l thou g h Reed G rass was famil iar to writers of antiq u ity ,
its psy choactiv e u se is v ery recent.
Sou thwestern U nited States and M ex ico. A l thou g h there
are apparentl y no ethnol og ical reports of Sag u aro as a
hal l u cinog en, the pl ant is an important medicine among
the Indians.
T here are many v arieties of the g enu s T a be rnaemon-
tana in A frica and Sou th A merica. E special l y in A frica,
some v arieties seem to hav e been u sed for a l ong time in
shamanic or traditional medicine practices.
1 8
Sag u aro Carneg iea g ig an tea ( E ng el m. ) B ritt. et Rose
8 9
Sanang o
T abernaemontana
T abernaemonfana coffeoj des B oj er ex DC. ;
T crassa B entham; T dichotoma Rox bu rg h;
T pandacaq u i Poir.
[ = E rv atamia pandacaq u i ( Poir. ) Pichonj
A
San Pedro T richocereu s pachanoi B ritt. et Rose U sed by the nativ es of Sou th A merica, especial l y in the
A g u acol l a
[ = A ndes of Peru , E cu ador, and B ol iv ia.
G ig antó n
( see al so pag es 1 6 6 — 1 6 9 )
6 7
ScrewPine Pandanu ssp. NewG u inea
Shang -l a Phy tol acca acinosa Rox b. China
Shanin Petu nia v iol acea L indi. A recent report from hig hl and E cu ador has indicated
Petu nia
- that a species of Petu nia is v al u ed as a hal l u cinog en.
2 3
Shanshi Coriaria thy mifol ia H B K . ox W il id. Peasants in E cu ador.
A
Siberian L ion's T ail L eonu ru s sibiricu s L .
T he Siberian M otherwort has been u sed medicinal l y
M arij u anil l o
from the v ery beg inning of Chinese medicine. Since the
Siberian M otherwort
pl ant was transpl anted to the A mericas, it has been u sed
as a su bstitu te for M arij u ana.
Sinicu ichi H eimia sal icifol ia ( H B K ) L ink et Otto A l thou g h al l three species of H eimia are important in
M ex ican fol k medicine, mainl y H . sa/ icifol ia has been
v al u ed for its hal l u cinog enic properties.
Straw Fl ower
H el ichry su m foetidu m ( L . ) M oench; Z u l u l and, Sou th A frica.
H . stenopteru m DC.
2
Sweet Fl ag A coru s cal amu s L . Cree Indians of northwest Canada.
Fl ag Root
Sweet Cal omel
Cal amu s
Sy rian Ru e
Peg anu m harmal a L . P harmal a is v al u ed today from A sia M inor across to
India with ex traordinary esteem, su g g esting former
rel ig iou s u se as a hal l u cinog en.
T ag il i
Pernetty a fu rens ( H ook . ex DC. ) K l otzch; P fu rens is cal l ed H ierba L oca in Chil e ( " maddening
'-' H ierba L oca
P parv ifol l a B entham
pl ant" ) , whil e P parv ifol ia is k nown as T ag Il i in E cu ador.
H u edhu ed
T aiq u e
Desfontainia spinosa ft et P. Reported as a hal l u cinog en from Chil e ( T aiq u e) and
B orrachero
sou thern Col ombia ( B orrachero = " intox icant" ) .
L atu y
7 6
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U SA G E :
CONT E X T A ND
M ex ican nativ es report that Sinicu ichi possesses
su pernatu ral v irtu es, bu t the pl ant does not appear to
be tak en ritu al l y or ceremonial l y .
Some nativ es assert that it hel ps them cl earl y to
recal l happening s of l ong ag o— ev en prenatal ev ents.
K nown to be empl oy ed as a hal l u cinog en, it has been
su g g ested that Pernetl y a has pl ay ed a rol e in mag ico-
rel ig iou s ceremonies in Sou th A merica— a stil l u npro-
v en cl aim.
M edicine men of the K amsá tribe drink a tea from the
l eav es for the pu rpose of diag nosing disease or when
they " want to dream'
In the M ex ican hig hl ands the l eav es of H . sal icifol ia are
sl ig htl y wil ted, cru shed in water, and then al l owed to
ferment into an intox icating drink .
A l k al oids of the q u inol izidine ty pe hav e been isol ated,
among them cry og enine ( v ertine) , to which the psy -
chotropic activ ity may be attribu ted.
T he bev erag e indu ces g iddiness, a dark ening of the
su rrou nding s, shrink ag e of the worl d arou nd, and a
pl easant drowsiness. A u ditory hal l u cinations may oc-
cu r with v oices and distorted sou nds that seem to
come from far away .
T he pl ant possesses u ndou bted hal l u cinog enic
princi-
pl es: f3 -carbol ine al k al oids— harmine, harmal ine, tetra-
hy droharmine, and rel ated bases k nown to occu r in at
l east eig ht famil ies of hig her pl ants. T hese
constitu ents
are fou nd in the seeds.
T he chemistry of the tox ic fru its of both P fu rens
and
P parv ifol ia, which cau se mental confu sion
and ev en
insanity , is not y et el u cidated.
Nothing is as y et k nown of the chemistry of
D. spinOSa.
Visions are ex perienced and some of the
medicine
men assert that they temporaril y " g o
crazy " u nder its
infl u ence.
PRE PA RA T ION CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
A ND E FFE CT S
In connection with research on the so-cal l ed A y a-
hu asca anal og s, a species of Reed G rass has been
discov ered that has a hig h DM T content and can be
u sed psy choactiv el y .
A n ex tract is made from the l eav es. In combination with
Peg anu m harmal a, it has v isionary effects, and can be
dru nk as a su bstitu te for A y ahu asca.
T his g rass contains many indol e al k al oids, especial l y
N,N-DM T ,5 -M eO-DM T ,M M T and [ sometimes] g rarnine.
DM T and 5 -M eO-DM T hav e v ery strong psy chedel ic
effects, whil e g ramine is v ery tox ic.
T he Sen Indians of Sonora consider Sag u aro effica-
ciou s ag ainst rheu matism.
T he fru it of Carneg iea is v al u ed as food and in wine-
mak ing .
T he pl ant contains pharmacol og ical l y activ e al k al oids
capabl e of psy choactiv ity . Carneg ine, 5 -hy drox y carne-
g ine, aRd norcarneg ine, pl u s trace amou nts of 3 -meth-
ox y ty ramine and the new al k al oid arizonine ( a tetrahy -
droq u inol ine base) , hav e been isol ated.
T abernaemor,tana crassa is u sed in W est A frica as a
narcotic in traditional medicine. T dichotoma is u sed
for its psy choactiv e effects in India and Sri L ank a.
T he seeds of T dichotoma are u sed as a hal l u cinog en.
U nfortu natel y , v ery l ittl e is k nown abou t this interesting
g enu s.
M ost v arieties contain ibog aine-l il ce al k al oids ( su ch as
v oacang ine) , which hav e v ery strong hal l u cinog enic
and v ision-indu cing effects.
H al l u cinog enic intox ication.
T he u se of I pachanoi appears to be primaril y for
div ination, diag nosis of disease, and to mak e onesel f
owner of another's identity .
Short pieces of the stem are sl iced and boil ed in water
for sev eral hou rs. Sev eral other pl ants, B ru g mansia,
Pernetty a, and L y copodiu m, for ex ampl e, are some-
times added.
T pachanoiis rich in mescal ine: 2 % of dried material
( or 0 . 1 2 % of fresh material ) .
A species of Pandanu s is said to be u sed for hal l u ci-
nog enic pu rposes, whil e others are k nown to be Va-
l u ed in fol k medicine, in mag ic, and for ceremonial
pu rposes.
It has recentl y
reported that nativ es of New
G u inea empl oy the fru it of a species of Pandanu s.
Dimethy l try ptamine ( DM T ) has been detected in an al -
k al oid ex tract. E ating su bstantial amou nts of the nu ts is
said to cau se an " ou tbreak of irrational behav ior"
k nown as K aru k a madness among l ocal peopl e.
Shang -l a is a wel l -k nown medicinal pl ant in China. It
was reportedl y u sed by sorcerers, who v al u ed its hal -
l u cinog enic effects.
T he fl owers and roots enter Chinese medicine: the for-
mer for treating apopl ex y , the l atter for ex ternal u se
onl y .
P acinosa has a hig h concentration of saponines.
T he tox icity and hal l u cinog enic effects of Shang -l a
are commonl y mentioned in Chinese herbal s.
T ak en by the Indians of E cu ador to indu ce a sensation
of fl ig ht.
T he dried herb is smok ed.
Phy tochemical stu dies of Petu nia are l ack ing .
T he pl ant is said to indu ce a feel ing of fl y ing .
Recent reports su g g est that the fru it may pu rposefu l l y
be eaten to indu ce intox ication.
T he fru it is eaten.
T he chemistry is stil l poorl y k nown.
L ev itation or sensations of soaring throu g h the air.
T his herb is smok ed in B razil and Chiapas as a su b-
stitu te for Cannabis.
T he fl owering herb is dried and smok ed al one or mix ed
with other pl ants. One to 2 g of the dried pl ant is an
effectiv e dose.
Contains al k al oids, fl av ong l y cosides, diterpenes, and
an essential oil . T he psy choactiv e effects may be attri-
bu tabl e to the diterpenes ( l eosibiricine, l eosibirine, and
isol eosibirine) .
T hese herbs are u sed by nativ e doctors 'for inhal ing to
indu ce trances: '
T he dried herb is smok ed.
Cou marins and diterpenes are reported, bu t no consti-
tu ents with hal l u cinog enic properties hav e been
isol ated.
A ntifatig u e medicine; al so u sed ag ainst toothache,
Chewing of the rootstal k .
T he activ e principl es are a-asarone and 3 -asarone.
In l arg e doses, v isu al hal l u cinations and other ef-
headache, and asthma.
fects simil ar to those of L SD may occu r.
H al l u cinog enic intox ication ( u ncertain)
Sy rian Ru e has many u ses in fol k medicine, as wel l as T he dried seeds
constitu te the Indian dru g H armal .
being v al u ed as an aphrodisiac. Often u sed as
incense.
E ating of the fru it.
T ea made from the l eav es or fru it.
7 7
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I
Z acatechichi
I
T hie-Pel ak ano
A ztec Dream G rass
RE F
NU M B E R
COM M ON
NA M E
T Y PE OF
PL A NT
B OT A NICA L
NA M E
U SA G E :
H IST ORY A NDE T H NOG RA pH Y
3 8
T ak ini H el icosty l l s pedu ncu l ata B enoist;
H . tomentosa ( P. et E . ) M acbride
In the G u l anas, T ak ini is a sacred tree.
2 2
T eonaná catl
T amu
Conocy be sil ig ineoides H eim;
Panaeol u s Sphinctrinu s ( Fr. ) Q u el et;
M u shroom worship seems to be rooted in centu ries of
nativ e Indian tradition of M iddl e A merica.
6 4
H ong o de San Isidro
She-to
Psil ocy be acu tissima H eim;
P aztecoru m H el m; P caeru l escens M u rr. ;
T he A ztec Indians cal l ed the sacred mu shrooms T eo-
naná catl ; the M azatec and Chinantec in northeastern
7 6
T o-shk a
( see al so pag es 1 5 6 1 6 3 )
P caerU l escens M u rr. v ar. al bida H el m;
P caeru l escens M u rr. v ar. mazatecoru m H eim;
P caeru l escens M u rr. v ar. nig ripes H el m;
Oax aca, M ex ico, refer to Panaeo/ u s sphinctrinu s as
T -ha-na-sa, T o-shk a ( " intox icating mu shroom" ) , and
She-to ( " pastu re mu shrooms" ) . W hil e in Oax aca Psil o-
7 8 P caeru / escens M u rr. v ar. ombrop/ i/ / a H eim;
P mex icana H el m; P mix aeensis H el m;
P semperv iv a H el m et Cail l eu x ;
P wassoniiH eim;
P y u ng ensis Sing er; P zapotecoru m H eim;
Psil ocy be cu bensis E arl e
cy be cu bensis is named H ong o de San Isidro, in the
M azatec l ang u ag e it is cal l ed Di-shi-tj o-l e-rra-j a ( " div ine
mu shroom of manu re" ) .
2
T horn A ppl e
J imsonweed
Datu ra stramoniu m L . Reportedl y empl oy ed by the A l g onq u in and others.
Ing redient of the witches' brews of mediev al E u rope.
( see al so pag es 1 0 6 — 1 1 1 )
U sed in both the Ol d and New W orl d, the g eog raphic
orig in of J imsonweed is u ncertain.
2
T ol oache
T ol oatzin
Datu ra innox ia M il l . ;
D. disco/ or B ernh. ex T romms. ;
K nown al so as D. met el oides, D. innox ia is u sed in M ex -
ico and the A merican Sou thwest.
( see al so pag es 1 0 6 — 1 1 1 ) D. k y matocarpa A . S. B arcl ay ;
D. pru inosa G reenm. ;
D. q u ercifol ia H B K ;
D. rebu rra A . S. B arcl ay ;
D. sframoniu m L . ;
D. wrig htii Reg el .
5 r%
T u pa
T abaco del Diabl o
L obe/ ia tu pa L .
Recog nizing L . tu pa as tox ic, the M apu che Indians of
Chil e v al u e the l eav es for their intox icating properties.
Other A ndean Indians tak e it as an emetic and
pu rg ativ e.
A
T u rk estan M int L ag ochi/ u s inebrians B u ng e
T he T aj ik , T atar, T u rk oman, and U zbek tribesman on the
dry steppes of T u rk estan hav e for centu ries prepared a
tea made from L . inebrians.
n7
Voacang a Voacang a africana Stapf;
V bracteata Stapf;
V dreg ei E . M ey . V g randifl ora ( M iq . ) Rol fe.
In A frica, a nu mber of v arieties of the g enu s Voacang a
hav e been u sed as hal l u cinog ens, aphrodisiacs, and
medicines.
5 0
W ichu rik i
H ik u l i Rosapara
M ammil / aria craig ii L indsay ;
M . g raham/ i
T he T arahu mara Indians of M ex ico v al u e sev eral spe-
cies of M amm/ Il aria among the most important " fal se
H ik u ri M . sen/ / is ( L odd. ) W eber Pey otes. '
Pey ote de San Pedro
M ammil l aria
W ood Rose A rg y reia nerv osa ( B u rman f. ) B oj er T he W ood Rose has been u sed since ancient times in
H awaiian W ood Rose
A y u rv edic medicine. A traditional u se as a hal l u cinog en
has been discov ered in Nepal .
I
Y au htl i T ag etes l u cida Cay .
T ag etes is u sed by the H u ichol of M ex ico and v al u ed
ceremonial l y fdr its hal l u cinatory effects.
1 5
Y On-Shih
Caesa! pinia sepia na Rox b.
[ = C. decapetal a ( Roth) A l stonj
China; u sed medicinal l y in T ibet and Nepal .

7 8
Seems to be u sed onl y by the Chontal Indians of Oax a-
Ca, ev en thou g h it rang es from M ex ico to Costa Rica.
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U SA G E :
PRE PA RA T ION CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
CONT E X T A ND PU RPOSE
A ND E FFE CT S
L ittl e is k nown of the u se.
A mil dl y poisonou s intox icant is prepared from the red No specific hal l u cinog enic constitu ents hav e been
" sap" of the bark , identified. E x tracts from the inner bark of both species
hav e pharmacol og ical l y been shown to el icit depres-
sant effects simil ar to those produ ced by M arij u ana.
M y thol og ical and sacramental u se.
Personal preference, pu rpose of u se, and seasonal T he indol ic al k al oids psil ocy bine and psil ocine are the
E mpl oy ed today in div ination and heal ing ceremo-
av ail abil ity determine the k inds of mu shrooms u sed by main hal l u cinog enic principl es of the sacred mu sh-
nies.
different shamans. P mex icana, one of the most widel y rooms. T he content v aries from species to species be-
Contacts with Christianity or modern ideas do not
u sed, may perhaps be considered the most ty pical tween 0 . 2 and 0 . 6 % of psil ocy bine and smal l amou nts
seem to hav e infl u enced the deep spirit of rev erence sacred mu shroom. of psil ocine in dried mu shroom material . T he mu sh-
characteristic of the mu shroom ritu al .
A ny where from 2 to 3 0 mu shrooms ( depending on rooms cau se both v isu al and au ditory hal l u cinations,
It has been su g g ested that Psil ocy be species may
the ty pe u sed) are eaten du ring a ty pical ceremony . with the dreaml ik e state becoming real ity .
be empl oy ed for hal l u cinog enic inebriation al so by the
T hey may be consu med either fresh or g rou nd and
Y u rimag u a Indians of A mazonian Peru . made into an infu sion.
Initiation rites.
T he roots of the T horn A ppl e may hav e been u sed in See T ol oache.
Ing redient of the witches' brews. the A l g onq u in drink wy soccan.
D. innox ia was empl oy ed medicinal l y and as a sacred
T he T arahu mara add D. innox ia to their maize beer and A l l species of the g enu s Datu ra are chemical l y simil ar
hal l u cinog en by the A ztec and other Indians. T he Z u ni u se the roots, seeds, and l eav es,
with the activ e principl es tropane al k al oids, especial l y
Indians v al u e the pl ant as an anal g esic and as a
T he Z u ni chew the roots and pu t powder prepared
hy oscy amine and scopol amine, the l atter being the
pou l tice to cu re wou nds and bru ises. T ol oache is said from them into the ey es. main component.
to be the ex cl u siv e property of the rain priests. Val u ed
A mong the Y ok u t Indians, the seeds are said to be
in initiation ritu al s,
tak en onl y once du ring a man's l ifetime.
H al l u cinog enic intox ication; fol k medicine.
Smok ing of the l eav es and tak en internal l y . T u pa l eav es contain the piperidine al k al oid l obel ine, a
respiratory stimu l ant, as wel l as the dik eto- and dihy -
drox y -deriv ativ es l obel amidine and nor-l obel amidine,
which are not k nown to. be hal l u cinog enic.
H al l u cinog enic intox ication.
T he l eav es are toasted to produ ce a tea. Dry ing and
storag e increases the aromatic frag rance. Stems,
fru iting tops, and fl owers may be added.
T he presence of a cry stal l ine compou nd cal l ed ag o-
chil ine— a diterpene of the g rindel ian ty pe— is k nown.
T his compou nd is not k nown to be hal l u cinog enic.
T he seeds of v ariou s Voacang a v arieties are tak en by T he seeds or the bark of v ariou s Voacang a v arieties
M any v arieties of Voacang a contain psy choactiv e in-
A frican mag ic men to create v isu al hal l u cinations, can be tak en.
dol e al k al oids, especial l y v oacang ine and v occamine,
both of which are chemical l y rel ated to ibog aine.
U sed as a v isu al hal l u cinog en.
M . craig / i is spl it open, sometimes roasted, and the
N-methy l -3 , 4 -di-methox y pheny l ethy l amifl e has been
M . g raham/ i is tak en by shamans in special cere-
central tissu e is u sed. T he top of the pl ant, div ested of isol ated from M . hey derii, a cl ose rel ativ e to M . craig / i.
monies,
its spines, is the most powerfu l part; the fru it and u pper
part of M . g raham/ i are said to hav e simil ar effects,
Deep sl eep, du ring which a person is said to trav el
g reat distances, and bril l iant col ors characterize the
intox ication.
In A y u rv edic medicine, W ood Rose is u sed ass tonic
T he seeds are g rou nd and mix ed with water. Fou r to 8 T he seeds contain 0 . 3 % erg ot al k al oids ( especial l y
and as an aphrodisiac, and it is al so u sed to increase
seeds ( approx imatel y 2 g ) are su fficient for a mediu m chanocl av in-l , al so erg ine ( L SA ) , erg onov ine, and iso-
intel l ig ence and to sl ow down the ag ing process. T o- psy choactiv e dose. l y serg ic acid amide,
day , the seeds are of interest in W estern society for
their psy choactiv e properties.
U sed to indu ce or enhance v isions.
T l u cida is occasional l y smok ed al one bu t is some-
times mix ed with tobacco ( N/ cot/ aria ru st/ ca) .
No al k al oids hav e been isol ated from T ag etes, bu t
the g enu s is rich in essential oil s and thiophene
deriv ativ es.
If consu med ov er a l ong period, the fl owers are said to Roots, fl owers, and seeds.
A n u nk nown al k al oid has been reported.
indu ce l ev itation and " commu nication with the Spirits? '
T he earl iest Chinese herbal stated: the " fl owers en-
Fol k medicine,
abl e one to see spirits and cau se one to stag g er
madl y ? '
U sed in fol k medicine, especial l y as an aperitif, a feb- T ea is made of the cru shed dried l eav es and u sed as a
T here is an as y et u nidentified al k al oid. A l so contains
rifu g e, and an astring ent for treating diarrhea. T he
hal l u cinog en. A fter drink ing Z acatechichi, the Indians sesq u iterpene-l actone.
Chontal tak e Z acatechichi to cl arify the senses,
recl ine q u ietl y to smok e a cig arette of the dried l eav es.
Restfu l and drowsy condition du ring which the In-
dians say that one's own heart and pu l se can be fel t.
7 9
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1 T
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T he G reek l ecy thu s isa sacramental
v essel fil l ed with frag rant oil s and pl aced
nex t to a death bed or g rav e. On this
l ecy thu s ( 4 5 0 — 4 2 5 B . c. ) , a crowned
T riptol emu s hol ds the E l eu sinian g rain, a
g rass probabl y infected with E rg ot; whil e
Demeter or Persephone pou rs a sacred
l ibation, prepared presu mabl y from the
infected g rain. T he two fig u res are sepa-
rated by the staff of T riptol emu s and u ni-
ted into one fiel d by the g rain and pou red
l ibation.
Pag e 8 0 : M andrak e ( M andrag ora offici-
naru m) , " the man-l ik e pl ant," has a
compl ex history of u sag e. In E u rope, it
was empl oy ed as a stu pefacient in
addition to being one of the strong est
ing redients added to the brews con-
cocted by witches of the M iddl e A g es.
T he root of the M andrak e was l ik ened to
the form of a man or woman, and ac-
cording to su perstition, if the pl ant were
pu l l ed from the earth, its shriek s cou l d
driv e the col l ectors mad. T his imag e of
M andrag ora was eng rav ed by the wel l -
k nown artist M atthSu s M erian in the
earl y eig hteenth centu ry .
8 1
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A M A NIT A
Fl y A g aric
( T he nu mber refers to the " Pl ant L ex i-
con'; the common name refers to the
reference chart " Ov erv iew of Pl ant
U se" )

Pag e 8 3 top: Cl iff drawing of a shaman
in the A l tai mou ntains of A sia.
Pag e 8 3 rig ht: Fl y A g aric ( A manita
mu scaria) is fou nd arou nd the worl d and
is associated nearl y ev ery where with
fairy worl ds, al ternativ e real ities, and
shamanic practices.
Siberian shamans u se el aborate sy m-
bol ic costu mes and decorated dru ms in
their ceremonies. T he l eft fig u re is a
shaman from K rasnoj arsk District; at
rig ht, the K amtchatk a District.


















. . Father
































































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. . U nder











T he activ e principl e of A manita mu scaria was thou g ht once, a centu ry ag o,
to
hav e been mu scarine when Schmiedeberg and K oppe isol ated
this su b-
stance. T his bel ief has been prov ed erroneou s. Recentl y E u g ster
in Switzer-
l and and T ak emoto in J apan isol ated ibotenic acid and the al k al oid
mu scimol e
as being responsibl e for the Fl y A g aric's psy chotropic
effects. T he mu shroom
is tak en u su al l y dried. T he dry ing process indu ces the
chemical transforma-
tion of ibotenic acid to mu scimol e, the most activ e constitu ent.
8 3
T he Chemistry of Fl y A g aric
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Rig ht: T he Fl y A g aric is often and fal sel y
feared as being a poisonou s mu sh-
room; nev erthel ess, it is g l adl y u sed for
l u ck -bring ing candy .
A bov e l eft: T o bring g ood l u ck into the
coming y ear, firework s in the shape of
Fl y A g aric are set off on New Y ear's E v e.
A bov e rig ht: T he resu l ts of smok ing Fl y
A g aric are depicted in the G erman chil -
dren's book M eck i and the Dwarv es.
B el ow rig ht: It is possibl e that Fl y A g aric
is identical to the Vedic wonder-dru g
Soma. T oday E phedra ( E phedra g er-
ardiana) is cal l ed somal ata, " soma
pl ant. " In Nepal E phedra is not hal l u ci-
nog enic or psy chedel ic bu t is a v ery
strong stimu l ant.
8 4

























. . are













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. . I
















L eft: A K amtchatk a shaman impl ores
the Fl y A g aric, her ritu al su bstance, to
assist her in trav el ing to other real ms.
A bov e rig ht: T he Spirit of the Fl y A g aric
in J apan is the l ong -nosed, red-faced
T eng u . W hoev er eats B eni-T eng u -Dak e
( Red T eng u mu shroom) wil l encou nter
the l iv el y entity .
B el ow l eft: T he my th of Soma stil l l iv es
on. H ere it is the name of a bar in a
l u x u ry hotel in Del hi.

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A T ROPA
° Deadl y Nig htshade
A
H Y OSCY A M U S A L B U S
Y el l ow H enbane
A i H Y OSCY A M U S
NIG E R
B l ack H enbane
M A NDRA G ORA
M andrak e

A bov e l eft: T he y el l ow bl ossom of the
rare v ariety of A tropa bel l adonna v ar.
l u tea. T he y el l ow Deadl y Nig htshade
is reg arded as particu l arl y potent for
mag ic and witchcraft.
A bov e rig ht: T he bel l -shaped fl owers of
the Deadl y Nig htshade cl earl y show its
membership in the Nig htshade famil y .
Pag e 8 7 abov e l eft: T he fl owers of the
M andrak e ( M andrag ora officinaru m)
are rarel y seen, as they bl oom v ery
briefl y and then q u ick l y v anish.
Pag e B 7 abov e rig ht: T he fl owers of the
B l ack H enbane ( H y oscy amu s nig er)
hav e a characteristic col oring and an
u nforg ettabl e pattern on the petal s. In
earl ier times, it was thou g ht to be the
ey e of the dev il .
8 6


















































C.
H omer









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T he Chemistry of Deadl y Nig htshade, H enbane, and M andrak e
three sol anaceou s pl ants A tropa, H y oscy amu s, and M andrag ora
contain
the same activ e principl es: primaril y the al k al oids hy oscy amine, atropine,
and
scopol amine. T he difference is onl y one of rel ativ e concentration. B el l adonna
contains l ittl e scopol amine, bu t this al k al oid is the main component of
M an-
drak e and especial l y of H enbane.
T he al k al oids are fou nd in the entire pl ant, with the hig hest concentration
in
the seeds and roots. T he hal l u cinog enic effects are du e essential l y to scopo-
l amine. A tropine and hy osy amine are l ess activ e u nder these circu mstances.
L eft: A ccording to this il l u stration from
the J u l iana Codex , the G reek herbal ist
Dioscorides receiv ed the M andrak e
pl ant from H eu resis, g oddess of discov -
ery , il l u strating the bel ief that
this medi-
cine was a pl ant of the g ods.
8 7
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A bov e: T he ancient g oddess of witches,
H ecate, l ords ov er the psy choactiv e and
mag ical herbs, particu l arl y those in the
Nig htshade famil y . In this col ored print
by W il l iam B l ak e, she is depicted with
her shamanic animal s.
Pag e 8 9 bel ow rig ht: T he desig n for the
cov er of a book abou t medicinal pl ants
depicts the anthropomorphic M andrak e.
8 8











































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L eft: T he mag ical conj u ration of the
M andrak e is a du rabl e theme in E u r-
opean l iteratu re and art history . H ere
is a scene from a modern comic,
G aza.
B e/ ow rig ht: W itches" persecu ted
du ring the Inq u isition were often ac-
cu sed of u sing hal l u cinog enic pl ants of
the Nig htshade famil y , in particu l ar,
H enbane and M andrak e. For this
many were tortu red, mu rdered, and
bu rned.



















reported
8 9
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T op: A mphibians, especial l y frog s
( which often produ ce poisons in their
bodies) , hav e al way s been connected
with witchcraft and mag ic in the Ol d as
wel l as the New W orl d. T hese animal s
were occasional l y added to potent
witches' brews in E u rope. T hey hav e
al so fig u red sig nificantl y in certain New
W orl d cu l tu res in connection with hal l u -
cinog enic activ ities.
A bov e l eft: T he del ig htfu l l y scented fru it
of the M andrak e ( M andrag ora officinar-
u rn) are al so cal l ed A ppl es of L ov e and
are identical to the g ol den appl es of
A phrodite.
A bov e middl e: T he ripe bl ack berries of
the Deadl y Nig htshade ( A tropa bel l a-
donna) .
A bov e rig ht: W hite or y el l ow H enbane
( H y oscy amu s al bu s) was consecrated
to the g od of oracl es, A pol l o.
9 0























. cl ap




















c.















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A bov e l eft: In the T empl e of A pol l o at
Del phi, the " nav el of the worl d," the Siby l
and prophetess informed the Py thia of
her oracl e after she had inhal ed the
smok e of H enbane.
A bov e middl e: T he root of the M andrak e
( M andrag ora officinaru m) .
A bov e rig ht: T he G inseng 's ( Panax g in-
seng ) root is not onl y simil ar to the
M andrak e, bu t in K orea, G inseng root is
al so attribu ted with secret and mag ical
powers.
B el owl eft: T he su n and oracl e g od
A pol l o at a l ibation in front of a rav en.
( Discov ered at Del phi) .
9 1
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1 7 CA NNA B r

arij u ano
H ashish
























A bov e rig ht: M nstirl ine pl ant of a H emp
cross-breed ( Cannabis indica x sat/ v a) .
9 2































A bov e l eft: W il d Inmp pl ants ( Cannabis
md/ ca) with spinol id white fl owers in
the L ang tang u n ii of the H imal ay as
( Nepal ) .
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B el ow l eft: T he bl u e-sk inned H indu g od Shiv a tak es g reat pl easu re in H emp.
B ecau se of this, it is a sacred pl ant of the g ods and is u sed for ritu al s and
T antric practices.
Rig ht: T he l ong -haired Sadhu s or " hol y men" of India dev ote their l iv es to the
g od Shiv a. T hey hav e no property and practice y og a and meditation. In ad-
dition they often smok e a l arg e amou nt of charas ( handmade hash) and
g anj a ( M arij u ana) sometimes mix ed with Datu ra l eav es and other psy choac-












tiv e pl ants ( Sadhu at a Shiv a templ e, Pashu patinath, K athmandu Val l ey ,
Nepal ) .
B ottom rig ht: Cannabis is consu med in many cou ntries, u su al l y il l eg al l y . It is
often smok ed in hand-rol l ed cig arettes. T here are cou ntl ess produ cts for the
consu mption of marij u ana for ev ery one from beg inners to the special ists— for
instance, l arg e-format rol l ing papers, preferabl y ou t of H emp. A l so shown here
are a metal cig arette box and l ig hter.
















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A bov e: In A frica H emp is smok ed for
medicinal and pl easu rabl e pu rposes, as
this wood carv ing shows.
T op: characteristic H emp l eaf
( Cannabis indica) was formerl y a sy m-
bol of the su bcu l tu re and rebel l ion. T o-
day , it has become a sy mbol of ecol og i-
cal awareness.
9 4














































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T op: Feminine fl ower of indu strial H emp
( Cannabis sativ a) .
A bov e: T he Chinese emperor Shen-
Nu ng is said to hav e discov ered the
medicinal properties of many pl ants. H is
pharmacopoeia, bel iev ed to hav e been
first compil ed in 2 7 3 7 B . C. , notes that
Cannabis sativ a has both mal e and fe-
mal e pl ants.
9 5
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Rig ht: T here are cou ntl ess strains of H emp that contain barel y any T H C, the
intox icating and eu phoric constitu ent. T hese species are u sed in the produ c-
tion of fiber, bu t are not su ited for personal consu mption, as the warning sig n
in the botanical g ardens in B ern, Switzerl and, states: " T his indu strial H emp is
u sel ess for the produ ction of dru g s becau se of its l ack of activ e properties. "
B ottom: Feminine pl ants of fl owering indu strial hemp ( Cannabis sativ a) .





























fishermen









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T op l eft: In northern India the H emp
l eav es are soak ed in water, shredded,
and then roil ed into bal l s. T hese are
sol d as " B hang " on the mark et ( displ ay
in the G ov ernmental G anj a Shop Om
Varnasi, B enares) .
T op rig ht: T he B hang bal l s are either
su ck ed on or mix ed into a drink with
mil k , y og u rt, and water.
Pag e 9 7 abov e l eft: T he Cora Indians of
the Sierra M adre Occidental of M ex ico
smok e Cannabis in the cou rse of their
sacred ceremonies. Rarel y is an intro-
du ced foreig n pl ant adopted and u sed in
indig enou s rel ig iou s ceremonies, bu t it
seems that the Cora of M ex ico and the
Cu na of Panama hav e tak en u p the ri-
tu al smok ing of Cannabis, notwith-
standing the fact that, in both areas, it
was brou g ht in by the earl y E u ropeans.
Pag e 9 7 abov e rig ht: T hese three
photog raphs show the g erminating
H emp pl ant. T he rou nded l eav es are
coty l edons or seed-l eav es. T he first real
l eav es are al way s simpl e, not seg men-
ted as are the matu re l eav es.
Pag e 9 6 middl e ( 4 Photos) : T he u se of
Cannabis by peopl es ot both the Ol d
W orl d and the New is widespread. In the
Ol d W orl d ( l eft to rig ht) Cannabis is
being smok ed by a K u ng woman from
Sou th A frica, a Py g my from the Cong o,
a trav el er in K ashmir, and North A frican
H ashish smok ers.
9 7
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T he Chemistry of M arij u ana
W hereas the psy choactiv e principl es of most hal l u cinog enic pl ants are al k a-
l oids, the activ e constitu ents of Cannabis are non-nitrog enou s and occu r in a
resinou s oil . T he psy choactiv e properties are du e to cannabinoids, of which
the most effectiv e is tetrahy drocannabinol , or T H C— chemical l y :
transtetrahy drocannabinol . T he hig hest concentration is fou nd in the resin of
the u nfertil ized pistil l ate infl orescence. E v en thou g h l ess potent, the dried
l eav es are al so empl oy ed for their psy choactiv e effects.
Fol l owing the el u cidation of the chemical stru ctu re ( see mol ecu l ar model
on pag e 1 8 4 ) , it has recentl y been possibl e to sy nthesize T H C.
Psy choactiv e Pl ants that are u sed as a M arij u ana Su bstitu te
B otanical Name
A ichornea fl oribu nda
A rg emone mex icana
A rtemisia mex icana
Cal ea zacatechichi
Canav al ia maritima
Catharanthu s roseu s
Cecropia mex icana
Cestru m Iaev ig atu m
Cestru m parq u i
Cy mbopog on dens ifl oru s
H el ichry su m foetidu rn
H el ichry su m stenopteru m
H ieraciu m piocel l a
L eonotis l eonu ru s
L eonu ru s sibiricu s
Nepeta cataria
Piper au ritu m
Scel etiu m tortu osu m
Sida acu ta
Sida rhombifol l a
T u rnera diffu sa
Z ornia diphy l l a
Z ornia l atifol l a
9 8
Common Name
Niando
Prick l y Poppy
M ex ican M u g wort
Dog G rass
Sea B ean
M adag ascar Periwink l e
Chancarro
L ady of the Nig ht
Pal q u i
L emong rass
E v erl asting
E v erl asting
H awk weed
W il d Dag g a
Siberian M otherwort
Catnip
Root B eer Pl ant
K ou g u ed
Common W ireweed
E scobil l a
Damiana
M aconha B rav a
M aconha B rav a
Part of Pl ant U sed
Roots
L eav es


L eav es
L eav es





H erbag e
H erbag e



L eav es




L eav es






























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A bov e l eft: In C. sativ a, wel l -dev el oped
hairs of g l andu l ar and non-g l andu l ar
k inds are shown in v ariou s stag es of
dev el opment.
T op rig ht: Different ty pes of g l andu l ar
hairs of Cannabis. T he capitate g l and
with a prominent pseu do-stal k on the
su rface of the anther wal l that faces the
center of the fl ower.
B ottom rig ht: B u l bou s g l and from adax -
ial l eaf su rface. T he stal k and head are
made u p of two cel l s each. T he tip of the
g l and possesses a smal l , disk -shaped
reg ion bel ow which resin accu mu l ates
in the ex tended membrane.
Pag e 9 8 : A bov e, Cannabis sal iv a is
being harv ested for H emp at the tu rn
of the centu ry . T his species attains a
heig ht of 1 8 feet ( 6 m) . B el ow, an ex tre-
mel y potent H ashish is produ ced from
Cannabis indica, a l ow, py ramidal ,
densel y branched species, as shown
abov e g rowing wil d near K andahar,
A fg hanistan.
9 9
Scanning E l ectron M icroscopy
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T op: Drawing by W . M il l er. Copy rig ht
1 9 7 8 T he New Y ork erM ag azine, Inc.
'H ey , what is this stu ff? mak es ev ery -
thing I think seem profou nd. "
B el ow: G u stav e Doré 's painting 'Com-
position of the Death of G erard de Ner-
v al ," for which he may hav e u sed Can-
nabis and Opiu m for inspiration. T he
contemporary A merican cartoon shows
in a hu morou s way the resu rrection of
this bel ief.
1 0 0

'I
.
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A bov e: M arij u ana is made from the
dried and sl ig htl y fermented bl ossoms
of the feminine K emp pl ant.
L eft: L ewis Carrol l 's A l ice in W onder-
l and, the encou nter between A l ice and
the l ang u orou s caterpil l ar is as fol l ows:
" She stretched hersel f u p on tiptoe, and
peeped ov er the edg e of the mu shroom,
and her ey es immediatel y met those of
a l arg e bl u e caterpil l ar that was sitting
on the top, with its arms fol ded, q u ietl y
smok ing a l ong hook ah, and tak ing not
the sl ig htest notice of her or any thing
" T his

















A bov e: In the nineteenth centu ry , a se-
l ect g rou p of E u ropean artists and wri-
ters tu rned to psy choactiv e ag ents in an
attempt to achiev e what has come to be
reg arded as " mind-ex pansion" or " mind-
M any peopl e, su ch as the
French poet B au del aire ( bel ow) , be-
l iev ed that creativ e abil ity cou l d be
g reatl y enhanced by the u se of Canna-
bis. In fact, B au del aire wrote v iv id de-
scriptions of his personal ex periences
u nder the infl u ence of Cannabis.
1 0 1

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E rg ot

A bov e: W hil e E rg ot infects a nu mber of
different g rasses, it is best k nown as a
parasite on the infl orescence of ry e.
Pag e 1 0 3 top: T he E rg ot of ry e are con-
siderabl y big g er than those of the Pas-
pal u m g rass.
Pag e 1 0 3 l eft: Fru iting bodies of C/ a v i-
ceps pu rpu rea. T he specific name of
this fu ng u s means pu rpl e," a col or that
in antiq u ity was l ink ed with powers of
the u nderworl d.
Pag e 1 0 3 rig ht: W hen g rain is infected
by E rg ot, l ong bl ack g rowths appear on
the heads, cal l ed scl erotiu m.
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T he activ e ing redients in E rg ot are indol e al k al oids, al l deriv ed from the same
basic compou nd, l y serg ic acid. T he most important al k al oids in E rg ot of ry e
are erg otamine and erg otox ine, in which l y serg ic acid is connected with a
peptide radical consisting of three amino acids. T hese al k al oids and their
deriv ativ es hav e v ariou s medicinal u ses.
tox ic doses they cau se g ang rene becau se of their v asoconstricting
properties. E rg ot from wil d g rasses, howev er, contains essential l y simpl e
l y serg ic acid amides, erg ine, and l y serg ic acid-hy drox y ethy l amide ( fou nd
onl y in traces in E rg ot of ry e) . T hese psy chotropic al k al oids may hav e pl ay ed
a rol e in the conv u l siv e form of erg otism. T hey occu r as the main activ e
principl es in the M ex ican M orning G l ory Ol ol iu q u i ( T u rbina cory mbosa) [ see
pag e 1 8 7 for the mol ecu l ar model of the chemical stru ctu re] and other B ind-
weeds ( Ipomoea v iol acea, A rg y reia nerv osa) .
1 0 3










T he Chemistry of E rg ot
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T 1 'u I'i It is possibl e that the al k al oid-rich
DI the Paspal u m g rass was u sed
Secret ing redient in K y k eon, the
Inhl iq Iory drink of E l eu sis.
l eft: T he g oddess Demeter with
of g rain and opiu m pods in her
it
rig ht: T he Pl u tonl u on of E l eu sis.
bottom: One of the rare ou t-
brerik s of erg otism in E ng l and attack ed
One tomil y in W attisham in 1 7 6 2 . So
L ift was this pl ag u e that it has been
meit l orial ized with a pl aq u e in the parish
1 0 -4






























































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aitsT arifh. ,

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-
- ba
-
A bov e l eft: Persephone, the Q u een of
the Dead, mak ing an offering of shafts
of is enthroned beside her hu s-
band, H ades, L ord of the U nderworl d.
Orig inal l y a g oddess associated with
g rain, she was abdu cted to the U nder-
worl d by H ades, and her retu rn from the
real m of the dead was connected with
sy mbol ic rebirth ex periences in the
E l eu sinian my steries, where the wor-
shipers bel iev ed that the restoration of
the g oddess to the u pper worl d ensu red
the faithfu l a resu rrection. It is possibl e
that these amazing ev ents in Perse-
phone's l ife mig ht hav e been l ink ed with
intox ication from E rg ot, since G reek
sophistication in the chemical proper-
ties of pl ants was wel l dev el oped.
A bov e rig ht: T he titl e pag e of a G erman
book from 1 7 7 1 , E rg ot: A n A l l eg ed
Cau se of the So-cal l ed St. A nthony 's
Fire.
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2 7
DA T U RA INNOX IA
' T ol oache
DA T U RA M E T E L
Datu ra
2 n
DA T U RA ST RA M ONIU M
T horn A ppl e


A bov e l eft: T he Datu ra stramoniu m v ar.
tatu l a is the most common in the H ima-
l ay as. It is easil y recog nized by the
v iol et col or of the fl ower.
A bov e rig ht: T he sacred T horn A ppl e
( Datu ra metel ) is often fou nd in the
H imal ay as on al tars to the g ods of the
mou ntains ( photo tak en in T u k che,
Nepal ) .
B el ow rig ht: A y el l ow-fl owered Datu ra
metel in fu l l bl oom.
1 0 6










































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T he v ariou s species of Datu ra the same maj or al k al oids as rel ated
sol anaceou s pl ants ( A ng el 's T ru mpet, B el l adonna, H enbane, and M andrak e)
hy oscy amine and, in g reatest concentration, scopol amine. M etel oidine is a
characteristic secondary al k al oid of D. meteL
























































A bov e l eft: T he hang ing fru it of Datu ra
innox ia. T he seeds that are chewed by
shamans to indu ce a cl airv oy ant trance
are cl earl y v isibl e.
A bov e middl e: M any species of Datu ra
hav e pl ay ed a v ital medicinal and ineb-
riant rol e in M ex ico since earl y times.
T his pag e from the " B adianu s M anu -
scripr' ( Codex B erberini L atina 2 4 1 ,
Fol io 2 9 ) depicts two species of Datu ra
and describes their therapeu tic u ses.
T his docu ment of 1 5 4 2 is the first herbal
to be written in the New W orl d.
A bov e rig ht: A Datu ra fl ower is l eft as an
offering on a Shiv a L ing am at Pashu pa-
tinath ( Nepal ) .
1 0 7
of Datu ra
T op: T raditional depiction of the T horn
A ppl e on a T ibetan medicinal painting .
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Rig ht: T he ty pical fru it of the Datu ra
mete! . In India it is g iv en to the g od
Shiv a as an offering .

B el ow: It was bel iev ed that when B u d-
dha preached, dew or raindrops fel l
from heav en on Datu ra. T his bronze
shrine from the Su i period of China de-
picts A mitabha B u ddha seated u nder
the j ewel ed trees of Paradise.











































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Pag e 1 0 8 bottom rig ht: T he opening
bl ossom of a Datu ra innox ia. T he
M ay ans cal l it x tohk 'u h, 'toward the
g ods: ' and stil l u se it for shamanic pu r-
poses su ch as div ination and medicinal
heal ing .
A bov e l eft: A Datu ra fru it has been l eft
as an offering at the imag e of Nandi,
Shiv a's sacred steer.




















PE RFU M E
CH A M Ico
B ottom l eft: In northern India Datu ra
fru it is threaded into g arl ands and
offered to the H indu g od Shiv a.
B ottom rig ht: T he Cu randeros ( l ocal
heal ers) of northern Peru enj oy u sing a
perfu me that is named Chamico ( T horn
A ppl e) .
1 0 9
1 4
- V
I,
• J t
J
L a ü nicisofu cidn Conocido iribu s
del A l to U cay el i. E l perfu me CH A M ICO te di enenq ia
pare hacer el amer coonl as v ases g amma 5 omarl ar a
a persona q u é g ammas. Q u ieres sir sensu al ? Cain -
pertwne.
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T op l eft: T he thorn-protected fru it of a
rare species of T horn A ppl e.
B ottom l eft: T he bl ossoms of the T horn
A ppl e ( Datu ra stramoniu m) open in the
ev ening , ex u de a del ig htfu l scent
throu g hou t the nig ht, and fade in the
morning .
Rig ht: A pu rpl e v ariety of the Datu ra
mete! , better k nown as Datu ra fastu osa.
In particu l ar, this pl ant is u sed in A frica
as an inebriant in initiation rites.
" I








































































































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Rig ht: A mag ician of K u ma in northeast
A frica l eads entranced women in a ritu al
dance. T he su bstance that they ing est con-
sists of a secret mix tu re of many different
pl ants, most ot which are u nk nown. E v i-
dence su g g ests that Datu ra is among them.
T he women are possessed by the spirits
who u se them as their mediu m.
L eft: T he il l u stration from the earl y
writing s of Sahag u n, the Spanish friar
who wrote shortl y after the conq u est
of M ex ico, pictu res the u til ization of
an infu sion of Datu ra to rel iev e
rheu matism. T his u se is stil l fou nd
recommended in modern
pharmacopoeias.
























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T A B E RNA NT H E
'7 V Ibog a

Pag e 1 1 3 top: Dried Ibog a roots.
Pag e 1 1 3 middl e l eft: Ol d wooden fetish
obj ects of the Fang , who were once
associated with an Ibog a cu l t.
Pag e 1 1 3 middl e rig ht T he conspicu -
ou s brig ht y el l ow fru its of the l bog a.

. he


















L eft: T he roots of the Ibog a bu sh are ri-
tu al l y eaten by the B witi cu l t in order to
cal l forth the ancestors.
Rig ht: Ibog a, necessary for ritu al s, is
g rown at the templ e of the B witi cu l t.
1 1 2

















break


















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A s with other hal l u cinog ens, especial l y T eonaná catl ( Psil ocy be spp. ) and
Ol ol iu q u i, the activ e principl es of T abernanthe ibog a bel ong to the l arg e cl ass
of indol e al k al oids. Ibog aine, which can be produ ced sy nthetical l y , is the main
al k al oid of T ibog a. Its hal l u cinog enic effects are accompanied by strong sti-
mu l ation of the central nerv ou s sy stem.
Ibog a roots contain an al k al oid k nown as ibog aine. T his su bstance was first
introdu ced in the 1 9 6 0 s by the Chil ean psy chiatrist Cl au dio Naranj o as a
" fantasy -enhancing dru g " for psy chotherapy . T oday , ibog aine is in the spot-
l ig ht of neu ropsy chol og ical research, which has shown that the al k al oid can
ease dru g addiction ( to su ch dru g s as heroin and cocaine) and
mak e way for
a cu re. l bog aine cal ms the motor activ ity that is present when
u nder the infl u -
ence of an opiate. T he chiropractor K arl Naeher say s that
" l bog aine, when
tak en in one hig h dose by an opiate addict, drastical l y redu ces withdrawal
sy mptoms and, at the same time, cau ses a 'trip' that rev eal s su ch deep in-
sig hts into the personal cau ses of the addiction that the maj ority of those who
u nderg o this ty pe of therapy can g o for months withou t a rel apse. B u t sev eral
additional sessions are req u ired before a l asting stabil ization is ev ident? '
Research into the potential u se of ibog aine as a treatment for su bstance
abu se is being carried ou t by Deborah M ash and her team in M iami.
1 1 3
T he Chemistry of Ibog a
A ddiction T herapy with Ibog aine
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/ 'ag e 1 1 5 top: seeds of the Ibog a
bu sh can g erminate onl y u nder particu -
l : tr conditions. T hey themsel v es contain
rio activ e compou nds.
Pag e 1 1 5 rig ht: M u sic pl ay s a central
rol e in the B witi cu l t. T he harp pl ay er
not onl y al l ows the string s to resonate,
bu t al so sing s l itu rg ies in which the
cosmol og y and woridv iew of the tribe
are ex pressed.
T op T he ty pical l eav es of the Ibog a
bu sh.
T hp rig ht: A herbariu m specimen of
T abernanthe ibog a in a comparativ e
botanical col l ection.
A bov e l eft and rig ht: Du ring the initiation
ril er of the B witi cu l t, the nov ices ing est
ex tremel y hig h doses of the Ibog a root
in order to attain contact with the an-
cestors du ring the powerfu l ritu al .
1 1 4
























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. they
A NA DE NA NT H E RA
'-' PE RE G RINA
Y opo

I— • g -
i
L eft: T he beans of the Y opo T ree ( A na-
denanthera pereg rina) are u sed by
many Indians as a shamanic snu ff
( specimen col l ected in G u y ana) .
Rig ht: B aron A l ex ander v on H u mbol dt
and his co-col l ector A imé B onpl and
carefu l l y ex pl ored the fl ora of the Orino-
co Riv er, the frontier between Col ombia
and Venezu el a, and whil e there they
encou ntered the preparation and u se of
Y opo snu ff in 1 8 0 1 .

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B el ow l eft: T he finel y pinnate l eav es of
the Y opo tree are important for identit I-
cation, bu t contain no activ e properties.
Rig ht: In the open g rassl ands, or cam-
poe, of the northern A mazon of B razil ,
A nadenanthera g rows profu sel y . T he
tree bears l ong pods with u su al l y six to
twel v e seeds, which are the sou rce of
the hal l u cinog enic snu ff.
B el ow rig ht: Ov er 1 2 5 y ears ag o, the
E ng l ish ex pl orer Richard Spru ce col -
l ected on the Orinoco these artifacts
associated with the preparation and
u se of Y opo snu ff. T hey are stil l pre-
serv ed in the mu seu m at the Roy al
B otanic G ardens, K ew.
g oing


















Y opo














T he Chemistry of Y opo
T he activ e principl es of A nadenanthera pereg rina bel ong to both open-
chained and ring ed try ptamine deriv ativ es and, therefore, to the important
cl ass of iridol e al k al oids. T ry ptamine is al so the basic compou nd of the amino
acid try ptophane, widel y distribu ted in the A nimal K ing dom. Dimethy l try pta-
mine ( DM T ) and 5 -hy drox y dimethy l try ptamine ( bu fotenine) are representa-
tiv es of the open-chained A nadenanthera try ptamines. B u fotenine has al so
been fou nd in the sk in secretion of a toad ( B u fo sp. ) — hence its name. Ring ed
try ptamine deriv ativ es fou nd in A nadenanthera are 2 -methy l - and 1 ,2 -di-
methy l -6 -methox y tetrahy dro-1 3 -carbol ine.
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Photo seq u ence pag es 1 1 8 — 1 9 :
U ndou btedl y the most intense of
Y opo snu ff prepared from A nade-
nanthera pereg rina is fou nd among the
v ariou s g rou ps of W aik h l iv ing in
sou thernmost Venezu el a and adj acent
parts of northernmost B razil . T hese
peopl es consu me enormou s amou nts
of the hal l u cinog enic powder, bl owing it
forcefu l l y into the nostril s throu g h l ong
tu bes made from the stems of
maranthaceou s pl ants.
B efore snu ffing Y opo, the W aik á sha-
mans g ather and chant, inv ok ing the
H ek u l a spirits with whom they wil l be
commu nicating du ring the ensu ing
intox ication.
T he snu ff acts rapidl y , cau sing first a
profu se fl ow of mu cu s from the nasal
passag es and occasional l y a notabl e
q u iv ering of the mu scl es, especial l y in
the arms, and a contorted ex pression
on the face.
T his period q u ick l y g iv es way to one
in which the shamans beg in to prance,
g esticu l ating and shriek ing v iol entl y ,
cal l ing on the H ek u l a.
T he ex penditu re of energ y l asts from
hal f an hou r to an hou r; ev entu al l y , fu l l y
spent, they fal l into a trancel ik e stu por,
du ring which v isions are ex perienced.
1 1 8






















. " Fol l owing a description of the













Drawing s rig ht ( pag es 1 1 8 — 1 9 ) :
Cou ntl ess artifacts rel ated to the ritu al
u se of snu ff hav e been discov ered in
archaeol og ical dig s in the Caribbean
and in Sou th A merica ( for ex ampl e,
H aiti, Costa Rica, Col ombia, and
B razil ) .
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A A NA DE NA NT H E RA


A bov e from l eft to rig ht: T he M ataco u se
a decoction of fresh ( stil l g reen) Cebit
pods as a head wash for headaches.
Cebit, the " Seeds of Civ il ization"
( seeds of the A nadenanthera col u bri-
na) . B u fotenine is the main activ e con-
stitu ent.
T he ripe seed pods of the Cebit tree
( A nadenanthera col u brina v ar. cebil )
col l ect u nderneath the l eaf canopy .
T he k notty bark of the A rg entinian Cebit
tree ( A nadenanthera col u brina bv ar.
cebil .
Pag e 1 2 1 : T he Cebit tree ( A nade-
nanthera col u brina v ar. cebil ) with ripe
seed pods.


















y ears.







































T he Chemistry of A nadenanthera col u brIna
Some v arieties Cebl i seed contain ex cl u siv el y bu fotenin ( C1 2 H 1 6 0 N2 )
psy choactiv e ing redient. In of seeds, 5 -M eO-M M T , DM 1 ,
N-ox ide, bu fotenin, and were of
seeds











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B el ow: T he G erman artist Nana Nau wal d de-
picted her ex perience with Cebl i seeds in a
painting in 1 9 9 6 . T he pictu re bears the titl e
" Nothing is separate from me" and shows the
ty pical " worm-l ik e" v isions.
Rig ht: Recentl y it was reported that the M ataco
in northern A rg entina smok e and sniff A nade-
nanthera col u brina. W ith this, the Spaniards'
assu mption, that the snu ffs CebIl and Vil Ica are
made from this pl ant, is confirmed.
W hat W as Vil ica?
In the col onial l iteratu re of New Spain, there are. nu merou s references to the
psy choactiv e u se of certain seeds or fru its that were k nown v ariou sl y as
H u il ca, H u il l ca, Vil ca, Vil cas, Vil ica, W il 'k a, W il l ca, or W il ik a. T he ethnohistori-
cal l y docu mented v u / ca ( fru it) is today k nown as the seed of A nadenanthera
col u brina. Vil l ca was of g reat ritu al and rel ig iou s sig nificance in Peru in the
time before the arriv al of the Spaniards, and was k nown to the Incan hig h
priests and soothsay ers ( u mu ) as Viica or V/ I/ ca camay o. A hol y Indian rel ic
( hu aca) was k nown as Vil l ca or Vi/ cacona and an especial l y hol y mou ntain is
k nown as Vil l ca Coto. On the peak of Vil l ca Coto, it is said that a cou pl e of
hu mans sav ed themsel v es du ring the primev al del u g e.
Vil ica seeds had a ceremonial sig nificance for the Incas as a psy choactiv e
su bsitu te for beer. T he " j u ice" of Vil l ca was added to a fermented corn bev -
erag e and tak en by the soothsay er, who wou l d then be abl e to l ook into the
fu tu re.
Vil l ca was al so the name for enemas, which were u sed for medicinal or
shamanic pu rposes.
1 2 2
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Far l eft: Pre-Col u mbian snu ff tool s from
a g rav e at San Pedro de A tacama.
L eft: Pre-Col u mbian snu ff v essel made
from a carv ed bone ( San Pedro de
A tacama, Chil e) .
A bov e: T he northwest A rg entinian
reg ion of Pu na is the area in which the
l ong est continu ed u se of v isionary and
shamanic pl ants can be prov ed. In this
reg ion the CebIl seeds hav e been
smok ed or sniffed for 4 ,5 0 0 y ears for
heal ing ceremonies.
L eft: T he painting ( oil on canv as, 1 9 9 6 )
by the Col u mbian-A merican artist
Donna T orres shows the stu dy of an
ethnobotaniSt who is researching
A nadenanthera col u brina.
1 2 3
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B A NIST E RIOPSIS
A y ahu asca
PSY CH OT RIA
Chacru na
6 0

Sy rian Ru e
T E T RA FT E RIS


1 2 4

































































piJ y l l u ni;


















































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V
T op: T he Chacru na shru b ( Psy chotria
v iridis) is the second most important
ing redient in the A y ahu asca drink .
A bov e rig ht: T he shoots of the A y a-
hu asca l iana.
L eft: A Shipibo Indian with an
A y ahu asca hana that he has cu l tiv ated
in his g arden.
Pag e 1 2 4 abov e: T he A y ahu asca l iana
( B anisteriopsis caapi) is a powerfu l and
v ig orou sl y g rowing tropical v ine.
Pag e 1 2 4 bel ow: T he pieces of
branch are the base of the A y ahu asca
preparation.
1 2 5
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A bov e l eft: T he B ritish pl ant ex pl orer
Spru ce col l ected the first botanical spe-
cimens of B anisteriopsis caapiin 1 8 5 1 .
H e sent material from the same pl ant for
chemical anal y sis. T he material was l o-
cated in the M u seu m at the Roy al B ota-
nic G ardens at K ew in 1 9 6 9 .
A bov e rig ht: A mong the K ofá n of Co-
l ombia and E cu ador, special medicine
men prepare Cu rare and Y aj é . T here is
an association between these two pl ant
produ cts, and Y aj é is tak en before hu nt-
ing in the bel ief that the v isions wil l re-
v eal the hiding pl aces of the animal s to
besou g ht.
Far rig ht: T o mak e A y ahu asca or Caapi,
the freshl y stripped bark mu st be v ig or-
ou sl y pou nded before being boil ed in
water or k neaded thorou g hl y in col d
water.
Pag e 1 2 7 l eft: T he nu merou s T u k anoan
tribes of the Vau pé s Riv er basin in Co-
l ombia and B razil practice a mal e-
oriented ancestor ceremony . T he
Y u ru pari dance, in which Caapi is a
maj or el ement, enabl es the participants
to commu nicate with spirits of the dead.
Pag e 1 2 7 rig ht: L ine dancing with intri-
cate steps and g ou rd rattl es accompa-
ny ing chants is ty pical of B arasana
ceremonies in which Caapi is tak en,
Piraparanb Riv er.
1 2 6








































































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B anisteriopsis spp.
K och/ a scoparia ( L . ) SCH RA D.
Passifl ora inv ol u crata
Passifl ora spp.
Peg anu m harmal a L .
Stry chnos u sambarensis G IL G
T ribu l u s terrestris L .
H armine
H armine, H armane
1 3 -Carbol ine
H armine, H armane, etc.
H armine, T etrahy droharmine,
Dihy droharmal ine, H armane, Isohar-
mine, T etrahy droharmol , H armal ol ,
H armol , Norharmine,
H armal ine
H armane
H armine, among others
T he Chemistry of A y ahu asca
In the bel ief that they were new discov eries, the first al k al oids isol ated from
B anisteriopsis were cal l ed tel epathine and banisterine. Fu rther chemical in-
v estig ations rev eal ed that these preparations were identical with the al k al oid
harmine, prev iou sl y isol ated from Sy rian Ru e, Peg anu m Fu rther-
more, the secondary al k al oids of Pag anu m, harmal ine and tetrahy drohar-
mine, al so occu r in B anisteriopsis. T he activ e principl es are indol e al k al oids
fou nd in sev eral other hal l u cinog enic pl ants.
T he drink made from A y ahu asca is a u niq u e pharmacol og ical combination
of B anisteriopsis caapi, a l ana that contains harmal ine, and Chacru na ( Psy -
chotria v iridia) l eav es, which contain DM T . H armal ine is an M A O inhibitor; it
redu ces the body 's produ ction and distribu tion of monoamine ox idase ( M A O) .
M A O normal l y break s down the v ision-indu cing ing redient DM T before it can
cross the bl ood-brain barrier into the central nerv ou s sy stem. Onl y with this
combination of ing redients can the drink hav e its consciou sness-ex panding
effects and trig g er v isions.
Pl ants Containing the M A O-Inhibiting f3 -Carbol ine A l k al oids:
1 2 7
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— G .

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caapi inebrians







































































































T op: M any species of Passion fl ower
( Passifl ora spp. ) contain the activ e su b-
stances harmine and harmal ine.
A bov e rig ht: Sy rian Ru e ( Peg anu m
harmal a) with fru it capsu l es.
Pag e 1 2 8 abov e: T he mu ral in the
Cu zco A irport ( Peru ) rev eal s the
v isionary worl d of A y ahu asca.
Pag e 1 2 8 bel ow: Shipibo Indians in
traditional costu mes decorated with
A y ahu asca patterns ( Y arinacocha,
Peru ) .
1 2 9
3 .
.
. ''
,. '
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L eft: A beer mu g of the Conibo-Shipibo
Indians that has been compl etel y
painted with the A y ahu asca pattern.
Rig ht: Shipibo women commu nal l y
paint a ceramic with A y ahu asca pat-
terns.
1 3 0
































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A bov e: M any species of the g enu s B a-
nisteriopsis, l ik e this B . mu ricata from
sou thern M ex ico, are rich in M A O-
inhibiting B ecau se of this,
they are particu l arl y su ited in the
preparation of A y ahu asca anal og s.














. . to

















A bov e l eft: A Shipibo woman paints
a piece of fabric with her traditional
A y ahu asca pattern.
A bov e rig ht: T he j u ng l e pharmacy of the
Shipibo Indians. Cou ntl ess medicinal
pl ants are tak en with A y ahu asca, which
streng then the effects.
1 3 1
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A bov e: A B arasana Indian traces in
sand near his mal oca patterns seen
du ring the cou rse of Caapi intox ication.
It has been su g g ested that many of the
desig n motifs indu ced by Caapi are, on
the one hand, cu l tu re-bou nd and, on the
other hand, control l ed by specific bio-
chemical effects of the activ e principl es
in the pl ant.
1 3 2


















































. . and






















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L eft: T his beau tifu l eng rav ing on a g ran-
ite rock at Ny l on the l ower Piraparaná
Riv er in Col ombia is obv iou sl y ancient.
T he rapids at this point on the riv er are
at the earth's eq u ator, a zone v ertical l y
rel ated to the rising and setting constel -
l ations. It has been su g g ested that this
tu rbu l ent area of the riv er was the pl ace
where the Su n Father married E arth
M pther to create the first T u k anoans.
T he Indians interpret the triang u l ar face
as a v ag ina and the sty l ized hu man
fig u re as a wing ed phal l u s.
A bov e: T he tal ented Peru v ian artist
Y ando, the son of an A y ahu asq u ero
from Pu cal l pa, drew this A y ahu asca v i-
sion. Notice that the compl ex ities of the
hal l u cinations are treated in an imag ery
in which microscopic and macroscopic
dimensions are sk il l fu l l y bl ended.
1 3 3
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cu l tiv ated Chacru na
( Psy c/ ii'! ria v iridis) .
A sel ection of pl ants u sed in the preparation of the A y ahu asca drink
to g iv e it its desired
heal ing powers or specific q u al ities:
A y ahu ma
B atsik awa
Cabal ong a
Catahu a
Cat's cl aw
Chiricaspi
Cu chu ra-caspi
Cu mal a
G u atil l o
G u ay u sa
H iporu ru
K ana
K apok tree
L u pu na
Pfaffia
Pichana
Pin pin
Pu l ma
Rami
Remo caspi
Sanang o
Su cu ba
T obacco
E u phorbia sp.
Capsicu m fru tescens
E ry thrina spp.
B ru g mansia spp.
Cou rou pita g u ianensis
Psy chotria sp.
T hev etia sp.
H u ra crepitans
U ncaria tomentosa
B ru nfel sia spp.
M al ou etia tamaq u arina
Virol a spp.
Iochroma fu chsioides
fl ex g u ay u sa
A ichornea castanaefol ia
Sabicea amazonensis
Ce/ ba pentandra
Chorisia insig nis
Pfaffia iresinoides
Ocimu m micranthu m
Cy peru s sp.
Cal athea v eitchiana
L y g odiu m v enu stu m
Pitheceiobj u m / aetu m
T abernaemontana sananho
H imatanthu s su cu u ba
Nicotiana ru stica
for better sing ing
tonic
pu rg ativ e
to treat del u sions,
il l nesses cau sed by mag ic arrows
( chonteado) ,
and enchantment
streng thens the body
for cool ing and redu ction of v isions
protects ag ainst spirits
pu rg ativ e
streng thens;
u sed to treat al l erg ies,
k idney probl ems, stomach u l cer,
v enereal disease
for fev er, rheu matism, and arthritis
to enabl e a better diag nosis
streng thens the v ision
streng thens the v ision
for pu rification and treatment
of v omiting
to treat diarrhea
" sweetens" the A y ahu asca drink
diarrhea, intestinal probl ems
to treat intestinal probl ems
sex u al weak ness
fev er
frig ht; promotes spiritu al
dev el opment; for abortions
to stimu l ate v isions
to streng then the A y ahu asca drink
streng thens the A y ahu asca drink
poor memory ;
for spiritu al dev el opment;
arthritis, rheu matism
to ex tract mag ic arrows
for poisoning
streng thens the v ision
A y ahu asca Ing redients
A i cu ro
A j I
A macisa
A ng el 's T ru mpet
A hiov e: . Farmers toii; j cco ( Nicotiana
,n,l ica) one of tin most important
pl ants in

/ I T he fru it of
; pecies of T hev e-
to Cabal ong ,, is added to
,. v thu asca to protoct l ie drink er from
l iciou s spirits.
T oe
Ipomoea carnea
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1 : T he Chiricaspi bu sh ( B ru nfel sia
g rand/ fl ora spp. schu l tesii) is an impor-
tant shaman pl ant in the northern
reg ions of Sou th A merica.
2 : Cat's Cl aw ( U ncaria tomentosa) is
one of the important medicinal pl ants for
treating chronic il l nesses among the
Peru v ian Indians.
7
3 : For many Indians, the K apok tree
( Ce/ ba pentandra) is the worl d tree.
4 : T he bindweed Ipomea carnea con-
tains potent psy choactiv e al k al oids and
is u sed in the Peru v ian A mazon basin
as an ing redient in A y ahu asca.
5 : T he Sanang o l eav es ( T a be rnaemon-
l ana sananho) streng then the memory .
6 : T he Pal o de B orracho " tree of dru n-
k enness" ( Choris/ a insig nis) is a worl d
tree in the cosmol og y of the shaman. Its
astring ent bark is added to A y ahu asca.
7 : A l eaf cu tting from Psy chotria v / rid/ s
( g ro'Nn in Cal ifornia) .
1 3 5
1
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Pag e 1 3 6 : T he G erman artist Nana
Nau wal d renders her A y ahu asca
v isions in this painting , al l owing the
v iewer a g l impse into the al ternate
real ity ? '
A bov e: M any species of the North
A merican pl ant g enu s Desmodiu m
contain the potent su bstance DM T in
their root bark , mak ing them su ited in
the preparation of drink s simil ar to
A y ahu asca.
A bov e: T he seeds of the M imosa scab-
re/ Ia contain DM T and are u sabl e in the
preparation of A y ahu asca anal og s.
1 3 7
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I: T he l eaf of the ex tremel y rare A cacia
phiebophy l l a is rich with DM T . It g rows
Onl y on one mou ntain in A u stral ia.
2 : T he A u stral ian nativ e A cacia maiden/ i
contains a hig h concentration of DM T in
its bark .
3 : T he seeds of the Sou th A merican
tree Dicty l oma incanescens. T his tree
contains ampl e amou nts of 5 -M eO-
DM T .
4 : T he seeds of the tropical M u cu na
pru riens are preferred by the traditional
peopl e to mak e j ewehy In addition they
contain hig h concentrations of DM T and
5 -M eO-DM T .
5 : A species of the DM T -containing
g enu s Desmodiu m.
6 : T he T u rk ey Red v ariety of the g rass
P/ ia/ ar/ s aru ndinacea contains l iberal
amou nts of DM T .
7 : T he root bark of the M ex ican M imosa
tenu ifl ora ( M imosa host/ I/ is) is fu l l of
psy choactiv e al k al oids. T he dried root
bark contains abou t 1 % DM T . It is
wel l su ited for the produ ction of an
A y ahu asca anal og .
1 3 8
A y ahu asca A nal og s: Pl ants that contain DM 1
Pl ant Famil y Dru g T ry ptamine
A ru ndo donax L . Rhizome DM T
Pha/ aris aru ndinacea L . G rass, root DM 1
Phal aris tu berosa L . ( Ital ian strain) L eav es DM T
Phrag mites au stral is ( Cay . ) T R. et ST . Rhizome
L eg u minosae ( Fabaceae)
A cacia maideniiF. v . M u el l .
A cacia phiebophy l l a F. v . M u el l .
A cacia simpil cifol ia Dru ce
A nadenanthera pereg rina ( L . ) Spag .
Desmanthu s il l inoensis ( M ichx . ) M acm.
Desmodiu m pu l chel l u m B enth. ex . B ak .
Desmodiu ni spp.
L espedeza capitata M ichx .
M imosa scabrel l a B enth.
M imosa tenu ifl ora ( W il d. ) Poir.
M u cu na pru riens DC.
B ark
L eav es
L eav es, bark
B ark
Root-bark
Root bark
0 . 3 6 % DM T
0 . 3 % DM T
0 . 8 1 % DM T



DM T

0 . 5 7 — 1 % DM 1
Seeds DM T , 5 -M eO-DM T
M al pig hiaceae
Dipl optery s cabrerana ( Cu atr. ) G ates L eav es
M y risticaceae
Virol a sebifera A u b. B ark DM T
Virol a theiodora ( Spru ce ex B enth. ) W arb. Fl owers 0 . 4 4 % DM 1
Virol a spp. B ark , resin DM T , 5 -M eO-DM T
Ru biaceae
Psy chotria poeppig iana M U E L L . -A RG . L eav es DM 1
Psy chotria v iridis R. et R L eav es DM T
Ru taceae
Dicty ol oma incanescens DC B ark 0 . 0 4 % 5 -M eO-DM T
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A y ahu asca Chu rches
In addition to the tru e shamanic u se of A y a-
hu asca, recentl y v ariou s sy ncretic chu rches
hav e been establ ished that al so u se A y a-
hu asca as part of their rel ig iou s ritu al s. T he
Santo Daime cu l t as wel l as the A y ahu asca
chu rch, U niã o do Veg atal , hol d reg u l ar
meeting s in which the members— the g reat
maj ority of whom are mestizos from the l ow-
er cl asses— drink A y ahu asca tog ether and
sing piou s song s. L ed by a priest, the g rou p
trav el s to the spirits of the trees as wel l as to
the Christian hol y spirits. M any cu l t mem-
bers discov er a new meaning to l ife and find
heal ing for the sou l . For the members of
these B razil ian chu rches, which hav e al so
made headway in E u rope, the u se of this
mag ic potion is j u st as l eg al as it is for the
shamans of the j u ng l e.
Santo Daime, the ritu al drink of a cu l t, and
hoasca, the sacrament of another chu rch,
are both made according to an orig inal
Indian recipe in which the B anisteriopsis
caapi v ine and the l eav es of the charcru na
shru b ( Psy chotria v iridis) are boil ed to mak e
an ex tremel y psy chedel ic mix tu re.
T he Santo Daime cu l t al so has mission-
aries activ e in E u rope, and this B razil ian
g rou p has been especial l y su ccessfu l in
G ermany and the Netherl ands. In A mster-
dam, they hav e their own chu rch. A l so in
the Netherl ands, the potential u se of A y a-
hu asca to treat addictions is being tested.
7
T his A y ahu asca anal og is k nown among peopl e k nowl edg eabl e in the fiel d as
a preparation that is the most psy choactiv e and easiest to tol erate.
Per per-
son, prepare:
3 g Peg anu m harmal a, finel y g rou nd
9 g root hu sk of M imosa tenu ifl ora
L emon or l ime j u ice
T he g rou nd seeds of Sy rian Ru e ( Peg anu m harmal a) are soak ed in water and
swal l owed or tak en in a g el atin capsu l e. Fifteen minu tes l ater, drink the boil ed
mix tu re of l emon or l ime j u ice and M imosa hu sk .
A fter 4 5 to 6 0 minu tes— often after brief nau sea or v omiting — the v isions
beg in. T hey often tak e the form of firework s or k al eidoscope-l ik e desig ns,
fl ashing col ors, fantastic mandal as, or trav el s to another worl d. T he effects
are eq u al to the effects of the A y ahu asca preparations from
the A mazon.
J u remahu asca or M imohu asca
1 3 9
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B RU G M A NSIA A U RE A
G ol den A ng el 's T ru mpet

B l ood-Red A ng el 's T ru mpet

1 : T he shamanic u se of the g ol d-y el l ow
fl owering B ru g mansia occu rs primaril y
in Col ombia and northern Peru .
2 : T he fl owers and l eav es are u sed by
many Indian shamans for medicinal
pu rposes.
3 : T he ripe fru it of the B ru g mansia
sang u inea. T his A ng el 's T ru mpet pu ts
ou t far more fru it than does any other
species.
4 : T he fl ower of B ru g mansia sang u inea.





. . B u t





. . T he




feel ing

. . If . . sits

























































































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A bov e: T he seeds of B ru g mansia su a-
v eol ens are u sed in Peru as an intox i-
cating additiv e to corn beer. T hey are
tak en by the shamans in hig her doses
and often produ ce a del iriu m that can
l ast for day s with the most powerfu l of
hal l u cinations.
B el ow: T he B l ood-Red A ng el 's T ru mpet
is often pl anted in sacred pl aces and
cemeteries. H ere is a l arg e pl ant g row-
ing with an imag e of the M adonna in
sou thern Chil e.
T he Chemistry of B ru g mansia
T he sol anaceou s B ru g mansia arborea, B . au rea, B . sang u inea, B . su av eo-
l ens, and B . v ersicol or contain the same tropane al k al oids as the Datu ras:
scopol amine, hy oscy amine, atrbpine, and the v ariou s secondary al k al oids of
the tropane g rou p, su ch as norscopol amine, aposcopol amine, metel oidine,
etc. Scopol amine, responsibl e for the hal l u cinog enic effects, is al way s fou nd
in the l arg est q u antity . T he l eav es and stems of B . au rea, for ex ampl e, with a
total al k al oid of 0 . 3 percent, contain 8 0 percent scopol amine, which is al so
the main al k al oid in the roots of B ru g mansia.
1 4 1
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Rig ht: T he Val l ey of Sibu ndoy in sou th-
ern Col ombia is a l ocation of intensiv e
u se of B ru g mansia. One of the most
renowned medicine men of the K amsá
tribe is Sal v ador Chindoy . H ere he is
pictu red in his ceremonial g arb at the
beg inning of a B ru g mansia-indu ced
intox ication for pu rposes of div ination.
L eft: y ou ng K amsá Indian boy of
Sibu ndoy , Col ombia, hol ds a fl ower and
l eav es of Cu l ebra prior to
brewing a tea for the pu rpose of intox i-
cation in preparation for l earning the
secrets of u se of hal l u cinog ens in mag ic
and medicine.
1 4 2
















































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Rig ht: T he beau tifu l fl owers of the A n-
g el 's T ru mpet inspired the Sy mbol ists
( fabric printed after a desig n by
A l phonse M u cha, Paris 1 8 9 6 ; orig inal is
in the W u rttembu rg State M u seu m,
Stu ttg art, G ermany ) .
L oft: T his drawing by a G u ambiano In-
dian of the sou thern A ndes of Col ombia
depicts a nativ e woman u nder a B orra-
chero tree, B ru g mansia v u l canicol a.
T he portray al of an eag l e associated
with an ev il spirit indicates the dang er-
ou s tox icity of this tree, which cau ses a
person tarry ing u nder it to become for-
g etfu l and to feel as if he were fl y ing .
1 4 3
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L OPH OPH ORA
Pey ote

Pag e 1 4 5 top: T he Pey ote crowns tak e
on many different forms, depending on
ag e and g rowing conditions.
Pag e 1 4 5 be/ ow: A g rou p of l arg e
Pey ote cacti in their nativ e habitat of
sou thern T ex as.




































Rig ht: A H u ichol y arn painting shows
the nu rtu ring and fertil e g ifts of the
Pey ote cactu s.
1 4 4










L eft: T he fl owering Pey ote cactu s
( L ophophora
I










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T he activ e principl e of L ophophora wil l iamsii, the first hal l u cinog enic pl ant to
be chemical l y anal y zed, was al ready identified at the end of the
nineteenth
centu ry as a cry stal l ized al k al oid ( see pag e 2 3 ) . B ecau se the dried
cacti from
which the al k al oid was ex tracted are cal l ed mescal bu ttons, it was
named
mescal ine. In addition to mescal ine, responsibl e for the v isu al hal l u cinog enic
effects, sev eral rel ated al k al oids hav e been isol ated from Pey ote and
rel ated
cacti.
W hen the chemical stru ctu re of mescal ine was determined, it
cou l d be
produ ced sy nthetical l y . T he chemistry is rel ativ el y simpl e:
3 ,4 ,5 ,-trimethox y -
pheny l ethy l amine. T he model of this stru ctu re is shown on pag e 1 8 6 .
M escal ine is chemical l y rel ated to the neu rotransmitter noradrenal ine
( nor-
epinephrine) , a brain hormone, al so shown here. T he activ e dose
of mesca-
l ine is 0 . 5 — 0 . 8 g ram when appl ied oral l y .
1 4 5
T he Chemistry of Pey ote
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Rig ht: A n ol d and v ery l arg e Pey ote
cactu s that is addressed as " G rand-
father" by the Indians. Notice the y ou ng
crowns.
1 4 6




























.
In


beaded " Pey ote snak es" decorated with
desig ns of the Pey ote to remote mou n-
tam shrines of E arth M other as an
offering of g ratitu de.
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A bov e: Different cacti that are k nown in
M ex ico as Pey ote, H ik u l i, Pey otil l o, or
Fal se Pey ote. T hey primaril y contain
the su bstance mescal ine and other
psy choactiv e al k al oids.
A bov e l eft: A riocarpu s retu su s
A bov e rig ht: A strophy ton asterias
B el ow l eft: A ztek iu m riterl l
B el ow rig ht: A riocarpu s fissu ratu s
L eft: T he earl iest k nown botanical il l u s-
tration of L ophophora wil l iamsii, pu b-
l ished in 1 8 4 7 . It has been fou nd in
archaeol og ical sites more than sev en
thou sand y ears of ag e. It was probabl y
the first and most spectacu l ar v ision-
indu cing pl ant encou ntered by the
Spanish conq u erors of M ex ico.
1 4 7
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H u ichol g eog raphy , W irik u ta, the
pl ace of the ancestor-g ods, is the l ocal -
ity of the orig in of the sacred l ife of the
tribe. Pey ote g rows here and is col -
l ected on the annu al pil g rimag es made
by smal l g rou ps of dev ou t H u ichol s. T he
trip to W irik u ta is l ong and ardu ou s, with
the pil g rims trav el ing as A ncient Ones.
L ik e the g ods, they refrain from food,
sex , and sl eep du ring this ex traordinary
trip. W hen they first enter the domain of
their Paradise, the mara'ak ame Ramó n
M edina Sil v a g estu res toward K au -
k ay ari ( power spots) that once were
the l iv ing forms of the g ods.

































































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Rig ht: A Pey ote hu nter spreads ou t his harv est at
home.
L eft: T he bask ets carried to W irik u ta contain onl y a few
personal and ceremonial obj ects. On the retu rn trip they
are fil l ed with the Pey ote bu ttons col l ected on the pil -
g rimag e. T he H u ichol say that Pey ote is " v ery del icate,"
so the heav il y l aden bask ets are carefu l l y transported
back to the Sierras in order to av oid bru ising the cactu s.
L eaning ag ainst the bask et is a H u ichol v iol in, u sed to
prov ide mu sic for the Pey ote dancing .
B el ow rig ht: H u ichol Indians retu rning from a
pil g rimag e.
B el ow l eft: A Pey ote hu nter with a bask etfu l of Pey ote
cacti.















. ,-.
4 : -j .

















Pag e 1 4 8 rig ht: E ach pil g rim has
brou g ht offering s to Pey ote. A fter these
g ifts are carefu l l y displ ay ed, the pil g rims
raise candl es in the direction of the as-
cending su n. T hey weep and pray that
the g ods accept their offering , whil e
A amó n ( second from rig ht) ferv entl y
chants.
1 4 9
. . c_ _ _ $ .
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Pag e 1 5 1 l eft T he H u ichol " trinity " of
deer, maize, and Pey ote is a hy persy m-
bol ic compl ex , a concept hark ening
back to the time of creation. T his para-
disiacal era antedates the separation of
pl ants from animal s, with Pey ote repre-
senting the trans-temporal l ink with the
su pernatu ral . On the annu al Pey ote
hu nt of the H u ichol , the pil g rims shoot
the first fou nd Pey ote with an arrow and
that special Pey ote is l ik ened to a dy ing
deer and accorded particu l ar chants;
offering s of maize seeds are l ik ewise
made.
Pag e 1 5 1 rig ht: T he Y aq u i Indians of
northern M ex ico sy mbol ize the Pey ote
cactu s as a bu ck , as in this wood
carv ing .
A bov e: " It is one, it isa u nity ; it is ou r-
sel v es: ' T hese words of H u ichol
mara'ak ame Ramó n M edina Sil v a de-
scribe the my stical rapport u nfol ding
among commu nicants in the Pey ote
ceremonies that is su ch an important
dimension in the l iv es of these peopl e.
In this y arn painting , six pey oteros and
the shaman ( on top) achiev e that u nity
in a fiel d of fire. In the center of the
pey oteros is T atewari, the First Sha-
man, as a fiv e-pl u med fire.
1 5 0
Rig ht A H u ichol sacrificial bowl deco-
rated with Pey ote desig ns.
A ccording the
fire.


to


















tribes


— —














































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B e/ ow: T he H u ichol shaman Ramó n M edina Sil v a
sil entl y awaits his Pey ote v isions. W rapped in his bl an-
k et, g azing into the ceremonial fire, he sits motionl ess
for many hou rs as he receiv es messag es from the
g ods. H e said of the Pey ote pil g rimag e: " Ou r sy m-
bol s— the deer, the Pey ote, the maize of fiv e col ors—
al l , al l that y ou hav e seen, there in W irik u ta, when we
g o to hu nt the Pey ote— these are beau tifu l . T hey are
beau tifu l becau se they are rig ht' ( From B arbara
M y erhoff, Pey ote H u nt)










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Rig ht: T he red M escal beans ( Sophora
secu ndifl ora) .
1 1 1 1
V
q
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
A bov e l eft: T he roadman in the Nativ e
A merican Chu rch officiates at the
Pey ote meeting as a representativ e of
the G reat Spirit. It is his du ty to show the
'Pey ote road" to the participants. T he
roadman in Stephen M opope's painting
hol ds traditional ceremonial obj ects as-
sociated with the rel ig ion: the fan, staff,
and rattl e. On his cheek is painted the
crown of a Pey ote pl ant. In the center
pictu re, al so by M opope, chanting parti-
cipants sit inside the sacred tepee, in
the middl e of which is Father Fire and
the crescent moon al tar. A bov e the te-
pee is the Pey ote water dru m. T he
photog raph on the far rig ht depicts the
Siou x medicine man H enry Crow Dog
chanting at a Pey ote meeting on the
Rosebu d Reserv ation.
A bov e middl e: A l so by M opope. T his
shows the participant who sits sing ing in
the interior of his sacred tipi. In the mid-
dl e is Father Fire and the sick l e shaped
al tar. A bov e the tipi is the water con-
tainer.
A bov e rig ht: Siou x M edicine M an H enry
Crow Dog at a Pey ote G athering on the
Rosebu d reserv ation.
1 5 2

























































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L eft: T he Pey ote rattl e is an important
instru ment for the Pey ote ceremony of
the Nativ e A merican Chu rch.
A bov erig ht: T he photog raph portray s
the roadman's feathered staff of au thor-
ity : two smok ing stick s for l ig hting the
ritu al cig arettes, one of which indicates
in the combination of the thu nderbird
and the cross the mel ding of Christian
and Nativ e el ements; corn shu ck s for
cig arettes; a dru mstick ; sev eral g ou rd
rattl es; two M escal bean neck l aces,
part of the roadman's dress; a bu ndl e of
sag ebru sh; Pey ote bu ttons; a Pey ote
ceremony neck tie; a bl ack " Pey ote
cl oth," an eag l e wing -bone fl u te and
a smal l pil e of " cedar' needl es for
incensing .
1 5 3
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A bov e: A H u ichol shaman
( mara'ak ame) sing s with his assistants
in front of the templ e in which the Pey ote
ceremony wil l tak e pl ace.
Pag e 1 5 5 top: T he g rou nd Pey ote is
mix ed with water and g iv en to the parti-
cipants at the intox icating ceremony .
1 5 4


































. . ," an



















T op l eft: T he Pey ote G oddess, or E arth
M other, of the H u ichol in a modern de-
piction. H er dress is decorated with
sy mbol s of the sacred cactu s. T he
Pey ote is her g ift to hu mans in order that
they may enter into contact with her. B y
k nowing her, man l earns to respect and
honor the earth and u se her wisel y .
T op rig ht: A H u ichol man with the smal l
Pey ote g arden he has pl anted in his v il -
l ag e and which he l ov ing l y cares for.
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i,-. .

































A bov e: A modern Pey ote bird of the
Nav aj o.
L eft: A Pey ote fan ( Nav aj o) made from
peacock feathers is u sed by the Indians
to indu ce v isions.
1 5 5
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1 . Psil ocy be mex icana
2 . Psil ocy be somperv iv a
3 . Psil ocy be y u ng ensis
F
4 . Psil ocy be caeru l escens v ar. mazatecoru m
5 . Psil ocy be caeru l escens v ar. nig ripes
2 2
CONOCY B E
PA NA E OL U S CY A NE SCE NS
'" B l u e

PA NA E OL U S SPH INCT RINU S
H oop-petticoat
PA NA E OL U S SU B B A L T E A T U S
U s. ) Dark -rimmed M ottl eg il l
PSIL OCY B E CU B E NSIS
IU San Isidro
PSIL OCY B E CY A NE SCE NS
'
' W av y Cap
PSIL OCY B E M E X ICA NA
° T eonaná catl
PSIL OCY B E SE M IL A NCE A T A
L iberty Cap
A bov e: One of the l arg est fru iting bodies
of Psiocy be fou nd.
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B el ow: In 1 9 7 9 the l arg est and most potent mu shroom
in the Psil ocy be g enu s was fou nd in A storia, Oreg on.
Psil ocy be azu rescens contains the hig hest concentra-
tion of psil ocy bine of al l mu shrooms.
6 . Psil ocy be cu bensis
7 . Psil ocy be wassonhi
8 . Psiocy be hoog shag enl l
9 . Psiocy be sil ig ineoides
1 0 . Panaeol u s sphinctrinu s
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B e/ ow: In E u rope and North A merica
there are cou ntl ess modern artifacts
that refl ect the contemporary mu sh-
room cu l t.
A bov e: M u shrooms with psy choactiv e
properties are fou nd arou nd the worl d.
In many pl aces T -shirts with mu shroom
motifs are av ail abl e for the trav el ing
mu shroom l ov er. E mbroidery from
K athmandu , Nepal .
A bov e rig ht: T he Psiocy be pel / icu l osa
is a rel ativ el y weak moderatel y activ e
mu shroom from the Pacific North W est.
1 5 8


































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T he Chemistry of T eonaná catl









W oman


L eft: T he six teenth-centu ry Spanish
friar B ernardino de Sahag Cin
denou nced the A ztec's sacramental
u se of T eonaná catl , the " wondrou s
mu shroom. " T his drawing , which
appears in famou s chronicl e,
Codex Fl orentino, depicts a demonl ik e
spirit ov er cru del y drawn mu shrooms.
T eonaná catl , the sacred mu shrooms of M ex ico, owe their hal l u cinog enic ef-
fects to two al k al oids k nown as psil ocy bine and psil ocine.
T he main component, psil ocy bine, is the phosphoric acid ester of psil ocine,
which occu rs u su al l y onl y in trace el ements. Psil ocy bine and psil ocine, being
try ptamine deriv ativ es, bel ong to the cl ass of indol e al k al oids. T heir cry stal s
are shown on pag e 2 3 ; their chemical stru ctu re on pag e 1 8 6 . T he chemical
rel ationship of these hal l u cinog ens to the phy siol og ical compou nd serotonine
is especial l y sig nificant. Serotonine, the mol ecu l ar model of which is shown
on pag e 1 8 7 , is a neu rotransmitter and, therefore, important in the biochem-
istry of psy chic fu nctions. B oth psil ocy bine and psil ocine can be produ ced
sy nthetical l y . T he activ e dose in man is 6 — 1 2 mg . T wenty to 3 0 mg indu ce
strong v isions.



A bov e l eft; In M ex ico an u nu su al saint
named E l Niñ o is worshiped in the
Cathol ic Chu rch. T he M ex ican Indians
u nderstand him as an embodiment of
the sacred mu shroom, which they al so
cal l Niñ o. ( A l tar in San Cristó bal de L as
Casas, Chiapas)
A bov e rig ht: T he tropical M ag ic M u sh-
room Psiocy be cu bensis ( Stropharia
cu bensis) was first g athered in Cu ba
and my col og ical l y ascertained, It g rows
in al l tropical zones, preferring cow
manu re.
1 5 9
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In 1 9 5 8 , the famou s M azatec shaman
M aria Sabina performed a Vel ada ( nig ht
v ig il ) on behal f of a sev enteen-y ear-ol d
y ou th, Pefecto J osé G arcia, who was
seriou sl y il l .
L eft to rig ht: Pefecto awaits the com-
mencement of the Vel ada.
Pefecto stands u p at the beg inning of
the ceremony , and M aria Sabina tu rns
her head to g aze at him.
T he shaman has incensed pairs of
sacred mu shrooms and hands Pefecto
the intox icating pl ant for ing estion.
Pefecto has heard the u nfav orabl e
diag nosis, which M aria Sabina has
l earned throu g h the hel p of the mu sh-
rooms— that there is no hope for his
recov ery . Re col l apses in terror and
despair.
T he shaman and her dau g hter, adv erse
diag nosis notwithstanding , continu e to
chant, hoping for more insig ht— ev en
thou g h she has l earned that Pefecto's
sou l has been irrev ocabl y l ost.
1 6 0

















































U pon




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creatu res

















c.


































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Rig ht: A cel ebrant depicted in the
six teenth-centu ry M ag l iabecChiafl O
Codex is ing esting a pair of hal l u cino-
g enic mu shrooms du ring a sacred rite.
B ehind him is the L ord of the U nder-
worl d, M ictl antl cu htl i. T he three j ade
g reen mu shrooms in front of the cel e-
brant u ndou btedl y were painted in this
col or to indicate their g reat v al u e as
sacred obj ects.
A bov e: A l bert H ofmann v isited the sha-
man M aria Sabina in 1 9 6 2 and took
many portraits of her.
Pag e 1 6 3 : T he sincerity and absol u te
faith in the rev el atory power of the
mu shrooms is ev ident in these photo-
g raphs of M aria Sabina, who, du ring the
nig htl ong chanting and cl apping cere-
mony , feel s hersel f fu l l y in contact with
the other worl d, which the mu shrooms
hav e al l owed her to v isit.
1 6 2




































































































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-4

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DIVINORU M
o
de Ia Pastora

Pag e 1 6 5 top l eft: Painted nettl e is u sed
by the M azatecs as a repl acement for
Sal v ia div inoru m.
Pag e 1 6 5 top rig ht: Col eu s pu mil u s is
considered by the M azatecs to be re-
l ated to Sal v ia div inoru m.
Pag e 1 6 5 middl e: Sal v ia div inoru m in
the M ex ican rain forest.
1 6 4












































Rig ht: Sal v ia div irioru m is easy to Cl osel y with the
its stem. mu shroom

paste made fresh l eav es
Sal v ia
Sal v ia div inoru m is chewed sl owl y ,
cl ear if was u sed in the —





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T he l eav es contain the neocerodan-diterpenes sal v inorin A and
sal v inorin B
( al so k nown as div inorin A and div inorin B ) , as wel l as two other,
simil ar su b-
stances that hav e not y et been precisel y identified. T he
main ing redient is
sal v inorin A ( chemical formu l a: C2 3 H 2 8 0 5 ) , which has ex treme
consciou s-
ness-al tering effects with amou nts as smal l as 1 5 0 — 5 0 0 mg .
Sal v inorin is not
an al k al oid. It was first described by Orteg a et al . by
the name of sal v inorin
( 1 9 8 2 ) . L ater, Val des et al . described it u nder the name of div inorin
A ( 1 9 8 4 ) .
T he neu rochemistry of sal v inorin is stil l an u nsol v ed pu zzl e. T he
ing redients
hav e not bou nd to any receptors in any receptor tests ( the
Nov aScreen meth-
od) . T he pl ant al so contains l ol iol id.
1 6 5
W hat W as Pipil tzintzintl i?
T he ancient A ztecs k new and u sed a pl ant cal l ed Pipil tzintzintl i ( the pu rest
l ittl e prince) v ery simil arl y to the u se of Psil ocy be mex icana in entheog enic
ritu al s. T here are mascu l ine and feminine forms of this pl ant, macho and
hembra. in the National A rchiv es in M ex ico City , there are Inq u isition fil es
from the y ears 1 6 9 6 , 1 6 9 8 , and 1 7 0 6 that mention Pipil tzintzin and hint at its
intox icating effects. Variou s au thors hav e tak en this to be Sal v ia div inoru m.
T he Chemistry of Sal v ia div inoru m
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fl A T RICH OCE RE U S
San Pedro

A bov e l eft: Pieces of San Pedro pil ed u p
for sal e in the " witches' mark et" in
Chicl ay o in northern Peru .
A bov e rig ht: T he fast-g rowing San
Pedro cactu s dev el ops few, if any ,
thorns when cu l tiv ated.
1 6 6




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T he Chemistry of San Pedro
T richocereu s contains as its main al k al oid mescal ine, responsibl e for the v i-
su al hal l u cinog enic effects. From dried specimens of San Pedro, 2 percent
mescal ine has been isol ated. In addition, hordenine has al so been detected.































T op: T he San Pedro cactu s
( T richocereu s pachanol ) .
A bov e l eft: T he fl owers of San Pedro
remain cl osed du ring the day time.
A bov e rig ht: In the earl y ev ening the
l arg e fl owers of the San Pedro bl ossom
in su mptu ou s spl endor.
Far l eft: A species from the T richocer-
eu s g enu s that has not y et been
botanical l y categ orized. It g rows in
northwestern A rg entina, where it is al so
cal l ed San Pedro and u sed psy cho-
activ el y .
1 6 7
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T op l eft: A ceramic pot from the ChimO
cu l tu re, A . D. T he owl -faced
femal e depicted on this v essel is prob-
abl y an herbal ist and shaman; she hol ds
H u achu ma ( T richocereu s) . E v en today
in nativ e mark ets, the women who sel l
the hal l u cinog enic are u su al l y
both herbal ists and shamans, and
according to nativ e bel iefs, the owl is
associated with these women.
T op rig ht: T here are many herbs cal l ed
" condu ro' that bel ong to different g en-
era ( for ex ampl e, L y copodiu m) and are
traditional l y u sed as ing redients in the
San Pedro drink .
M iddl e: A north Peru v ian cu randero
( heal er) sets u p his 'mesa" for the San
Pedro ritu al on the bank s of Shimbe
L ak e.
B el ow rig ht: T he mesa is su rrou nded by
mag ical stav es. T hey are either from
pre-Col u mbian g rav es or modern repl i-
cas made from the A mazonian Chonta
Pal m.
1 6 8





















































. . the

a

. . It
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. . incl u siv e
. . incl u ding

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. . " E cstatic




. . One

.























T op l eft: H arv ested and stored pieces
of San Pedro continu e l iv ing and often
beg in g rowing ag ain after months, ev en
y ears.
T op rig ht: T he W ol f's M il k pl ant ( Pedi-
l anthu s tithy mal oides) is sometimes
added to the San Pedro drink in order to
streng then its effects. Sometimes is has
been said that Pedil anthu s is hal l u cino-
g enic, bu t this has not been prov ed.
A bov e: T he v iew of the mesa g iv es a
cl ear impression of the sy ncretic cos-
mol og y of the modern heal er. G ods and
deities from different cu l tu res l ay nex t to
snail shel l s, archaeol og ical obj ects, and
perfu me bottl es.
1 6 9
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IPOM OE A
M orning G l ory
0 5
T U RB INA
" Ol ol iu q u i

T op rig ht: Fl y ing Sau cers are a fav orite
cu l tiv ated strain of the enchanting
M orning G l ory , l pomoea v iol acea.
A bov e: A n earl y painting of Ol ol iu q u i
from Sahag ü n's H istoria de l as Cosas
q e Nu ev a E spañ a, written in the second
hal f of the six teenth centu ry , cl earl y de-
picts the pl ant as a M orning G l ory .
1 7 0

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.
A























































T op l eft T he Ol ol iu q u i v ine T u rbina
cory mbosa.
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. especial l y

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. No

. . bel iev es . . is



A bov e l eft: T he v ery woody tru nk of the
Ol ol iu q u i v ine.
A bov e rig ht: T he capsu l es and seeds of
Ipomoea v iol acea are characteristic.
B el ow: T he E u ropean bindweed
Conv ol v u l u s tricol or al so contains
psy choactiv e al k al oids, al thou g h there
is no k nowl edg e of any traditional u se.
T he Chemistry of the
L y serg ic acid al k al oids are the hal l u cinog enic compou nds of Ol ol iu q u l . T hey
are indol e al k al oids that hav e al so been isol ated from E rg ot. L y serg ic acid
amide, al so k nown as erg ine, and l y serg ic acid hy drox y ethy l amide are the
main components of the al k al oid mix tu re in Ol ol iu q u i. T heir mol ecu l ar ar-
rang ement is shown on pag e 1 8 7 . T he try ptamine radical in the ring stru ctu re
of l y serg ic acid establ ishes its rel ationship with these erg ol ine al k al oids as
wel l as with the activ e principl es of Psil ocy be and of the brain hormone ser-
otonine.
L SD, l y serg ic acid diethy l amide, a semi-sy nthetic compou nd, is the most
potent hal l u cinog en k nown today . It differs from l y serg ic acid amide onl y by
repl acement of two hy drog en atoms for two ethy l g rou ps ( p. 1 8 7 ) . T he activ e
principl e of Ol ol iu q u i ( hal l u cinog enic dose 2 — 5 mg ) , howev er, is abou t 1 0 0
times l ess potent than L SD ( hal l u cinog enic dose 0 . 0 5 mg ) .
1 7 1
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A bov e: A n ancient Indian M other G od-
dess and her priestl y attendants with a
hig hl y sty l ized v ine of Ol ol iu q u i, in one
of the mu ral s from T eotihu acá n, M ex ico,
dated abou t A . D. 5 0 0 . H al l u cinog enic
nectar appears to fl ow from the bl os-
soms of the pl ant, and disembodied
ey es" and birds are other sty l istic fea-
tu res associated with hal l u cinog enic
intox ication.
1 7 2
. thu s





T he

. bu rned

T obacco,







. . and




H is








- . T he

Rig ht: In Sou th A merica the bindweed
Ipomoea carnea is u sed as an inebriant.
It al so has the psy choactiv e al k al oid
erg otine.
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L eft: T he M orning G l ory Ipomoea v iol a-
cea as a wil dfl ower in sou thern M ex ico.
. . was Depiction of

was



X tabentu n, " the as















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B el ow: A Z apotec shaman in San B ar-
tol o Y au tepec, M ex ico, preparing an in-
fu sion of seeds of Ipomoca v iol acea.
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. . Div ination


. g rows of

. . T he
















are the ocher-col ored, some-
what rou nd seeds of T u rbina cory m-
bosa. On the rig ht are the bl ack , ang u l ar
seeds of the Ipomoea v iol acea.
A bov e: T he shaman administers the in-
fu sion to a patient, assisted by a y ou ng
g irl . T he brew mu st be tak en at nig ht in a
secl u ded and q u iet pl ace. T he patient's
probl ems wil l be diag nosed by the sha-
man from interpretation of what he say s
whil e u nder the infl u ence of the pl ants.
1 7 5
Pag e 1 7 4 top: T he Cu ban stamp on the
l eft of T u rbina cory mbosa was issu ed at
Christmastime. T cory mbosa is v ery
abu ndant in the western part of the
isl and and fl owers in December. T he
H u ng arian stamp on the rig ht indicates
the horticu l tu ral importance of l pomoea
v iol acea and its v arieties.
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VIROL A
E pená

A bov e: T he seeds of Virol a su rinamen-
sis, cal l ed U cu ba, are u sed ethnome-
dicinal l y .
B el ow rig ht: T he most important spe-
cies of Virol a in hal l u cinog enic prepara-
tions is V theiodora, of the north-
western A mazon. Virol a is an A merican
g enu s rel ated to the Ol d W orl d g enu s of
the Nu tmeg . T he tiny fl owers of Virol a
hav e a hig hl y pu ng ent frag rance.
1 7 6



























l ophy l l a,






















































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A bov e l eft: L eaf, fl owers, and y ou ng fru it
of the rain forest tree Virol a cal ophy l l a.
A bov e rig ht: A branch of Virol a theio-
dora with fl owers.
1 7 7
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• -:
. . . • . ; 4 -.

: 4

Once a y ear, W aik á Indians in north-
eastern B razil come tog ether from mil es
arou nd for an endocannibal istic cere-
mony for which a hu g e q u antity of Virol a
snu ff is made and consu med. T he
ceremony hel d in ty pical rou nd hou ses
commemorates the dead of the pre-
v iou s y ear.
1 7 8
























— —













l oreten—






















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W aik b Indians consu me incredibl e
amou nts of Virol a powder, u sing l arg e
snu ffing tu bes made of the stems of
maranthaceou s pl ants. T he tu bes are
fil l ed with three to six teaspoonfu l s of
snu ff for each inhal ation.
A fter a stag e of hy peractiv ity and stimu l ation du r-
ing which the participants who hav e inhal ed the
snu ff eng ag e the hek u l a spirits, a period of dis-
tu rbed sornnol escence sets in du ring which nig ht-
marish v isu al hal l u cinations continu e ( l eft) .
W aik á shamans freq u entl y empl oy Virol a snu ff
or E pená in ritu al cu ring ( bel ow l eft) . T he intricate
rel ationship between mag ico-rel ig iou s and " med-
icinal " practices of these peopl es mak es it difficu l t
to disting u ish the bou ndaries of the su pernatu ral
and the prag matic. In fact, the Indian himsel f does
not mak e a distinction between these two areas.
A ppl ication of the snu ff is a v ig orou s
process, the powder being bl own far
into the nostril s and sinu ses. It cau ses
an immediate l acrimation and ex cessiv e
discharg e of mu cu s from the nose.













































Chemistry of E pená
A M ahek ototen shaman ( abov e) stru g -
g l ing ag ainst death, an ev er-present
threat. T he W aik á bel iev e that commu -
nication with the spirit worl d occu rring
du ring Virol a intox ication enabl es the
shaman to stav e off death, which they
ex pl ain as the resu l t of the activ ity of
mal ev ol ent spirits.
T he chemical anal y sis of v ariou s Virol a snu ffs rev eal ed abou t a hal f-dozen
cl osel y rel ated indol e al k al oids bel ong ing to the simpl e, open-chained or
cl osed-ring try ptamine deriv ativ es with a
sy stem. T he
main constitu ents of these snu ffs are 5 -methox y -N,N-dimethy l try ptamine
and Dimethy l try ptamine.
monomethy t-
try ptamine, and 2 -methy l - and 1
l ine u su al l y occu r onl y in trace amou nts. T he al k al oid mix tu res are al most
identical to those isol ated from the A nadenanthera snu ff powders.
1 7 9
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prepared
the . . throu g h . into
. . he

immediatel y




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Pag e 1 8 0 l eft, top to bottom: T he W aik á
carefu l l y pick ov er the l eav es of J u sticia
before dry ing them as an additiv e to the
Virol a snu ff.
One method of preparing Virol a snu ff
starts with the accu mu l ation of the red,
resinl ik e l iq u id on the inner bark and its
sol idification by heat ( as shown in the
photog raph of a W aik á Indian) .
A W itoto Indian beats the sy ru p l eft
after boil ing down Virol a resin.
Pag e 1 8 0 middl e and rig ht: J u sticia
l eav es are hig hl y aromatic when dried
and are, on occasion, added to Virol a
snu ff. T hey may , howev er, al so be the
sou rce of a hal l u cinog enic snu ff.
A mong the W aik b, the inv ariabl e ashes
mix ed with Virol a powder come from the
bu rning of the bark of a beau tifu l bu t rare
tree, E l iza bet ha princeps.
A bov e l eft: Indians u nder Virol a intox i-
cation characteristical l y hav e faraway ,
dreaml ik e ex pressions that are, of
cou rse, du e to the activ e principl es of
the dru g , bu t which the nativ es bel iev e
are associated with the temporary ab-
sence of the shamans' sou l s as they
trav el to distant pl aces. T he chants du r-
ing the incessant dancing performed by
shamans may at times refl ect conv er-
sations with spirit forces. T his transpor-
tation of the sou l to other real ms repre-
sents to the W aik b one of the most
sig nificant v al u es of the effects of this
hal l u cinog en.
A bov e rig ht: T he l eav es of J u sticia pec-
toral is v ar. stenophy l l a are an important
ing redient in the snu ff that is made from
the Virol a.
1 8 1
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DU B OISIA
Pitu ri B u sh


























A bov e: Pitu ri bu shes are represented by
the g ray dots on this painting by A bori-
g inal artist W al ang ari K arntawarra J a-
k amarra ( detail from oil painting , 1 9 9 4 ) .
B el ow: T he tru nk of the Pitu ri bu sh.
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T he Chemistry of Pitu ri
Du boisia hopwoodil contains v ariou s strong l y stimu l ating bu t al so tox ic al k a-
l oids ( pitu rin, D-nor-nicotine and D-nor-nicotine seems to be the
main activ e su bstance, and my osimin, N-formy l nornicotine, cotinin, N-acety l -
nornicotine, anabasine, anabatin, anatal l ine, and bipy ridy l are al so present.
T he hal l u cinog enic tropanal k al oid hy oscy amine has been discov ered in the
roots, as wel l as traces of scopal amine, nicotine, nornicotine, metanicotine,
my osmine, and N-formy l nornicotine. Du boisia my oporoides contains l arg e
q u antities of scopol amine.
Pl ants W hose A shes A re A dded to Pitu ri
Protaceae
G rev il l ea striata R. B R. ( Ij iny j a)
M imosaceae ( L eg u minosae)
A cacia aneu ra F. M u el l . ex B enth. ( M u l g a)
A cacia coriacea DC. ( A wintha)
A cacia k empeana F. M u el l . ( W itchitty bu sh)
A cacia l ing u l ata A . Cu nn. ex . B enth.
A cacia pru inocarpa
A cacia sail cina L indl ey
Caesal piniaceae ( L eg u minosae)
Cassiaspp.
Rhamnaceae
Venti/ ag o v iminal l s H ook . ( A tny ira)
M y rtaceae
E u cal y ptu s microtheca F. M u el l . ( A ng k irra)
E u cal y ptu s spp. ( G u ms)
E u cal y ptu ssp. ( Red g u m)
M el al eu ca sp.













































T op: T he Pitu ri bu sh.
M iddl e: T he fermented Pitu ri l eav es.
B ottom: T he G oodenia is a Pitu ri repl a-
cement for the l eav es of Du boisia
hopwoodii Pl ants of the g enu s G oode-
nia are ethnobotanical l y sig nificant
medicinal and nu tritional pl ants for the
A borig ines.
1 8 3
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T etrahy drocannabinol ( T H C)











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T he mol ecu l ar model s of hal l u cinog ens on pag es 1 8 6 — 8 7 show the che-
mical el ements of which these su bstances consist and the manner in
which the atoms of these el ements are rel ated to one another in the
mol ecu l es. T he bl ack bal l s mean carbon atoms, the white hy drog en, the
red ox y g en, the g reen nitrog en, and the y el l ow bal l in the psil ocy bine
mol ecu l e indicates a phosphoric atom. T here is, in fact, no space be-
tween atoms connected with each other; they tou ch. M oreov er, atoms of
v ariou s el ements are of different sizes. Onl y the especial l y smal l size of
the hy drog en atoms has been indicated in these model s.
It is hardl y possibl e to imag ine the real dimension of atoms and
mol ecu l es: 0 . 1 mg ( a tenth of a thou sandth of a g ram) of a hal l u cinog en,
barel y v isibl e, consists of abou t 2 x 1 0 1 7 ( = 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 )
mol ecu l es.
cel l s) .





Recent stu dies show differences in the internal stru ctu re of wood between
Cannabis sativ a ( far l eft) and C. indica. A s shown in these microscopic cross-
sections, one of the most sig nificant differences is the u su al l y sing l e condu -
civ e v essel s in the former species as contrasted with the consistentl y g rou ped
v essel s in the l atter.
T H C, fou nd onl y in Cannabis, is concentrated in the resin and is absent
from the woody tissu e, which for this reason is specifical l y ex empted from
control in A merican Cannabis l eg isl ation.
l anine,






















































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Pey otl ( L ophophora wil l iamsii)
-I'-
Psil ocine
( hal l u cinog enic principl e of T eonanL catl )
4 '
Psil ocy bine
( hal l u cinog enic principl e of T eonaná catl )
Noradrenal ine
( a brain hormone)
M escal ine
( v ision-cau sing hal l u cinog enic principl e of
Pey ote)
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Dr. A l bert H ofmann, born 1 9 0 6 , discov erer of
L SD and the hal l u cinog enic principl es of T eona-
ná catl and of Ol ol iu q u i, is shown here with the
mol ecu l ar model of L SD in his pharmaceu tic-
chemical research l aboratory , Sandoz, B asel ,
Switzerl and, 1 9 4 3 .
Pag e 1 8 6 : T he comparison between M escal ine
and Noradrenal ine and between Psil ocy bine and
Psil ocine with Serotonine shows the rel ationship
in the chemical stru ctu re between the hal l u cino-
g ens and brain hormones.
T he cl ose chemical rel ationship between the
activ e principl es of Ol ol iu q u i and L SD, the most
potent hal l u cinog en k nown today , is ev ident
when comparing the mol ecu l ar model s of L y ser-
g ic A cid A mide and L y serg ic A cid H y drox y ethy -
l amide with L y serg ic A cid Diethy l amide.
T he activ e properties of hal l u cinog ens are du e
not onl y to their composition with certain atoms;
the spatial arrang ement of the atoms in the
mol ecu l e is eq u al l y important in determining
the hal l u cinog enic effects. A s an ex ampl e, L SD
and iso-L SD ( at rig ht) consist of the same el e-
ments, bu t they differ in the spatial arrang ement
of the diethy l amide g rou p. In comparison to
L SD, iso-L SD is practical l y withou t hal l u cino-
g enic effect.
L SD
( semi-sy nthetic hal l u cinog en)
iso-L SD
( semi-sy nthetic compou nd)
L y serg ic acid amide L y serg ic A cid H y drox y ethy l amide
( hal l u cinog enic principl e of ( hal l u cinog enic principl e of
Ol ol iu q u i) Ol ol iu q u i)
4
Serotonine
( a brain hormone)
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— —






D. fl .
DISSE RT A 'J 'IO
.
• .
• .

. .
4



. VO? ) IL ISS! M O. : J j : Y . E X PE RJ Z tV. T 1 SSIM O,
1 1


rr B OT A N.
. U PE A L .
M ONSPE L .

--
OL A Y CS . RE INFI

IL


/
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Pag e 1 8 8 : T he first treatise on inebriants is apparentl y the doctoral thesis of
A l ander, a stu dent of L innaeu s, who is the father of modern botany . T his
thesis, defended in 1 7 6 2 at U ppsal a, was a mix tu re of scientific and pseu do-
scientific information. A n observ er present at the thesis defense may hav e
doodl ed these profil es, possibl y depicting the academic ex aminers.
depending

















B el ow: Visionary ex periences produ ced by hal l u cinog ens are a sou rce of in-
spiration for painters. T hese two watercol ors by Christian Rä tsch emerg ed
after tak ing L SD and show the my stical character of the ex perience.
ecstasy
perience
















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B el ow l eft: L SD is u su al l y distribu ted on printed and perforated paper. T he
desig ns often hav e my stical references and u se icons of E astern rel ig ions.
In
















B el ow rig ht and pag e 1 9 1 : T hese drawing s were done in 1 9 7 2 . T he two on top
( p. 1 9 1 ) were done before and after the L SD session. T he three drawing s
bel ow ( pp. 1 9 0 — 1 9 1 ) were done before, du ring , and after the session with the
same hal l u cinog en.
psy choanal y sis





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L
I
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Pag e 1 9 2 : In the 1 9 6 0 s, many artists in the U nited States and E u rope ex -
perimented with hal l u cinog ens in order to enhance the creativ e process. T he
painting on the l eft is an ex ampl e of this g enre.
ev ery








B el ow: Onl y a few artists are capabl e of ex pressing the v isionary real ms whil e
directl y u nder the infl u ence of hal l u cinog ens. T he two painting s by Fred
W eictmann were ex ecu ted whil e u nder the infl u ence of Psil ocy be
cy anescens. B oth are acry l ic on marbl ed paper.
L eft: Sl ipping and Sl iding I ( T here ex ists another painting from the same day . )
Rig ht: T he G arden of Pan
cou l d












































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B el ow: Du ring v isionary ex periences, many peopl e see spiral s, whirl pool s,
and mil k y way s. T he artist Nana Nau wal d depicted su ch an ex perience in her
painting T he M iddl e Is E v ery where.
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B el ow l eft: T he painting Spirit and M atter A re Indiv isibl e docu ments a recu r-
ring hal l u cinog en-infl u enced ex perience.
B el ow rig ht: M any peopl e recog nize the W il l to L iv e when they hav e tasted the
pl ants of the g ods. Nana Nau wal d ex presses this artistical l y .












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A bov e: In H u ichol , the term nierik a refers to a portway between so-cal l ed
ordinary and non-ordinary real ities. It isa passag eway and, at the same time,
a barrier between worl ds. Nierik a, a decorated ceremonial disk , is al so said to
mean " mirror" as wel l as " face of the deity . " T his nierik a shows the fou r cardi-
nal directions and the sacred center. T he coordinating ax is is pl aced in a fiel d
of fire.
Sev eral





















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L OU IS L E W IN
1 8 5 0 — 1 9 2 9
1 9 7
E RNST FRE IH E RR VON B IB RA
1 8 0 6 — 1 8 7 8
CA RL H A RT W ICH
1 8 5 1 — 1 9 1 7
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A rnau , F. , Rau schg ift, L u cerne 1 9 6 7 : 1 0 1 bel ow rig ht
A -Z B otanical Coil . , L ondon: 1 7 abov e l eft
B ibl ioteca A postol ica Vaticana, Vatican City ( Codex
B arberini L at. 2 4 1 fol . 2 9 r) : 1 1 1 l eft
B ibl ioteca M edicea L au renziana, Fl orence: 1 5 9
abov e ( Photo: Dr. G . B . Pineider)
B ibl ioteca Nazional e Central e di Firenze, Fl orence:
1 6 2 abov e ( Photo: G . Sansoni)
B iedermann, H . , L ex ik on der Fel sbl l dk u nst, G raz
1 9 7 6 : 8 3 abov e
B il darchiv B u cher, L u cerne: 1 7 bel ow rig ht
B iocca, E . , Y anoà ma, B an 1 9 6 5 ( Photo: Padre L .
Cocco) : 1 7 8 middl e, 1 7 8 / 1 7 9 , 1 7 9 middl e, rig ht,
1 8 1 l eft
B l ack Star, New Y ork : 9 6 middl e, l eft and rig ht ( Photo
C. H enning )
B ou v ier, N. , Col og ny -G enev e: 8 2
B ril l , D. , Col l eg e Park , G eorg ia: 1 6 8 abov e l eft
Carrol l , L . , A l ice's A dv entu res in W onderl and, New
Y ork 1 9 4 6 : 1 0 1 bel ow l eft
Col eman Col l ection, U x bridg e: 1 7 abov e, center l eft
Cu rtis B otanical M ag azine, v ol . III, third series, L on-
don 1 8 4 7 : 1 4 7 bel ow
E ditions Del cou rt, Paris: 8 9 abov e l eft
E M B A rchiv es, L u cerne: 5 . 1 3 abov e, centerrig ht, 2 8 /
2 9 , 3 6 ( 9 , 1 0 ) , 3 8 ( 1 4 ,1 5 ) , 4 0 ( 2 2 , 2 5 bel ow) , 4 3
( 3 5 ) , 4 4 ( 3 8 , 3 9 ) , 4 6 ( 4 6 ) and bel ow, 4 8 ( 5 2 , 5 3 )
and bel ow, 4 9 ( 5 5 , 5 6 ) , 5 3 ( 7 0 , 7 2 ) and bel ow, 5 6
( 8 4 ) and bel ow, 5 8 ( 8 9 ,9 0 ) , 5 9 ( 9 3 ) , 6 0 ( 9 6 ) , 6 2 , 8 8 ,
1 1 8 , 1 1 9 , 1 2 2 abov e, 1 3 2 , 1 3 3 rig ht, 1 4 5 abov e,
1 7 7 ,1 8 7 abov e
E mboden, W . , Cal ifornia State U niv ersity , Northridg e:
9 5 rig ht
E rdoes, R. , New Y ork and Santa Fe: 1 5 2 rig ht
E T H -B ibl iothek , Z u rich: 1 9 7 center l eft
Forman, W . , A rchiv e, L ondon: 6 2 rig ht
Frö h! ich, A . , L u cerne: 1 8 6 abov e
Fu chs, L . , New K reu terbu ch, B ase! 1 5 4 3 : 3 1 l eft
Fu rst, P. T . , New Y ork State U niv ersity , A l bany , New
Y ork : 1 7 2 bel ow
G oodman, M il l Val l ey , Cal ifornia: 9 6 center l eft
H al ifax Col l ection, Oj ai, Cal ifornia: 1 5 0 bel ow, 1 9 0 /
1 9 1 middl e, 1 9 1 abov e, 1 9 6
H arv ard B otanical M u seu m, Cambridg e, M ass. : 3 1
center l eft, 9 8 abov e, 1 5 2 l eft, 1 5 3 abov e rig ht, 1 7 0
bel ow, 1 8 5 abov e, 1 9 7 abov e
H erná ndez de A l ba, G . , Nu estra G ente Namu y M is-
ag , B og ota: 1 4 3 l eft
H ofmann, Dr. A . , B u rg . L . : 2 3 , 1 6 2 l eft
H ol ford, M . , L ou g hton: 1 0 5 bel ow
H ol mstedt, B . , K arol insk a Institu te, Stock hol m: 1 9 7
bel ow
H u nt Institu te for B otanical Docu mentation, Carneg ie-
M el l on U niv ersity , Pittsbu rg h: 1 8 8
1 9 8
K au fmann, P. B . , Department of B otany , U niv ersity of
M ichig an, A nn A rbor: 9 9
K obel , H . , Sandoz Research L aboratories, B asel : 1 0 3
bel ow rig ht
K och-G ru nberg , 1 . , Z wei J ahre u nter den Indianern,
B erl in, 1 9 1 0 : 1 2 7 l eft
K ö hl er, M edizinal -Pfl anzenatl as, v ol . I, G era-U nterm-
hau s 1 8 8 7 : 2 1 bel ow, 3 1 center l eft
K rippner, S. , San Francisco: 1 9 2
L eu enberg er, H . , Y v erdon: 1 1 1 rig ht
L y ck ner, K . -Ch. , H ambu rg : 1 1 0 abov e l eft
M oreau de T ou rs, J . , Du H achisch et de
M ental e, Paris 1 8 4 5 : 1 0 0 bel ow
M u seo del Oro, B og ota: 6 4
M u seu m of Fine A rts, B oston, G ift of M rs. W . Scott
Fritz: 1 0 8 l eft
M u seu m of the A merican Indian, H ey e Fou ndation,
New Y ork : 1 5 2 middl e
M u seu m Rietberg , Z u rich: 2 ( Photo: K ammerer/
W ol fsberg er) , 1 0 / 1 1 Samml u ng v on der H ey dt
( Photo: W ettstein & K au f)
M y erhoff, B . , L os A ng el es: 1 4 8 , 1 4 9 abov e l eft, 1 5 1
bel ow
Nau wal d, N. , Su derg el l ersen: 1 9 4 , 1 9 5
Neg rin, J . , M ex ico: 6 3 ( Photo: L . P. B ak er) )
New Y ork er; New Y ork : 1 0 0 top
Osterreichische National bibl iothek , Vienna ( Codex
Vindobonensis S. N. 2 6 4 4 — T acu inu m Sanitatis in
M edicina— Fol io 4 0 ) : 8 7 bel ow
Ott, J . , X al apa: 5 6 ( 8 2 )
Park er, A . : Y al e U niv ersity , New H av en: 9 7 bel ow l eft
Pel t, J . M . , Drog u es etpl antes mag iq u es, Paris 1 9 7 1 :
1 5 1


Petersen, W . : M eck i bel den 7 Z werg en, K bIn ( © for
the M eck i-character: Diehl -FiIm, M u nich) : 8 4 center
rig ht
Photoarchiv E mil Schu l thess E rben, Z u rich: 2 4
Radio T imes H u l ton Pictu re L ibrary , L ondon: 4
R& tsch, C. , H ambu rg : 7 , 8 , 1 3 center, rig ht, 1 7 bel ow,
center l eft, 1 8 , 1 9 ,2 1 abov e, 2 2 , 2 4 / 2 5 , 2 7 , 3 0 , 3 4 ,
3 5 , 3 6 , 3 7 ( 8 ) , 3 8 ( 1 6 , 1 7 ) , 3 9 , 4 0 , ( 2 3 , 2 4 ) , 4 2 , 4 3
( 3 4 ,

5 6 ( 8 1 , 8 3 ) , 5 7 , 5 8 ( 9 1 ) , 5 9 ( 9 2 , 9 4 ) , 6 0 ( 9 5 ,
9 7 ) , 8 3 bel ow, 8 4 abov e, center l eft, bel ow, 8 5
abov e rig ht, bel ow, 8 6 , 9 7 abov e l eft, abov e rig ht,
8 9 bel ow, 9 0 bel ow, 9 1 , 9 2 , 9 3 , 9 4 , 9 5 abov e, 9 6
abov e, bel ow, 9 7 , abov e l eft, abov e rig ht, 1 0 1
abov e, 1 0 2 , 1 0 3 abov e rig ht, bel ow rig ht, 1 0 4 , 1 0 5
rig ht, 1 0 6 , 1 0 7 abov e, bel ow l eft, bel ow rig ht, 1 0 8
abov e rig ht, bel ow, 1 0 9 , 1 1 0 bel ow l eft, rig ht, 1 1 2 ,
1 1 3 abov e bel ow l eft, 1 1 4 abov e, 1 1 5 abov e, 1 1 7
l eft, abov e l eft, 1 2 0 , 1 2 1 , 1 2 2 bel ow, 1 2 3 , 1 2 4 ,
1 2 5 , 1 2 8 , 1 2 9 , 1 3 0 , 1 3 1 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 5 , 1 3 6 , 1 3 7 , 1 3 8 ,
1 3 9 , 1 4 0 , 1 4 1 , 1 4 2 rig ht, 1 4 4 , 1 4 5 bel ow, 1 4 6 , 1 4 7
abov e, 1 5 0 abov e, 1 5 1 abov e rig ht, 1 5 2 abov e, 1 5 3
abov e l eft, 1 5 4 abov e l eft, 1 5 5 bel ow, 1 5 6 abov e,
1 5 7 abov e, 1 5 8 , 1 5 9 bel ow, 1 6 4 , 1 6 5 , 1 6 6 , 1 6 7 ,
1 6 8 abov e rig ht, middl e, bel ow, 1 6 9 , 1 7 0 abov e l eft,
bel ow, 1 7 2 abov e, 1 7 3 , 1 7 5 abov e, 1 7 6 l eft, 1 8 1
rig ht, 1 8 2 , 1 8 9 , 1 9 0 l eft
Rau h, Prof. , Dr. W . , Institu t fu r Sy stematische B ota-
nik u nd Pfl anzeng eog raphie der U niv ersitä t H ei-
del berg : 1 6 abov e rig ht, middl e, bel ow, 1 7 mid-
dl e, 6 0
Rog er Viol l et, Paris: 1 1 6 rig ht
Roy al B otanical G ardens, K ew. 1 1 7 bel ow rig ht, 1 2 6
l eft, 1 9 7 center rig ht
B . de, H istoria G eneral de l as Cosas de
Nu ev aE spana, M ex ico 1 8 2 9 : 1 0 7 bel ow middl e
Sal zman, E . : Denv er, Col orado: 8 5 abov e l eft
Samorini, G . : Dozza: 1 1 2 rig ht, 1 1 3 bel ow rig ht, 1 1 4
bel ow, 1 1 5 bel ow
Scal a, Fl orence: 1 0 5 l eft
Schaefer, S. B . : M cA l l en, T ex as: 6 , 1 4 9 abov e rig ht,
middl e, 1 5 4 abov e rig ht, bel ow, 1 5 5 abov e
Schmid, X . : W etzik on: 5 5 ( 7 9 )
Schu l tes, R. E . , H arv ard B otanical M u seu m, Cam-
bridg e, M ass. : 9 8 bel ow, 1 1 7 abov e rig ht, 1 2 6 mid-
dl e, rig ht, 1 2 7 rig ht, 1 3 3 l eft, 1 4 2 , 1 7 8
Schu ster, M . , B asel : 1 1 8 abov e l eft, 1 1 9 abov e
middl e
Science Photo L ibrary , L ondon ( L ong A shton Re-
search Station, U niv ersity of B ristol ) : 3 1 rig ht
Sharma, G . , U niv ersity of T ennessee, M artin: 9 8 cen-
ter rig ht
Sinsemil l a: M anj u ana Fl owers © Copy rig ht 1 9 7 6 , Ri-
chardson, W oods and B og art. Permission g ranted
by : A nd/ Or Press, Inc. , P0 B ox 2 2 4 6 , B erk el ey , CA
9 4 7 0 2 : 9 7 bel ow rig ht
Smith, E . W . , Cambridg e, M ass. : 1 5 6 / 1 5 7 bel ow, 1 7 1
abov e rig ht, 1 7 6 rig ht
Starnets, P Ol y mpia: 1 5 8 rig ht
T obl er, R. , L u cerne: 1 6 abov e l eft, 8 1
T opham, J . , Pictu re L ibrary , E denbridg e: 1 7 abov e
rig ht, 9 0 abov e
Val entini, M . B . , Viridariu m reformatu m, seu reg nu m
v eg eta bil e, Frank fu rt a. M ain 1 7 1 9 : 8 0
W asson, R. G . , H arv ard B otanical M u seu m, Cam-
bridg e, M ass. : 1 4 . 1 5 ( Photo A . B . Richardson) ,
1 7 4 bel ow, 1 7 5 bel ow ( Photo: C. B artol o)
W eidmann, F. , M u nich: 1 9 3
Z entral bibl iothek Z u rich ( M s. F2 3 , p. 3 9 9 ) : 8 9 abov e
rig ht
Z erries, 0 . , M u nich: 1 1 8 bel ow rig ht, 1 1 8 / 1 1 9 , 1 1 9
abov e rig ht
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Shou l d this book su cceed in g iv ing its readers a better
u nderstanding of the rol e of hal l u cinog enic pl ants in
the cu l tu ral dev el opment of man throu g h the centu -
ries, we mu st thank the patience and friendl iness of
shamans and other nativ e peopl es with whom we
hav e had the happy opportu nity of work ing .
T he debt that we owe for the faithfu l cooperation
and encou rag ement of ou r many professional col l ea-
g u es ov er the y ears can be neither easil y nor ade-
q u atel y pu t into words, bu t nonethel ess it is deepl y
appreciated.
T o the su ndry scientific institu tions and many
l ibraries that hav e freel y and fu l l y hel ped u s in so
many way s, both before and du ring the preparation of
the book , we ex press ou r heartfel t thank s. W ithou t
this su pport, the book nev er cou l d hav e been born in
its present form.
T he g enerosity of the many indiv idu al s and institu -
tions that hav e made av ail abl e, often at g reat ex pense
of time and research, the ex tensiv e il l u strativ e mate-
rial for this v ol u me— mu ch of it hitherto u npu bl ished—
has heartened u s du ring the freq u ent fru strations that
we hav e met in ou r efforts to produ ce a book con-
ceiv ed with a fresh and forward-l ook ing ov erv iew of
one of the fu ndamental el ements of hu man cu l tu re—
the hal l u cinog ens.
Christian Râ tsch thank s Cl au dia M U l l er-E bel ing ,
Nana Nau wal d, Stacy Schaefer, A rno A del aars, Fel ix
H asl er, J onathan Ott, G iorg io Samorini, and Pau l
Stamets for comments on the rev ision.

A aronson, B ernard & H u mphrey Osmond ( ed. )
1 9 7 0 Psy chedel ics. New Y ork : A nchor B ook s.
A dov asio, J . M . & G . F. Fry
1 9 7 6 " Prehistoric Psy chotropic Dru g U se in North-
eastern M ex ico and T rans-Pecos T ex as" E conomic
B otany 3 0 : 9 4 -9 6 .
A g u rel l , S.
1 9 6 9 " Cactaceae A l k al oids. I. " L l oy d/ a 3 2 : 2 0 6 — 2 1 6 .
A iston, G eorg
1 9 3 7 T he A borig inal Narcotic Pitcheri" Oceania
7 ( 3 ) : 3 7 2 — 3 7 7 .
A l iotta, G iov anni, Daniel l e Piomel l i, & A ntonio Pol l io
1 9 9 4 " L e piante narcotiche e psicotrope in Pl inio e
Dioscoride" A nna/ i del M u sei Civ ic! de Rev ereto
9 ( 1 9 9 3 ) : 9 9 — 1 1 4 .
A l v ear, Sil v io L u is H aro
1 9 7 1 Shamanismo y farmacopea en € 1 re/ no de
Q u ito. Q u ito, Institu to E cu atoriana de Ciencias
Natu ral es ( Contribu ciOn 7 5 ) .
A ndritzk y , W al ter
1 9 8 9 Schaman/ smu s u nd ritu el / es H e/ l en im A / ten
Peru ( 2 v ol u mes) . B erl in: Cl emens Z erl ing .
1 9 8 9 " E thnopsy chol og ische B etrachtu ng des H el l -
ritu al s mit A y ahu asca ( B anisteriopsis caapi) u nter
besonderer B eru ck sichtig u ng der Piros ( Ostperu ) "
A nthropos 8 4 : 1 7 7 — 2 0 1 .
1 9 8 9 " Sociopsy chotherapeu tic Fu nctions of A y a-
hu asca H eal ing in A mazonia" J ou rnal of Psy cho-
actIv e Dru g s 2 1 ( 1 ) : 7 7 — 8 9 .
1 9 9 5 " Sak ral e H eil pfl anze, K reativ itã t u nd K u l tu r:
indig ene M al erei, G ol d- u nd K eramik k u nst in Peru
u nd K ol u mbien" Cu rare 1 8 ( 2 ) : 3 7 3 — 3 9 3 .
A renas, Pastor
1 9 9 2 " E l 'cebil ' o el 'á rbol de Ia ciencia del bien y del
mal " Parodiana7 ( 1 — 2 ) : 1 0 1 — 1 1 4 .
A ré v al o Val era, G u il l ermo
1 9 9 4 M edicina / ndIg ena Ship/ bo-Con/ bo: L as pl an-
l as medic/ na/ es y su beneficio en Ia sal u d. L ima:
E dició n A idesep.
B aer, G erhard
1 9 6 9 " E ine A y ahu asca-Sitzu ng u nter den Piro ( Ost-
Peru ) " B u l l etin de Ia Socié té Su isse des A mer/ can-
isl es 3 3 : 5 — 8 .
1 9 8 7 " Peru anische ay ahu asca-Sitzu ng en' in:
A . Dittrich & Ch. Scharfetter ( ed. ) , E thno-
psy chotherapie, 5 . 7 0 — 8 0 , Stu ttg art: E nk e.
B arrau , J acq u es
1 9 5 8 " Nou v el l es observ ations au su j et des pl antes
hal l u cing enes d'u sag e au tochtone en Nou v el l e-
G u inee" J ou rnal d'A g r/ cu l tu re T ropical e et de B ota-
niq u e A ppl iq u ee 5 : 3 7 7 — 3 7 8 .
1 9 6 2 " Observ ations et trav au x ré cents su r l ea y e-
g etau x hal l u cinog enes de Ia Nou v el l e-G u iné e"
J ou rnal d'A g r/ cu / tu re T ropical e et de B otaniq u e A p-
pl iq u ee 9 : 2 4 5 — 2 4 9 .
B au er, W ol fg ang , E dzard K l app & A l ex andra Rosen-
bohm
1 9 9 1 Der F/ ieg enpil z: E / n k u l tu rhistor/ sches M u -
seu m. Col og ne: W ienand-Verl ag .
B ering er, K u rt
1 9 2 7 Der M esk a/ / nrau sch. B erl in: Spring er ( reprint
1 9 6 9 ) .
B ianchi, A ntonio & G iorg io Samorini
1 9 9 3 " Pl ants in A ssociation with A y ahu asca" J ahr-
bu ch fü r E thnomed/ zin u nd B ewu B tseinsforschu ng
2 : 2 1 — 4 2 , B erl in: VW B .
B ibra, B aron E rnst v on
1 9 9 5 P/ ant Intox icants: A Cl ass/ c T ex t on the U se of
M ind-A l tering P/ ants. T echnical notes by J onathan
Ott. H eal ing A rts Press: Rochester, VT . Orig inal l y
pu bl ished as Die Narcot/ sche G enu B mittel u nd der
M ensch. Verl ag v on W il hel m Schmid, 1 8 8 5 .
B isset, N. G .
1 9 8 5 a " Phy tochemistry and Pharmacol og y of Voa-
cang a Species" A g ricu l tu ral U niv ersity W ag en/ ng en
Papers 8 5 ( 3 ) : 8 1 — 1 1 4 .
1 9 8 5 b " U ses of Voacang a Species" A g ricu l tu ral
U niv ersIty W ag ening en Papers 8 5 ( 3 ) : 1 1 5 -1 2 2 .
B l ä tter, A ndrea
1 9 9 5 " Die Fu nk tionen des Drog eng ebrau chs u nd
ihre k u l tu rspezifische Nu tzu ng " Cu rare 1 8 ( 2 ) : 2 7 9 —
2 9 0 .
1 9 9 6 " Drog en im prak ol u rnbischen Nordamerik a"
J ahrbu ch fü r E thnomedizin u nd B e-
wu ! 3 tse/ nsforschu ng 4 ( 1 9 9 5 ) : 1 6 3 -1 8 3 .
B og ers, H ans, Stephen Snel ders & H ans Pl omp
1 9 9 4 De Psy chedel / sche ( R) ev ol u tie. A msterdam:
B res.
B ov é , Frank J ames
1 9 7 0 T he Story of E rg ot. B asel , New Y ork :
S. K arg er.
B oy d, Carol y n E . & J . Phil ip Dering
1 9 9 6 " M edicinal and H al l u cinog enic Pl ants Identi-
fied in the Sediments and Pictog raphs of the L ow-
er Pecos, T ex as A rchaic" A ntiq u ity 7 0 ( 2 6 8 ) : 2 5 6 —
2 7 5
B rag s, D. L . & J . L . M cL au g hl in
1 9 6 9 " Cactu s A l k al oids. V: Isol ation of H ordenine
and N-M ethy l ty ramine from A riocarpu s retu su s"
P/ a nta M ed/ ca 1 7 : 8 7 .
B rau , J ean-L ou is
1 9 6 9 Vom H aschisch zu m L SD. Frank fu rt/ M . : Insel .
B u ng e, A .
1 8 4 7 " B eitrag e zu r K enntnis der Fl ora Ru l 3 l ands
u nd der Steppen Z entral -A siens" M om. Say E l r.
Petersb. 7 : 4 3 8 .
B y e, Robert A .
1 9 7 9 " H al l u cinog enic Pl ants of the T arahu mara"
J ou rnal of E thnopharmaco/ og y 1 : 2 3 — 4 8 .
Cal l away , J ames
1 9 9 5 " Some Chemistry and Pharmacol og y of A y a-
hu asca" J ahrbu ch fü r E thnomodizin u nd B ewu B t-
seinsforschu ng 3 ( 1 9 9 4 ) : 2 9 5 — 2 9 8 , B erl in: VW B .
1 9 9 5 " Pharmahu asca and Contemporary E thno-
Cu rare 1 8 ( 2 ) : 3 9 5 — 3 9 8 .
Campbel l , T . N.
1 9 5 8 " Orig in of the M escal B ean Cu l t" A merican
A nthropol og ist 6 0 : 1 5 6 -1 6 0 .
Camporesi, Piero
1 9 9 0 Das B rot der T rä u me. Frank fu rt/ New Y ork :
Campu s.
Carstairs, G . M .
1 9 5 4 " Daru and B hang : Cu l tu ral Factors in the
Choice of Intox icants" Q u arterl y J ou rnal for the
Stu dy of A l cohol 1 5 : 2 2 0 — 2 3 7 .
Chao, J ew-M ing & A ra H . Der M arderosian
1 9 7 3 " E rg ol ine A l k al oidal Constitu ents of
H awaiian B aby W ood Rose, A rg y re/ a nerv osa
( B u rm. f. ) B oj er" J ou rnal of Pharmaceu tical
Sciences 6 2 ( 4 ) : 5 8 8 — 5 9 1 .
Cook e, M ordecai C.
1 9 8 9 T he Sev en Sisters of Sl eep. L incol n, M A :
Q u arterman Pu bI. ( reprint 1 8 6 0 ) .
Cooper, J . M .
1 9 4 9 " Stimu l ants and Narcotics" in: J . H . Stewart
( ed. ) , H andbook of Sou th A merican Indians, B u r
A m. E thno/ . B u l l . 1 4 3 ( 5 ) : 5 2 5 — 5 5 8 .
Cordy -Col l ins, A l ana
1 9 8 2 " Psy choactiVe Painted Peru v ian Pl ants: T he
Shamanism T ex til e" J ou rnal of E thnobio/ og y 2 ( 2 ) :
1 4 . 4 — 1 5 3 .
Dav is, W ade
1 9 9 6 One Riv er: E x pl orations and Discov eries in
the A mazon Rain Forest. New Y ork : Simon &
Schu ster.
De Smet, Peter A . G . M . & L au rent Riv ier
1 9 8 7 " Intox icating Paricá Seeds of the B razil ian
M au é Indians" E conomic B otany 4 l ( 1 ) : 1 2 — 1 6 .
DeK orne, J im
1 9 9 5 Psy chedel / scher Neo-Schamanismu s. L ö hr-
bach: W erner Pieper's M edienX perimente ( E dition
Rau schk u nde) .
Del tg en, Fl orian
1 9 9 3 G e/ enk te E k stase: Die hal l u zinog ene Dmg e
Y ebá masa-/ ndianer. Stu ttg art: Franz Stei-
ner Verl ag ( A cta H u mbol dtiana 1 4 ) .
1 9 9
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Descol a, Phil ippe
1 9 9 6 T he Spears of T wil ig ht: L ife and Death in the
A mazon J u ng l e. L ondon: H arperCol l ins.
Dev ereu x , Pau l
1 9 9 2 Shamanism and the M y stery L ines: L ey
L ines, Spirit Paths, Shape-Shifting & Ou t-of-B ody
T rav el . L ondon, New Y ork , T oronto, Sy dney : Q u an-
tu m.
1 9 9 7 T he L ong T rip: A Prehistory of Psy chedel ia.
New Y ork : Peng u in/ A rk ana.
Diaz, J osé L u is
1 9 7 9 " E thnopharmacol og y and T ax onomy of M ex i-
can Psy chody sl eptic Pl ants" J ou rnal of Psy chede-
l ic Dru g s 1 1 ( 1 — 2 ) : 7 1 — 1 0 1 .
Dieck hOfer, K . , T h. Vog el , & J . M ey er-L indenberg
1 9 7 1 " Datu ra Stramoniu m al s Rau schmittel " Der
Nerv enarzt 4 2 ( 8 ) : 4 3 1 — 4 3 7 .
Dittrich, A dol f
1 9 9 6 A tiol og ie-u nabhà ng ig e Stru k tu ren v erä nder-
ter W achbewu I3 tseinszu stl l nde. Second edition,
B erl in: VW B .
Dobk in de IRios, M arl ene
1 9 7 2 Visionary Vine: H al l u cinog enic H eal ing in the
Peru v ian A mazon. San Francisco: Chandl er.
1 9 8 4 H al l u cinog ens: Cross-Cu l tu ral Perspectiv es.
A l bu q u erq u e: U niv ersity of New M ex ico Press.
1 9 9 2 A mazon H eal er: T he L ife and T imes of an
U rban Shaman. B ridport, Dorset: Prism Press.
Dru ry , Nev il l
1 9 8 9 Vision Q u est. B ridport, Dorset: Prism Press.
1 9 9 1 T he Visionary H u man. Shaftesbu ry , Dorset:
E l ement B ook s.
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'T he



u nd G enu Il mittel . B asel :


and M ental / I/ ness. New


cy anescens-eine weitere

M itteil u ng sbl att 2 9 : —
Cl au dia &
L iebestrank . M u nich:
M u l l er-E bel ing ,

A arau :

( Datu ra stramoniu m)
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psicotropi-
cas 2 4 : —
E tnomedicina y mitol og ia. Ou ito:


H u ichol Creation of the W orl d. Sacra-


A rzneipfl anzen u nd J ag dg ifte.
Stu ttg art:


div inoru m ( L abiatae) " Chem.
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Phy tochemistry
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div inoru m and Sal v inorin A " Cu rare
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2 0 3
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l ions.
1 ,2 -dimethy l -6 -methox y tetra-
hy dro4 l -carbol ine 1 1 7 , 1 7 9
2 -methy l -6 -methox y tetrahy -
dro-fI-carbol ine 1 1 7 , 1 7 9
3 ,4 -dimethox y pheny l ethy l a-
mine 5 9
3 -hy drox y -4 -methox y phe-
nethy l amine 4 2
3 -methox y -ty ramine 3 9 , 5 9 , 7 7
4 -hy drox y -3 -methox y pheny -
l ethy l amine 5 1 , 6 7 , 6 9
4 -tetrahy droisoq u inol ine al k a-
l oids 5 1
5 -hy drox y dimethy l try ptamine
1 1 7
5 -hy drox y -try ptophane 5 2
5 -hy drox y carneg ine 3 9 , 7 7
5 -M eO-DM T 2 2 , 3 5 , 5 0 , 5 4 ,
6 0 , 6 9 , 7 7 , 1 3 7 , 1 3 8 , 1 3 8
5 -M eO-M M T 1 2 0
5 -methox y ( — N,N) -dimethy l -
try ptamine 6 9 , 1 7 9
5 -OH -DM T -N-ox ide 1 2 0
6 -methox y -N,N-dimethy l try p-
tamine 1 7 9
a-asarone 3 4 , 7 7
A -mu -k / a 1 7 3
A borig ines 4 2 , 7 3 , 7 5 , 1 8 2 ,
1 8 3 , 1 8 3
A cacia 3 4 . 7 2
A cacia resin 7 3 , 7 5
A cacias 7 2 , 7 3 , 7 5
A cacia aneu ra 1 8 3
A cacia coriacea 1 8 3
A cacia k empeana 1 8 3
A cacia l ing u l ata 1 8 3
A cacia maidenl l 3 4 , 7 2 , 7 3 ,
1 3 8 , 1 3 8
A cacia phl ebophy l / a 3 4 , 6 7 ,
7 2 , 7 3 , 1 3 8
A cacia pru inocarpa 1 8 3
A cacia sal / c/ na 1 8 3
A cacia simpl icifo/ l a 3 4 , 7 2 , 7 3 ,
1 3 8
A ccu l taration 6 5
A chu ma 1 6 6 , 1 6 8
A coru s 3 4
A coru s cal amu s 1 6 , 3 4 , 7 6
A fg hanistan 4 1 , 6 8 , 7 3 , 8 8 , 9 9
A fl otox ins 1 9
A frica 2 6 , 3 4 , 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 1 , 4 6 ,
4 9 , 5 0 , 5 2 , 6 0 , 6 4 , 7 3 , 7 6 ,
7 8 , 8 8 , 9 4 , 9 6 , 9 7 , 9 8 , 9 9 ,
1 0 9 , 1 1 0 , 1 1 1 , 1 1 5
A g ara 2 6 ,4 3 , 6 6 , 6 9
A g av e 1 0 9
A g e of H erbal s 1 6
A g ricu l tu re 2 0
A g u acol l a 2 7 , 3 0 , 7 6 , 1 6 8
A g u ardiente 1 4 3
A hij ado 3 9
A hnishinau beg 8 5
A hriman 1 0 2
A i cu ro 1 3 4
A u 1 3 4
A j u ca 7 0 , 7 1
A j U wri-k ahi-má 1 2 6
A l an 1 1 4
A l ander 1 8 9
A l bertu s the G reat 8 7
A l bornoz, Cristobal de 1 2 0
A l cohol 1 0 , 2 3 ,8 2 , 1 6 0
A l cohol ic drink s 6 9
A / cornea castanaefo/ / a 1 3 4
A / cornea fl oribu nda 9 8 , 1 1 4
A l g ae 1 7 , 1 8 , 1 9
A l g onq u in 7 8 , 7 9 , 1 1 0
A l ice in W onderl and 1 0 1
2 0 4
A l k al ine pl ant ash( es) 6 7 , 7 5 ,
1 8 2 , 1 8 3
A l k al oid( s) 2 3 , 3 4 , 3 8 , 3 9 , 4 0 ,
4 2 , 4 3 , 4 7 , 5 0 , 5 2 , 5 3 , 5 4 ,
5 6 , 5 9 , 6 7 , 6 9 , 7 1 , 7 3 , 7 5 ,
7 7 ,7 9 , 1 0 5 , 1 2 0 , 1 8 4
A l l erg ies 4 6
A l pen nomads 7 2
A l tai 8 2
A l ternanthera l ehman/ i 1 2 4
A ma 1 7 8
A macisa 1 3 4
A manita 3 4 , 6 4 , 8 2 — 8 5
A man/ ta mu scaria 1 7 , 2 9 , 3 4 ,
7 0 ,8 1 ,8 2 — 8 5 , 8 2
A maring o, Pabl o 1 2
A mary l l is famil y 2 6
A masita 6 9 , 1 7 8
A mazon 2 4 , 3 0 ,3 6 ,4 9 , 5 9 , 6 0 ,
8 1 , 1 1 7 ,1 2 4 — 1 3 5 ,1 3 9 ,1 4 1 ,
1 6 2 , 1 7 6 , 1 7 7 , 1 7 8
A mazon Val l ey 6 6
A mazonia 1 2 , 3 7 , 5 5 , 5 8 , 6 8 ,
1 1 9 ,1 3 9
A mazonian B razil 7 2 , 7 4 , 1 7 7
A mazonian fol k medicine 6 9
A mazonian Peru 7 9
A merica( s) 2 0 , 3 4 , 7 4 , 7 6 , 8 4 ,
1 1 0 ,1 4 4 ,1 6 2
A merican basil 1 2 4
A merican Sou thwest 7 8 , 1 0 7
A mitabha B u ddha 1 0 8
A mphibians 9 0
A mrita 9 2
A msterdam 1 3 9
A mu l ets 6 8 , 9 0
A nabasine 7 5 , 1 7 9 , 1 8 3
A nabatin 1 8 3
A nadenanthera3 4 , 8 1 , 1 1 6 —
1 1 9 , 1 1 7 ,1 7 9
A nadenanthera col u brina 2 9 ,
3 4 , 6 6 , 1 2 0 , 1 2 2 , 1 2 3
A nadenanthera col u brina v ar.
Ceb1 1 6 6 , 1 2 0 — 1 2 3 , 1 2 0
A nadenanthera pereg rina 2 9 ,
3 5 ,6 6 ,1 1 6 — 1 1 9 , 1 1 6 — 1 1 8 ,
1 3 8
A nadenanthera pereg rina v ar.
fa/ cata 6 6
A nahu asca 1 3 7
A nal g esics 1 3
A nandatandav a 1 0
A natal l ine 1 8 3
A ncestor-commu nication ritu al
1 1 2 — 1 1 5 ,1 2 9
A ncestors —
Indians 7 8
A ndes 3 0 , 3 3 , 3 4 , 4 0 , 4 2 , 4 5 ,
5 3 , 5 9 , 6 6 , 7 4 ,7 6 ,8 1 , 1 1 6 ,
1 1 7 ,1 4 0 ,1 4 1 ,1 4 2 ,1 4 3 ,
1 4 3 , 1 6 8
A ndromedotox in 5 3
A neg l ak y a 1 0 6
A nesthetic 1 0 7
A ng er's tru mpet( s) 6 6 , 1 0 7 ,
1 3 4 , 1 4 0 — 1 4 3
A ng el itos 8 4
A ng iosperms 1 6 , 1 7 , 1 8
A ng l er's W eed 9 6
A ng l o-Sax on period 9 5
A ng ro M ay nes 1 0 2
A nimal K ing dom 1 4 ,1 1 7
A nt/ ar/ s tox / caria 4 6
A ntibiotics 1 9
A ntiq u ity 2 6 , 3 6 , 4 4 , 4 8 , 6 6 , 7 6
A ntil l es 1 1 6
A nx iety 7 3
A pasmä rapu ru sa 1 0
A peritif 7 9
A phrodisiac 4 6 , 5 7 , 6 0 , 6 9 , 7 1 ,
7 3 , 7 5 , 7 7 , 7 8 , 7 9 , 1 0 9 , 1 7 0
A phrodite 9 0
A pol l o 4 4 , 9 0
A pol l o's pl ant 4 4
A pol l o's templ e 9 1
A pomorphine 5 0 , 6 7
A poscopol amine 1 4 1
A ppl es of L ov e 9 0
A q u atic pl ants 6 5
A rabian phy sician 6 8
A rabian territory 9 8
A rabs 7 4
A rapaho 7 4
A rbol de Campanhl l a 7 4
A rbol de l os B ru j os 2 7 , 3 0 , 7 2
A rchichl amy deae 1 7
A rg emone mex / cana 9 8
A rg entina 3 0 , 4 3 , 6 6 , 6 7 , 8 1 ,
1 2 0 , 1 2 2 , 1 6 7
A rg y re/ a 3 5 -
A rg y reia nerv osa 3 5 , 7 8 , 1 0 3
A r/ ocarpu s 3 5 , 4 2 , 7 1
A r/ ocarpu s f/ ssu ratu s 3 5 , 7 0 ,
1 4 7
A riocarpu sretu su s3 5 , 7 0 , 1 4 7
A rizonine 3 9 , 7 7
A romo 1 2 2
A rrow poisons 1 0
A rtau d, A ntonin 8 , 1 4 7
A rtemis/ a l u dov iciana 1 5 3
A rtemisia mex icana 9 8
A ru m famil y 2 6
A ru ndo donax 1 3 8
A ru tam wak ani 1 4 3
A ry ans 7 0 , 8 2
A sarones 3 4
A sia 2 6 , 3 4 , 3 6 , 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 1 , 4 4 ,
4 9 , 5 0 , 5 2 , 5 3 , 6 4 , 8 2 , 8 2 ,
8 4 , 8 8 , 9 5 , 1 0 8
A sia M inor 7 2 , 7 6 , 9 7 , 9 8
A ssassin 7 2
A ssy rians 9 4 , 9 8 , 9 9 , 1 0 2
A storia 1 5 7
A strophy ton aster/ as 1 4 7
A tacama 1 2 0 , 1 2 3
A tang a tree 1 1 2
A thabask an peopl es 7 0
A tropa 3 6 , 8 6 — 9 1
A tropa bel l adonna 1 7 ; 2 9 , 3 6 ,
6 8 ,6 9 ,8 6 — 9 1 ,8 6 ,9 0
A tropa bel iadonna v ar. l u tea
3 6 , 8 6
A tropa cau casia 3 6
A tropa k omarov l i 3 6
A tropine 3 6 , 3 7 , 3 9 , 4 1 ,4 6 , 4 8 ,
7 3 , 8 6 , 8 7 , 1 4 1
A tropos 8 8
A u ditory hal l u cinations 7 7 , 7 9
A u stral ia 2 6 ,3 4 ,4 2 ,4 3 ,7 2 , 7 4 ,
8 1 , 1 3 8 ,1 8 3
A v icenna6 8 , 1 0 7
A x ocatzin 5 7 , 7 2
A y ahu asca 1 2 , 1 9 , 3 0 , 3 6 , 5 5 ,
5 9 , 6 2 , 6 3 , 6 4 , 6 6 , 6 7 , 6 9 ,
8 1 , 1 2 4 — 1 3 5 , 1 2 4 — 1 3 7 ; 1 3 9 ,
1 4 1 ,1 4 3
A y ahu asca additiv e( s) 3 7 , 5 8 ,
1 2 4 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 8
A y ahu asca anal og s 3 4 , 5 4 , 5 5 ,
6 9 , 7 3 , 7 7 , 1 3 1 , 1 3 7 — 1 3 9
A y ahu asca
1 3 0 ,
1 3 1
A y ahu asca v ine 3 6 , / 2 5
A y ahu asca Vision( s) 1 3 3 , 1 3 7
A y ahu asq u ero 1 3 3
A y ahu ma 1 3 4
A y an-bey em 1 1 5
A y u rVedic medicine 6 8 , 7 8 , 7 9
A ztec Codex 6 3
A ztec Dream G rass 7 8
A ztec( s) 2 6 , 2 7 ,4 1 , 4 3 ,4 5 , 5 6 ,
6 0 , 6 2 , 6 3 , 6 6 , 7 0 , 7 2 , 7 4 ,
7 8 , 7 9 , 8 1 , 1 0 9 ,1 4 6 ,1 5 6 ,
1 5 9 , 1 6 4 , 1 6 5 ,1 7 0 , 1 7 2 ,
1 7 3 , 1 7 4
A ztec Sag e 1 6 4
A ztek iu m r/ ter/ / 1 4 7
j I-asarone 7 7
al k al oids 5 2 , 5 9 ,
6 7 , 6 9 , 7 7 , 1 2 7
1 3 -carbol ines 6 7 , 8 1 , 1 2 7 , 1 3 1
1 3 -phenethy l amine 4 0 , 5 7
B acchanal s 8 9
B actr/ s species
M anu scipt 1 0 7
B adoh
Neg ro 4 5 , 6 6 , 1 7 5
B aeocy stine 5 2 , 5 5 , 7 3
B ak ana

3 4
B al i 5 1 ,6 8 ,6 9
1 2 7
B anister/ opsis ( app. ) 3 6 , 6 7 , 6 9 ,
8 1 ,1 2 4 — 1 3 5 ,1 3 7 , 1 3 7 ,1 4 3
B anister/ opal s caap/ 2 9 , 3 6 ,

inebrians 3 6 ,

mu ricata 1 3 1
B anisteriopsis q u / tensis 1 2 4
ru sby ana 6 6 ,

1 7 7 ,
1 3 4
B au del aire, Charl es 1 0 1 , 1 0 1
B au hin
8 8
B eer7 l ,7 4 ,7 5 , 1 0 9 ,1 2 2 ,1 3 0 ,
1 4 1
B el g ian 1 1 4
B el g iu m 1 0 4
B el l adonna 2 6 , 6 8 , 8 8 , 1 0 7
B enares
B eni-T eng u -Dak e 8 5
B en-ben 9 5
B ering Strait 8 4
B ern 9 6
B etel 7 3
B etel chew mix tu re 6 9
B ey ama 1 1 4
B hang
B haraorak asha 9 5
B iak -B iak 7 2
B iang an
9 7 , 1 6 1
B ibra, E rnst Freiherr Von 1 9 6 ,
1 9 7 , 1 9 7
B ig Rav en 8 2
B indweed( s) 1 0 3 , 1 3 5 , 1 7 1
B iocca, E ttore 1 7 6
B ipy ridy l 1 8 3
B l ack H enbane 4 4
B l ak e, W il l iam 8 8
B l ood-red A ng el 's T ru mpet 3 3 ,
3 7 , 1 4 0 — 1 4 3 , 1 4 0
B l u e M eanies 5 1 , 1 4 6 -1 6 3
B l u e W ater L il y 6 6
B og ota 1 1 7
B o/ etu s 3 6 ,
k u meu s 7 4
manicu s 3 6 ,
nirg ov iol aceu s 7 4
reay i 3 6 ,
1 8 , 7 6 ,
A imé 1 4 0

2 7 , 6 6 , 6 8 , 7 4 , 7 6 ,

B otswana 2 6 , 7 2
B ov ista 4 8
B razil 6 6 , 6 8 , 7 0 , 7 2 , 7 3 , 7 7 ,
1 1 7 ,1 1 8 ,1 1 9 ,1 3 9 ,1 7 7 ,

B ritish G u y ana 1 1 9
B ru g mansia ( app. ) 3 7 ,
6 7 ,7 3 ,7 7 ,8 1 ,
arborea 6 6 ,

au rea 3 7 ,

x 6 6 ,
sang u inea 3 3 ,

su av eol ens 6 6 ,

v ersico/ or 6 6 ,
v u / can/ col a 6 6 ,

B ru nfel sia 3 0 , 3 7 , 6 8 , 6 9 , 1 2 4
B ru nfel sia chiricaspi 3 7 ,

fe/ s/ a g randifl ora 3 7 ,

fe/ s/ a g rand/ fl ora sap.
1 3 5
B ry ophy ta 1 6
B u ddha 9 7 , 1 0 7 , 1 0 8
B u ddhism 9 7 , 9 8
B u fo a/ v ar/ u s 2 2
B u fotenine 6 9 , 1 2 0 , 1 2 0
B u sh peopl e 7 3
B u shmen 2 6 , 7 2 , 9 9
B u y é s 1 4 1
B witi cu l t 2 6 ,7 1 , 1 1 2 — 1 1 5 ,
1 1 2 — 1 1 5
Caapi 3 0 , 6 6 , 6 2 , 6 7 , 1 2 4 , 1 2 6
Caapi-Pinima 5 9 , 6 6
Cabal ong a
bl anca 1 3 4
Cacal ia 3 8
cordifol ia 3 8 ,

1 3 1
Cactu s 6 7 , 7 1 , 7 5 , 1 2 4
Caesal pinia 3 8
decapetal a 7 8
sep/ aria 3 8 ,


7 6
Cal athea v eitch/ ana 1 2 4
Cal ea
zacatech/ chi 3 8 , 7 8 , 9 8
Cal ifornia
reg ion 1 6 2
Cal trop 1 3 7
Cameroon 1 1 4
Camps 1 2 7
Campanil l a 2 6
Canada 7 6 ,
Isl ands 7 0
Canav a/ / a mar/ tima 9 8
acids 7 3
Cannabinol ( s) 9 3
Cannabinotic compou nds 7 3
Cannabis 1 2 ,3 8 ,7 2 ,7 3 ,8 1 ,
— — 1 0 7 ,

Cannabis cak es 7 2
Cannabis cig arettes 6 9
Cannabis/ nd/ ca 7 2 , 9 2 —
1 8 5
Cannabis md/ ca x sat/ v a 9 2
Cannabis ru deral is 9 3
Cannabis sat/ v a 1 7 ; 2 9 , 3 8 , 7 2 ,
1 1 4 , 1 8 5
Cannabis su bstitu te 7 7
Caribbean
v / ca 1 7 9 ,
3 9 ,
g ig antea 7 6
7 7
Carrol l , L ewis 1 0 1
Cassiaspp. 1 8 3
Cat's cl aw 1 3 4 , 1 3 5
Catahu a 1 3 4
Catharanthu s roseu s 9 8
Chu rch 1 5 9
1 1 5
Catnip 9 8
Cawe5 l ,

Cebl I 3 0 , 3 4 ,6 6 , 1 2 0 — 1 2 3 , 1 2 0
Cebol etta 6 6
Cecropia mex icans 9 8
Ce/ ba pentandra 1 3 5
Ceremonial
3 9
Cestru m / aev ig atu m 6 8 ,
parq u i3 g , 6 8 ,

9 8
Chacru na 5 5 ,6 6 ,1 2 4 -1 3 5 , 1 3 4
Chacru na B u sh 6 6 , 1 3 9
Chacs 8 4
Chal ice Vine 5 7
Chamico 1 0 9
Channa7 O
7 9
Charas 2 6 , 7 2 , 7 3
Charms 6 8
Chatin area 1 7 4
Chatino 1 5 8
Chau tl e 7 0
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Chav in de H u antar 1 2 2 , 1 6 6
Costa Rica 7 8 , 1 1 8 , 1 6 2
Diag nosis 6 9 , 7 5 , 7 7 , 1 7 7
E pithel antha micromeris 4 2 , 7 0 G ol den A ng el 's T ru mpet 3 7 ,
Chiapas 7 7 , 1 5 9 , 1 6 2 Cotinin 1 8 3
Diarrhea 7 3 ,7 9
E reriba 2 6 ,4 4 , 6 8 1 4 0 — 1 4 3
Chibcha 6 6 , 6 7 , 1 1 6
Cou marines 7 1 , 7 7
Dicoty l edoneae 1 7
E rg ine ( L SA ) 7 9 , 1 0 3 , 1 7 1 G oodenia 1 8 3
Chicha 6 7 , 1 4 0 , 1 4 1 Cowhag e 6 8
Dicty l oma incanescenS 1 3 8 ,
E rg ol ine al k al oids 6 9 , 1 7 1 G ramine 6 9 ,7 7
Chichibe7 2
Cree Indians 7 6
1 3 8
E rg onov ine7 9 , 1 0 5 G ramineae 1 3 8
Chichimeca 1 4 4 , 1 4 5 Crow Dog , H enry 1 5 2
Dicty onema 1 9
E rg ot 2 6 , 3 9 , 6 8 , 6 9 , 1 0 2 — 1 0 5 , G rasses 6 5
Chicl ay o 1 6 6 Cru sades 1 0 3
Dietnes 1 4 2 1 7 1
G reece 1 3 ,2 6 ,6 8 ,7 0 ,7 4 ,8 1 ,
Chihu ahu a 7 0 , 7 4 , 1 4 4 Cry og enine 7 7
Dig ital is 1 0
E rg ot al k al oids 6 9 , 1 0 3
8 6 , 9 7 , 1 0 2
Chil dbirth 9 6 , 1 0 4
Cu ba 4 0 , 6 0 , 1 5 9 , 1 7 5
Dihy droharmine 1 2 7 E rg otamine 1 0 5
G reek phy sician 7 2 , 9 5
Chil e 6 6 ,6 8 ,6 9 ,7 2 ,7 6 ,7 8 ,9 5 ,
Cu l ebra borrachero 1 4 2
Dimethy l try ptamine 6 9 , 7 7 , E rg otine 1 7 2
G rev il l ea striata 1 8 3
1 2 3 , 1 4 1
Cu mal a ( T ree) 6 0 , 1 3 4
1 1 7 , 1 7 9 E rg otism 6 8 , 1 0 3
G u aianas 7 8
Chil icote 6 8
Cu na 9 7
Diony su s 8 8
E rg otoX ifl e 1 0 3
G u ahibo 1 1 7 , 1 1 9
ChimO cu l tu re 1 6 8
Cu randerismo 1 6 6
Dioscorides 1 6 ,8 7 ,9 6 ,1 0 7 ,1 7 1 E rog a 1 1 4
G u ambiano 1 4 0 , 1 4 3
China 6 6 , 7 0 , 7 1 , 7 6 , 7 7 ,7 8 ,
Cu randero 1 0 9 , 1 6 8
Dipl optery s cabrerana 6 6 , 6 7 , E rv atamia pandacaq u i7 6
G u araná 2 9
9 4 , 1 0 7 , 1 0 8 Cu rare 6 9 , 1 2 6
1 2 4 , 1 2 6 , 1 2 9 , 1 3 8
E ry thran ty pe al k al oids 6 9
G u atemal a 6 2 ,8 1 ,8 4 , 1 6 1 , 1 6 2
Chinantec 6 6 , 7 5 , 7 8 , 1 5 8 ,
Cu rare-l ik e activ ity 7 5
Diterpenes 7 7 E ry thrina4 2 , 6 9
G u atil l o 1 3 4
1 7 3 , 1 7 4
Cu scohy g rine 7 3
Div ination 7 5 ,7 7 , 1 0 9 , 1 2 4 ,
E ry thrina americana 4 2 , 6 8
G u ay u sa 2 9 , 1 3 4
Chindoy , Sal v ador 1 4 2
Cu zco 1 2 9 , 1 6 9
1 4 2 , 1 6 4 , 1 7 1 , 1 7 5 , 1 7 7 E ry thrina coral l oides 6 8
G u errero 7 3
Chinese medicine 7 6 , 7 7 ' Cy anog enesis 7 3
Div inatory pl ant 6 9
E ry thrina fl abel l iformis 4 2 , 6 8 G u l f Coast of M ex ico 7 2
Chinese shamanism 9 4
Cy mbopog on 4 0
Div iner's sag e 2 7 , 5 6 , 1 6 4 — 1 6 5 E sak u na 7 0
G u mil l a 1 1 8
Chinese writing s 6 8 , 7 2 , 7 9 ,
Cy mbopog on densifl oru s 4 0 , Div inorin A , B 1 6 5
E schwei! era itay ensis 1 7 1 G u ms 1 8 3
9 4 , 1 0 7
7 0 , 9 8
DM T 6 7 , 6 9 , 7 2 ,7 3 ,7 7 , 1 1 7 , E scobil l a 9 8
G u stav ia poeppig iana 1 7 9
Chiric-Sanang o 6 8
Cy peru s 1 2 4
1 2 0 , 1 2 7 , 1 3 7 , 1 3 7 , 1 3 8 , 1 3 8 E ssential oil ( s) 1 9 , 3 4 , 4 0 ,4 6 ,
G u ttiferae 1 2 4
Chiricaspi 3 0 , 6 8 , 6 9 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 5 Cy tisine 6 9 ,7 1 ,7 5
DM T -N-ox ide 1 2 0
4 7 ,5 7 ,5 8 ,7 1 ,7 5 ,7 7
G u y ana 1 1 6
Chocb 1 4 1
Cy tisu s4 l ,7 1
DOB 1 4
E u cal y ptu s microthecal 8 3
G y mnospermae 1 7 ,1 8 1
Chonta Pal m 1 6 8
Cy tisu s canariensis 4 1 , 7 0 Dobe 7 2
E u cal y ptu s app. 1 8 3
H ades 1 0 5
Chontal Indians 7 8 , 7 9
Dodart 1 0 4
E u g enol 7 5
H aiti 1 1 8
Chorisia insig nis 1 3 5 binol 7 3 , 9 8
Dog G rass 3 8 E u g ster 8 3
H al l u cinations 1 2 , 6 9 , 7 1 , 7 3 ,
Chou dy nasty 9 4
D-nbr-nicotine 1 8 3
Dog bane famil y 2 6 E u phoria 7 1 , 1 0 1
7 5 , 8 6 , 8 8 , 1 0 3 , 1 1 2 , 1 4 1
Christian hol y spirits 1 3 9 Dacha 7 2
Dog rib A thabascan peopl es 8 5 E u phorics 1 3
H al l u cinog en( s) 1 0 -1 4 , 2 8 , 6 2 ,
Christianity 7 0 , 7 9 , 1 1 5 , 1 2 2 , Dag g ha 2 6
Doré , G u stav e 1 0 0
E u rope 1 3 , 1 3 , 2 6 , 6 4 , 6 8 , 6 9 , 6 4 , 6 7 , 6 9 , 7 0 , 7 1 ,7 3 , 7 4 ,
1 4 7
Dag g a 7 2 , 9 8
Dry opteris fil ix -mas 1 6
7 2 ,7 4 , 8 1 ,8 8 , 1 3 9 , 1 5 8 , 1 9 3
7 5 ,7 6 ,7 7 ,7 8 ,7 9 ,9 4 , 1 0 2 ,
Chu chu -caspi 1 3 4
Dama da Noite 6 8
Du boisia 4 2 , 1 8 2 — 1 8 3
E u ropean fol k l ore 7 3
1 0 7 , 1 4 0 , 1 4 1 , 1 4 2 , 1 4 2 ,
Cig ars 1 6 5
Damiana 9 8
Du boisia hopwoodii4 2 , 7 4 ,
E u ropean peopl es 6 8 1 4 7 , 1 7 6 , 1 9 6
Cig arette 7 1 , 7 3 , 7 9 , 9 3 Dá pa 1 2 4
1 8 2 — 1 8 3 , 1 8 3 E v erl asting 9 8
H al l u cinog en-asSisted psy -
Cimora 1 6 8 Dark A g es 9 1
Du boisia my oporoides 1 8 3 Fabaceae 1 3 8
choanal y sis 1 9 3
Cl av iceps 3 9 , 1 0 2 — 1 0 5 , 1 0 2 —
Dark -rimmed M ottl eg il l 5 2 ,
Du boisia app. 2 9
Fal se pey ote 3 5 , 7 0 , 7 4 , 7 8
H al l u cinog enic dreams 6 9
1 0 5
1 5 6 — 1 6 3
Dog G rass 9 8 Fang 1 1 2
H al l u cinog enic dru g s 1 9 1 , 1 9 5
Cl av icepspaspal il O2
Datu ra 1 0 ,2 6 ,2 7 ,4 1 ,6 4 ,6 8 ,
Drag on dol l 9 1
Fang -K 'u ei 5 3 , 7 0 ,7 1
H al l u cinog enic effects 7 3 ,7 5 ,
Cl av icepS pu rpu rea 2 9 , 3 9 , 6 8 , 7 3 , 7 9 , 8 1 , 9 3 , 9 7 , 1 0 6 — 1 1 1 ,
Dreamtime 1 8 2 — 1 8 3
Farmer's tobacco 1 3 4 7 7 , 7 8
1 0 2 — 1 0 5 , 1 0 2 — 1 0 5
1 4 0 , 1 4 1 , 1 4 7 , 1 7 2
Du ck e 1 7 6
Febrifu g e 7 9
H al l u cinog enic intox ication 6 7 ,
Cl inton, B il l 1 5 5
Datu ra ceratoca u / a 1 1 1
Du tch 7 0 , 1 0 2
Fermented drink 6 7
7 1 , 7 5 , 7 7 ,7 9 , 1 9 3
Cl u siaceae 1 2 4
Datu ra discol or 7 8
Du tra 6 8 Fern 1 6
H al l u cinog enic mu shrooms 6 9
Coatl -x ox o u hq u i 1 7 0
Datu ra fastu osa 1 1 0
Dwal e 8 8
Fetish pl ants 1 1 4
H al l u cinog enic smok e 7 2
Coax ihu itl 1 7 0
Datu ra ferox 6 8 , ( 1 0 9 )
Dwal eberry 8 8
Fig famil y 9 3
H ardwick e 1 0 8
Coca 1 3 ,2 9 ,6 4 , 1 1 7
Datu ra innox ia 1 8 ,4 1 ,7 3 ,7 8 ,
E ag l e 6 3 , 1 1 0
Finno-U g rian peopl es 7 0 ,8 2 H armal 7 7
Cocaine 1 2 ,1 1 3 7 9 , 1 0 6 — 1 1 1
E arth G oddess 6 , 6 3 Fish 1 4
H armal ol 1 2 7
Codeine 1 2
Datu ra k y matocarpa 7 8
E arth M other 1 3 3 , 1 4 6 , 1 5 4 Fl ag Root 7 6
H armahne 7 7 , 1 2 7 , 1 2 9 , 1 3 7
Codex B erberiniL atina 2 4 1 , 1 0 7
Datu ra mete! 1 3 , 4 1 , 6 8 , 1 0 6 -
E ast Indies 6 9 , 1 0 9
Fl av ong l y cosides 7 7 H armane 1 2 7
Codex Fl orentino 1 5 9 1 1 1 , 1 0 6
E astern E u rope7 4
Fl oripondio2 7 , 6 6
H armine7 7 , 1 2 7 , 1 2 9 ,1 3 7
Cohoba 2 6 , 1 1 6
Datu ra metel oides 7 8
E astern H emisphere 2 8 , 3 0 Fl y A g aric 1 6 , 1 7 , 2 6 , 3 4 , 6 2 ,
H arrison Narcotic A ct 1 2
Col d tree 6 8 , 6 9
Datu ra pru inosa 7 8
E bena 1 7 7
7 0 , 8 1
H artwich, Carl 1 9 6 , 1 9 7
Col eu s 3 9 , 6 9
Datu ra rebu rra 7 8
E bers Papy ru s 8 6
Fl y ing Sau cers 1 7 0
H ashish 5 ,7 2 ,7 4 , 9 2 — 1 0 1
Col eu s bl u mei 3 9 , 6 8 , 1 6 5 Datu ra app. 2 9 , 1 0 6 — 1 1 1
E bok a 1 1 2
Fol k medicine 7 1 , 7 3 , 7 6 , 7 7 ,
H ashish-snu ffing cu l ts 9 9
Col eu s pu ml l u s3 9 , 6 8 , 1 6 4 ,1 6 5
Datu ra stramoniu m 3 1 , 4 1 , 7 8 , E chinocereu s 4 2 7 9
H ash/ shins 7 2
Col ima 1 6 2 1 0 6 — 1 1 1
E chinocereu s sal mdy ck ianu s France 1 0 3
H awaiian W ood Rose 3 5 , 7 8
Col l enia 1 8 , 1 8
Datu ra stramoniu m v ar. ferox 4 2 , 7 4
French 1 0 2 , 1 1 4
H awk 1 1 0
Col ombia 3 0 , 6 5 , 6 7 , 6 8 , 6 9 , 1 0 9
E chinocereu s trig l ochidiatu s
French A cademy 1 0 4
H awk weed 9 8
7 4 , 7 6 , 1 1 6 , 1 1 6 , 1 1 7 , 1 1 8 ,
Datu ra stramoniu m v ar. tatu l a 4 2 ,7 4 , 7 5
Frij ol es 7 4
H ay o 1 1 7
1 1 9 , 1 2 6 , 1 3 3 , 1 4 0 , 1 4 0 , 1 0 6
E chinopsis pachanol 7 6 Frij ol il l o 2 7
H eath famil y 2 7
1 4 1 , 1 4 2 ,1 6 2 ,1 7 6 ,1 7 7 ,1 7 8
Datu ra wrig htii7 8
E cu ador 2 7 , 3 0 , 6 8 , 6 9 ,7 6 ,7 7 , Frog s 1 4 , 9 0
H ecate 8 8
Col ombian ChocS 7 3 Dau phiné 1 0 3
1 2 6
Fu chs, L eonard 3 1
H eimia 4 3
Col ombian Indiana 6 8 De Candol l e, A . P. 1 0 5
E cu ador/ an A ndes 6 6 , 7 6 Fu ng i 1 8 , 6 5 , 6 5 , 7 1 , 1 5 6 , 1 9 6
H eimia sal icifol ia 4 3 , 7 6 ,7 7
Col ombian Vau pé s 6 9 , 1 2 4 Dead Sea 9 0
E g y pt 5 4 , 7 4 , 8 8 , 1 0 3
Fu rocou marinea 7 1
H eimia species 7 6
Col orado Riv erT oad 2 2
Deadl y Nig htshade 1 6 , 1 7 ,3 6 ,
E g y ptian cu l tu re 6 6 ,8 6
G abon 2 6 ,7 0 ,8 1 , 1 1 2 — 1 1 5
H ek u l a 1 1 6 — 1 1 9 , 1 1 8 , 1 7 9
Col orines 6 8 , 7 4 6 8 , 8 1 , 8 6 — 9 1
E g y ptian H enbane 8 8 G al ang a 4 6 , 7 0
H el ichry su m 4 3
Comanche 1 5 1 , 1 5 2 Death 7 5
E g y ptian sites 7 2
G al bu l imima 4 3
H el ichry su m foetidu m4 3 , 7 6 ,
Common Reed 5 4 , 6 8 Deer 6 3 , 1 4 4 -1 5 5
E idetics 1 2
G al bu l imima bel g rav eana 4 3 , 9 8
Common W ireweed 9 8 Del aware 1 5 4
E l A hij ado 6 8 , 1 6 5 6 6 , 6 9
H el ichry su m stenopteru m 7 6 ,
Condu ro 1 6 8
Del ay , J ean 1 9 0
E l M acho 6 8 , 1 6 4 G al en 7 2 ,9 5 ,9 6
9 8
Cong o 2 6 , 7 0 , 8 1 , 9 7 , 9 9 Del hi 8 5
E l Nene 6 8 , 1 6 5 G al il eo 9 0
H el icosty l iS 4 4
Conibo-Shipibo 1 2 6 , 1 2 9 , 1 3 0 Del iranta 1 2
E l Nino 1 5 9
G al l ows man 9 1
H eil costy l is pedu nczil ata 4 4 ,
Conocy be 4 0 , 1 5 6 -1 6 3
Del iriu m 7 3 , 7 5 , 8 6 , 1 0 3
E l aeophorbia dru pifera 1 1 5 G anj a 2 6 , 7 2 ,7 3 , 9 7
7 8
Conocy be siig ineoides 4 0 , 7 8 Del phi 7 0 , 8 6 , 9 1
E l eu sia 1 0 2 , 1 0 4
G anoderma l u cidu m 1 7
H el icosty l is tomentosa 4 4 , 7 8
Conv ol v u l u s tricol or 1 7 1 Del tg en, Fl orian 1 3 2
E l eu sinian my steries 6 8 ,8 1 ,1 0 2
G arden of E den 9 1
H emp 1 2 , 1 6 , 1 7 , 2 6 , 3 8 , 7 2 ,
Cook e, M ordecai 1 9 6 , 1 9 7 Del u sionog ens 1 2
E l izabetha princeps 6 9 , 1 7 8 , G aston 1 0 3
9 2 — 1 0 1 , 9 2 — 1 0 1 , 1 8 4
Copal 1 5 0 , 1 6 4
Demeter 8 1 , 1 0 4
1 8 1
G eniata 2 7 , 4 1 , 7 0
H enbane 1 3 , 2 6 ,7 0 , 8 1 , 8 6 —
Copel andia 6 8 Depression 7 3
E nema 1 2 2
G enu l l mittel 1 0
9 1 , 8 6 , 1 0 7
Cope/ and/ a cy anescens 6 8 , 6 9 Desfontapia 4 2
E ng l and 7 4 , 9 5 , 9 6 , 1 0 4 G erard 9 1 , 1 0 9
H enry VIII 9 5
Cora Indiana 9 7 , 1 4 5 , 1 4 6 ,
Desfontainia spinosa 2 7 , 4 2 , E ntheog ens 1 2
G erman( s) 1 0 2 , 1 1 4
H erb of the Shepherdess 7 0
1 4 7 , 1 4 9
7 6 ,7 7
E pená 6 8 , 6 9 , 7 3 , 1 7 6 — 1 8 1
G ermany 9 5 , 1 3 9 , 1 4 3
H erbs 6 5 ,7 5
Coral B ean 7 4
Desg rang es of L y ons 1 0 4
E phedra 8 4
G hang i 9 7
H erná ndeZ , Dr. FranciscO 7 2 ,
Coral T ree 4 3
Desmanthu s il l inoensis 1 3 8
E phedra g erardiana 8 4
G i'-i-Sa-W a 7 0
1 0 9 , 1 4 6 , 1 5 7 , 1 7 0
Coriaria 4 0
Desmodiu m 1 3 7 , 1 3 8
E phedrine 1 9 , 7 3
G i'-i-W a 2 7 , 7 0
H erodotu a 9 4
Coriaria thy mifol ia 4 0 , 7 6
Desmodiu m pu l chel l u m 1 3 8 E pil epsy 1 0 3
G ig antó n 7 6 , 1 6 8
H eroin 1 2 , 1 1 3
Cory phanta 4 0 , 6 7
Desmodiu m app. 1 3 8
E pil obiu m ang u stifol iu m 7 1 G ing er 7 1
H eu resia 8 7
Cory phanta compacta 4 0 , 6 6 Dev il 'S H erb 8 8
E pinephrine 1 4 5
G ing er famil y 2 6
H ex ing H erbs 8 6 — 9 1
Cory phanta pa! merii4 O Dhatu ra 1 0 7
E piphy l l u m 1 2 4
G inseng 9 1 , 9 4
H idal g o 9 9
Cory phanta app. 6 6
Di-shi-tj o-l e-rra-J a 7 8
E pithel antha 4 2
G od-narcotic 7 3
H ieraciU m pil osel l a 9 8
2 0 5
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H ierba de Ia Pastora 2 7 , 7 0 ,
1 6 4 — i 6 5
H ierba de Ia Virg en 7 0
H ierba L oca 2 7 , 5 3 , 7 6
H ierba M aria 1 7 5
H ig hl and M ay a 6 2
H ik u l i 6 6 , 7 0 , 7 4 , 1 5 1
H ik u l i M u l ato 4 2 , 7 0 , 7 1
H ik u l i Rosapara 7 0 , 7 8
H ik u l i Su namé 7 0
H l k u ri 7 4 ,7 8 , 1 4 8 , 1 5 0
H ik u ri Orchid 5 0
H imal ay as 3 0 , 9 8 , 9 7 , 1 0 6
H indu 1 3 , 9 3 , 9 7
H iporu ru 1 3 4
H ippornanes 1 0 9
H ispaniol a 1 1 6
H oa-G l io 9 5
H oasca 1 3 9
H offerl 3
H ofmann, A l bert 1 3 ,2 2 , 1 6 2 ,
1 8 7
H oj a de Ia pastors 1 6 4
H ol y Fire 1 0 3
H omal omena l au terbachil 4 4
H ornal omena sp. 4 4 , 6 7 , 6 8
H omer 8 6
H ong o de San Isidro 7 8 , 1 5 6
H oop-petticoat 5 1 , 1 S6 — 1 6 3
H ops 7 1 ,9 3
H ottentots 2 6 , 7 0 , 9 6 , 9 9
H u aca 1 4 1
H u acacachu 2 7 , 6 6
H u acachaca 1 4 1
H u achu ma 1 6 8 , 1 6 8
H u anto 2 7 , 6 6
H u edhu ed 7 6
H u eipatl 7 2
I-tu ey y tzontecon 1 7 4
H u ichol 6 ,8 ,6 2 , 6 3 ,7 0 ,7 1 ,7 2 ,
7 3 , 7 4 ,7 8 , 1 4 4 , 1 4 5 , 1 4 6 ,
1 4 7 , 1 4 8 , 1 4 9 , 1 5 0 ,
1 5 0 ,1 5 1 , 1 5 1 , 1 5 4 ,1 6 2 , 1 9 6
H u il ca 6 6 , 7 4 , 1 2 2
H u mbol d, B aron A l ex ander
v on 1 1 6 ,1 1 8 ,1 1 9 ,1 4 0
H u mming bird 1 6 6
H u mu l u s 9 3
H u ng arian stamp 1 7 5
H u sk anawing ceremony 1 1 0
H y oscy amine 6 9 , 7 1 , 7 3 , 7 5 ,
7 9 , 8 6
H y oscy amu s 4 4 , 8 6 — 9 1
H y oscy amu s al bu s 1 3 , 4 4 , 7 0 ,
8 6 — 9 1
H y oscy amu s nig er4 4 , 7 0 , 8 6 —
9 1 ,8 6
H y oscy amu s app. 2 9 ,8 6 — 9 1
H y pnotics 1 3
l bog a5 8 , 6 4 , 7 0 , 7 1 ,8 1 ,1 1 2 —
1 1 5 , 1 1 2 — 1 1 5
Ibog a cu l t 1 1 2
l bog aine7 l ,

acid 7 1 , 8 3
Ice Pl ant famil y 2 6
/ / ex drink s 6 4
Incense 1 5 0
India 2 6 ,6 2 , 6 6 ,6 8 ,6 9 , 7 0 ,7 2 ,
8 2 , 8 8 , 9 2 , 9 5 , 9 7 , 9 7 1 0 7 ,
1 0 8 , 1 0 8 , 1 0 9
Indian H enbane 8 8
Indian peopl es 6 9
Indian writing s 7 4 , 9 8
Indians 6 6 ,6 7 ,6 9 ,7 2 , 7 3 ,7 4 ,7 9
Indochina 1 0 8
Indol e al k al oids 7 1 , 7 7 , 7 9 ,
1 0 3 ,1 1 3
Indol ic al k al oids 7 9
Indonesia 2 6
Indra 8 2 , 8 3 , 9 2
Indu s Val l ey 8 2
Inebriation 8 8
Ing ano Indians 1 4 1
Initiation ritu al 6 7 , 7 1 ,7 9 ,8 1 ,
1 1 0 , 1 1 0
Insanity 7 3 , 7 7 , 8 6 ,1 6 8
Inspiration 1 0 0
Intox icant 7 3 , 7 4 , 7 6 , 7 9
2 0 6
Intox icating 3 1
Intox icating drink 7 7
Intox ication 1 0 , 6 7 , 6 9 , 7 1 ,7 2 ,
7 5 , 7 7 ,7 9 ,1 0 8 ,1 1 2 ,1 4 5 ,
1 7 2 ,
6 8
l ochroma 4 5
Iochroma fu chsioides 4 5 ,
tribes 7 4
Ipomoea4 5 , 1 7 0 — 1 7 5 , 1 7 0 — 1 7 5
Ipornoea carnea 1 3 4 , 1 3 5 , 1 7 2
Ipomoea ru brocaeru l ea 4 5
v iol acea 2 9 , 4 5 ,
1 7 0 — 1 7 5 , 1 7 0 — 1 7 5
Irel and 1 0 4
Iresine 1 2 4 ,
macrophy l l a 1 7 8
Iso-l y serg ic acid amide ( iso-
L SD) 7 9 , 1 8 6 , 1 8 7
Isoharmine 1 2 7
Isol eosibirine 7 7
Isotoma l ong / fl ora 1 6 8
7 0 , 9 8 , 1 1 5
J ag u ar( s) 1 1 9 ,1 2 6 ,1 3 0 ,1 4 2
J al isco 1 6 2
J ambu r 6 8
J apan 8 3 , 8 5
J esu it( s) 1 4 5 , 1 6 2
J esu s 1 5 4
J ibaro 6 4 , 6 9 , 1 4 1 , 1 4 2 , 1 4 3
J imsonweed 7 8
J opa
Fl av iu s 9 0
J ou zmathal 1 0 7
J u l iana Codex 8 7
J u ng ianschool l 9 o
J u rema 7 0
J u rema T ree 4 9
J u remahu asca 1 3 9
J u st ic/ a 4 5 ,
J u sticia pectoral / s v ar.
phy l l a4 5 ,7 2 ,1 7 8 , 1 8 1
K abu y are
4 6
K aempferia g al ang a 4 6 ,
9 9
K ahi 1 2 4 , 1 2 6
K ak u l j á -ik ox 8 4
K al ahari desert 1 9 6
K al amota 7 0
K al inchok 3 0
K amsá 7 4 , 7 7 ,1 4 1 , 1 4 2
tK amtchatk a 8 5
K ana 1 3 4
K andahar
K anna 2 6 , 7 0 , 7 1
K apok tree
K arau etaré 1 7 7
K arimé 1 7 7
K aritiana Indians 7 2
K aru k a madness 7 7
K asai 9 9
K ashmir 9 7
K athmandu 9 3 , 1 5 8
K au y u mari 6 3 , 1 4 8
1 3 , 2 6 , 6 4
K echwa 6 2
K hu rsu

7 2 , 7 3
K iel itsa 7 3
K ieri 7 2
K it
1 5 1 ,1 5 2 ,1 5 3
K irishaná 1 7 7
K och-G rOnberg , T heodor 1 8 0
K och/ a scoparia 1 2 7

K orea
K oribo 5 9 , 7 2
K ory ak 6 4 , 8 2 , 8 3
K ou g oed
District 8 2
K ratom 4 9 , 7 2
K u l u ene Riv er 2 4
K u ma7 S, 1 1 1
K u ma M u shroom 3 6
K u ng 9 7
K u ripak o 1 7 7
K washi 2 6 , 5 2 , 7 2
K y k eon 1 0 4
L a B arre, W eston 6 4
L ady of the Nig ht 3 9 , 6 8 , 9 8
L ag ochil ine 7 9
L ag ochil u s 2 6 , 4 6
L ag ochil u s inebrians2 6 , 4 6 , 7 8
L ak e Victoria 9 9
L atu a 4 6
L atu a pu b/ fl ora 4 6 ,
2 7 ,4 6 , 7 2 , 7 3
L atu y 7 6
L atv ia 7 5
L e-sa 1 7 9
L ecy thu s 8 1
L eg u minosae 1 3 8
L emon
4 0 , 9 8
L eon, Padre Nicol as de 1 4 7
L eonotis 4 7
L eonotis l eonu ru s 4 7 ,
4 7
L eonu ru s sibir/ cu s 4 7 ,
7 7
L eosibirine 7 7
L espedeza capital s 1 3 8
L ev itation 7 7
L ewin, L ou is 1 3 , 1 9 6 , 1 9 7 , 1 9 7
L i Shih-chen 1 0 7
L ianas 6 5
L ichens 1 8 , 1 9
L ibation 9 1
L iberty Cap( s) 5 5 , 7 2 , 1 5 6 —
1 6 3
L i/ / u rn cand/ du rn 1 6
L il y -l ik e pl ants 6 5
L indl ey , J ohn 1 6
L innaeu s, Carol u s 1 6 , 1 0 7 , 1 8 9
L innO, Carl v on 1 6
L ion's T ail 4 6 , 7 2
L iq u or 1 0 9
L ithu ania 7 5
L l anos 1 1 6
L obel amidine 7 9
L obel ia 4 7
L obel ia tu pa 4 7 ,7 8
7 9
L ol iu m 1 0 2
L ornar/ opsisj apu rensis 1 2 4
of Frank fu rt 1 0 4
7 0 ,

L ophophora diffu sa 4 7 ,
wil / / amsii 6 ,
4 7 , 7 4 , 7 5 , 1 4 4 — 1 5 5 , 1 8 6
L ov e potion 7 5
L SA 7 9
L SD 1 4 ,6 9 ,7 5 ,7 7 , 1 7 1 , 1 8 5 ,
1 8 6 , 1 8 9 , 1 9 0 ,1 9 3
L SD ecstasy 1 9 5
L u cil l u s 9 5
L u mhol tz, Carl 1 4 4 , 1 4 7
L u pu na 1 3 4
L y coperdon
marg inatu rn 4 8 ,
mix tecoru rn 4 8 , 7 0
sp.
1 6 8
L y g od/ u rn v enu stu m 1 2 4
acid 6 9 ,
L y serg ic acid amide 7 5 , 1 0 3 ,
1 7 1 ,1 8 5 , 1 8 7
L y serg ic acid diethy l amide
( L SD) 6 9 , 1 7 1 . 1 8 7
L y serg ic acid hy drox y ethy ! a-
mide7 5 , 1 0 3 ,1 7 1 ,1 8 5 , 1 8 7
M a
9 4
M aa-j u n 9 7
M ace 7 4
M acedonia 1 0 2
M ack enzie M ou ntains 8 5
M aconha 2 6 , 6 8 , 7 3
M aconha B rav a 9 8
M acropsia 6 7 , 7 1 , 1 3 3
M adag ascar Periwink l e 9 8
M adonna L il y 1 6
M aenads 8 8
M ag ic ceremonies 7 1 , 7 2
M ag ic infu sions 7 1
M ag ic M u shrooms 1 4 ,2 2 , 1 5 9
M ag ic pl ant 7 3
M ag ic potion 7 4
M ag l iabecchiano Codex 1 6 2
M ahay ana 9 7
M ahek ototen shaman 1 7 9
M aicoa 2 7 , 6 6
M aik oa 1 4 3
M aiden's A cacia 3 4 , 7 2
M aize beer7 9 , 1 0 9 ,1 2 2 ,1 4 1 ,
1 4 1 , 1 5 0

Indians 6 6 . 6 9 , 1 7 6
M ak u na 1 7 7
M al aria 9 5
M al ay a 9 8
M al ay sia 7 2
M al v a Col orada 7 2
M al oca 1 3 0 , 1 3 2
M al ou etia tamaq u ar/ na 1 2 4

1 3 8
M ammil l aria 4 8 , 7 8
M amm/ l l ar/ a craig / i 4 8 ,
g raharni/ 4 8 , 7 8 ,7 9
hey der/ i4 8 , 7 9
s/ nil / s 7 8


8 1 ,8 6 -9 1
M andrag ora offic/ naru rn 4 8 ,
8 6 — 9 1
M andrag orine 7 3
M andrak e 2 6 , 4 8 , 7 2 , 7 3 , 7 4 ,
8 1 , 8 1 ,8 6 ,8 6 -9 1 ,8 7 ,8 8 ,
8 9 , 9 0 , 9 1 , 1 0 7
M andrak e root 9 1
M A O inhibitor 1 2 7 , 1 3 1 , 1 3 7
2 7 , 6 6 , 6 9 , 7 2 , 7 8
M aq u ira4 g , 7 4
scl erophy l l a 4 9 ,

1 5 0 ,
1 5 0 , 1 5 4
M araba

1 2 , 1 3 , 1 7 ,7 2 ,7 3 ,
7 9 , 9 2 — 1 0 1
M arij u ana su bstitu te 6 9 , 7 3 ,
7 6 , 9 8
M arij u anil l o 7 6
M ascag an/ a g l andu / ifera 1 2 4
psiophy l l a v ar.
1 2 4

4 5 , 7 2


M atwCi 3 8 ,

M ay pu re
1 4 ,6 6 ,6 8 ,7 0 ,7 1 ,
7 5 ,
1 6 5 ,
and the Dwarfes 8 4
M edina Sil v a, Ramó n 1 4 8 ,
1 4 8 , 1 4 9 , 1 5 0 k 1 5 1
M el al eu ca sp.

M atthfl u s 8 1
M esa
M escal B ean 2 6 , 2 7 , 5 7 , 6 8 ,

M escal B u tton 7 4
M escal ine 2 2 , 2 3 , 7 5 , 7 7 , 1 4 5 ,
1 6 7 , 1 8 5 , 1 8 6 , 1 8 7 , 1 8 9
7 1
M esembrine 7 1
M esembry anthenu rn 7 1
ex pan-
su m 7 0
M esembry anthenu m tortu o-
su m 7 0

1 4 0
M estizos
1 7
M etanicotine 1 8 3



Indians 7 4
M ex ican M u g wort 9 8
M ex ico 6 ,2 2 , 2 6 , 2 7 , 6 2 , 6 4 ,
6 6 , 6 8 , 7 0 , 7 1 , 7 2 , 7 4 , 7 8 ,
8 1 ,9 7 ,9 9 ,1 0 7 ,

1 5 0 ,1 5 1 ,1 5 6 ,
1 6 2 ,
1 7 3 , 1 7 4
M ex ico
9 6
M iamil l 3
M ichig an 8 5
M ichoacan 1 5 8
M ictl antl cu htl i 1 6 2
M iddl e A g es 1 4 , 6 8 , 6 9 , 7 0 ,7 4 ,
8 1 , 1 0 2 , 1 0 4
M iddl e A merica 7 8
M idwiv es 6 9
M ihi 1 2 4
M il k y
1 7 4
M imohu asca

host/ l / s4 9 , 7 0 ,7 1 , 1 3 8
M imosa scabrel l a 1 3 7 , 1 3 8
tenu / fiora 4 9 ,
1 3 9
v erru cosa 7 0
M ing dy nasty 1 0 7
M inoan cu l tu re 6 6
M int 6 4
M isperceptinog ens 1 2
M istl etoe


speciosa 4 9 ,

1 5 8
M ix tec( s)
7 7
M oche


M ong ol oids

M onomethy l thry ptamine 1 7 9
M opope, Stepehn 1 5 2
M oraceae
7 4 ,

— 1 8 5

1 2 , 2 0 , 2 1
M other G al a 1 7 3
M u cha, A l phonse 1 4 3
M u cu na5 o, 6 9


M Q Il er, Ferdinand J . H . v on 1 8 3
M ü nchhau sen 1 0 5
M u hipu -nu ri 1 7 6
M u inane 1 7 8
M u isca



7 1
M u scimol e7 l , 8 3
M u shroom madness 7 5
M u shroom cap 6 3
M u shroom stones 1 6 1
M u shrooms 1 4 , 1 7 , 2 3 , 6 2 , 6 9 ,
7 0 , 7 1 , 7 3 ,7 8 ,7 9 ,8 1 , 1 5 6 —
1 6 3 ,
7 3
M u tterk orn


frag rans 5 0 ,
5 0 , 1 3 8
M y risticine 5 0 , 7 5
M y sticomimetics 1 2
M y thol og y 6 3 , 6 8 ,7 2 ,
1 8 3
N-formy l nornicotine 1 8 3
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N-methy l -3 ,4 -di-methox y phe- Ok l ahoma 1 5 2 Persephone 8 1 , 1 0 5 Protestantism 1 1 5 Red Canary G rass 5 4
ny l ethy l amine 7 9 Ol d W orl d 3 0 , 6 4 , 6 7 , 6 8 , 7 2 , Persia 9 8
Pseu do-hal l u cinationS 1 4 Red T eng u mu shroom 8 5
N,N-dimethy l try ptamine 7 1 7 8 , 9 0 , 9 2 , 9 7 , 1 0 7 ,1 7 6
Peru 6 6 , 6 7 , 6 8 , 7 6 , 8 1 , 9 5 , Psil ocine 2 3 , 2 3 , 6 9 , 7 3 , 7 9 , Reed G rass 7 6 , 7 7
N,N-DM T 6 7 , 6 9 , 7 1 , 7 7 Ol ol iu q u i 2 6 , 6 0 , 6 4 ,6 6 ,7 1 ,7 4 , 1 0 9 , 1 2 2 , 1 2 7 , 1 2 9 , 1 4 0 , 1 5 9 , 1 8 5 , 1 8 6 , 1 8 7 Reichel -Dol matoff, G erardo
Naeher, K arl 1 1 3 1 0 3 ,1 1 1 ,1 5 6 ,1 7 0 — 1 7 5 ,
1 4 1 , 1 6 2 ,1 6 6 , 1 6 6 ,1 6 7 , Psil ocy be 5 4 , 5 5 ,1 5 6 — 1 6 3 , 6 2 ,1 2 6 ,1 3 1 , 1 3 2
Nahu a 1 5 8
1 7 0 — 1 7 5 ,1 8 5 , 1 8 7 ,1 8 9 1 6 9 , 1 7 8 1 7 1 Reindeer mil k 7 1 ,8 2
Nahu atl 1 0 9 , 1 4 6 , 1 6 2 , 1 7 0 , Omag u a 1 4 0
Peru v ian A mazon 1 3 5 , 1 6 2 , Psil ocy be acu tissima7 8 Remo caspi 1 3 4
1 7 4 Oncidiu m 5 0 1 7 8
Psiocy be aztecoru m 6 3 ,7 8 Reserpine 1 3
Nandi 1 0 9
Oncidiu m cebol etta 5 0 , 6 6 , 6 7 Peru v ian Indians 6 6 , 6 7 , 1 3 5 Psiocy be azu renscens 1 5 6 , Resin 6 9 , 7 5 , 1 7 6 , 1 7 8 , 1 8 1
Naranj o, Cl au dio 1 1 3 Opiate addict 1 1 3
Peru v ian shaman 1 2 1 5 7
Rheu matism 7 7
Narcosis 1 7 4
Opiu m ( poppy ) 1 2 , 1 3 , 2 0 , 2 1 , Petu nia 2 7 , 5 3 , 7 6 , 7 7 Psil ocy be caeru l escens 7 8 , Rhizomes 6 7
Narcotic( s) 1 0 , 2 6 , 3 1 , 7 2 , 7 3 , 1 0 0 , 1 0 4
Petu nia v iol acea 5 3 , 7 6 1 6 3
Rhy nchosia 5 6 , 7 5
7 5 , 1 0 7
Opiu m su bstitu te 7 2
Peu cedanu m 5 3 , 7 1 Psil ocy be v ar. Rhy nchosia l ong eracemosa
Narcotic fru it 7 4
Opiu m-l ik e effects 7 2
Peu cedanu mj aponicu m 5 3 , al bida 7 8 7 4
Natema 3 0 , 1 2 4 , 1 4 3 Opu ntia 1 2 4 , 1 4 5 7 0 , 7 1 Psil ocy be caeru l escens v ar. Rhy nchosia phaseol oides 5 6 ,
Nativ e A merican Chu rch 7 4 , Oracl e of Del phi 8 6 , 9 1
Pey ote 6 , 8 , 1 2 , 1 3 , 2 6 , 4 7 , 6 2 , mazatecoru m 7 8 , 1 5 6 7 4 , 7 5
1 5 2 , 1 5 2 , 1 5 3 , 1 5 5
Orchid, orchids 6 5 , 6 6
6 3 , 6 4 , 6 6 , 7 0 ,7 4 , 7 5 , 8 1 , Psiocy be caeru l escens v ar. Rhy nchosia py ramidal / s 7 4
Nativ e A merican tribes 7 1 Oreg on 1 5 7
9 9 ,1 4 3 ,1 4 4 — 1 5 5 ,1 5 7 ,1 6 6 , n/ g ripes 7 8 , 1 5 6
Riamba cu l t 9 9
Nau wal d, Nana 1 2 2 ,1 3 7 , 1 9 4 , Org ies 8 8
1 7 2 , 1 7 4 , 1 8 4 , 1 8 6 Psil ocy be caeru l escens v ar. Ribas, Padre A ndrea Perez de
1 9 5
Orinoco 2 6 , 2 7 , 7 2 , 8 1 , 1 1 6 , Pey ote bird 1 5 5 ombroph/ l a 7 8 1 4 5
Nav aj o 1 1 0 , 1 5 5 1 1 8 . 1 1 9 , 1 7 6 , 1 7 7
Pey ote Cimarró n 7 0 Psil ocy be cu bensis 5 4 , 7 8 , Rig -Veda' 8 2 , 8 3
Nay arit 1 4 6 , 1 6 2
Orinoco basin 6 6 , 1 1 9 , 1 7 6 , Pey ote cu l t 6 3 , 7 5 , 1 4 4 1 5 6 -1 6 3 , 1 5 7 , 1 5 9 Rio B ranco 1 1 9
Nazca cu l tu re 1 6 6 1 7 7
. Pey ote de San Pedro 7 8 Psil ocy be cy anescens 5 5 , Rio G rande 7 4
Ndzi-ebok a 1 1 5 Orteg a 1 6 5
Pey ote fan 1 5 5 1 5 6 -1 6 3
Rio M adeira 7 2 , 1 1 9
Near E ast 6 8 Osag e 1 5 3
Pey ote festiv al 6 Psil ocy be hoog shag eni/ 1 5 7 Rio M arahon 1 4 0
Necromancers 8 7 , 9 4 Osca 1 1 7
Pey ote su rrog ate 6 7 ,7 0 , 1 4 7 Psil ocy be mex / cana 2 2 , 5 5 , Rio Neg ro 1 7 7
Neocerdan-diterpenes 1 6 5 Oshtimisk W aj ashk wedo 8 5
Pey otil l o 5 3 , 7 4 , 1 4 7 7 8 , 7 9 , 1 5 6 -1 6 3 , 1 5 6 Rio Pu rü s 1 7 7
Neol ithic 9 4
Osmond, H u mphrey 1 3 , 1 9 1 Pey otl 1 4 6 , 1 5 6 , 1 8 6 Psil ocy be mix aeensis 7 8 Rio T ik ié 6 6
Neoraimondia macrostibas Otomac 1 1 8
Pfaffl a 1 3 4 Psil ocy be pel l / cu l osa 1 5 8 Rio Vau pé s 6 6 , 1 2 6
1 6 8 Otomi 1 5 8
Pfaffl a iresinoides 1 3 4 Psil ocy be semil anceata 5 5 ,7 2
Ritu al istic sig nificance 6 7
Nepal 2 7 , 3 0 , 7 8 , 8 4 , 9 3 , 1 0 6 ,
Ou t-of-body ex periences 1 6 5 Phal aris 5 4 Psil ocy be semperv iv a 7 8 , 1 5 6 R/ v ea cory mbosa 7 4
1 0 7 , 1 5 8 Pachy cereu S 5 1
Phal aris aru ndinacea 5 4 , 7 6 , Psiocy be sil / g ineoides 1 5 7 Roman priests 8 9
Nepeta cataria 9 8 Pachy cereu s pecten-aborig i- 1 3 8 , 1 3 8 Psil ocy be species ( = spp. ) 2 9 , Romans 9 5
Nerv al , G erard de 1 0 0 nu m 5 1 , 6 6
Phal aris tu berosa 1 3 8 , 1 3 8 7 9 , 1 5 6 -1 6 3 Rome 7 0 , 7 4
Netherl ands 1 3 9 Pacific 6 4 , 1 6 2
Phanerothy mes 1 2 Psil ocy be wassonii7 8 , 1 5 7 Root B eer Pl ant 9 8
Nettl e famil y 9 3
Pacific North W est 1 5 8
Phantastica 1 3 , 1 9 6 , 1 9 7 Psi/ ocy be y u ng ensis 7 8 , 1 5 6 , Rosa M aria 9 9
New E ng l and 9 5 , 1 0 4 Paé z 1 4 0
Phantasticants 1 2 1 6 2
Rosa spinosiss/ ma 1 7
New G u inea 2 6 , 7 0 , 7 4 , 7 6 , 7 7 Pag u ando 4 5 , 7 4
Pharmahu asca 1 3 7 Psil ocy be zapotecoru m 7 8 Rosebu d Reserv ation 1 5 2
New Orl eans 9 9
Painted Nettl e 3 9 , 1 6 4
Phenethy l amine( s) 6 7 , 7 1 , 7 5 Psil ocy bin( e) 2 3 , 2 3 , 6 9 , 7 3 ,
Roy al B otanic G ardens, K ew
New Spain 1 2 2 ,1 4 6 Pak idá i 1 7 7
Pheny l al anine 1 8 5 7 9 , 1 5 7 ,1 5 9 , 1 8 5 , 1 8 6 , 1 8 7 , 1 1 7 , 1 2 6
New W orl d 2 6 , 3 0 , 6 2 , 6 4 , 6 6 , Pak istan 6 8 ,7 3
Pheny l ethy l amin( s) 1 8 5 1 8 9
Ru biaceae 1 3 8
6 7 , 7 3 ,7 8 , 9 0 ,9 9 , 1 0 5 , 1 0 7 , Pal eol ithic 1 4 0
Phil ip II of Spain 1 4 6 Psy chedel ic dose 7 3 Ru iz, Fortu nato 1 2 0
1 0 7 , 1 0 9 , 1 4 4 , 1 7 6 Pal m wine 7 1
Phil ippine Isl ands 6 8 Psy chedel ic therapy 1 9 1 Ru ssel , F. 1 1 0
New Y ears's E v e 8 4 , 1 5 3 Pal o de borracho 1 3 5
Phrag mites au stral / s6 8 , 1 3 8 Psy chedel ic( s) 1 3 , 1 9 1 Ru ssians 8 2
Niando 9 8 Pal q u i 6 8 , 6 9 ,9 8
Phry g y l anthu s eu g eno/ des Psy choanal y sis 1 9 1 Ru taceae 1 3 8
N/ cot l ana ru st/ ca 7 9 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 4 Panacea 7 3
1 2 4 Psy chody sl eptics 1 3 Ry e 6 8 , 1 0 2 , 1 0 2
Nicotiana fabacu m 1 7
Panaeol u s 5 1 ,5 2 , 1 5 6 — 1 6 3 Phy sa/ is sp. 1 7 4 Psy chog ens 1 2 Sabbat 6 9
Nicotine 7 5 , 1 8 3
Panaeol u s cy anescens 6 8 Phy tol acca 5 4 Psy chol y ws 1 9 0 , 1 9 1
Sacred mu shroom( s) 1 4 ,7 8 ,
Nierik a 6 3 , 1 9 6
Panaeol u s sph/ nctrinu s 5 1 , 7 8 , Phy tol acca acinosa 5 4 , 7 6 , 7 7 Psy choses 1 2
7 9 , 1 4 7 , 1 5 9
Nig htshade 7 4 ,8 9 1 5 6 — 1 6 3 , 1 5 7
Pichana 1 3 4 Psy chosomimetics 1 2 Sacred tree 7 8
Nig htshade famil y 2 6 , 2 7 , 3 0 , Panaeol u s su bbal teafu s 5 2 , Pij aos 1 4 2 Psy chotarax ics 1 3 Sadhu 9 3
7 5 , 8 6 , 8 8 , 8 9 1 5 6 -1 6 3
Pima 1 1 0 Psy chotica 1 2 Sat rol 7 5
Nig htshades 5
Panama 9 7 , 1 6 2
Pincu shion Cactu s 4 0 , 4 8 Psy choticants 1 2 Sag u aro 3 9 , 7 6 , 7 7
Ninfa 6 6
Panax g inseng 9 1 Pindé 3 0 , 1 2 4
Psy chotomimetic( s) 1 2 , 1 3 Sahag U n, Fray B ernardino de
Niñ os ( santos) 1 4 , 1 6 1 , 1 6 4 Pancratiu m 5 2
Pinu s strobu s 1 7 Psy chotria 5 5 , 1 2 4 — 1 3 5
1 1 1 , 1 4 4 , 1 4 5 , 1 4 7 , 1 5 9 , 1 7 0
Niopo 2 7 , 1 1 9
Pancratiu m trianthu m 5 2 , 7 2 Piper au r/ tu m 9 8
Psy chotr/ a carthag / nens/ s 1 2 4 Sal amé n 1 4 2
Nonda 7 4
Pandanu s sp. 5 2 , 7 6 , 7 7
Piper methy st/ cu m 6 4
Psy chotr/ a poeppig / ana 1 3 8 Sal em 1 0 4
Nor-l obel amidine 7 9
Papav ersomniferu m 2 1 Pipil tzin 1 6 5
Psy chotr/ a v ir/ dis 5 5 , 6 6 , 6 7 , Sal ta 1 2 0
Noradrenal ine 1 4 5 , 1 8 4 , 1 8 6 , Papu a 2 6 , 6 6 , 6 8
Pipil tzintzintl i 2 7 , 7 0 , 1 6 4 — 1 6 5 1 2 4 — 1 3 5 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 5 , 1 3 7 , Sal v es 7 4
1 8 7
Paracel su s 1 0 , 2 0
Piptaden/ a pereg r/ na 1 1 6 1 3 8 , 1 3 9
Sal v ia 5 6 , 6 8 , 1 6 4 — 1 6 5
Norcarneg ine 7 7 Parahu ré 1 7 7
Piraparaná 1 3 3 , 1 7 6 Pteridophy ta 1 6
Sal v ia d/ v inoru m 1 4 , 5 6 , 7 0 ,
Norepinephrine 1 8 4 , 1 8 5 Pariana reg ion 7 4 Pin pin 1 3 4 Pu cal l pa 1 3 3
7 1 , 1 6 4 — 1 6 5 , 1 6 4 — 1 6 5 , 1 8 4
Norharmine 1 2 7 Paricé 6 8 , 6 9 , 1 7 7
Pital l ito ( cactu s) 4 2 , 7 4 , 7 5 Pu ebl a 9 9 , 1 5 8
Sal v inorin A 7 1 , 1 6 5
Norman times 9 5 Paris 1 0 2
Pitu ri 7 3 , 7 4 , 7 5 , 8 1 , 1 8 2 — 1 8 3 Pu ff bal l s 2 7
Sal v inorin B 1 6 5
Nornicotine7 5 , 1 8 3 Parj any a8 2
Pitu ri B u sh 4 2 , 7 4 ,1 8 2 — 1 8 3 , Pu inav e 1 7 7
Samadhi 1 8 9
Nornu ciferine 6 7 Parsees 1 0 2
1 8 2 , 1 8 3 Pu l ma 1 3 4
San A ntonio 1 4 7
Norscopol amine 1 4 1
Pashu patinath 2 7 , 9 3 , 1 0 7 Pitu rin( e) 7 5 , 1 8 3 Pu na reg ion 1 2 0 , 1 2 3
San B artol o Y au tepec 1 7 4
Nortropine 7 3
Paspal u m g rass 1 0 4 Piu l e 2 7 , 5 6 , 6 6 ,7 4 , 1 7 4 Pu tu may o 1 2 6
San Critobal de L as Casas 1 5 9
North A frica 9 7
Pass/ fl ora inv ol u crata 1 2 7 Pl ains tribes 1 5 2 Py g my 9 7 , 1 1 2
San Isidro 5 4 , 1 5 6 — 1 6 3
North A merica 2 6 , 7 0 , 8 4 , 9 5 , Pass/ fl ora spp. 1 2 7 , 1 2 9 Pl ant K indom 1 6 -1 9 Py thag oras 9 0
San L u is Potosi 1 4 8
1 5 8
Passionf l ower 1 2 9 Pl iny the E l der 9 5 Py thia 9 1
San Pedro ( cactu s) 2 7 , 5 9 , 7 6 ,
Nti-si-tho 1 5 9 Paste 6 7 , 6 9 ,1 7 8
Pl u toniu on 1 0 4 Q u apaw Indians 1 5 3 1 6 6 -1 6 9 , 1 6 6 — 1 6 9
Nu ciferine 6 7
Pau maré Indians 1 7 7 Poison 7 3 , 8 6 Q u echu a 1 2 4
Sananco 1 3 4 , 1 3 5
Nu tmeg 2 6 , 5 0 , 7 4 ,7 5 , 1 7 6 Pastora 1 6 4
Poison B u sh 7 4
Q u etzal ax ochiacatl 6 6 Sanang o 5 8 ,7 6
Ny ak wana6 8 , 6 9 , 1 7 7 ,1 7 8 Pay e( s) 1 1 7 ,1 7 6
Pok eberry s4 Q u iche-( M ay a) 8 4
Sandison, Ronal d A . 1 9 0
Ny l 1 3 3
Ped/ / anthu s t/ thy ma/ oides 1 6 8 , Pol y nesian Isl anders 6 4 Q u inde 1 4 2
Sandoz 1 8 7
Ny iba-ebok a 1 1 5 1 6 9
Pol y poral es 1 7
Q u inol izidine ty pe al k al oids 7 7 Sansk rit 6 8 , 1 0 7 , 1 0 8
Ny mphaea 5 0 , 6 7
Peg anu m 5 2 , 1 2 4 , 1 3 7 — 1 3 9
Pol y trichu m commu ne 1 6 Q u inta essentia 2 0
Santo Daime 1 3 9
Ny mphaea arnpl a 5 0 , 6 6 , 6 7
Peg anu m harms/ a 5 2 , 6 9 , 7 3 , Pombe 1 0 9
Ratsch, Christian 2 7 , 1 8 9 Saponines 6 9 , 7 3 , 7 7
Ny mphaeacaeru l ea5 0 , 6 6
7 6 ,7 7 ,1 2 4 ,1 2 7 , 1 2 9 ,1 3 7 , Popocatepetl 6 3 ,1 6 1 Rahner, H u g o 8 8 Satori 1 8 9
Oax aca 6 6 , 7 0 , 7 5 , 7 8 , 1 5 8 , 1 3 9
Popol Vu h 1 6 1 Rain priests 7 9 , 1 1 0 Sax on times 9 5
1 6 2 , 1 6 4 , 1 7 0 , 1 7 3 , 1 7 4 Pel ecy phora 5 3 Poppy 2 0 , 2 1 ,2 4
Raj aw K ak u l j á 8 4 Scandinav ia 8 8 , 1 0 2
Obstetrics 6 9
Pel ecy phora asefil formis 5 3 , Ports 9 0 Rami 1 3 4
Scel etiu m 5 6 , 7 1
Ochre 1 4 2 7 4
Prescott 1 0 5 Rape dos Indios 4 9 ,7 4 Sce/ etiu m ex pansu m5 6
Ocimu m micranthu m 1 2 4
Pen T sao Ching 9 4 Prick l y Poppy 9 8 Rasping stick 1 5 0
Scel et/ u m tortu osu m 5 6 , 7 0 ,
Oco-y aj é 1 2 6
Pernambu co 7 0 Prisoners 7 5 Rav en 9 1 9 8
Ocotl 1 7 2
Pernetl y a 5 3 , 7 7
Prophecy 7 5 , 1 2 4 , 1 7 7 Recreation 6 9
Sc/ rpu s atrov irens 5 6
Ointments 7 0
Pernetty a fu rens 5 3 , 7 6 , 7 7 Prophesy 8 6 Red B ean 2 6 , 7 4 , 7 5
Scirpu s sp. 5 6 , 6 6 , 6 7
Oj ibwa 8 5
Pernetfy a parv ifol ia 5 3 , 7 6 , 7 7 Protector 7 1 Red B ean Dance 7 5
Screw Pine 5 2 , 7 6
2 0 7
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Scopine 7 3
Scopol amine 6 7 , 6 9 , 7 1 , 7 3 ,
7 5 , 7 9 , 8 6 , 8 7 , 1 0 7 , 1 4 1 ,
1 8 3
Scopol etine 6 9 , 7 5
Scopol ia 5 7
Scopol ia carniol l ca 5 7 , 7 4
Scotch Rose 1 7
Scy thians 7 2 , 9 4 , 9 5 , 9 7
Sea B ean 9 8
Seaweeds 1 7
Secal e cereal e 1 0 2
Sedativ es 1 3
Sedg es 6 5
Semil l a de Ia Virg en 1 7 5
SeminarcosiS 7 5
Sen Indians 7 7
Serotonin( e) 2 2 , 1 2 0 , 1 5 9 ,
1 7 1 , 1 8 5 , 1 8 7
SertOrner, Friedrich 2 0
Sesq u iterpene-l actone 7 9
Shaman( s) 8 , 3 0 , 6 2 , 6 7 , 6 9 ,
7 2 , 7 5 , 8 2 , 8 2 , 1 2 0 , 1 2 6 ,
1 3 4 , 1 3 9 , 1 4 2 , 1 4 8 , 1 4 9 ,
1 5 6 , 1 6 4 , 1 6 8 , 1 7 5 , 1 7 6 ,
1 7 8
Shamanic medicine 7 6 , 1 1 7
Shamanic sig nificance 6 7 , 7 1
Shamanism 6 4 , 8 5
Shang -l a 7 6 , 7 7
Shanin 5 3 , 7 6
Shanshi 2 7 , 4 0 , 7 6
Sharon, Dou g l as 1 6 9
She-to 7 8
Scheel ea 1 8 0
Shen-Nu ng 9 4 , 9 5 , 9 5
Shimbe L ak e 1 6 8
Shipibo Indians 1 2 5 , 1 2 6 ,
1 2 9 , 1 3 0 , 1 3 1
Shirianá 1 7 7
Shiv a 1 0 , 1 3 , 9 2 , 9 3 , 9 7 ,
1 0 8 , 1 0 8 , 1 0 9
Shiv a L ing am 1 0 7
Shru bs 6 5
Siberia 2 6 , 6 4 , 7 0 , 7 1 , 8 2
Siberian L ion's T ail 7 6
Siberian M otherwort 4 7 , 7 6 ,
9 8
Sibu ndoy Val l ey 6 7 , 7 4 , 1 4 1 ,
1 4 2 , 1 4 2
Siby l 9 1
Sierra M adre Occidental 9 7 ,
1 4 7
Sierra M adre Oriental 1 6 4
Sida 5 7 , 7 2 , 7 3
Sida acu te 5 7 , 7 2 , 9 8
Sida rhombifol ia 5 7 , 7 2 , 9 8
Sinal oa 1 4 5
Sinicu iche 2 7 , 4 3 , 6 3 , 7 6 , 7 7
SinO cu l tu re 6 5
Siona 1 2 6
Siou x medicine man 1 5 2
Srnok ehaou se 7 1
Snail shel l l ime 6 7 , 1 1 8 , 1 1 9
Snu ff( s) 2 7 ,6 7 ,6 8 ,7 3 ,7 5 ,8 1 ,
1 1 6 — 1 1 9 , 1 1 6 ,1 2 0 — 1 2 3 ,
1 7 6 — 1 8 1
Sog amoza 1 4 0
Sol anaceou s 7 1
Sol andra 7 2 , 7 3
Sol andra brev ical y x 7 2
Sol andra g u errerensis 7 2 , 7 3
Sol anu m maniacu m 1 7 0
Soma 6 2 , 6 2 , 7 0 , 8 2 — 8 5 , 9 7
Somal ata 8 4
Sonora 7 7
Soothsay er 1 2 2
Sophora secu ndifl ora 6 8 , 6 9 ,
7 4 , 7 5 , 1 5 2
Sorcerers7 l ,7 7 , 1 1 2 ,1 4 7
Cherry 8 8
Sorcery 7 3 , 1 2 4
Sotho 9 6
Sou th A frica 7 0 ,7 1 ,7 2 ,7 6 , 9 7
Sou th A merica 1 9 , 2 6 , 2 7 , 3 0 ,
6 2 , 6 5 , 6 6 , 7 6 . 7 7 , 8 1 , 9 5 ,
1 1 8 , 1 1 8 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 5 , 1 4 0 ,
1 6 2 , 1 6 6 , 1 7 2
Sou th A merican Indian 3 3
2 0 8
Sou theast A sia 2 6 , 7 3
Sou thwest 2 6 , 1 0 9
Spain 1 5 7
Spaniards 1 5 6 , 1 7 1
Spanish cronicl es 7 4 , 1 4 4 ,
1 7 3
Spathiphy l l u m canaefol iu m
1 7 9
Species Pl antaru m 1 6
Spermatophy ta 1 7
Sphaeradenia 1 7 9
Spru ce, Richard 2 4 , 2 4 , 6 5 ,
1 1 7 ,1 1 9 , 1 2 6 ,1 3 2 ,1 7 6
Sri
A nthony 1 0 3 , 1 0 4
St. A nthony 's fire 2 6 , 6 8 , 1 0 2 —
1 0 5
St. Peter 1 6 6
Stearns, J ohn 1 0 5
Stimu l ant 7 1 , 7 3 , 7 5 , 7 9
Straw Fl ower 4 3 , 7 6
Stopharia cu bensis 1 5 8 , 1 5 9
Stry chnos u sambarensis 1 2 7
Stu por 6 7 , 1 4 1
Su ccu l ents 6 5
Su cu ba 1 3 4
Su i period 1 0 8
Su n Father 6 3 , 1 0 6 ,1 1 7 ,1 3 1 ,
1 3 3 , 1 7 6
Su n G od 9 1
Su ng dy nasty 1 0 7
Su rarfl 1 7 7
Su shrata 9 5
Sweet Cal omel 7 6
Sweet Fl ag 1 6 , 2 6 , 3 4 , 7 6
Switzerl and 9 6
Sy rian Ru e 5 2 , 7 6 , 7 7 ,1 2 4 ,
1 2 7 , 1 2 9 , 1 3 9
Sy phil is 1 7 0
T aM a7 2
T abaco del Diabl o 4 7 , 7 8
T abernaemontana 5 8 , 7 6
T abernaemontana coffeoides
5 8 , 7 6
T a be rnaemontana crassa 5 8 ,
7 6 , 7 7
T abernaemontana dichotoma
7 6 , 7 7
T abernaemontana pandaca-
q u i7 6
T a be rnaemontana sananho
5 8 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 5
T a be rnaemontana spp. 5 8
T abernanthe 5 8 , 1 1 2 — 1 1 5
T abernanthe ibog a 2 9 , 5 8 , 7 0 ,
1 1 2 — 1 1 5 , 1 1 2 — 1 1 5
T ag etes 5 8 , 7 8 , 7 9
T ag etes l u cida 5 8 , 7 8 , 7 9
T ag Il i 2 7 , 7 6
Iamb 1 1 6
T aiq u e 2 7 , 4 2 , 7 6
T aj ik tribesmen 7 8
T ak emoto 8 3
T ak ini 4 4 , 7 8
T amu 7 8
T anaeciu m 5 9
T anaeciu m noctu rnu m 5 9 , 7 2 ,
7 3
T anay in 1 1 0
T annins 7 3
T anzania 7 0 , 1 0 9
T antric practices 9 3 , 9 7
T aoist 9 4 , 1 0 7
T arahu mara 8 , 6 6 , 6 9 , 7 0 , 7 1 ,
7 4 ,7 5 ,7 8 ,7 9 , 1 4 4 , 1 4 7 ,
1 4 9 , 1 5 0 , 1 5 1
T arascans 1 5 8
T atar 7 8
T atewari 6 2 , 1 4 8 , 1 5 0
T ax ine 1 9
T el epathine 1 2 6 , 1 2 7
T el iostachy a l anceol ata v ar.
crispa 1 2 4

T eochichimeca ritu al 1 4 7
T eonaná catl 5 5 , 6 2 , 7 8 ,.

1 8 7
T eotihu acá n 1 7 3
T epantitl a 1 7 3
T epecano Indians 9 9
T epescohu ite 7 0
T esg u ino 1 0 9
T etrahy drocannabinol 1 8 4 ,
1 8 4
T etrahy droharmine 7 7 , 1 2 7
T erahy droharmol 1 2 7
T etrahy droisoq u inol ine al k a-
l oids 6 7 , 7 5 , 7 7
T etrapteris 5 9 , 1 2 4 — 1 3 5
T etra pier/ s methy stica 5 9 ,

ra p/ er/ s mu cronata 6 6 ,

1 5 6
T ey hu intl i 1 5 7
T ex as
7 8
T hal l ophy ta 1 7
T H C 9 6 ,9 8 , 1 8 4 , 1 8 4 , 1 8 5
T hail and 7 2
T hebes 7 2 , 9 7
T heobroma 1 7 9

deriv ativ es 7 9
T hIe-Pel ak ano 7 8
T horn A ppl e 1 3 , 2 6 , 3 1 , 4 1 ,
7 9 , 1 0 6 — 1 1 1 , 1 0 9
T hornappl e 7 8
T hrace 1 0 2
T iahu anaco 1 2 0 , 1 2 2
T ibet 7 8 , 9 7 , 9 8
T l amanal co 6 3
T l apatl
T l il il tzin 6 6 , 1 7 4
T M A 1 4
T o-shk a

6 3 ,6 4 ,
6 9 ,

1 3 0 ,1 3 4 ,1 3 4 ,1 4 0 ,1 4 3 ,
1 4 8 ,1 4 9 ,1 5 0 ,1 5 3 ,1 6 5 ,



2 7 , 4 1 , 6 9 ,

7 8 , 1 0 9
T ol ohu ax ihu itl 1 0 9
T ol tecs 1 4 4
T ong a6 6 ,

7 9
T orna
C. M anu el 1 2 0
T orres, Donna 1 2 3
T otu bj ansu sh 7 4
T ox icon 1 0
T rance, cl aiv oy ant 7 1
T rance, v isionary 7 5
T rance( s) 7 7 , 8 8
T ranq u il izers 1 3 , 1 9 1
T ree of K nowl edg e 8 8 , 1 2 2
T rees 6 5
T ribu / u s terrestris 1 2 7 ,

pachanoi 5 9 ,
— —
T rimethox y pheny l ethy l amine
7 5
ferns 1 9
T riptol emu s 8 1
T riterpenes 7 1
T ropine 7 3
T ropane al k al oids 6 9 , 7 1 , 7 3 ,
7 5 ,
deriv ativ es 6 7 , 7 5 ,
1 5 9 ,
7 3 , 8 1 , 1 1 7 ,
1 2 0 ,1 2 9 ,1 3 8 ,1 7 1 ,1 8 0
T ry ptophane
J ohann J . 1 4 0
T su wiri 7 0
T u batu l obal tribe 1 1 0
T u k ano( an) Indians 6 7 , 1 2 4 ,
1 2 6 ,1 2 7 ,1 3 1 , 1 3 3 ,1 7 6 ,
1 7 7

T u nas
1 1 7 , 1 4 1
T u pa
6 0 , 1 7 0 — 1 7 5 , 1 7 0 —
1 7 5
T u rbina cory mbosa 2 9 , 6 0 ,

T u rk estan
M int 4 6 , 7 8
T u rk oman tribesmen 7 8
T u rk ey Red v ariety 1 3 8
T u rner 9 1
T u rnera diffu sa 9 8
6 5
T zompanq u ahu itl 6 8
U cu ba
U . S. Pharmacopoeia 9 9
U k raine 1 0 4
U mu 1 2 2
U ncaria fomentosa 1 3 4 ,
U niä o
my stica 1 8 9
U nited Staates 1 3 , 7 4 , 7 5 , 9 9 ,
1 4 4 ,1 5 1 ,1 5 2 ,1 5 4 ,1 5 5 ,
1 9 1 ,
U ppsal al 6 ,
U rticaceae 9 3
U sbek tribesmen 7 8
Vaccin/ u m ol / g inoru m 7 1
8 2
Val des
7 2
Varanasi
Varu na
6 9
Vau pé s 1 3 1
Vay a
1 4 , 1 6 0
Venezu el a 1 1 9 ,

v im/ na/ is 1 8 3
9 9
Vertine 7 7
Viho-mahse 1 7 6
Vik ing s 9 5
Vil l ca3 O, 3 4 , 6 6 ,1 2 0 ,1 2 2 ,
1 2 2
Vil Ica camay o 1 2 2
Vil Ica Coto 1 2 2
Vine

de J u rema 7 1
Virg inia 9 5 , 1 1 0
Virol a ( spp. ) 6 0 ,

ca/ ophy l l a 6 8 , 1 7 6 ,1 7 7 ,

V/ rol e ca/ ophy / l oidea 6 8 , 1 7 6 ,
1 7 7
cu sp/ data 1 7 6
1 7 6 ,1 7 8
l oretensis 1 7 6 ,
pav onis 1 7 8
Virol a peru v ians 1 7 6
ru fu l a 1 7 6
sebifera 1 3 8 , 1 7 6
V/ rol e su rimanensis 1 7 6 , 1 7 6 ,
1 7 8
the/ odors 6 0 ,
1 7 6 , 1 7 7 , 1 7 8
Vision-indu cing q u al ity 7 3 , 7 7
Vision-seek ing dance 7 4
Vision-q u est 7 5
Visions 1 4 ,2 6 ,2 7 , 6 4 , 6 7 , 6 9 ,
7 1 , 7 5 , 7 7 , 7 9 , 1 0 9 , 1 1 0 ,
1 2 2 , 1 4 8 ,

africans 7 8
bra cteata 7 8
dreg ei7 8
Voacang a g rand/ fl ora 6 0 ,
6 0


1 7 8 , 1 7 9 ,
1 8 1
W al ang ari K arntawarra J ak a-
marra 1 8 2

6 4
W asson, B . G ordon 8 2 , 1 5 9
W ater L il ies 5 0 , 6 6
W attisham 1 0 4
W av y Cap 5 5
W eidmann, Fred 1 9 3
W est A frica 7 7
W est Indies 6 6 , 1 1 6
W estern H emipshere 2 8 , 2 9 ,
3 0
W estern society 6 2 , 7 5 , 7 9 ,
8 1 ,1 1 5
W hal e 8 2
W hite Pine 1 7
W ichi 1 2 0
W ichowak a 6 6
W ichu ri 6 6
W ichu rik i 7 8
W il d Dag g a 7 2 , 9 8
W il Ica 1 2 2
W ine
7 7
W irik u ta6 2 , 1 4 8 , 1 4 8 ,1 5 0 ,
1 5 1
W itch( es) 8 9
W itch's B erry 8 8
W itchcraft 7 1 , 7 2 8 9
W itches mark et 1 6 6
W itches' brews 6 8 ,6 9 , 7 0 ,7 1 ,
7 3 , 7 8 , 7 9 , 8 6 — 9 1
W itches' ointments 7 4
W itches' sal v es 7 4
W itoto 1 7 6 , 1 7 8
W ol f's M il k pl ant 1 6 9
W ood Rose 7 8 , 7 9
W orl d tree 1 3 5
W y soccan 7 9 , 1 1 0
X erophy tes 6 5
X ibal ba 1 6 1
X ing 0
X ix icamatic 1 7 4
X ochipil l i 6 3 , 1 6 1
7 4 , 1 7 3
X tohk 'u h 1 0 9
Y ag e6 7 , —




Y anomamo
Indians 2 7 , 7 0 ,

Y arinacocha 1 2 9
Y as
6 8
Y au htl i 5 8 , 7 8
Y ek wana 1 2 6 , 1 7 6
Y el l ow H enbae 4 4
Y oco 2 9
Y og is
Y og u rt 9 7
Y ohimbine 7 3
Y ok u t Indians 7 9 , 1 1 0
Y op





Y u pa
Indians 7 9 , 1 6 2
Y u ru pari ceremony 6 7 , 1 2 9 ,
1 3 1
7 8
Z acatechichi 2 7 , 7 8 , 7 9
Z aire
Val l ey 9 9
Z amey eM ebeg e 1 1 2
Z apbtec 6 6 , 7 5 , 1 7 3 , 1 7 4 ,
1 7 4 , 1 7 5

9 4
Z ornia diphy l l a 9 8
l et/ to/ ia 9 8
7 6
Z u ni Indians ( = Z u ñ i) 7 9 , 1 0 6 ,
1 1 0
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