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Metis Biography: Volume B

Metis Biography: Volume B

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A compendium of Metis biographies. Biography: Dictionary of Metis people in North America. Biographies of Metis people in Canada and the U.S.A. Some genealogy information. See also the "People of the Metis Nation," and "Women of the Metis Nation." Revised January 24. 2014.
A compendium of Metis biographies. Biography: Dictionary of Metis people in North America. Biographies of Metis people in Canada and the U.S.A. Some genealogy information. See also the "People of the Metis Nation," and "Women of the Metis Nation." Revised January 24. 2014.

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Dictionary of Metis Biography

Volume B
Edited and Compiled By Lawrence J. Barkwell Revised January !"#

Baillargeon, Morgan. (b. 1956)
Morgan Baillargeon, artist, photographer, writer and practitioner of Metis decorative arts is a Metis from So th! western "ntario and is c rrentl# $ rator of %lains &thnolog# at the $anadian M se m of $ivili'ation. Baillargeon is also a photographer whose photographs have been p blished and also displa#ed at e(hibitions at the )niversit# of "ttawa. Morgan has a B.*. from the )niversit# of "ttawa (19+,), a B.&d. from the )niversit# of *lberta (19,-), an M.*. from $arlton )niversit# (1991) and a %h... from the )niversit# of "ttawa (/00-).

Morgan at the $anadian $onservation 1nstit te S#mposi m, "ttawa, "ntario, /00+ (photo b# $$1).

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Morgan Baillargeon is a Metis of Shawnee, 2#andot and 3rench ancestr# from So th!western "ntario. 4e is a great!great!great!great!nephew of 5eorge .ro illard, the Metis sco t, interpreter, h nter and g ide for the 6ewis and $lar7 &(pedition. Since 199/, Morgan has been c rator of %lains &thnolog# at the $anadian M se m of $ivili'ation. 3or several #ears (19,-!19,9), he ta ght traditional *boriginal arts in schools in Metis and $ree comm nities in northern *lberta. 4e has wor7ed on video prod ctions, p blications and e(hibitions at the $anadian M se m of $ivili'ation, $arleton )niversit# and the $owbo# 4all of 3ame in "7lahoma $it#. 4is boo7 (with 6eslie 8epper), Legends of Our Times: Native Cowboy Life. Seattle9 8he )niversit# of 2ashington %ress, and :anco ver9 )niversit# of British $ol mbia %ress, 199, tells the stor# of some of the first cowbo#s;the 1ndians and Metis of the %lains and %latea ;thro gh stories, poetr#, art, and reminiscences. 4is latest boo7 is North American Aboriginal Hide Tanning: The Act of Transformation and Revival (5atinea 9 $anadian M se m of $ivili'ation, Merc r# Series, &thnolog# %aper< 1-6, /010). Morgan provided a chapter on hide tanning technolog# for Metis Legacy olume !! (/006)1 and has completed a %h... in =eligio s St dies at the )niversit# of "ttawa. 4is %h. .. thesis was entitled >2al7ing *mong Birds of 3ire9 ?ehi#aw Beleifs $oncerning .eath, Mo rning, and 3easting with the .ead@ ()niversit# of "ttawa, /00-). 8his wor7 investigates two primar# A estions among the ?ehi#aw (%lains $ree) of *lberta, Sas7atchewan and Montana with a partic lar foc s on the ?ehi#aw at M s7wachees (4obbema, *lberta), an ho r so th of &dmonton9 (1) 1n the ?ehi#aw world!view, what nderstanding do people have abo t their relationship between the living and the deadB *nd, (/) to what e(tent are the ?ehi#aw involved in feeding and feasting with the deadB 4e has served on the MCtis ?ation of "ntario $ lt ral $ommission and the 6o is =iel 1nstit te (Manitoba) 4eritage $entre .evelopment $ommittee. 4e is a member of the *boriginal $ ratorial $ollective. 4is artwor7 is held in the 6o is =iel 1nstit te permanent collection. 4e has also been a contrib tor at the ?ational $owbo# %oetr# 5athering held at &l7o, ?evada. See also9 Baillargeron, Morgan. >?ative $owbo#s on the %lains9 * %hoto &ssa#, Agriculture History, :ol. 69, ?o. -, 19959 5-+! 56/. DDDDDDDDDD . >4ide 8anning9 8he *ct of =evival,@ in 6isa 3rin7 and Eathr#n 2eedman (&ds.), "ender and Hide #roduction. 6anham, Mar#land9 *ltaMira %ress, /0059 1-F!15/.

Ballantyne, Bernadette. (b. 19F5)
See Bernadette 6avallee.

Ballenden (Ballendine), Adam. (1,6-!19-1)
*dam Ballenden was born at Moose 6a7e in 1,6-, the son of Gohn Ballenden and Mar# 4 mphreville. *dam and his mother were both members of %eter BellHs Band at 8he %as, both withdrew from 8reat# at Battleford in 1,,6. 4e married *ngeliA e 6emire, the da ghter of 3rancois 6emire and S 'anne Bo cher in "ctober of 1,,5 at Battleford. S 'anne was a member of SampsonHs Band. *dam wor7ed as a mail carrier, sing dog teams in winter.. ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance he served at the Battleford garrison in ?o. 1 $ompan#, while still a8reat# 1ndian. /

Ballenden (Ballendine), Peter. (1,F6!1,,5)
%eter Ballendine was born .ecember 10, 1,F6 in $ mberland 4o se, the son of Gohn Ballenden and Mar# 4 mphreville, and died .ecember 1/, 1,,5 in Battleford, Sas7atchewan. %eter married $aroline =owland, the da ghter of 2illiam =owland and Bets# Ballenden in 1,6F at 3ort $arlton where his father!in!law was 4B$ 3actor. 4e was ed cated at St. GohnHs School at =ed =iver and entered 4B$ service in 1,59. 4e wor7ed as a cler7, postmaster and interpreter at $ mberland 4o se, 3ort $arlton and 3ort %itt. 4e ran the Battleford %ost in the 1,+0s. 4e then became a free!trader. 1n 1,+5, as part of a 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan# h nting part# of 3irst ?ations and MCtis people, Ballendine was accosted b# 5abriel . mont and a gro p St. 6a rence MCtis for h nting in advance of the main h nt. 2hen BallendineHs part# ref sed to abide b# . montHs r les, fort# of . montHs men sei'ed their carts, horses, provisions, and game.
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Morgan Baillargeon, >4ide 8anning9 8he *ct of =eviving@, in 6.G. Bar7well, 6.M. .orion and *. 4o rie (&ds.), Metis Legacy olume !!: Michif Culture$ Heritage and %ol&ways' Sas7atoon9 5abriel . mont 1nstit te and %emmican % blications, /0069 ,5!9/. / .o glas 2. 6ight, %oot(rints in the )ust' ?orth Battleford9 8 rner!2arwic7 % blications 1nc., 19,+9 5++.

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4e was the interpreter for 8reat# ?o. 6 at 3ort $arlton in 1,+6 and at Battleford in 1,+, when $hief MosA ito signed. 4e and his brother *dam were both active on the $anadian side d ring the Metis =esistance of 1,,5. 4e was a Sco t for $olonel "tter and was at the Battle of $ t Enife 4ill where "tter was defeated.

Ballenden (Ballendine), Samuel. (1,F-!190F)
Sam el was born at St. *ndrews, =ed =iver, the son of 5eorge Ballenden and Gane Blac7. 4e married 3lora $hatelain, a member of the Mistawasis Band. Sam wor7ed for the 4B$ at 3ort $arlton, and 3ort &dmonton and for the %alliser &(pedition in 1,5+, to 1,59. G st before the Metis =esistance of 1,,5, he was farming instr ctor on the Sweet 5rass =eserve. 4e also wor7ed for the ?.2.M.%. and d ring the =esistance he served in the Battleford 4ome 5 ards, ?o. / $ompan#. 4e was the man $ro'ier sent with a message to Big Bear and 6 c7# Man to s rrender. 4e died at Bresa#lor, *lberta on Ma# /F, 190F.F Scrip affidavit for Ballendine, Sam el< born9 .ecember 19, 1,F9< father9 5eorge Ballendine< mother9 Gane Ballendine< claim no.9 F0,9.

Alexis Bailly. (1+9,!1,61)
*le(is served in the 2ar of 1,1/ nder the British flag and in 1,1/ was at Mac7inac. 4e later became a =epresentative for +th .istrict (1,-9 and 1,50) in the 1st Minnesota 8erritorial 6egislat re.*le(is was born on, 1- .ec 1+9, in 6ittlefort, 5rand 4aven, ?orthwest 8erritor# (on 6a7e 4 ron) the son of Goseph Baill# (Baill# de Messien) and *ngeliA e Mc5 lpin his "ttawa wife. - 4e was ed cated at 5eorge SchindlerIs School for Bo#s &d cation from 1,0, to 1,1/ at Michilimac7inac, ?28. 6ater he was at school in Montreal and at age 19 assisted 6ad# Sel7ir7 in ta7ing a
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.o glas 2. 6ight, %oot(rints in the )ust' ?orth Battleford9 8 rner!2arwic7 % blications 1nc., 19,+9 9/.

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message from Montreal to her h sband at 3ort 2illiam. Bill# entered the f r trade wor7ing for Goseph =olette at %rairie d $hien in 1,/1. 4is first Job was to drive a herd of cattle to the =ed =iver Settlement. 4is grandfather, Michel Baill# de Messein, was in the campaign against the 3o( and in 1+5- at the defeat of 5eorge 2ashington at 3ort ?ecessit#. &arl# in the 2ar of 1,1/, *le(isH father Goseph Baill#, acting nder the orders of $aptain $harles =oberts, transported goods from St Goseph 1sland to Michilimac7inac. 1n March 1,1F he was as7ed b# =obert .ic7son, s perintendent for the 1ndians of the western nations, to recr it 1ndian warriors for the British, a wor7 he later claimed that he had accomplished with s ccess, notabl# among the Miamis, %otawatomis, "ttawas, and Eic7apoos. Before the close of the war he commanded a part# of 1ndians in three engagements against the *mericans. *le(is also served in the 2ar of 1,1/ nder the British flag and in 1,1/ was part of the ?2$ gro p that capt red Mac7inac.

*le(is Baill#, portrait of 1,5, b# 8heophile 4amel

6ate in the #ear of 1,/1 *le(is was at 3ort Snelling as a part of a cattle drive from the so th. 8he# drove the cattle p the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers over to the =ed =iver then north to the Sel7ir7 $olon# on the =ed =iver. 1t is said that this cattle drive cost K100.00 per head for the cattle. B# 1,/F *le(is was trading at Mendota (mo th of the Minnesota =iver) and in "ctober of 1,/- he was appointed, =egister of %robate for $rawford $o nt#, b# 8erritorial 5overnor $ass. 3rom 1,/5 to 1,F1 he was in partnership with Goseph =olette and emplo#ed *le(ander and Gean Baptiste 3ariba lt as his cler7s with posts at 8raverse des Sio ( and at the mo th of the St. %eters (Minnesota =iver).
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%ather: Goseph Baill# b9 + *pr 1++- in :ercheres, L ebec, (6ower $anada) c9 1++- in St. *nne de :arennes, :ercheres, L ebec (6ower $anada). Mother: *ngeliA e Mc5 lpin b9 *B8 1+,0 in $hig!a !mish!7ene village on 5rand =iver, Michigan, )pper $anada. *ngeliA e Mc5 lpin was a f ll!blooded "ttawa of the 8raverse band.

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3rom 1,F/ to 1,FF Baill#Hs b siness relationship with =olette was affected b# a disp te over b siness acco nts. 1n 1,F- 4enr# Sible# arrived at Mendota and replaced *le(is as the *merican 3 r $ompan# agent. 3rom 1,F5 to 1,-/ *le(is was residing at %rairie d $hien. 1n September of 1,F+ *le(is was part of a delegation of traders that accompanied twent# $hiefs to 2ashington ..$. and it has been said that he gave his hospitalit# at 2abasha to both Gefferson $. .avis and )l#sses S. 5rant while the# served in the ).S. *rm# earl# in their militar# careers. 1n 1,-/ he moved to 2abasha where he lived the remainder of his life. 4e went on to be 2abasha $o nt# $ommisioner and G stice of the %eace for 2abasha $o nt# from 1,5- to 1,5+. 4e was first married to 6 c# *nne 3ariba lt in 1,/6 who died in 1,55, then married G lia Marie $or# in 1,5+. 4is children were9 *le(is %hilip (1,/6! 1,9,)< 4enr# 5eorge (1,/,!1,65)< 3rederic7 &dward (1,F1!1,FF)< 1sabella *ntoinette (1,FF!1,-9)< 6 c# *nne (1,F5!B)< $harles &dward (1,F,!1,F9)< .aniel Barthelm# (1,-1!19/1)< Marie 6o ise (1,-5!19F-) M &sther $lothilde (1,-,!1,50). 3rom his second marriage he had $harles %rince (b. 1,59) and 3rancis $ar# (b. 1,60). *le(is was a 3actor for the *merican 3 r $ompan# ! 2estern " tfit from 1,F- to 1,-/ at %rairie d $hien 2isconsin and a 3actor for the *merican 3 r $ompan# ! 2estern " tfit at 2abasha, Minnesota from 1,-/ to 1,-,. Baill# was a member of the first Minnesota 8erritorial 6egislat re representing the +th .istrict from 1,-9 to 1,50. 4e died at home at 2abasha on G ne F, 1,61. Ballendine (Ballenden), Samuel (1,F-!190F) Sam el was born at St. *ndrews, =ed =iver, the son of 5eorge Ballenden and Gane Blac7 5. 4e married 3lora $hatelain, a member of the Mistawasis Band. Sam wor7ed for the 4B$ at 3ort $arlton, and 3ort &dmonton and for the %alliser &(pedition in 1,5+, to 1,59. G st before the Metis =esistance of 1,,5, he was farming instr ctor on the Sweet 5rass =eserve. 4e also wor7ed for the ?.2.M.%. and d ring the 1,,5 =esistance he served in the Battleford 4ome 5 ards, ?o. / $ompan#. 4e was the man $ro'ier sent with a message to Big Bear and 6 c7# Man to s rrender. 4e died at Bresa#lor, Sas7atchewan on Ma# /F, 190F.6 Scrip affidavit for Ballendine, Sam el< born9 .ecember 19, 1,F9< father9 5eorge Ballendine< mother9 Gane Ballendine< claim no.9 F0,9.

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8he da ghter of Sam el Blac7 and *ngeliA e Bo la#er. .o glas 2. 6ight, %oot(rints in the )ust' ?orth Battleford9 8 rner!2arwic7 % blications 1nc., 19,+9 9/.

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Bannatyne, Annie. (c.1,F0!190,)
See *nnie Mc.ermot.

Barada, Antoine “Mo shi-no pazhi”. (1,0+!1,,5)
*ntoine Barada was an *merican fol7 hero in the state of ?ebras7a. $ontemporar# acco nts of his prodigio s strength helped establish him as a legend in the mold of %a l B n#an. *ntoine Barada was born at St. Mar#Hs across the Misso ri =iver from "maha. 4e was the Metis son of Michel de Baradat and 8e!gle!ha 4aciendo (6a ghing B ffalo) an "maha 1ndian. *ntoine was a man of prodigio s strength and great si'e< he was almost seven feet tall. 4is father was a government interpreter. 2hile Michel was wor7ing /00 miles above "maha, 6a7ota 1ndians stole #o ng *ntoine from his parents. Si( months later the# recovered him b# pa#ing a ransom of two ponies. 8o avoid a repeat of this 7idnapping, his parents then sent him to St. 6o is to live with his a nt. 4e went to school there b t at age nine ret rned to the plains with a part# of 1ndians. 4e later became a g ide for pioneers moving west. *ntoineHs name, along with those of his siblings, can be fo nd on the 5reat ?emeha 4alf! Breed =eservation *llottee 6ist of 1,60. 1n 1,56 he moved to the 5reat ?emeha 4alf!Breed 8ract and set p a trading post there, from which the town of Barada grew.

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*ntoine married Marcellite :ient, a 3rench woman from St. 6o is and the# settled in =ichardson $o nt# J st northeast of the present 3alls $it#. 8he town and precinct were named Barada after *ntoine. *ntoine Barada was a legendar# vo#age r 7nown for his strength. 4e was trained as a stonemason at St. $harles. Barada was alwa#s in demand for lifting beams in barn b ilding or lifting wagons from the m d. 4is strength was convincingl# demonstrated at St. 6o is when as a #o ng man he became the onl# person to ever lift a h ge stone of 1,+00 po nds located at the government arsenal. 4e name and date of the event were inscribed on the stone for f t re generations. *ntoine was also an e(cellent mar7sman, he was able to shoot prairie chic7ens on the fl# from horsebac7 and it was said that with his do ble!barreled shotg n he never failed to drop two A ail from ever# cove#. 2hen he died in 1,,+ he was b ried beside his wife in the $atholic cemeter# J st east of Barada, the village that bears his name. =eference9 8anis $. 8horne, The Many Hands of My Relations: %rench and !ndians on the Lower Missouri' $ol mbia, Misso ri9 )niversit# of Misso ri %ress, 1996.

Augustine Barthe, Shing au!onse. (1++F!1,5-)
Shingwa 7once (6ittle %ine) was the son of Gean Baptiste Barthe, a Metis trader, and an "Jibwa woman from the >"ld $rane Band@ at Sa lt Ste. Marie. *ltho gh he claimed Metis ancestr#, he remained "Jibwa in c lt ral orientation. 4e signed the 1,/, St. Mar#Hs 8reat# as G stine Barthe. "ne of his sons who went b# the name of %ierre 6avoine was also called 8egoosh in "Jibwa, the Michif name of >8chi 5o s@ or >6ittle * g stine.@ Beca se of his strong attachment to Metis trader Gohn *s7in Gr. (listed above) Shingwa 7once Joined the British side d ring the 2ar of 1,1/. 4e fo ght in the .etroit campaign and was also at the engagements at L eenston 4eights and Battle of the 8hames (Moraviantown).+

+

See Ganet &. $h te, >* )nif#ing :ision 9 Shingwa 7onseHs %lan for the 3 t re of the 5reat 6a7es "Jibwa,@ *ournal of the Canadian Historical Association, :ol. +, ?o. 1, 19969 55!,0.

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1,F+ photo of $hief * g stine Shingwa 7 and his wife. *lgoma )niversit#9 8he Singwa 7 =esidential Schools $entre.

Bartlett, "udith #. (b. 195/)
G d# was born at 3lin 3lon, Manitoba< she is the da ghter of *le(ander Bartlett and $lara $ote. G dith Bartlett M..., $$3%, MSc. is a Metis famil# ph#sician and researcher with man# #ears of e(perience in *boriginal health. She completed her M. in 19,+ and her M.Sc. in /00-. She carries a diverse portfolio relative to professional and b siness endeavors. She serves in the position of *ssociate .irector, %rograms at the $entre for *boriginal 4ealth =esearch, .epartment of comm nit# 4ealth Science, )niversit# of Manitoba, as well as contin ing with clinical wor7 as a staff ph#sician at the *ddictions )nit, .epartment of %s#chiatr# at the 4ealth Sciences $entre, 2innipeg =egional 4ealth * thorit#. *s an entreprene r, G d# is co!owner and $&" of G*.& enterprises 1nc., an aerospace man fact ring compan#. G d# is a researcher at the $entre for *boriginal 4ealth =esearch. She is the 1nternational %rincipal 1nvestigator and 6ead of the $anadian =esearch 8eam. G dith is also ver# active as a comm nit# vol nteer< her vol nteer foc s over the last /5 #ears has been with five organi'ations9 • • • • • )nited 2a# of 2innipeg since 199,. She was $hair, Board of 8r stees for /00/!/00F. *boriginal 4ealth and 2ellness $entre, $hair of %lanning and %riorities, 199-!/00/ and $o!chair, Board of .irectors, 199F!/00/. $entres of &(cellence for $hild and No th $entered %rairie. ?ational *boriginal 4ealth "rgani'ation, $hairperson, Board of .irectors since /000. 1nstit te on *boriginal %eoples 4ealth, *dvisor# Board member since /001.

Bato$he, Andr%.
See &etendr%, Andr%. (1,F+!1,,5)

Beads, "a$o'. (1,F+!1,96)
Gacob was born in Manitoba, the son of Gohn and Margaret Beads. 4e married $harlotte *dhemar, the# had si( children. 4is siblings were Gohn Beads (married to $atherine =obillard then Mar# Bird), $harles Beads, *nne Beads, $atherine Beads, &li'abeth (Mc1vor), Mar# (2hitford), Maria Beads, and 8homas Beads (married to 4enriette 2ills). 8hree of the Beads brothers were emplo#ees of the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan#. Gacob Joined when he was 15. 4is first posting was to Moose 3actor# as an apprentice carpenter. 4e was also assigned to accompan# .r. =ae on one of his *rctic e(peditions while at Moose 3actor#. 4is ne(t posting was at 3ort %ell#. 1n 1,55 he traveled to =ed =iver and on
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*pril 1/, 1,55 married $harlotte 3lett the /0!#ear!old da ghter of %atric7 3lett (6Hademah). 1n 1,59, his 4B$ contract was finished and he ret rned to =ed =iver. Gacob Beads was a Metis carpenter of great s7ill. 4e was a master of the woodwor7ing craft. 4e wor7ed as a wheelwright, b ilt Nor7 Boats, scows and bridges. 4e also made snowshoes, =ed =iver carts and dogsleds. 1n 1,6/ he was rehired b# 4B$ and sent to b ild 3ort &llice9 a Job that did not finish ntil 1,6+. 4e also was called pon to wor7 at 3ort L H*ppelle and 3ort %ell# beca se of his s7ills. B# 1,+0, Gacob and his famil# (Games 1/, 2illiam 10, &li'abeth ,, and Marg erite 6) were living at St. Games. 8he ne(t #ear the# moved to the 2hite M d =iver Settlement and settled ne(t door to his brother 8homas Beads. 1n 1,+6, the 4B$ again had need for his s7ills and he left for 3ort &llice, after first selling his land at the 2hite M d Settlement to his brother!in!law *lan Mc1vor. 4e event all# retired to 3ort %ell# where he died.

Bear, (lsie. (19/1!/00/)
See &lsie 4o rie.

Beau'ien, Madore Ben)amin. (1,09!1,,F)
Madore was born on G l# 15, 1,09 at 5rand =iver, Michigan, the Metis son of 5eneral Gean Baptiste Bea bien and his second "Jibwa wife Man!na!ben!a!A ah. Madore married three times. 4is third wife was 8herese >$hee!$hee@ 6afromboise, the da ghter of $hief Goseph 6aframboise and 8herese %eletier. 8he# married on G ne /, 1,5- at the Baptist Mission in Ma#etta, Eansas.

Madore Bea bien

8herese 6aframboise b. G l# -, 1,/F 8he# had the following children9 %hilip 4.< Gean Baptiste >Babe@< G lia *.< =ose *nn (b. 1,60, d. 1,61)< %eter< and =ose *nn b. 1,65. 8he Bea bien famil# had moved to $hicago b# 1,11 b t moved to Milwa 7ee shortl# before the fighting bro7e o t in 1,1/. Medore was ed cated at the Baptist $are# Mission (1,/F!/-) and 4amilton $ollege in ?ew Nor7 (1,/5! /,). 1n the 1,F0 $hicago election he was elected to the townHs first Board of 8r astees. )nder the $hicago 8reat# he received KF00 and K-00 for his claims. 1n 1,F-, he married Maria Bo#er, the da ghter of his b siness partner Gohn E. Bo#er. 4is wife abandoned him with their three children in 1,F,. * merchant, he ran a $hicago b siness from 1,F1 to 1,-F. 2hen the b siness failed he left $hicago for good in 1,-0 and Joined the %otawatomi at $o ncil Bl ffs, and later moved with them to their reserve in Eansas. 4e s bseA entl# married >Eee'!7o!A ah@ then his co sin, 8herese 6aframboise in 1,5-.

Beau$hamp, "oseph. (b. c. 1,/6)
Bea champ is a well!7nown Metis famil#. Goseph Bea champ, who is a direct ancestor of man# people at &bb and 3low in Manitoba, was born circa 1,/6 at St. Boniface. 4e was the son of Metis parents, Baptiste Bea champ and *ngCliA e %angman. *ngCliA e, named after her mother, was the sister of the famo s Metis nationalist, >Bostonnaise@

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%angman. 2e 7now little abo t GosephHs #o th, b t probabl# he lived at St. Boniface or nearb# and was part of the Metis plains h nting gro p. 1n 1,-,, #o ng Goseph married $atherine .elorme dit Bido ( at St. Boniface in a =oman $atholic service. $atherine was the da ghter of a 3rench $anadian named Baptiste .elorme dit Bido ( and a Metis woman named Marie 6a:allCe. $atherine had been born in 1,F0 at &dmonton, so she was eighteen at the time of their marriage. . ring the ne(t few #ears, Goseph wor7ed for the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan#. 8heir eldest children, Sophia and Goseph Gr., were born at Mac7en'ie =iver. *ccording to his scrip application, Goseph and his famil# moved to . c7 Ba# in 1,5-, and, e(cept for their da ghter Marie who was born at St. ?orbert in 1,56, the rest of their children were born on the west side of 6a7e Manitoba. 6ater, the famil# moved to 8he ?arrows on 6a7e Manitoba, and Goseph became a member of the &bb and 3low Band for a time before leaving treat# in 1,,+. Goseph and $atherine had twelve children, most of who married and raised families. 8heir #o ngest da ghter $aroline married Gohn Games 3lett in 1,96, and their descendants can be fo nd on the &bb and 3low =eserve as well as in the neighbo ring Metis comm nities. ($ontrib ted b# =a#mond M. Bea mont (&ditor), from +bb and %low ,tories, 2innipeg9 3rontier School .ivision ?o. -,, 199+9 150.)

Beau$hamp, Pierre. (1,10!1,6/)
%ierre was born circa 1,10, the son of Gean Baptiste Bea champ (1+5-!1+,,) and Gosephte .a'e (1+61!1+,9). 4e married Marie $omtois dit Morin, circa 1,F1, then married ScholastiA e :ersailles in 1,6F at St. ?orbert. 4is son %ierre Gr. signed =ielHs petition for a =eserve in Montana.

Beau$hamp, Pierre "r. (b. 1,F+)
%ierre Bea champ was the son of %ierre Bea champ Sr. *nd Marie $omptois dit Morin. 4e married ?anc# 2ard, the da ghter of 5eorge 2ard and &li'abeth 8 rcotte. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Beau$hemin, Andr%, M&A. (1,/-!190/)
* Metis politician, he served as the St. :ital delegate on =ielHs =ed =iver $o ncil of ?ovember 1,69. 6ater he was a delegate to the $onvention of 3ort# and a co ncillor in the provisional government. 4e was elected to the first Manitoba legislat re in 1,+0 b# acclamation to represent the riding of St. :ital. *ndrC was born on ?ovember 6, 1,/at =ed =iver, the son of *ndrC Millet dit Bea chemin and Madeleine . charme. 4e married 5eneviPve .elorme, the da ghter of Goseph &sna lt dit .elorme and Brigitte :illebr n.

Beau$hemin, #a'riel (b. 1,F,)
5abriel Bea chemin, who was born in .a7ota 8erritor# in 1,F,, the son of *ndre Bea chemin and =ed ?est, an *ssiniboine woman, was listed as a >mi(ed!blood inside the reservation@ on the 8 rtle Mo ntain cens ses from 1,,6 to 1,9/ and received an allotment in Montana as a 8 rtle Mo ntain Band of $hippewa 1ndian. 8he s rname >Bea chemin@ (or variations of it) does not appear on an# of the %embina ann it# lists.

10

• •

$irca 1,F9, enrolled in 8 rtle Mo ntain Band of $hippewa, ?. .. 5abriel and his wife Margaret had the following children9  $hild9 5abriel Birth9 c. 1,+9, enrolled in 8 rtle Mo ntain Band of $hippewa, ?. ..  $hild9 Goseph Birth9 c.1,,,, enrolled in 8 rtle Mo ntain Band of $hippewa, ?. ..  $hild9 Gohn 6o is Birth9 c. 1,91, enrolled in 8 rtle Mo ntain Band of $hippewa, ?. ..  $hild9 3lorestine Birth9 c. 1,95, enrolled in 8 rtle Mo ntain Band of $hippewa, ?. ..

Beau$hemin, "ean Baptiste. (1,F,!1900)
Gean Baptiste was a member of the 6o is =ielHs 6egislative *ssembl# of *ssiniboia in 1,+0 as a member for St. $harles which was also represented b# his ncle, *ndre Bea chemin. Gean was born on ?ovember F, 1,F,, the son of BenJamin Bea chemin (b. 1,11) and Marie %arentea , the da ghter of Goseph %arentea and S 'anne =ichard. 1n 1,5, Gean Baptiste was married to Marge rite McMillan (b. Gan ar# 1/, 1,-0). Marg erite was the da ghter of 2illiam McMillan and Margaret .ease. 8he# had ten children. Gean represented St. $harles at the $onvention of 3ort# in 1,+0 and served on =ielHs second provisional government. %ierre %arentea Sr. was his ncle as was *ndrC Bea chemin both of whom also served on the 6egislative *ssembl# of *ssiniboia. Both of these men were members of 6o is =ielHs "ctober 1,69 Metis ?ational $ommittee.

Beau$hemin * See also the entries nder B shman. Beaudry, +ather Patri$e. (1,+F!19-+)
%atric7 Bea dr# was born to $ree!Metis parents at St. *lbert, *lberta. 4is father was ?arcisse Bea dr# (b. 1,-5) and his mother was 6 c# Breland (b. 1,-, at =ed =iver). %atrice and his twin sister were two of eleven children born to 6 c# and ?arcisse. 4e was the second Metis priest from *lberta to be ordained (1901). 1t was the dream of Bishop 5randin to form a ?ative clerg# when he first established an "blate seminar# at St. *lbert. %atrice first st died at St. *lbert then at the G niorat d SacrC $oe r in "ttawa from 1,9/! 1,95, he then entered the novitiate of the "blates of Mar# 1mmac late at 6achine, L ebec. 4e prono nced his final vows at the Scolasticat Saint!Goseph in "ttawa on September ,, 1,9+ and was ordained a priest in "ttawa on G ne 1, 1901. 4is facilit# in the 3rench, &nglish and $ree lang ages was especiall# sef l in serving the 1ndian and Metis pop lation. 3ather %atrice b ilt chapels at Br lC, Gasper, Mo ntain %ar7, 2interb rn and 2abam n. 3or man# #ears he served at St. *lbert. 3rom 190F to 190, he was resident at St. *lbert with additional responsibilit# for the mission at *thabasca 6anding. 4e became director of that mission in 190, altho gh he was residing at Saint!6a rent!5randin, Sas7atchewan. 3rom 1909 to 191/ he was resident in &dmonton and was also ministering to the camps of the 5rand 8r n7 =ailwa#. 3rom 191/ to 1916 he lived at &dson, *lberta, then 6ac Ste. *nne for two #ears after which he was at Gasper from 19// to 19/6. 3rom 19/9 to 19-- her served reserves in Sas7atchewan and b ilt chapels at Mistawasis, 2hitefish and St rgeon 6a7e. 4eart problems forced him to reside at the 1ndian School at . c7 6a7e after 19--. 4e died in %rince *lbert, Sas7atchewan on September //, 19-+. Reference *nderson, *nne. The %irst Metis- A New Nation, &dmonton9 ):1S$" %ress, 19,59 1,9!19F.

Beaulieu, Angus. (b. 19F6)
*ng s was born at 3ort =esol tion, ?28. 4e is one of the 8erritories top fiddlers and pla#s a 100!#ear!old instr ment handed down b# Eing and 3ranQois Bea lie . *ng s is feat red on the recent 5abriel . mont 1nstit te video, Richard Lafferty the Mus&eg %iddler (Sas7atoon, /00/).

Beaulieu, ,atherine (Bou-ier). (b.c. 1,/6!191,)
$atherine was the da ghter of 3ranQois >"ld Man Bea lie @ and his wife $atherine St. 5ermain. She was born at 3ort Simpson, ?28 in 1,1,. *s the onl# da ghter, she was no ordinar# woman as she was the eA al to most men living in the north. She had learnt man# of the essential northern s rvival s7ills from the people in her life< her father< her fo r brothers and her mother. $atherine married Goseph Bo vier (1,10!1,++), son Gean Baptiste Bo vier Sr. and Maeg erite 6ara te, in 1,-0 at 3ort Smith. 1n the 1,60s, the# settled permanentl# at 3ort %rovidence. 8he# had five children. Goseph was emplo#ed as a headsman on 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan# Nor7 Boat and barge crews. Goseph died in 1,++ and $atherine remarried to Gean Baptiste 6amo re (. Gean 6eMo el, a Metis from Nellow7nife tells the following stor# abo t $atherine9
She co ld trap and h nt li7e a man and was a great traveller b# dogteam or canoe. * few of her grandchildren who are living toda# remember and tal7 abo t the trips she sed to ma7e from 3ort %rovidence to 3ort =ae d ring the winter, a distance of 150 miles. 2ith two or three other ?ative women, witho t the help of men, the# wo ld set o t with dogteams. . e to the road conditions, n mber of dogs and load for the long trip, the# wal7ed all the wa# on snowshoes, which too7 man# da#s while camping o t ever# night. *fter

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visiting with their relatives and friends in 3ort =ae, the# ret rned to 3ort %rovidence with loads of caribo meat. $atherine also carried the mail to and from =ae and 3ort %rovidence. 8here were also man# wolves in those da#s. 8he# were often seen and their howling was heard thro gho t the night. B t nothing seemed to stop herR 8he Bo vier famil# at 3ort %rovidence wo ld s ppl# the trading companies from the res lts of their h nting and fishing. *lso, the# were ver# helpf l to the =oman $atholic Missionaries who greatl# appreciated their assistance, both material and intellect al. 1n this sense, the# were protectors and interpreters, helping the missionaries with the lang age and teaching. 1t is also said that d ring the waterfowl h nting seasons great A antities of wild geese and d c7s were provided b# the Bo viers to the =oman $atholic Mission.

$atherine is reported to be the so rce of the $hipew#an oral histor# obtained b# 3ather Smile %etitot and 3ather 5ro ard. Reference
"vervold, Goanne. (&ditor), Our Metis Heritage: A #ortrayal (Nellow7nife9 Metis *ssociation of the ?orthwest 8erritories) 19+69 16.

Beaulieu, ,ol. ,lement .. (1,11!1,9F)
$lement >5a#!Bah!Ee!2en!Tie@ Bea lie was born September 10, 1,11, at 6ac de 3lambea , the son of Ba'ile 4 don de Bea lie 9 and "gemahgeshigoA a#, da ghter of 2hite =aven, $hief of the 2isconsin $hippewas. She was bapti'ed as Margaret =acine. 8his Biograph# of $lement 4. Bea li is a direct A ote from the 190+ boo7 b# *lvin 4. 2illco(, >* %ioneer 4istor# of Bec7er $o nt# Minnesota.@ $hapter U:111, page /5,!/59. $ol. $lement 4. Bea lie , Sr., or, as his friends delighted to call him, V)ncle $lem,V was born at 6ac d 3lambea (, in the then territor# of Michigan, which incl ded 2isconsin, Minnesota and a large portion of territor# west of the Mississippi, on Sept. 10, 1,11. * pioneer, a statesman and an individ al of mar7ed characteristics, being born in a period when the 2est and ?orthwest was, comparativel# spea7ing, a howling wilderness and barbaric &den of the nt tored red man, his father, Ba'il 4 don de Bea lie , having emigrated from $anada in the #ear 1,0-, and who was activel# engaged in the f r trade of the ?orthwest for man# #ears, and in which b siness Mr. $. 4. Bea lie , Sr., became earl# engaged in the 6a7e S perior region and other points east and west of the headA arters of the Mississippi, especiall# in the vicinit# of 6a %ointe, 2is., and at $row 2ing, Minn. *t the latter place at one time he owned and cond cted the most thriving trade and enJo#ed the pleasantest home in Minnesota, nder the warm hospitalit# of its roof and from the bo nt# of its board no friend or stranger ever t rned awa# h ngr#, nor felt to ched b# the chill of disco rtes#. Mr. Bea lie was of mi(ed 3rench and *lgic 1ndian blood, being descended on his fatherIs side from the chivalro s de Bea lie s of 3rance, and the most disting ished totem, or clan of the "Jibwa nation, members of whose famil# have been chiefs and princesses from time immemorial, and the principles and pers asive infl ences of both races were happil# contin ed in the life and nat re of Mr. Bea lie , and it was owing to the implicit faith that the 1ndians cherished in his word and wisdom that he was a power amongst them, and tr e it is, that man# serio s collisions have been averted between the $hippewa 1ndians of Minnesota and their white neighbors, owing to his timel# co ncils, and toda#, these people not onl# can than7 his aggressive foretho ght and wisdom for their heritage to homes on the 2hite &arth =eservation, b t the f rther significant fact that no stain of the white manIs blood rests on the hands of the $hippewas of Minnesota. 4e was married to Miss &li'abeth 3arling, a da ghter of one of the earl# Scotch missionaries, in 1,-0, celebrating midst the s rro ndings of a large famil# of children and grandchildren their golden wedding, some three #ears ago. *s we have reported, $lement 4. Bea lie is first listed as establishing a trading post near $row 2ing =iver in 1,F,, b t the cens s of 1,-0 gives 6a %ointe as Bea lie Is residence. 4e was listed as G stice of the peace in 6a %ointe $o nt# in 1,-,. Besides, his son, =everend $. 4. Bea lie claims that his father moved to $row 2ing at the time the 5overnment was b ilding 3ort 5aines. 1t is th s more probable that 1,-9 was the date of his final arrival in $row 2ing as a permanent resident. 1n order to be independent of militar# reg lations, Bea lie decided to b ild off the reservation and settle opposite the north mo th of $row 2ing =iver. 4e moved in with a large force of loggers, saw#ers, and carpenters and erected a gro p of post b ildings, Vone of which was a large two!storied log b ilding clapboarded o tside and ceiled within and designed for his residence.V " tside on the three sides were wigwams of the 1ndians. 8o the north, were 1ndian b rial gro nds. &vent all#, $lement Bea lie p rchased the b ilding of %ierre $ho tea $ompan#. 4e formed a partnership with Gohn 3airban7s and the firm of Bea lie and 3airban7s became the principal s pplier of all $hippewa 1ndian %osts. "ne so rce claims that at one time *llan Morrison wor7ed for $lem Bea lie as cler7. %eltries were still
9

Ba'ille 4 don de Bea lie was born Ma# 1,, 1+,5 at =iviere L elle, $anada. 4e came from Montreal in 1,0- and wor7ed the f r trade in the area of 2isconsin and Michigan ( pper pennins la).

1/

sent to St. 6o is, b t $row 2ing became 7nown as an o t!fitting place. 3or this trade the geographical location of $row 2ing was e(cellent. 1t was on the =ed =iver o( cart trail and wagon rail. 1t was in the heart of the great $hippewa co ntr#. "bit ar#9 $lement 4 don de Bea lie , more familiarl# 7nown as $ol. $. 4. Bea lie , of 2hite &arth, this co nt#, died on the morning of Monda#, /d of Gan., 1,9F, after a short illness of some eight da#s. Mr. Bea lie , who was a ver# active man for one so advanced in #ears, met with a ver# serio s accident a few da#s ago, having bro7en his leg, and which c lminated in his death. 4is wife s rvives him, and also five sons, $apt. $has. 4., =ev. $. 4., Gr., 5 s. 4., 8heo. B., =obt. 5. and one da ghter, Mrs. 8heo. 4. Bea lie . ! .etroit =ecord

Beaulieu, /tienne. Stienne was the son of 3ranQois Bea lie . * resident of 5reat Slave 6a7e he was the g ide of *merican traveller
2arb rton %i7e in 1,,9.

Beaulieu, "ean Baptiste. (b. c. 1,1-)
Bea lie was an old 3rench!$anadian name sometimes spelled Bo illier in the old records. 8he direct ancestors of the Bea lie Hs c rrentl# reside at &bb and 3low and Sand# Ba#, Manitoba. Baptiste Bea lie , Metis, was born sometime before 1,00. 2e do not 7now m ch abo t him, e(cept that he too7 an 1ndian wife named Ea!ta7oa!7o!ia! wa# and raised at least two sons, both of whom settled on the west side of 6a7e Manitoba. 8he elder, Gean Baptiste, was born circa 1,1- at 6ac la Biche, northeast of &dmonton. 8he #o nger, 3ranQois was born circa 1,// at %ortage la %rairie. 8he famil# moved aro nd a great deal beca se Baptiste was a h nter, and his sons later reported that the# lived temporaril# at places s ch as =iding Mo ntain, %ortage la %rairie, and Baie St. %a l, when the# were #o ng. Baie St. %a l is located abo t half wa# between %ortage la %rairie and 2innipeg on the *ssiniboine =iver. Gean Baptiste said that the# were there in >abo t 1,/6.@ &videntl#, the# ret rned to that area seasonall# for A ite a n mber of #ears. *fter Gean Baptiste married Gosephte =ichard in 1,-0, his sons Baptiste and *ntoine were born at Baie St. %a l or nearb#. 4is brother, 3ranQois, married in 1,-- at St. 3ranQois Uavier, a Metis comm nit# that is onl# a short distance awa#. 3ranQois had onl# one child, Marie, who died #o ng. Gean Baptiste, on the other hand, had twelve, several of whom s rvived childhood. *ndrC was born c. 1,5-, at 6i'ard 6a7e (either in the =iding Mo ntains or at 2a#wa#seecappo which was called 6i'ard %oint), Goseph %ascal born c. 1,59 at 5ladstone, and Michel and Marie born at 8otogan in 1,61 and 1,6/ respectivel#. 8otogan was located north of 2estbo rne, Manitoba J st pstream from the o tlet of the 2hite M d =iver into 6a7e Manitoba. *ccording to Baptiste, his h nting gro nds were at =iding Mo ntain, b t 8otogan seems to have been the base camp. 2e do 7now that the Sa ltea (!Metis mi(ed h nting band at 8otogan was called the 2hite M d Band at one time. 1n September 1,+0, his da ghter Marie died there, J st after the# had finished p tting p ha#. 4is brother 3ranQois was f rther p the la7e at Manitoba 4o se (now Einosota) in 1,+0. 4e had perhaps settled there beca se his second wife was from nearb# &bb and 3low 6a7e. 2hen 8reat# / was signed at Manitoba 4o se in 1,+1, the Bea lie s were entered on the band lists. 3ranQois and his wife were part of the &bb and 3low Band, b t later went to reside on the Sand# Ba# =eserve, where BaptistHs famil# had settled. 8hen in 1,,+, the entire famil# applied for Metis Scrip. *s a res lt, as of toda#, some of the Bea lie Hs are 8reat# 1ndians and some are Metis. ($ontrib ted b# =a#mond M. Bea mont (&ditor), from +bb and %low ,tories, 2innipeg9 3rontier School .ivision ?o. -,, 199+9 150!15/.)

Beaulieu, +ran0ois. (1++1!1,+/)
3ranQois Bea lie was the son of GacA es Bea lie and an 1ndian mother of the Montagnais $ree. 4e was the patriarch of the first Metis famil# in the *thabasca and is rep ted to have preceded %eter %ond to the region. 3ranQois told 3ather &mile %etitoit in the 1,60s that his father (or grandfather) had come o t west with la com(gnie des ,iou.. 8his compan# of ?ew 3rance had chartered man# western e(peditions between 1+/+ and 1+60. 3ranQois was one of the Metis in the part# that accompanied *le(ander McEen'ie down the river to the *rctic "cean in 1+,9 and overland to the %acific in 1+9F. Sometime after that he married &thiba, a $hipew#an woman. 4e told the following stor# to 3ather %etitot9
1 am the son of a 3renchman. M# mother was a $hipew#an9 m# grandmother was a $ree< there are three bloods in m# bod#. 2hat 1 am going to sa# happened at the ?orth 2est *rm of the 5reat Slave 6a7e, on Big 1sland (near 3ort %rovidence). *t that time, 1 was not a grown p man. 4owever, 1 remember as if it was #esterda#. 1 was 15 #ears old (1+,6). 1 was then sta#ing with m# parents. "ne da# we heard that the 2hite Men were coming. 8here were lots of them. M# )ncle GacA es Bea lie , chosen a spo7esman for all the people, called all the 1ndians from all over the 5reat Slave 6a7e area. Man# .og =ibs came also altho gh we alwa#s were at war with them beca se m# famil# was on the side of the $hipew#ans.

Bea lie met Gohn 3ran7lin in 1,/0 and advised him to se what is now .ease *rm of 5reat Bear 6a7e as the

1F

base for his Jo rne# to the mo th of the $oppermine =iver. 3ran7lin reJected this advice with the res lt of m ch hardship and loss of life on his first Jo rne# to the *rctic. 3ran7linHs Jo rnal contains the following record9
March /6, 1,/0. )pon o r arrival at 3ort $hipew#an, o r first obJect was to obtain certain information respecting o r f t re ro te (to $oppermine), and accordingl# we received from one of the ?orth 2est $ompan#Hs interpreters, named Bea lie , a 4alf!Breed who has been bro ght p amongst the .og =ibs and $opper 1ndians some satisfactor# information. ("ld Mar# Bea lie to 3ather %etitot, 1,6F) 8he =o te which 1 sho ld prefer ta7ing wo ld be nearl# ?orth from 5reat Slave 6a7e, and, from the information Bea lie has given, 1 am inclined to hope passage ma# be made p the river which falls into Slave 6a7e near Mo ntain 1sland< from thence, b# crossing la7es and portages, into the $oppermine =iver, which comm nicates directl# with the sea.10

Bea lie drew a map for 3ran7lin (with the help of Blac7 Meat) tracing a ro te along the $oppermine =iver and eastward along $oronation 5 lf to $ape Barrow. 2hile he did not Join this first e(pedition, Baptiste de Mandeville and %ierre St. 5ermain did. 3ran7lin emplo#ed GacA es Bea lie (a brother) on his second e(pedition, 1,/5!/+ as an interpreter and g ide. .r. Gohn =ichardson travelled down the Mac7en'ie to map the coast eastward to the $oppermine, b t d e to the lateness of the season co ldnHt ret rn b# the same ro te. 4e went overland as planned to .ease *rm of 5reat Bear 6a7e where Bea lie met him and too7 them b# boat to 3ort 3ran7lin. .ifferent gro ps were consistentl# tr#ing to sec re Bea lie Hs services to meet their own ends. 8he ?orth 2est $ompan# at 5reat Slave 6a7e, and s bseA entl# the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan# emplo#ed Bea lie as their combination peacema7er, lawman, intimidator and interpreter. * 4 dsonHs Ba# post r n b# Bea lie was established on the Slave =iver at the mo th of the Salt =iver in 1,6F. *s head of a Nellow7nife Band, Bea lie was feared b# the Slave#s, .ogribs and Se7anis and is said to have personall# 7illed twelve of this latter gro p. "ver the #ears he had at least three wives and perhaps as man# as seven. 8he Bea lie s and St. 5ermains of the ?orthwest 8erritories were intermarried. "ld Man Bea lie appears to have had two wives who were St. 5ermains. "ne was 6o ise St. 5ermain (%as de ?om or 6acaille), the da ghter of GacA es St. 5ermain and a $hipew#an woman (born between 1,0/ and 1,0+). 3ranQois and 6o ise Bea lie are listed in the =ed =iver cens s doc ments. 8his indicates that the# either visiting or living there in the 1,F0s to 1,-0s. $atherine St. 5ermain who married Bea lie in the $atholic $h rch in 1,-, was the da ghter of %ierre and 8ha7avilther St. 5ermain. She ma# have been the sister of the %ierre St. 5ermain< the Metis g ide who accompanied the 3ran7lin e(pedition and later settled in =ed =iver in 1,F/. 1n his later #ears, "ld 3ranQois Bea lie lived at Salt =iver, a trib tar# of the Slave =iver. 4ere he prod ced salt and obtained the salt monopol# from the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan#. 1n 1,-,, a #o ng man named . bre il went to 3ort =esol tion to wor7 with Bea lie and the latter became impressed with . bre ilHs religio s devotion. 8h s, 3ranQois decided to be bapti'ed and Join the ch rch. 2hen 3ather *le(andre *ntonin 8achC bapti'ed him at age ,0 in 1,-,, 3ranQois, o t of respect for the ch rchHs teachings, dismissed two of his wives, after first ma7ing provision for them. 1n the winter of 1,56!5+, 3ather 5randin was Bea lie Hs ho seg est at Salt =iver. Bea lie ta ght him to master the $hipew#an lang age and together the# t rned the ho se into a worship centre where all the settlement wo ld gather to pra# on hol# da#s. Si( #ears later, 5randin, then a Bishop, ret rned to visit Bea lie and the ind strio s comm nit# of Salt =iver, where he erected and blessed a large cross. 8he Bea lie s often effectivel# competed in trade with the 4B$. 1n 1,5+, *ntoine Bea lie made a trip to =ed =iver to sell the f rs he had trapped or bo ght aro nd 3ort $hipew#an and =esol tion. 4e ret rned with a load of merchandi'e to trade for more f rs. *s a conseA ence the 4B$ was forced to raise the prices the# paid to the local trappers. *nderson, the district 4B$ manager briefl# considered forcing 3ranQois Bea lie o t of b siness however didnHt proceed with these plans. B# 1,6+ Bea lie was 4B$ %ost Manager at Salt =iver. 1n addition he had other b sinesses s ch as farming, ranching, fishing, h nting and salt ma7ing. *ro nd the time of his death a post was b ilt so th!east of Salt =iver along the Slave =iver to replace Salt =iver, this was called 3ort Smith. 8he 4istoric Sites and Mon ments Board of $anada have designated 3ranQois Bea lie as a person of national significance References
"vervold, Goanne. (&ditor), Our Metis Heritage: A #ortrayal' Nellow7nife9 Metis *ssociation of the ?orthwest 8erritories, 19+69 101. 6eslie 4. ?eatb#, >3ranQois Bea lie .@ )ictionary of Canadian /iogra(hy, :ol. U (1,+1!1,,0). 8oronto9 )niversit# of 8oronto %ress, 19+/9 F,.

Beaulieu, "oseph 1ing 2. (1,F6!1916)
Goseph was the son of 3ranQois ("ld Man) Bea lie and his wife $atherine St. 5ermain. 4e was married to Marie *nne 3lamand. 8heir children were Sophie Eing, Goseph Eing Gr., &lise Madeleine Eing and =ose Marie Eing. Goseph Eing Bea lie 1 established 3ort Smith in 1,+-. *fter the death of his father >"ld Man@ Bea lie , who established the Salt =iver post, Goseph Eing Bea lie b ilt
10

6.=. Masson (&ditor), >6etter from 3rd. Gohn 3ran7lin to &dward Smith, March F, 1,/0,@ Les bourgeois du Com(agnie du Nord Ouest (?ew Nor79 *ntiA arian %ress, 1960), 1F6.

1-

a new post so th!east of Salt =iver along the Slave =iver. Bishop $l t ma7es note of this in a letter he wrote in September of 1,+-9 >Goseph (Eing) Bea lie son of "ld Man Bea lie has b ilt a trading post at the foot of the last rapid.@ 8he 3ort =esol tion %ost Jo rnal states9 >1n connection with the introd ction of steam boat to transport s pplies and f r, 3ort Smith was b ilt (and replaced the post at Salt =iver) in 1,+- on the left ban7 of the Slave =iver at the foot of the rapids.@ 1n a letter written to the .istrict Manager of the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan# from 3ort Smith on March /5, 1,+6 Goseph (Eing) Bea lie notes his progress9 *lmost all the people have paid with their f r their debts from last fall. 1 have in m# ice ho se 1,500 lbs of fresh meat and in the wareho se 1 have 1,000 lbs more of fresh meat, 500 lbs of dried meat and -00 lbs of po nded meat. 1 have sA ared all of the logs needed for - ho ses< a store /-H(1,H< a ho se for the hired men F/H(1,H< a 7itchen 1+H(/FH< a ho se for the priest /0H(1,H. *ltho gh 1 am not certain to sign a new contract with the 4.B.$., 1 will sta# to b ild m# 3ort and 1 do hope that it will have a better appearance than Mr. Moberle#Hs 3ort.@ S bseA ent to this constr ction, the $atholic mission from Salt =iver moved to 3ort Smith. 3ort Smith was a stopping place on the transportation s#stem of the north when it was c stomar# to portage aro nd the great fifteen!mile long rapids on the Slave =iver. Settlements grew p on both ends of this portage W 3ort 3it'gerald, *lberta on the so thern end and 3ort Smith on the downstream side of the ?o#C rapids. =ight p ntil 2orld 2ar 11, most residents of this Metis comm nit# were emplo#ed in river transportation. *ro nd 1,,0 Goseph Eing Bea lie was sent to 3ond d 6ac (&astern *rm of 5reat Slave 6a7e) to open a trading post that was 7nown as >Eing %ost.@ 8his later became the comm nit# of Snowdrift. Nears later Goseph Eing Bea lie was sent to 3ort :ermillion to establish another trading post and he died there in 1916. ($ontrib ted b# Geanette Mandeville, the great grandda ghter of Goseph Eing Bea lie .)

Beaulieu, "oseph 1ing 22 “Sousi.” (1,59!19/9)
Goseph was the son of Goseph Eing Bea lie 1 and Marie *nne 3lamand. 4e was born at Big 1sland at the mo th of the Mac7en'ie =iver. Goseph became better 7nown as So si or S 'ie. 4e was married to 3lora 4ope in 1,,1. 4e g ided 5 # Blanchette on a s rve# that too7 them to the $oppermine =iver, which had not previo sl# been 7nown. 1n an article written b# 5 # Blanchette in 8he Beaver (3all, 196-) Blanchette describes this Jo rne# and states that, >8he blood of the 3renchman of the brigade had r n thin thro gh s ccessive 1ndian mothers b t it had preserved strong A alities of leadership, ambition, and a certain tr c lence.@ 5 # Blanchette and Goseph Bea lie had a schooner, which Goseph sailed as the captain for abo t five #ears. Goseph and 3lora lived on Ston# 1sland in the b sh. . ring the winter, Goseph wo ld ta7e fish to 3ort =esol tion to sell. Reference
"vervold, Goanne. (&ditor), Our Metis Heritage: A #ortrayal (Nellow7nife9 Metis *ssociation of the ?orthwest 8erritories) 19+69 55, 5+.

Beaudry, +ather Patri$e. (1,+F!19-+)
%atric7 Bea dr# was born to $ree!Metis parents at St. *lbert, *lberta. 4is father was ?arcisse Bea dr# (b. 1,-5) and his mother was 6 c# Breland (b. 1,-, at =ed =iver). %atrice and his twin sister were two of eleven children born to 6 c# and ?arcisse. 4e was the second Metis priest from *lberta to be ordained (1901). 1t was the dream of Bishop 5randin to form a ?ative clerg# when he first established an "blate seminar# at St. *lbert. %atrice first st died at St. *lbert then at the G niorat d SacrC $oe r in "ttawa from 1,9/! 1,95, he then entered the novitiate of the "blates of Mar# 1mmac late at 6achine, L ebec. 4e prono nced his final vows at the Scolasticat Saint!Goseph in "ttawa on September ,, 1,9+ and was ordained a priest in "ttawa on G ne 1, 1901. 4e facilit# in the 3rench, &nglish and $ree lang ages was especiall# sef l in serving the 1ndian and Metis pop lation. 3ather %atrice b ilt chapels at Br lC, Gasper, Mo ntain %ar7, 2interb rn and 2abam n. 3or man# #ears he served at St. *lbert. 3rom 190F to 190, he was resident at St. albert with additional responsibilit# for the mission at *thabasca 6anding. 4e became director of that mission in 190, altho gh he was residing at Saint!6a rent!5randin, Sas7atchewan. 3rom 1909 to 191/ he was resident in &dmonton and was also ministering to the camps of the 5rand 8r n7 =ailwa#. 3rom 191/ to 1916 he lived at &dson, *lberta, then 6ac Ste. *nne for two #ears after which he was at Gasper from 19// to 19/6. 3rom 19/9 to 19-- her served reserves in Sas7atchewan and b ilt chapels at Mistawasis, 2hitefish and St rgeon 6a7e. 4eart problems forced him to reside at the 1ndian School at c7 6a7e after 19--. 4e died in %rince *lbert, Sas7atchewan on September //, 19-+. Reference
*nderson, *nne. The %irst Metis- A New Nation, &dmonton9 ):1S$" %ress, 19,59 1,9!19F.

Beaulieu, Paul .udon. (1,1+!1,9+)
Metis interpreter and g ide %a l 4 don Bea lie was born in Sa lt Ste. Marie, Michigan on Ma# 10, 1,1+. 4e was the son of Ba'ile 4 don de Bea lie 11 and "gemahgeshigoA a#, da ghter of 2hite =aven, $hief of the 2isconsin $hippewas. She was bapti'ed as Margaret =acine.
11

Ba'ille 4 don de Bea lie was born Ma# 1,, 1+,5 at =iviere L elle, $anada. 4e came from Montreal in 1,0- and wor7ed the f r trade in the area of 2isconsin and Michigan ( pper pennins la).

15

%a l married Maria Margaret 3airban7s on "ctober 15, 1,-1 at 2hite &arth. She was the da ghter of Mar# >Sha!gon!a sh!eA a#@ Sa#er and Gohn 4. 3airban7s. 4e resided in 2hite &arth 1ndian *genc#, and was an interpreter after 1,-F, assisting in concl ding man# treaties with the $hippewa tribe of 1ndians. 4e accompanied 5eneral 3remont on his trip to the =oc7ies, Joining that e(pedition in 3ort Bent, *r7ansas. 1n 1,F,, he went to 6os *ngeles with Gean 8ete and others, as emplo#ees of Bent and St. :rain. 1n 1,5F, he wor7ed as an interpreter and g ide for 5overnor 1. 1. Stevens, in his e(ploration of the 2est. 4is father, who was emplo#ed b# the *merican 3 r $o., was descended from the Bea lie famil# who came to *merica from 3rance, twelve #ears before the revol tionar# war. 3'ituary %a l 4. Bea lie was born at 1,/0. 4e was of 3rench and 1ndian descent and too7 an active part in the earl# development of the territor# and state of Minnesota, especiall# in all matters relating to the $hippewa 1ndians, and in their several treaties with the government. 4e possessed the attrib tes of a splendid ed cation, was a master of the &nglish and 3rench lang ages, a born diplomat, a brilliant orator, and a $hesterfield in manner and address, and was rep ted to be the most fl ent interpreter of the $hippewa dialect that the nation ever prod ced. 4e was largel# instr mental in bringing abo t the meas re which sec red to the $hippewas their present home, the 2hite &arth =eservation, and he, too, led the van when the# removed hither, and t rned the first f rrow and planted the first crop, and too7 the initiator# steps in the paths of a new civili'ation. Mr. Bea lie never so ght the ncertain all rements of the political wor7s, altho gh grandl# A alified to honor and administer the d ties of its most intricate branches< he chose, rather, to h miliate himself to his h mble s rro ndings and to the elevation of his 7indred, the $hippewas of Minnesota. 4e belonged to that loft# school of individ alism that is fast passing awa#, and who, Valong the cool, seA estered vale of life, the# 7eep the Imorseless tenor of their wa#V and whose noble deeds of self! sacrifice are b ried with them. Mr. Bea lie had been in failing health for some time, and the s dden and tragic death of his beloved son, Gohn 4. Bea lie , a few wee7s ago, ndo btedl# hastened his demise which occ rred on the 9th of 3ebr ar#, 1,9+. 4e leaves a wife and two da ghters and two sons, Mrs. Gennie 6edeboer, Mrs. *. G. Mc1ntosh, and 8r man and $. *. 4.. Bea lie . 4e was a brother of the late lamented $ol. $. 4. Bea lie , and at the time of his death he was emplo#ed as interpreter on the $hippewa commission. 1n respect to his memor# MaJ. =. M. *llen, ).S. 1ndian agent, ordered the agenc# flags at half mast d ring 2ednesda# and 8h rsda#, and that general b siness abo t the agenc# be s spended d ring the f neral services. 4e was laid to rest on 8h rsda#, in St. BenedictIs mission cemeter#< =ev. 3ather *lo#si s, ". S. B., officiated at the f neral services. W )etroit Record.

Beaupr%, "oseph “(douard.”(1,,1!190-)
&do ard (8he 5iant) Bea prC was the son of 5aspard Bea prC, a 3rench $anadian, and 3lorestine %ichC, a Metis woman. 3lorestine and her famil# arrived in 2illow B nch, Sas7atchewan in 1,+0. &do ard was born Gan ar# 9, 1,,1 in 2illow B nch (8alles des Sa les). 4e weighed 1- lbs. at birth. 3ather St. 5ermain bapti'ed &do ard< his godfather was Gean 6o is 6egar#. 4is baptism was the first recorded in the ch rch register. *t the age of seven he started growing A ite rapidl# and b# the age of eleven he was taller than his father was. &do ard was an e(cellent h nter and horseman, with great de(terit# when sing his lasso, b t he soon had to give p riding beca se his legs wo ld drag on the gro nd. 4e co ld also spea7 fo r different lang ages9 &nglish, Sio (, $ree and 3rench. &do ard became involved with sideshows and began to ring $anada and the )S, to earn e(tra mone# to help s pport his poor famil#. 4e ret rned home from his travels once and wor7ed as a collection agent. &do ard wo ld sometimes pic7 people p nder their armpits to entice them to pa# their debts. 8he >5iant@ ret rned to sideshows, travelling to places li7e 2innipeg, Montreal and thro gho t the )S. . ring his travels, doors were never tall eno gh and beds were never big eno gh. 1n 190/, when he to red to Montreal, he made the acA aintance of the strong man 4orse Barre and the famo s 6o is $#r. * competitive fight too7 place between them b t &do ard lost the competition. 1n 190F, he began to show signs of t berc losis. 1n one stor# told d ring this time, &do ard had to go to the pharmac# to get medicine for his illness. 2hen he got there he co ld not get thro gh the b ildingHs entrance< he was J st too big. 4e had to get down on his 7nees to get thro gh the doors. *ltho gh against his parentHs wishes, he went bac7 on to r, even tho gh his health was failing. 4is manager at the time was *m# Bernard of 2innipeg, who was a member of the $anadian Senate. "n G l# 1st, 190-, he was on e(hibit at the 2orldHs 3air in ?ew Nor7. 8wo da#s later he fell ill and was in need of a doctor. Sadl# the 5iant died shortl# afterwards on G l# -th at the age of /-. *t the time of his death he was ,H F@ tall and weighed F+5 lbs.

16

8he Bea prC famil# was ver# poor and co ld not afford to have &do ardHs bod# bro ght home. 8he Barn m and Baile# $irc s contin ed to e(hibit &do ardHs bod# across the States ntil it came into possession of &berle Ee#es who decided to ma7e some mone# b# e(hibiting his corpse in front of department store windows. *rea residents were appalled b# this and deno nced it as bad taste. = mo r has it that his corpse later came into possession of %ascal Bonnea who moved him to Montreal, where he was e(hibited in a m se m. 1n 190+, some children pla#ing in a shed in Bellerive, L ebec discovered &do ardHs bod#. 1t was then sent to the )niversit# of MontrealHs .epartment of *natom# for st d#. 8he niversit# 7ept his bod# for ,/ #ears. 3inall# on September /9th, 19,9, eight#!si( #ears after his death, his bod# finall# came to rest. &do ardHs bod# was cremated and his ashes were ret rned home to 2illow B nch, Sas7atchewan, his final resting!place. ($ontrib ted b# 6orraine 3reeman, reprinted co rtes# of the Metis =eso rce $entre 1nc.)

Beaugrand, (mmanuel dit ,hampagne.45 (1,/F!190-)
&mman el was born at %embina, the son of &mman el $hampagne dit Bea grand and Marg erite 6arocA e. 4e married Marie 6etendrC, the sister of 3ranQois Uavier 6etendre dit Batoche in 1,-F. 8he# were n merated in the =ed =iver cens s that #ear b t were living at %embina d ring the 1,50 cens s of the Minnesota 8erritor#. 8he# were both members of the 8 rtle Mo ntain Band and received ann it# pa#ments in 1,69. 1F Marie was the oldest child (born September /0, 1,/-) of 6o ison 6etendrC dit Batoche and Marie G lie 4allett who had moved to St. 6a rent in 1,+1. $hildren of &mma n el $hampagne and Marie 6etendre9 • *mbroise, born circa 1,--, married G dith 3rederic7. • Marie, born circa 1,--, married *le(andre 5osselin. • *ngeliA e, born circa 1,-5, married .avid Bea champ. • *braham, born circa 1,-,. • Ba'ile $leophas, born Gan ar# 15, 1,5F, married &lise 6afo rnaise. • &li'abeth, born * g st F0, 1,5F at %ine $ree7, married Goseph *' re. • &lise, born ?ovember F0, 1,59, married Gean Baptiste %arentea . 8his famil# was one of the fo nders of the village of Batoche and lived on lots -/!-- on the east side of the river. 4e bo ght these lots from his brother!in!law Uavier 6etendrC and settled permanentl# and b ilt a store on lot -- in 1,+9. 8his lot was located above >6a Belle %rairie@ along the part of the 4 mboldt 8rail, which followed the river to Batoche. *t one time $hampagne was a free trader operating o t of %embina. . ring the Minnesota Massacre of 1,6/ he was instr mental in resc ing a n mber of settlers. &mman el and Marie were en merated in the 1,50 cens s of the Minnesota 8erritor# and he appears on the 1,5- 8reat# list of the 1ndians of 6a7e S perior and the Mississippi where he is listed as a >mi(ed!blood of the %embina Band@ living at St. Goseph over the previo s ten #ears. 8he famil# was living at 2ood Mo ntain in 1,+0 and moved to St. 6a rent on the So th Sas7atchewan b# 1,++. 8he# farmed and had a f r trade b siness. &mman el also became a prospero s b sinessman at Batoche. 8he $hampagneHs ho se and store were pillaged b# the $anadian troops after the Battle of Batoche in Ma# of 1,,5, and 5eneral Middleton too7 their val able horses and riding eA ipment. . ring the =esistance the followers of $hief "ne *rrow and $hief Beard# pitched their tents behind $hampagneHs ho se. $hampagne gives this report of the battle for Batoche9 "n the first da# of the battle, the fighting started at si( oHcloc7 in the morning. 8he Metis commenced shooting d ring the night. * little 1ndian girl, ten #ears old, was 7illed on the last da#. She was a Sio ( from Sas7atoon. . ring the battle, =iel was almost constantl# standing p or on his 7nees, cr cifi( in his hand, and ass ming the attit de of a visionar#. "r he wo ld r n aro nd the womenHs encampment e(horting them to pra#er. *t his passing the# wo ld throw themselves on their 7nees and sa# the rosar# o t lo d. 1"n the last da# of battle at Batoche, there remained onl# thirt# fighters b# morning, fifteen at noon, and b# nightfall, three. "n the fo rth da#, the &nglish leave the ch rch< fall bac7< and then ret rn nder the impet s of %ere :egreville. 8oward noon, the &nglish arrive at $halli sH ho se and too7 BatocheHs ho se. .aniel =oss was on the hillside and while there he ma7es the following declaration9 >2ait< #o will see how 1 will 7ill a few of them.@ B t at the same moment he is wo nded. * Metis who saw him fall r ns into .aniel =ossH wife while fleeing b# means of the hill and tells her that her h sband is wo nded. 1n spite of all the b llets that are whi''ing
1/

* signator of 5abriel . montHs petition (dated St. *ntoine de %ado e, -th September, 1,,/) to the %rime Minister for a s rve# and land grants. &man al $hampagne Sr. and Gr. held 4B$ lots /+5, /++, ,5- and ,61at =ed =iver (=egister B). 1F 5ail Morin. Turtle Mountain Chi((ewa$ #embina /and0 Annuity #ayments and Census. L inton % blications, n.d. p. /1. 1S4M, p. 51.

1+

b#, she goes to him. 4e as7s her for water. She goes and gets him some from the river< he drin7s it and dies. 4is wife withdraws and goes bac7 into hiding among the trees sit ated on the hillside. *fterwards, when the Metis pic7ed p =ossH bod#, the# fo nd it stabbed thro gh and thro gh with a ba#onet. 8he &nglish, see7ing to find o t who had 7illed $aptain 3rench, had been told that .aniel =oss was responsible for this act and so had ta7en revenge on his bod#. 15 &mman el $hampagne goes to his ho se b t it is being heavil# cannonaded. 4e ta7es his three bea tif l horses o t of the barn< he had five more which had been hobbled close b#< he ta7es them all and camps, along with Gean Baptiste %arentea , behind old %arentea Hs place. 8he ne(t morning he goes to Middleton to as7 him how things are to be settled. Middleton ta7es him prisoner. 16 2hen capt red b# the $anadian troops, &mman el did not even have a coat and his wife and children had onl# the clothes on their bac7s. 8heir losses were val ed at K1,,000 to K/0,000 b t the# were of co rse not eligible for compensation beca se &mman el had participated as a member of =ielHs $o ncil (&(ovedate) at Batoche d ring the 1,,5 =esistance. &mman el was arrested on Ma# 19, 1,,- and on * g st 1-, 1,,5 at =egina< he pled g ilt# and received a conditional discharge for his part in the 1,,5 =esistance. 4e died on September /9, 190- at Batoche, Sas7atchewan. 4is wife died in 191/.

Bedard, Mel. (b. 19/9)
Mel was born at Sel7ir7, Manitoba. 4e is the first fiddler to se the term >Metis@ on a record alb m. "ne of his greatest m sical infl ences and a close personal friend was *nd# .esJarlis. 4e has won the Manitoba fiddling championship and the *nd# .esJarlis championship several times. Mel can be heard on the recentl# released $., )ro(s of /randy (Sas7atoon9 5abriel . mont 1nstit te, /001). Mel was ind cted into the Manitoba 3iddle *ssociation 2all of 3ame on *pril F0, /006.

Beignet, #ene-i6-e (7ease). (b. 1+9+)
5eneviPve was married to Gohn 2arren .ease, a Metis who assisted 3ran7linHs first overland e(pedition of 1,/5! 1,/+. 8he# had n mero s descendants who lived in the =ed =iver Settlement. "ne of their grandsons married & lalie =iel, 6o is =ielHs sister. 2ith the nion of the ?orth 2est and 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompanies in 1,/1, Gohn .ease was appointed a chief trader.

Belanger, A'raham (1,1,)
*braham was born G ne of 1,1, at =ed =iver, the son of 6o is Belanger and Gosephte .a'e. 4e married Marie *nne :ersailles (whose mother was Gosephte 6etendre) sometime before 1,-1. *braham Belanger had 4B$ lots F5, and F+0 at =ed =iver (=egister B). *braham and Marie *nne were en merated at %embina in the 1,50 cens s as famil# X 11/, when he was age F0 and she was age /+. 8his was a b ffalo h nting famil# who lived at %embina and St. ?orbert before moving to Batoche. *braham and his sons lived at 8o rondHs $o lee and had a large freighting b siness. *braham owned a store at Battleford and traded to 2innipeg, ?orth .a7ota and Montana. 8he# also freighted for the ?2M% between 1,,6 and 1900. 1+ Belanger was present at the March /-, 1,,- secret =esistance planning meeting and was a $aptain of one of the 19 companies led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance. 4e is shown on %hilippe 5arnotHs list as X1,5. 8he# had the following children9 Marie-Anne Belanger, (,harette) (b. 1,-1). Mar# *nn Belanger was a member of M s7eg 6a7e Band. Marie *nne married $harette Sr. (b. 1,-0) the son of Goseph $harette and Marie 5osselin in 1,61 at St. ?orbert. 4er brothers *braham and ?orbert were active in the =esistance. 4er brother Gohn had been a member of the >-9 th =angers@ with the British!$anadian Bo ndar# $ommission in 1,+F!+-. (liza'eth Belanger (7elorme), (b. 1,-F) &li'abeth married )rbaine .elorme, the son of Goseph .elorme and Brigitte %lo f dit :illebr n in 1,6,. 2sa'ella Belanger, (&edoux) (b. 1,-0). Spo se, Goseph 6edo ( (b.c. 1,-5).

15 16

S4M, p. 5-. S4M, pp. 5-!56. .iane %a#ment 8he 3ree %eople W 6i 5ens 6ibres9 * 4istor# of the Metis $omm nit# of Batoche, Sas7atchewan. $algar#9 )niversit# of $algar# %ress, /009.

17

1,

1sabella and her h sband were members of the M s7eg 6a7e Band. She married Goseph 6edo ( the son of Baptiste 6edo ( in 1,6, at St. ?orbert. A'raham Belanger "r. (b. 1,-9) *braham was born on 3ebr ar# /5, 1,-9 at %embina. 4e married %hilomene .elorme in 1,+0 at St. ?orbert. *fter 1,,5, *braham moved north of the Battleford area. 4is sister 1sabelle was married to Goseph 6edo ( and the# were part of the M s7eg 6a7e band. 8heir oldest son Goseph (b. 1,+1) wo ld later marr# &lise :illebr n of 3ort %itt. &lise Belanger< made Scrip claim no. 961< while living at Battleford, Sas7atchewan. She was born9 ?ov., 1,+9 at 3ort %itt, Sas7.< her father was .aniel :illebr n (MCtis)< her mother was Marie 6o ise $hatelain 1, (MCtis)< &lise received scrip certificate9 form $, no. 150F for K/-0.00. Marie Belanger, (&%pine) (1,51!1,,,). Spo se, *thanase 6Cpine (b. 1,50). Marie Belanger and her h sband were members of the M s7eg 6a7e Band. 4er h sband was the son of Gean Baptiste 6epine and 1sabelle %arentea . 4er h sband *thanase and her brother Gohn Belanger had been members of the >-9th =angers@ with the British!$anadian Bo ndar# $ommission in 1,+F!+-. "ohn ("ean) Belanger, (b. 1,5F) Gohn Belanger was born c. March 1,5F.4e married Marie Gosephine 5osselin on ?ov. 9, 1,+5 at St. ?orbert. B# 1,,0 the# were living at Batoche. 4e died between 1,,+!,, at Batoche. 1n 1,+/!+F he was a member of the -9 th =angers, attached as armed sco ts to the British!$anadian Bo ndar# $ommission. 4e is believed to have assisted his father and brothers d ring the 1,,5 =esistance. (lie Belanger. (1,,5!1,,9) &lie was born at %embina and died at age fo r at St. ?orbert. "osephte Belanger. (1,5+!1,+F) Gosephte died in 1,+F at St. ?orbert. .elene Belanger. (b. 1,5,) 4elene married %ierre 6avallee the son of $harles Martin 6avallee and Mag erite $o rchene in 1,9F at St. 6a rent. 8or'ert Belanger,. (b. 1,60) ?orbert was born on Ma# 11, 1,60 at St. ?orbert. 4e was married to $aroline %ambr n, born 1,6, at Battleford. ?orbert was a member of $aptain *braham BelangerHs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance. 4is sister!in!law Marie 6o ise %ambr n was from *htah7a7oopHs band at Sand# 6a7e. ,hristine Belanger. (b. 1,6-!d. 1,6-) $hristine was born in Gan ar# 1,6- at St. ?orbert and died in "ctober 1,6-. Bernard Belanger, (b. 1,65) Bernard was born on September /6, 1,65 at St. ?orbert. Bernard married %a line ?olin da ghter of $harles ?olin and Marg erite 4arrison in 1,,+. 4e and his brothers, *braham and ?orbert were living at St. 1sidore de Bellev e at the time the# Joined the =esistance.

Belanger, A'raham. (b. 1,-9)
*braham was born on 3ebr ar# /5, 1,-9 at %embina, the son of *braham Belanger and Marie *nne :ersailles. 4e married %hilomene .elormein 1,+0 at St. ?orbert. Belanger was a $aptain of one of the 19 companies led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Belanger, Bernard (b. 1865)
Bernard was born on September /6, 1,65 at St. ?orbert, the son of *braham Belanger and Marie *nne :ersailles. 4e and his brothers, *braham and ?orbert were living at St. 1sidore de Bellev e at the time the# Joined the =esistance.

Belanger, "oseph (b. 1871)
Goseph was the oldest son of *braham and Marie *nne Belanger listed above. 4e is listed in 5arnotHs acco nt as active in the =esistance with his father and ncles. 4e wo ld later marr# &lise :illebr n of 3ort %itt.
1,

She was the da ghter of *hena7ew, her ncle was chief *htah7a7oop.

19

Belanger, 8or'ert. (b. 1,60)
?orbert was born on Ma# 11, 1,60 at St. ?orbert, the son of *braham Belanger and Marie *nne :ersailles. 4e was a member of $aptain *ntoine BelangerHs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Belanger, Bu$!ley, M.&.A.
B c7le# is a c rrent M6* in the Sas7atchewan 6egislat re and a former ma#or of 1le!Y!6a $rosse, Sas7atchewan. 4e began his career as a Jo rnalist wor7ing for New /reed in =egina. 4e later ret rned to his home town of 1le!Y!6a $rosse to become editor of the local newspaper. S bseA entl# he Joined Missinipi Broadcasting $orporation in 6a =onge as a prod cer, programmer and administrator. 1n 19,6 he assisted 1/ northern Sas7atchewan comm nities in establishing their own radio and television stations. 1n 19,+ he formed his own comm nit# comm nication cons lting compan#. B c7le# entered politics in 19,, when he was elected as ma#or of 1le!Y!6a $rosse. 4e served for three terms having been re!elected in 1991 and 199-. 1n 1995, he entered provincial politics and was elected to the Sas7atchewan 6egislat re. 4e was re!elected in 1999 and appointed to the $abinet in September of that #ear as Minister of &nvironment and =eso rce Management and *ssociate Minister for 1ntergovernmental and *boriginal *ffairs. 4e was appointed Minister of ?orthern *ffairs in "ctober of /001. (So rce9 ?.% $a c s of Sas7atchewan and ?ew Breed Maga'ine.)

Belanger >Mista asis”, Pierre (1+96!1,+5)
%ierre Belanger 7nown as >%iwaspis7omostos@ (1ron B ffalo), and >Mistahi *was *sis, or Mistawasis@ (Big $hild) was born in 1+96 at Slave 6a7e. 4e died on G ne /1,1,95 in Sna7e %lain (Sas7atchewan). 4e was the son of Bernard Belanger born aro nd 1+60 and >Ea7a7ewachin@ (?a7oda b. 1+65). $hildren of Bernard Belanger and Ea7a7ewachin9 • • B Belanger, MistawasisHs sister, born 1+95. %ierre Belanger, Mistawasis (Big $hild), born 1+96 at Slave 6a7e. Mitchemipa7wep Belanger, born 1+9,, Mitchemipa7wep married 6o is %o illac .esno#ers. Geanne Eapitchi7 sit Belanger, born 1,/0, Eapitchi7 sit married *ntoine $a#an dit Bo drea . Bernard Belanger, born1,/5.

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Mistawasis with Goe McEa# %ierre Belanger married 1s7wesis Sitipinatowe and had at least two children. %ierre Belanger then married married *nn *wasis Mashe ?ah Sho 2ish7 (b. 1,00) and had 5 children. ,hildren* • "ldest .a ghter, Mistawasis, born 1,F0.

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• • •

2e#a7e7wapew (6ivel# Man) Belanger, born 1,F5 (mother 1s7wesis Sitipinatowe). Gean Baptiste "tchipwam Belanger, born 1,F6 (mother 1s7wesis Sitipinatowe). Marg erite or $harlotte >&hshe7ash7@, born 1,-/, married Games Goseph Mamis7ittash7on7e .reaver. 19 G dith Belanger (mother *nne *wasis Mashe ?ah Sho 2ish7), born 1,-F, married *ntoine Eami#oahcah7wcw *htah7a7oop Starblan7et (1,F+!1,96). 8his co ple are the great!great grandparents of well!7nown a thor Maria $ampbell. %iwis7wis Belanger, born 1,-+, %iwis7wis married *ntoine *rcand.(1,-+!1,,,). 1sabelle >Mistaw@ Belanger, born 1,-,, married Joseph “Toomahtoon” Ledoux (b. 1845)

the son of Baptiste Ledoux and Françoise La outure. The! "ere both members of Eeetoowa#howHs Band (M s7eg 6a7e).
• • Ewatas7 pis Belanger, (mother *nn *wasis Mashe nah sho wish7). %egg# Belanger (mother *nne *wasis Mashe ?ah Sho 2ish7), born 1,5, at &agle 4ills, married %ierre %etit $o tea .

$hief Mistawasis was the lead negotiator at 3ort $arlton for 8reat# Si(. 4e represented the other 2as7ahi7an Bands< *tah7a7oopHs Band, $ha7astapa#sinHs Band, $hipew#anHs Band, Games SmithHs Band, Gohn SmithHs (Badger) Band, Na#a7atas7ininHs Band and Eeetoowa#howHs (*le(andre $a#en dit Bo drea ) Band. *lso the &agle 4ills bands of =ed %heasant (%o ndma7er) and Stri7e!4im!"n!8he!Bac7, and the %as7wa Eopew Bands of Eamiscowesit (Beard#), Eahpah#a7asto7 m ("ne *rrow) and Sisi7wanis. 1sidore 6edo ( (b. 1,+F), the son of Goseph >8oomahtoon@ 6edo ( and 1sabelle >Mistaw@ Belanger reports9 >No see we were 3rench 4alf!Breeds, b t still we were 8reat# 1ndians, and Mistawasis was m# grandfather, m# mother was a Belanger, #o seeB 4e had two brothers, there were two brothers that came from fort 5arr# to Batoche. *nd one of them married an 1ndian woman ZG lie Mashe!na!sho!wish7[ and he followed their wa#s. 1 donHt 7now how b t at the time of the first treat#;8reat# Si(;the# made Mistawasisa chief. 4e sed his infl ence to enter m# mother and father into 8reat#;the# were poor people #o 7now. 1 s ppose it was beca se it was m# fatherHs idea to enter s in there, and we became 8reat# 1ndians. ZMistawasis[ 4e was a Belanger. 4e was a 4alf!Breed. 4e co ld tal7 3rench J st as well as 1 co ld. *nd read and write 3renchR@/0 Goachim 3romhold (/0109 F10) reports9 >$hiefs Mistahi *was *sis and *hta7a7oop and their brothers of the 2as7ahi7an 2i 1niwa7 were described in the 1,50s as being >wealth# in carts, horses and tipis.@ .r. .avid Mandelba mHs research notes from the 19F0s give s some insight into the life of $hief Mistawasis. Goe 2olf 1nterview9 G l# /1, 19F1nterviewer .r. ..5. Mandelba m .ept. of *nthropolog# )niversit# of $alifornia, Ber7ele# 8ape n mber9 ih!dm./,, .is79 transcript disc 1FF http9OOo rspace. regina.caObitstreamO10/9-O1+F,O1O14!.M./,.pdf Goe 2olf said that he lived with $hief Mistawasis for two #ears, being hired b# the 1ndian *gent to interpret for and help the chief. Mistawasis himself was a 4alfbreed. 4is first wife was *ssiniboine on her fatherIs side and %rairie $ree on her motherHs side. Before Mistawasis was married he led two horse!stealing e(peditions. "n one of them the# went somewhere aro nd the =ed .eer =iver (east of Medicine 4at). 4e co ldnIt locate an# Blac7feet camps for a long time. 3inall# he got some horses at B ffalo 6a7e ; M st s!ahihiga . 4e bro ght them bac7 to $arlton, having been o t for two months. Mistawasis was a freighter for the 4 dsonIs Ba# $ompan#. 4e was called either )7ima(7a or %as7wa )7ima or "gihtcita 4e 7ima (B). 4e had two wives at the same time. 8he# were sisters. 4e once said to me, V1
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$hildren9 Margaret . nnet b.1,5+< Mar# Sophia 5rann# Bennett, b. 1,60< Games, Gr., b. 1,65< Gohn, b. 1,6+< 3rancois Saswe, b. 1,69< 5eorge 3rederic7 ($hief), b.1,+0< 6o isa, b. 1,+-< 4arr#, b. 1,+5< 5eorge, b. 1,,0. /0 Sas7atchewan *rchives Board, 1nterview with 1sidore 6edo (, G l# /1, 19+F, 8ranscript disc /F.

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didnIt 7ill man# Blac7feet. 1 hate to 7ill a man. *n# place 1 go, 1 tr# to do m# best ; ever#bod# li7es me then and 1 get a b nch of #o ng fellows to follow me.V *tah7a7 !pHs, >Star Blan7etIs@ band were J st the same people as MistawasisIs band. 8hese two were the onl# chiefs of the 4o se %eople at the time of the treat# b t before the# became headmen there were man# chiefs. Star Blan7et and Mistawasis wo ld meet at 3ort $arlton and decide what the# were going to do. Mistawasis s all# wo ld h nt b ffalo all winter on the prairie to s ppl# the 4 dsonIs Ba# $ompan# with meat for their men and dogs. 4e wo ld range along the Sas7atchewan in the winter. 1n the s mmer he wo ld go so th to the =ed .eer. 6ong ago there were lots of b ffalo even north of the ?orth Sas7atchewan. B t in MistawasisIs da# Blaine 6a7e and Bill 6a7e were as far to the north as the b ffalo went. Star Blan7et h nted for f rs all winter, s all# aro nd &ea!gahig , VSeal 6a7e.V 1n the s mmer he wo ld h nt b ffalo. Star Blan7et was a chief beca se he got lots of f rs. Mistawasis and Star Blan7et wo ld do all the trading for their people. 8he band never went into the store ; the chiefs handed o t all the goods. 8he %as7 (7 pa wi#i iw 7 wo ld h nt with the 4o se %eople. 8he# wo ld Join with them in great encampments as a means of protection against the Blac7feet and Sio ( who sometimes raided as far p as $arlton. *t that time there were b t few Savannah %eople. Mistawasis was chief of them all. Both these bands did not have m ch to do with the $ree to the so th. 8he# were allied with two n mero s people ; Soto and *ssiniboine, and co ld throw their attac7 in one direction. 8hen the# were the sta nch allies of the 4 dsonIs Ba# $ompan# and th s were nearest to the so rce of man fact red commodities. $arlton was called VMeeting %laceV beca se it was where all the 1ndians wo ld congregate and wait for the s pplies. *fter the treat# the bands were split p into smaller gro ps. )7t weha was made chief beca se he was well off, was a good h nter, and had lots of horses. Mistawasis and *tah7a7op had abo t twent# horses each. 8he# often had more b t the# wo ld give their horses awa#. 3or doing this and giving other things awa# the# wo ld get a big name. 1 have seen the time when Mistawasis wo ld be going along and he wo ld come pon a poor old man. 4e wo ld give the old man a horse and the old fellow wo ld throw his hands p and pra# for Mistawasis. G l# 1,, 19F1nterviewer9 .r. ..5. Mandelba m 8ape n mber9 ih!dm./.is79 transcript disc X1F5 1nformant9 Ea7iceni pim (te V2al7s 6i7e *n "ld ManV or ?apetcos ! %eter .reever 8his man is the chief of the Mistawasis =eserve. 4e is the grandson of Mistawasis< spea7s &nglish fairl# well. 4e is abo t +5, and a bit deaf. 4e is not an especiall# good informant since, as he said, V2hen 1 was #o ng 1 was eager to learn the wa#s of the white people and did not ta7e m ch notice of m# own people.V Moreover his favo rite topic is the fine goods the# sed to get from the 4 dsonIs Ba# $ompan# and how he has been a straight man. &ver# A estion he answers leads bac7 to these topics. *s do most of the other old men here, he has a mo stache, short hair, wears pants, shirt, shoes. 8he chief of o r people, 2as7ahiga inis 7, long before the treat# was Mistawasis. 4e was part 3rench and ma#be part *ssiniboine. *t an# rate he was related to an *ssiniboine woman as half!brother beca se his mother had an *ssiniboine h sband besides the 4alfbreed father of Mistawasis. MistawasisIs territor# e(tended from 3t. %itt to 5reen 6a7e to 8he %as. 4is people were called 4o se people (2as7ahiga , settlement, gro p of ho ses) beca se the# lived near $arleton or at least met there. 8he# themselves however lived in tipis which were alwa#s clean, more healthf l than the ho ses we now have. Mistawasis was a great help for the 4 dsonIs Ba# $o. 1n those da#s the $o. was the boss of the co ntr# for the# controlled the goods. 8he 1ndian headmen VEitci#in V helped them 7eep order and were d l# rewarded. Mistawasis was s ch an 4.B. $o. man. Before him there m st have been some chiefs b t 1 do not 7now their names. MistawasisIs sisterIs son sed to be an "gihtcita )7ima . 1n those da#s we ate meat onl# and were ver# health#. 8here was little flo r. 8he 4 dsonIs Ba# $o. wo ld give a sac7 of flo r to the headmen on $hristmas which the# wo ld se with berries to ma7e so p. B t when the government made peace between the 1ndian tribes, there was no peace for the b ffalo. *lso the white men sed to poison tho sands with str#chnine for the sa7e of their hides and so there was soon no b ffalo left. 1 was MistawasisIs first grandchild and 1 lived as m ch in his tipi as 1 did in m# own. 1 was ver# m ch spoiled< the# gave me an#thing 1 wanted. Mistawasis alwa#s said that 1 sho ld be chief. B t when he died and the band voted for his s ccessor, m# motherIs brother, MistawasisIs son and 1 got the same n mber of votes. B t since he was the older, 1 said that he sho ld be chief. 2hen he died, 1 became )7ima(7a . 8he people here where this reserve is were called Einepigo 2i#i iw 7 ; Sna7e %lain people. 8he %as7 (7 pa 2i#i iw 7 lived at the end of the b sh and now are Beard#Is at . c7 6a7e =eserve. *t 2itchiga and %elican 6a7e the# are mi(ed $ree and Soto.

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Mistawasis was alwa#s on the prairie ; *ta7a7op was more in the b sh, Sa7a!wasgahigan wi#i w 7. 8here was also $ipiwasgahga wi#iviw 7 (near Battleford) and %as7wawasgahiga wi#i iw 7 (Mistawasis people). Some of Mistawasis people made their living from fish. 8he V4o se peopleV too7 their names from the place where the# s all# wintered. 8he old chief showed me a pict re of Mistawasis, *ta7a7op, Ea7iwistaha and $a wi'es, ta7en evidentl# when the# went to =egina or 2innipeg. 4e also showed me the medal that Mistawasis had received from 6ie t. 5overnor Morris at the treat# signing. 1t was a two!inch silver or nic7el disc with a relief of L een :ictoria and a relief of an 1ndian and official clasping hands. 8he old chief said that then Morris had told the 1ndians that as long as the s n and waters rose the L een will help #o and #o will not be forced into an# white manIs war. http9OOo rspace. regina.caObitstreamO10/9-O1+FFO1O14!.M./-.pd Belanger S$rip $laims* Belanger, Marg erite< address9 Sna7e %lains via %rince *lbert< claim no. 10FF< born9 1,-/ at $arlton< father9 %ierre Belanger, alias $hi#mistiwasis (MCtis)< mother9 *nne (1ndian)< married9 1,5- at So th Branch to Games .reaver< children living9 9< children deceased9 F< scrip for K160.00 %etit $o tea , %ierre alias %as.%as.$hase< address9 $#press 4ills< born9 September, 1,+/ near Blac7foot $rossing< father9 %ierre %etit $o tea (MCtis)< mother9 %eggie Belanger or Mistawasis< (MCtis)< scrip cert.9 form &, no. 1/+6< claim no. 19,-. Belanger, %egg#< address9 &dmonton< claim no. 5-9< born9 1,5, at &agle 4ills, ?orth 2est 8erritories< father9 Mistawassis Belanger (MCtis)< mother9 Mashe!nah!sho!wish7 (MCtis)< married9 1,+/ at St. %a l des $ris to %ierre %etit $o tea %as!pas!chess< children living9 -< scrip for K/-0.00 Gohnstone, &dward< heir to his deceased da ghter, $atherine 6a r< claim no. F9F< Gohnstone< address9 Sna7e %lain, Sas7atchewan< born9 /5 ?ov., 1,,- at Sna7e %lain, Sas7< died9 1+ Gan., 1,,5 at Sna7e %lain< father9 &dward Gohnstone (MCtis M deponent)< mother9 $aroline Belanger (MCtis)< scrip cert.9 form ., no. 9/5 for K/-0.00. Belanger, $aroline< address9 Sna7e %lain, %rince *lbert %.". Z%ost "ffice[< claim no. 10-9< born9 1,65 near $arlton< father9 5abriel Belanger (MCtis)< mother9 ?anc# $hatelain (MCtis)< married9 1,,/ at Sna7e %lains to &dward Gohnston< children living9 /< children deceased9 1< scrip for K/-0.00. $hildren of Marg erite or $harlotte >&hshe7ash7@, and Games Goseph Mamis7ittash7on7e .reaver9 .reaver, Margaret< address9 %rince *lbert< claim no. 10--< born9 6 Gan ar#, 1,5+ at So th Branch< father9 Games .reaver (Scot)< mother9 Marg erite Belanger (MCtis)< married9 1,+- at %rince *lbert to =obert Miles 1sbister< children living9 Games, 3rancis, &llen, 5eorge and Gohn< scrip for K/-0.00 .reaver, G nior, Games< address9 Sna7e %lains via %rince *lbert< claim no. 10/9< born9 + Gan ar#, 1,65 at M s7eg 6a7e< father9 Games .reaver Senior (Scot)< mother9 Marg erite Belanger (MCtis)< married9 1 G ne, 1,,6 to 1sabelle *rcand< scrip for K/-0.00 .reaver, 3rederic7< address9 Sna7e %lains via %rince *lbert< claim no. 10F0< born9 , Gan ar#, 1,+0 at Battleford< father9 Games .reaver (Scot)< mother9 Marg erite Belanger (MCtis)< scrip for K/-0.00 .reaver, Gohn< address9 Sna7e %lains via %rince *lbert< claim no. 10/,< born9 F0 G l#, 1,6+ at M s7eg 6a7e< father9 Games .reaver (Scot)< mother9 Marg erite Belanger (MCtis)< scrip for K/-0.00.

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$hief Mistawasis 1,,6 Sas7atchewan *rchives Board =!B/,F+ .epartment of 1ndian *ffairs =eport in 19069 M1S8*2*S1SI *?. M)SE&5 6*E& B*?.S. 8hese bands are nder the immediate s pervision of the agent, the agenc# headA arters being located near the centre of Mistawasis reserve. 8he health of these bands has been n s all# good d ring the past #ear. 8here has been practicall# no medical attendance, and #et the want of it has not been severel# felt. 8he services of the agenc# cler7 in this connection are m ch appreciated b# the 1ndians. 1n one instance in which a bo#Is leg was amp tated, the medical attendant was nable to ret rn after the operation to dress the limb and loo7 after the patientIs condition. 8his wor7 accordingl# devolved pon the cler7, who attended to it for nearl# a month with most satisfactor# res lts. * n mber of able!bodied men belonging to these bands, who left the reserve some #ears ago, contin e to live abroad, earning their livelihood in vario s wa#s< b t, so far as 1 can learn, cond cting themselves in an orderl# manner wherever the# ma# go. 8he reg lar inhabitants of the reserve show a distinct improvement in their condition. 8here is a satisfactor# increase in the area of land c ltivated, and the #ield for last season was ver# good. 8he cattle ind str# also is once more on a good footing. *mong the #o ng men of the band the following ma# be regarded as ma7ing satisfactor# progress9 2illie .reaver, =obert 4ead, Gean 6edo (, Gacob Badger, 2illie M chahoo, Solomon Gohnstone, *ndre 6afond, &dward 6afond, and &dward *rcand, all e(!p pils of the boarding or da# schools, and accordingl# eA ipped with all necessar# ed cation. 8he# have recentl# received s bstantial assistance from the department, b# which the# are m ch enco raged. ."M1?1"? "3 $*?*.* *??)*6 =&%"=8 "3 84& .&%*=8M&?8 "3 1?.1*? *33*1=S 3"= 84& N&*= &?.&. G)?& F0 1906. pg. 1,9 =eferences9 Goachim 3romhold, The 2estern Cree 3#a&isimotan 2i !niwa&4: +thnogra(hy' * thor, 4eritage $ons lting9 /010. 1SB? 9+,!0!55+!-9+65!/ 4elen 1sbister (nCe Gohnson), personal comm nication at >Bac7 to Batoche@, G l# /011. 4elen 1sbister is the grandda ghter of Solomon Gohnson a former chief of Mistawasis Band.

Bel$ourt, Alexis. (b. 1,-+)

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*le(is, was born on "ctober /+, 1,-+ at 6ac Ste. *nne, the son of Goseph Belco rt (b. 1,/F) and Madeleine Saped dit $ampion, he married $aroline Smith da ghter of 4enri Smith and Marg erite 2ills. *le(is signed a September 19, 1,++ %etition from Gohn M nro and other Metis at Blac7foot $rossing that was presented to 6ie tenant! 5overnor .avid 6aird 6ie tenant 5overnor, ?.2.8. 1n this petition the# as7ed for farming implements and seed to begin to settle and till the land. 8he# also reA ested h nting rights.

Bel$ourt, ,hristi. (b. 1966)
$hristi Belco rt, Metis painter, craftsperson, and writer, was born in Scarboro gh, "ntario in September, 1966, the da ghter of 8on# Belco rt and G dith %ierce!Martin (nCe Streatch). 4er siblings are graphic designer S 'anne Belco rt and filmma7er Shane Belco rt. 4er father was the fo nding president of the ?ative $o ncil of $anada (19+1! 19+-). %revio s to that he was vice!president of the MCtis *ssociation of *lberta (1969). 4e recentl# retired from his position as president of the MCtis ?ation of "ntario. Belco rt is recogni'ed within the MCtis comm nit# as one of the preeminent Metis artists in $anada. 1n /001, art c rator $atherine Mattes incl ded $hristi in her review of Metis art and artists sa#ing9 >&merging Metis artist $hristi Belco rt has been refining themes within her paintings, which reflect, renewed Metis pride and a strong sense of *boriginal heritage. 4er themes are in three topic areas, 3lorals W inspired b# Metis beadwor7 patterns< 2ater W hono ring the sacred relationship of all creat res to water< and Metis 4istor# W depicting Metis people and events.@ /1 $hristi is the a thor of Medicines to Hel( 5s: Traditional Metis #lant 5se: ,tudy #rints and Resource "uide (Sas7atoon9 5abriel . mont 1nstit te, /00+). 8he prints and companion boo7let are based on $hristi Belco rtHs painting of the same name. 8here are contrib tions to the te(t on traditional plant se b# Metis &lders =ose =ichardson and "live 2hitford. 8he boo7Hs Michif lang age translations are b# =ita 3lamand with 1le Y la $rosse dialect translations b# 6a ra B rno f. $hristi presented at the 9th *nn al ?ew S n $onference on *boriginal *rts9 ,omething +lse Again6 2hich too7 place at $arleton )niversit# 3ebr ar# /+, /010. 4er floral m ral; My Heart 3!s /eautiful4;was been sed for the conference poster. 4er wor7 has been commissioned b# the 6o is =iel 1nstit te, the 5abriel . mont 1nstit te, the ?at re $onservanc# of $anada and the $entre for 8raditional Enowledge M M se m and ?at re, and is fo nd in the permanent collections of the 8h nder Ba# *rt 5aller#, the 6o is =iel 1nstit te, the 5abriel . mont 1nstit te and $anadian M se m of $ivili'ation, 3irst %eopleHs 4all. $hristi is a past recipient of awards from the $anada $o ncil for the *rts, the "ntario *rts $o ncil, the $halmers 3amil# 3 nd, and the MCtis ?ation of "ntario.

So Mu$h 7epends 9pon :ho .olds ;he Sho-el (detail -ie ) *cr#lic on $anvas, -,V ( 96V, /00, %ermanent $ollection of the 1ndian and 1n it *rt $entre

=eference9 www.christibelco rt.com
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$atherine Mattes. >Metis %erspectives in $ontemporar# *rt.@ Metis Legacy (&ds.) Bar7well, 6awrence G., 6eah .orion and .arren =. %rCfontaine. 2innipeg, MB9 %emmican % blications, /0019 19/.

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Bel$ourt, "oseph (b. 1,65)
Goseph was born at 6ac Ste. *nne, the son of Gean Baptiste Belco rt and $ecile $allihoo, the da ghter of 6o is Ewara7wante and Marie 8e7anaise %atena de. Goseph signed a September 19, 1,++ %etition from Gohn M nro and other Metis at Blac7foot $rossing that was presented to 6ie tenant!5overnor .avid 6aird 6ie tenant 5overnor, ?.2.8. 1n this petition the# as7ed for farming implements and seed to begin to settle and till the land. 8he# also reA ested h nting rights. Belleco rt, Goseph ! $oncerning his claim as a child ! *ddress, 6a7e St. *nn ! Born, 6a7e St. *nn, 1,65 ! 3ather, Baptiste Belleco rt, (MCtis) ! Mother, $Ccile $allio, (MCtis) ! Scrip for K19F ! $laim 6-0

Bel$ourt, ;ony. (b. 19-F)
8on# Belco rt is a Metis from 6ac Ste. *nne, *lberta, the son of &mile Belco rt and Matilda 6H4irondelle. 4e was the first president of the ?ative $o ncil of $anada (19+1!19+-). %revio s to that he was vice!president of the MCtis *ssociation of *lberta (1969)< s bseA entl#, he was the fo nding president of the MCtis ?ation of "ntario in 199F and served s ccessive terms as president ntil his retirement in /00,. 4e was then appointed to the post of MCtis ?ation *mbassador for 1nternational 1ss es b# the MCtis ?ational $o ncil. 8on# formed 1mpact =esearch in 19+-, and was vice!president of Seneca $omm nications and Seneca %rod ctions, companies which did comm nications cons lting and video prod ctions for northern and isolated comm nities. 4e is a past chair of the editorial board of North7Nord Maga1ine. 1n the mid +0s he was involved in a program to teach ?ative *merican St dies in the 3ederal =ep blic of 5erman#. 3rom 19++ to 19,1, 8on# was $omm nications .irector at the .epartment of 1ndian and ?orthern *ffairs thro gh the federal &(ec tive 1nter! change %rogram. *s an entre! prene r he was a fo nder of 2olfwal7er $omm nications in the late 19,0s. *s a member of the Board of 5overnors of the Metis ?ational $o ncil, 8on# served as $hair to the Metis =ights %anel. 8on# has wor7ed as a writer, prod cer and director in film, video and radio prod ctions. 1n /006, 8on# received a ?ational *boriginal *chievement *ward for p blic service< he has also received an hono rar# .octor of 6aws from 6a7ehead )niversit#. 4is children are A ite accomplished< $hristi Belco rt is a well! 7nown Metis artist, S 'anne Belco rt is a graphic designer and Shane Belco rt is a filmma7er.

Bel$ourt, <i$toria (,allihoo). (1,61!1966)
:ictoria Belco rt was born on ?ovember 19, 1,61 at 6ac Ste. *nne, *lberta, the da ghter of a 3rench h nter and farmer and a $ree Medicine 2oman. *s a #o ng woman :ictoria participated in the last of the great Metis b ffalo h nts which were led o t of 8ail $ree7 b# the famo s h nt captain, *braham Salois. *t the age of seventeen she married 6o is $allihoo also a Metis. 8he# had twelve children. 6o is s pported the famil# thro gh, freighting, farming and the operation of a small sawmill in the :illene ve district of *lberta. :ictoria was rep ted to be the best Jigger of the area 4istorical reports tell of her winning Jigging contests at the h nting camp at B ffalo 8ail $ree7 in the 1,+0s. *t age +she won the first pri'e for the =ed =iver Gig at a competition sponsored b# the ?orthern *lberta %ioneers and "ld 8imers *ssociation. >5rann#@ $allihoo was still winning contests at ?ative gatherings at 10F #ears of age.

Belgarde, #a'riel. (1,60!19-/)

/6

5abriel was born on *pril 1 st, 1,60 near 3ort 5raham and was bapti'ed at 5rand for7s, ?..., the son of Goseph Belgarde and 6o ise %arisien. // 4e married *delaide . mais, the da ghter of $harles . mais and Marie St. *rna d before 1,,/, he then married *delaide 6andr#, the da ghter of Moise 6andr# and %hilomene 6aframboise at St. %eters Mission on 3ebr ar# +, 1,95. 5abriel and *delaide . mais had three children, born at 6ewistown, St. %eterHs Mission and $algar#. 5abriel and *delaide 6andr# had eight children born at St. %eterHs Mission. 1n his histor# of the Montana Metis, =a#mond 5ra# writes (Gan ar# 1-, 19-/)9 >4e (5abriel) spent the greater part of his life, living with, and comm nicating with the $ree 1ndians. 4e was freighting for man# #ears in the $#press 4ills in $anada, the h nting gro nds of the $ree 1ndians. Mr. Belgarde spent over five #ears at 3rog 6a7e, Battleford, Batoche, and . c7 6a7e, the scene of the =iel =ebellion. 4e is e(ceptionall# well 7nown among the $ree 1ndians and the old timers often come to pa# homage and respect to the gentleman who lived his life d ring the da#s when Montana was a territor#.@ *t the time this was written, 5abriel was ,, (sic) #ears old and living at 4elena, Montana. 5abriel died at 4elena, Montana on G ne 10, 19-/.

Belgarde, #il'ert. (b. 1,-F)
5ilbert Belgarde was born at =ed =iver, the son of *le(is Belgarde and Marg erite . fort. 4e married Sophia .eco tea , the da ghter of 6o is .eco tea Sr. and 1sabelle 6averd re. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Belgarde, "ean Baptiste. (b. 1,-/)
Gean Baptiste Belgarde was the son of *le(is Belgarde and &melie :ivier. 4e married Marie &mil# 4amelin, the da ghter of GacA es Bonhomme 4amelin and Mar# *llar# in 1,6-. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Belgarde, "oseph. (1,F5!1909)
Goseph was the son of *le(is Goseph 5erbea Bellegarde 31+9/!1,5/) and Marg erite . fort 3ca 1+9-!1,9F) was born 1,F5 in =ed =iver, and died /- September 1909 in St. %eters Mission, Montana. 4is nephew Gean Baptiste Belgarde (b. 1,-/) was one of the signatories to a petition of September +, 1,+6, b# F0 Metis at 3ort 2alsh s bmitted on behalf of the Metis of the fo r districts of *ssiniboia to Join 8reat# -. 4e also signed the petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0. Goseph married 6o ise %arisien ( ca 89:8; 8<=>4$ on 1, Gan ar# 1,5, in *ss mption, %embina, .a7ota 8erritor#, da ghter of 5ermain %arisien and Marie 6o ise *dam. "n Gan ar# 1,, 1,5, he married 6o ise %arisien. 6o ise was born abo t 1,-1 and died in 19/5. She is b ried at $raig, Montana.3or man# #ears the# lived at St. GosephHs, ?orth .a7ota b t were among those that left the 8 rtle Mo ntains, abo t 1,+0, for Montana. 8here the# settled near St. %eterHs Mission in an area called Sawmill, on the .earborn =iver. 8he famil# histor# records that the# traveled widel#, to L H*ppelle and 2ood Mo ntain, Sas7atchewan as well as 6ewistown, Montana. Goseph died on September /-, 1909 at St. %eterHs Mission and is b ried there. 8he# had the following children9 • 5abriel 89>?;8<:=$ born at Leroy • Marie 89>=$ born at Leroy • Goseph 89>:;8<@>$ born at Leroy • 2illiam 89>>;8<8<$ born at Leroy • 6o is 89>A;8<@8$ born at %ort /enton • :italine ca 89A?;78<?> • %atric7 89A@;8<?8$ born at BuCA((elle • Michael 89A>;8<:=$ born at Teton River • =osalie 89AA;8<??$ born at Teton River • ?athaniel =alph 89A<;8<8>$ born at ,t' #eterCs Mission • Marg erite 8998;8<=<$ born at ,t' #eterCs Mission

Belgarde, Pierre. (b. 1,59)
%ierre was born ?ovember 15, 1,59 at %embina, the son of 6o is Belgarde and &li'abeth $ardinal. 4e married Marie 3idler, the da ghter of 2illiam 3idler and Marg erite Mc5illis on 3ebr ar# /0, 1,,/ on the Mil7 =iver (Montana). 8he# had five children, all born at Batoche. %ierre was a member of $aptain &do ard . montHs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.
//

Goseph Bellegarde (son of *le(is Goseph 5erbea Bellegarde and Marg erite . fort) was born 1,F5 in =ed =iver, and died /September 1909 in St.%eters Mission, Montana. 4e married 6o ise %arisien on 1, Gan ar# 1,5, in *ss mption, %embina , .a7ota 8erritor#, da ghter of 5ermain %arisien and Marie 6o ise *dam.

/+

Belgarde, ;heodore “3'e zan e !e shiz”. (1,/+!1906)
8heodore was the son of *le(is Belgarde (1+9/!1,5/) and Marg erite . fort (1+9-! 1,9F). 8heodore married Madeleine 4o le, the da ghter of 3rancois 4o le and Madeleine 6afreniere on G ne 1+, 1,55 at %embina. 1n 1,50 the# appear on the %embina cens s as famil# X1F+, 8heodore is listed as a h nter. 8he# had fo r children9 • 6o is Belgarde (1,5-!1906), married 6o ise .elorrme.

$aroline Belgarde (1,6/!1,66) 8heodore received Metis Scrip nder the =ed 6a7e and %embina 8reat# of 1,6-. Bellgard, 8heodore (1,/+) \ Belgarde, 8heodore Z=.6. Scrip XF/,[ \ Minnesota 8erritorial $ens s 1,50, %embina $o nt#, famil# 1F+O1F+, born =ed =iver Br., Z4 nter[ ?ational *rchives, =5 +5, &ntr# F6F, V6ist of %ersons to 2hom Scrip was 1ss ed nder =ed 6a7e M %embina 8reaties....V 4alfbreed Scrip ?o. F/,, Sched le B, iss ed *pril 15, 1,+-, nder the a thorit# of Secretarial .ecision, G ne 1/, 1,+/, delivered *pril 15, 1,+?ational *rchives, =5 +5, &ntr# F6-, V8reat# of *pril 1/, 1,6-, =ed 6a7e and %embina 4alf!Breeds,V Scrip St bs, ? mber F/,, dated *pril 15th, 1,+-, 160 *cres, delivered *pril 15th, 1,+-, iss ed to 8heodore Belgarde, delivered to *gt. .o glass son of9 Bellgard, *le(is (1,00) and Bellgard, Marg ritte (1+9+)

• • •

8heodore 6o is Belgarde (1,56!19/5), married 5enevieve Monet, then 6o ise .esJarlais. Goseph 6 cien Belgarde (1,61!1905), married Sarah Bottinea .

Belhumeur dit Monet, +ran$ois . (b. 1,F,)
3rancois was born on September ,, 1,F,, the son of *ndre Belh me r and Marg erite Maron. 4is brother Gean was 6o is rielHs father!in!law. 3rancois married 6o ise Morissea , the da ghter of Goseph Morissea and Gosephte 6acerte in 1,61 at St. 3rancois Uavier. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Belhumeur dit Monet, "ean. (b. 1,F/)
Gean is 6o is =ielHs father!in!law. Gean was born on September 15, 1,F/ at St. 3rancois Uavier, the son of *ndre Belh me r and Marg erite Maron. Gean married Marie Malaterre, the da ghter of Gean Baptiste Malaterre and *ngeliA e *dam in 1,60 at St. 3rancois Uavier. 8heir da ghter Marg erite married 6o is =iel in 1,,/ at $arroll, Montana. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Belhumeur dit Monet, Patri$e. (b. 1,-5)
%atrice was born on .ecember 16, 1,-5, the son of Michel Monet dit Belh me r and 6o ise 5onneville. 4e was 6o is =ielHs wifeHs co sin. 4e married G lie =obert, the da ghter of Goseph =obert in 1,+- at 6ebret. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Bellhumeur, Marguerite (=iel). (1,61!1,,6)
See Marg erite Monet dit Bellh me r. Bent, #eorge. (1,-F!191,)9 5eorge Bent was a Metis s rvivor of the Sand $ree7 Massacre. Mar7 S. *nderson has written a biograph# of Bent9 Halfbreed: The Remar&able True ,tory of "eorge /entDCaught between the 2orlds of the !ndian and the 2hite Man ($ambridge9 .a $apo %ress, /00-). Bent was born in 1,-F to the prominent white trader $olonel 2illiam Bent and his Tsis tsis tas ($he#enne) wife, "wl 2oman. 2illiam Bent b ilt an elaborate adobe fort on the eastern $olorado plains, near present da# 6a G nta, 7nown as BentIs 3ort. 1t was the onl# privatel# owned, fortified placement in the west. . e to its placement on the Santa 3e 8rail, and beca se of BentIs association with the $he#enne, this fort became a maJor merchandise center on the so thern plains. 5eorge Bent was raised as a $he#enne 1ndian. BentHs mother died in childbirth when he was fo r #ears old and his father remarried to his wifeHs sister, Nellow 2oman, the mother of 5eorgeHs half brother, $harles. *fter receiving an ed cation in white schools, Bent fo ght for the $onfederac# in the $ivil 2ar and went on to become a $he#enne warrior. 2hen the war came, 5eorge (age 1+) and the #o nger $harles Joined the $onfederate *rm# and served nder 5eneral Sterling %rice. 4e served at the battles of 2ilsonHs =idge, the Battle of %ea =idge then in :an .ornHs campaigns in *r7ansas and Mississippi. 4e was capt red at the siege of $orinth, ta7en to St. 6o is then paroled to

/,

ret rn to his fatherHs new fort on the )pper Eansas. B t in 1,6F, 5eorge Bent ret rned to his motherIs people, the So thern $he#enne< J st as the 1ndian wars in the %lains began.

5eorge Bent and his wife Magpie 4e s rvived the 1,6- Sand $ree7 Massacre having been severel# wo nded in the hip!and then fo ght for revenge with the $he#enne .og Soldiers. Bent later served as a prominent interpreter and negotiator for whites and an adviser to tribal leaders. 4e rode with the great 1ndian leaders =ed $lo d, 8all B ll, and =oman ?ose, and he 7new frontier legends Eit $arson, B ffalo Bill, 2ild Bill 4ic7o7, and 5eorge $ ster. Bent married Magpie, a niece of Blac7 Eettle, and the# lived in his lodge for three #ears. 4e served as interpreter for Blac7 Eettle d ring the 8reat# negotiations of "ctober 1,6+. 4owever, he remained involved fighting on the 1ndian side right p to 1,+-. 2hen Bent passed awa# on Ma# 19, 191,, he was s rvived b# si( children, Mar#, 2illiam, .ais#, 6 c#, 5eorge Gr., and G lia. Magpie, his wife, died Ma# 10, 1,,6. BentIs other wives, Eiowa 2oman and Standing " t, passed awa# in 191F and 19-5. 8oward the end of his life, 5eorge Bent set the historical record straight and preserved the memor# of the $he#enne 1ndians as a free people. 4e wor7ed with historians and ethnologists of the da# s ch as 5eorge Bird 5rinnell, 5eorge &. 4#de and, Games Moone#. 8he# all agreed that what the# 7new of nineteenth!cent r# $he#enne life came largel# from 5eorge Bent. *s a Metis, Bent lived between two worlds right p ntil the time of his death in 191,.

B%rard, Marguerite (Bois-ert). (1,51!19/0)
Mme. Goseph Boisvert, nCe Marg erite BCrard, morte Y 6orette, Manitoba en 19/0. Mme. Boisvert Ctait ]gCe de 69 ans. ?Ce ici Y la =iviPre =o ge en 1,51, fille de $harles BCrard, mCtis, et de Marg erite 6agimodiPre, fille de Gean! Baptiste (6a %rairie) 6agimodiPre, canadien, et de Marie 4arrison, mCtisse. Mme. Boisvert aiment Y parler de sa Je nesse. &lle avait accompagnC ses parents Y la co rse a bison. &lle disait A e son pPre, $harles BCrard, montait n cheval fo g e ( et A e le r charrette Ctait attelCe non pas dH n boe f mais dH ne vache et en pl s dH ne vache Y laitR *lors, soir et matin, sa mPre tra#ait la vache et les BCrard Ctaient les se ls d camp mCtis A i avaient d lait Y boire. &n 1,59, Marg erite avait alors h it ans. 6ors de la chasse a bison W la chasse dHCtC, son pPre perdit la vie dans n accident. $HCtait la derniPre chasse A e Marg erite et sa mPre s ivirent. 1ls deme rPrent Y Saint!Boniface che' son grand!pPre 6agimodiPre donHt la ferme Ctait sit Ce le long de la Seine. 6H CtC de 1,6F, Marg erite f t trPs malade, elle e t ne grosse fiPvre et A and elle devint mie ( sa Jambe ga che Ctait trPs faible. &lle Ctait obligCe de se servir dH ne bCA ille et sa Jambe resta petite et bea co p pl s co rte A e lHa tre. 6es gens disaient >A e cHCtait ca sC par n dCp^t de fiPvre.@ $HCtait probablement la polio de nos Jo rs, inconn Y lHCpoA e. 1,6F. $Hest lHannCe A e les Sio ( d Minnesota arrivaient Y Saint!Boniface. 1ls arrivPrent 60 loges, prPs de 500 personnes. 1ls sHCtaient enf is d Minnesota Y ca se d massacre de 1,6/. 6a cavalerie amCricaine Y le r tro sse, ils arrivPrent mo rant de faim. Marge rite se so venait de les avoir v s A and ne partie de la bande so s le chef %etit Si( o S7offie arrivPrent che' son grand!pPre. $HCtait dans les dCb ts de dCcembre9 Marg erite po vait laisser son lit pendant A elA es he res par Jo r. %ar la fen_tre elle regardait les Sio (. .e ( des chefs parlaient Y son grand!pPre A i sHen alla Y lHCtable et revint avec n boe f A Hil donna a ( Sio (. 6es Sio ( firent bo cherie immCdiatement. .ans A elA es min tes lHanimal Ctait saignC, la pea enlevCe, la carcasse netto#Ce. L atre potea ( f rent plantCs dans le sol.

/9

6a carcasse J chCe s r les potea (, n grand fe de bois all mC et les Sio ( commencPrent Y manger avant A e lHanimal soit c it. Marg erite disait A e le sang co lait chaA e c^tC de le rs bo ches. 6e festin terminC, elle vit son grand!pPre A i venait Y la maison accompagnC dH n chef. &lle co r t Y son lit, se co cha et se co vrit le visage de la co vert re, prCtendant dormir. 6H1ndian arr_ta prPs d lit et leva la co vert re po r la voir. $HCtait le %etit Si(, le chef< il avait entend dire A e 6a %rairie avait ne petite fille malade et il vo lait la voir. Marge rite, elle avait do 'e ans, disait ne pas avoir en trop pe r. 6e fait A e son grand!pPre Ctait prCsent et A e le chef nHavait pas lHair dH_tre mCchant la rass rait. Reference
6Cto rnea , 4enri. Henri LEtourneau Raconte, 2innipeg9 &ditions Bois!Br`lCs, 19,09 +6!++.

Berard, =o'ert. (b. 19/1)
=obert Berard was born J st north of 8o7#o, *lberta. . ring 2211 he Joined th#e &dmonton 1nfantr# )nit in G ne 19-1 and served with the $anadian 1nfantr# in 5erman# 4olland, 3rance and 1tal#. 4e received si( medals. S bseA entl#, he was hono red b# being invited b# %rincess Margaret of the ?etherlands to visit 4olland, the co ntr# $anada liberated. "n September /+, /00/ the Metis ?ational $o ncil awarded him the 5olden G bilee Medal. 8he Metis ?ational $o ncil was provided with /0 5olden G bilee Medals b# the 5overnor 5eneral of $anada, commemorating the 50th *nniversar# of 4er MaJest#Hs reign. 8he# chose to award these medals to /0 Metis :eterans who accepted them on behalf of themselves, their fallen comrades and their fellow Metis :eterans across $anada. 8he ceremon#, held in &dmonton recogni'ed the o tstanding contrib tions of Metis :eterans to their fellow citi'ens, their comm nit# and to $anada.

Berens, "ohnny. (1,66!195-)
Gohn was born at Berens =iver, Manitoba, the son of Sam el Berens. *t the time of the =ed =iver =esistance, 1,69!+0, Sam el, li7e man# other Metis, fled with his famil# to the Slave =iver post of 3ort Smith and later to 3ort Simpson on the Mac7en'ie =iver. 1n 1,9-, Gohnn# was emplo#ed as a trader for the 4B$ at 3ort Smith and assisted in the constr ction of the 2rigley. "nce the boat was la nched he wor7ed on board as a coo7. "ne of the comm nities the# traveled to was 3ort Simpson, where he met and married MoniA e 6affert# in 1,95. 8he famil# then moved to 3ort 6aird where Gohnn# wor7ed in the 4B$ store as an interpreter, carpenter and coo7. 4e then piloted the second 2rigley. *s a pilot on the Mac7en'ie and Slave =ivers he was a man of great importance in the ?.2.8. 8he Job reA ired great J dgement and discipline< he loved the challenge of the rivers. 2hen offered increased pa# he wor7ed for two #ears as a pilot for ?orthern 8raders. 6ater he ret rned to the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan# to pilot the Mac&en1ie River and the )istributor. 1n 19F9, he was presented with a medal from the L een and the 4B$ for his long service. 4e b ilt a ho se for his famil# at 3ort Smith and retired there after the boats were ta7en o t of service. *s a trib te to him the 5overnment of $anada named the Mac7en'ie =iver ferr# at 3ort %rovidence >8he Gohnn# Berens.@ Reference
"vervold, Goanne. (&ditor), Our Metis Heritage: A #ortrayal Nellow7nife9 Metis *ssociation of the ?orthwest 8erritories, 19+69 -,.

Berger, Bernard. ('. 4>??) Bernard Berger was born on G ne 1F, 1,55, the son of %ierre Berger Sr. and G dith 2il7ie. 4e married $aroline .epo sse. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Berger, +ran$ois 2saie. (b. 1,--)
1saie Berger was born at =ed =iver in 1,--, the son of %ierre Berger Sr. and G dith 2il7ie. 1saie married $lemence 5o rnea the da ghter of 8 rtle Mo ntain chief Goseph 5o rnea and G dith .elorme. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Berger, 2sidore. (b. 1,-6)
1sidore Berger was born in 1,-6, the son of %ierre Berger Sr. and G dith 2il7ie. 1sidore married .omtilde 6aframboise, the da ghter of Goseph 6aframboise and Marie *nne $adotte in 1,+F at 6ebret. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Berger, "a$@ues. (b. 1,51)
GacA es Berger was born at %embina on "ctober 1+, 1,51, the son of %ierre Berger Sr. and G dith 2il7ie. GacA es married %hilomene " elette, the da ghter of 1sidore " elette and Marie Bottinea in 1,++. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Berger, "ean Baptiste. (b. 1,-9)

F0

Gean Baptiste Berger was born in 1,-9, the son of %ierre Berger Sr. and G dith 2il7ie. *nother 8 rtle Mo ntain Band member, he married Bets# Eeplin, the da ghter of %a l >%ish7@ Eeplin and Marg erite 5o rnea in 1,+6 at 6ebret. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Berger, Pierre "r. (b. 1,-1)
%ierre Berger Gr. was born at =ed =iver in 1,-1, the son of %ierre Berger Sr. and G dith 2il7ie. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Berger, Pierre. (b. 1,16)
%ierre Berger Sr. was born at =ed =iver in 1,16, the son of GacA es Berger and $ecile . mont. 4e married G dith 2il7ie, the da ghter of Metis leader Gean Baptiste 2il7ie and *mable *' re, at %embina before 1,-1. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0. 1n 1,-5, the famil# had moved to %embina (?orth .a7ota). %ierre married G dith 2il7ie, the da ghter of Gean Baptiste 2il7ie and *mable *' re. %ierre, G dith, and three of their children applied for land as %embina 4alf!Breeds nder the 1,5- treat# with the 6a7e S perior and Mississippi $hippewa. ?ine #ears later, nder a treat# with the $hippewa of =ed 6a7e and %embina (1,6F!1,6-), the ). S. government iss ed %ierre and his son, %ierre Gr., scrip, again as %embina 4alf!Breeds. 6ater in the 1,60s, %ierre, G dith, and their famil#, as well as G dithHs brotherHs famil# (*le(andre 2il7ie) were h nting on the Mil7 =iver. 2hen the ). S. government and reservation agents p shed the Metis o t of the Mil7 =iver area, %ierre led a gro p of families to Spring $ree7 in the G dith Basin of Montana where the# fo nded the town of 6ewistown. ($ontrib ted b# Martha 3oster.) Reference
Martha 4arro n 3oster, >H2e Enow 2ho 2e *reH9 M ltiethnic 1dentit# in a Montana Metis $omm nit#.@ Z%h... diss., )niversit# of $alifornia 6os *ngeles, /000[).

Berland, "ean Baptiste 3nesime. (1+++!1,F,)
B# *seniw che 2inewa7 ?ation of $anada *ccording to one so rce, Berland is a 3rench name, going bac7 to Mans 3rance, where a man named %ierre Breland married $atherine Mesera#. 8he# had a son named %ierre Goseph, who married Marie 6o ise =a#mond on Gan ar# /9, 1+5, at 3ort St. 3rederic7 in Bea harnois, L ebec. 8heir son, %ierre, who was born on September /9, 1+5, in the cit# of L ebec married 6o ise Bell# >according to the c stom of the co ntr#@, which means that the# were not officiall# married b# the $h rch. 6o ise died sometime before 1,F6. %ierre died on "ctober F1, 1,/9 in St. Boniface, Manitoba at the age of sevent#!one. *pparentl#, he also went b# the name of %ierre . bois dit Berland and b# Breland dit . boish e. 4e was a freeman in the f r trade in the 1,00Hs and served as a soldier in $anada. 5overnor Simpson of the 4 dson Ba# $ompan# sometimes referred to him as B rleigh. 4e was a ver# good h nter and trader, who became A ite wealth#. *pparentl# he had as man# as si( *boriginal wives and a n mber of children. "ne of these children was named Gean Baptiste Berland. 8he records indicate that he was born c. 1+++. 1t was Gean Baptiste Breland who the Berland =iver was named after. 1n fact, it was called BaptisteHs =iver at first. 1n 1,/5, a botanist named 8homas .r mmond e(plored the Gasper!Smo7# =iver area with G. B. as his h nter and g ide. G. B. had his brother!in!law along for the trip. 4is brother!in!lawHs wife was pregnant and according to the c stom went off b# herself to have the bab#. 8he temperat re was WF, degree 3, so she died as a res lt. 8his led to a fifteen!da# period of mo rning. 8he gro p ended p spending three to fo r months along the river named in hono r of their g ide. 1t was a ver# severe winter with deep snow, so man# of their horses ended p d#ing. Gean Baptiste Berland married S 'anne (Mc6eod) ?ipissing in 1,1,. 8he# had a son named 3rancois, who married 8herese Eara7onti, who was a da ghter of the legendar# 6o is Ewara7wante and Marie Eatis, who lived near modern da# 5rande $ache at Sheep $ree7 where it enters the Smo7#. 8herese and 3rancois had eight children< 2illiam (b. 1,FF), =osalie (b. 1,F5), Gosette (b. 1,F,), 3rancois (b. 1,-1), Marie *nne (b. 1,-F), Bets# (b. 1,-5), *le(ander (b. 1,-,), Marie (b. 1,5-), Mariette (b. 1,5+) and =osalie (b. 1,5+). /F 8he genealog# gets a little complicated at this point, b t we 7now that 2illiam Berland was descended from both 3rancois and Gean Baptiste. 2illiam had a da ghter named Marie (b. 1,56), a da ghter named Marg eriteOMarie (b. 1,-+), and a son named 3rancois (b. 1,59) who married 8herese $ardinal. Marie married *le(is Goachim and was the grandmother of local legend *dam Goachim. 4is descendants still live in the 5rande $ache area.
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Gean Berland and S sanne ?ipising had the following children9 3rancois Berland, born 1,0+< married 8herese Eara7onti, died 1,,5<$atherine Berland, born 1,1F< Married 5eorge =oss, died .ecember 05, 1,+,< GacA es ?apeesis Berland, born 1,1+, married 8herese ($ree), then Gosephte Ees7ana7watoo 8 rlibis< &do ard :alade Berland, born 1,1,< married 5enevieve Tan#eo Matoos7ees Mondion, then $ecile $allihoo, died Gan ar# /1, 1,++< Marie *nne Berland, born 1,/F, married Goseph $ardinal< 1sabelle Berland, born 1,/+< *ngeliA e Berland, born 1,F0, married $harles $ardinal< ?anc# Berland, born 1,F5< married =ichard $ollin .ecember 09, 1,5, in 3ortdes %rairie (&dmonton)< 4enr# Berland, born 1,F+. 8heir son 3rancois, married 8herese Eara7onti 1roA ois, who was a da ghter of the legendar# 6o is Ewara7wante and Marie Eatis, who lived near present da# 5rande $ache at Sheep $ree7 where it enters the Smo7#. 8herese and 3rancois had eight children< 2illiam (b. 1,FF), =osalie (b. 1,F5), Gosette (b. 1,F,), 3rancois (b. 1,-1),Marie *nne (b. 1,-F), Bets# (b. 1,-5), *le(ander (b. 1,-,), Marie (b. 1,5-), Mariette(b. 1,5+) and =osalie (b. 1,5+).

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*ltho gh there are no Berlands residing in the area at present, the Berland name lives on in the region as there is a Berland =iver, a 6ittle Berland =iver and a Berland 6a7e named in hono r of this intrepid famil# of g ides, h nters, trappers and e(plorers. 1n addition, the Berland famil# intermarried with man# of the local *boriginal families, s ch as the Goachims, Eara7 nties, Belco rts, 2an#andies and the .esJarlais famil#. 3rom 8he *seniw che 2inewa7 ?ation of $anada (=oc7# Mo ntain %eople)9 http9OOwww.aseniw che.comOo rDstor#Ofamil#Dnames.htmlX

Bernier, 2sidore. (b. 1,/+)
1sidore Bernier was born at Spo7ane 3alls 2ashington, the son of G lien Bernier and Marg erite (1ndian)< information on 1sidore is diffic lt to obtain. 1sidore and his parents travelled with the Sinclair part# /- to "regon 8erritor#, settling in $owlit' %rairie aro nd 1,-/. 1sidore is listed with his father and brother in the 1,-+ petition against claim J mping noted in the Oregon ,(ectator newspaper. *fter that mention no citations can be fo nd for him. 1t is possible that he is the 1sidore Bernier fo nd in $* cens s records.

Bernier, "ulien. (b. 1+9-)
G lien was the son of Gean!Baptiste Bernier and Marie 6andr#. 4e married Marg erite at Spo7ene ho se and the# had two bo#s. G lien went to wor7 for the 4B$ at an earl# age as a steersman. 4e was at 3ort Spo7ane in 1,19 and remained in the $ol mbia .istrict for a n mber of #ears. 2hen he retired he ret rned to $anada to obtain his release and in 1,-1 ret rned to the ?2. 4e is fo nd in the cens s records living in $owlit', 6ewis $o, 2*. where he appears to have remained ntil his death. * si(teen #ear old G lian Bernier Joined the ?2$ on .ecember /,, 1,10 to wor7 as a wintering steersman for three #ears at 5reat Slave 6a7e. /5 *t the end of his contract in 1,1F, he came to the %acific slopes wor7ing in the Eamloops area. 1n 1,/1, at the time of the coalition of the ?2$ and the 4B$, Bernier contin ed wor7ing with the 4B$. G lien then wor7ed for the ?orthwest 3 r $ompan# in =ed =iver Manitoba from 1,F0 to 1,-1. 4e then travelled with his wife and sons with the Sinclair part#/6 to "regon 8erritor#, settling in $owlit' %rairie aro nd 1,-/. 4e had two sons, Marcel (1,19!1,,9) and 1sadore (b. 1,/+) both born in Spo7ane area indicating that Bernier ma# have been wor7ing as a free trader there. Some time after that, Bernier too7 his two children to the St. Boniface parish school in the =ed =iver settlement. 1n 1,-1, the whole famil# came west overland as sponsored =ed =iver settlers. Bernier his wife and two sons were with the Sinclair part# to "regon 8erritor# in 1,-1, settling in $owlit' %rairie aro nd 1,-/. 1n 1,-9 G lian settled on a claim of F/0 acres on 6ewis $o nt#.

Bernier, Mar$el. (b.1,19)
Marcel was born ?ovember 10, 1,19, Spo7ane 3alls, 2ashington 8erritor#< the son of G lien Bernier and Marg erite (1ndian) he died .ecember /+, 1,,9, ?ewa 7 m %rairie, 6ewis $o nt#, 2ashington. Marcel and his parents travelled with the Sinclair part# /+ to "regon 8erritor#, settling in $owlit' %rairie aro nd 1,-/. 4e married $eleste Bercier in 1,-- at $owlit' %rairie, 2ashington. She was born 1,/F in 2ashington 8erritor#. 2hen Michael 8. Simmons and the other first *merican settlers came o t in 1,-5, Marcel Bernier showed them the wa# to % get So nd. FMarcel /ernier died at his home on Newau&um #rairie$ Lewis Co$ 2ashington$ on %riday$ )ec' =A th$ 899<$ and was buried in the Catholic cemetery on Cowlit1 #rairie the ,unday following' He was born November 8?$ 898<$ near ,(o&ane %alls' His father was a trusted HudsonCs /ay Com(any traveler and tra((er$ and came here from Canada in their em(loy' Marcel was sent to school at ,t' /oniface$ Red River$ Manitoba$ in 89@?$ and in 89:8 came bac& to Cowlit1 #rairie' !n 89:= he went with %ather /lanchet to #uget ,ound on the first missionary tour among the !ndians$ and directed the building of the log church on 2hidbey !sland' !n 89:= he accom(anied %ather )emers to ancouver !sland and Cariboo' Returning to Cowlit1 #rairie in 89::$ he married Celeste /ercier$ and settled on his donation
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1n 1,-1 the 4B$ organi'ed a part# of /F families from =ed =iver to emigrate to the $ol mbia =iver, hoping that, as settlers, the# wo ld strengthen British claims to the "regon, then in disp te with the )nited States. Games Sinclair (1,10!1,56) led the part# across the plains and thro gh the little!7nown so thern =oc7# Mo ntains.
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:o#age r contract dated 1/O/,O1,10 from Namas7a going to 5rand 6ac des &sclaves.

1n 1,-1 the 4B$ organi'ed a part# of /F families from =ed =iver to emigrate to the $ol mbia =iver, hoping that, as settlers, the# wo ld strengthen British claims to the "regon, then in disp te with the )nited States. Games Sinclair (1,10!1,56) led the part# across the plains and thro gh the little!7nown so thern =oc7# Mo ntains.
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1n 1,-1 the 4B$ organi'ed a part# of /F families from =ed =iver to emigrate to the $ol mbia =iver, hoping that, as settlers, the# wo ld strengthen British claims to the "regon, then in disp te with the )nited States. Games Sinclair (1,10!1,56) led the part# across the plains and thro gh the little!7nown so thern =oc7# Mo ntains.

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claim on Newau&um #rairie$ where he died' His wife and several children survive him$ and he leaves Guite an estate' !n later years$ Mr' /ernier has followed wagon ma&ing until rheumatism cri((led him so that he could not do much at his trade' ,ome three wee&s before his death he was somewhat inHured by his horse running away and throwing him from the buggy' He was well &nown to the early settlers of 2ashington$ and many of them owe much to his assistance and generosity'I Z 6egislative 4andboo7 and Man al of the State of 2ashington, c1,,9!90[. ?ote9 the location of his birth is the ca se of some disp te. 8he reference above states that he was born at Spo7ane 4o se b t nat rali'ation records fo nd in 1,5/ seem to indicate he was born in Manitoba.)

Bethune, 8orman M.7.
?orman Beth neHs great grandfather was *ng s Beth ne (1+,F!1,5,) and his Metis wife was 6o ise McEen'ie (1+9F!1,FF)./, *ng s Joined the ?orth 2est $ompan#. 1n 1,0-W5, and he served at the post on the 2hitem d =iver, near the so th end of 6a7e Manitoba. 8he following #ear he was listed as a cler7 at 6a7e 2innipeg. *ttached to the brigade of *le(ander 4enr# the #o nger, in September 1,10, Beth ne accompanied 4enr# to =oc7# Mo ntain 4o se (*lta). 6ate in the fall of 1,10 .avid 8hompson arrived at this post and Beth ne helped him to set off on his e(pedition across the =oc7# Mo ntains. *s part of the ?2$ strateg# to establish a transpacific trade from the northwest coast, 8hompson had been instr cted to reach the mo th of the $ol mbia =iver ahead of the %acific 3 r $ompan#Hs part#, sent o t b# ship from ?ew Nor7. Beth ne himself fig red prominentl# in the ?2$ plans for the %acific, and in 1,1/ or 1,1F he was designated >as the %erson to go to $hina to learn the B siness M act as s percargo.@ .r. Beth neHs grandfather and namesa7e was ?orman Beth ne, also a ph#sician and medical ed cator (1,//! 1,9/) who was born in Moose 3actor#. ?orman Sr. married Ganet *nn ?icholson in 1,51. 8heir son =everend Malcolm ?icholson Beth ne (1,5+!19F/) married &li'abeth *nn 5oodwin. 8he# had two children, Ganet born 1,,, and (4enr#) ?orman born March F, 1,90 at 5ravenh rst, "ntario. ?orman died on ?ovember 1/, 19F9, at age -9 at 2 paishan, Shansi, $hina. . ring 19F6!19F+, .r. ?orman Beth ne served as a s rgeon with the Spanish government forces in Madrid. 8his was after a visit to the Soviet )nion in 19F5 when he Joined the $omm nist %art#. . ring the Spanish $ivil 2ar he organi'ed a mobile blood!transf sion service, the first of its 7ind, to operate on a 1,000 7m front. . ring 19F+!19F,, he ret rned to $anada to raise mone# for the antifascist ca se in Spain and soon t rned his attention to the war being waged b# comm nist forces against Gapanese invaders in $hina. 4e left $anada for the last time 19F,. 3rom 19F,! 19F9 he was in $hina, where he served as a s rgeon with the ,th =o te *rm# in the Shan(i!4obei border region, in the 2ar with Gapan. 8here he was an inventive s rgeon, teacher and propagandist, and he adopted the ca se and the people as his own. 4is accidental death from septicemia evo7ed Mao TedongHs essa# >1n Memor# of ?orman Beth ne@ which rged all comm nists to em late his spirit of internationalism, his sense of responsibilit# and his devotion to others. 8his essa# made Beth neIs name almost s#non#mo s with $anada in $hina. ?orman Beth ne died at 2 paishan, Shansi, $hina, in ?ovember, 19F9. =eference9 =oderic7 Stewart and Shannon Stewart. #hoeni.: The Life of Norman /ethune . Montreal9 Mc5ill!L eenHs )niversit# %ress, /011.

Bird, Ann 8an$y (1night). (1,--!1,++)
*nn was the da ghter of Games (Gemm# Goc7) Bird and Sarah, a %iegan 1ndian woman who was the da ghter of >the B llsH 4eart@. *nn was the grandda ghter of Games $ rtis Bird and &li'abeth Monto r. She married %eter Enight (born 1,//) at St. %a lHs *nglican $h rch in Middlech rch, Manitoba on .ecember +, 1,59. 8he# had one child together, $harlotte Enight born in 1,59.

Bird, ,harles #eorge Sr.
4e and *le(ander McEa# were %rince *lbert distrct Metis leaders who corresponded with =iel in March of 1,,5 indicating that altho gh the# agreed with the Metis grievances their gro p was remaining ne tral and wo ld not resort to arms.

Bird, ,harlotte (+lett). (b. 1,19)
$harlotte was the da ghter of Games $ rtis Bird Sr. and his wife, &li'abeth. She was the sister of Gemm# Goc7 Bird, and one of the Metis emigrants to the "regon 8erritor# in 1,-1. She married Gohn 3lett (b. 1,15) on ?ovember 15, 1,F, at St. GohnHs %arish. See the entr# nder her h sband Gohn 3lett for more information.

Bird, ,hloe (+lett). (b. 1,15)

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(*nne) 6o isa McEen'ie was born at 3ort 2illiam in 1+9F, the da ghter of =oderic7 McEen'ie (1+61! 1,--) and his "Jibwa wife. 6ater, within the Beth ne famil# 6o isa was called >Miss 5reen Blan7et.@

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$hloe was also the da ghter of Games $ rtis Bird Sr. and his wife, &li'abeth, the sister of Gemm# Goc7 Bird and one of the Metis emigrants to the "regon 8erritor# in 1,-1. "n *pril /5, 1,FF she married Games 3lett at St. GohnHs %arish. See the entr# nder her h sband Games 3lett for more details.

Bird, Bradley ,urtis. (b. 1959)
Go rnalist Brad Bird was born in 6ondon, "ntario and grew p in 8oronto. 4e is the son of 3light 6ie tenant 3.$.$. Bird and .oris *conle#. *s an award winning Jo rnalist Brad has wor7ed for the 2innipeg 3ree %ress and also covered wars in the 2estern Sahara, 8 r7e# and Eosovo. 4e recorded his fatherHs e(periences as a 2orld 2ar 11 bomber pilot in the boo7 Nic&el Tri( (2innipeg9 %emmican % blications, /00-).

Bird, ,urtis "ames, M.&.A. (1,F,!1,+6)
Bird was a of the Manitoba 6egislative *ssembl#. 1n 1,+F he was tarred for his opposition to a bill for the incorporation of the town of 2innipeg. Bird, a ph#sician, trained in &ngland, was the son of $hief 3actor Games $ rtis Bird Sr. and Mar# 6owman. $ rtis Games was not Metis altho gh all his step! siblings from Games $ rtis BirdHs first marriage were. 8h s, $ rtis was the step! brother of the famo s Metis plainsman Gemm# Goc7 Bird. $ rtis Games married the da ghter of .onald =oss in 1,66. She was the widow of $harles Mc.ermot. Bird was ed cated at St. GohnHs $ollege in 2innipeg before st d#ing medicine at 5 #Hs hospital in 6ondon. )pon his ret rn to =ed =iver he was appointed coroner, an s cceeded .r. B nn in 1,61. 4e became a member of the $o ncil of *ssiniboia in 1,6,, participated in the $onvention of 1,+0 and represented St. %a lHs in the first legislative assembl# of Manitoba. .r. Bird owned a pharmac# and this dr gstore was rep ted to have had the first soda fo ntain in 2estern $anada.

Bird, +rederi$! Adolphus, M.&.A. (1,/F!1,,-)
* Scottish 4alf!Breed, Bird was elected to ManitobaHs first legislat re in 1,+0 to represent %ortage la %rairie. 3rederic7 was born on March 1,, 1,/F, the son of 5eorge Bird and Mar# *nn 8homas./9 3rederic7 Bird was a Metis store7eeper in %ortage la %rairie. 4e was married to *nn 5arrioch (b. 1,/6), the da ghter of 2illiam 5arrioch and ?anc# $oo7, on .ecember /1, 1,-F. 8he# had eight children onl# five of whom lived past childhood. 3rederic7 was part of the %ortage gro p, which opposed 6o is =iel. 4e was imprisoned b# =iel at one point. Bird died at Portage la Prairie on 30 November 1884, at the age of 61 years. Frederic Bird is the great!great!great!grandfather of "resent day #anitoba #.$.%. 8om ?eva7shonoff, elected from the 1nterla7e riding.

Bird, +rederi$! ,harles ,layton. (b. 1919)
$la#ton Bird is the Metis son of .r. 3rederic7 :alentine Bird and 1rene Bradle#. 4e is a great!great!grandson of Games $ rtis Bird an 4B$ 3actor. 3light 6ie tenant Bird served two f ll to rs as a bomber pilot d ring 2orld 2ar 11 and was a flight instr ctor both d ring and after the war. 4e flew F- trips over "cc pied & rope in 19--. 4is decorations and medals incl de9 the 19F9!-5 Star, *ircrew & rope Star with 3rance and 5erman# $lasp, .efense Medal, $anadian :ol nteer Service Medal and $lasp, 2ar Medal 19F9!-5 and $anadian 3orcesH .ecoration.

Bird, +rederi$! <alentine. (1,,5!19++)
8his Scottish 4alf!Breed ph#sician and politician is a member of the Manitoba *gric lt re 4all of 3ame. 4e was born at St. *ndrews, Manitoba the son of Gohn Games Bird and Margaret %eebles. 4is grandfather was 4enr# Games Bird the Metis son of Games $ rtis Bird and his $ree wife, &li'abeth. 3.:. Bird attended the )niversit# of Manitoba 3ac lt# of Medicine. 4e s pported this ed cation b# wor7ing as a teacher. 4e was a general practitioner at Boissevain from 191F to 19F5. 4e often accepted farm goods as pa#ment from his patients, and in fact in 19F5 he cancelled all debts owed to him b# farmers. 4e was the Ma#or of Boissevain for ten #ears (19/9!19F9).

Bird, #eorge. (c. 1+9/!1,56)
5eorge Bird was born in = pertHs 6and, the son of Games Bird Sr., the $hief 3actor in the Sas7atchewan .istrict, and his Blac7foot wife, &li'abeth. 5eorge apprenticed with the 4B$ starting in Nor7 3actor# in 1,05. 4e was made an assistant trader in 1,1/ and after a #ear in &ngland was assigned as $ler7 for $arlton 4o se (1,15!1,1,), then &dmonton 4o se (1,1,!1,/1). 3ollowing the amalgamation of 4B$ and the ?2$ in 1,/1 he served as an interpreter.
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5eorge Bird (b. 1+9+) was the son of Games $ rtis Bird and Mar# ($ree). Mar# *nn 8homas was the da ghter of 8homas 8homas and Sarah ($ree).

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4e retired at =ed =iver Settlement in G ne of 1,/5. 5eorge married *nne 8homas on * g st /F, 1,/5. *nne was the da ghter of 8homas 8homas and his ?ative wife, Sarah. 5eorge and *nne had nine children.

Bird, "ames. (1,-,!19/6)
Games Bird was born at =ed =iver in 1,-,, the son of 2illiam Bird and :en s 4a# and grandson of $hief 3actor Games $ rtis Bird. 4e wor7ed as a carpenter for the 4B$. 4e married 6i'ette 3inla#son at Sel7ir7, Manitoba in 1,+0 and the# moved to Battleford in 1,++ to b ild the *nglican $h rch Mission for =ev. G. *. McEa#. 8he# had a ranch at &agle 4ills and then moved to the Bresa#lor Settlement. . ring the 1,,5 =esistance Bird wor7ed on the $anadian side carr#ing dispatches from Battleford to 3ort %itt. F0

Bird, "ames ,urtis “"emmy "o$!.” (c.1+90!1,9/)
8he mi(ed!blood son of Games Bird Sr., VGimm# Goc7V was born aro nd 1+9+!9,, probabl# at $arlton 4o se on the Sas7atchewan =iver. 4aving alread# received some ed cation in &ngland, he began a five!#ear apprenticeship in 1,09, with the 4 dsonIs Ba# $ompan#, serving nder his father at &dmonton 4o se.

4e spent his earl# #ears at &dmonton 4o se, =oc7# Mo ntain 4o se and posts on the pper ?orth Sas7atchewan. 3l ent in both $ree and Blac7foot, he ran7ed as an interpreter b# the time he left the compan# in 1,/1. VGimm# Goc7V then lived with the %eigan *boriginal people, adopting their wa# of life and gaining great infl ence among them. 4e became recogni'ed as a chief among the %eigans and, p rportedl#, had ten *boriginal wives. 1n the late 1,/0s, he received pa#ments from the 4 dsonIs Ba# $ompan# to enco rage the %eigans to trade at =oc7# Mo ntain 4o se and &dmonton 4o se. B t, in a dramatic abo t!face in 1,F1, he went to aid the *merican 3 r $ompan# in its efforts to establish trade on the Misso ri with the Blac7foot nations9 the %eigan, Blood and Blac7foot peoples. 8wo #ears afterwards, 5overnor 5eorge Simpson re!enlisted VGim Goc7V on the &nglish compan#Is side b t the# s spected he was still wor7ing for the *mericans. * fiercel# independent man, BirdIs lo#alties were more with the *boriginal people than the trading companies. 4e A it the 4 dsonIs Ba# $ompan# in 1,-1 b t was loo7ing after =oc7# Mo ntain 4o se in 1,-+!-, when the post was closed. 4e was here when %a l Eane visited. Eane fo nd him Vtr stworth# and hospitable.V B t two missionaries, 3ather %ierre!Gean .eSmet and the =everend =obert 8errill = ndle, who at different times had engaged him as both g ide and interpreter, fo nd him VA ite nreliable.V 1n 1,55, he acted as interpreter in the *merican treat# with the Blac7foot, signed at a site opposite the mo th of the G dith =iver near the r ins of 3ort $hardon. 1n 1,++, he filled the same role in $anadaIs 8reat# ? mber +, signed at Blac7foot $rossing. VGimm# Goc7V died on the Blac7foot reservation in Montana in 1,9/. 1n appro(imatel# 1+90, Games $ rtis Bird Gr. was born in what is toda# the 2innipeg area. 4is mother was &li'abeth, a Blac7foot woman, and his father was Games $ rtis Bird, an &nglishman who was a $hief 3actor with the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan#. Gimm# Goc7 was sent to &ngland to st d# b t soon ret rned to =ed =iver. )pon ret rning he set o t in search for his motherHs people. 4e was described at this time as >a splendid specimen of the native race, he was over si( feet tall, sinew#, athletic and handsome. 8he brown hair, steel# bl e e#es and sand# m stache derived from his "rcadian ancestr#a@F1. "n his wa# to Join the Blac7feet he learned man# different lang ages. 4e was widel# 7nown and ever#one sta#ed clear of him beca se he was considered a dangero s man. 4e began wor7ing for the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan# as an apprentice in 1,09. "ver the #ears his greatest contrib tions were as a ling ist and interpreter who spo7e Blac7feet, 5ros :entre, Ston#, $ree, Sarsee, &nglish and 3rench. B# the 1,/0s he had become an agent for the 4B$ among the Blac7foot tribes. Bird earned A ite a rep tation for being a practical Jo7er. 4is favo rite tric7 was to leave a note tied to a stic7 at a campsite, which gave directions to another campsite, a treas re or some other great place. 8he ne(t person to find the letter wo ld s all# end p on a wild goose chase following the false instr ctions. 1t wo ld seem that Bird settled down a bit when he married *gnes, a Blac7foot woman (da ghter of B llHs 4eart), in 1,-0. *bo t the same time, he became 7nown as Gemm# Goc7. 4e also met the now famo s artist %a l Eane.

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.o glas 2. 6ight, %oot(rints in the )ust' ?orth Battleford9 8 rner!2arwic7 % blications 1nc., 19,+9 /55. G.G. 5 nn, &choes of the =ed, 8oronto9 Macmillan $o., 19F09 16-!165.

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8he s bJect of EaneHs paintings was the Blac7foot people, and Gemm# Goc7 was ver# helpf l in teaching him abo t their c stoms. *ltho gh man# people did not tr st Gimm# Goc7, Eane fo nd him to be ver# 7ind and genero s. 1n ret rn for his favo rs, Eane helped Gemm# Goc7 get a position as an interpreter for the *merican Blac7feet treat# negotiations (1,55). 8he $anadian government similarl#, emplo#ed Bird for the 8reat# Seven Blac7foot $rossing negotiations in 1,++. 6ong before this Gemm# Goc7 had adopted the Blac7feet as his people, and in fact he was widel# 7nown as >the half!&nglish $hief of the %eigans.@ F/ 4e died at 8wo Medicine, Montana in 1,9/. References
Seale#, Br ce (5eneral &ditor). %amous Manitoba Metis, 2innipeg9 Manitoba Metis 3ederation %ress, 19+-9 /!-. 3 chs, .enise M. >?ative Sons of = pertHs 6and 1+60 to 1,60s,@ 2innipeg9 %h... thesis, )niversit# of Manitoba, /0009 ,9!91.

Bird, "ohn "ames. M.&.A. (1,--!19FF) Gohn Bird was born in 1,--, the son of Goseph Bird FF and &li'abeth 8homasF-. 4e married Mar# %eebles. 8heir son, 3rederic7 :. Bird (1,,5!19++) was a well 7nown ph#sician and Ma#or of Boissevain. Gohn was elected as a 6iberal M.6.*. in Eildonan in 1,9/ and defeated in the election of 1,96. 4e also served as =eeve of the = ral M nicipalit# of St. *ndrews. 4e died at St. *ndrews, Manitoba on / Gan ar# 19FF.

Gohn Games bird, M.6.*.

Bird, &etitia (M$1ay). (b. 1,10)
6etitia was the da ghter of Games $ rtis Bird and his second wife, &li'abeth. She was born /0 3eb 1,10 in &dmonton 4o se. She was the half!sister of the famo s Gemm# Goc7 Bird and one of the Metis emigrants to the "regon 8erritor# in 1,-1. She married $harles McEa# on "ctober //, 1,/+ at St. GohnHs, =ed =iver. $harles McEa# (1,0,!1,+F) was born at Brandon 4o se on the *ssiniboine =iver. 4is notorio s ncle, >Mad .onald,@ had fo nded Brandon 4o se. McEa#Hs father Gohn spent most of his career there. 4is mother, Mar# 3avel, was the da ghter of an *lban# =iver &nglish trader and a Swamp# $ree wife. 4is mother died when he was J st two #ears old and the responsibilit# for his

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>8wo of the 4ono rable. $ompan#Hs late cler7s, Games Bird and 4 gh M nroa became so m ch attached to the roving life of %lains 1ndians that these last few #ears the# have withdrawn themselves from the &stablishments, ass med the 1ndian cost me, accompan#ing them in all their wars and h nting e(c rsions and b# their braver# and activit# have obtained great infl ence with the %iegan 8ribesa@ (4.B.$.* ..-O90 fos. -,!-,d, 5overnorHs $orrespondence, Nor7 3actor#, Simpson to 5overnor and $ommittee.)
FF F-

8he son of Games $ rtis Bird (b. 1+FF) and Mar# ($ree). 8he da ghter of 8homas 8homas and Sarah ($ree).

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pbringing fell to his older brother, Gohn =ichards McEa#, who was then eighteen. 1n 1,/+, $harles married 6etitia Bird, the da ghter of $hief 3actor Games Bird. 1n t rn, 6etitiaHs brother Gohn married $harlesH sister Mar#.

6etitia Bird McEa#, 4.6. 4ime photo of 1,5, (%*M). 1n 1,-1, $harles, 6etitia and their fo r children, Joined b# another two of BirdHs da ghters and their h sbands and an nmarried brother Joined the Sinclair part# and traveled overland to the % get So nd area of 2ashington. . ring the winter of 1,-/!1,-F, $harles McEa#, along with neighbo rs, helped la# o t the road to the 2illamette =iver and a bridge which crossed .air# $ree7. McEa# later sided with those in the %acific ?orthwest who favo red affiliation with the )nited States. 8he# became *merican citi'ens in 1,51. $harles died at 5lencoe, 2ashington $o nt#, "regon in Ma# of 1,+F. 6etitia died on 3ebr ar# /6, 1,9+ in 2ashington $o nt#, "regon, )S* at age ,+.

Bird, Madeline Mer$redi. (b. 1,99)
1n the boo7, Living Jindness: The )ream of My Life: The Memoirs of a MEtis +lder . (Nellow7nife, ?orthwest 8erritories9 " tcrop, 1991), Madeline Bird, nCe Mercredi, a respected Metis &lder born at 3ort $hipew#an in 1,99, tells the stor# of her life in this affectionate biograph# assembled with the help of Sister *gnes S therland. "ne of nine children, Madeline was the da ghter of Metis parents whose ancestors came originall# from Manitoba. Mrs. Bird relates the hardships and Jo#s of her life and has partic larl# 7ind words for the Sisters and their assistance and small 7indnesses. She partic larl# notes the hard life and povert# which was the lot of the Sisters who were their teachers and the role of the ch rch in caring for MCtis orphans. 8he a thors incl de man# photographs depicting life in northern *lberta and the ?orthwest 8erritories as well as a people and places inde(.

Bird, ;homas. (b. 1,-9)
8homas was the son of Gimm# Goc7 Bird and Sarah Sall# (%eigan). 4e married 1sabella Metas7ani7, (b9 1,6/) the da ghter of Baptiste Matas7a!ne7 and 1sabelle 3lamand, in 1,+6 at 8o chwood 4ills. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Bird, :illiam #il'ert. (1,-+!19-/)
2illiam Bird was born on G l# /5, 1,-,, the son of 3rederic7 *dolph s Bird and *nn 5arrioch. 2illiamHs father was the first M.6.*. from %ortage la %rairie. 4e married 4arriet $ mmings, the da ghter of =obert $ mmings and Gane Mon7man (b. 1,5F) on September 15, 1,+0 in St. %a lIs, Middlech rch. 8he# had ten children and later moved to the %rince *lbert region. 2illiam Bird, li7e his father, was an opponent of 6o is =iel d ring the =ed =iver =esistance. 4e was a member of the >%ortage 5ang@ capt red and imprisoned b# =ielHs troops in 3ebr ar# of 1,+0. Bird is described as a Metis trader< and in the 1,,1 $anada $ens s is listed as a teamster.

Birdsell, Sandra &ouise Bartlette. (b. 19-/)
Sandra was born // *pril 19-/ in 4amiota, Manitoba. She is a $anadian novelist and short stor# writer of MCtis and Mennonite heritage. She attended the )niversit# of 2innipeg and the )niversit# of Manitoba, where she st died

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nder =obert Eroetsch. 1n *pril /00+, Birdsell completed a fo r month term as the $arol Shields writer in residence at the )niversit# of 2innipeg. Bibliogra"hy of Birdsell &riting' • • • • • • • • • Night Travellers, 19,- (winner of the 5erald 6ampert *ward) Ladies of the House, 19,Agassi1 ,tories, 19,+ The Missing Child, 19,9 (winner of the 1990 Boo7s in $anada 3irst ?ovel *ward) The Chrome ,uite, 199/ (shortlisted for a 5overnor 5eneralIs *ward) The Two;Headed Calf, 199+ (shortlisted for a 5overnor 5eneralIs *ward) The Town That %loated Away, 199+ The RusslKnder, /001 Children of the )ay, /005 (longlisted for the /00+ 1M%*$ *ward)

Birston, Alexander. (c1,10!1,6+)9
*le(ander was the son of Magn s BirstonF5 (1+6,!1,F+) and his wife ?anc# (b. 1++5) who was either Metis or $ree. "n G n /,, 1,F/ *le(ander married Ganet 8ait (b. 1,1F), da ghter of Gohn 8ait (1+++!1,51) from the "r7ne#s. Gohn 8ait accompanied his da ghter and son in law to "regon in 1,-1. *le(ander Birston was amongst those listed b# Games Sinclair as ma7ing the 1,-1 emigration to the $ol mbia =iver from the =ed =iver $olon#. 8he cens s records ta7en from that location show that he was a %rotestant. 2hile it is 7nown that he did ma7e the Jo rne#, it is noted that he is listed in the 1,-F cens s for the =ed =iver .istrict. F6 1t is n7nown if he ret rned for a brief time or if there is an error in the records. B# 1,50 he is listed in 2ashington $o nt#, "egon with his famil#. 4e remained in "regon thro gh 1,5, b t is fo nd living in $lar7 $o, 2ashington in 1,60. *le(ander reportedl# traveled with his wife and fo r children b t onl# the names of three of the children ma7ing the emigration are 7nown. 1n the 1,-0 cens s he is listed with two sons and two da ghters. *le(ander was the father of , 7nown children (Gohn (b. 1,FF), 2illiam G. (b. 1,F+), Gane (b. 1,-0), n7nown da ghter, Magn s B., 1sabel *., Mar# 6etitia and Martha $aroline)

Birston, "ames. (b. 1,09)
Games was the older brother of *le(ander, noted above. Games Birston was born in the =ed =iver Settlement, = pertIs 6and. 4e married 5ri''el 5race =owland (b. 1,1-) on .ecember 16, 1,F0 at St. GohnHs *nglican $h rch. 5race was the da ghter of =obert =owland and &li'abeth 3lett. 8he# were with the Sinclair par# that emigrated west to the $ol mbia =iver in 1,-1. 1n 1,-1, the 4B$ organi'ed a part# of /F families from =ed =iver to emigrate to the $ol mbia =iver, hoping that, as settlers, the# wo ld strengthen British claims to the "regon, then in disp te with the )nited States. Games Sinclair (1,10!1,56) led the part# across the plains and thro gh the little!7nown so thern =oc7# Mo ntains. 8heir da ghter &li'abeth was born on * g st /, 1,-1 in &dmonton, while the# travelled west. 8heir oldest son Miles (b. 1,FF) married 4arriet McEa#, on 3ebr ar# 10, 1,59 in ?orth %lains, 2ashington, "regon 8erritor#. 4e died in 1,6+ in ?orth %lains.

Biston (Burston), Magnus Bernard. (b. 1,/,)
Birston was a Scottish 4alf!Breed from St. 3ranQois Uavier, the son of 2illiam Birston F+ and *ngCliA e Marchand dit Bercier. 4e was married to Madeleine %a l (b. 1,/,), the da ghter of Gean Baptiste %a l and *ngeliA e 5odin. 8he# married on Gan ar# 16, 1,-9 in St & stache. Birston had been appointed to the $o ncil of *ssiniboia on * g st 6, 1,6,. (8he $o ncil e(isted for F5 #ears, 1,F5!1,+0.) 4e was the St. %a l delegate to the $onvention of 3ort#.
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1n 1,01 both Magn s and his brother *le( were listed as Steersmen at Nor7 3actor#, and the# remained together m ch of the time. *s vo#age rs the# wo ld have made freA ent trips inland. 3rom 1,11 to 1,1- both Magn s and his brother *le( were wor7ing in the 6a7e 2innipeg .istrict and points west. 3rom 1,1- to 1,19 Magn s served as the " tpost Master at "(ford 4o se. 3rom 1,19 to 1,/1 Magn s was the *ssistant 8rader at 1sland 6a7e ' *s a res lt of the 4B$!?2$ nion in 1,/1 the 4B$ immediatel# began to red ce staff, Magn s and *le( Birston both were retired to the 6ower =apids, =ed =iver where the# were offered land on which to become settlers.
36

1n 1,-1 the 4B$ organi'ed a part# of /F families from =ed =iver to emigrate to the $ol mbia =iver, hoping that, as settlers, the# wo ld strengthen British claims to the "regon, then in disp te with the )nited States. Games Sinclair (1,10!1,56) led the part# across the plains and thro gh the little!7nown so thern =oc7# Mo ntains.

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2illiam Birston was emplo#ed b# the 4B$ as a Sailma7er from 1,5F to 1,56.

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Magn s was arrested on G ne 1, 1,,5 and on "ctober 10, 1,,5< he was tried for treason!felon# at =egina for his =esistance activities at . c7 6a7e on /6 th March, 1,,5. 4e appeared before G dge =ichardson on Monda# "ctober /6, 1,,5 and the J dge stated that altho gh some evidence weighed against the prisoner there were some favo rable points for him, and sitting as a J ror he co ld not convict. 4e warned the prisoner to be more caref l of himself in the f t re. 4e was the onl# Metis other than =iel to go to trial. 4ill#ard Mitchell had left Birston in charge of his store at . c7 6a7e before the battle there. B rston ma# have looted the store and b rnt down MitchellHs ho se b t there was little evidence. B rston was %ierre 6avalleeHs ncle. Birston lived with him at . c7 6a7e and the# shared a tent while fighting at Batoche. Birston was at Batoche stating that he had been forced to go there b# =iel. Scrip *pplications9 Scrip affidavit for Birston, Magn s< born9 Gan ar# 1, 1,/,< father9 2m. Birston (MCtis)< mother9 *ngeliA e Bercier (MCtis)< claim no9 109+< date of iss e9 * g st /0, 1,+6 Scrip affidavit for Birston, Madeleine< wife of Magn s Birston< born9 G l# 1,/,< father9 Baptiste %a l (MCtis)< mother9 *ngeliA e 5odin (MCtis)< claim no9 109,< date of iss e9 * g st /0, 1,+6

Bishop, =od. (19F,!199,)
=od was a $ree!Metis from 5reen 6a7e, Sas7atchewan, the son of *le(is 2illiam Bishop and 1sabelle 3raser. F, *le( was active in the earl# da#s of the Metis *ssociation of Sas7atchewan and president of the 5reen 6a7e 6ocal< he also served on the first school board in 5reen 6a7e. *le( was born at M s7eg 6a7e, Sas7atchewan in 1,,6< he attended the St. MichaelHs 1ndian =esidential School in . c7 6a7e. 4e wor7ed for the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan#, h nted trapped and traded f rs. =od Bishop was a social activist who wor7ed with Gim Brad# and Malcolm ?orris in reorgani'ing the Metis *ssociation of Sas7atchewan in the 1960s, and was vice!president of the amalgamated (north and so th) Metis Societ#. *t the time Goe *m#otte was president of the so thern Sas7atchewan Metis organi'ation, the Metis Societ# of Sas7atchewan and =od was presidentF9 of the northern gro p, the Metis *ssociation of Sas7atchewan. 8h s, in 196+, Goe *m#otte became president of MSS and =od Bishop became :ice!%resident. =od served on its board of directors d ring the 19+0s and 19,0s. *fter leaving MSS *M?S1S in the late 19,0s he was elected as ma#or of 5reen 6a7e. *s ma#or he pla#ed a cr cial role in preventing the privati'ation of the 5reen 6a7e government farms. 4e was the moving force behind the organi'ation of a fishermanHs nion in northern Sas7atchewan and also wor7ed as an opponent of the rani m ind str# in Sas7atchewan. =odHs brother, %eter Bishop, born in 19-0 at 5reen 6a7e, wor7ed as a fieldwor7er with the Metis ?ation Sas7atchewan from 19+F!19++ and was an *rea .irector for M?S (So theast) from 19+F!19+5. 4e was a school teacher and in 1995 was nominated for teacher of the #ear. =od was posth mo sl# awarded the "rder of 5abriel . mont W 5old Medal on .ecember F, /005.

Bittman, =oman.
Metis film prod cer and director =oman Bittman comes from 3ort :ermilion, *lberta. 4e wor7ed for $B$ ?ews and was prod cer of their nat ral histor# and science series, The Nature of Things. 4e prod ced n mero s films for the ?ational 3ilm Board and has over 100 films to his credit. 4e was %resident of ?ova Scotia 3ilm .evelopment and an advisor in the earl# start! p da#s of the *boriginal %eoples 8elevision ?etwor7. =oman Bittman was recipient of a ?ational *boriginal *chievement *ward in /001.
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1sabelle 3raser was the da ghter of ?orbert 3raser and Margaret * bichon, married in 1905. 4er sister &(ilia 3raser married 6o is 3iddler at Meadow 6a7e. F9 =od too7 over when Malcolm ?orris became too ill to r n it.

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Bla$!, Alexander Kamloop. M.&.A. (1,F/!191F)
*le(ander Blac7 was born in 1,F/ at ble!Y!la!$rosse, ?28< the son of f r trader *le(ander Blac7 and his ?ative wife, *ngeliA e $ameron. Sam el Blac7 was a partner of %eter S7eene "gden at ble!Y!la!$rosse. 6i7e %eter "gden, Sam el Blac7 ref sed to solemni'e his marriage to *ngeliA e $ameron, thereb# enabling his white relatives to challenge the inheritances of their Metis 7in. *le(ander Gr. married Margaret Miller (also Metis) on 15 .ecember 1,59 at St. %a l, Manitoba. Margaret Miller was born on 1F "ctober 1,-/ at =ed =iver (d. after 1901) she was the da ghter of =obert 5eorge Miller and &li'abeth Setter-0.

*le(ander was elected to represent St. %a lHs in the b#!election of 1,+6 pon the death of .r. $ rtis Bird. *le(ander died on .ecember 1-, 191F at San 3rancisco. Bla$!, :illiam =oss. (1,55!1919)
Metis law#er 2illiam Blac7 was born in "ld Eildonan, the son of =ev. Gohn Blac7 and 4enrietta =oss Blac7. 4e grad ated with hono rs from the )niversit# of 8oronto and too7 the 5overnor 5eneralHs Medal in classics. 4e practiced law in %ortage la %rairie before becoming =egistrar of 6and 8itles in Morden.

Blandion, Antoine (b. 1,06)
*ntoine Blandion first married $atherine Breland (Berland) then married Marie .esJarlais the da ghter of Goseph 6adoc ce r dit .esJarlais and Gosephte $ardinal, on Ma# 19, 1,-6 at 3ort des %rairies. *ntoine and $atherine Breland had two children9 • *ntoine dit 2abasca born 1,FF at Gasper 4o se. 4e first married Marie S rprenant the# had 6 7ids and second he married Gosephte El#ne the# had , 7ids. • %ierriche Blandion dit 2abasca, born 1,F6 at Big 6a7e, married first to Marie Berland then married Marie . mont in 1,6+ at St. %a l de $ris. Marie .esJarlais and *ntoine nine children9 • 5 illa me Blandion, married =osalie Malaterre circa 1,60. • &li'a >&lise@ Blandion, born 1,-/, married Goseph 5a cher. • Marie .ion or Blandion, born 1,-- at St. *lbert, married Moise %etit $o tea . • 1sabelle Blandion, born 1,-5, married Goseph %etit $o tea . • Goseph Bla#onne, born circa 1,50, married :irginie .esmarais. • Sophie Blandion, born circa 1,51, married .aniel Bo cher • Margaret .ionne or Blandion, born circa 1,50, married 3rancois Uavier %etit $o tea , then married &l'ear Mignea lt in 1,+0.. • Gohn Blandion, born circa 1,5F, Married "live 6H4irondelle. • 3eli( Blandion, born 1,59 at fish 6a7e, married *nne 2hitford. • ?anc# Blandion, born 1,61 at 3ort &dmonton, died before 1,,5. • Marcelline .ionne or Blandion, born 1,6- at St. *lbert, married 5ilbert 2hitford at . hamel. Marie .esJarlais remarried 1,6+ to a 4amelin and had three more children. *ntoine was a member of the So thes7 &(pedition of 1,59. -1 4e was hired at &dmonton as a g ide for the mo ntains and he was an e(perienced h nter. 4e was paid the same as the other men, c5 per month ntil their ret rn to &dmonton. 8he &arl comments on his men9 all of them carried g ns, all, e(cept three, were dressed in fringed leather h nting shirts; of ever# colo r, from the #ellow of newness, and the white of new washedness, to the blood!stained brown of e(treme antiA it#, as displa#ed in *ntoineHs venerable garment. 8he &arl describes him th s9 >*ntoine, sto t and ro nd of ma7e, of olive!brown s7in and long blac7 hair, was clad in a d s7# leather shirt alread# spo7en of, and bore on his arm his c rio s little rifle, and in his belt an immense hatchet!7nife< on his head was a dar7!tinted

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Born at Fort #$$i e Januar! 1% 18&&% the dau'hter of (ndre" )etter and *ar'aret +e''! )pen e.
41

*t the age of F/, Games $arnegie, the 9th &arl of So thes7, travelled to $anada from his native Scotland in 1,59, after being advised that it wo ld improve his health that had deteriorated following the death of his wife. 4e wrote that the reason for his Jo rne# was to, Vtravel in some part of the world where good sport co ld be met with among the larger animals, and where, at the same time, 1 might recr it m# health b# an active open!air life in a health# climate.V 8he &arl travelled tho gh the )nited States to St. %a l, Minnesota and crossed the prairies, h nting b ffalo along the wa#.

-0

Sas7atchewan cap.@ -/ >8ho gh long past his #o th, he still had the air of a hard#, active h nter, while his whole aspect tr l# bespo7e him a most 7ind!hearted, honest and agreeable man.@ (p. /0-)

Blondeau, "ean (b. 1,51)
Gean was born in "ctober 1,51, at St. 3rancois Uavier, the son of Simon Blondea and 3rancoise .esJarlais. 4is father, Simon, was born in 1,/+ on the %embina =iver, the son of 6o is Blondea and Marie 6o ise 6aframboise. Gean was first married to $aroline Brabant, the da ghter of * g stin Brabant and G lie %hilippe. 4e then married &lise Malaterre, the da ghter of *le(is Malaterre and Marg erite 2ard in 1,,/ at 6ebret. 1n 1,,/ he made the trip to 2ood Mo ntain in the 2hite M d =iver valle# to bring bac7 the bod# of *ntoine 6e %lante >8emp $o ver@ a f r trader and ncle of the 6a=ocA eHs for b rial. Gean was a signator of the * g st /9, 1,,/ petition sent b# Simon Blondea and * g stin Brabant for the Metis from 3ort L I*ppelle to &dgar .ewdne#, the 6ie tenant 5overnor of the ?orth!2est 8erritories stating that the "ntario and L H*ppelle 6and compan# was dispossessing the Metis of their lands

Blondeau, &ori.
MetisO$reeOSa ltea ( artist, 6ori Blondea has wor7ed as a performance artist since 19,F. She is a 199F grad ate of the $entre of 1ndigeno s 8heatre. She is c rrentl# finishing her Masters of 3ine *rts at the )niversit# of Sas7atchewan. 4er wor7 has been e(hibited locall#, nationall# and internationall#. ?otable performance pieces are9 >2e 2ant to Be G st 6i7e Barbie, 8hat Bitch 4as &ver#thing,@ at the #eo(les #lastic #rincess (1999) e(hibit at the 2alter %hillips 5aller#, Banff, and her alter!ego $omosA aw, which was recentl# incl ded in the Sas7atchewan prod ction of %ledgeLM +merging ,as&atchewan Artists. 4er most recent collaborative performance piece with artists Bradlee 6arocA e and Games 6 na was )ead %all Revue (/001), presented at the 1nstit te for *merican 1ndian *rt, Santa 3e, ?ew Me(ico. 6ori sits on the *dvisor# %anel for :is al *rts for the $anada $o ncil for the *rts.

Blondeau, &ouis. (1,-6!1,++)
6o is Blondea was the son of 6o is Blondea Sr. and GosPphte .esfonds. 4e was married to %hilomPne Martel the da ghter of Goseph Martel and Marie =ichot. 6o is was one of the men who manned the barricades on the 6a Salle =iver to prevent the entr# of $anadian government officials in "ctober of 1,69.

Blondeau, &ouison (b. 1,5F)
6o ison was a signator of the * g st /9, 1,,/ petition sent b# Simon Blondea and * g stin Brabant for the Metis from 3ort L I*ppelle to &dgar .ewdne#, the 6ie tenant 5overnor of the ?orth!2est 8erritories stating that the "ntario and L H*ppelle 6and compan# was dispossessing the Metis of their lands 6o is was born on Ma# 1,, 1,5F at 3ort &llice, the son of Simon Blondea and 3rancoise .esJarlais. 4e married Marie *ntoinette =obillard, theda ghter of Gean Baptiste =obillard and 1sabelle $omtois.Blondea , 6o ison !$oncerning his claim as a child ! *ddress, 3ort L I*ppelle ! Born, 3ort &llice, spring of 1,55 ! 3ather, Simon Blondea , (MCtis) ! Mother, 3ranQoise .esJarlais, (MCtis) !Married, * g., 1,+, at 3ort L I*ppelle to Marie =obillard ! $hildren living, two,%hilomene born .ec., 1,,1, *lfred born Sept., 1,,F ! $hildren deceased, one, *delineborn 1,+9, died 1,,1 ! Scrip for K/-0 ! $laim 1+1

Blondeau, Mauri$e "oseph (Moe), 8A+, Senator (19F/!/00,)
Ma rice was married to 6eona (Bird) for -+ #ears. 8ogether the# raised 6 children W :alerie, &dward, %ierre, Brenda, 6ori and $ rtis. Ma rice was a cherished 5randfather and loved spending time with his n mero s grandchildren, great grandchildren and great, great grandchildren. 4e was a devoted famil# man and loving son who was predeceased b# his parents Ma rice Blondea Sr. and Mar# (%elletier). 1n Gan ar# 1951, after leaving his hometown of 6ebret, Sas7atchewan, Ma rice Joined the arm#. 4e too7 his basic training on the west coast of :ictoria and b# March of 195/, he was stationed in Eorea. *ppro(imatel#, 10 months later he was transferred to Gapan and from there he ret rned to $anada where he was stationed in :ictoria and then served his last two #ears in =ivers, Manitoba. 8ogether, he spent 6 and a half #ears in the *rmed Services. "nce discharged from the *rm#, he became an 1ronwor7er and travelled all across $anada. 1n 196+, he starting wor7ing for his people W first as an *lcohol $o nsellor at the MCtis Societ# of Sas7atchewan and then as a $hild $are $o nsellor at the 1ndian =esidential School in 6ebret. 1t was abo t this time that he became involved in the 3riendship $entre Movement and the rest is histor#. Ma rice served as the %rovincial $oordinator for the Sas7atchewan *ssociation of 3riendship $entres (S*3$), on the &(ec tive and Board of the ?ational *ssociation of 3riendship $entres (?*3$), as &(ec tive .irector of the
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So thes7, Games $arneigie. ,as&atchewan and the Roc&y Mountains: A diary and narrative of travel$ s(ort$ and adventure during a Hourney through the HudsonNs /ay Com(anyNs territories$ in 89M< and 89>?' &dinb rgh9 &dmonston and .o glas, 1,+-9 /0-.

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Sas7atoon 1ndian M MCtis 3riendship $entre and then as a Senator for the ?*3$. Ma rice was ver# involved in sports and recreation. 4e participated in ball, c rling, billiards, cards, hoc7e# and golf. 8he >"le 8iger@ li7ed his golf, ma7ing a do ble eagle on a %ar 5, hitting the ball straight down the middle and then wo ld loo7 at #o and sa# >1 hate when that happens@. 4is sobriet# was ver# important to him and he alwa#s made the time to listen and enco rage people who needed s pport. 4e was a great listener b t wo ld also have a wonderf l stor# to tell #o at the same time. Senator Ma rice Blondea was respected and hono red b# man# and all that 7new and loved him. 4e was alwa#s a pro d MCtis man and hono red :eteran who was deepl# committed to his loving famil# and involvement with the 3riendship $entre Movement. (3rom the ?*3$ Memori m)

Blondeau, Pollyon (8apoleon)(b. 1,6/)
?apoleon was a signator of the * g st /9, 1,,/ petition sent b# Simon Blondea and * g stin Brabant for the Metis from 3ort L I*ppelle to &dgar .ewdne#, the 6ie tenant 5overnor of the ?orth!2est 8erritories stating that the "ntario and L H*ppelle 6and compan# was dispossessing the Metis of their lands ?apoleon, born 1,6/ at Moose Mo ntain, was the son of Simon Blondea and 3rancoise .esJarlais.

Blondeau, Simon (b. 1,/+)
"n * g st /9, 1,,/ ,Simon Blondea and * g stin Brabant sent a petition for the Metis from 3ort L I*ppelle to &dgar .ewdne#, the 6ie tenant 5overnor of the ?orth!2est 8erritories stating that the "ntario and L H*ppelle 6and compan# was dispossessing the Metis of their lands. Simon Blondea was born on the %embina =iver, the son of 6o is Blondea andMarie 6o ise 6aframboise dit 3ranche. 6o is Blondea wor7ed as an interpreter for the?orth 2est $ompan# at 3ort des %rairies in 1,0- and at $ mberland 4o se in 1,15!16.4e was present d ring the aftermath of the Battle of Seven "a7s. Simon Blondea married 3rancoise .esJarlais, the da ghter of *ntoine .esJarlais and Marie $atherine *ller#, in 1,50 at St. Boniface. 8heir son Gohn was married to the * g stin BrabantHs da ghter $aroline. Simon wor7ed for his father!in!law, *ntoine .esJarlais at 3ort .esJarlais in the So ris =iver :alle# in the 1,50s.4is nephew 6o is Blondea Gr. was one of the men who manned the barricades on the 6a Salle =iver to prevent the entr# of $anadian government officials in "ctober of 1,69.

Blondeau, Simon "r. (b. 1,5/)
Simon Gr was a signator of the * g st /9, 1,,/ petition sent b# Simon Blondea and * g stin Brabant for the Metis from 3ort L I*ppelle to &dgar .ewdne#, the 6ie tenant 5overnor of the ?orth!2est 8erritories stating that the "ntario and L H*ppelle 6and compan# was dispossessing the Metis of their lands. Simon Gr. was born on the *ssiniboine =iver near the Beaver =iver, the son of Simon Blondea and 3rancoise .esJarlais. 4e married G lienne4amelin, the da ghter of 5aspard 4amelin and 6o ise 6andr# on 3ebr ar# 9, 1,+- at . c7 6a7e, he then married $lemence 5osselin, the da ghter of Gosdeph 5osselin andMarie :allee in September 1,,at 6ebret.

Blondeau, Aa$harie (1,56! 19F9)
Tacharie was a signator of the * g st /9, 1,,/ petition sent b# Simon Blondea and * g stin Brabant for the Metis from 3ort L I*ppelle to &dgar .ewdne#, the 6ie tenant 5overnor of the ?orth!2est 8erritories stating that the "ntario and L H*ppelle 6and compan# was dispossessing the Metis of their lands Tacharie was born on .ecember 19, 1,56 at 3ort L H*ppelle, the son of Simon Blondea -F and 3rancoise .esJarlais. Tacharie married 3lorence .esmarais, the da ghter of Michel .esmarais and Gosephte =ochon on 3ebr ar# 16, 1,++ at 6ebret. 8he# had fo r children9 Marie =ose (1,+,), &rnestine (1,,0), St. *nne (1,,F) and Tacharie (1,,5). 8he 6ebret $omm nit# histor# boo7 records the following stor# abo t Tacharie Blondea 9 M"$$*S1?S *62*NS 2"=? BN B)33*6" 4)?8&= "3 :*66&N

,, "ritten b! J. -enon Laro .ue% 1/0/

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Blondea , Simon. (b. 1,/+) Simon Blondea was born on the %embina =iver, the son of 6o is Blondea and Marie 6o ise 6aframboise dit 3ranche. 6o is Blondea wor7ed as an interpreter for the ?orth 2est $ompan# at 3ort des %rairies in 1,0- and at $ mberland 4o se in 1,15!16. 4e was present d ring the aftermath of the Battle of Seven "a7s. Simon Blondea married 3rancoise .esJarlais, the da ghter of *ntoine .esJarlais and Marie $atherine *ller#, in 1,50 at St. Boniface. 8heir son Gohn was married to the * g stin BrabantHs da ghter $aroline. Simon wor7ed for his father!in!law, *ntoine .esJarlais at 3ort .esJarlais in the So ris =iver :alle# in the 1,50s. 4is nephew 6o is Blondea Gr. was one of the men who manned the barricades on the 6a Salle =iver to prevent the entr# of $anadian government officials in "ctober of 1,69.

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8he death recentl# of ,1 #ear old Tacharie Blondea , at his home at 3ort L I*ppelle, removed the last of the great b ffalo h nters of the L I*ppelle :alle#. 4is last h nt was recorded 60 #ears ago in the hills to the west of Moose Mo ntain and northeast of the present site of Eisbe#. 1t is do btf l if there remains in the L I*ppelle :alle# more than fo r or five of those famo s h nters of the past. 8he# were men who, if not armed with rifles, co ld still get their b ffalo b# riding their ponies and sing stone a(es to st n the beasts ; and, if this co ld not be done, steal p on the great animals and hamstring them, or down them with bow and arrow. &fficient h nter Blondea was efficient in the best!7nown wa#s of 7illing b ffalo in the old da#s. 4is e(ploits still form the topic of stor# telling, wherever the Metis gather for their wee7l# visits d ring the long winter evenings. Tacharie Blondea was born ,1 #ears ago, at the 3ort of the 4 dsonIs Ba# 3 r $ompan#, abo t si( miles so th of what is now L I*ppelle and 7nown in the earlier da#s as 8ro#. 4is father, Simon Blondea , moved to the L I*ppelle co ntr# more than 90 #ears ago from the =ed =iver :alle#< and, for #ears the famil# were faithf l servants of *rchie Mc.onald, then $hief 3actor of the 4 dsonIs Ba# $ompan# at L I*ppelle, who moved the 4eadA arters to what is now 3ort L I*ppelle. 1ncidentall#, interested persons have recentl# attempted to located the site of the first 3ort of the 4 dsonIs Ba# $ompan# (in the district), b t were ns ccessf l. 1n recognition of the services of the Blondea 3amil# to Mr Mc.onald, one of the *ven es in 3ort L I*ppelle was named Blondea when the original townsite was mapped o t and the *ven e still bears that name. 1t is also worth# of note that Simon Blondea and his wife, 3rancoise (nee .esJarlais), celebrated their +5th 2edding *nniversar# in the s mmer of 1905 in the little $h rch at 6ebret (Sas7atchewan)< where 3ather 4 gonard celebrates mass and attended the complementar# f nction for Mr and Mrs Blondea . 1n those da#s, gifts to J bilarians were not diamond rings< nor radios, silverware or an# the present da# glamoro s o tb rsts. * well!filled hamper containing eatables was presented to the co ple< and, it generall# too7 two men to handle the hamper, for it contained eno gh food to last for the celebration which was never shorter than three da#s.

111111111 ; from the Lebret 2ommunit! 3istor! Boo4 5pp.5/0,5/4)... Blue)a$!et, #eorge. (1+,1!1,/9)
5eorge was the third son and fifth child of Bl e Gac7et and Ms Bab#. -- 5eorge was born in abo t 1+,1 at one of the Bl e Gac7etHs 8owns in the northwest of "hio co ntr#. *long with his brother Games, he was a collaborator with 8ec mseh in the latterHs failed attempts to rid the 5reat 6a7es region of *mericans. 5eorge died at %iA a, "hio abo t 1,/9. *s noted above, 5eorge was the son of Bl e Gac7et >2e#apiersenwah@ who was the Shawnee chief who Joined 6ittle 8 rtle of the Miamies in resisting *merican advances into northwestern "hio in the 1+90Hs. 4e led the 1ndians at the Battle of 3allen 8imbers after 6ittle 8 rtle declined to fight against 5eneral 2a#neHs arm#. *fter his defeat, he signed the 8reat# of 5reenville in 1+95 and the 8reat# of 3ort 1nd str# in 1,05, s rrendering the 1ndian title to millions of acres. 4e relocated to the area of Brownstown in Michigan 8erritor#, where he died prior to the 2ar of 1,1/. "ld Bl eJac7etHs da ghter married Goc7o 6asselle, who spied o t the *merican positions at 3rench 8own J st prior to the Battle of the =iver =aisin. 4is sons, 5eorge and Games Bl eJac7et fo ght in a 2ar of 1,1/ battle on Gan ar# //, 1,1F, and participated in the capt re of 5eneral 2inchester. Gim Bl eJac7et too7 man# scalps. 5eorge Bl eJac7et too7 6asselleHs warning to %rocter and also helped save 2hitmore Enaggs from being 7illed after his capt re.

Blue)a$!et, .enry . (1+99!1,55)
4enr# was a Eis7poco!%e7owi!Metis son of 5eorge Bl eJac7et and his Eis7poco wife $lear 2ater Bab#. 4e fo ght with the British *rm# d ring the 2ar of 1,1/ at *mherstb rg, 3renchtown, 3ort Meigs, and the 8hames.

Blue)a$!et, "ames “;eas!oota”. (b. 1+66!1,65)
Game Bl eJac7et was the Eis7poco!%e7owi!Metis oldest son of Shawnee $hief Bl e Gac7et and Ms. $lear 2ater Bab#. -5 4e was the grandson of f r trader GacA es . pCron Bab#. 4e accompanied 8ec mseh on visits to the $ree7s
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She was a half 3rench, half 1ndian da ghter of GacA es . pCron Bab#, a 3rench $anadian trader and agent of the British 1ndian Service. Ms Bab# was born at or near 3ort .etroit, after 1+50. She s rvived the ShawneeO2#andot 8rail of 8ears and died in northeast Eansas 8erritor# abo t 1,-F.
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She was a half 3rench, half 1ndian da ghter of GacA es . pCron Bab#, a 3rench $anadian trader and agent of the British 1ndian Service. Ms Bab# was born at or near 3ort .etroit, after 1+50. She s rvived the ShawneeO2#andot 8rail of 8ears and died in northeast

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and $hero7ees in 1,09. . ring the 2ar of 1,1/ he fo ght with the British *rm# and his ncle!8ec mseh. 4e was with 8ec mseh on the retreat from *mherstberg in 1,1F and at the Battle of Moraviantown (Battle of the 8hames) on "ctober 5, 1,1F. 4e also fo ght at 3renchtown, 3ort Meigs, and the 8hames.

Bonami, Alexis dit &esp%ren$e. (1+9+!1,90)
*le(is was born on ?ovember /0, 1+9+, the son of %ierre 6esperance and Marg erite * coin. 4e was a 6a 6oche Boat Brigade leader and prominent g ide and boat pilot on the Mac7en'ie between the 1,/0s and 1,-0s. "n G ne 6, 1,/5, at St. Boniface, he married Marg erite 5renon (b. 1,0F), the# had thirteen children. 4e retired to =ed =iver (St. 3ranQois Uavier). * da ghter married 6o is 6enoir dit 6afertC. 4is grandson 6o is Schmidt dit 6afertC became secretar# of =ielHs %rovisional 5overnment in =ed =iver. 4is grandda ghters, &mma and $aroline, entered the "rder of the 5re# ? ns. *le(is died at St. 3ranQois Uavier on .ecember 11, 1,90.

Bone, Baptiste. (1,/-!19/-)
Baptiste Bone was the son of Metis leader Michael $ardinal and his "r7ne# wife, Sall# 2hitford. 4e was a band co ncilor and lived on the west side of $lear 6a7e at Eeesee7owenin =eserve 61*. 4e married Ea7a7e, his brother NellowheadHs widow and adopted her two da ghters. *ccording to the treat# records Baptiste accompanied his brother Eeesee7oowenin and =everend 5eorge 3lett to the treat# negotiations at 3ort L H*ppelle and signed the adhesion to 8reat# 3o r there.

Bonneau +amily and the ,ypress .ills Metis .unting Band
1n 1,+,, the 4alf!Breeds living in the vicinit# of $#press 4ills petitioned the government for their own reserve. 8his is a petition reA ested a re!opening of the b ffalo h nt between ?ovember 1- th and 3ebr ar# 15th each #ear and the granting of Metis >reserve@ land. 8he reA est was for a strip of land 150 miles long along the *merican border beginning where the %embina =iver crosses the border, r nning west for 150 miles into Sas7atchewan. 8his strip was to be fift# miles from so th to north. 8he petition did not receive a favo rable response. Seven members of the famil# of %ierre Bonnea Sr. (b. 1,0F) signed this petition.

Bonneau, Basile. (b. 1,-,)
Basile Bonnea was born at St. 3rancois Uavier, the son of %ierre Bonnea Sr. and 6o ise 5ariep#. 4e died at age F0 at 6ac L H*ppelle shortl# after this petition was sent. Manitoba Scrip *pplication9 Bonnea , Basile< 4B $hild< 3iled9 %ierre Bonnea , Sr.< Baie St. %a l< MarA ette< b. /03eb. 1,51, St. 3rancois Uavier< d. 6 ?ov 1,+,,?28< b . 6a7e L I*ppelle< %ierre Bonnea , heir and father< %ierre Bonnea (()< 16 G ne1,+5. $!1-9/5

Bonneau, ,harles. (b. 1,-5)
$harles Bonnea was born at "a7 6a7e, the son of %ierre Bonnea Sr. and 6o ise 5ariep#. 4e married =osalie %oitras, the da ghter of 5abriel %oitras and 1sabelle Malaterre. Bonnea , $harles ! $oncerning his claim as a head of famil#! *ddress, 3ort L I*ppelle ! Born, "a7 6a7e, * g. /0, 1,--! 3ather, %ierre Bonnea , (MCtis) ! Mother, 6a6o ise 5ariep#, (MCtis) ! Married, Gan. /0, 1,+0 at . ng 4ills to =osalie %oitras ! $hildren living, five (names on declaration)! $hildren deceased, two ! Scrip for K160 ! $laim 9,

Bonneau, #a'riel. (b. 1,69)
5abriel was born at 2ood Mo ntain, the son of Michel %a l dit Bonnea and &li'a Bo#er. 8his famil# lived at Swift $ rrent and 2ood Mo ntain.

Bonneau, "ulien. (b. 1,5+)
G lien was born on 3ebr ar# 16, 1,5+, the son of %ierre Bonnea Sr. and 6o ise 5ariep# at St. 3rancois Uavier. Manitoba Scrip *pplication9 Bonnea , G lien< 4B $hild< Baie St. %a l< MarA ette< vo#age r< b. // 3eb 1,5+, St. 3rancois Uavier< age //< %ierre Bonnea (4B) is father< 6o ise 5ariep# (4B) is mother< 3rench9 G lien Bonnea (()< 16 G ne 1,+9< %ierre Bonnea , Sr. (()< %ierre Bonnea , Gr.. $!1-9/5.

Bonneau dit Paul, Mi$hel.

Eansas 8erritor# abo t 1,-F.

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Michel was the son of %a l %a l and Madeleine :ivier. 4e married &li'a Bo#er, the da ghter of 6o is Bo#er and Madeleine 8rottier at St. 3rancois Uavier in 1,6/. &li'a Bo#erHs sister $ecile Bo#er was married to ?orbert 2elsh another signator to this petition. * third sister, $lemence Bo#er, was married to Goseph 6emire another signator#.

Bonneau, Pierre "r. (b. 1,5-)
%ierre Bonnea Gr. was the son of %ierre Sr. and 6o ise 5ariep# at St. 3rancois Uavier. Manitoba Scrip *pplication9 Bonnea , %ierre, Gr.< 4B $hild< Baie St. %a l< MarA ette< b. * g 1,55< St. 3rancois Uavier< age /-< %ierre Bonnea , Sr. (4B) is father< 6o ise 5ariep# (4B) is mother< 3rench9 %ierre Bonnea (()< 16 G ne 1,+9< %iere Bonnea , Gr.(()< *ntoine 6arocA e ((). $!1-9/5

Bonneau, Pierre Sr. (b. 1,0F)
%ierre Bonnea was a Metis leader in the L H*ppelle =iver :alle#. 1n 1,+,, the 4alf!Breeds living in the vicinit# of $#press 4ills petitioned the government for their own reserve. 8his is a petition reA ested a re!opening of the b ffalo h nt between ?ovember 1- th and 3ebr ar# 15th each #ear and the granting of Metis >reserve@ land. 8he reA est was for a strip of land 150 miles long along the *merican border beginning where the %embina =iver crosses the border, r nning west for 150 miles into Sas7atchewan. 8his strip was to be fift# miles from so th to north. 8he petition did not receive a favo rable response. 3o r members of the famil# of %ierre Bonnea Sr. (b. 1,0F) signed this petition. "n September /, 1,,0 the Metis of the L H*ppelle Settlement petitioned 5overnor *le(ander Morris for land, h nting rights and trading rights. 8he leaders of this gro p were %ierre Bonnea Sr. (b. 1,0F), %eter 6apierre (b. 1,/+) and Simon Blondea ZBlondin[ (b. 1,/+) and * g stin Brabant Sr. (b. 1,/,). %ierre Bonnea was born on March //, 1,0F at "a7 6a7e, the son of Jean Baptiste Bonneau6 born &7 *a! 175&-6 and Louise +a an 52hippe"a)-+% the! "ere married a ordin' to the ustom of the ountr! ir a 17/86 Jean Baptiste died &9 *a! 184& at a'e /8 and "as buried &7 *a! 184& at )t. Fran ois :a;ier. <n 18&8% +ierre married 6o ise 5ariep# (b. 1,15), the da ghter of 6o is 5ariep# (b. 1+,/) and Gosephte ($hippewa). 4is sons %ierre Gr., $harles and G lien also signed this petition. $hildren9 • Marg erite Bonnea was born in Sep 1,F1 and died on 1 "ct 1,F/ in St Boniface Mission at age 1. • • • • • • • • • • &li'abeth 1sabelle Bonnea was born on 6 September 1,F/. %ierre Bonnea was born in Mar 1,FF and died on 1 G l# 1,-6 at age 1F. Marie Bonnea was born in G ne 1,F9. $harles Bonnea was born on // * g st 1,-5 in "a7 6a7e Manitoba and died on + *pril 1,,6 at age -0. Basile Bonnea was born on 1- Gan ar# 1,-, in St 3rancis Uavier, and died on 6 ?ovember 1,+, at age F0. Marie &lmire Bonnea was born on 1- ?ovember 1,51 in St 3rancis Uavier. %ierre Bonnea was born on 1+ September 1,5- in St 3rancis Uavier. 5enevieve Bonnea was born on 1+ September 1,5- in St 3rancis Uavier. G lien Bonnea was born on 16 3ebr ar# 1,5+ in St 3rancis Uavier. Gosette Bonnea was born on // *pril 1,-/ in St 3rancis Uavier, and died on 15.ecember 1,-F at age 1.

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Gean!Baptiste Bonnea was born on *pril 15, 1+5, at :incennes, 1ndiana. 4e died./6 Ma# 1,-/ at St. 3rancois Uavier, Gean! Baptiste married a second wife, 1sabelle ($ree) , born abo t 1+55. She died on 1- "ctober 1,-5 St!3rancois!Uavier. -+ .a ghter of a Miami $hief %acanne and his Mahican wife. Born 1+60 in Michigan, died before 1,/0 at St. 3rancois Uavier. 4er brother was the famo s 1ndian $hief V6ittle 8 rtleV of the Miami 8ribe.

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Gean Baptiste Bonnea Gr. was born on F September 1,6- on the %rairie.

Scrip claims9 Bonnea , %ierre ! $oncerning his claim as a head of famil# ! *ddress, 3ortL I*ppelle ! Born, March //, 1,0F near "a7 6a7e ! 3ather, Gean BaptisteBonnea , (3rench $anadian) ! Mother, 6i'ette, (1ndian) ! Married, 1,/, at St.3rancois Uavier to 6alo ise 5ariep# ! $hildren living, si( (names on declaration)! $hildren deceased, five ! Scrip for K160 ! $laim 1-1.

Bonnin #ertrude “Ait!ala Sha” (Simmons). (1,+6!19F,)
5ertr de Simmons Bonnin, Tit7ala Sha (=ed Bird), was a talented and ed cated ?ative *merican woman who str ggled and tri mphed in a time when severe preJ dice prevailed toward ?ative *merican c lt re and women. 4er talents and contrib tions in the worlds of literat re, m sic, and politics challenge long!standing beliefs abo t ?ative *mericans. Bonnin aimed at creating nderstanding between the dominant white and ?ative *merican c lt res. *s a Metis woman of mi(ed white and ?ative *merican ancestr#, she embodied the need for the two c lt res to live cooperativel# within the same bod# of land. 4er wor7s critici'ed dogma, and her life as a ?ative *merican woman was dedicated against the evils of oppression. Bonnin was born on 3ebr ar# //, 1,+6, on the %ine =idge Nan7ton =eservation in So th .a7ota. 4er father was a white man named 3el7er, abo t whom little is 7nown. 4er mother was &llen 8ate 1#ohinwin (She =eaches for the 2ind) Simmons, a f ll!blooded Sio (. Bonnin was SimmonsH third child. *t eight #ears of age, Bonnin decided to leave her mother and the reservation to attend 2hiteIs Man al 6abor 1nstit te in 2abash, 1ndiana. 8his was a school f nded b# the L a7ers. *fter fo r #ears she ret rned home, b t then enrolled, against her motherHs wishes, at the Santee ?ormal 8raining School. She chose this school beca se it was close to her mother. 1n 1,95, she decided to move on and accepted entrance and scholarships to &arlham $ollege in 1ndiana. 8ho gh most noted for her literar# and political geni s, Bonnin was an accomplished violinist and even won a scholarship to st d# at the Boston $onservator# of M sic. 1n 191F, she and classical m sic composer 2illiam 4anson wrote an opera called S n .ance. 8he creation was appreciated b# a few ?ative *mericans, b t since 19F+ has gone nnoticed. ?either before nor since has there been an opera written b# a ?ative *merican. M sic was BonninHs real love, #et she felt it more important to fight for the rights of her people thro gh literat re and politics. *fter her st dies at the Boston $onservator#, Bonnin accepted a teaching position at the $arlisle 1ndian School. 4er sta# at $arlisle 1ndian School lasted two #ears. *s a writer, she adopted the pen name VTit7ala ShaV and in 1900 began p blishing articles critici'ing the $arlisle 1ndian School. She resented the degradation st dents nderwent, from forced $hristianit# to severe p nishment for spea7ing in native lang ages. She was critici'ed for this beca se man# felt she showed no gratit de for the 7indness and s pport that white people had given her in her ed cation. 5ertr de married $aptain =a#mond Bonnin. 4e was a mi(ed blood ?a7ota living on the reservation and wor7ing for the B rea of 1ndian *ffairs. )nfort natel#, the marriage did indeed prove detrimental to her career as she was forced to follow her h sbandHs career as the# moved from reservation to reservation. 8he Bonnins had one son named "hi#a (2inner). "n a reservation in )tah the Bonnins became part of the Societ# of *merican 1ndians, of which she was elected secretar# in 1916. 8he Bonnins moved to 2ashington, ..$., where 5ertr de contin ed her wor7 with the Societ# and began editing the American !ndian Maga1ine. * strong political voice for ?ative *mericans, Bonnin wrote O&lahomaNs #oor Rich !ndians: An Orgy of "raft , +.(loitation of the %ive Civili1ed Tribes , Legali1ed Robbery. 8his wor7, p blished in 19/-, with two white co!a thors, e(posed the robberies and m rders in "7lahoma of ?ative *merican people and led to the 1ndian =eorgani'ation *ct of 19F-, reestablishing a tr st for 1ndian lands. Bonnin was also pivotal in gaining the rights of citi'enship and the vote for ?ative *mericans. She did this b# see7ing nit# between all tribes in a pan!1ndian political power. 8h s began the ?ational $o nsel of *merican 1ndians, in 19/6. Bonnin died in 19F,, and is b ried in *rlington ?ational $emeter#. So rce9 *rlington ?ational $emeter#9

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http9OOwww.arlingtoncemeter#.netOgsbonnin.htm

Bostrom, .ar-ey. M.&.A. (b. 19-6)
4arve# Bostrom, a Metis from Manigotogan, the son of Goseph >Goe@ =. Bostrom (1900!1991) and ?orma &leanor Meade (191+! 199-). 4is father was born in Sweden and wor7ed in Manitoba as a trader and f r trapper ntil p rchasing and r nning the store in Manigotogan. 4arve#Hs Metis grandparents are 2illiam =ichard Meade and Mar# >Minnie@ &. %err#, the da ghter of Mar# 3o( -, and 3ran7 %err#. 4arve# is a past president of the ?orthern *ssociation of $omm nit# $o ncils, and was a ?ew .emocratic member of the 6egislative *ssembl# of Manitoba from 19+F to 19,1. 4e is an &conomics grad ate of the )niversit# of Manitoba, and wor7ed as a teacher and economist. Bostrom is c rrentl# .ep t# Minister of Manitoba *boriginal and ?orthern *ffairs. Bostrom was appointed to the cabinet of &dward Schre#er on .ecember /F, 19+-, being named as Minister of $ooperative .evelopment with responsibilit# for 6ands and =enewable =eso rces. 4e was named Minister of =enewable =eso rces and 8ransportation Services on "ctober 15, 19+5, and held this position ntil the Schre#er government was defeated in the election of 19++. Bostrom himself was re!elected in the 19++ election, with a red ced maJorit#. 1n 19+9, he s pported 4oward %awle#Hs s ccessf l bid to s cceed Schre#er as part# leader. 4e did not see7 re!election in the 19,1 election. 4arve# entered the civil service after leaving politics, and become the e(ec tive director of ManitobaHs ?ative *ffairs Secretariat (later renamed the *boriginal *ffairs Secretariat) in 1990. 4e was appointed acting dep t# minister of *boriginal and ?orthern *ffairs b# ?.% %remier .oer in /001, and was given f ll dep t# minister stat s shortl# thereafter. (b# 6awrence Bar7well and Shane Bostrom.

Bottineau, Angeli@ue “3manu! e”. (1,F,!190F)
*ngeliA e >"man 7we@ Bottinea was born "ctober ,, 1,F, at St. 3rancois Uavier, the da ghter of Goseph Bottinea (b. 1,15) and *ngeliA e $ardinal (b. 1,16). 4er paternal grandparents were Margaret Mah Ge 5wo' Since or *h!di7!Songab ($lear S7#)-9, and a 3rench!$anadian h nter grandfather, $harles Goseph Bottinea . 50 1n 1+,+, $harles Goseph Bottinea came into the ?orthwest 8erritor# $hippewa co ntr# with other 3rench f r traders. Between 1,0F!1,0,, $harles Sr. was a vo#age r and h nter with *le(ander 4enr# in the %embina area. "n G ne 15, 1,5+ at %embina *ngeliA e married *ntoine " ellette, also 7nown as *ntoine =atte, &llette or 2allette. 4e was born on .ecember /9, 1,F- at St. 3rancois Uavier, the son of Goseph " ellette (b. 1+99) and 8herese &li'abeth .aniels dite 4o le. Goseph was the son of Goseph " ellette Sr. (b.1+65) and *ngeliA e (*ssiniboine). 8heresa 4o le (b. 1,05) was the da ghter of *ntoine 4o le (b. 1+,1) and Gosephte 6a 'on. *ngeliA eHs sisters were married to *ntoineHs brothers. Marie Bottinea , born in 1,F- married 1sidore " ellette, born 1,F0. Gosephte Bottinea , born in 1,F6 married 3rancois " ellette born 1,F/. *ntoine and *ngeliA e had the following children9 •
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Goseph, b. Gan ar# /9, 1,59.

Mar# 3o( was the da ghter of $harles 3o( and 8herese Stevens. $harles 3o( was born aro nd 1,/0 somewhere in the ?orthwest 8erritories< however nobod# seems to 7now his e(act origins. 1t seems most li7el# that he was either an 1ndian or a half!breed< the name 3o( perhaps s ggests the former. 8he first and last place we find recorded evidence of him was in the St %eters 1ndian Settlement. *ro nd 1,-1 $harles married 8heresa (8hir'a) Stevens, the da ghter of an 1ndian woman named Mar# Meenish and =ichard Stevens (1+96!1,+/), an &nglishman. 1n the s mmer of 1,61 $harles 3o( erected a water!powered mill in St. %eterHs parish (1ndian Settlement). 8he NorC2ester commented that >1t is to be placed on a stream or riv let which r ns all winter;a ver# important advantage and will have a circ lar saw attached for plan7s, boards, shingles etc.@ $harles 3o( died in 1,6,, *fter her h sband died 2idow 8hir'a and her children moved to =iver 6ot 10+, which is located J st north of her fatherHs home (where the 6oc7port Bridge and Stevens *ven e are located toda#). 1n 1,99, grandda ghter Mar# &li'abeth >Minnie@ %err# married in 2innipeg to 2illiam =ichard Meade (1,+6!196/). 8he# too7 p residence in St %a l %arish (Middlech rch). 1n the cens s of 1901 2idow 8hir'a 3"U (now ++ #ears old) was recorded living with them there. (So rce9 http9OOwww.redriverancestr#.caO3"U!$4*=6&S!1,/0.php ) -9 *lso shown as Margaret Son gabo 7i che ta, the sister of $hief =ed Bear (Mis!co!m 7!A oh). 4er father (.elonais) was a .a7ota capt red b# the $hippewa and her mother was an n7nown $hippewa woman. *mong those who signed the %embina and =ed 6a7e $hippewa "ld $rossing 8reat# of 1,6F were her brother =ed Bear, $hief of the %embina, her son!in!law Goseph Montre ille, 2arrior of the %embina (married to their da ghter 1sabella or MiJigisi) and their son %ierre Bottinea . 50 $harles Goseph Bottinea dit Mendemo#a (1++6!1,/-) married Margaret in 1,1F, her third h sband, he was the son of %ierre Bottinea (1+F0!1+90) and Marie!*ngeliA e 3o rnaise dit 6abo cane.

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• • • • • • • • • • •

=ose, b. *pril F0, 1,61. She married ?orman Marion. Moise, b. G l# /, 1,6F at 6ewistown. 4e married &lise 1sabella . mont. $elina, b.c. 1,65. 3rancois >3ran7@, b. "ctober 1-, 1,6, at .evilHs 6a7e. 4e married Marie *le(ina 2elsh (2ells) Marie &lise, b. c. 1,+0 at 2ood Mo ntain. Marie %hilomene, b. 3ebr ar# /5, 1,+/ at 6ebret. She married Gohn 2ills. Goseph Gean Marie, b. 3ebr ar# -, 1,+- at 2ood Mo ntain. 4e died Gan ar# 1,+5. *lbert, b. Gan ar# 1-, 1,+6 at 2ood Mo ntain. 4e died in 1,++ at 3ort 2alsh. Gean Baptiste, b. 3ebr ar# /, 1,+, at $#press 4ills. Marie &li'abeth, b. March 19, 1,,0 at 6ewistown. She married Goseph .ominiA e . charme. "dilon, b. 1,,-. 4e married &li'a *' re.

*ntoine was an independent Metis trader operating bac7 and forth to St. %a l in the Minnesota 8erritor# and was heavil# involved in the Metis!.a7otaO6a7ota trade. 2ith the advent of the ?orth 2est Mo nted %olice he became a sco t and g ide for them. 2hen Sitting B ll came p to 2ood Mo ntain in 1,+0 he was reliant pon trade with *ntoine " ellette and 6o is 6egare who was wor7ing for " ellette o t of 2illow B nch (8alle de Sa les) as well as Goseph McEa#. Goseph McEa# was trading o t of 3ort &llice and Baptiste Bo rassa who was wor7ing for him was relieved of their whole trading o tfit b# the Sio ( near the Mil7 =iver. 1saac $owie reported that *ntoine was trading liA or to the 1ndians at 2ood Mo ntain, %into 4orse B tte and &agle L ills. 51 1n 1,++, to rists %erc# 4eber and his wife hired *ntoine >2allett@ as their sco t and g ide. 5/ 8he# had three carts fo r men incl ding *ntoine and thirteen horses. 8he# describe the 3rench spea7ing Metis as *ntoine their g ide, 5eorge, a coo7, and :illene ve, pl s an &nglish spea7ing Sio (. 8he first permanent settlers in Spring $ree7, what is now 6ewistown, Montana were the Metis. 1n 1,+9 three bands comprising of abo t fort# families came in their =ed =iver $arts. * few of the names that became ver# familiar to all were Berger, 2ells, 6averd re, " ellette, and Ben Eline who down thro gh the #ears was loo7ed pon as their spo7esman and leader. 8he# immediatel# filed on homesteads. 8he " ellette addition to the cit#, for e(ample, located near the 5arfield School, and 7nown as >B c7s7in 3lats,@ was *ntoine " elletteHs original homestead. 1n 1,+,, *ntoine and other Metis b ffalo h nters at $#press 4ills wrote a petition as7ing for a special Metis reserve of land. 4is father, Goseph Sr., and brothers, Goseph Gr. and Gean Baptiste also signed this petition. 8his petition reA ested a re!opening of the b ffalo h nt between ?ovember 1- th and 3ebr ar# 15th each #ear and the granting of Metis >reserve@ land (* strip of land 150 miles long along the *merican border beginning where the %embina =iver crosses the border). 8his strip was to be fift# miles from so th to north. 4is brother Gean Baptiste " ellette also signed this petition. *ntoine and his brother Moise also signed the petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles on * g st 6, 1,,0. *ngeliA e died on September 1-, 190F at 2illow B nch.

Bottineau, ,harles “Sharlo”. (b.c. 1,15)
$harles >Sharlo@ Bottinea was the son of an "Jibwa# mother, Margaret Mah Ge 5wo' Since or *h!di7!Songab ($lear S7#)5F, and a 3rench!$anadian h nter father, $harles Goseph Bottinea . 5- 1n 1+,+, $harles Goseph Bottinea came into the ?orthwest 8erritor# $hippewa co ntr# with other 3rench f r traders. Between 1,0F!1,0,, $harles Sr. was a vo#age r and h nter with *le(ander 4enr# in the %embina area. >Sharlo@ married 3rancoise %arentea , the da ghter of %ierre %arentea and Gosephte 6a rent circa .ecember /6, 1,50 at St. %a l. 8he# adopted an 1ndian child, 4#acinthe :illene ve. %ierre Bottinea , the famo s Metis g ide and interpreter was SharloHs #o nger brother. >Sharlo@ wor7ed in a trading post partnership with $harles 5rant at St. GosephHs. >Sharlo@ was a co nselor to $hief 6ittle Shell 11 and 6ittle Shell 111. 55
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1saac $owie. The Com(any of Adventurers'Toronto9 2illiam Briggs, 191F9 -FF. %erc# 4eber, *ournal of two +.cursions in the /rittiish North 2est Territory of North America$ 89AA$ 8999. Mar7et .ra#ton, &ngland9 Bennion M 4orne, 1,+99 -. 8he# retained *ntoine thro gh Games McEa# at Silver 4eights. 5F *lso shown as Margaret Son gabo 7i che ta, the sister of $hief =ed Bear (Mis!co!m 7!A oh). 4er father (.elonais) was a .a7ota capt red b# the $hippewa and her mother was an n7nown $hippewa woman. *mong those who signed the %embina and =ed 6a7e $hippewa "ld $rossing 8reat# of 1,6F were her brother =ed Bear, $hief of the %embina, her son!in!law Goseph Montre ille, 2arrior of the %embina (married to their da ghter 1sabella or MiJigisi) and their son %ierre Bottinea . 5$harles Goseph Bottinea dit Mendemo#a (1++6!1,/-) married Margaret in 1,1F, her third h sband, he was the son of %ierre Bottinea (1+F0!1+90) and Marie!*ngeliA e 3o rnaise dit 6abo cane.
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$o nselors for 6ittle Shell 111 in the 1,90s Z8hese men also served as co nselors for 6ittle Shell 119 *#se!sense[. Sas Swaine %oitras (6+)< E g!7a#!dwa#!wash!7 ng, 2illiam .avis (+0), %a#dwa#!walsh!7 m, 6o is 6enoir< Boin!ence .avis (+F)< Ear!#ence .elorme (50), a son of * g h7!A a#< Sharlo Bottinea (6,)< "ssaotit, 3rancois .esmarais (55)< 8chee!7ee!tarn %arisien (6,)< Batees! shish :alle# (5,), son of ?orbace :alle#< *h7ee!win!nini, *le( Gannott (5,)< 8cheer!7 h7, Goseph .esmarais (56)< Ba#riss, $orbet

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4is record of ann it# pa#ments and Metis Scrip9 Bottinea , $harles Z=.6. Scrip X109[ R?*M&9 Bottinea , $harles (*B8 1,15) Z:=* X1-[ R?*M&9 Bottinea , $harles (abt 1,/5) ZS$ 110[ R?*M&9 Sharlo (abt 1,/5) ZS$ 110[ RV4*63B=&&.VD6*?.DS$=1%9 ?ational *rchives, =5 +5, &ntr# F6F, V6ist of %ersons to 2hom Scrip was 1ss ed nder =ed 6a7e M %embina 8reaties....V Zchec7ed[ 4albreed Scrip ?o. 109, iss ed 3&B 1/, 1,+F, nder the a thorit# of Secretarial .ecision, G)? 1/, 1,+/, delivered 3&B 1/, 1,+F RV4*63B=&&.VD6*?.DS$=1%9 ?ational *rchives, =5 +5, &ntr# F6-, V8reat# of *%= 1/, 1,6-, =ed 6a7e and %embina 4alf!Breeds,V Scrip St bs, ? mber 109 Zchec7ed[, dated 3&B 1/, 1,+F, 160 *cres, delivered 3&B 1/, 1,+F, iss ed to $harles Bottinea , delivered to *gent &.%. Smith R=5D+5, S$D110, F/F,/!190+, ?ational *rchives9 $o ncil Meeting - "ct 1,9/, 8 rtle Mo ntain Band of $hippewa 1ndians, co ncilman, his I(I mar7 R5&?&*6"5ND$"M%16&.DBND:1=51?1*D="5&=S9 Z:irginia =ogers, *h!.ic7 Songab 5enealog#, X1-[ married ?":O.&$ /6, 1,50 2itnesses were Bottinea , %ierre and %arentea , Mr. (father of the bride). 8he# adopted an 1ndian child named :illen eve, 4#acinthe RS")=9 ?ational *rchives, =ecord 5ro p +5, Special $ase 110, 6, #ears old Zin 1,9/[, the old co ncilman and co nsellor of the late $hief *#s!sence

Bottineau, ,harles. (1,5F)
$harles was born on Gan ar# /,, 1,5F, at St. *nthon# 3alls, the son of Martha 5ervais and Goseph Bottinea . 4e was a f r trader who was in partnership with %eter 5rant at St. Goseph (?orth .a7ota). $harles married &va 6ato relle (b. 1,,5)

Bottineau, (lzear Mi$hel. (1,-/!19/0)
&l'ear was born on * g st /5, 1,-/ at St. Boniface, the son of Goseph $harles Botinea and *ngeliA e $ardinal. 4e married 1sabelle St. %ierre (b. 1,-+), at %embina in 1,6/. She was the da ghter of 3rancois St. %ierre and Marie 6averd re. &l'ear died at 2illow B nch on Ma# 1, 19/0. 8he# had the following children< all b t one died in infanc# or childhood • 1sabelle, born 1,61 ($#press 4ills), died 1,6/. • 3rancois, born 1,66, married Marie 8herese Mc5illis. • %ierre, born 1,++( $#press 4ills) died 1,++. • G les, born 1,+6 ($#press 4ills) died 1,++. • Goseph, born 1,,0 (2ood Mo ntain) • *lfred, born 1,+F ($#press 4ills), died 1,+- 2ood Mo ntain. • Gean Baptiste, born 1,,1 (2ood Mo ntain), died 1,,+. • *ntoine, born 1,,F (2ood Mo ntain) died 1,,F.

5rant (55)< Earn!nar!dah, *ntoine 4ene lt (59)< and Gean Batees 5orin ($hampagne, 5+).

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4is father, Goseph $harles Bottinea 56 was born at =ed =iver in 1,15. 5+ 4e and *ngeliA e $ardinal were en merated at %embina in the 1,50 $ens s as famil# X F,9 Goseph Bea tina age F0, h nter born %embina< *ngelic age /6 born %embina< Mar# age 16 born %embina, Gosette age 1- born %embina, *ngelic age 9 born %embina, Goseph age + born %embina, &lssier age 5 born %embina, Gohn age - born %embina, $harles age F born %embina, Gosette Bea tina age +0 born =ed =iver British. &l'earHs father, Goseph, received ann it# pa#ments as a member of 6ittle ShellHs Band in 1,66 and as a member of 2a# 7e ge 7e 'hic7Hs Band in 1,6, 9 Bea tina , Goseph (1,/0) Z1,50 ).S.[ =6 Bottinea , Goseph Zd1,66!,[ %1-9.15b Minnesota 8erritorial $ens s, %embina $o nt#, 1,509F,OF, born9 %embina occ pation9 h nter son of9 dd and Bea tina , Gosette (1+,0) born9 =ed =iver Br. Z1,509 h sband of9 Bea tina , *ngelic (1,/-) born9 %embina Z1,509 father of9 Bea tina , Mar# (1,F-) born9 %embina Bea tina , Gosette (1,F6) born9 %embina Bea tina , Goseph (1,-F) born9 %embina Bea tina , =ession (1,-5) born9 %embina Bea tina , Gohn (1,-6) born9 %embina Bea tina , $harles (1,-+) e %embina *nn it# =oll, 6ittle ShellIs Band, 1,669FO/0 ! 1 man, 1 woman K 5 paid 1,6+9/00 ! 1 man, 1 woman K , paid 2a# 7e ge 7e 'hic7Is Band, 1,6,9/F/ ! 1 man, 1 woman, 1 child K 9 paid September /0, 1,6+ recieved K66-.1+ pa#ment for /,00X Beef< ,1F.9 V %emican< V=ed 6a7e =iver $ompan#,V approved b# G.B. Bassett, )nited States 1ndian *gent 1,6+9 pa#ment for 1-00X Beef< 516 1OF V %emican, V=ed 6a7e =iver $ompan#,V approved b# G.B. Bassett, )nited States 1ndian *gent Goseph received Scrip X10 nder the %embina and =ed 6a7e 8reat#9 Bottinea , Goseph Z=.6. Scrip X10[ Bottinea , Goseph (abt.1,10) Z:=* X6[ \ ?ational *rchives, =5 +5, &ntr# F6F V6ist of %ersons to 2hom Scrip was 1ss ed nder =ed 6a7e M %embina 8reaties...4alfbreed Scrip ?o. 10 iss ed ?ovember 1,, 1,+/, nder the a thorit# of Secretarial .ecision, G ne 1/, 1,+/, delivered ?ovember 1,, 1,+/ Z:irginia =ogers, *h!.ic7 Songab 5enealog#, X6[ son of9 Bottinea , $harles Z:=*[ and Marg erite, a Sa te se Z:=*[ h sband of9 $ardinal, *ngeliA e (abt.1,15), da ghter of $ardinal, GacA es and Gosephte, an *ssiboine date of marriage9 September 1+, 1,F/, at St. Boniface (2innipeg), $anada iss e9 Bottinea , Marie (abt.1,F-) Z:=* X-F[ Bottinea , Gosette (abt.1,F6) Z:=* X--[ Bottinea , *ngeliA e (abt.1,-1) Z:=* X-5[ Bottinea , Goseph (abt.1,-F) Z:=* X-6[ Bottinea , &leaor (=esion) (abt.1,-5) Z:=* X-+[ Bottinea , Gohn (abt.1,-6) Z:=* X-,[ Bottinea , $harles (abt.1,-+) Z:=* X-9[Bottinea , Gonas Z:=* X50[ Scrip *pplications9 =515, 1nterior, Series .!11!,!b, :ol 1F/5, =eel $!1-9F6 Bottinea , &l'ear ! $oncerning his claim as head of faml# ! *ddress, 2illow B nch ! Born, St. 3rancois Uavier, 1,-, ! 3ather, Goseph Bottinea , (MCtis) ! Mother, *ngeliA e $ardinal, (MCtis) ! Married, 1,61 at St. Goe to 1sabelle %ierre ! $hildren living, two (names on declaration) ! $hildren deceased, nine ! Scrip for K160 ! $laim 1605.

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4e was the son of $harles Bottinea born 01 Ma# 1++6 in Berthier!en!4a t, L ebec, and Marg erite 8echomehgood born 1+,0 in the 4air 4ills. 8he# were married on Ma# 1, 1+9+ at =ed =iver. 5+ *ncient =egister of St. Boniface 1,/5!1,F-, pg. +6 M!+,, Goseph Botinea , ad lt son of the late $harles Botinea and Marg erite Sa te se, married Sep 1+, 1,F/, *ngeliA e $ardinal, minor da ghter of GacA es $ardinal and Gosephte *ssiniboine, %resent9 GacA es $ardinal and Basile Belanger, 3. Bo cher priest.

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=515, 1nterior, Series .!11!,!c, :ol 1FF+, =eel $!1-951 Bottinea , &l'ear< heir of his deceased son, *lfred Bottinea < claim no. F-< born9 2inter, 1,+F at $#press 4ills< father9 &l'ear Bottinea (MCtis M deponent)< mother9 1sabelle St. %ierre (MCtis)< died9 1,+- at 2ood Mo ntain< scrip cert.9 form 3, no. -/-.

Bottineau, "ean Baptiste. (1,F+!1911)
Gean Baptiste was a Metis law#er and son of %ierre Bottinea and 5enevieve 6arance. 4e married Marie =ainville,(born Gan ar# 1F, 1,-/) at %embina at St. %a l, on Ma# F, 1,5+. 4e was the nephew of $harles Bottinea , who co!owned a trading post with $harles 5rant at %embina. Gean Baptiste was 7nown as the first farmer of ?orth .a7ota. 4e grew p at St. *nthon# 3alls, now Minneapolis and it was there tha he st died law. 3or man# #ears he practiced law in Minneapolis and also acted as the 8 rtle Mo ntain Band tribal attorne# representing the 8ribe in 2ashington, ..$. on treat# matters. 1t was $hief 6ittle Shell 111 who had as7ed Bottinea to represent the Band to negotiate the Mc$ mber *greement. 4e was dedicated to the 8 rtle Montain people and for man# #ears serve on their 8ribal B siness $o ncil. 8he government was not pleased with this advocac# for the 8 rtle Mo ntain gro p and 1ndian *gent 2a gh denied Bottinea entr# to the reservation nder threat of arrest, th s tr#ing to den# the tribe competent legal co nsel. *ll told Bottinea spent twent# #ears in 2ashington wor7ing on the 8 rtle Mo ntain land claim. 4e died in 2ashington in 1911.

Bottineau Bald in, Marie &ouise. (1,6F!195/)
1n 191-, Marie 6o ise, a member of the 8 rtle Mo ntain $hippewa Band became 2ashington $ollege of 6awHs first ?ative *merican (Metis) st dent to grad ate. Marie 6o ise was the da ghter of Gean Baptiste Bottinea , enrolled 8 rtle Mo ntain Band member and law#er for the band. 4er mother was Marg erite =enville (b. Gan. 1F, 1,-/ at %embina), the da ghter of 3ranQois =enville and Marg erite . mas Belgarde. 8he# married on ?ovember 1+, 1,6/ at St. Goseph. 8he famil# was iss ed 4alf Breed Scrip nder the amendments of the 1,6- "ld $rossing 8reat#. 8he children listed are Marie 6o ise born 1,6F, 6illian born 1,6+ and *lvina $lementa born 1,6,. Marie 6o ise Bottinea !Baldwin was the first woman of color to grad ate from the 2ashington $ollege 6aw School. 8he 2$6 st dent organi'ation raises f nds to s pport the Marie Bottinea Baldwin Scholarship, which honors her achievement. Marie 6o ise went on to become a prominent advocate of ?ative *merican 1ndian ca ses in the "ffice of 1ndian *ffairs. 4er appointment to a position with the B rea of 1ndian *ffairs was approved b# %resident 8heodore =oosevelt in 190-. She was an acco ntant in the &d cation .ivision of the B rea and 8reas rer of the Societ# of *merican 1ndians. Marie 6o ise was admitted to the bar in 191-, having completed the three #ears of co rses d ring two #ears of attending evening classes. She also grad ated with highest distinction ' The Buarterly *ournal of American !ndians noted that >Mrs. Baldwin, who is 8reas rer of the Societ# of *merican 1ndians, has offered herself to the 2ar .epartment for services overseas. She spea7s 3rench as fl entl# as &nglish, and her s7ill as an acco ntant will ma7e her val able to the acco nting staff.@ 2418& 4")S&, 3ebr ar# /+, 190-. Mrs. Marie 6. Baldwin, whose name appears pon the Minnesota cler7 register, ma# be certified for appointment as cler7 at K900 in the "ffice of 1ndian *ffairs witho t regard to the provisions of $ivil!Service = le :11. 84&"."=& =""S&:&68. 4er great grandfather, $harles ZGoseph[ Bottinea Sr. was with the 6ewis and $lar7 e(pedition Z1,0F!1,06[. 4er paternal grandparents were 5enevieve >Gennie@ 6arence, born 1,1, in the ?orth 2est 8erritories, and %ierre Bottinea , son of $harles Bottinea and Marg erite MacheA a#'aince Son!gabo!7iche!te ($lear S7#). %ierre was born Gan ar# 1, 1,1+, at Bear %oint, 8 rtle =iver. 4er grandparents were married on .ecember 1, 1,F6 at =ed =iver Settlement.

Bottineau, Pierre. (1,16!1,95)
%ierre Bottinea was born in a h nting camp near what was to become 5rand 3or7s, ?orth .a7ota. 4e was the son of an "Jibwa# mother, Martha $lear S7#, and a 3rench!$anadian h nter father, Goseph Bottinea . 4e grew p on the =ed =iver aro nd %embina and the &nglish colonies. 4e was a well!7nown g ide for emigrants, traders and land spec lators. %ierre was 7nown as the >.aniel Boone@ of ?orth .a7ota and a co nt# is named for him in that state. . ring his life, %ierre learned to spea7 3rench, .a7ota, *ssiniboine, "Jibwa#, %lains $ree, Mandan, 2innebago and &nglish.

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%ierre married for the first time on .ecember 1, 1,F6, at St. Boniface to 5enevieve 6arance (b. 1,1,), the# had nine children. She died at St. *nthon# 3alls on *pril 9, 1,51. 4is second marriage, on Gan ar# 6, 1,5/ was to Martha $. 5ervais (b. 1,F+). 8he# had 1- children. %ierre apprenticed with *ntoine 6e $o nt (6e 5ros) and made his first long trip as a messenger for the ?orth 2est $ompan# in 1,F0, travelling from the =ed =iver colon# to %rairie . $hein in what is now 2isconsin. "ver the ne(t few #ears, he reg larl# g ided families who were leaving the Sel7ir7 Settlement to the growing 3rench Swiss $olon# near 3ort Snelling at the for7s of the Minnesota and Mississippi =ivers. *mong those families were two of his sisters. 1n 1,F+, %ierre was the g ide for the part# of Martin Mc6eod from 3ort 5arr# to 3ort Snelling with a message for the commander of 3ort Snelling from >5eneral@ Games .ic7son a grandiose man with visions of creating an *merindian 7ingdom in $alifornia of which he was to be leader. )pon his ret rn to 3ort 5arr#, Bottinea , with his wife 5enevieve 6a=ance (or Gennie 6awrence, a MCtisse) ret rned to settle at the 3rench!Metis village near 3ort Snelling where he began farming. 1n 1,-0, militar# reg lations forced the evac ation of this settlement and Bottinea bo ght land at what is now St. %a l. 1n 1,-5 he bo ght a claim on the east ban7 of the Mississippi above St. *nthon# 3alls. 8h s along with 3ran7lin Steele, he came to own all of the waterfront properties of St. *nthon#, now a part of the cit# of Minneapolis. 1n 1,51 he also owned a hotel on &l7 =iver which was sed as a freighting wa# station. S bseA ent to b siness setbac7s at the hands of other spec lators Bottinea moved to the present da# site of "sseo, Minnesota in 1,55. "ff and on he farmed there at what was 7nown as Bottinea Hs %rairie. 4e also held the office of S pervisor of =oads of =amse# $o nt# thro gh election in 1,50. "n top of these farming activities, %ierreHs main emplo#ment was in carr#ing o t government s ppl# contracts on the )pper Mississippi. Being fl ent in 3rench, $hippewa ("Jibwa), $ree and *ssiniboine lang ages, he was also in demand as an interpreter. 4e often wor7ed as a sco t for 4enr# 4astings Sible# when the latter was an agent for the *merican 3 r $ompan#. 1n September of 1,51 %ierre received a contract to provide s pplies and g iding services for *le(ander =amse#, 5overnor of the Minnesota 8erritor#. 8his was at the time =amse# had a %residential commission to negotiate a treat# with the %embina, =ed 6a7e and 8 rtle Mo ntain $hippewa. 8his initial effort however was never ratified. 1n 1,5F, 1saac Stevens, the new 5overnor of the 2ashington 8erritor# chose Bottinea , to be the principal g ide for the %acific =ailroad &(pedition across ?orth .a7ota to 3ort )nion on the Misso ri =iver. Stevens described Bottinea as >the great g ide and vo#age r of Minnesotaa famo s as a b ffalo h ntera Zwho[ s rpasses all of his class in tr thf lness and great intelligence@ (1saac Stevens, Narrative and final Re(ort of the +.(lorations for a Route for a #acific Railroad, 2ashington, 1,559 -1). 1t is notable that d ring this trip the# met p with 5overnor Gean Baptiste 2il7ie from %embina with a b ffalo h nting part# comprising of ,/- =ed =iver carts. 1n 1,56 Bottinea was part of a gro p of land spec lators who s rve#ed land at what is now Brec7enridge, Minnesota. 4e received /00 lots as his share b t the railwa# was not b ilt close to this location and the lots were worthless. Bottinea was g ide and interpreter on the two f rther treat# e(peditions of 1,60 and 1,6F to treat with the $hippewa. =amse#Hs treat# of 1,6F was s ccessf l in that $ongress ratified it. 1n 1,6/, %ierre, along with his fifteen! #ear!old son .aniel, led the Games 6ibert# 3is7 emigrant gro p to 3ort )nion. 1n the mid 1,60s he led 5eneral Sible#Hs troops in search of the Sio ( after the 1ndian 2ars bro7e o t. Bottinea Hs last important e(pedition was the 1,69 ?orthern %acific =ailroad s rve# part# to 3ort )nion. 1n 1,+6 he fo nd his location at "sseo becoming too pop lated and relocated his famil# to =ed 6a7e 3alls, a town he established. 8here he b ilt a large bric7 ho se on the bend of the river. 1n 1,+9 the gratef l citi'ens of Minnesota petitioned $ongress to give a pension to Bottinea . Bottinea died at =ed 6a7e 3alls, east of 5rand 3or7s on G l# /+, 1,95, leaving twent#!three children, nine b# his first wife and fo rteen b# his second wife, Martha 5ervais. 4is son Gean Baptiste practiced law in Minneapolis and later represented the 8 rtle Mo ntain $hippewa and Metis in their claims against the government. 4e was also a powerf l advocate for ed cational meas res for this gro p.

Bou$her, ,aroline &esp%ran$e. (1,-/!1910).
$aroline was the da ghter of *le(is Bonami 6espCrance and Marg erite 5renon. 4er father was a leader of the 4B$ 6a 6oche boat brigades and was a strong =iel s pporter in the 1,69!+0 =esistance. *ltho gh not active in 1,,5, *le(is was a =iel s pporter. *le(is died at St. 3rancois Uavier on .ecember 11, 1,90, age 9-. $aroline 6esperance was the a nt of 6o is Schmidt, a bo#hood friend of =iel, who sent n mero s petitions of Metis grievances to "ttawa from St. 6o is in 1,,F!,-, and first s ggested that the Metis send for =iel in Montana. $aroline married Gean Baptiste Bo cher. 4e was a member of =ielHs &(ovedate. $aroline accompanied her h sband, $harles ?olin, Ma(ime 6epine, 5abriel . mont, Baptiste Bo#er and 6o is =iel to the first meeting with the &nglish Metis at the 6indsa# School 4o se. 4er h sband was wo nded at the Battle of Batoche. 8heir da ghter Marie Marg erite married Ma(ime 6epine Gr. $aroline died at St. 6o is on Ma# 11, 1910.

Bou$her, ,harles (ugene, M.&.A. (1,6-!19/6)
$harles & gene Bo cher was the son of Gean Baptiste Bo cher and $aroline 6esperance. 4e married 4elene 6etendrC da ghter of 3ranQois Uavier 6etendrC dit Batoche and Marg erite %arentea . 4e is listed as an assistant secretar# to the $o ncil of the %rovisional 5overnment at Batoche in 1,,5. 4e became an elected M6* for the Batoche district in 1,9/.

5/

& gene was elected as M6* for the Batoche .istrict in 1,9/ and re!elected in 1,9-. 4e was also a song writer in the st#le of %ierre 3alcon and some of his songs e(press the sentiments of the Metis d ring their times of stress. 4is two brothers, 3red and Goseph recorded his songs for the ?ational M se m in "ttawa. & gene was born at St. 3ranQois Uavier on .ecember 1st 1,6-, the son of Gean Baptiste Bo cher and $aroline 6espCrance. 4is famil# moved to St. 6o is, Sas7atchewan in 1,,/. "n * g st 1,, 1,,6 & gene married 4elene 6etendre at Batoche. 4elene was also born at St. 3ranQois Uavier (on .ecember 9, 1,66). She was the da ghter of 3ranQois Uavier 6etendre dit Batoche and Marg erite %arentea . 4er famil# had moved to St. 6a rent in 1,+1 and were fo nders of the village of Batoche. 2hen 3ranQois Uavier 6etendre left Batoche in 1,,- to tend to his trading posts in the $arrot =iver region, $harles Bo cher was left in charge of his store at Batoche. ($ontrib ted b# 4eather 4allett.) 6o is Schmidt wrote of & gene Bo cher9 >*fter having served as cler7 to Mr. Uavier 6etendre for a considerable time he married the eldest da ghter. *s he was ver# pop lar the electors of the co nt# of Batoche sent him to represent them at =egina in the legislative assembl# for two or three sessions of parliament. *fter the nfort nate legislation of 1,90 concerning the schools and the 3rench lang age Zloss[, being pheld b# some of his colleag es of the north of the province, he did not hesitate to propose a vote of cens re to the parliament against his chief, Mr. 4a ltain. 4e also obtained grants of mone# for some of the poor schools in his co nt#, and the fine roads he had made are still in se with b t ver# little repair.@ Reference
Gohn 4aw7es, The ,tory of ,as&atchewan and its #eo(le, :ol. 1, =egina9 S.G. $lar7e % blishing $o., 19/-9 /+9!/,0.)

Bou$her, (d ard
&dward was the son of Gean Marie Bo cher (b. 1,/6) and $harlotte "miosis. 4is grandparents were Goseph Bo cher (b. 1+9/) and Marg erite . p is, the da ghter of Gean Baptiste . p is and Marie (*ssiniboine). &d Bo cher married $aroline M nro, the da ghter of 3eli( M nro (b. 1,/5) (b. 1,50) in 1,+F. &dward signed a September 19, 1,++ %etition from Gohn M nro and other Metis at Blac7foot $rossing that was presented to 6ie tenant!5overnor .avid 6aird 6ie tenant 5overnor, ?.2.8. 1n this petition the# as7ed for farming implements and seed to begin to settle and till the land. 8he# also reA ested h nting rights. .a ghtersH scrip claims 9 8rottier, S 'anne< address9 .ep #er, Montana< born9 ?ovember, 1,+, at $algar#< father9 &dward Bo cher (MCtis)< mother9 $aroline M nro (MCtis)< scrip cert.9 form $, no. ,96< claim no. 1F,5. Swan, Bets#< address9 .ep #er, Montana< born9 Gan ar#, 1,+5 at B ffalo 6a7e, *lberta< father9 &dward Bo cher (MCtis)< mother9 $aroline Monro (MCtis)< scrip cert.9 form $, no. ,9-< claim no. 1F,-.

Bou$her, (mma, Sr. St. Mar$ien. (1,+1!195,)
&mma and her sister $aroline (Sr. Bonami) were from the Batoche area. 8he# entered the "rder of the 5re# ? ns in the 1,,0s. 8he# were grandda ghters of the famo s 6a 6oche Boat Brigade leader *le( Bonami dit 6espCrance noted elsewhere. &mma persevered in the order where her talents as an artist and seamstress were highl# val ed. She spent the last -5 #ears of her life at the Mother 4o se in Montreal. $aroline however missed her famil# to the point that she left the order.

Bou$her, +ran0ois Sr. (b. 1,/-)
Bo cher married &li'a, a ?ative woman from the .eh $ho region. 4e wor7ed at 3ort 6aird and the *thabasca territor#, later the famil# moved to the $arlton, M s7eg 6a7e vicinit#. 4e is on %hillipe 5arnotHs list as an 1,,5 =esistance participant.

Bou$her, "ames “;shem”. (b. circa 1,1,)
Games Bo cher, born circa 1,1,, at St art 6a7e, B.$., was the eldest son of Gean Baptiste 2accan and ?anc# Mc.o gall. Gean Baptiste Bo cher dit 2accan (b. 1+,9) 6i7e his father, he was an interpreter for the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan# at 3ort Saint Games on St art 6a7e and was emplo#ed b# the 4B$ in ?ew $aledonia from 1,// ntil his death in 1,-9. Games went to "regon with the northern brigade and was living at the Saint %a l mission on /- G l# 1,-,, when he married a MCtis woman at the b# the name of =osalie %lo ffe. 4is wife, da ghter of f r trader *ntoine %lo ffe and his >$o ntr# 2ife@ *ngCliA e Slawa, a $ha diPre ($arrier) woman, Games wor7ed for the 4B$ from 1,5/ to 1,--. Games moved in 1,-/ to settle in the 2illamette :alle#, trib tar# to the $ol mbia opposite 3ort :anco ver. 4e married >8ittnan@ or >Marie,@ a $arrier 1ndian woman, b# whom he had n mero s children, at least five of whom were da ghters9 Sophie, %hilomena, Genn# (Geannie), Marg erite, and *ngell.

5F

Games and MarieHs eldest da ghter, Sophie, born in 1,5+, married in 1,+5 the mi(ed!ancestr# %ierre =oi, a 4B$ servant. %ierre =oi, Gr. was the son of Sorel!born, 4B$ emplo#ee (1,-0!5F) %ierre =oi and li7el# a $arrier woman (he began wor7ing in ?ew $aledonia as a twent# one #ear old). Games and MarieHs second da ghter, %hilomene, born in 1,59, married /9 #ear old 8homas 4amilton, an "r7ne#! man, in 1,+5 and had been widowed in 1,,1 when she was living with her parents, and then, in 1,,6, married =ed =iver!born Gohn 2illiam 3lett, son of Gohn and &llen 3lett. * third da ghter, Genn# (Geannie) Bo cher, married 3rancois =oi, brother of %ierre, in 1,,/. * fo rth da ghter, Marg erite, born in 1,6F, married =ed =iver!born *ntoine 6efreniCre, son of *ntoine 6efreniCre and Marg erite 5rant in 1,++. *nother da ghter, *ngell, born in 1,69, was living at home in 1,,1. *fter his fatherHs death, he was the liaison between the northern traders and the 1ndians, being of special assistance to chief trader Manson on man# occasions. Games Bo cher was still living in G ne 190+. 4e was also 7nown as Gim or >8shem.@

Bou$her, "ean Baptiste Sr. (1,F,!1911)
Gean Baptiste was born at =ed =iver on G l# /6, 1,F,, the son of Gean Marie Bo cher and $atherine Minse#. 4e was married to $aroline 6espCrance, the da ghter of *le(is Bonami 6esperance. 8he# moved to St. 6o is on the So th Sas7atchewan from St. 3ranQois Uavier in 1,,/. "n ?ovember 19, 1,,F he had signed a petition protesting the 1,,F "rder in $o ncil transferring the Metis lands at St. 6o is to the %rince *lbert $oloni'ation $ompan#. Baptiste was a member of =ielHs 16 man $o ncil (&(ovedate) at Batoche d ring the 1,,5 =esistance. Gean Baptiste was a $aptain of one of the 19 companies led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance. 8he# moved to Montana after 1,,5 and resided at 3ort *ssiniboine. 8heir son was Metis politician $harles! & gene >Boss@ Bo cher. 8he intricate relationship of this famil# with the other famo s families at St. 6o is and Batoche is evident when one loo7s at their childrenHs marriages. • Marie9 Born 3eb. ,, 1,60, married first to Goseph 6avallee (had three children) and then to "delon St. .enis, the# had a f rther si( children. • Gean Baptiste Gr.9 Born G ne F0, 1,61, married to Maria Bremner. • Solomon9 Born 1,6/, married =ose " ellette the da ghter of Mofse " elette and 1sabelle . mont. • $harles & gene9 Born 1,6-, married 4elene 6etendre da ghter of 3ranQois Uavier 6etendre dit Batoche and Marg erite %arentea . 4e became an elected M6* for the Batoche district in 1,9/, see his biograph# above. • =ose9 Born 1,65, married Mofse Bremner. • Marie Marg erite9 Born * g st /0, 1,66, married Ma(ime 6Cpine Gr., the son of the famo s Ma(ime 6Cpine Sr. and Gosephte 6avallee. • $aroline9 Born 1,69, $aroline (Sr. Bonami) along with her sister, &mma, entered the "rder of the 5re# ? ns in the 1,,0s. $aroline however missed her famil# to the point that she left the order. She then married Gohn El#ne. • &mma9 Born March F1, 1,+1, became Sr. Marie de St. Marcien. She spent the last -5 #ears of her life at the Mother 4o se in Montreal. • 3rederic79 Born ?ovember ,, 1,+/, married $atherine . bre il, then Beatrice 6Cpine, the grandda ghter of Ma(ime 6Cpine Sr. • *lvina9 Born ?ovember 9, 1,+F, married Mathias %arentea . • &lise9 Born in 1,+/, married Gean!Marie 3orestier. • Sarah9 Born September 1+, 1,+9, married *lbert Marion. • Goseph *le(andre9 Born 3ebr ar# 9, 1,+,, married .elia Melvina =och. • .elima9 Born on Ma# 1-, 1,,/, at 6ittle =apid =iver, married $harles %antaleon Schmidt, the son of =ielHs secretar#, 6o is Schmidt dit 6afertC. • %ierre 6o is &rnest9 Born on *pril F0, 1,,5, married 5race Ber be.

Bou$her, "ean Baptiste "r. (1,61!19-F)
Gean Baptiste was born on G ne F0, 1,61, the son of Gean Baptiste Sr. and $aroline 6esperance. 4e married Maria Bremner. 4e was an active fighter d ring the 1,,5 =esistance. "n ?ovember 19, 1,,F he had signed a petition protesting the 1,,F "rder in $o ncil transferring the Metis lands at St. 6o is to the %rince *lbert $oloni'ation $ompan#. Bo cher was a dep t# lands officer from 1,,, to 1,95.

Bou$her, "ean Baptiste dit :a$$an. (1+,9! 1,50)
Gean Baptiste was a 3rench!$ree!Metis from the *thabasca district. 4e arrived at site of 3ort St. Games with Simon 3raser in 1,06 and accompanied 3raser on his first Jo rne# down the 3raser =iver in 1,0,. 4e was an interpreter, >policeman,@ provisioner, and the right hand man for a s ccession of 3ort St. Games 3actors. 4e married a $arrier 1ndian woman in 1,11 and had a s bseA ent marriage to ?anc# Mc.o gall the da ghter of a f r compan# cler7. 8he# had seventeen children.

5-

8his 3ranco!$ree MCtis who was the most infl ential and respected Metis west of the =oc7# Mo ntains. 1n 1,06, he accompanied Simon 3raser when the e(plorer discovered St art 6a7e. *fter that, Bo cher settled permanentl# in the 3ar 2est. 8wo #ears later, he was still with the same e(plorer on his fatef l vo#age from Ma# to * g st 1,0, along the river that now bears his name. 1n Gan ar# 1,11, Bo cher was the first foreigner to come from the east who too7 a wife from among the natives, b t the nion which he entered into at that time with a $arrier woman m st not have lasted long, since shortl# after he married ?anc#, the MCtis da ghter of trader Games Mc.o gall, with whom Bo cher had been associated. 4e served as an interpreter for the ?orth 2est $ompan# in ?ew $aledonia d ring the winter of 1,1F!1-. Bo cher, or more e(actl# >2accan,@ since he was more commonl# called b# his $ree name, was brave to the point of rec7lessness. *s s ch, he A ic7l# acA ired an nparalleled infl ence in the local tribes. 1n 1,/,, his half!brother, . ncan 6ivingston, was 7illed b# Babine 1ndians. 2itho t hesitation, 2accan left alone on a one h ndred thirt#!mile trip to see7 revenge. 4e went straight at the m rderer in front of several of his friends, shot him point blan7 and wo nded one of the witnesses who appeared to be coming to his aid. &ver#one else who was present sta#ed bac7, too st pefied b# s ch daring to even thin7 of to ching him. 1t was not s rprising that when the foreman in charge of a fort established among these 1ndians was 7illed in 1,-F, 2accan was the leader of the gro p of $anadiens sent from St art 6a7e to avenge his death. 1f 1ndians stopped off near 3ort Saint Games, where he resided, 2accan was entr sted with the tas7 of ma7ing them give p the games of chance and getting them to go o t and trap f rs. 2henever an emplo#ee deserted his post, 2accan was sent to p rs e him, and rarel# ret rned witho t his man. 1f a convo# of rations needed special care, it was entr sted to 2accan. *t the fort, he often replaced the commander d ring his man# absences,even tho gh technicall# he was onl# the head interpreter. >2a7an@ Bo cher can be fo nd in the parish records for the Saint %a l mission in the 2illamette in 1,-6. Bo cher died of measles in the spring of 1,50, the last s rviving member of Simon 3raserHs e(pedition. 4e had been at St art 6a7e no less than fort#!fo r #ears.

Bou$her, "ohn B., ,M, Senator oB M8S. (19F,!/010)
Gohn is a highl# respected &lder and a Senator of the Metis ?ation!Sas7atchewan. 4e is active in the St. 6o is Metis 6ocal and for over -0 #ears has wor7ed as an advocate for Metis rights, self!governance and the fair negotiation of land claims. 4e has done wor7 on behalf of the Metis ?ational $o ncil and sat on the *boriginal *dvisor# Board for the =$M%. "n Ma# 1, /00/ he was appointed as a member of the "rder of $anada. "bit ar#9 6eft to cherish his memor# is his common!law wife Go#ce Sorenson< his three da ghters, $her#l (Gamie) Simpson and their children $hristine (&mrei) and G stin (Mar#a)< .ori (Br ce) 4alcro and their children Brent, $ rtis, Eeith and 6indsa#< God# (Brent) Tbarasch 7 and their children 6e(i and Sophia< his sister Marlene Bo cher and his nephews & gene Bo cher and Gim Senior. 4e was predeceased b# his wife .onna (.eit'!8ovell)< his sister 6o ise and his parents Gean Berchmans (Berch) and $lara (.elaine#). .ad farmed all his life and in his later #ears too7 care of his cattle in the s mmer. .ad enJo#ed c rling, h nting, fishing, wor7ing on his fences, and trapping moles. 4e believed in the Metis ca se and dedicated his life to it. 4e was a past %resident and :ice! %resident of St. 6o is Metis 6ocal X/,. 4e then became an &lder of the Metis ?ation of Sas7atchewan. 4e wor7ed towards the recognition of the Metis rights, land claims and self!governance. 4is contrib tion towards the goal of self!government was recogni'ed with a special achievement award from the Metis ?ational $o ncil. 4e was awarded with a national medal, from the 3ederal 5overnment of $anada, for his s pport of the Meech 6a7e and $harlottetown *ccords. 1n 1991, he became a member of the Senate of the Metis ?ation of Sas7atchewan as well as a member of the Senate of the Metis ?ational $o ncil. 4e also served on the =$M%Hs $ommanding "fficersH *dvisor# $ommittee. 4e provided information and Metis a ral histor# at c lt ral events, ven es and f nctions whether the# were local, regional or national. 4e was a cons ltant and actor in some of Bob =oc7 %rod ctions. 4e is also A oted in man# of the Metis histor# boo7s. 4e was e(tremel# honored when he received the "rder of $anada and the Sas7atchewan "rder of Merit. 4e was also e(tremel# honored to be chosen to meet one of his heroes, ?elson Mandela, in 199,. 4e presented Mr. Mandela with a sash on behalf of all the Metis people of $anada. 4e reall# enJo#ed meeting and helping people nderstand their Metis histor#. .ad epitomi'ed what a father co ld be and he was alwa#s there for s dispensing his wise co nsel. 2e will alwa#s miss him and feel tr l# blessed for having him as o r father.

55

Senator Bo cher presents a Sash to ?elson Mandela September /-, 199, Bou$her, &ouison (b. 1,-6)
6o is was the son of Gean Marie Bo cher and $atherine Minse#. 6o is married 3rancoise ?abes dit 6ecri (b. 1,-6) in 1,65 at St. Boniface. 6o ison signed a September 19, 1,++ %etition from Gohn M nro and other Metis at Blac7foot $rossing that was presented to 6ie tenant!5overnor .avid 6aird 6ie tenant 5overnor, ?.2.8. 1n this petition the# as7ed for farming implements and seed to begin to settle and till the land. 8he# also reA ested h nting rights. Scrip affidavit for Bo cher, 6o is< born9 G ne /5, 1,-1 (sic)< father9 Gean Marie Bo cher (b. 1++6)< mother9 $atherine Minse# (MCtis, b. 1,0-)< claim no9 1106< scrip ?o9 10050< date of iss e9 * g st /0, 1,+6< amo nt9 K160.

Bou$her (Boosah, Busha, Bou$hie), Pierre (b. 1,/-)
%ierre Bo cher was born in 1,/- at St. *lbert and died at St. 1gnati s, Montana. %ierre was the son of Goseph Bo cher Gr. (1+95!1,51) and Marg erite >?ost 7ew@ . p is (1,0/!1,59).5, 3e married *arie (mab$e

Bruneau 5b= 18&8 in La $a Bi he) on )eptember &1% 1844 in La )te (nne. )he "as the dau'hter of *i he$ Joa him +au$ Bruneau and 2atherine *arie 5>es?ar$ais) Ladou eur.
$hildren of %ierre Bo cher and *mable Br nea 9

• •

6o is Bo cher b9 "ctober 5, 1,-6. 4e married 1sabelle 2ard (b9 1,-,) in 1,66 at =ed =iver. %ierre Bo cher b9 March 1, 1,-9 in St *lbert, married 1sabelle Breland (b9 1,-5) in ?ovember 1,66 in 6ac Ste *nne, she was the da ghter of &do ard :alade Breland and 5enevieve Tan!#eo >Ma!toos!7ees@ Mondion. 4e then married Marie 8odd (b9 1,59 at St rgeon $ree7). She was an illegitimate da ghter of Gohn Mc$all m 8odd and Marie *nne *llar#. Marie was raised b# her a nt and ncle, Marg erite Z*llar#[ and BenJamin :andal. 8he# were married in 1,+/ in St. *lbert.

5,

Marg erite was born at 6ac 6a Biche, the da ghter of Gean Baptiste . p is and Marie his ?a7ota

(*ssinniboine) wife.

56

• • • • • • • •

Marg erite Marie b9 Ma# 1,, 1,5F in St *lbert district. She married 2illiam St. .enis (b9 Gan ar# 1, 1,6, in Battleford) in 1,,, at St *lbert. 4e was the son of Michel St. .enis and :irginie %elletier. BenJamin b9 * g st /1, 1,56. Maria b9 1,59 in St *lbert. She married 4enri %aA ette (b9 * g st 1,-, in 3ort des %rairie) in 1,+6 at the Bow =iver Mission, near 3ort $algar#. 4is parents were 4enri %aA ette Sr. and $ecile . rand. &ve Bo cher b9 ?ovember 16, 1,59 in St *lbert, married Games 2ard (b9 1,51 in St *lbert) in 1,+6 in 4igh =iver, his parents were Games 2ard and $atherine Br nea . *braham b9 1,6/ d9 1,6/ Gean Baptiste b9 "ctober 1,+0 in St *lbert, died "ctober 1,+0 in St *lbert. 6a rent Bo cher b9 "ctober 1,+1 in St *lbert, died "ctober 1,+1. Marie *nn Bo cher b9 1,+F in St *lbert, died in 1,+F.

"n September 19, 1,++, %ierre Bo cher, 6o ison Bo cher, G les Bo cher and &dward Bo cher signed a petition from Gohn M nro and the other Metis at Blac7foot $rossing presented to 6ie tenant 5overnor 6aird concerning Metis land claims and other assistance that wo ld be necessar# when the b ffalo h nt was no longer viable as a means of s bsistence. %ierre Bo cherHs son!in!law Games 2ard also signed this petition. 8his petition did not receive a favo rable response. 1n 1,+,, %ierre Bo cher Sr. and his son %ierre Gr. signed the petition from 4alf!Breeds 6iving in :icinit# of $#press 4ills (received thro gh the ?orth!2est $o ncil, not dated, covering letters from the 6ie t.!5overnor of the ?orth!2est 8erritories), dated F0 September 1,+,9 59 8his is a petition reA ested a re!opening of the b ffalo h nt between ?ovember 1-th and 3ebr ar# 15th each #ear and the granting of Metis >reserve@ land. 8he reA est was for a strip of land 150 miles long along the *merican border beginning where the %embina =iver crosses the border, r nning west for 150 miles into Sas7atchewan. 8his strip was to be fift# miles from so th to north. *gain, t he petition

did not re ei;e a fa;ourab$e response.
*fter leaving Batoche in 1,,5, 5abriel . mont went to Spring $ree7, Montana to sta# with his brother!in!law .avid 2il7ie. 8here he met with %ierre Bo cher and as7ed him to approach the 3latheads and Blac7feet living on reserves for permission to sta# with them. 8he local 1ndian *gent reported9 "n * g st F, 1,,+, %eter =onan, ).S. 1ndian *gent for the 3lathead 1ndians west of the =oc7ies was visited b# %ierre B sha, a $ree 4alf!Breed, whom =onan believed to have been =ielHs third ran7ing officer in the =ebellion of 1,,5 on the Sas7atchewan. B sha had come from the ref gee camp of some 60 families and /00 persons then located on . p #er $ree7 so th of the Blac7feet =eservation to find a place where his people co ld ma7e a home and a living, and >if s ccessf l in negotiating with the 1ndians will appeal to the government to give them as#l m.@ *t a $o ncil on "ctober 16, 1,,+, the 3lathead considered and ref sed B shaHs reA est. 60

Bou$her, Pierre (b. 1,-9)
%ierre Bo cher b. 1,-9 at St. *lbert was the son of %ierre Bo cher (b. 1,F/ at 6ac la Biche) and Marie *mable Br nea (b. 1,/, at 6ac Ste. *nne), the da ghter of Michel Goachim Br nea and $atherine 6adocoe r. %ierre signed a September 19, 1,++ %etition from Gohn M nro and other Metis at Blac7foot $rossing that was presented to 6ie tenant! 5overnor .avid 6aird 6ie tenant 5overnor, ?.2.8. 1n this petition the# as7ed for farming implements and seed to begin to settle and till the land. 8he# also reA ested h nting rights. Bo cher, %ierre ! $oncerning his claim as head of famil# ! *ddress, St. *lbert %.". Z%ost "ffice[ ! Born, St. *lbert, Gan ar#, 1,-9 ! 3ather, %ierre Bo cher, (MCtis) ! Mother, *imable Br nea , (MCtis) ! Married, ?ovember, 1,66 at 6ac St. *nne to 1sabelle Breland, 1,+1 on the %lains to Marie 8ood ! $hildren living, three (names on declaration) ! $hildren deceased, two ! Scrip for K160 ! $laim 105F

Bou$her, Salomon. (1,6/!19F0)

59 60

$anada Sessional %apers, ?o. -5, 1,,69 10!1/. Gohn $. &wars, +thnological Re(ort of the Chi((ewa7Cree of Roc&y /ay and Little ,hell . ?ew Nor79 5arland % blishing, 19+-9 9+!9,.

5+

Solomon was born at St. 3rancois Uavier, the son of Gean Baptiste Bo cher Sr. 61 (1,F,!1911) and $aroline 6esperance6/ (1,-/!1910). 4e married =ose!Marie " ellette (b. 1,6-), the da ghter of Moise " ellette (1,-0!1911) and 1sabelle &li'abeth . mont (b. 1,-+). Solomon was /- and =ose was // when the# married in 1,,6. $hildren9 • Marie =ose, born .ecember ,, 1,90. • *dolph, born "ctober 1F, 1,9/. • 6o is .avid, born 1,9,. "n ?ovember 19, 1,,F Solomon signed a petition protesting the 1,,F "rder!in!$o ncil transferring Metis lands at St. 6o is, Sas7atchewan to the %rince *lbert $oloni'ation compan#. 6ater, in 1,,5, when the Metis too7 p arms to protect their land Solomon served in $aptain $orbet 3lamantHs $ompan# nder 5abriel . mont. *t 8o rondHs $o lCe Sal fo ght in the front lines. 2hen Gerome 4enr# is wo nded Sal reportedl# dressed his wo nds. *mbroise 6epine reported9 >1 had f n to watch Games Short and Salomon Bo cher firing9 8he# fired li7e the# were sighting pheasants; ta7ing their time.@ 3ather $lo tierHs Jo rnal also reports that d ring the first evening at 8o rondHs $o lCe, >Salomon Bo cher and Games short were the onl# ones awa7e for a long time;d ring a certain time before sleeping Zsome of the men[ shot in the air witho t aiminga Games short t rned and said to them >M# 5od are #o ever st pidR@ &lie . mont reports that Solomon Bo cher was a member of a gro p of seven men fighting as a nit on the fo rth da# of battle at Batoche.

Bou$her, :illiam Al'ert, M.P., Senator. (1,,9!19+6)
2illiam was the son of Gean Baptiste Bo cher Gr. and Marie 6o ise Bremner. 2illiam *lbert Bo cher, a farmer and merchant, was born at St. 6o is , Sas7atchewan on ?ovember 1/, 1,,9. 4e died on G ne /F, 19+6. 2illiam was elected to parliament as the M.%. from =osthern, Sas7atchewan in the b#!election of "ctober /5, 19-,. 4e was re! elected in the general election of 19-9. Bo cher became the first Metis in the /0 th $ent r# to be appointed to the $anadian Senate on Gan ar# F, 195+. 4e was preceded in this hono r b# =ichard 4ardist# who on 3ebr ar# /F, 1,,, was appointed to the Senate of $anada as the first senator from the .istrict of *lberta. 8he MusEee virtuel de la ,as&atchewan gives the following 9 2illiam;Albert /oucher$ surnommE O/ossP /oucher$ est nE le 8= novembre 899< Q ,aint;Louis$ Territoires du Nord;Ouest' A(rRs ses Etudes (rimaires et des cours (articuliers Q la maison$ il se lance dans le commerce' !l est tout dNabord gErant dNune O cour Q bois P$ la North ,tar Lumber Co'$ Q Hoey$ (etit village situE Q si. &ilomRtres au sud de ,aint;Louis' S lNTge de => ans$ il est Elu (rEfet de la munici(alitE rurale de ,aint;Louis$ (oste GuNil conservera (endant huit annEes consEcutives et GuNil occu(era 8> ans en tout' A(rRs son mariage en Huin 8<8>$ il sNoccu(e un tem(s de vente de terres agricoles (our le com(te de la com(agnie de la /aie dNHudson' Comme le village de Hoey et ses environs se (eu(lent Q vue dNoeil$ le Heune (rEfet rEussit Q convaincre un mEdecin de #rince;Albert$ le )r #';+' Moreau$ de venir sNy Etablir' CNest le dEbut dNune longue amitiE0 les deu. hommes sNassocient (our (rendre en main le magasin gEnEral$ le Royal Mercantile$ et (our e.(loiter une section de terre$ un (eu Q lNest du village >@'

Boudreau, Alexandre.
See *le(andre $a#en dit Bo drea .

Boulette, 3li-er.
"liver was born in 1951 in the Metis comm nit# of Manigotogan, the son of 2illiam Goseph >Goe@ Bo lette (1915!199,) and 5race 2ood. "liverHs maternal grandparents were Gohn 2ood and Mar# Br ce. Gohn 2ood moved to Manigotogan in 1,+6 to start a sawmill. 8he falling water at 2ood 3alls powered the mill. 8his mill operated ntil his death in 1,9F. "liverHs paternal grandparents were Goe Bo lette and Mar# Gane No ng, Mar# Gane was from Bloodvein.6"liver was an e(cellent g itarist before ta7ing p the fiddle at age //. "liver Bo lette grew p watching his grandfather pla# the fiddle in Manigotogan, Manitoba, and learned the art from him as a #o ng man, he started to pla# when he was given his grandfatherHs fiddle. 4is great!grandfather was also a fiddler. "liver credits his fiddle teachers,
61

Scrip affidavit for Bo cher, Gean Baptiste< born9 G l# /6, 1,F,< father9 Gean Marie Bo cher (3rench $anadian)< mother9 $atherine Minse# (MCtis)< claim no9 110/< scrip ?o9 110-6< date of iss e9 * g st /0, 1,+6< amo nt9 K160 6/ Scrip affidavit for Bo cher, $aroline< wife of Gean Baptiste Bo cher< born9 * g st 1,-/< father9 *le(is 6esperance (3rench $anadian)< mother9 Marg erite 5 ernon (MCtis)< claim no9 119/< scrip ?o9 110-+< date of iss e9 * g st /0, 1,+6< amo nt9 K160 6F http9OOm see.societehisto.comOwilliamDalbertDbo cherDnF+/Dt/19.html 68he earl# Manigotogan settlers were Goseph Bo lette at 6ot X/ and Gohn 2ood at 6ot X9.

5,

8omm# Enott, 2ilfred Se#mo r and =od =aven for his fiddling s7ills. ?ow "liver shares this vibrant Metis tradition of fiddle m sic in a variet# of comm nit# settings.

"liver Bo lette and $harlie ?abess pla# Metis 7itchen m sic at =iel 4o se ?ational 4istoric Site (/01F). "liver attended =esidential School at $ranberr# %ortage, Mb. from 1966!19+1. 1t was there that he met his f t re wife 6a ra Sanderson of 3airford, Mb. *fter high school "liver wor7ed for the $omm nit# .evelopment $orporation, the local p lp and sawmill, the $o!"p store, then as a diamond driller, and ndergro nd miner in =ed 6a7e "ntario at the $ampbell Mine. "liver Bo lette began what wo ld event all# be a long career as a civil servant b# serving as a member of town co ncil at Manigotogan. 4e ret rned to school and completed his B.*. at the )niversit# of Manitoba. 4e then wor7ed from 19,/!9, in 8hompson as a field wor7er for ?orthern *ffairs, then director for *boriginal and ?orthern *ffairs. 4e then came to 2innipeg and who served as .ep t# Minister of *boriginal and ?orthern *ffairs, as well as .ep t# Minister of &nerg# and Mines. *fter retiring from government in /000, he answered the call to serve the Metis people and was &(ec tive .irector of the Manitoba Metis 3ederation from /00- to /010. "liver provided a chapter on fiddle m sic and the =ed =iver Gig for the boo7, Metis Legacy.65 4e is also feat red in .r. *rth r =a#Hs boo7 Telling !t to the *udge: Ta&ing Native History to Court . "liver appeared as an e(pert witness at the Regina vs' /elhumeur harvesting rights trial in Sas7atchewan. 8o conve# the niA e nat re of Metis c lt re he tal7ed abo t the histor# of Metis m sic and demonstrated Metis fiddle st#le in co rt, pla#ing his instr ment for the J dge.

65

"liver Bo lette, >8he g=ed =iver GigH9 * 3iddle 8 ne and .ance 8hat .efines the Metis.@ 1n 6. G. Bar7well, 6.M. .orion and *. 4o rie' Metis Legacy$ olume Two: Michif Culture$ Heritage and %ol&ways' Sas7atoon, 5abriel . mont 1nstit te, 2innipeg9 %emmican % blications, /00+9 161!16-.

59

March 196-, Goe Bo lette of Manigotogan, Manitoba, at $lar7e 6a7e, near 2abowden, photograph b# Games Brad#.

Bourassa, Alexandre. (b. 1,6F)
*le(andre was the son of 6o is Bo rassa and Marg erite ?isandawa# "tcha#ic7 6afle r. 1n 1,,-, he married *dele 6arocA e at . c7 6a7e. 4e was a member of $aptain Baptiste %rimea Hs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Bourassa, &ouis.
6o is was the son of %ierre Bo rassa and $harlotte 2essard. 1n 1,6F, he married Marg erite ?isandawa# "tcha#ic7 6afle r at 3ort des %rairies. 4e was also a member of $aptain Baptiste %rimea Hs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Mi$hel +ran0ois Bourassa. (d. 1,-6)
Michel Bo rassa married Marg erite Bea lie , the da ghter of Gean!Baptiste Bea lie and Gosette =ichard sometime before 1,06. 8heir children were9

• • • •

Gosephte b9 1,10. She married 4ilaire %atena de (b9 1,-6 in St Boniface), in 1,-F in &dmonton district, the son of Michel %atena de Sr. and 3rancoise ($ree). *ngele b9 1,1+ in $arlton district. She married %ierre 6ema# dit %ierriche .elorme (b9 1,1F in 2hite M d district), the son of %ierre .elorme Sr. and Marg erite $ardinal, in 1,F5 at 3ort %itt. Gean!Baptiste, b9 1,/1 in the district of 3ort &dmonton, d9 "ctober 19, 1,,/ at 6ebret in the L I*ppelle :alle#. 4e first married Marie :allee before 1,-5, then married Madeleine %elletier the da ghter of Goseph %elletier and 5enevieve 4allett in * g st 1,-+ at St. 3rancois Uavier. *ngeliA e, married %ierre .esno#ers born 1,/-, she died in 1911 at St. GosephHs ?...

Michel was a ?2$ interpreter. Michel was one of the principal Metis to ta7e part in the Seven "a7s battle in 1,16. %r Hhomme refers to him as >$aptain Bo rrasa.@ "n the night of March 1+, 1,16, the ?2$ 3ort 5ibralter was attac7ed and sei'ed b# $olin =obertson of the 4B$. "n March F0, Sel7ir7 had written to =obertson instr cting him to e(pel the rival compan# from the 4B$ domain;if necessar# resorting to force to do this. "n G ne 10, 1,16, the ?2$ 3ort 5ibralter was destro#ed, some of the logs were sent to 3ort .o glas and the rest b rned.

60

1t was in this conte(t that Michel Bo rassa and *ntoine 4o le were leading a part# of armed men to transport /0 bags of pemmican below 3ort .o glas to the ?2$ brigade coming from Montreal. 8he gro p consisted of 6 $anadiens, 6 1ndians and 5/ Metis. 8heir orders were to avoid the fort. 8his the# did b# riding as far west as the# co ld get witho t being in the swamp. &ven then the# reported their horses were p to their bellies in water. 8he# were ordered b# $ thbert 5rant not to attac7 3ort .o glas, b t to defend themselves if attac7ed. 5overnor Semple spotted them and went o t with /+ of his men. *fter a confrontation with Bo cher over SempleHs destr ction of 3ort 5ibralter the 4B$ men fired on the Metis, after which 4olt and Semple were shot in ret rn. *n 1ndian named Machicabao finished off Semple. 8went# 4B$ were 7illed as opposed to one Metis and one 1ndian from 5rantHs part#. 8he wo nded 4B$ men were apparentl# finished off b# a $anadien, 3ranQois .eschamps and his Metis sons.

Bourassa, Modeste. (b.c. 1,6/)
Modeste was the son of 6o is Bo rassa and Marg erite ?isandawa# "tcha#ic7 6afle r. 4e was married to Stephanie %rimea (1,,F at . c7 6a7e) then to %hilomene 6 cier (1,9/ at . c7 6a7e). 4e was also a member of $aptain Baptiste %rimea Hs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Bour!e, Andre , M.&.A. (b. 1,F/)
*ndrew was born on * g st 10, 1,F/, in St. Games parish, the son of Gohn %almer Bo r7e and ?anc# $ampbell. *ndrew was elected M6* for Baie St. %a l %arish, Manitoba on .ecember 1,, 1,+,. 4e followed his brother &dwin into the 6egislat re. &dwin had been the St. Games M6*. *ndrew was an independent f r trader and noted horse lover. *ndrew married Madeleine 6allemont dit 2elsh, born Gan ar# /1, 1,F+, the da ghter of 3rancois Uavier 2elsh and $harlotte Sa ve in 1,61 at St. Boniface. 8he# had eight children, Gohn %almer (b. 1,6/), &dwin (b. 1,6F), Games *le(ander (b. 1,65), 4enr# (b. 1,6+), Sarah (b. 1,6,), *ndrew 4enr# (b. 1,+0), 4elene (b. 1,+F) and &tienne (b. 1,+F). 4e then married *ngeliA e $halifo ( circa 1,,0. 8he# had a son, *ndre born in 1,,1 at 3lat 6a7e. *ndrew passed awa# on , September ,, 1,99 in St & stache.

Scrip affidavit for Bo r7e, Madeleine (nee 2alsh or 2elsh)< wife of *ndrew Bo r7e, concerning the claims of her children9 Gohn Bo r7e< born9 5 Gan ar# 1,51< &dwin Bo r7e< born9 /+ * g st 1,6F< Games *le(ander Bo r7e< born9 15 * g st 1,65< Sarah Bo r7e< born9 1, G l# 1,6,. Scrip affidavit for Bo r7e, Madeleine< 2ife of *ndrew Bo r7e< born9 Gan ar# /1, 1,F+< father9 Uavier 2elsh< mother9 $harlotte Sa ve (MCtis)< claim no9 16+,< date of iss e9 September /0, 1,+0. B r7e, *ndrC< address9 Baie St. %a l< claim no. 1965< born9 1,,1 at 3lat 6a7e< father9 *ndrC B r7e (MCtis)< mother9 *ngCliA e $halifo ( (MCtis)< married9 1,9, at St. 3rancois Uavier to Marie 6epine.

61

Bour!e, (d in ,olin, M.&.A. (1,F6!1915)
&dwin was born September 19, 1,F6, the son of Gohn %almer Bo r7e and his Metis wife, ?anc# $ampbell. &dwin married 1sabella 4allett on March /6, 1,6/. 1sabella was the da ghter of 2illiam %eter 4allett and Maria %r den. 8he# had si( children9 2illiam Bo r7e 66 (1,6F!19-F), 2alter %almer Bo r7e (1,65!1,66), &dmond Bo r7e (1,66!195,), Maria *nn Bo r7e (1,6,! 19+F), 3lorence Bo r7e (1,+0!1955), $atherine 1sabella Bo r7e (1,+/!195+), and *rth r 4erbert Bo r7e (1,+5!196/). &dwin was a b ffalo h nter, farmer and politician. 6ater he inherited the 4a# 3ield 3arm in St. Games from his father. 8his farm was p rchased b# his father when it was the 4 dson Ba# $ompan#Hs &(perimental 3arm also called the $olon# 3arm. . ring the scares abo t possible 3enian raids in 1,+1, &dwin was chosen as one of the $aptains of the vol nteer force formed to protect the colon# however this was def sed b# the *merican *rm# at the border and came to na ght. &dwin was elected as an M6* for the riding of St. Games in the Manitoba general election of 1,+0 and re!elected in 1,+-. 1n his later #ears he served on the St. Games $o ncil. 4is brother *ndrew was elected M6* for Baie St. %a l %arish on G l# /F, 1,++. ($ontrib ted b# 4eather 4allett.)

Bour!e, "im. (19F5!1996)
Gim Bo r7e was born at 2andering =iver, *lberta. 8rapping, h nting and fishing were important parts of his earl# life. 4e committed himself to promoting and s pporting traditional wa#s of Metis life in the ?orthwest 8erritories. Bo r7e pla#ed man# important political roles d ring his lifetime. 4e was activel# involved in ?orthwest 8erritories political organi'ations. 3rom 19,0 to 19,/ he was the %resident of the Metis ?ation of the ?orthwest 8erritories. 4e was also .ep t# Minister of =enewable =eso rces in the government of the ?orthwest 8erritories, and the chair of the $ommission on $onstit tional .evelopment in the 2estern *rctic. 1n 199/, he was appointed to the %riv# $o ncil and served as $o!director of %olic# for the =o#al $ommission on *boriginal %eoples. Bo r7e was also the fo nder of the $entre for 8raditional Enowledge, ho sed at the $anadian M se m of ?at re in "ttawa. 4e also served as $hairman of the 3 r 1nstit te of $anada from 19,6 to 19,9 and was a 6ifetime Member. 8he Metis people of the ?orthwest 8erritories recogni'ed Gim Bo r7e as an &lder. 4e will be long remembered for his contrib tions to Metis societ# in $anada. 4e was A oted as sa#ing, >8he geese migrate beca se the# have responsibilities to f lfil at different times and at different places. Before the# fl#, the# gather together and store p energ#. 1 believe strongl# that o r people are gathering together now, J st li7e the geese getting read# to fl#. 1 am tremendo sl# optimistic that we will soon ta7e on the responsibilities that we were meant to carr# in the world at large.@ ($ontrib ted b# the 5abriel . mont 1nstit te.)

Bour!e, "ohn (1,//!1,,+)
Gohn Bo r7e was born at St. *gathe, Manitoba, the son of Gohn %almer Bo r7e and ?anc# $ampbell. Gohn married &li'abeth (Bets#) 3idler at St. Games *nglican $h rch on 3ebr ar# 1, 1,55. 4e and his wife were both iss ed Metis Scrip on September /0, 1,+6. 8he# were large landowners< the# had 6ots F+ and -6 at St. Games and held 6ots 1/ and 15 in St. $harles. 8his totaled abo t /,0 acres. 1n the mid 1,,0s when the M nicipalit# of *ssiniboia was faced with hard times Gohn lent the =M KF,000.00. Gohn and his brothers came ver# close to arrest and imprisonment d ring the =iel =esistance of 1,69!+0. 8he# had repeatedl# tried to free the prisoners being held b# =iel. Gohn was a close friend of 2illiam %eter 4allett, his wifeHs ncle. Bo r7e was also a b ffalo h nter from St. Games %arish. 4e was a moderating infl ence on the $anadian %art# members in 1,69. ($ontrib ted b# 4eather 4allett.)

Bour!e, "ohn Palmer. (d. 1,51)
Gohn was an 1rishman who immigrated to = pertIs 6and in 1,1/. 4e was an emplo#ee of the 4B$ then store7eeper for the Sel7ir7 $olon#. Gohn was one of the few s rvivors of the Battle of Seven "a7s on G ne 19, 1,16. 4e was badl# wo nded and capt red b# the ?orth 2est $ompan# men. 4e was then obliged to spend two #ears in Montreal defending himself against criminal charges b t was acA itted. Since he was bro7e he started wal7ing bac7 to =ed =iver in 1,19, however he was recapt red at 3ort 2illiam and ret rned to Montreal. *gain his charges were dismissed and he began his long wal7 again. "n the wa# he met and married ?anc# $ampbell a MCtisse. 8he# finall# reached =ed =iver in 1,/1 at that time the# were formall# married b# =ev. Gohn 2est. 4e then ret rned to wor7 for the 4B$. 4e too7 part in b ffalo h nts and is recorded b# 8homas Simpson as a member of the s ccessf l h nt in the fall of 1,F1. 1n 1,F5, he bo ght a >$olon# 3arm@ at the 4B$ e(perimental farm in St. Games parish. 4e is the grandfather
66

2illiam served as a private in MiddletonHs 90th Battalion d ring the 1,,5 ?orthwest =esistance.

6/

of Maria *nn Bo r7e (below). 4is two sons *ndrew and &dwin $olin went on to be elected to the Manitoba legislat re. ($ontrib ted b# 4eather 4allett.)

Bour!e, Maria Ann (#ood). (1,6,!19+F)
Maria *nn Bo r7e was born G ne 9, 1,6, in St. Games, the #ear of the grasshopper plag e, th s her nic7name >4opp#.@ She was the eldest da ghter of si( children (three bo#s and three girls) born to &dwin Bo r7e and 1sabella 4allett. 4er paternal grandfather was Gohn %almer Bo r7e, an 1rishman who came with the Sel7ir7 Settlers wor7ing part# in 1,1/< he was a s rvivor of the Seven "a7s $onflict and was emplo#ed with the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan#. 4er paternal grandmother, ?anc# $ampbell, was a Metis lad# whose father was an &nglish trader with the UN $ompan# and whose mother was a Sio ( from the 1llinoisO2isconsin area. 4er maternal grandfather was 2illiam %eter 4allett, who was leader of the Metis sco ts for $olonel 3rench and son of 4enr# 4allett and $atherine ($ree). 4er maternal grandmother was Maria %r den, the Metis da ghter of Gohn %r den and his wife ?anc#. 4opp#Hs father, &dwin Bo r7e, was a member of the first Manitoba 6egislat re. 4opp# spent most of her life in St. Games, being bapti'ed, confirmed and married at the "ld St. Games *nglican ch rch which was recentl# a victim of arson. 4er famil# home was where St. Games $ollegiate now stands. "n March 16, 1,9/, she married Games 5ood whose famil# had also been earl# settlers and prominent members of the ch rch. *ll fo r of her children were also bapti'ed at St. Games. 8he# lived in the area for ten #ears, r nning a mar7et garden beside their mother, Mar# *nn 5ood (Eirton) who planted the famo s 2olsele# &lms. "ld 5rann# often told of how she and >$him@ p t all their pennies together and managed to collect /5 cents, so the# got b s#, mil7ed the cow, made p b tter and >%apa@ went to town for groceries. 4e came home with a bell# f ll of boo'e b t no groceries. 4ow she la ghed abo t this laterR 1n 1905 the# moved to 2oodlands with their children to start farming. 4er h sband died September 10, 19F0 and she remained there with her mother Mar# *nn ntil Mar# *nnHs death in 19F/. *gain 4opp# moved bac7 to St. Games. 1n 19+1 she ret rned to 2oodlands to live with her grandson and his wife, B d and 6ill# %roctor. "ld 5rann# as 1 7new her died on 3ebr ar# 10, 19+F at the ripe old age of 10- #ears. "ld 5rann# sed to love to tell stories of her e(periences b t she hated tape recorders. %en and paper were o t of the A estion as well beca se she wanted s to sit and listen with >both ears.@ She was an accomplished horsewoman, a ver# gifted seamstress who had a sense of st#le, and an e(cellent coo7. She was once described as a >ver# bea tif l lad# with thic7, c rl#, a b rn hair and bright bl e e#es,@ ver# different from one of her sisters who was nic7named .ar7ie beca se of her gorgeo s dar7 e#es. 2hen as7ed abo t her love of m sic, she wo ld repl# that she li7ed m sic b t not as m ch as her h sband li7ed it pla#ed on the fiddle. >1 wo ld send him with two pairs of moccasins as he danced the first pair o t.@ She was noted for her cr st# 1rish bread and the bannoc7 that she ba7ed in her o tdoor oven. "ld 5rann# e(perienced man# changes. 1n her earl# #ears she traveled b# =ed =iver cart to St. %a l, Minnesota and later in life rode in a b sh plane with her nephew =eg. Br ce as pilot. She saw %ortage *ven e as an o( trail, develop into the eight!lane thoro ghfare of toda#. She went from candle to electric light, from wood stove to electric range, from hardship to comfort with a grace and pride that is not often seen toda#. She was a ver# religio s lad# who read her Bible dail# and when her e#esight finall# started to diminish, she had m# brother read to her dail#. She never dran7 in her life and had said on her 100th birthda# that she wo ld have a beer. 2hen the famil# held her birthda# part# she still ref sed, sa#ing she was too #o ng to drin7. 8r#ing to get her to ta7e her hospital brand# medicine was a chore that no one ever accomplished, as she co ld smell it a mile awa#. She left a great man# descendants9 fo r children< 1, grandchildren< thirt# great!grandchildren, and seventeen great great grandchildren. She was hono red d ring ManitobaHs $entennial #ear (19+0) as the 4ono rar# Ma#or of St. Games. She was ver# pro d of this as her co sin< Gohn 4allett had been hono red as 4ono rar# Ma#or of St. Games in $anadaHs $entennial #ear (196+) when he was 100 #ears old. ($ontrib ted b# great!grandda ghter * dre# 6 cier Z%roctor[ and the Metis =eso rce $entre.)

Bour!e, 8an$y (,amp'ell).
See nder ?anc# $ampbell.

Bour!e, :illiam. (1,6F!19-F)
2illiam was born on *pril /0, 1,6F in St. Games %arish, =ed =iver. 4is parents were &li'abeth (?anc#) ?abes (born 1,+9) who was adopted and raised b# her half!a nt 1sabella 4allett Bo r7e and h sband &dwin Bo r7e, and 3red Boniff. 4is maternal grandparents wo ld have been =osette 4allett (born 1,F9) and Games (6e $ris) ?abes (born 1,F+). 2illiam served in the ?inetieth =ifles d ring the s ppression of 1,,5 =esistance. 1t is most li7el# that he fo ght against some of his co sins. *fter the =esistance, he served an additional si( #ears with the 1F th 3ield *rtiller# Militia. 2illiam married *lice 2al7er on *pril /+, 1,6F. 8he# patented land in the parish of St. 3rancois Uavier in "ctober of 1,,5. 2illiam served on the M nicipal $o ncil of St. 3rancois Uavier in 1,,+, 1,,9, and 1,9/. 1n the Manitoba $ens s (1901), 2illiam is noted as being the =eeve of the M nicipalit# of *ssiniboia, and had previo sl# been a School 8r stee for St. Games as well as the secretar#!treas rer of the School Board. 2illiam became an *lderman for the $it# of Brandon, and was the Ma#or of Brandon at the time of his death in 19-F. ($ontrib ted b# 4eather 4allett)

6F

Bourgeault, =on. (b. 19-+)
Metis sociologist =on Bo rgea lt was born at ?orth Battleford, Sas7atchewan, the son of G les Bo rgea lt and MarJorie Brintal. 4e c rrentl# teaches sociolog# at the )niversit# of =egina and previo sl# ta ght 1ndian St dies at the Sas7atchewan 1ndian 3ederated $ollege in =egina. 4e completed his M.*. at the )niversit# of =egina in 19,6 and is a %h... candidate in Sociolog#. 4e is best 7nown for his anal#sis of how British colonialism impacted the Metis. 8his appeared as a series of articles in New /reed9
• • >Metis 4istor#.@ New /reed *ournal, (Series) 19,/9 :ol. 1F (,)9 /0!//< :ol. 1F (9)9 /6!/,< :ol. 1F (10)9 F/!F-< :ol. 1F (1/)9 1-! 16, 1,!/0< 19,F9 :ol. 1- (/)9 1+!19< /1, :ol. 1- (5)9 1,!19< :ol. 1- (,), 19,F9 1,!19< and, >8he Str ggle *gainst British $olonialism and 1mperialism9 1,/1!1,+0.@ New /reed (Series), :ol. 15 (10!1/) and :ol. 16, (1! +), 19,-!,5.

8hese two series e(amine the beginnings of the class and national liberation str ggle at =ed =iver. Bo rgea lt reviews how racial oppression, and racism as an ideolog#, is integral to capitalist development. )sing the Metis as an e(ample he foc ses on how historicall# created race divisions s pported capitalism. 8he nat re of British colonialism and the f r trade began to create both class!conscio sness and nationalism in the earl# 1,00s. 8his first emerged with the reaction of the wor7ing class Metis and 1ndian trappers, b ffalo h nters and wage wor7ers and the middle class pett# traders to the r les set p in = pertHs 6and aro nd the prod ction and e(portation of f r. 1n the 1,-0s, calls for economic reform started to ta7e a political direction and became a political str ggle for self!governance and democrac#. Bo rgea lt gives a partic larl# good description and anal#sis of lower, middle and pper class alignments and motivations d ring the late 1,60s. 4e describes the political position of Metis leader Games =oss and how this differed from the approach ta7en b# 6o is =iel. 4e also relates the little 7nown stor# of the relationship of the 1nternational 3inancial Societ# activities to what was happening economicall# in 2estern $anada. * second theme that Bo rgea lt has e(amined e(tensivel#, is the impact the & ropean social str ct res and attit des had on *boriginal women. 8he interested reader sho ld see9
• • • >8he 1ndians, the MCtis and the 3 r 8rade9 $lass, Se(ism and =acism in the 8ransition from I$omm nismI to $apitalism.@ ,tudies in #olitical +conomy$ 1/, 19,F9 -5!,0. >=ace, $lass and 5ender9 $olonial .omination of 1ndian 2omen.@ 1n Gesse :orst et al. (&ditors)9 Race$ Class$ "ender: /onds and /arriers. 8oronto9 5aramond, 19,9. >=ace, $lass and 5ender9 $olonial .omination of 1ndian 2omen.@ 1n ". McEag e (&ditor)9 Racism in Canada. Sas7atoon9 3ifth 4o se, 19919 1/9!150.

Bour@ue, =ene. (b. 19,1)
=ene was born on .ec. 10, 19,1 at 6ac 6a Biche, *lberta. =ene c rrentl# pla#s for the Montreal $anadiens of the ?ational 4oc7e# 6eag e (?46). *n ndrafted pla#er, Bo rA e was signed b# the $hicago Blac7haw7s as a free agent in /00- and made his ?46 deb t in /005W06. 4e spent three #ears in $hicago before a /00, trade sent him to $algar# where he established himself as a 7e# offensive pla#er for the 3lames. 4e was traded to the Montreal $anadiens for M17e $ammalleri after his best ?46 #ears with the 3lames. 8he /005 *46 =oo7ie of the Near initiall# signed with $hicago and after three #ears moved to $algar#. *fter a great career pla#ing *merican college hoc7e# for the 2isconsin Badgers of the 2$4*, and a f ll season in the *46, =ene has arrived in the ?46. *lso of note is the fact the =ene possesses a ver# hard shot. *t the /005 *46 *ll!Star 5ame s7ills competition, =ene won the hardest shot competition with a shot cloc7ed at 99., mph

Bous@uet, Baptiste. (b. 1,66)
Baptiste was the son of Michel Bo sA et and 6o ise :endette. 4e married 3lavie 6edo (. 4e was a member of $aptain .aniel 5ariCp#Hs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Bous@uet, ,yrille. (b. 1,5-)
$#rille was the son of Michel >6o is@ Bo sA et and 6o ise :endette. 4e and his two brothers were active in the =esistance. 8he families lived in the vicinit# of St. 6a rent de 5randin.

Bous@uet, "ulienne. Spo se 2illiam Bo#er (b. 1,-0).
8he Bo sA et women are important members of the large Metis 4 nting Bands of the plains. 8he# are lin7ed to Gean Baptiste 2il7ieHs Band, the vario s . mont Bands, and the 6ittle Shell Band of %embina and 8 rtle Mo ntain. )ltimatel# the# were related to most of the families active d ring the Metis =esistance of 1,,5, the . monts, Bo#ers, the 8o ronds, and the 3idlers.

6-

G lienne Bo sA et was born on G ne +, 1,-+ at St. Boniface, the da ghter of 6o is Bo sA et and &li'abeth Bets# 3isher. &li'abeth 3isher was the da ghter of 4enr# M nroe 3isher and Marg erite 6aframboise. 6+ G lienne married 2illiam Bo#er, the son of Gean Baptiste Bo#er and 4elene McMillan on * g st /6, 1,6- at St. Boniface. 8he# later moved to St. 6o is north of Batoche. 8he# lived on =iver 6ot 16 (8--!1!F) at St. 6o is de 6angevin. 2illiam was named as a $aptain of one of the 19 companies led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance. *long with $harles ?olin he was s spected of dislo#alt# and arrested b# the &(ovedate. 2illiam appears on 5arnotHs list of =esistance participants as X 1F0, listed as X1F1 is >Son fils@ li7el# his oldest son =aphael Bo#er born September 9, 1,6+ at St. Boniface. =aphael later married &lise 8o rond in 1,9- at Batoche.

2illiam Bo#er and G lienne Bo sA et "ulienne Bous@uetCs si'lings* • .enri Bous@uet was born in 1,-5 at =ed =iver. 4enri was married to Marie Marg erite 2il7ie, the da ghter of the famo s Metis h nting $hief, Gean Baptiste 2il7ie and his wife *mable &lise *' re. 5abriel . mont was married to Mag eriteHs sister Madeleine 2il7ie. 8his co ple received Scrip nder the 1,6- *mendments to the $hippewa "ld $rossing 8reat# 1,6-. Bous@uet, .enrie \ ?ational *rchives, =5 +5, &ntr# F6F, V6ist of %ersons to 2hom Scrip was 1ss ed nder =ed 6a7e M %embina 8reaties....V 4alfbreed Scrip ?o. -6,, iss ed 3ebr ar# /, 1,++, nder the a thorit# of Secretarial .ecision, G ne 1/, 1,+/, delivered 3ebr ar# /, 1,++ h sband of9 Bo sA et, Margaret Znotation re March /-, 1,++9 VdeceasedV[ ?ational *rchives, =5 +5, &ntr# F6-, V8reat# of *pril 1/, 1,6-, =ed 6a7e and %embina 4alf!Breeds,V Scrip St bs, ? mber -6,, dated 3eb# /, 1,++, 160 *cres, delivered 3eb# /, 1,++, iss ed to 4enrie BosA et, delivered to *gt. Stowe< and ? mber -+0, dated March /-, 1,++, 160 *cres, delivered March /-, 1,++, iss ed to VMargaret Bo sA et, wife of 4enr# BosA et, decId,V delivered to *gt. Stowe
6+

Marg erite (b. 1,05) was the da ghter of a f r trader o t of Mac7inac, Goseph 6aframboise and his ?a7ota wife Gosephte. *fter 4enr# 3isher died she married Gean Baptiste . mont. She and her sister married brothers, her sister 6o ise 6aframboise was married to 1sidore . mont. 8he 6aframboise women were important members of the Metis associated with 6ittle ShellHs Band, the . mont 4 nting Band, the 8rottier 4 nting Band and the Metis comm nit# in Montana.

65

Bous@uet, Margaret Z=.6. Scrip X-+0Oheir[ \ ?ational *rchives, =5 +5, &ntr# F6F, V6ist of %ersons to 2hom Scrip was 1ss ed nder =ed 6a7e M %embina 8reaties....V 4alfbreed Scrip ?o. -+0, iss ed March /-, 1,++, nder the a thorit# of Secretarial .ecision, G ne 1/, 1,+/, delivered March /-, 1,++, notation9 Vwife of 4enr#, deceased,V notation9 VF/ 6, *pproved $ommission MeetingV ?ational *rchives, =5 +5, &ntr# F6-, V8reat# of *pril 1/, 1,6-, =ed 6a7e and %embina 4alf!Breeds,V Scrip St bs, ? mber -+0, dated March /-, 1,++, 160 *cres, delivered March /-, 1,++, iss ed to VMargaret Bo sA et, wife of 4enr# BosA et, decId,V delivered to *gt. Stowe • (liza'eth Bous@uet (b. 1,-9) was married to Gean Baptiste Bo#er, the brother of G lienneHs h sband 2illiam Bo#er. Gean Baptiste (1,-5!1,95) was a Metis merchant, the son of Gean Baptiste Bo#er and 4elene McMillan. 4e married &li'abeth Bo sA et on Gan ar# 19, 1,6- at St. Boniface. She was the da ghter of 6o is Bo sA et and &li'abeth 3isher. 8he# moved to St. 6a rent on the So th Sas7atchewan in 1,66. *ltho gh he was often absent trading o t west, Bo#er resided on 6ot 6 in St. 6a rent from 1,+-. 4e then p rchased a lot from Uavier 6etendrC and opened his store at Batoche. Bo#er was elected as a St. 6a rent (So th Sas7atchewan) $o ncil member in 1,+F and was a member of =ielHs $o ncil (&(ovedate) at Batoche d ring the 1,,5 =esistance. 4e was a member of $aptain %hilippe 5ariCp#Hs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance. 4e fled to 6ebret after the battle of . c7 6a7e. 4is store at St. 6a rent was sed as a prison for =ielHs hostages. 4e ret rned and started p his b siness again after 1,,5 even tho gh he had lost all his goods. 8he ho se of Baptiste Bo#er at St. 6a rent was looted. 8here were a lot of f rs in the attic. 8he police, pon leaving there, set o t for %rince *lbert b# wa# of St. 6o is< all along the road, almost p to St. 6o is, the# am se themselves b# c tting the f rs into shreds. *s s ch, beaver, otter, and min7 pelts were scattered all over the road for over a distance of twelve miles. 6, (lise Bous@uet (b. 1,5/) was married to 1sidore 5a dr#. Marguerite Bous@uet (b. 1,5F) was married to Moise =acette, the son of * g stin =acette and S 'anne 5ro l(.h. ,hrysostome Bous@uet (b. 1,55) was married to Marie =ose $arriere, da ghter of .aniel $arriere and .orothee 6andr#, the da ghter of Goseph 6andr# and 5envieve 6alonde. 7omtilde Bou@uet was married to 1sidore Tace.

• • • •

,hildren oB "ulienne Bous@uet and :illiam Boyer* • • 2illiam Bo#er, (b. 1,6F) died in 1,65 at age two. &li'a Bo#er, (b. 1,65) married &tienne 6andr#, son of &li %ierre 6andr# and 5enevieve Br nea . %ierre 6andr# served nder $aptain Games Short d ring the 1,,5 =esistance. 4is older sister, *ngeliA e 6andr# was married to 1sidore . mont Sr. (his second wife), th s she was 5abriel . montHs step!mother. =aphael Bo#er, (b. 1,6+) married &li'e 8o rond. *t the time of the 1,,5 =esistance &lise (b. 1,6,) was the 1+ #ear!old da ghter of Goseph 8o rond and Gosephte %a l. 4er father and his brothers were present on "ctober 11, 1,69 when =iel and 1, Metis stopped the s rve#ors in St. ?orbert. 4er brothers were 1,,5 =esistance activists and two were 7illed in battle. 8he battle at 8o rondHs $o lee res lted in the destr ction of their home and she had to flee to the Bellev e area. She and =aphael Bo#er s bseA entl# married, on "ctober //, 1,9- at Batoche.

6,

S4M, p. ,5.

66

=aphael Bo#er, &lise 8o rond and children, &dmond and *lice. • • • • • *le(ander Bo#er, (b. 1,69) died 1,+/ at age two. G lienne Bo#er, (b. 1,+1) married ?orbert 3idler, son of 2illiam 3idler and Marg erite Mc5illis. . ring the 1,,5 =esistance 2illiam served nder his father $aptain 2illiam 3idler Sr. Marie "ctavie Bo#er, (b. 1,+F) married 6o is Goseph 3idler son of 3rancois 3idler and Gosephte 6aplante. 3rancois 3idler served nder $aptain $ali(te 6afontaine d ring the 1,,5 =esistance. Marie )rs le Bo#er, (b. 1,++, d. 1,+,) $hr#sostome Bo#er, (b. 1,+,) married &li'e :andal, the da ghter of Goseph :andal and &li'abeth $hampagne. Goseph was a member of $aptain Games ShortHs compan# d ring the 1,,5 =esistance. *mbroise Bo#er, (b. 1,,0). *mbroise was J st five #ears old when his father fo ght in the 1,,5 =esistance. Si(teen #ears later, while living at Medicine 4at and wor7ing as a rancher, *mbroise enlisted in the $anadian Mo nted =ifles and served in s pport of the British in the Boer 2ar in So th *frica. 4is papers are shown below.

6+

6,

• • •

Marie 4elene Bo#er, (B. 1,,/) %atrice Bo#er, (b. 1,,-), died 1,,9 at Batoche, age 1-. Samson Bo#er, (b. 1,,,, d. 1,,9).

B# Brenda Bo#er %ercell69 and 6awrence Bar7well

Bous@uet, &ouis "r. (1,/F!1,59)
69

Brenda grew p on her grandparentHs farm at St. 6a rent in the 1960s. 4er maternal grandparents are &dmond Bo#er (b. 19/F) and Marie :irginie Berthe 6o ise 6adero te (b. 1900). 5reat grandparents are =aphael Bo#er (b. 1,6+) and &lise 8o rond (b. 1,6,) and Goseph 6adero te (b. 1,,6) and 5enevieve . mas (b. 1,59). 4er great!great grandparents via =aphael and &lise Bo#er are 2illiam Bo#er (b. 1,-0) and G lienne Bo sA et (b. 1,-+).

69

6o is was the Metis son of 6o is and Marie Bo sA et. 4e was orphaned at age fo r and placed nder the g ardianship of Bishop %rovencher and attended the BishopHs school in St. Boniface. 4e then became a teacher at the school. 4e was married to Bets# 3isher, the da ghter of $hief 8rader and later $o ncilor, 4enr# 3isher. 1n 1,51 Bo sA et was appointed as a G dge of the pett# co rt of the )pper .istrict of *ssiniboia. 1n 1,56 he was appointed to ta7e the cens s in his district. 8he Sio ( m rdered him in 1,59.

Bous@uet, &ouis. (b. 1,-9)
6o is is the brother of Baptiste Bo sA et noted above. 4e was married to &lise St. .enis. 6o is was a member of $aptain .aniel 5ariCp#Hs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Bou-ette, =eg. (19/F!1991)
1n /000, =eg Bo vette was ind cted into the %orc pine *wards 4all of 3ame which recogni'es great $anadians who have done their share to preserve and protect o r c lt ral heritage. " r heritage is the real fol7loric, living tradition of the people of $anada. =eg was ind cted as a fiddler who e(tended the lineage of the >=ed =iver :alle# St#le@ of pla#ing. 1n /006, =eg Bo vette and *nd# .eJarlis were ind cted into the Manitoba *boriginal M sic 4all of 3ame. =eg became a legendar# fiddle pla#er and wrote over /00 fiddle t nes. =eg Bo vette to red most of $anadaHs maJor cities pla#ing at rodeos, concerts, dances and special events, s ch as the $ommonwealth 5ames, Elondi7e .a#s, 8he %as 8rapperIs 3estival and the $all of the 2ild 3estival. =eg fo nd his match when he met Ber#l Enott in 19+/ and the# were married in 19,/. 8his wo ld be Ber#lHs second marriage, having raised two sons and fo r da ghters from her previo s nion. She was that person when the# sa# >behind ever# good man there is a good woman@. Ber#l and =eg Bo vette performed at co ntless s mmer and winter festivals for nearl# a decade. Starting in the earl# ,0Hs =eg pla#ed the fiddle and Ber#l pla#ed the g itar the# were on the road for man# months a #ear pla#ing all over the co ntr#. /ac& to /atoche and %estival du oyageur were two of the man# ven es that the# pla#ed at. 8he Bo vetteHs were warml# accepted at all festivals, and were invited bac7 ever# #ear to pla#. 8o ring too7 the Bo vetteHs thro gho t $anada from coast to coast and as far north as the ?orth 2est 8erritories, as well as thro gho t the )nited States. Ber#l also released her own recording >Sincerel# No rs@ with her h sband =eg when he was still alive. =eg has to his credit man# alb ms recorded b# S nshine =ecords, these recordings feat re man# of his own compositions. 8he alb ms are titled Home /rew$ Red River *ig$ and Loo&ing /ac&. =eg Bo vette was a fo r!time Manitoba fiddling champion, a winner, participant and J dge at n mero s ?ational and 1nternational fiddling contests. 4ailed as a maJor contrib tor to $anadian co ntr# m sic, in 196+, =eg renewed his career professionall# with the release of a single called ReginaldNs 2alt1. 8his walt' was later recorded b# .on Messer and *nd# .eJarlis. 1n 196,, =eg was pla#ing p bs with a gro p called the =h#thm =angers and r nning his own tr c7ing firm as well, 1n 19+/ =eg sold his b siness and began pla#ing f ll time. 1n 19+F!19+5 =eg won the Manitoba 3iddling $hampionship for the first time. Ber#l Bo vette (nee Enott) was born and raised in the Metis comm nit# of 5rand Marais, MB with two brothers and two sisters. 8he children of 2ilfred and $hristine Enott (nee Sinclair) were all m sical and several members of the famil#, incl ding Ber#l, are recogni'ed as prominent fig res within Metis m sical and c lt ral comm nit# toda#. Ber#l remembers her father as a ver# ind strio s man, wor7ed as a commercial fisherman on 6a7e 2innipeg for 65 #ears< she loved helping her father with fishing. Ber#l handmade fishing nets for 15 #ears, and she and her sister and her sisterHs h sband made a special presentation to the formall# called M se m of Man and ?at re of how these nets were made, and this information was recorded for preservation. *fter her h sband passed awa# 199/ from diabetes Ber#l too7 a long brea7 from pla#ing. She retired from her Job and was bored so she was convinced b# man# of her friends and famil# members to get bac7 to what she loved the best and that was co ntr# m sic. *fter five #earHs she started pla#ing m sic again. She started with 5ar# 6epine who had 7nown the Bo vetteHs for man# #ears. Ber#l has also been a J dge for man# contests for fiddle sA are dancing and Jigging competitions within the province. 6ater on Ber#l Joined p with her famil# sister Marcella and her brother 8om who was also a well!7nown fiddle pla#er and the# started the gro p called The 2hy Jnott /and. 8he# released two $.Hs with 5ospel M sic. 8he 2hy Jnott /and has pla#ed at man# socials and senior homes thro gho t Manitoba. 1n the midst of her m sic pla#ing she still finds time to sit as a vol nteer Board of .irector for the 1ndian M Metis 3riendship $entre of 2innipeg and now she sits as an elected Senator for the 1ndian M Metis 3riendship $entre. *long with her vol nteering e(perience she has been the &ntertainment $hairperson for 3ol7lorama for the Metis %eopleHs %avilion for a n mber of #ears. She is

+0

following in the foot steps of her mentor and * ntie, &lsie Bear. &lsie was also a Senator for the Manitoba Metis 3ederation and she vol nteered for the Sel7ir7 3riendship $entre for /5 #ears.

Bou-ier, 7aniel M. (19//!/00F)
.aniel Bo vier was born in 3ort %rovidence on "ctober F1 st, 19//. 4e was the si(th child of Goseph and $eline Bo vier. 8wo siblings, and inn merable nieces and nephews that span at least fo r generations s rvive him. *s a child, he attended the mission school in 3ort %rovidence. 6i7e ever#one else bac7 then, he attended school long eno gh to learn to read and write. 4e enJo#ed reading, and spent a lot of time at it. 3or someone that had onl# basic reading and writing s7ills, he developed A ite a good nderstanding of the &nglish vocab lar#. Sometimes he wo ld s rprise his famil# when he 7new the meaning of certain word, when we didnHt e(pect him toR 2hen he was as7ed how he 7new the meaning he wo ld sa# well he came across the word before when he was readingR 4e was fl ent in three lang ages his first lang age was Michif 3rench and he was also an e(cellent So th Slave# spea7er. 8o his nieces and nephews, he was alwa#s fondl# 7nown as >$ap@. *ct all#, $ap had two nic7names. 8o the older generation he was alwa#s 7nown as >8see!6if@, a nic7name he held since he held since he was ver# #o ng. *ll the old timers of his generation in the comm nit# still refer to him as >8see!6if@ to this ver# da#. )ncle $ap lived in 3ort %rovidence all of his life. 4e never, ever, wanted to leave his home comm nit#, or had the desire to travel to distant comm nities. 8he onl# times he left home was in the p rs it of traditional h nting, fishing, and trapping activities in the area. 3or wor7, in his earl# #ears .aniel wor7ed for his father at the Goe Bo vier 8rading %ost ha ling water with a #o7e and pails for the garden and home< 7eeping the fires going< pac7ing, shipping and receiving f rs and other goods< and all the chores involved in that b siness, as well as the chores aro nd the Bo vier home. $ap preferred the traditional econom# of trapping and trading instead of the wage econom#. *ltho gh $ap preferred the traditional econom#, he did wor7 for short periods of time in the wage econom#. $ap wor7ed for the $atholic Mission from time to time< 3ederal .epartment of % blic 2or7s on the .redge based on .or# %oint< and the =$M% as a g ard. $ap 7ept a team of dogs for transportation to his trap line, and for ha ling firewood and s pplies. $ap never owned a vehicle or a snowmobile. 8he onl# mode of transportation $ap 7new aside from his dog team was his old nine hp 7ic7er. .aniel Bo vier was a h mble man who did not have an# interest in things of material val e. 4e never so ght recognition, attention, or stat s. 4e believed that the best things in life are free, and he did not dwell on the acc m lation of material items or mone#. 1n loo7ing bac7, we can now sa#, his wa# of living was a >reflection of his nat re@. 4e never wanted to be first, he never wanted to be best, and he never longed to be rich. 4e was content so long as he had the basic necessities of life, and was near his relatives that he alwa#s loved so m ch. $ap died on Gan ar# /+, /00F. ($ontrib ted b# *lbert G. 6affert#.)

Bou-ier, =ita (.
Metis poet and ed cator =ita Bo vier was raised b# her grandparents in 1sle Y la $rosse, Sas7atchewan. She has a B.&d. and a MasterHs of &d cation degree. +0 =ita has participated on the Board of the 5abriel . mont 1nstit te. She held a senior position with the Sas7atchewan 8eachers 3ederation and is c rrentl# $oordinator, *boriginal 6earning Enowledge $entre $anadian $o ncil on 6earning $ollege of &d cation at the )niversit# of Sas7atchewan. Man# of her poems are based on stories handed down b# her grandfather. $ree and Michif words are sed in her poetr# to capt re the meanings and feelings. She has p blished a collection of poetr#$ /lueberry Clouds (8histledown %ress, 1999) and a poem from that vol me, >Medicine Man,@ was selected to appear in the antholog# ,undog HighwayL2riting from ,as&atchewan, (6arr# 2arwar 7, editor, $otea Boo7s, /000). =ita Bo vier has served in p blic ed cation for thirt# #ears in var#ing capacities9 as a classroom teacher, as .irector of the Sas7atchewan )rban ?ative 8eacher &d cation %rogram, as sessional lect rer at the )niversit# of Sas7atchewan, and as a c rric l m developer. Ms. Bo vier has also served as a vol nteer with vario s organi'ations. Ms. Bo vier describes herself as a teacher with a bent on social J stice iss es. She has traveled nationall# and worldwide to ?ew Tealand, * stralia, 4awaii and other parts of the ).S., St. 6 cia, 5eneva, and 1ndia. Bo vier, =ita &. /lueberry Clouds' Sas7atoon9 8histledown %ress, 1999.
+0

See =ita &. Bo vier. >Speciali'ed 8raining in the Sas7atchewan )rban ?ative 8eacher &d cation %rogram9 * $ase St d#. Sas7atoon9 1ndian and ?orthern &d cation 8hesis (M.&d.),)niversit# of Sas7atchewan, 19,-.

+1

Bo vier, =ita &. #a(UyThta&' Sas7atoon9 8histledown %ress, /00-. Bo vier, =ita &., translated b# Margaret 4odgson< ill strated b# Sherr# 3arrell =acette. /etter That 2ay' Sas7atoon9 5abriel . mont 1nstit te, /00+.

Bouyer, Mi$hael. (b. 1,F+)
Mitch Bo #er was the Metis son of Gean Baptiste Bo #er and his Santee Sio ( wife. 4is father was a trader with the *merican 3 r $ompan#. Mitch wass an interpreter and g ide following the *merican $ivil war. 5eneral Gohn 5ibbon called Bo #er Vne(t to Gim Bridger, the best g ide in the co ntr#V. 4e was 7illed at the Battle of the 6ittle Bighorn MichaelHs father was 7illed b# 1ndians while trapping in abo t 1,6F. MitchIs 1ndian name was Ear!pash. 4e had three f ll sisters9 Marie, *nne, and 8herese, who seem to have been tripletsborn in 1,-0. 4e also had at least two half!brothers9 Gohn Bo #er (c. 1,-5!1,+1), who was hanged at fort 6aramie for 7illing an *rm# sco t in the first legal e(ec tion in 2#oming, and *ntoine Bo #er born 1,5/). Mitch was an interpreter at 3ort %hil Eearn# in 1,6,. 1n the fall of 1,69, he married a #o ng $row woman named Magpie " tside (or Magpie " t!of!.oors), who became 7nown as Mar#. 8heir first child, also named Mar#, was born in 1,+0. Sometime later the# also had a son, apparentl# named 8om, b t event all# called Games 6e3orge.. Bo #er became a g ide for the / nd )S $alvar#, wor7ing with the ?orthern %acific =ailwa#Hs s rve# team. 3rom 1,+/ on he was emplo#ed b# the $row *genc# and the )S *rm#. 1n 1,+6 6t. $ol. 5eorge *rmstrong $ ster reA ested that Bo #er be transferred to the +th $alvar# as an interpreter for the $row sco ts when 5eneral 8err# ordered the +th so th from the Montan $ol mn to search for hostile 1ndians. *t the $rowHs ?est, Bo #er was one of the sco ts who warned $ ster abo t the si'e of the 1ndian village, which $ ster claimed he co ldnIt ma7e o t. Bo #er told him, V5eneral, 1 have been with these 1ndians for F0 #ears, and this is the largest village 1 have ever 7nown of.V *fter failing to convince $ ster, it is reported that Bo #er gave awa# his possessions, convinced he wo ld die in the coming battle. 8here was a report that Sitting B ll had offered a bo nt# of 100 ponies for Bo #erIs head. 2hen $ sterIs command was divided into F battalions, abo t noon, Bo #er was assigned to accompan# $ ster, whose battalion wo ld be almost completel# wiped o t. 8here were onl# abo t a do'en s rvivors of $ sterIs battalion, all of whom had left it before the battle began. Bo #er seems to have dressed in a flambo#ant st#le. 1n the photograph, he is wearing a f r hat with / woodpec7ers, one on either side, and he was wearing a piebald calfIs vest the da# of the fatal battle.

Boyer, A'raham. (b. 1,-+)
*braham Bo#er, 7nown as >*brah!mish@ was born on Ma# 10, 1,-+ at St. 3rancois Uavier, the son of %ierre Bo#er and 5enevieve Martin. 4e married G lie 6afontaine, the da ghter of Gean Baptiste 6afontaine and 3rancoise Martin. 4e signed a petition for a Metis reserve in Montana, sent b# 6o is =iel to 5eneral ?elson *. Miles, * g st 6, 1,,0.

Boyer, Al'ert “.ap, M8S Senator.” (b. 19/,)
Metis fiddler 4ap Bo#er was born at $ochin, Sas7atchewan. 4e can be heard at c lt ral events s ch as the Bac7 to Batoche .a#s, vario s other Metis celebrations and on the recentl# released $., )ro(s of /randy (Sas7atoon9 5abriel . mont 1nstit te, /001). 4e c rrentl# lives in ?orth Battleford, Sas7atchewan and is a Senator of the Metis ?ation!Sas7atchewan. "n Gan ar# /+, /00/ at a ceremon# in ?orth Battleford, Gac7 4illson, M6* on behalf of the federal government presented the $anadian %eace Eeepers Medal to Senator Bo#er in recognition of his contrib tion to world peace.

Boyer, Bo'. (b. 19-,!/00-)
Metis artist, ed cator and c rator Bob Bo#er was born at St. 6o is, Sas7atchewan and grew p at %rince *lbert. 4e is a descendant of the =ed =iver Metis at %ortage 6a %rairie, Manitoba. 4is great!grandfather and great! ncle fo ght and died at Batoche d ring the 1,,5 =esistance. 4is wor7 is held in the permanent collections of the $anadian M se m of $ivili'ation, the ?ational 5aller# of $anada and the 5lenbow M se m. 4e has pla#ed an instr mental role in the development of contemporar# ?ative art both as an artist, c rator and professor. 4e is a grad ate of the )niversit# of Sas7atchewan (B.&d. 19+1). Bo#er has an e(tensive e(hibition histor#, travelling worldwide for his artistic prod ction, most notabl# to the %eopleHs =ep blic of $hina in 19,F. B# incorporating traditional imager# on non!traditional media s ch as 4 dsonHs Ba# blan7ets, Bo#er e(amines and critiA es colonial historical events thro gh provocative images and titles. 4is piece

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Trains;N;/oats;N;#lains: The Nina$ the ,anta Maria$ and a #into consisting of three painted blan7ets, refers to $ol mb sH landing and five h ndred #ears of coloni'ation. 4is blan7et art refers to adversities faced b# *boriginals, s ch as coloni'ers distrib ting blan7ets infected with smallpo(. Bo#er has ta ght since 19,0, he was the 4ead of the 1ndian 3ine *rts .epartment at the Sas7atchewan 3ederated 1ndian $ollege in =egina, Sas7atchewan and is now an *ssociate %rofessor. 4e is an active c rator< two recent proJects incl de /ob /oyerCs ChildrenCs Collaborative #roHect and Jis&ayetum: Allan ,a(($ a Retros(ective. 4e was also c rator for 8?? Vears of ,as&atchewan !ndian Art 389@?; 8<@?4 in 19+5 and New 2or&s by a New "eneration, co!c rated in 19,/. ($ontrib ted b# $atherine Mattes.) Reference
Barbara %ritchard, >$ase St d#9 Bob Bo#er the *rtist, MCtis %ainting, %hotograph#, .rawing, %rintma7ing.@ 2innipeg9 M.*. 8hesis, )niversit# of Manitoba, 199,.

Boyer, Alexandre. (b. 1,66)
*le(andre was born at St. 3ranQois Uavier, the son of Gean Baptiste Bo#er and &li'abeth Bo sA et. 8he famil# was living at Batoche when *le(andre and his father were involved in the =esistance. 6ater (1,9F) he wo ld marr# Marg erite 3erg son at Batoche.

Boyer, (lise <i-ier. (1,6,!19+6)
B# ?orman 3le r# &lise :ivier was born on G l# /-, 1,6, in ?orth .a7ota and bapti'ed on *pril 1, 1,+0 at 8eton =iver, Montana. 4er parents were Michel :ivier born at St. 3rancois Uavier in 1,-+ and &lise .eschamps born 1,6+, also at St. 3rancois Uavier. &lise married ?orbert Bo#er, $haH!$haH ($at), the son of Goseph Bo#er +1 and 3elicite %atena de, on Gan ar# 16, 19/1 at St. 6a'are (3ort &llice). 4er sister, 1sabelle :ivier, was married to ?orbertHs #o nger brother, Gohn Bo#er. &lise was a step!mother to her h sbandHs children beca se she did not have children of her own. ?orbert was born at 1ndian 4ead on Gan ar# F1, 1,6/. ?orbert Bo#erHs ncle, 1sidore Bo#er, fo ght and died d ring last da# of fighting at Batoche, Ma# 1/, 1,,5. 4e is b ried at St. *ntoine de %ado e $emeter#, Batoche. ?orbert was first married to G lie Swain, the da ghter of 2illiam Swain and *ngeliA e Br#ere in 1,,F at 3ort &llice. G lie died on March //, 1,9F at 3ort &llice. &lise, Mrs. $ha!$ha as she was 7nown b# one and all was a mid!wife and traditional medicine woman. She treated t berc losis patients, and womenHs miscarriages and hemorrhages. She and ?orbert farmed east of 3ort &llice ne(t to Goseph Bell Sr. She made her livelihood b# c tting cord wood and fence posts, trapping and h nting, tanning hides and ma7ing robes. She also earned mone# pic7ing b ffalo bones. She was a great believer in the =oman $atholic faith b t also practiced traditional 1ndian wa#s of worship. She attended S n .ances, Sweat 6odges and Sha7ing 8ent ceremonies. Mrs. $ha!$ha spo7e of the 6o is =iel =esistance and of meeting =iel when she was fifteen. Most of her people came from the )nited States to Join the fight d ring the =esistance. 1t was after the 1,,5 =esistance that the# settled aro nd 3ort &llice. %revio s to this the# were transient wor7ers descended from the plains b ffalo h nters. 4er own clothing was made from hides, tanned to ma7e gloves, mitts, dresses, vests, coats and moccasins. 8he thread she made from sinew. She made c tter robes from horse and cow hides. 1t is said that she raised cats and also as7ed farmers and townspeople for stra#s. *fter receiving a good n mber of cats she 7illed them and tanned their hides, then sewed them together to ma7e c tter robes. 8he robes were colorf l, warm and sef l< often these robes sold for K50.00 or K+5.00 each. Mrs. $ha!$ha dried meat which 7ept for months. She made her own pemmican, and dried sas7atoons for f t re se. She ba7ed her bannoc7 and made her own preserves and Jams. Mrs. $ha!$ha co ld s7in an# animal, a Job she performed for man# trappers. 4er entertainment was old time dances, card games, pla#ing chec7ers, going to Sports .a#s and visiting neighbo ring reserves for %ow 2ows. She spo7e several lang ages, Michif, $ree, Sa ltea (, Sio (, 3rench and &nglish. She was independent, a charitable person willing to help an#one. She fostered man# Metis and 3irst ?ations children. 4er livelihood was based aro nd her c lt ral and traditional val es. 1 personall# 7new Mrs. $ha!$ha when 1 was #o ng and called her 5randma. She came to visit s at $hina 8own. 1n her elder #ears she lived with a variet# of relatives b t moved to the senior citi'enHs home at St. 4ebert, Sas7atchewan then to ?otre .ame des 6o rdes after brea7ing her hip. "n "ctober //, 196+ she was presented with 8he "rder of the $roc s for her contrib tions to $anada. She died at age 10, and is b ried at ?otre .ame des 6o rdes.

Boyer, +ran0ois. (1,5/!1,,5)

+1

GosephHs son, Goseph Bo#er Gr., %tchi gomme (6ittle Man), ?orbertHs brother, became $hief of "7anase now Eeesee7owenin =eserve. Goseph Gr. was born circa 1,5+ and married *ngeliA e Bone.

+F

3ranQois was born September -, 1,5/ at St. 3ranQois!Uavier, the son of 6o ison Bo#er and Madeleine 8rottier. 4e was married to Marie *ller# in 1,+5 at 3ort L H*ppelle. 4e fo ght and was wo nded d ring the 1,,5 =esistance at 3ish $ree7 *pril /-, 1,,5, and died three da#s later.

Boyer, #regoire. (b. 1,66)
5regoire was born at St. 3ranQois Uavier, the son of 1sidore Bo#er and Marg erite *ller#. 4e was active along with his father and brothers in the =esistance. 4e died after the fighting on Ma# /5, 1,,5 at Batoche, age 1,.

Boyer, 2sidore. (1,/9!1,,5)
1sidore was born on .ecember /,, 1,/9 at St. 3ranQois!Uavier. 4e was the son of %ierre Bo#er and Marg erite Bonnea . * resident of St. 6o is de 6angevin he was married to Marg erite *ller# dit 4enr#. "n ?ovember 19, 1,,F he had signed a petition protesting the 1,,F "rder in $o ncil transferring the Metis lands at St. 6o is to the %rince *lbert $oloni'ation $ompan#. 1sidore was a member of $aptain Games ShortHs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance. 1sidore fo ght and died d ring last da# of fighting at Batoche, Ma# 1/, 1,,5. 4e is b ried at St. *ntoine de %ado e $emeter#, Batoche. 2hen o t of reach of the soldiers, the Metis went toward &mman el $hampagneHs, the 8o rondHs had gone down toward Batoche b t had sta#ed too m ch in the open. %ierre 4enr# went his own wa# at a slow pace. 4e ran into 1sidore Bo#er who had alread# been wo nded in the hand. 8he# contin ed on still going in the same direction. 1sidore Bo#er then gets a b llet in the loins. >1 heard the b llet b rst in his bac7@, sa#s %ierre 4enr#. >1 then told him9 g8his time, 1 thin7 the#Hve 7illed #o .@ >Nes, 1 thin7 so too,@ replied 1sidore. ?evertheless, b# s pporting him, %ierre 4enr# managed to get him to a tent b# the ban7s of the river. >1Hm thirst#,@ said Bo#er. 4enr# loo7ed for water b t co ld not find an#. B t being thirst# himself, he went all the wa# down to the river. 4e never saw Bo#er again. +/ MiddletonHs troops b ried Bo#er, $lo tier (:ol. /, p. -,) reports9 6es soldats de Middleton ont enterrC 1sidore Bo#er et Michel 8rottier, blessCs emmenCs a camp et mort< Gean $aron les dCterre< il les tro ve n s, et to t grafignCs (i.e. CgratignCs) ! &t po rtant 1sidore Bo#er nIavait A e le bras cassC ! &nviron 1 pd. de terre par!dess s des cadavres co chCs lI n s r lIa tre. 1sidorHs wife, Marg erite (1,/9!1,,5), was the da ghter of Michel *ller# and Marie %aA in. 8heir son 5regoire Bo#er was 7illed at age 1,, fighting at Batoche 1sidore was a member of $aptain Games ShortHs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance. 1sidore fo ght and died d ring last da# of fighting at Batoche, Ma# 1/, 1,,5.

Boyer, "ean Baptiste. (1,-5!1,95)
Gean Baptiste was a Metis merchant, the son of %ierre Bo#er and Marge rite Bonnea . 4e married &li'abeth Bo sA et then Marie Bo drea . 8he# moved to St. 6a rent on the So th Sas7atchewan in 1,66. Bo#er was elected as a St. 6a rent (So th Sas7atchewan) $o ncil member in 1,+F and was a member of =ielHs 16 man $o ncil (&(ovedate) at Batoche d ring the 1,,5 =esistance. 4e was a member of $aptain %hillipe 5ariCp#Hs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance. 4is father was 7illed d ring the last da# of fighting. 4e fled to L H*ppelle after the battle of . c7 6a7e. 4is store at St. 6a rent was sed as a prison for =ielHs hostages. 4e ret rned and started p his b siness again after 1,,5.

Boyer, Magloire. (1,6/!19/5)
Magloire was born at St. 3rancois Uavier, the son of 1sidore Bo#er and Marg erite *ller#. 4e married Marg erite Bremner. Magloire lived on =iver 6ot /9 (8-5!/+!/) at St. 6o is de 6angevin. 4e was a member of $aptain $orbet 3lamantHs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Boyer, 8apoleon. (b. 1,59)
?apoleon was born at St. 3rancois Uavier, the son of 1sidore Bo#er and Marg erite *llar#. 4e married ?anc# Sophie *nderson. 8he# lived in the %rince *lbert and the St. 6o is area. 8he# lived on =iver 6ot /, (8-5!/+!/) at St. 6o is de 6angevin. 4e was a member of $aptain %hillipe 5ariCp#Hs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel

+/

S4M, p. 65.

+-

. mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance. 4e and $harles ?olin later came nder s spicion of their lo#alt# and the &(ovedate had them arrested.

Boyer, :illiam. (1,-0)
2illiam was the son of Gean Baptiste Bo#er and 4elene McMillan. 4e was married in 1,6/ to G lienne Bo sA et at St. Boniface and the# later moved to St. 6o is. 8he# lived on =iver 6ot 16 (8--!1!F) at St. 6o is de 6angevin. 4e was named as a $aptain of one of the 19 companies led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance. *long with $harles ?olin he was s spected of dislo#alt# and arrested b# the &(ovidate. Bra'ant, Augustin ('. 4>5>) * g stin was born at St. Boniface, the son of * g stin Brabant Sr. and Marg erite 5enevieve 6H4irondelle. 4e married G lie %hilippe the da ghter of GacA es %hilippe and Marg erite Golicoe r before 1,51. 4e died on G ne /9, 190+ at 6estoc7, Sas7atchewan. 8heir da ghter, &li'abeth was married to Gohn 3isher. 1n G ne of 1,6, 1saac $owie met free!traders * g stin Brabant and St. %ierre %oitras along the 5rande $otea de Misso ri going to trade with the L H*ppelle :alle# Sa ltea ( and $ree h nting parties. 8he two Metis had ten or twelve carts each. * g stin signed the Metis %etition of * g st /9, 1,,/ from the L H*ppelle :alle#. 8his petition was sent to &dgar .ewdne#, the 6ie tenant 5overnor of the ?orth!2est 8erritories stating that the "ntario and L H*ppelle 6and compan# was dispossessing the Metis of their lands beca se the s rve#s that had been done showed some of them to be on railwa# land. Bra'ant, Alexandre ('. 4>DE) *le(andre was born on 3ebr ar# 1, 1,+0 at 3ort L H*ppelle, the son of * g stin Brabant and G lie %hilippe. *le(andre signed the Metis %etition of * g st /9, 1,,/ from the L H*ppelle :alle#. 8his petition was sent to &dgar .ewdne#, the 6ie tenant 5overnor of the ?orth!2est 8erritories stating that the "ntario and L H*ppelle 6and compan# was dispossessing the Metis of their lands beca se the s rve#s that had been done showed some of them to be on railwa# land. Bra'ant, (douard ('. 4>F?) &do ard was also the son of * g stin Brabant and G lie %hilippe. 4e married &rnestine $harette, the da ghter of Goseph $harette and =osalie $ollin. &do ard signed the Metis %etition of * g st /9, 1,,/ from the L H*ppelle :alle#. 8his petition was sent to &dgar .ewdne#, the 6ie tenant 5overnor of the ?orth!2est 8erritories stating that the "ntario and L H*ppelle 6and compan# was dispossessing the Metis of their lands beca se the s rve#s that had been done showed some of them to be on railwa# land. Brady, Sister Ar$hange "eanne (1911!19,-) Sister *rchange Brad# was the da ghter of Games Brad#, Sr., an 1rish immigrant, and %hilomena 5arnea . %hilomena *rchange 5arnea was born at Strathcona, ?28, September /-, 1,+6. She lived in 2innipeg from 1,9, to the time of her Scrip *pplication in 1901. She became *lbertaHs first registered n rse of MCtis ancestr#. She married Games Brad# Sr. in &dmonton, on ?ovember /,, 1905. Sister Brad#Hs maternal grandmother was &leanor (4elene) 8homas 5arnea was born * g st 1/, 1,5/, a 5aelic, $ree spea7ing MCtis of Swamp# :illage. She died on G l# 1F, 191/ at St. %a l des MCtis, *lberta. Sister Brad#Hs brother was the well!7nown Metis activist Games Brad#.

Sister *. Brad#, 5re# ? n, holding a pet rabbit, 3ort $hipew#an, *lberta, 1951. %hotograph b# Games Brad#

+5

Sister Brady re$ei-es Binal tri'ute * thor9 &rin &llis :ol me9 / 1ss e9 F Near9 19,- %age 6 8he town of 3ort $hipew#an in northern *lberta paid trib te to Sister *rchange Geanne Brad# on *pril + after her death at the age of +F on *pril F. Sister Brad#, a Metis originall# from the St. %a l area, came to 3ort $hipew#an in 1950 shortl# after she became a 5re# ? n. She spent the ne(t F- #ears wor7ing at the 4ol# *ngels =esidential School, now the Bishop %iche School, and was made an honorar# chief b# the $ree and $hipew#an Band $o ncils. She was also given the $ree name >*nah 7a sa7ihat awassissa,@ the one who loves children. Sister Brad# was also active with the :oice of *lberta 2omen Societ#, the $atholic 2omenIs 6eag e and the &d cation ?orth Societ#. 1n addition to her role as a teacher and co nselor to the people of 3ort $hipew#an, Sister Brad# will also be remembered for her boo7 * 4istor# of 3ort $hipew#an. 8he boo7 is in its second printing and the proceeds coming from the sale of the boo7 are to be p t toward improving ed cation in northern *lberta. * f neral mass was held at the 5re# ? ns =egional $entre in &dmonton on Sat rda# morning. 6ater in the afternoon the bod# was flown to 3ort $hipew#an for another f neral mass. 8he bod# was b ried in the 5re# ? nsI plot of the St. *lbert cemeter# on *pril 9. =eference9 http9OOwww.ammsa.comOp blicationsOwindspea7erOsister!brad#!receives!final!trib te

Brady, "ames, “"im”. (190,!196+)
Games %atric7 Brad#, was born on March 11, 190, near St. %a l, *lberta, the son of Games Brad#, Sr., an 1rish immigrant, and %hilomena 5arnea , a Metis from Strathcona. 8hro gho t his life he was an advocate of ?ative rights, and a strong s pporter of democratic socialism. 4e helped to fo nd n mero s MCtis political organi'ations in 2estern $anada these incl ded the *ssociation des MCtis dH*lberta et des 8erritories d ?ord!" est (*lberta MCtis *ssociation), the Metis *ssociation of Sas7atchewan, and the MCtis *ssociation of 6a=onge. 8he *lberta Metis *ssociation, wor7ed to sec re land for Metis sA atters. 1n his wor7 for *M*, he promoted cooperative vent res to give his people an economic base. 1n 19-1 he became s pervisor of the government!sponsored 2olf 6a7e Metis $olon#. 4e fo ght overseas d ring the Second 2orld 2ar, and on his ret rn moved to Sas7atchewan where he wor7ed for the $$3 governmentIs .epartment of Mineral =eso rces, establishing Metis cooperatives. 4e retired to 6a=onge, Sas7atchewan abo t 1950 d e to differences with the $$3 government. 4e disappeared in G ne 196+ while on a prospecting trip in northern Sas7atchewan. *fter 1,,5, man# Sas7atchewan Metis people dispersed into parts of *lberta. Mission settlements s ch as 6ac Ste. *nne and St. *lbert attracted man# Metis families as a place to reb ild their lives. 8his created a significant increase in *lbertaHs Metis pop lation. Man# Metis arriving in northern *lberta str ggled to find a land base to call home. 8he MCtis of the ?orthwest 8erritories were becoming minorities after 1,,5. 8his led to f rther alienation of man# Metis from the emerging political, social and economic s#stem. . ring this period of f t re ncertaint# for man# Metis people, strong leaders emerged. Gim Brad# was born in 190, at 6a7e St. :incent near St. %a l des MCtis, *lberta. 4is father, Gim Brad# Sr. was a dominion land agent, postmaster and wealth# store7eeper of Scottish ancestr#. 4is Metis mother, %hilomena *rchange was one of the first Metis registered n rses in the area. Brad# grew p in St. %a l des MCtis, the largest Metis comm nit# in *lberta. 4e was partiall# raised b# his maternal grandfather, 6awrence 5arnea , who was involved with 6o is =iel and the Metis in the resistances of 1,69!+0 and 1,,5. 4is grandfather ta ght him abo t the roots of the historic Metis str ggles in the northwest. St. %a l des MCtis consisted of man# dispossessed Metis with militant ideologies, which wo ld later have a tremendo s infl ence on Brad#Hs life. Members of the Brad# famil# were strong

+6

advocates of Metis identit# and social eA alit#. *s a #o ng man, vario s politicians, radicals and nion s pporters t tored Brad#. . ring the 19/0s, he wor7ed as a labo rer and became as 7nowledgeable abo t the political and economic realities of wor7 as an#bod# on the prairies. . ring these #ears Gim Brad# adopted Mar(ist philosophies. 1n the earl# 19F0s, 3eli( $allihoo, %eter 8om7ins, Gim Brad#, Goe .ion, and Malcolm ?orris, Joined together to wor7 for the Metis ca se. 8hese men are often called the >fab lo s five@ for their strong commitment toward politicall# organi'ing the Metis in *lberta. 8ogether the# helped form the MCtis *ssociation of *lberta b# activel# travelling to *lberta MCtis comm nities to raise political awareness. 8he priorit# of the MCtis association was to petition the government and raise awareness abo t Metis iss es. 1n 19FF, the *lberta MCtis *ssociation had 1,/00 members in -1 locals. 1n the earl# 19F0s, these *lberta Metis leaders with the s pport of local Members of the 6egislative *ssembl# and Members of %arliament, $h rch officials and medical doctors rged the provincial government to st d# the conditions of the Metis. 1n 19F-, d e to the intense lobb#ing of leaders li7e Gim Brad#, the 4alf!Breed $ommission, also 7nown as the &wing $ommission, was appointed to begin hearings and cons ltations with the Metis. Gim Brad# was viewed b# his comrades as the political strategist d ring the commission hearings. *s res lt of their wor7, the MEtis /etterment Act was passed b# the *lberta government in 19F,. 8his provided *lberta MCtis with both land tracts and social welfare programs. 2hen war later bro7e o t, Brad# was ref sed entrance into the $anadian *rm# beca se of his comm nist affiliations. 4e contin ed his political str ggles ntil he was finall# accepted into the arm# in 19-F. Brad#Hs war e(perience effected his o tloo7 on life and made him even more aware of the oppression of Metis people in 2estern $anada. Brad# 7ept a detailed Jo rnal of his war e(periences. *fter the war, Brad# moved to ?orthern Sas7atchewan. *t $ mberland 4o se he lived with $ecilia .orion in a log cabin lined with scholarl# boo7s. 1n the north he wor7ed as a prospector in 6a=onge, Sas7atchewan, and wor7ed for the .epartment of ?at ral =eso rces. 4e helped to introd ce cooperatives in the north. =e nited with ?orris, the# wor7ed together to organi'e the ?orthern Sas7atchewan MCtis *ssociation. Brad# was a 7e# organi'er of the 6a=onge local of the MCtis *ssociation. 8he p rpose of the MCtis *ssociation of Sas7atchewan was, >to organi'e people of 1ndian ancestr# in the %rovince of Sas7atchewan in order to sec re recognition for and reali'ation of o r hopes and aspirations towards a better wa# of life consistent with the opport nities available within $anadian Societ#.@ Gim Brad# felt ver# passionate abo t Metis enJo#ing the same rights as other $anadian citi'ens. *rt .avis cond cted an interview with Gim Brad# in 1960 for the Sas7atchewan *rchives Board. Brad# had this to sa# abo t the f t re of the MCtis people9 ...the# are and have been the victims of colonialism as well as an# *sian or *frican, b t the# m st be freed from all of the pernicio s infl ences that this s#stem of colonialism has forced pon them in British ?orth *merica. 8he# m st be freed of the disabilities, which colonialism has imposed pon them, or the vestiges of colonialism still impose pon them. $onseA entl#, what we wo ld refer to vag el# as the national liberation of the 1ndian people and the MCtis people in $anada, cannot be completed ntil $anada as a whole and the western world as a whole free themselves of that vicio s s#stem which has imposed these conditions on a conA ered people. No see the problem was #o were dealing simpl# with the problems of a conA ered nation and a defeated people. No see o r str ggle for national liberation, or a f t re destin# of o r own, that str ggle was fo ght o t on the ban7s of the Sas7atchewan =iver more than two generations ago. Brad# was a great thin7er with ama'ing insights into the histor# of Metis oppression. 1n 196+, while on a prospecting e(pedition with a $ree friend, Brad# and his partner disappeared. *n e(tensive =$M% search ens ed, b t the# were never fo nd. Man# northerners believe that the two men were m rdered for political reasons. Gim Brad# was an e(traordinar# leader and his abilit# to organi'e Metis people will be remembered well into the f t re. Some Metis

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families still remember how infl ential Brad#Hs feelings of pride and dedication to ma7e positive change opened their minds to a different f t re. ($ontrib ted b# 6eah .orion.)

Bran$onnier, Adelaide ,aroline (Morrissette). (1,F/!1919)
*delaide was born on September 6, 1,F/ in St. Boniface Manitoba, to Gean Baptiste Branconnier and &lise 6o ise Bea chemin (b. 1+90). &liseHs father, *ndrC Millet dit Bea chemin was born Gan ar# 19, 1+91 in L ebec, and her mother was an 1ndian woman. *delaideHs father, Gean Baptiste, was a vo#age r with the ?orth 2est $ompan#. 4e signed a contract with the compan# in 1,0-, and came to the for7s of the =ed =iver d ring that time. 1n 1,15, he was capt red and wo nded at 3ort 5ibralter b# the 4 dson Ba# $ompan#. 4e was placed on a ship, The #rince of 2ales, and was sent to &ngland to be prosec ted. 4owever, d ring this vo#age a second ship, containing all the evidence and prosec tion doc ments, came into tro ble and san7. *s a res lt, Gean Baptiste was released and ret rned to ?orth *merica. *delaide was raised in St. Boniface and later resided in St. $harles *ssiniboia. *delaide was ver# religio s thro gho t her lifetime. 1t is recalled that she waited on the ban7s of the =ed =iver in St. Boniface in order to greet the 5re# ? ns pon their arrival. *delaide married Gean Baptiste Morrissette in 1,51. 1t is recalled that she met Gean Baptiste when on her wa# to ch rch in St. Boniface. *delaide was travelling b# horse and sled when her horse became frightened and bolted awa#. Gean Baptiste was wal7ing ahead of her part# and ca ght the horse, the# were later married. Gean Baptiste was born in 1,19, the son of *rsene Morrissette Sr. and 8herCsC, an *boriginal woman. *delaide and Gean Baptiste had thirteen children and raised their famil# in *ssiniboia. Gean Baptiste wor7ed for the 4 dson Ba# $ompan# as a labo rer on the barges. *delaide acted as midwife for the St. $harles area. 3ather $aron recalled that *delaide had delivered most of the babies in the area. *delaide died "ctober F1, 1919. ($ontrib ted b# *delaidHs great!great!great grandda ghter, *manda =o'#7.)

Bran$onnier, 2sa'elle (<andal). (1,56!19F6).
1sabelle was born on * g st /0, 1,56, the da ghter of *mable Branconnier and &li'abeth Stevenson. She was first married to =oger :andal at St. *gathe in 1,+F. . ring the battle for Batoche >she co ld see and hear the shells going overhead.@ Stra# rifle fire >c t off a piece of one womanHs hair, and two innocent little babies were so closel# gra'ed b# b llets that a scratch was left on their s7in.@ +F 4er h sband, =oger, was A ite ill in 1,,5 and did not participate in =esistance fighting. 8he# event all# ret rned to Manitoba in 1,,, and reJoined their relatives at St. Gean!Baptiste. =oger died in St. Boniface on "ctober F0, 1,,,. 1sabelle later married &tienne .esmarais on September +, 1,90 at St. Gean Baptiste. 1n 19FF, 1sabelle gave the following dictation to Mrs. &. =obinson Z5eorgina nCe 4opcraft[ of Morris MB. 8his was preserved b# 3ather .avid =o# who added footnote information from parish registers. 8his was passed on to the a thor b# 6ionel Bernier, a :andal descendant. 1n later #ears after 1 was married, we moved to 3ish $ree7, Sas7atchewan. M# h sband m#self and fo r children. ?ow, in 1,,5 the tro ble started again at Batoche. +- 1 happened to be there again, so it seemed that tro ble was following me. 8he first battle was at . c7 6a7e, the second at 3ish $ree7, and the third at Batoche. So there we were;at Batoche;for protection, and in the middle of tro ble. 8he leader of the =ebellion ordered all families into Batoche for safet#. 3or o rselves, m# h sband did not ta7e part in the rebellion with the others as m# h sband was sic7. 8he battle went on for three da#s, starting at +900 *M and leaving off at si( %M. 8he soldiers got orders to fight and ta7e Batoche as the rebels were getting o t of amm nition. 2hen the soldiers entered we were all hidden alongside the river ban7 (the village being on top of the hill). *ll the families and children were camped there. 2e co ld hear the leaders commanding the soldiers, and b llets were going over o r heads into the river J st li7e hail. Some of the tents were shot thro gh. "nce we went for water for the children and 1 saw something strange in the m d. *ll 1 co ld see was something li7e a handle. So m# sister and 1 p lled it o t and fo nd it was a cannonball, as the# shot across the river at the ho ses on the other side, and this one had not got across. 8he soldiers too7 Batoche and all the families had to r n awa# for safet#. 2e all started along the river< there were with s abo t two h ndred children, ma#be more, with their parents. 8he river had risen and gone down again, and had left a ban7 of ice which was a protection for s against the b llets. 2hile we were wal7ing, a little dog was 7illed right in front of s b# a b llet. 1t co ld have been one of s as well. 2hen the government boat came p, we were hidden in a little slope watching it pass. 2e saw it when it gat ca ght b# the cable. 1t was twisting aro nd as if there was nothing to g ide it. B t m# real worst e(perience, to me at least, was when 1 nearl# lost m# little girl. 8here was an 1ndian famil# that we sed to feed before the rebellion. 1 was reall# frightened of them, b t when we were getting awa# with
73

$ited in ?athalie Eermoal. >6es roles et les so ffrances des femmes mCtisses lors de la =Csistance de 1,+0 et de la =Cbellion de 1,,5.@ #rairie %orum, :ol. 19, ?o. /, 3all 199F9 160. +i Started again j is a reference bac7 to the 1,69!+0 =esistance she tal7s abo t earlier in the dictation.

+,

o r children, 1 had one in m# arms and had one b# the hand, the others being big eno gh to follow me. 8he same 1ndian woman happened to pass me, and she saw that 1 was in diffic lt# handling the children, so she grabbed one of m# little girls and made signs she was going to help me. % tting the child on her bac7 she started off. 1 hadnHt loo7ed, and when 1 did, she was almost a A arter mile ahead of me. 1 left the other children with m# sister and started to r n after her. 2hen 1 got to her, 1 grabbed m# little girl and told her9 >No are r nning awa# with m# girl.@ 8he Z1ndian woman[ said >Nes@, and she too7 o t some bannoc7 and gave it to the little girl. 1 never saw the Zwomank again. 3rom there we went on to a small mo ntain where we sta#ed three da#s. 2e had ver# little to eat and o r clothes were badl# torn. 2hile we were there, =iel came to s. *ll his moccasins were torn, and m# sister, Mrs. .Goseph :andal ZG lienne Branconnier[ gave him a pair of moccasins. 8horn he too7 two men, Mr. Modeste :andal and Mr. Modeste Bo#er, and wrote o t his s rrendrance papers, and the three went to meet the soldiers to give themselves p. 4e said he too7 those two men to prove he was s rrendering himself, and Zso[ that no one wo ld get the reward for his capt re. *fter all was over all the men had to give p their arms to the government at Batoche, so all the families co ld go bac7 home, that is, the ones that had homes left. Man# homes were b rnt. " rs was not b rnt, b t all o r clothes and stoc7 were gone. M# h sband had been a vol nteer in the %rovince of Manitoba +5, b t had his discharge when leaving for the west. * captain of the government arm# came to o r ho se and A estioned s. M# h sband showed him his discharge and told him he hadnHt ta7en part in the rebellion, b t he was there and co ldnHt help himself. "f co rse the# co ldnHt force him as he was sic7. 8he captain said all right, sta# here, and he wo ld come for s the ne(t da#. 8he ne(t da# he arrived with two soldiers in an e(press, and too7 s to $lar7Hs $rossing where all the arm# troops were. 2hen we got there the# had camp read# for s, some good soldiers came and covered m# children with woolen blan7ets, as the# saw we had nothing. 1 was A ite nervo s to be alone with strangers with m# children and sic7 h sband. B t, 1 soon fo nd o t the# were good friends to s. 2e were there three wee7s< 1 was the coo7. 8he# gave s s pplies for a #ear and we went bac7 home to 3ish $ree7. 2e sta#ed there ntil 1,,,. . ring that time 1 wor7ed all 1 co ld and earned a team of ponies and an e(press wagon. 1 was wor7ing for the soldiers. 8he one 1 especiall# remember who helped me to get wor7 was $aptain BebiPre.

Bran$onnier, "ean Baptiste. (1+91!1,6F)
Gean Baptiste Branconnier was a 3rench $anadian who was born on Gan ar# 19, 1+91 in Montreal, L ebec. 4e was the son of %ierre Branconnier and Marie *ngCliA e %rovencal. 8he Branconniers made their home in ?otre .ame, L ebec. Gean BaptistHs great!grandfather, Gean Baptiste Branconnier (dit) %arisien came to $anada in the late 1600s and settled in St. 6a rent, 1les dH"rleans. Gean Baptiste married &lise 6o ise Bea chemin at =ed =iver. 8he# had si( children, one of whom, *delaide, appears in the biograph# above. *ccording to MassonHs, Les /ourgeois de la Com(agnie du Nord Ouest , Gean Baptiste is listed, in 1,0-, in the g6ac " inipicH (6a7e 2innipeg) department. 1t is diffic lt to believe a bo# of 1- co ld end re the hard, nforgiving life of the colorf l vo#age rs. 4e traveled bac7 to Montreal to spend the winters, (these eastern vo#age rs were referred to as mangeur de lard beca se the# were provisioned with bacon) b t maintained a career with the ?orth 2est $ompan#. "n 3ebr ar# ,, 1,10, he signed a new contract with the compan# in Montreal, sing an U for a signat re, (most of the vo#age rs were illiterate). 8his time he signed on as an avant (bowman). 8his entitled him to a higher wage, -00 3rench 6ivres, to go to 3ort 2illiam and another /00 to go to 6ac la %l ie (/0 6ivres were eA al to one British c). 4e traveled p to 3ort 2illiam on the Eaministig ia =iver, passing b# Michilimac7inac then on to 6ac la %l ie. 4e was to provide si( da#s of corvee, ma7ing two vo#ages to gMo ntain %ortageH from 3ort 2illiam or, at the discretion of the ,ieurs, he was to provide si( da#s of other wor7 that the# might deem necessar#. 4e wo ld help carr# the three man canoes across land as well. 4e was s pplied with one three!point blan7et, three #ards of cotton, one pair of leather moccasins and collier. Between G l# 1,11 and G l# 1,16 he appears to have made n mero s trips between 6ac " inipic and 6ac ?ipigon being paid between F50 ! -+5 3rench 6ivres. *ccording to the engage boo7s from both departments he is being paid as a bout. 1n * g st 1,16, we find him wintering at 3ort 5ibraltar. 3ort 5ibraltar was b ilt in 1,09 and was located at the for7s of the =ed and the *ssiniboine rivers. "n March 1+, 1,16, in the dead of the night, Mr. $olin =obertson, with a part# of seventeen armed men bro7e into the ?orth 2est $ompan# fort. 8he# sei'ed . ncan $ameron and his servants, among them Gean Baptiste Branconnier. 8he# pillaged the fort of all propert# incl ding fift# pac7s of f rs and destro#ed the b ildings. 8he goods and prisoners were sent to 3ort .o glas and then on to Nor7 3actor#. . ncan $ameron and Gean Baptiste Branconnier along with two other servants arrived at Nor7 3actor# on 8 esda#, G ne 11, 1,16. *s prisoners, the# were sent off to stand trial in &ngland.
+5

6ionel Bernier sa#s that this was li7el# the St. Gean Baptiste 1nfantr# $ompan#.

+9

1n G l# 1,1+, the ship again set sail, bo nd for 6ondon, &ngland. 8he lists of inventor# and compan# records were sent on this ship, the /ritannica. 4alf wa# thro gh the vo#age the ship ca ght fire and san7. S bseA entl#, having been held in 6ondon for a #ear, . ncan $ameron and Gean Baptiste were released d e to lac7 of formal charges. 1n 1,1,, Gean Baptiste Branconnier appeared in 8oronto to give testimon# at the Semple trial, which dealt with the events that led p to the Battle of Seven "a7s and the death of =obert Semple. 8he following is the act al testimon# of Gean Baptiste.
>1 7now that 3ort 5ibraltar sit ated near the for7s of the =ed =iver was ta7en b# the 4 dsonHs Ba# people. 1 was there at the time, in the service of the ?orthwest $ompan#, and was wo nded b# one of the part# who too7 the fort, b t 1 am not s re b# whom. 8he cond ct of this part# who too7 possession of the 3ort and wo nded me was violent and o trageo s, be#ond an#thing 1 ever witnessed, so m ch so, that 1 was afraid we wo ld all be m rdered b# them. 8he# p t pistols to o r heads and threatened to blow o r brains o t, nder all manner of violence and carnage was committed. 1 was ta7en to 4 dsonHs Ba# b t not as a prisoner and from there after stopping a long time, 1 was sent to &ngland b# Mister =obertson.@ >.o #o 7now abo t 3ort .o glas having afterward being ta7enB@ >?o, 1 was gone before that happened.@

1n Gan ar# 1,19, at Montreal, Gean Baptiste signed a three!#ear contract, as a hiverenant, to winter in )pper $anada. 4e was s pplied with one three!point blan7et, one two!point blan7et, si( #ards of cotton, one pair of leather moccasins and a collier for the first #ear. 4e ret rned to =ed =iver and in 1,19 married &liseO6o ise Bea chemin in the first $atholic $h rch in Saint!Boniface. 8he# had seven children together. Man# of their children wo ld marr# sons and da ghters of some of the prominent families in =ed =iver s ch as Bird and Mc.ermot. 4is famil# and his childrenHs families were among the b ffalo h nters that remained in =ed =iver. 8he# were politicall# active and showed s pport to 6o is =ielHs movement to protect the rights of the Metis people. Gean Baptiste remained with the ?orth 2est $ompan# ntil the# merged with the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan#, b t having little se for the &nglish he A it the service in 1,//. Gean Baptiste Branconnier died on G l# 6, 1,6F in St. 3ranQois Uavier, Manitoba. 8oda# descendants of Gean Baptiste Branconnier can still be fo nd near the area where he spent most of his life, enJo#ing toda# what he and man# others fo ght hard to preserve. ($ontrib ted b# 6es 2. Branconnier reprinted co rtes# of the Metis =eso rce $entre 1nc.)

Bray (M$1ay), "emima. (1,59!19F6)
Gemima was born Gan ar# 1, 1,55 at 3ort &llice, the da ghter of &dward McEa# and $aroline $oo7, a b ffalo h nting famil# from the L H*ppelle :alle# who moved to the 3ort 2alsh area in 1,60. GemimaHs grandfather was the famo s 4B$ 3actor, Gohn =ichards McEa#. Gemima married Gohn 4enr# 5resham Bra# a ?orth 2est Mo nted %olice "fficer at 3ort 2alsh in 1,+6. 8he# then lived at 3ort Mc6eod and %incher $ree7, where Sergeant Bra# too7 his discharge in 1,,F. 8he# then retired to Medicine 4at where Gemima died on March F1, 19F6 at age ++. She was recogni'ed as one of the first ?2M% >wives@ in the province and the birth of their da ghter 3lora was considered a first for the force.

Breland, ,lemen$e (.amelin). (b. 1,50)
$lemence was the da ghter of %ascal Breland and Maria 5rant. She was married to 3irmin 4amelin the son of Solomon 4amelin and 1sabelle :andal.

Breland, (rnestine (;ourond). (b. 1,6F)
&rnestine was the da ghter of %atrice Breland Sr. and 4elene .ease. She was married to &l'Car 8o rond (b. 1,5,) and was one of the heroines of the 1,,5 =esistance.

Breland (Berland), #il'ert. (b. 1,F,)
5ilbert was born at St. 3rancoise Uavier, the son of *le(andre Breland and &milie 2ells. 1n 1,F, he married 3elecite Bo#er. 8he# lived at =ed .eer =iver and then St. 6a rent on the So th Sas7atchewan. 5ilbert was active d ring the 1,,5 =esistance at both 3ish $ree7 and Batoche. 5ilbert was the sco t who warned the Metis at 3ish $ree7 that MiddletonHs troops were approaching.

5ilbert and his brother Moise (b. 1,F/) were both present at the Battle of the 5rand $otea when $aptain Gean Baptiste 3alcon and the Metis b ffalo h nters from St. 3rancois Uavier fo ght the .a7ota on G l# 15!16, 1,51.

,0

5ilbert and Moise were the sons of *le(andre Boish e dit Breland +6 and &milie 2ells. 5ilbert married 3elecite Bo#er (b. 1,-+) on /1 3ebr ar# 1,65 in St. 3rancois!Uavier. She was the da ghter of Gean!Baptiste Bo#er and 4elene McMillan. 8he# lived at =ed .eer =iver then at St. 6a rent on the So th Sas7atchewan. $hildren of 5ilbert and 3elicite9 • Marie *deline, born 1,,6 at S3U. • :irginie, born 1,6, at S3U. • $ecile, born 1,+0 at S3U. • &rnestine, born 1,+F on the prairie near =ed .eer =iver. • *le(andre, born 1,+5 =ed .eer =iver. • *ntoine, born 1,+, at St. 6a rent SE. • Marie =ose, born 1,,0 at St. 6a rent SE. 8he famo s trader %ascal Breland (b. 1,11) married to $ thbert 5rantHs da ghter Maria 5rant was 5ilbertHs ncle, %ascal was the #o nger brother of *le(andre Breland.

Breland, "osue. (b. 1,55)
Gos e was born at St. 3rancoise Uavier, the son of %ascal Breland and Maria 5rant. 1n 19+5, he married Marie 3lavie .a phinais. 4e was a member of $aptain *mbroise $hampagneHs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Breland, Pas$al, M.&.A. (1,11!1,96)
%ascal came to be 7nown as >6e =oi de 8raite rs@W>Eing of the 8raders.@ 4e was born in the Sas7atchewan =iver :alle# on G ne 15, 1,11 to %ierre d Boish C dit Breland and Gosephte (6o ise) Belle# a 4alf!Breed. 8he famil# farmed at =ed =iver, then in 1,F/, %ascal and his mother and two #o nger sisters moved from =ed =iver to 5rantown (St. 3ranQois Uavier) to farm. 3o r #ears later %ascal married fifteen #ear old Maria 5rant da ghter of $ thbert 5rant and Marie .esmarais. BrelandHs sister Marie was the mother of another famo s Metis entreprene r, Gohnn# 5rant. Maria and %ascal raised a large famil# of si( bo#s and nine girls. B# 1,-9 %ascal was a ver# prospero s trader with his F,0 acres of land in and aro nd St. 3ranQois Uavier. *t the time he owned 1/ =ed!=iver!carts and had // horses. 1nitiall#, %ascal did not have legal claim to his land b t later he received an official land grant from the $rown in 1,,/. Breland spent a considerable amo nt of time on the 2estern %lains as a free trader in areas of 3ort %itt, 2ood Mo ntain!$#press, 3ort L H*ppelle and 3ort &llis. *s a res lt of %ascalHs e(tensive involvement in the trade and his wealth, he gained a social prestige in the area and he was a member of >la bo rgeoisie MCtisse.@ %ascalHs political views became 7nown when he s pported 6o is =iel Sr. at the trial of 5 illa me Sa#er in 1,-9, involving the Metis right for free trade of their goods. * prospero s farmer, and trader, he owned a considerable n mber of carts and was nic7named >le =oi des traite rs@ (the 7ing of traders). %ascal had man# appointments in =ed =iver s ch as Magistrate for 2hite 4orse %lains on "ctober 16, 1,51< %ett# G dge in 1,5/< in charge of the cens s for St. 3ranQois Uavier in 1,56< member of the Board of 2or7s 1,56. 8hen in September 1,5+, he was sworn in as a new member for the $o ncil of *ssiniboia. Breland was re!appointed %ett# Magistrate in ?ovember 1,61. 1n * g st 1,65, he was %resident of the %ett# $o rt at 2hite 4orse %lains and he was also instr mental with the negotiations for the signing of 8reat# ? mber - in 1,+-. 1n 1,69, he voiced his opposition to intr ders, $anadian strangers sta7ing o t the land. 1n 1,,+, he was the Metis =epresentative on the ?orthwest $o ncil. %ascal!Breland did not involve himself d ring the resistance at =ed =iver in 1,69!+0. 4istor# has man# views as to wh# he was awa# trading at this time. *fter %ascal and Solomon 4amelin ret rned to =ed =iver in the spring of 1,+0 he was as7ed b# the Metis for his advice and leadership at a mass meeting being held at the Settlement Breland. 4e was s bseA entl# elected to the new Manitoba 6egislative *ssembl# in 1,+0 for the riding of St. 3rancis!Uavier

+6

*le(andre was born in 1,0F. 4e was the son of %ierre $harles Berland (b. 1+6-) and 6o ise Bell#. *le(andre was b ried 15 G ne 1,59 in St 3rancois Uavier. $anada. 4e married &melie 2ells, the da ghter of Gohn 2ells (2ills) and Gosephte 5rant. She was born 1,10 in the ?orthwest 8erritor#.

,1

and was appointed to the governing $o ncil of the ?orthwest 8erritories. 4e was 7nown as an able diplomat and a moderate Metis politician. %ascal Breland died on "ctober /-, 1,96 at the age of eight#!five after #ears of being a diplomat, b sinessman, pioneer and politician. *t his passing man# described him as a man of integrit#, intelligence and h mor who earned respect. ($ontrib ted b# 6orraine 3reeman, reprinted co rtes# of the Metis =eso rce $entre 1nc.) Reference
$hampagne, 6#nne. >%ascal Breland.@ )ictionary of Canadian /iogra(hy, :ol. U11 (1,91!1900). 8oronto9 )niversit# of 8oronto %ress, 19909 1/-!1/5.

Breland, Patri$e, M.&.A. (1,F+!190,)
%atrice served as a G stice of the %eace in the ?orth 2est 8erritories, as a member of the Manitoba 6egislat re from 1,,0 to 1,,/, and as =eeve of the =M of St. 3rancois Uavier from 1,91 to 1,9/, and from 1,95 to 1900. %atrice was born at St. 3rancois Uavier on March 1+, 19F+, the son of %ascal Breland and Maria 5rant. 4e was married to 4elen .ease, the da ghter of Gohn .ease. 1n 1,+9 %atrice was elected to the Manitoba legislat re b# acclamation for the riding of St. 3ranQois!Uavier. 4e was a f r trader, traveling between Manitoba and the $#press 4ills, as well as other points in the ?orth 2est 8erritories 4e s all# wor7ed as a trader with his father and was a =iel s pporter in 1,69!+0. 1n 1,+,, %atrice and other Metis b ffalo h nters at $#press 4ills wrote a petition as7ing for a special Metis reserve of land.++ 8his was one of the Metis families arrested at 3ort Bel7nap for h nting in Montana. ?ovember /-, 1,+,9 ?ovember /-9 $#press Mo ntains, %atrice Breland writes9 8he news here, altho gh not ver# good, beca se the B ffalos (bison) are ver# scarce in the neighbo rhood, the# are plentif l on the other side of the line along the Mil7 =iver, b t there is great inconvenience to go and h nt in that direction beca se the *mericans defend it, the# have made prisoners. *ntoine Brillant the elder, %eter 6apierre, *le(ander Brillant, %ierre 6abr ler, *mbroise $hartrant, $harles .emontign# and Goseph *' re, the# have all been made prisoners with their families. 8he# were arrested at 3ort Bel7nap, the# have been released after + or , da#s after, witho t being fined provided the# donIt ret rn and tell fol7s that other prisoners will be p t in gaol for two #ears and their horses and carts ta7en. 1 have learned that the 8eton (Sio () go h nting on the other side of the line n mbering F00 men. 8he 8eton are not n mero s here. 8he# are abo t 50 lodges and the Sante abo t F0 lodges, and the remainder of the 8eton with Sitting B ll are at the M d ho se on 2hite =iver ()tah), 1 have learned that the# are abo t 1,000 lodges. 1 thin7 1 will go ver# soon to trade with these people...

++

=eA esting a re!opening of the b ffalo h nt between ?ovember 1- th and 3ebr ar# 15th each #ear and the granting of Metis >reserve@ land (* strip of land 150 miles long along the *merican border beginning where the %embina =iver crosses the border. 8his strip was to be fift# miles from so th to north.

,/

Games McEa# (l) and %atrice Breland %*M, 4. 6eto rnea $ollection. X 1+, ?egative 1-F1,.

Bremner, Alexandre. (b. 1,5+)
*le(andre was the son of 2illiam Bremner+, and Mar# 4og e. *le(andre lived on the west half of =iver 6ot FF and the east half of =iver 6ot F- (8-F!/+!/) at St. 6o is de 6angevin. "n ?ovember 19, 1,,F he had signed a petition protesting the 1,,F "rder in $o ncil transferring the Metis lands at St. 6o is to the %rince *lbert $oloni'ation $ompan#. *le(andre was a member of $aptain $orbet 3lamantHs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Bremner, ,harles. (b. 1,-0)
$harles Bremner was the son of *le( Bremner Sr. and &li'abeth >Bets#@ 8wat< he was married to *melia 2ells. 8he# had seven children. 8his &nglish 4alf!Breed store7eeper and trader was falsel# acc sed of participating in the Metis =esistance of 1,,5. 4e was arrested and had all his goods confiscated. 1t later t rned o t that 5eneral Middleton had stolen his f rs. 8he scandal r ined MiddletonHs rep tation and he had to give p his retirement plan to become president of an ins rance compan#. 4e ret rned to &ngland.

Bremner, "oseph. (1,61!1959)
Metis farmer Goseph Bremner was born at St. $harles, Manitoba on Ma# 1, 1,61. 4e was the son of 2illiam Bremner and Mar# 4og e. 8he famil# moved to St. 6o is de 6angevin in the So th Sas7atchewan area in 1,,/. 8he# lived on =iver 6ot /0 (8-5!/+!/). 4e married Marie!*nne " elette on ?ovember /-, 1,,-. She was the da ghter of Mofse " elette. Goseph was a member of $aptain *ntoine 6afontaineHs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

+,

2illiam Bremner held 4B$ lots 1/,F and 1/,- at =ed=iver (=egister B).

,F

Bremner, MoGse.DH (b. 1,6/)
Mofse was the son of 2illiam Bremner and Mar# 4og e. 4e married =ose Bo cher after 1,,5. 8he# lived on =iver 6ot 1+ (8-5!/+!/) at St. 6o is de 6angevin. "n ?ovember 19, 1,,F he had signed a petition protesting the 1,,F "rder in $o ncil transferring the Metis lands at St. 6o is to the %rince *lbert $oloni'ation $ompan#. 4e was a member of $aptain Baptiste Bo cherHs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Bremner, :illiam Sr. (b. 1,//)
2illiam was the son of *le(andre Bremner and &li'abeth 8watt. 4e married Marie 5ariCp#. 8he# lived on =iver 6ot 16 (8-5!/+!/) at St. 6o is de 6angevin on the So th Sas7atchewan. 2illiam sent a petition regarding Metis grievances to "ttawa from St. 6o is de 6angevin on ?ovember 19, 1,,F ($S%, 1,,6, ?o. -5, pp. /5!/,) protesting the 1,,F "rder in $o ncil transferring the Metis lands at St. 6o is to the %rince *lbert $oloni'ation $ompan#. ($S%, 1,,6, ?o. -5, pp. /5!/,). 4e was a member of $aptain Baptiste Bo cherHs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Bremner, :illiam "r. (b. 1,59)
2illiam was the son of 2illiam Bremner and Mar# 4og e. 4e married $elina . mas the da ghter of Michel . mas and *delaide 6esperance. "n ?ovember 19, 1,,F he had signed a petition protesting the 1,,F "rder in $o ncil transferring the Metis lands at St. 6o is to the %rince *lbert $oloni'ation $ompan#. 4e was a member of $aptain $aptain * g ste 6aframboiseH $ompan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance

Brien dit Breyan dit Brillant, Alexandre. (1,50!19/6)
*le(andre was born in %embina, Minnesota 8erritor# on 5 Gan ar# 1,50, the son of *ntoine Brien ,0 and Gosephte *' re. *le(andre married *delaide St. .enis in 1,+/ at 6ebret and had fo r children. $hildren of *le(andre and *delaide9 • • • • Marie *lphonsine, born G ne /9, 1,+F, 2ood Mo ntain, died 1,,, at 2illow B nch. *le(andre, born .ecember 1, 1,+5 at Mil7 =iver. 4e married Mar# .eco tea , then married Mar# Gane Belgarde. Goseph 5., born circa 1,++, married &lise %arisien, then married *deline Morin. 8heodore, born circa 1,+9 at 4insdale, married =ose 4o le. (see note below).

*le(andre Sr. then married 4elene 6andr# in 1,,/ on the Mil7 =iver and had + children. *le(andre and 4elene lived principall# at 2illow B nch. 4e passed awa# on 19 .ecember 19/6 in Medicine 6a7e, Montana. $hildren of *le(andre and 4elene9 • • • •
+9

)lric, born circa 1,,/. 6 c# Seraphine, born G ne -, 1,,1 at 2illow B nch. %atric7, born G ne 15, 1,,5, married Mar# Gane . charme. Mitchel, born September /-, 1,90, married =ose Mc5illis.

Signator to his fatherHs 1,,F petition.

80

*ntoine Br ie n wa s born on G ne 15, 1,/0, the son of *ntoine Br a #a nt (b. 1+90) and 5enevieve 5rant. 4e married Gosephte *' re, (b. 1,/6 at Baie St. %a l) the da ghter of *ntoine *' re and $harlotte %elletier on Gan ar# 9, 1,-9 at %embina. )nder the %embina and =ed 6a7e $hippewa 8reat# of 1,6-, *ntoine received scrip certificate X -90 in 1,,/.8he co ple had thirteen children9 l *le(andre, b. 1,50, married *delaide St. .enis, then married 4elene 6andr#. l Gosephte, b. 1,51, married a 6 cier. l *ntoine, b. 1,5/. l8heodore, b. 1,5-, married Marie =ose Breland. lMarie Gosephine, b. 1,5,, married *mbroise " elette then 2illiam *llard. l*dele, b. 1,59, married Goseph 6adoce r, then &do ard Sansregret. lGoseph, b. 1,60. l5regoire, b. 1,6/, married ?anc# $ardinal. lGenoir, b. 1,6,, married Mar# *nne 6 cier. l1saie, b. 1,+1, died 1,+1. lMarie Ste. *nne, b. 1,+/, died 1,+- at 6ebret lMarie &loise, b. 1,+- at L H*ppelle, died 1,+- at 6ebret.

,-

• • • • •

Mar# *nn, boern 1,9/ at St. ?iches< married Michael 5randbois. ?apoleon, born circa 1,9+. =obert, born circa 190F at Malta. Gosephine, born September /1, 190F at 2illow B nch. 4arris, born circa 190- at 2illow B nch.

*le(andre and his famil# were en merated on the =oc7# Bo# =eservation in 191+9 • • • • • X +1 *le(andre Brien, born east of Belco rt ?. .. age +5. X+/ &llen Brien, born east of of Belco rt ?. .. age 6/. X+F ?apoleon Brien, born on the 3lathead =eservation, age /0. X+- =obert Brien, born at Malta, Montana, age 1-. X+5 ?orrie Brien, born St. Uavier Mission, age 11.

?otes9 3rom >S mmar# nder the $riteria and &vidence for 3inal .etermination *gainst the 3ederal *c7now1edgment of the 6ittle Shell 8ribe of $hippewa 1ndians of Montana.@ "ctober //, /009. 8heodore Brien was born abo t 1,+9 in Malta (along the 4ighline) in %hillips $o nt#. 4is father was *le(ander Brien, born in the 8 rtle Mo ntain region of ?orth .a7ota aro nd 1,-0 (sic). 4is mother *delaide St. .enis was born in 1,5F. 4er place of birth was n7nown, b t ma# have been in St. Boniface or St. 3rancis %arishes. 8he Brien famil# was intermarried with the *' re and %elletier families. 8hese three families had connections to the MCtis settlements of St. Boniface and St. 3rancis %arishes in Manitoba, and in %embina $o nt# in ?orth .a7ota. 1n the 1,60Hs and 1,+0Hs, members of all three families were doc mented on %embina scrip and ann ities, and d ring the 1,,0Hs and 1,90Hs were recorded on 8 rtle Mo ntain =eservation cens ses. 8he St. .enis famil# was more closel# connected to St. ?orbert and St. Boniface than %embina, b t the# did trace to a Gerome famil# which had one member identified as a %embina Band of $hippewa mi(ed!blood on ann ities in the 1,60Hs. 8heodore BrienHs father was listed on the 1,50 %embina $o nt# cens s, b t he spent most of his time moving between there and the 8 rtle Mo ntain region ntil the earl# 1,+0Hs when he married his wife at 2ood Mo ntain, Sas7atchewan. 8he# had fo r children between 1,+F and 1,+9, one born in Sas7atchewan, two in Montana, and one in an n7nown place. *delaide Brien died in 1,,0 in :alle# $o nt#, Montana. 8heodore BrienHs father married his second wife 4elene 6andr#, originall# from the 8 rtle Mo ntain region, in 1,,0 on the Mil7 =iver in Montana. Between 1,,/ and 190F the# had 11 children. 8he first fo r were born (1,,/!1,90) in ?orth .a7ota near 8 rtle Mo ntain, si( of the last seven (1,9/!190F) in Montana, mainl# in :alle# or %hillips $o nt#, while one was born in Sas7atchewan. 8here are man# descendants in the modern membership thro gh both wives. *fter 8heodore Brien was born, his father, grandfather, and their families contin ed to move bac7 and forth in the region of the 8 rtle Mo ntain =eservation and the Mil7 =iver in Montana, with e(c rsions into Sas7atchewan. Some portions of the e(tended Brien and *' re families went to the 8 rtle Mo ntain region, while some event all# settled in Montana. 8he descendants of this Brien line in the modern membership come from either 8heodore Brien or J st two of his half!siblings. 8heodore BrienHs famil# probabl# spent m ch of the 1,90Hs roaming aro nd Montana, most li7el# with periodic stops at the 8 rtle Mo ntain =eservation. 4e married his wife, =ose 4o le, on the $row =eservation in So thern Montana in 191/. She was born in St. Goseph in 1,96. 8he 4o le 3amil# was originall# connected to the MCtis settlement areas at %embina $o nt# and St. 3rancis %arish, and portions of it were later doc mented at the 8 rtle Mo ntain =eservation. Between 191/ and 19/+, 8heodore Brien and his wife had si( children. 8he first was born in ?orth .a7ota. 8he ne(t two were born in 1915 and 191+ on the $row =eservation in so thern Montana. * third was born in 19/F at 2olf %oint =eservation in north eastern Montana in =oosevelt $o nt#. 8he fo rth was born in 19/- at an n7nown location. 8he final child was born in 19/+ in Sweet 5rass, 8oole $o nt#, in north central Montana on the $anadian border, b t bapti'ed in 4ingham in $ascade $o nt# on the edge of the 3ront =ange near 5reat 3alls. "ne #ear later, 8heodore Brien died in Malta in %hillips $o nt# along the 4ighline. 4is wife =ose remarried a non!1ndian. She had one child in 19F6 in 4avre in 4ill $o nt# along the 4ighline. She died sometime after 19F6 in the same place, and has onl# a few descendants from her second marriage in the modern membership. 8he 3ederal cens s data from 1900 to 19F0 showed that 8heodore Brien or his close famil# members were fo nd in Malta (1900) in :alle# $o nt# along the 4ighline, then in 2ilder (1910) in 3erg s $o nt#, then bac7 to Malta (19/0), and finall# (19F0) in Bo( &lder (19F0) in $hotea $o nt#, 4arlem in Blaine $o nt#, and 2olf %oint in =oosevelt $o nt#, all of which were on the 4ighline. Most of these settlements were made p of large pop lations of non!1ndians of var#ing ethnicities. 1n most cases, the Brien relatives were living among small collections of e(tended famil# members, sometimes among small gro pings of other people of MCtis ancestr#. Net the n mber and ma7e p of the Brien famil# members and relatives, and the MCtis living near them, changed dramaticall# from one cens s #ear to the ne(t. 8he available evidence did not

,5

show the migration and settlement pattern of the Briens was gro p based. =ather it indicated the migration and settlement was ver# individ alistic and widel# dispersed. Scrip *pplication Brien, *le(ander< heir of his deceased children9 Marie *lphonsine, born9 G ne, 1,+/ at $#press 4ills, died9 1,,, at 2illow B nch< 6 cie Seraphine, born9 - G ne, 1,,1 at 2illow B nch, died9 1,9F at 2illow B nch< address9 Malta, Montana< claim no. 161+< father9 *le(ander Brien (MCtis and deponent)< mother9 &llen 6andr# (MCtis).

Brien dit Breyan dit Brillant, Antoine. (b. 1,/0)
*ntoine Brien was born on G ne 15, 1,/0, the son of *ntoine Bra#ant (b. 1+90) and 5enevieve 5rant. 4e married Gosephte *' re, (b. 1,/6 at Baie St. %a l) the da ghter of *ntoine *' re and $harlotte %elletier on Gan ar# 9, 1,-9 at %embina. )nder the %embina and =ed 6a7e $hippewa 8reat# of 1,6-, *ntoine received scrip certificate X -90 in 1,,/. 8he co ple had thirteen children9 • • • • • • • • • • • • *le(andre, b. 1,50, married *delaide St. .enis, then married 4elene 6andr#. Gosephte, b. 1,51, married a 6 cier. *ntoine, b. 1,5/. 8heodore, b. 1,5-, married Marie =ose Breland. Marie Gosephine, b. 1,5,, married *mbroise " elette then 2illiam *llard. *dele, b. 1,59, married Goseph 6adoce r, then &do ard Sansregret. Goseph, b. 1,60. 5regoire, b. 1,6/, married ?anc# $ardinal. Genoir, b. 1,6,, married Mar# *nne 6 cier. 1saie, b. 1,+1, died 1,+1. Marie Ste. *nne, b. 1,+/, died 1,+- at 6ebret Marie &loise, b. 1,+- at L H*ppelle, died 1,+- at 6ebret.

%atrice Breland provides the following record on this b ffalo h nting famil#9 ?ovember /-, 1,+,9 $#press Mo ntains, %atrice Breland writes9 8he news here, altho gh not ver# good, beca se the B ffalos (bison) are ver# scarce in the neighbo rhood, the# are plentif l on the other side of the line along the Mil7 =iver, b t there is great inconvenience to go and h nt in that direction beca se the *mericans defend it, the# have made prisoners. *ntoine Brillant the elder, %eter 6apierre, *le(ander Brillant, %ierre 6abr ler, *mbroise $hartrant, $harles .emontign# and Goseph *' re, the# have all been made prisoners with their families. 8he# were arrested at 3ort Bel7nap, the# have been released after + or , da#s after, witho t being fined provided the# donIt ret rn and tell fol7s that other prisoners will be p t in gaol for two #ears and their horses and carts ta7en. 1 have learned that the 8eton (Sio () go h nting on the other side of the line n mbering F00 men. 8he 8eton are not n mero s here. 8he# are abo t 50 lodges and the Sante abo t F0 lodges, and the remainder of the 8eton with Sitting B ll are at the M d ho se on 2hite =iver ()tah), 1 have learned that the# are abo t 1,000 lodges. 1 thin7 1 will go ver# soon to trade with these peoplea .. Brilliant, Antoine Z=.6. Scrip X-90[ \ ?ational *rchives, =5 +5, &ntr# F6F, V6ist of %ersons to 2hom Scrip was 1ss ed nder =ed 6a7e M %embina 8reaties....V 4alfbreed Scrip ?o. -90, Sched le B., iss ed September /+, 1,,/, nder the a thorit# of Secretarial .ecision, September 1,, 1,,/, delivered September /+, 1,,/ Znotation9 Vto Secretar#, * g st 19, 1,,/, 6eB 100OF0/ and .ecision of Secretar#, 6e Bt 1,O1, 1+1-,O,/V[ ?ational *rchives, =5 +5, &ntr# F6-, V8reat# of *pril 1/, 1,6-, =ed 6a7e and %embina 4alf!Breeds,V Scrip St bs, ? mber -90, dated Sept. /+th, 1,,/, 160 *cres, delivered Sept. /+th, 1,,/, iss ed to *ntoine Brilliant, delivered to $ rtis M B rdette, Sec. to $ rtis M &arle, 2ashington, ..$., *tt# for Scripee ?ational *rchives, =5 +5, &ntr# F6,, Mc1nt#re =eport Zabt.1,++[ relating to =ed 6a7e 4alfbreed Scrip, V=eport on 6ist &V9 V*ntoine Brilliant. $an not identif#V.

Brien, #regiore dit Brayant. (1,6/!195F)

,6

5regor# Brien was born on *pril +, 1,6/, at what is now the St. Gohn area, the son of *ntoine Brien and Gosephte *' re. 4e married ?anc# $ardinal, the da ghter of ?arcisse $ardinal and Marie Br nea on September /6, 1,,9 in Montana. *fter their marriage the# ret rned to the Belco rt area. 8he# had nine children. 5regor# died at Belco rt, *pril ,, 195F. 6a ra 8hompson 6awHs boo7 History of Rolette County North )a&ota and Varns of the #ioneers ,1 gives the following famil# histor#9 5regor# Brien was born at St. Go, ?orth .a7ota, in 1,60 Zsic[. 4e remembers that the land was laid o t in strips two miles long fronting on the river so that ever#one had a river front. 4is father was *ntoine Brien Zb. 1,/0[, who wandered all over ?orth .a7ota, Minnesota and Montana. 5regor# believes his father was b ried somewhere in the =ed =iver co ntr#. 5regor# was abo t eight #ears old when the famil# moved to 3ort 8otten. 8he log fort stood on the north hill, as the bric7 fort was J st being b ilt. 5regor#Hs father helped ma7e the bric7s for the fort. 2hen the Briens came bac7 to the 8 rtle Mo ntains there was onl# one famil# along the foothills. 8he Briens had A ite a herd of cattle and late in the fall were b s# p tting p ha#. 8heir place was near the present &d Gohnson farm where Gim Gollie formerl# lived. 5regor# followed the b ffalo herds into Montana and was for several #ears at %oplar and 3ort Benton, ret rning later to 8 rtle Mo ntains, where he still lives.

Brien, ;heodore dit Brayant.>5 (1,+9!19/6)
8heodore Brien was born into a b ffalo h nting famil# at 4insdale, Montana ,F, the son of *le(andre Brien (b. %embina 1,50) and *delaide St. .enis, married in 1,+/ at 6ebret. *le(andre s bseA entl# married 4elene 6andr# in 1,,/ on the Mil7 =iver. *le(andre and 4elene lived principall# at 2illow B nch. 8heodore died on .ecember 19, 19/6 at Medicine 6a7e. 4is sister Marie *lphonsine Brien was born in 1,+F at 2ood Mo ntain< brother *le(andre Gr. was born in 1,+5 on the Mil7 =iver< and brother GosephHs place of birth in 1,++ is not doc mented. "ne e(ample of an ancestor incl ded in the petitionerHs 8 rtle Mo ntain data showed the dispersed nat re of the migration and settlement patterns of these individ als. 8heodore Brien was born abo t 1,+9 in Malta (along the 4ighline) in %hillips $o nt#. 4is father was *le(ander Brien, born in the 8 rtle Mo ntain region of ?orth .a7ota aro nd 1,-0. 4is mother *delaide St. .enis was born in 1,5F. 4er place of birth was n7nown, b t ma# have been in St. Boniface or St. 3rancis %arishes. 8he Brien famil# was intermarried with the *' re and %elletier families. 8hese three families had connections to the MCtis settlements of St. Boniface and St. 3rancis %arishes in Manitoba, and in %embina $o nt# in ?orth .a7ota. 1n the 1,60Hs and 1,+0Hs, members of all three families were doc mented on %embina scrip and ann ities, and d ring the 1,,0Hs and 1,90Hs were recorded on 8 rtle Mo ntain =eservation cens ses. 8he St. .enis famil# was more closel# connected to St. ?orbert and St. Boniface than %embina, b t the# did trace to a Gerome famil# which had one member identified as a %embina Band of $hippewa mi(ed!blood on ann ities in the 1,60Hs. 8heodore BrienHs father was listed on the 1,50 %embina $o nt# cens s, b t he spent most of his time moving between there and the 8 rtle Mo ntain region ntil the earl# 1,+0Hs when he married his wife at 2ood Mo ntain, Sas7atchewan. 8he# had fo r children between 1,+F and 1,+9, one born in Sas7atchewan, two in Montana, and one in an n7nown place. *delaide Brien died in 1,,0 in :alle# $o nt#, Montana. 8heodore BrienHs father married his second wife 4elene 6andr#, originall# from the 8 rtle Mo ntain region, in 1,,0 on the Mil7 =iver in Montana. Between 1,,/ and 190F the# had 11 children. 8he first fo r were born (1,,/!1,90) in ?orth .a7ota near 8 rtle Mo ntain, si( of the last seven (1,9/!190F) in Montana, mainl# in :alle# or %hillips $o nt#, while one was born in Sas7atchewan. 8here are man# descendants in the modern (6ittle Shell Band) membership thro gh both wives. *fter 8heodore Brien was born, his father, grandfather, and their families contin ed to move bac7 and forth in the region of the 8 rtle Mo ntain =eservation and the Mil7 =iver in Montana, with e(c rsions into Sas7atchewan. Some portions of the e(tended Brien and *' re families went to the 8 rtle Mo ntain region,

,1

=olla, ?...9 =olla $entennial $ommittee, 19,9 reprint of the 195F boo7< pg. 190.

82

S mmar# ta7en from >S mmar# nder the $riteria and &vidence for 3inal .etermination *gainst the 3ederal *c7now1edgment of the 6ittle Shell 8ribe of $hippewa 1ndians of Montana.@ %repared in =esponse to a %etition S bmitted to the *ssistant Secretar# ! 1ndian *ffairs for 3ederal *c7nowledgment that this 5ro p &(ists as an 1ndian 8ribe. "ctober /+, /00991,+!1,,. ,F Between 5lasgow and Malta, Montana.

,+

while some event all# settled in Montana. 8he descendants of this Brien line in the modern membership come from either 8heodore Brien or J st two of his half!siblings. 8heodore BrienHs famil# probabl# spent m ch of the 1,90Hs roaming aro nd Montana, most li7el# with periodic stops at the 8 rtle Mo ntain =eservation. 4e married his wife, =ose 4o le, on the $row =eservation in So thern Montana in 191/. She was born in St. Goseph in 1,96. 8he 4o le 3amil# was originall# connected to the MCtis settlement areas at %embina $o nt# and St. 3rancis %arish, and portions of it were later doc mented at the 8 rtle Mo ntain =eservation. Between 191/ and 19/+, 8heodore Brien and his wife had si( children. 8he first was born in ?orth .a7ota. 8he ne(t two were born in 1915 and 191+ on the $row =eservation in so thern Montana. * third was born in 19/F at 2olf %oint =eservation in north eastern Montana in =oosevelt $o nt#. 8he fo rth was born in 19/- at an n7nown location. 8he final child was born in 19/+ in Sweet 5rass, 8oole $o nt#, in north central Montana on the $anadian border, b t bapti'ed in 4ingham in $ascade $o nt# on the edge of the 3ront =ange near 5reat 3alls. "ne #ear later, 8heodore Brien died in Malta in %hillips $o nt# along the 4ighline. 4is wife =ose remarried a non!1ndian. She had one child in 19F6 in 4avre in 4ill $o nt# along the 4ighline. She died sometime after 19F6 in the same place, and has onl# a few descendants from her second marriage in the modern membership. 8he 3ederal cens s data from 1900 to 19F0 showed that 8heodore Brien or his close famil# members were fo nd in Malta (1900) in :alle# $o nt# along the 4ighline, then in 2ilder (1910) in 3erg s $o nt#, then bac7 to Malta (19/0), and finall# (19F0) in Bo( &lder (19F0) in $hotea $o nt#, 4arlem in Blaine $o nt#, and 2olf %oint in =oosevelt $o nt#, all of which were on the 4ighline. Most of these settlements were made p of large pop lations of non!1ndians of var#ing ethnicities. 1n most cases, the Brien relatives were living among small collections of e(tended famil# members, sometimes among small gro pings of other people of MCtis ancestr#. Net the n mber and ma7e p of the Brien famil# members and relatives, and the MCtis living near them, changed dramaticall# from one cens s #ear to the ne(t.

Briere, Mary (;rot$hie). (1911!19,/)
Metis fiddler Mar# Briere was born at 2hitewater, Montana, the da ghter of 5regor# and *lphonsine Mar# Briere. Mar# showed an interest in fiddling from a #o ng age and was ta ght b# her father and ncles, *lec and Sam *ller#. She also listened to $anadian Metis fiddlers, *nd# .esJarlis and ?ed 6andr# on the radio. She to red as a performer with the $ecil ?icholsH 4awaiian Show where she was feat red as a dancer and as the >)7 lele L een.@ Mar# began competing in fiddle contests in the 1950s and too7 man# hono rs over the ne(t thirt# #ears, s ch as the ?orthwest =egional 3iddle $hampionship in 1969 (first place, 2omenHs .ivision), the ?ational 3iddle $ontest in 1969 (first place, 2omenHs .ivision). 2ith this later win she was elected to the 3iddlerHs 4all of 3ame in 2eiser, 1daho.

Bris'ois, Mi$hel "r. (b. 1+90)
Michel Brisbois Sr.Hs (1+59!1,F+) oldest son, Michael Brisbois, Gr., was born at %rairie d $hien, abo t 1+90. 4e was a lie tenant in the British 1ndian service, and served nder $ol. McEa# in the 2ar of 1,1/ at %rairie d $hien, in 1,1-. 4e then accompanied the *merican prisoners as far as =oc7 1sland, whence the# proceeded b# themselves to St. 6o is. 4e also served nder 6ie t. 5raham in repelling the *mericans at =oc7 =iver =apids. 4e was n s all# fine in his appearance as a man, as his 2innebago mother was as a woman< and acA ired a ver# e(tensive 7nowledge of 1ndian lang ages, which ind ced 5ov. 2illiam $lar7, of St. 6o is, the s perintendent of western 1ndian affairs, to obtain his services as 1ndian interpreter. *bo t 1,/0, he was o t deer h nting near St. 6o is, and was shot b# some n7nown person, th s ending his da#s in the prime of life. Brisbois Sr. remained relativel# ne tral d ring the war ntil forced to become an interpreter for the British, b t sent his #o nger son $harles Brisbois (1+9,!1,-+) north towards =ed =iver with his brother!in!law 4enr# M. 3isher. 8his res lted in MichelIs arrest in G l# of 1,16 on charges of treason. 4e was ta7en to St. 6o is for trial and was acA itted of the charges. 1ronicall# in 1,19 he was appointed $hief G stice for $rawford $o nt#, Michigan.

Brissard dit Saint #ermain, "oseph "r. (b. 1,/0)
Goseph was the son of Goseph Brisson dit Saint 5ermain and Marie $adotte. Goseph Gr. married *nne Mc5illivar#, the Metis da ghter of Simon Mc5illivar# and 8herese =o#. 8he famil# lived at St. ?orbert where the# appear on the 1,+0 cens s of =ed =iver. Goseph Gr. was elected second captain from the St. ?orbert parish in preparation to rep lse the 3enian invasion of "ctober +, 1,+1. 4e and Mofse ?ormand were victims of the >=eign of 8error@ of 2olesle#Hs troops. Le MEtis reported on September -, 1,+/ that the two men were badl# beaten b# soldiers from the =ed =iver &peditionar# 3orce while crossing a bridge over the *ssiniboine =iver.

Bru$e, Baptiste. (b. 1,09)

,,

Baptiste was born on September 15, 1,09 at 1le Y la $rosse, the son of %ierre Br ce and Marg erite . rocher. Baptiste married $atherine %erra lt (b. 1,/0) at %embina in 1,-6. 8he# had five children. Baptiste was a g ide on the 4B$ 6a 6oche boat brigades. B# 1,66 the overall gro p was comprised of 1+ boats in two brigades, one leaving a wee7 after the first. Baptiste Br ce became the g ide for the second brigade. 1n 1,-F he was chosen to accompan# the first *rctic e(pedition to %oint Barrow.

Bru$e, Bar'ara.
8his Michif!spea7ing Metis entreprene r was born in St. 6a rent, Manitoba. She c rrentl# owns and operates *ll M# =elations $ons lting. She is the da ghter of Geanne %erra lt and *rth r Br ce, the middle child of eleven children. 4er father provided for his famil# b# trapping, fishing, and gathering medicine (Seneca root) and thro gh wor7 as a constr ction wor7er. 4er mother Geanne sta#ed home, raising the children ntil in her later #ears she became the %ostmistress of the comm nit#, a position she held for several #ears. *s a #o ng girl, Barbara entered a =oman $atholic!r n ed cation s#stem (a mission school) that did not s pport Metis c lt re or traditions. 4owever, her *boriginal ancestr# was part of who she was and her pride contin ed to grow to ma7e her who she is toda#. *t age fifteen, Barbara contracted t berc losis, a disease that has 7illed man# *boriginal people since its introd ction to ?orth *merica. Barbara had the disease in the bones and, following a one #ear sta# in what was then the =ehabilitation $entre in 2innipeg, spent several #ears rec perating. *s a #o ng woman, she attended the )niversit# of 2innipeg and as well, =ed =iver $ollege. She wor7ed for several #ears with the Manitoba Metis 3ederation (MM3), where she held several positions, incl ding &(ec tive .irector of the organi'ation. 2ith her wor7, she travelled to man# Metis and other *boriginal comm nities across Manitoba and $anada. 2hile on her travels, she noticed that the artwor7 prod ced in these comm nities had no mar7et. 8his reali'ation led her to her ne(t vent re, when she co!fo nded a retail store 7nown as ?orthern 8raditions, and then ?orthwinds *rt 2holesale $ompan#, both of which speciali'ed in selling *boriginal art and handmade crafts. 4er e(perience in art combined with her event planning s7ills led her in 199+!9,, to be a member of a team of , to organi'e >Spirits in the S n,@ the first $anadian *boriginal *rts 3estival, to be held in the )nited States, in Scottsdale, *ri'ona. 1n attendance at this significant and o tstanding event were 1/0 *boriginal arts and crafts vendors, -0 $anadianO*boriginal galleries and close to 90 performers. BarbaraHs Metis identit# and entreprene rial spirit helped determine her career path. She is c rrentl# a fo nding and managing partner of *M= %lanning M $ons lting 1nc., fo nder of *ll M# =elations 1nc. and part owner of Br ce Boivin $ons lting 5ro p 1nc. She was formerl# emplo#ed as :ice %resident of "perations M Mar7eting at 8ribal $o ncils 1nvestment 5ro p of Manitoba 6td. (8$15) and was the %resident of the 8$15 $haritable 3o ndation, from /006 W /00,. 4er previo s professional positions incl de9 $o!"wner and .irector of Bl e S7# %lanners and $ons ltants, %resident of 2inds of $hange $ons lting, and $o!owner of ?orthern 8raditions and ?orthwinds *rt 2holesale $ompan#. 1n addition, her commitment to comm nit# has led her to participate on man# Boards. 1n /00-, Barbara was appointed as a member of the ?ational *boriginal &conomic .evelopment Board. 1n /009, she was appointed to the board of the Manitoba 5aming $ontrol $ommission and in /010 was appointed to as a J r# member for the %*= program for the $anadian $o ncil for *boriginal B siness. 3or several #ears, she was a board member of the %rovince of ManitobaIs $omm nities &conomic .evelopment 3 nd and event all# was appointed $hair. She has also served on over two do'en other boards or committees incl ding as a board of director for the prestigio s 8op -0 )nder -0 ?ational *wards and the ?ational Board of the $anadian $o ncil for *boriginal B siness and as a J r# member of the ?ational *boriginal *chievement *wards.

,9

Metis &lder Mae!6o ise $ampbell, centre, da ghter Gaime left, and Barbara Br ce, far right. Barbara has been given the name >3lies 4igh 8h nder Bird 2oman.@ She is nwavering in her commitment in wal7ing in the traditional wa# of life and gwal7s the wal7H, incorporating spirit and ceremon# into her dail# personal and professional life. 1n addition to g iding her personal path, this has also at times led her to her ne(t proJect or nderta7ing. 3or e(ample, one of her maJor accomplishments which res lted from her commitment to help women heal from residential school led her to wor7 with the Metis 2omen of Manitoba b# organi'ing several retreats, and developing a facilitation process which bro ght together close to one h ndred Metis women for fo r sessions. 8he end res lt was a final report titled >?eeds *ssessment of =esidential School &(periences of Metis 2omen in Manitoba@. 1n 199F, she received the Manitoba 4 man =ights *chievement *ward for her wor7 in emplo#ment and cross! c lt ral training. She was also recogni'ed b# Sag7eeng 3irst ?ation for her wor7 in economic development for *boriginal people and was presented with an eagle feather at that honoring ceremon#. 4er commitment to social J stice was ac7nowledged internationall# when in 199-, she was as7ed to be part of a team of peace monitors and election observers d ring the So th *frica elections. 4er wor7 in the area of c lt ral capacit# b ilding bro ght her to wor7 in s ch diverse locations as 3iJi and * stralia, spea7ing and providing wor7shops. 1n her leis re ho rs, she earned a second degree Blac7 Belt in 8ae Ewon .o and was one of the first *boriginal women to instr ct that discipline.

Bru$e, "ohn. (1,F0!1910)
Gohn Br ce was a g ide and a farmer. *s a g ide he accompanied Bishop *nderson, an earl# missionar# to the far north. 1n 1,,0 Br ce retired from farming at Eildonan and moved to 2innipeg.

Bru$e, "ohn. (1,F+!1,9F)
Gohn Br ce, a Metis carpenter, was president of the %rovisional 5overnment of =ed =iver in 1,69. Born in 1,F+, (probabl# at 1le Y la $rosse) his parents were %ierre Br ce and Marg erite .esrosiers. 4e married *ngeliA e 5a dr# (:a dr#, Bea dr#) the da ghter of %ierre 5a dr# and Marie!*nne 4 ghes. 4e has been described as tall and dar7!feat red with a sober loo7ing face. 4e often wor7ed as a legal advocate for the 3rancophone Metis. 4e was reportedl# fl ent in &nglish, 3rench and a n mber of 1ndian lang ages. "n "ctober 1,69, Br ce was elected %resident of the Metis ?ational $ommittee, the first move to resist the anne(ation b# $anada. 4e also served as the $ommissioner of % blic 2or7s in =ielHs %rovisional 5overnment. 4e was appointed a J dge and magistrate b# *rchibald the first 6ie tenant 5overnor. *fter appearing as a witness against *mbroise 6Cpine in his trial for the m rder of 8homas Scott, Br ce and his famil# moved to 6ero#, in what is now ?orth .a7ota. Reference
=onaghan, ?.&. *llen. >Gohn Br ce.@ )ictionary of Canadian /iogra(hy, :ol. U11 (1,91!1900). 8oronto9 )niversit# of 8oronto %ress, 19909 1F1!1FF.

Bru$e, "oseph Al'ert (phiem. (191+!199+)

90

Born on Gohn Br ce =oad in Saint Boniface Manitoba to & gene Br ce and $larina 4og e, the F rd of 1, children. Goseph was the great!grandson of Gohn Br ce who was the first president of the %rovincial 5overnment prior to Manitoba entering confederation in 1,+0. 1n 19F-, at age 1+, Goseph officiall# became a member of 6H)nion ?ational Metisse Saint Goseph d Manitoba. 1n his earl# -0Hs, he began his life!long service in 6H)nion ?ational. 4e served in man# capacities and was pro d to be its %resident for over /5 #ears. 8he #ear of the 6o is =iel centennial celebration in 19,5, he was 6H)nionHs %resident and as :ice!president of the 6o is =iel centennial $ommittee overseeing the man# f nctions. 8hro gho t the #ears, he also served as chairperson of the board of chalet 6o is =iel a senior citi'en home in St. :ital, as board member with the Saint Boniface 4istorical Societ#. 4e was also a member of the Manitoba Metis 3ederation. 8o help s pport his famil#, he had to A it his formal ed cation at age 1- in grade 9. * few #ears later in 19F5 at age 1,, he bo ght a tr c7 and started >Br ce Bros.@ 1n G ne 19-1, he married & genie %elletier from 6a BroA erie and together the# raised two da ghters and one son. 8he# were also grandparents of nine grand children. 4is wor7ing career saw him in vario s capacities9 a labo rer for the $orchite M nitions plant in 8ranscona, a l mber #ard assistant foreman for $la#ton $onstr ction in St. :ital, l mber #ard foreman for 8o pin 6 mber in Saint Boniface, bac7 to Br ce Bros. and then to B.*. $onstr ction as a heav# eA ipment operator. *mong the man# proJects he contrib ted are9 8he Mina7i 4ighwa#, the =ichardson B ilding, the 8ri'ec $omple(, the Ban7 of Montreal B ilding (%ortage at 4argrave), the $onvention $entre, the 4olida# 1nn downtown, the 2innipeg $entennial 6ibrar#, the %an! *m %ool, the )niversit# of Manitoba camp s e(tensions as well as the overpass in the %erimeter 4ighwa#, 6agimodiere Bo levard and X1 4ighwa#. Gohn Br ce =oad was s bseA entl# divided b# the development of =o#al 2oods and 1sland 6a7es s bdivisions. 8he longest portion of Gohn Br ce =oad that la# in forestland has s bseA entl# disappeared and a small portion of Gohn Br ce =oad from the $%= trac7s to 1sland Shore Blvd. 2as renamed >%amela =oad@. * cit# cler7 inadvertentl# let it slip that the >$it# is in the process of changing all the old names@ and this made to the chagrin of the Br ce famil#. Goseph Br ce devoted a large part of his ad lt life to the preservation of o r heritage and ens red the s rvival of 6H)nion ?ational thro gh the >leave #ears@ when hardl# a handf l of Metis s pported the organi'ation. Goseph Br ce was a man blessed with a wonderf l personalit# and a 7een sense of h mo r and he was m ch in demand as a master of ceremonies presiding at Social f nctions not onl# for 6H)nion ?ational b t also for man# comm nit# events and ch rch celebrations. 1n 199/, at his wifeHs f neral, he paid trib te to her nfailing devotion to him and their children< he wo ld not have had the privilege of serving the )nion ?ationale, the $h rch and his $omm nit#, had it not been for her. ($ontrib ted b# 5abriel . fa lt.)

Bru$e, :illiam.(.b 1,61)
2illiam was born in St. Boniface the son of Gohn Br ce and *ngeliA e 5a dr#. 2illiam and Gohn Br ce lived on =iver 6ot /6 (8-5!/+!/) at St. 6o is de 6angevin. 4e was first married to &li'abeth =ichard (d. 1,,0, b ried at Baie St. %a l), two children s rvived. 4is second marriage was to Marie 8herese Bo#er. "n ?ovember 19, 1,,F he had signed a petition protesting the 1,,F "rder in $o ncil transferring the Metis lands at St. 6o is to the %rince *lbert $oloni'ation $ompan#. ($S%, 1,,6, ?o. -5, pp. /5!/,). 4e event all# prevailed and obtained title to his land. ($ontrib ted b# ?ellie 6arocA e.) 4e was a member of $aptain %hilippe 5ariCp#Hs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance. 6o is =iel sent 2illiam Br ce, &do ard . mont, and %ierre :andal to 3ort Y la $orne to get &lie . mont, .avid :enne, *le( :enne and Batoche b t onl# &lie was willing to come bac7. Br ce later defected from the Metis side, having fled from 8o rondHs $o lee after the first ro nd of fighting.4e was a member of $aptain %hillipe 5ariCp#Hs compan#, one of the 19 di1aines led b# 5abriel . mont d ring the 1,,5 Metis =esistance.

Bruguier, "ean Baptiste “Big &eggins”. (1,-9 W 1,9,)
Gean Baptiste Br g ier was the Metis son of a 3rench!$anadian Metis f r trader, 8hCophile Br g ier, and a Nan7ton Sio ( mother, *npao (.awn), who was the da ghter of 2ah!me!da!wah!7ee (2ar &agle). ,-

Metis trader 8heophile Br g ier was born on * g st F1, 1,1F, at 6H*ss mption in 6ower $anada, the son of Gean Baptiste Br g ier a MCtis, and &li'abeth Eipp. 4e was ed cated in the 3rench lang age and originall# st died law. *fter his fiancCe died from cholera, 8heophile left $anada to wor7 for the *merican 3 r $ompan# in St. 6o is, Misso ri as a trader and interpreter. 4e was first posted to 3ort %ierre in the .a7ota 8erritor#. 4e arrived there on Gan ar# 1, 1,F6. 1n his travels along the Misso ri =iver he established good relations with the Nan7ton Sio (, a gro p led b# 2ah!me!da!wah!7ee (2ar &agle). Br g ier married Bla'ing $lo d (/1 G n 1,F+ at 3ort :ermillion) and .awn, both da ghters of $hief 2ar &agle. 2ith Bla'ing $lo d he had seven children and with his wife .awn he had si( more children. 4e sent his sons to be ed cated at the $ollege of $hristian Brothers in St. 6o is.

84

91

Gean Baptiste Br g iere, holding a SharpHs $arbine Br g iPre served for some time as 8atan7a 1#ota7e (Sitting B llIs) Vprivate secretar#V, and wrote down some letters, or notes, in 6a7ota dictated b# the great man himself. 8here is a transcript of one of these notes, in Stanle# :estalIs 19F/ biograph# of Sitting B ll. 1n his earl# twenties, Gean served as ).S. *rm# Sco t and 1nterpreter for 5eneral ?elson *. Miles. 4e disting ished himself b# earning one citation after another for braver#. 8he Nan7ton might have remained with the *rm# had he not been involved in a fight at 5rand =iver *genc# in 1,+-. 4is brother, Bill, was J mped b# another *genc# emplo#ee, 2illiam Mc5ee. 1n his brotherIs defense, Gohn hit Mc5ee over the head with a cl b. B# morning, Mc5ee was dead and Bill Br g ier was charged in connection with the 7illing. &ven tho gh Gohn had disappeared, a charge of mansla ghter was filed against him. * ).S. Marshall went o t after the 1nterpreter, b t lost his trail. Br g ier so ght ref ge where he 7new no one wo ld follow W in the camp of Sitting B ll and his grandfatherHs people. Br g ier became one of Sitting B llHs tr sted advisors. VBig 6eggins,V as he was called was 7nown for his Vbrave r nsV W bra'en dashes directl# nder enem# fire. B t his personal acA aintance with 5enerals s ch as 5eorge *rmstrong $ ster proved far more important. 4e remained close to the 4 n7papa ntil after the Battle of the 6ittle Bighorn. 8he Br g ier famil# reports that as a sco t for $ ster, Gohn Br g ier was act all# wor7ing for Sitting B ll and the other Sio (. 2hile Gohn was sco ting for $ ster, he wo ld drop notes for the Sio ( to find so that the Sio ( alwa#s 7new where $ ster was going. 1t is said that two sco ts s rvived the Battle of the 6ittle Big 4orn ; Gohn Br g ier was one of the two s rvivors. 2hen Gohn rode into Sitting B llIs camp wearing his militar# niform, the warriors wanted to 7ill him b t Sitting B ll wo ld not allow it. "n September /+, 1,+9, Gean was finall# arrested for mansla ghter in the Mc5ee $ase. 5eneral Miles appeared as a character witness at the Bismarc7 trial. 4is testimon# was a trib te to Br g iers intelligence, which was of great val e in several critical instances. *lso appearing as character witness was the nscr p lo s land spec lator and law#er, .r. 2alter *. B rleigh. 8he doctor s ccessf ll# entered into co rt record a petition signed in GohnIs behalf b# man# leading citi'ens of Miles $it#, Montana. 8he J r# deliberated half an ho r before delivering the final verdict of not g ilt#.

9/

1n later #ears, Br g ier moved to a reservation near %oplar, Montana. "n G ne 1F, 1,9,, he was m rdered on a lonel#, deserted road b# a man wielding a wagon wrench. (%arts of this narrative are ta7en from Remember Vour Relatives0 Van&ton ,iou. !mages$ 89M8 to 8<?: , :ol me 1, b# =enee Sansom!3lood and Shirle# *. Bernie, edited b# 6eonard =. Br g ier.

Bruguier, ;heophile. (1,1F!1,96)
8heophile Br g ier was born on * g st F1, 1,1F, at 6H*ss mption in 6ower $anada, the son of a 4alf!Breed 3renchman and a mother of &nglish heritage. 4e was ed cated in the 3rench lang age and originall# st died law. *fter his fiancCe died from cholera, 8heophile left $anada to wor7 for the *merican 3 r $ompan# in St. 6o is, Misso ri as a trader and interpreter. 4e was first posted to 3ort %ierre in the .a7ota 8erritor#. 4e arrived there on Gan ar# 1, 1,F6. 4e also spent an e(tended period of time in charge of the 3ort :ermilion %ost. 6ater he began wor7ing as an independent f r trader dealing with the Sio ( 1ndians. 1n his travels along the Misso ri =iver he established good relations with the Nan7ton Sio (, a gro p led b# 2ah!me!da!wah!7ee (2ar &agle). Br g ier married Bla'ing $lo d and .awn, both da ghters of $hief 2ar &agle. 2ith Bla'ing $lo d he had seven children and with his wife .awn he had si( more children. 1n Ma# of 1,-9, 8heophile and his famil# settled at the mo th of the Big Sio ( =iver, abo t two miles north of what was to become Sio ( $it#, 1owa. 4is farm and trading post incl ded several log cabins and the teepees sed b# 2ar &agleHs gro p. 4e not onl# assisted this tribe b t was also instr mental in assisting man# of the 3rench $anadian settlers who came to the area. *s Sio ( $it# grew Br g ier contin ed as a trader and freighter and also served as an 1ndian $ommissioner. 4is wives died in the late 1,50s and he s bseA entl# remarried to :ictoria 8 rnott, a widow from St. 6o is. )nder the Nan7ton 8reat# Br g ier received KF,000 for each of his children and KF,000 for himself. 1n addition, each famil# member received a half section of land. 8heophile himself had abo t 1,000 acres of land at one time. *t the time of his death he was living on the one section he had 7ept. 8he rest of the land had been sold to Sio ( $it# and became what was called =iverside %ar7. 8heophile died of pne monia on 3ebr ar# 1,, 1,96. 4e was b ried in the $atholic $emeter# near Sali(, then reinterred on the bl ff of 2ar &agle %ar7 beside the graves of his Nan7ton wives and father!in!law.

Bruneau, Alexis. (1,F6!1900)
*le(is was born at 6ac Ste. *nne, the son of Gean Baptiste Si#a7i7wanep Br nea and Marie $hip!pe!cheets Eool. 4e married Sophie in 1,56 at 3ort des %rairies, then married *gnes .eschamps the da ghter of Goseph .eschamps and =osalie Berger dit 6aframboise in 1,+0 at 3ort &dmonton. *le(is signed a September 19, 1,++ %etition from Gohn M nro and other Metis at Blac7foot $rossing that was presented to 6ie tenant!5overnor .avid 6aird 6ie tenant 5overnor, ?.2.8. 1n this petition the# as7ed for farming implements and seed to begin to settle and till the land. 8he# also reA ested h nting rights. Br nea , *le(is ! $oncerning his claim as a head of famil# ! *ddress, St. *lbert %.". Z%ost "ffice[ ! Born, 6ac Ste. *nne, 1,F6 ! 3ather, Gean Baptiste Br nea , (MCtis) ! Mother, MCtis ! Married, 1,55 at 6ac Ste. *nne to Sophie, (1ndian), 1,+0 at St. *lbert to *nn# .eschamps ! $hildren living, five (names on declaration) ! $hildren deceased, seven ! Scrip for K160 ! $laim ,05.

Bruneau, +ran0ois-"a$@ues. (1,09!1,65)
3ranQois!GacA es was born at 6ac :ert, Sas7atchewan, the illegitimate son of *ntoine Br nea , a Metis. 1n 1,1-, he went to Montreal with his father. 4e moved to =ed =iver in 1,// and completed his ed cation at Scole de Saint! Boniface. 1n 1,F1, he married Marg erite 4arrison, the da ghter of a $ree mother and a ?orth 2est $ompan# emplo#ee. 3ranQois!GacA es became a teacher then a farmer. 8he co ple had eleven children. "ne of their sons, *thanse, served as a g ide to 6ord Milton and then .r. 2alter $headle in 1,6/. 3ranQois!GacA es was prominent in comm nit# affairs. 1n 1,-F, he appeared before the $o ncil of *ssiniboia as head of a delegation reA esting a distiller#, which wo ld give the Metis a chance to dispose of their grain s rpl ses. 4e also arg ed for more Metis involvement as officers in the police force. 4e helped lead the Metis in s pport of Sa#er d ring his trial in 1,-9, and became a magistrate in 1,50. 1n 1,51, he was made a J dge for one of the *ssiniboia J dicial districts. 4e was event all# appointed to the $o ncil of *ssiniboia in 1,5F on the recommendation of Bishop %rovencher. 4e was onl# the second 3rench spea7ing la# person (after $ thbert Games 5rant) to be appointed to co ncil. 1n late G ne 1,65, both Br nea and his wife died within ho rs of each other d ring a cholera epidemic. Br nea Hs son!in!law, Gohnn# 5rant gave the following s7etch of Br nea 9
3ranQois was born, and his father d#ing soon after, he was bro ght p and ed cated b# Bishop %rovencher. 4e st died for the priesthood. 1n the meantime, &dward 4arrison, a chief 3actor of the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan#, had died s ddenl#, leaving a wife and three children. Mrs. 4arrison did not nderstand b siness methods and became the victim of nscr p lo s people, so that she was soon penniless, altho gh her h sband had left propert#. Bishop %rovencher too7 them also nder his protection and gave them a home. 8he #o ngest da ghter, Marg erite, was a prett# girl with fair hair and bl e e#es and so different from the other girls of the co ntr# that, b# the time she was twent# #ears old, #o ng 3ranQois Br nea fell violentl# in love with her, and

9F

changed his mind abo t his calling. 1nstead of contin ing his theological st dies, he married her. *ltho gh the# were both poor, the# were willing to face the world together. 4e ta ght school and st died law, and in time became a magistrate and then a co nt# J dge. 4e was so big!hearted that, a wee7 before the 4igh $o rt met, his ho se wo ld be f ll of people as7ing advice. 8he# got the advice and free board as well. 4e alwa#s tried to affect a settlement between litigants< his s al wa# being to appoint a da# for one part# to state his case, then he wo ld hear the other side, then he bro ght the two together and in nine cases o t of ten affected a settlement between the litigants. 4e e(plained the law to them and the# wo ld leave well!satisfied and good friends. 1n cases which came p in co rt, if he was obliged to sentence a prisoner, he was J st, b t ver# tender!hearted, so he was well respected b# all classes. 4e and his wife died of the =ed =iver fever in 1,65 and were b ried on the same da#. *s he was too hospitable to have saved an#thing o t of his small salar#, he left his five da ghters with little means. *t G dge Br nea Hs f neral, *rchbishop 8achC began to address the congregation, b t was so deepl# moved he co ld not contin e his address. (Gohnn# 5rant in 6#ndel Mei7le (editor) ery Close to Trouble: The *ohnny "rant Memoir (% llman9 2ashington State )niversit# %ress, 19969 1,6!1,+.)

Reference .orge, 6ionel. >3ranQois!GacA es Br nea .@ )ictionary of Canadian /iogra(hy, :ol. 1U (1,61!1,+0). 8oronto9 )niversit# of 8oronto %ress, 19+69 9-!95.

Bruneau dit Montagnais, &ouison. (1,F/!1,+,)
6o is Montagnais was born at 6ac la Biche in 1,F/, the son of Michel Goachim Br nea and $atherine 6ado ce r. 6o is Br nea dit Montagnais, was a f r trader. 2ith his abilit# to spea7 $ree, $hipew#an, Ston#, Blac7foot, Sarcee, 3rench and &nglish, he became well 7nown as an interpreter. 6o ison was the Metis trader and $hief of the b ffalo h nts ranging o t of B ffalo 6a7e, *lberta. 4e was married to *ngPle >6e!leet@ . mont on March /,, 1,5F at 6ac Ste. *nne. She was the da ghter of 5abriel . mont and S 'anne 6 ssier. 1n the small po( epidemic of 1,+0 he lost his wife and fo r of their children within a few months time. 6o is then married Marg erite *llar#, the da ghter of *ntoine 4enr# dit *llar# and Gosephte $aplette, on .ecember /6, 1,+0 at &dmonton. 3ather 3o rmond records the following stor# of the Metis h nting camp at Golie B tte9 "n S nda# the fo rth of September Z1,+0[, in the evening, 1 s mmoned all the h nters to elect the grand;chef, eight co ncilors and eight ca(itaines. 6o ison Montagnais is his name. 4e is a man remar7able for his great height< a long and radiant head of hair, blac7 as ebon#, falling in a gracef l cascade over his large sho lders and encasing a bron'ed face in which the principal characteristic wo ld appear to be health. *t the same time the mo stache that he sports and which disting ishes him from the other h nters gives him a certain martial air which denotes vitalit#. ($ited in =.3. Beal, G.&. 3oster and 6o ise T 7, >8he Metis 4ivernant Settlement at B ffalo 6a7e, 1,+/!1,++.@ &dmonton9 *lberta .epartment of $ lt re, 19,+9 11.) 6o is died at 6a7e &li'a on ?ovember 6, 191,.

Bruner, ;rent. (b. 1965)
8rent was born at $anwood, Sas7atchewan. 4e began pla#ing piano at age twelve and has gone on to become the national accompanist for the prestigio s $anadian 5rand Masters 3iddling $hampionship in ?epean, "ntario from 1991 to 199F and from 1995 to present. 8he interested listener can hear his piano pla#ing on the recentl# released $., )ro(s of /randy (Sas7atoon9 5abriel . mont 1nstit te, /001). 4e is also feat red on the recent 5abriel . mont 1nstit te video, *ohn Arcand and his Metis %iddle (Sas7atoon, /001).

Budd, =e-erend .enry. (1,10!1,+5)
* Metis from ?orwa# 4o se, B dd (act all#, Sa7ach wesc m, >5oing )p the 4ill@) was the first ordained ?ative minister in the $h rch of &ngland in ?orth *merica. 4is ordination too7 place on .ecember //, 1,50 at St. *ndrewHs $h rch on the =ed =iver. 4e s bseA entl# served as a missionar# among the 2oodlands $ree people living on the Sas7atchewan =iver s#stem d ring the mid!1,00s. 4enr# B dd was born c. 1,1/ at Nor7 3actor#. 4enr#Hs MCtisse mother was 2ash!e!soo!esA ew (*gath s or Mar# B dd) his father was a Metis b# the name of B dd who died circa 1,11. 4is mother was the Metis da ghter of Matthew $oc7ing a 4B$ factor and Ee!che!cho!wic7, a northern $ree woman ($oc7ingHs second wife). 2hen he was ten #ears old 4enr#Hs mother placed him with the =ev. Gohn 2est who was loo7ing for ?ative children to ed cate in the $hristian faith. 2est recr ited another bo#, Games 4ope (%em te ithinew) and the# traveled to =ed =iver where he too7 responsibilit# for the ed cation of 4enr# and Games. *fter completion of his schooling 4enr# moved near St. *ndrews $h rch (the 6ower $h rch) on the =ed =iver in 1,/9. 4e lived there with his mother, his brotherHs widow and her three children. 8he# farmed, raising wheat and barle# along with the hogs the# raised for meat. B dd was also emplo#ed with the 4B$ first as a da# labo rer then f ll!time at 6ac la %l ie from 1,F/ to 1,F5. 1n 1,F6, 4enr# B dd married &li'abeth (Bets#) 2or7 (1,/0!1,+-), the 1rish!$ree da ghter of Gohn 2or7, an officer of the 4B$. 8he# were to have thirteen children. 2ith the dowr# provided b# his father!in!law 4enr# was able to p rchase land in addition to the land grant he received from the 4B$ in 1,F1. 4e began teaching at the $h rch Missionar# Societ# and in 1,F+ he too7 charge of the .a# School at the )pper $h rch in the =ed =iver :alle#. 4e was sent to $ mberland 4o se in 1,-0 to establish the headA arters for a new mission. 8his changed however when 4enr# saw fit to transfer headA arters to 8he %as, Manitoba.

9-

4is wor7 as a missionar# proved fr itf l. 2ithin a matter of months, thirt#!eight ad lts and fo rt#!fo r children were bapti'ed b# =ev. Gohn Smithh rst (4enr# had not #et been ordained). 4e was an eloA ent spea7er in both $ree and &nglish and this enhanced his missionar# wor7. 8hro gh his wor7 at 8he %as, he infl enced the ?ative people of the 6a =onge!Stanle# mission area who had come to learn from him and then ret rned home to share their new faith with their comm nities. 4is s periors recogni'ed his missionar# abilities and 4enr# was recommended b# the $hristian Societ# to be ordained. 8h s, on .ecember //, 1,50, 4enr# B dd became a minister of the $h rch of &ngland. 4e was thirt#!eight #ears old. Before him there were still twent#!three #ears of ministr#. *fter his ordination the =everend B dd was given a new mission at ?ipowewin, now 7nown as ?ipawin, Sas7atchewan. 4e wor7ed there for fifteen #ears also ministering to the needs of the residents of the %rince *lbert area. 4e died on *pril /, 1,+5, at the age of 61 and was b ried at 8he %as, Manitoba. Reference
Bea mont, =a#mond M. >"rigins and 1nfl ences9 8he 3amil# ties of the =everend 4enr# B dd.@ #rairie %orum. 3all 199/9 16+!/00.

Budd, Mary (:ashesooes@ue ). (1+,0!1,50)
See Mar# $oc7ing.

BuBBalo, Marilyn. (b. 1950)
Maril#n is of $ree and Metis descent. She was raised on the Samson $ree ?ation of 4obbema, so th of &dmonton, *lberta. "n the Metis side, she is a direct descendant of famo s *lberta Metis leader Goe .ion and on the first ?ations side she her ancestr# incl des chiefs %o ndma7er and Big Bear. *s a single parent she raised three bo#s and two girls. She is the former %resident of the ?ative 2omenHs *ssociation of $anada. *s the leader of this gro p she alwa#s made a point of hono ring her Metis roots.

Bunn, "ohn. (1,0/!1,61)
"n Ma# F1st, 1,61 the =ed =iver, as it had done man# times before and since, had overflowed its ban7s and flooded the co ntr#side. *ltho gh the 6ord m st rest on the Sabbath, the =ed =iver 7new no s ch rest. 8he *nglican services were, therefore, held on top of BirdHs 4ill, the piece of high gro nd favo red since the da#s of 6ord Sel7ir7Hs settlers. * small bo#, the f t re *rchbishop Matheson of = pertHs 6and, recalled that it was on BirdHs 4ill that the news of Gohn B nnHs death reached the congregation9 >1 shall never forget the profo ndl# pathetic scene.... 1 had never before seen strong, stalwart, r gged men conv lsed with grief. Man# of them slipped A ietl# awa# in order to conceal their emotions. 1t was then that 1 learned what an earnest and self den#ing doctor can mean to his patients.@ ,5 &ven tho gh he was the first native!born doctor ,6 to practice medicine in the =ed =iver Settlement, Gohn B nnHs medical career was J st one of the man# hats he wore d ring the thirt#!seven #ears he lived there. 8he depth of grief shown above indicated his integrit# and the respect others had of him, and which allowed him to hold man# important posts9 the colon#Hs coroner, co ncilor of *ssiniboia, sheriff and governor of the Jail and recorder and magistrate of the $o rt of *ssiniboia. Net, as a #o ng man he probabl# wo ld have preferred a career in Scotland, where he spent ten of his first nineteen #ears. M ch of GohnHs childhood was spent apart from his father, 8homas B nn, whom he left for Scotland in 1,09 and wo ld not meet again ntil 1,/-. .espite this period of separation, the two men formed a close relationship when Gohn settled in =ed =iver. 8homas B nn was bapti'ed on September 1-, 1+65 in 4endon, Middlese(, toda# a part of metropolitan 6ondon. *s a child he came to 7now the ?icholl famil# A ite well< two ?icholl da ghters, 3ann# and ?anc#, became life!long friends. 4is rban pbringing was far removed from the wilderness of = pertHs 6and, where he wo ld spend a significant portion of his life. B t tho ght of a career in the f r trade was definitel# not on his mind as he apprenticed to be an oilman. 4aving nothing to do with petrole m, an oilman dealt in linseed, olive and whale oil. Sec re in a trade, in which he wo ld event all# start a b siness, B nn began a famil# when he married the nineteen #ear old Gane =oper on .ecember //, 1+,9. )nfort natel#, traged# was at hand when Gane died nearl# si( #ears later and B nnHs b siness s bseA entl# went ban7r pt. *ccording to B nnHs biographer, Ba#le# famil# tradition hints that ?anc# ?icholl wo ld have li7ed to become the ne(t Mrs. B nn, b t 8homas was now a penniless widower, and her parents wo ld not have

85 86

*rchbishop Matheson A oted in =oss Mitchell, V.octor Gohn B nn,V The /eaver (.ec. 19F,), 50.

$ thbert 5rant (1+9F!1,5-), the V2arden of the %lainsV, owned a medical chest and did practice some medicine, b t he had ver# little formal training.

95

approved of this match with their twent# #ear old da ghter. ,+ 8h s began a life!long stor# of nreA ited love between 8homas and ?anc#. 1n 1+9+, at the age of thirt#!two, 8homas B nn had to find a new career that wo ld hopef ll# allow him to one da# marr# ?anc#. 8his ass mption seems pla sible beca se ?anc# waited another eleven #ears before she became the wife of 2illiam Ba#le#, when she herself was abo t thirt#!one and close to entering spinsterhood. "pport nities in 6ondon m st have been scarce beca se B nn decided to sign a five!#ear contract with the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan# as an apprentice cler7. 4e was well past the age when men normall# Joined the 4B$, and this ma# have been the reason that he lied abo t his age, giving it as twent#!five. ,, 4e left for 4 dson Ba# probabl# not reali'ing he wo ld never see &ngland or ?anc# again, altho gh he wo ld write her once a #ear;which was as reg lar as the mail was at the time; for the rest of her life. 1t is in those letters that have s rvived which reveal his deep affection for her. 1n a letter that described a Jo rne# from 3ort *lban# to Nor7 3actor#, B nn wrote9 >1n the evening the $hief in ret rn for m# liA or made a grand $onJ ring match for fine weather for me. *s perhaps #o are not a capital $onJ rer, tho gh 1 have long 7nown #o to be bewitching, 1 shall brea7 off the m# narrative to initiate #o in the art of conJ ration as practiced here.@,9 )pon hearing abo t her death fort#!five #ears later, B nn wrote to her son, 2illiam Ba#le# Gr., that >1 had 7nown her from 1nfanc#, was pon the most intimate terms of friendl# interco rse as long as 1 remained in &ngland, 1 have corresponded with her above fift# #ears in this $o ntr#. G dge if 1 m st not have loved her.@ 90 8he depth of their affection went be#ond death when ?anc# made a d#ing wish to be b ried beside 8homasHs first wife, Gane. .espite his nreA ited love for ?anc#, B nn did not live in a state of chastit# after his arrival in = pertHs 6and. )pon arriving, B nn was stationed at 3ort *lban# where $hief 3actor Gohn Mc?ab was in charge of the post. *ro nd ?ovember 1+9, B nn married Sarah, one of Mc?abHs 4alf!Breed da ghters, according to the >c stom of the co ntr#.@ She bore him two children, Mar# and Gohn, b t this nion lasted onl# a little longer than B nnHs first marriage when Sarah died in 1,06. 1t is not 7nown precisel# when or where Gohn B nn was born. Most references give a date of 1,00, 91 while B nnHs entr# in the )ictionary of Canadian /iogra(hy gives a tentative birthdate of 1,0/ >at an 4B$ post on 4 dson Ba#.@9/ Since the e(act date is n7nown, Gohn B nnHs birthplace can be spec lated pon, b t it hinges on one factor9 .id Sarah B nn accompan# her h sband on an# of his Jo rne#s or did she sta# with her fatherB 8homas B nn left 3ort *lban#, which is on the west shore of Games Ba#, in Ma# 1+99 and did not come bac7 ntil three #ears later. 1f Sarah sta#ed at 3ort *lban#, it is possible that Gohn was conceived before his father left and born sometime in Gan ar# 1,00, b t then the birthdate of his sister Mar#, given as 1+99, wo ld be inacc rate nless she was born ver# earl# in 1+99. 2hat is more li7el# is that she accompanied him on his trip across the north!west, which was a common practice, especiall# when one considers how long 8homas ended p being awa#. She was nli7el# to have remained married to B nn if he was going on a three #ear soJo rn after the# had been married J st a little over si( months. Sarah wo ld, in all li7elihood, have married another f r trader before 8homas ret rned. *lso, it was conceivable that B nn 7new in the a t mn of 1+9, that he wo ld be leaving for the interior the following spring, and therefore he married Sarah as part of an agreement with her father to nderta7e the Jo rne#. "n September F0, 1+99 B nn arrived at Brandon 4o se (now Brandon, Manitoba), after spending the s mmer at "snab rgh 4o se. Brandon 4o se became his base of operations for the ne(t two #ears. 8his post is the most probable place where Gohn was born, providing he wasnHt delivered on the overland trip. 4owever, 8homas B nn did go on two e(peditions to Shell =iver, an o tpost J st to the north!west of Brandon 4o se, between 1,00 and 1,0/. Brandon 4o se provisioned man# of the smaller posts in the o tl#ing areas, and the winters of 1+99 to 1,0/, being harsher than s al, made this tas7 all the more diffic lt. 8he first winter that B nn spent there a letter arrived from Gohn S therland, who was in charge of 3ort %ell#, north!west of Shell =iver inside present!da# Sas7atchewan. S therland wrote of >being in the tmost distress for %rovisions,@ and he reA ested that men be sent >as soon as possible...to h nt for s.@ 9F 1ndeed, the 3ort %ell# Go rnal shows that S therland and his men s rvived largel# on a diet of rabbit that winter. 8he following a t mn fo nd B nn pac7ing for a trip to Shell =iver to trade with the 1ndians;the rival UN $ompan# was providing stiff competition in the area;and provision S therland. 4owever, Brandon 4o se master, Games McEa#, was an(io s over the low water being e(perienced that fall. >1 shall be obliged to send Mr. B nn with a small o tfit as far as Shell =iver the water being ver# shoal M fearf l craft cannot get all the wa# to Mr. Gohn S therland.@ 9- B nn wintered at Shell =iver and did not ret rn ntil the following Ma# with Mr. S therland and ten men. "n "ctober 1, 1,01 B nn was again sent o t on a trading and provisioning e(pedition this time to >mans &lbow@ (more commonl#
87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94

.enis Ba#le#, A Londoner in Ru(ertNs Land: Thomas /unn of the HudsonNs /ay Com(any (2innipeg, 1969), ,. !bid. %.*.M., B nn $orrespondence, letter X1, 8homas B nn to ?anc# ?icholl, 1,0-. %.*.M., B nn $orrespondence, letter X10, 8homas B nn to 2illiam Ba#le# Gr., * g st -, 1,-9.

"ne biographer notes that Gohn B nnIs birth was Vabo t 1,00V at Moose 3actor#, =o# St. 5eorge St bbs, %our Recorders of Ru(ertNs Land (2innipeg, 196+), 91. 4.$. Elassen, VGohn B nn,V )ictionary of Canadian /iogra(hy 4.B.$.*., B.159OaO5, 3ort %ell# Go rnal, Gohn S therland to =obert 5oodwin, Gan ar# /F, 1,00. 4.B.$.*., B.//OaO,, Brandon 4o se Go rnal, September 15, 1,00.

96

7nown as 1ndian &lbow, later 3ort 4ibernia, b t close to S therlandHs post)< he too7 with him >most of the :ict als that was (sic) in the ho se.@95 .espite ta7ing most of the food provisions in the post, B nn was in for a bad winter. 4e arrived at Shell =iver on the 1,th of "ctober and to his >great disappointment fo nd the water so low M falling ever#da#< that it was impossible to proceed an# farther.... %eer# with the greatest e(ertions has hitherto 7ept s in &l7 flesh b t it is now done.@96 B nn was facing starvation. B t McEa# co ld not help him beca se the local 1ndians were >plag ing@ him >for :ict als@, and he feared that he wo ld not >ma7e provisions eno gh@, despite noting that >Mr. B nn M his men Zwere[ entirel# starving as well as his neighbo rs.@ 9+ B nn s rvived >a ver# bad winter@ and ret rned to Brandon 4o se on Ma# 1/th. 4aving obvio sl# seen eno gh of this part of the co ntr#, he left a wee7 later on a Jo rne# bac7 to 3ort *lban#, arriving there in late * g st, where he too7 charge of the post from his father!in!law ntil .ecember 1,, 1,0/. .id Sarah accompan# 8homas on his Ja nts to Shell =iverB 1f so, it is possible Gohn was born there, b t if his biograph# in .$B is correct there is a possibilit# he was born in 3ort *lban# in the a t mn of 1,0/. ?onetheless, he was not born at a post on 4 dson Ba# as some writers have s ggested in the past. Gohn Mc?ab soon became $hief 3actor at Nor7 3actor#, and 8homas followed his father!in!law there. 4e set off from 3ort *lban# in the s mmer of 1,0F with >/ men, / women, / children and / dogs in / canoes@< 9, ndo btedl#, one of the women and the two children wo ld have been 8homasHs famil#. *fter a gr eling 5- da#, ,00 mile, Jo rne#, the B nn famil# arrived in Nor7 3actor# on September 9, 1,0F. 8his post was probabl# the largest in = pertHs 6and and was more li7e a small village than a mere trading station. Nor7 and the s rro nding area wo ld comprise the #o ng Gohn B nnHs entire world for the ne(t si( #ears as his father settled into a seasonal rh#thm as reg lar as the tides on 4 dson Ba#. 6ess than a month at Nor7 3actor# B nnHs #earl# c#cle began when he went o t h nting and trapping. B nn was no big game h nter< his boot# s all# consisted of partridges, rabbits and tro t, while he often fo nd martens and fo(es in his trapline. 4owever, one winter, in a #ear when wolves seemed to have been a partic lar n isance, the Nor7 Jo rnal recorded that >a wolf Zreceived[ from Mr. B nn.@ 99 4is base of operation was a camp pitched on 8en Shilling $ree7, which empties into the 4a#es =iver, a short distance from the factor#. "n the ban7 of this cree7 B nn erected a tent ever# winter for his famil# and himself to dwell. =eg lar trips were made to drop off the fr its of his e(ertions, pic7 p provisions or J st to enJo# some $hristmas cheer with the rest of the officers and men. 8his former rban deni'en enJo#ed a meas re of s ccess as a h nterO trapper< his first #ear on the Job three companions and himself bro ght in /00 partridges.100 2ere these three companions his wife and two childrenB Go rnal entries were ver# circ mspect when mentioning the e(istence of co ntr# wives and children, even tho gh the person writing the Jo rnal, Gohn Mc?ab, was B nnHs father in!law< 101 the practice of maintaining a famil#, after all, was not official 4B$ polic#. )s all#, compan# emplo#ees were mentioned b# name or simpl# given the designation >man@ or >men@, as when B nn and >a man@ went o t h nting one "ctober in 1,0F. 10/ 1t is interesting to note that, altho gh B nnHs companion is mentioned a few more times, there are no more entries after Sarah Mc?abHs death in 1,06. ?evertheless, b# the springtime B nn p t awa# the traps and g ns to engage in the ne(t phase of his ann al c#cle. 2hen the snow had melted and the ice!cho7ed waterwa#s were finall# clear it was time to begin the #earl# inland trade b# getting the inland depots read# for b siness. 8he fierce competition with the ?orth 2est $ompan# necessitated operating inland stores to bring the trade closer to the 3irst ?ations, ma7ing it easier for them to trade and th s ens ring that the# wo ld favo r the 4B$ over their rival. &ach Ma# B nn was sent inland to >the =oc7@ 10F with men and goods to open the depot and begin transacting >the b siness.@ $hief 3actor Mc?ab s all# arrived a few wee7s later in G ne or earl# G l# to find >Mr. B nn and all well and b siness going on reg larl# and J dicio sl#.@ 10Shortl# after Mc?abHs whirlwind to rs B nn wo ld pac7 p the inland cargo, loc7 the door of the depot and depart with the labo rers for Nor7 3actor#. 8his was done no later than the middle of G l# beca se the f rs wo ld have to be baled and made read# for the ann al appearance of the ship from &ngland, which s all# arrived in September. M ch activit# mar7ed the shipHs brief time, anchored in the 4a#es =iver, as barges nloaded provisions and trade goods. Bales of beaver, marten, fo( and other f rs were loaded aboard< and longboats bro ght passengers on board for a Jo rne# to &ngland. Some passengers were going bac7 for a f rlo gh and others, having tired of the harsh environment and deprivations of f r trade life, were sailing bac7 to settle permanentl#, while still others were disembar7ing to begin
95 96 97 98 99

4.B.$.*., B.//OaO9, Brandon 4o se Go rnal, "ctober 1, 1,01. !bid., fo. /+, 8homas B nn to Games McEa#, .ecember 15, 1,01. !bid., Gan ar# /-, 1,0/, Gan ar# /+, 1,0/. %.*.M., 8homas B nn to ?anc# ?icholl, 1,0-. 4.B.$.*., B./F9OaO11F, Nor7 %ost Go rnal, March 9!15, 1,0+. 4.B.$.*., B./F9OaO109, Nor7 %ost Go rnal, Gan ar# 16!//, 1,0-. ?owhere in the official record did Mc?ab mention that B nn was his son!in!law. 4.B.$.*., B./F9OaO109, Nor7 %ost Go rnal, "ctober 6, 1,0F.

100 101 102 103 104

"fficiall# 7nown as 5ordon 4o se< it sho ld not be conf sed with =oc7 .epot which was b ilt later, and at which 8homas B nn wo ld event all# be in charge of from 1,19!/1. 5ordon 4o se was replaced in 1,0, b# 4ill =iver 4o se. 4.B.$.*., B./F9OaO111, Nor7 %ost Go rnal, G l# 1/, 1,05.

9+

a new life in = pertHs 6and, man# not reali'ing the# wo ld never be bac7 across the water. 2ithin a wee7 or two of the shipHs depart re, 8homas B nn wo ld be bac7 on 8en Shilling $ree7 to begin another winter of h nting and trapping. )ntil 1,0, the #o ng Gohn B nn no do bt followed the rh#thmic pattern of his fatherHs e(istence. 4e ma# have been too #o ng to h nt, b t he ma# have been old eno gh to follow his father as he chec7ed his traplines and fishing nets. 6ong winter nights were spent in his famil#Hs tent, where his mother coo7ed the meals and perhaps sp n 1ndian legends that she had heard from her mother. Beca se his father did not sta# there long, Gohn and the rest of the famil# ma# not have accompanied him on his trips to the inland depot. 4owever, as previo sl# s ggested, the famil# often went with 8homas B nn to Nor7 3actor#, which to the #o ng B nn m st have seemed li7e the centre of the niverse, with all manner of h stle and b stle. 1mprovements in transportation from small canoes to the Nor7 boat meant the factor# was the >chief depot@ for goods allocated for the interior. 105 $ompetition with the ?orth 2est $ompan# had engendered man# changes at Nor7, all in an effort to red ce overhead e(penses, while Gohn lived there. Men, li7e his father, were now engaged in h nting, trapping and fishing< the# c t down timber for firewood and b ilding repairs, tended livestoc7, grew ha# (on the appropriatel# named 4a# 1sland) and vegetables. 8he# collected ballast for the ann al ship from &ngland< for the inland trade, the# pac7ed bo(es, prepared tobacco, filled 7egs with brand# and an inn merable n mber of other tas7s. 106 1t cannot be 7nown how m ch GohnHs life changed after his motherHs death, b t it certainl# changed in 1,0, when he started school, and his father married for the third time. Sometime in 1,0, 8homas B nn, again in the c stom of the co ntr#, married %hoebe Sinclair, 10+ da ghter of 2illiam Sinclair and Margaret ?ahovwa#, who was the da ghter of a $ree woman and Moses ?orton. B nn had nA estionabl# met Sinclair and his da ghter on one of the freA ent trips Sinclair made between "(ford 4o se, where he was stationed, and Nor7 3actor#. 1t was somewhat s rprising that B nn waited the appro(imate two #ears he did to remarr#, especiall# since he wo ld have had to care for two small children. %erhaps he still hoped to ret rn to 6ondon to be with his beloved ?anc# b t reali'ed financial circ mstances wo ld never allow that possibilit#. 1t is interesting to note that ?anc# became Mrs. 2illiam Ba#le# the same #ear as 8homasHs marriage to %hoebe, conceivabl# ?anc# had come to the same concl sion and had decided to no longer wait for 8homas. 8he fort#!three #ear old B nn and the si(teen #ear!old Sinclair soon began their own famil# of five children, one son and fo r da ghters, one of whom was named after 8homasHs childhood friend, 3ann#. 10, 8hat same #ear Mar# and Gohn began going to school. * #ear earlier Gohn B nnHs grandfather, Gohn Mc?ab, had written the $ompan#Hs directors to reA est that a school be established at Nor7 3actor#. 4e e(pressed concern that the children, especiall# the girls, were being nd l# infl enced b# their native mothers. 4e wrote9
1n the first instance it is the an(io s desire of ever# parent that the happiness res lting from &d cation e =eligion sho ld be imparted witho t distinction to the $hildren of both se(es M that the female #o th in partic lar sho ld e(perience that delicac# M attention to their persons their partic lar sit ation reA ires;native women as attendants on these #o ng persons seems improper; their societ# wo ld 7eep alive the 1ndian lang age and with it...native s perstition which o ght to be obliterated from the mind with all possible care.109

Mc?ab as7ed that a >respectable matron@ and schoolmaster be sent from &ngland to oversee the >progress of &d cation moralit# M good order.@110 S ch an e(pense was most li7el# not at the top of the 4B$ directorHs list of things to do as the# battled their rival, the ?orth 2est $ompan#. 8herefore, Mc?ab arranged for a ma7eshift school to be operated with a Mr. 5eddes to be in charge. "n September 9, 1,0, 5eddes commenced his classes with a handf l of st dents9 Goseph $oo7, 4arriet Ballendine, $atherine Sinclair (%hoebeHs sister) and Gohn and Mar# B nn. 111 4owever, being a schoolmaster was not a f ll!time Job, b t whenever 5eddes retired to 8en Shilling $ree7 to h nt partridges 8homas B nn wo ld ta7e his place and vice versa, so that the two men f lfilled their assignments as h nters and ed cators. "bvio sl#, onl# a remedial c rric l m of the three =Hs and some basic religio s indoctrination co ld be imparted. 1t was eno gh for Mc?ab, in his 1,09 ann al letter to 6ondon, to pro dl# send wor7 samples of the p pils and proclaim, >we have the pleas re to ass re #o r 4ono r that the School &stablishment is proceeding nder the happiestas ccess;the amelioration alread# ta7en place is s fficient to J stif# the 4opes of the well wishers of the 1nstit tiona@11/ 8wo da#s after he penned this letter, however, Mc?ab boarded the Eing 5eorge 111 to retire to 5reat Britain, along with him was Gohn B nn.

105 106 107

4arold *. 1nnis, The %ur Trade in Canada (8oronto, 196/) Zreprint[, 160. !bid., 156.

8his marriage was made VlegalV in 1,/0 when =everend Gohn 2est disembar7ed in Nor7 to begin his tre7 to minister at the embr#onic =ed =iver Settlement. 2hile in Nor7, 2est performed the first *nglican marriage in western $anada and bapti'ed %hoebe and 8homasIs children.
108
109

B nnIs eldest da ghter, Mar#, was also 7nown as ?anc#, whether a middle name or a nic7name is n7nown. 4.B.$.*., B./F9ObO+9, Nor7 3actor# $orrespondence Boo7 1+9-!1,09, fo. 5Fd. 110 !bid. 111 4.B.$.*., B./F9OaO115, Nor7 %ost Go rnal, September 9, 1,0,. 11/ 4.B.$.*., B./F9ObO+9, fo. 59d.

9,

.espite what he had wrote to the higher ps in 6ondon, Mc?ab did not want his own grandson ed cated in some bac7woods school, where the infl ences of the wilderness were alwa#s close at hand. ?o, for Gohn B nn a more rbane ed cation was destined for him. "n September 16, 1,09 he boarded the ship and with >light bree'es and fine weather@ set sail for &ngland.11F 1t wo ld be 10 #ears before the #o ng B nn wo ld set foot in = pertHs 6and again, and it wo ld be an additional 6 #ears before he saw his father again. *s for 8homas B nn, his ann al c#cle began itself despite the depart re of his son. "n ?ovember 1st, 1,09, the post Jo rnal recorded that he had bro ght in the first two partridges of the season.11- 8wo #ears later Mar# B nn wo ld be sent to live with her motherHs famil#< 115 she wo ld never see her father and brother again. Gohn B nnHs profession appeared to be predestined as soon as he boarded the Eing 5eorge 111. 1n addition to being a professional f r trader, Gohn Mc?ab was also a s rgeon, and he ass redl# infl enced his grandsonHs choice of career. *ltho gh not m ch is 7nown abo t the rest of B nnHs childhood, he did go to school in &dinb rgh, Scotland and began medical school at the )niversit# of &dinb rgh aro nd 1,1+. *t the time &dinb rgh was 7nown as the *thens of the north and more affectionatel# as >* ld =ee7ie@. 1nd striali'ation had swelled the pop lation in one decade from F5,/-, in 1,11 to 1F,,/F5 ten #ears later. 116 * whole section of the cit# had been redeveloped and reb ilt with do'ens of b ildings whose architect re echoed the 5recian architect re of ancient *thens, incl ding the )niversit# of &dinb rgh and its school of medicine. %rospective ph#sicians and s rgeons floc7ed to &dinb rgh, where its medical school had the best rep tation of an# o tside of 6ondon. Medicine as a profession was still in its infanc# d ring B nnHs 1,1+ soJo rn in &dinb rgh. *ltho gh a sharp division had previo sl# separated s rgeons from ph#sicians;those who dispensed ph#sic or medicine as opposed to the s rgeon who was concerned with the >art@ of c tting into the bod#. 1n B nnHs da# medical st dents st died both ph#sic and s rger# at the )niversit# of &dinb rgh;as opposed to their &nglish co nterparts;if the# wanted to become general practitioners.11+ B nn probabl# followed s it, with his c rric l m being similar to that in 1,F/ when he was e(amined in anatom#, s rger# and pharmac#. 11, 4is co rses and professors ma# have been the same or similar to those of one of B nnHs contemporaries, Games .o glas (not to be conf sed with the f t re governor of British $ol mbia). 8he medical science that B nn carried awa# with him from Scotland owed more to the traditions of earlier cent ries. Most of the wor7 performed b# the s rgeon of B nnHs da# was ro tine. 4e wo ld dress wo nds, draw teeth, treat the sores and abscesses d e to venereal disease, lance boils and perform bloodletting. 1nvasive s rger# was more rarel# performed and depended on the s rgeonHs speed and a sharp 7nife. *ltho gh nitro s o(ide (la ghing gas) was 7nown b# the time Gohn B nn was a medical st dent, it was more commonl# sniffed at parties, where medical st dents often happened to be present. 2itho t anesthesia patients wo ld A ic7l# die from the tra ma of blood loss and e(cr ciating pain, b t some invasive s rgeries were still performed. 8he more common ones were for the removal of bladder stones and mastectomies to e(tract cancero s t mors. "ne s rgeon, 2illiam $heselden of 6ondon won fame for being to remove bladder stones in / min tes when others too7 /0 min tes to perform the same operation. .espite the contemporar# view that the s rgeon was nothing more than a b tcher, the ph#sicianHs care of his patients co ld hardl# be A alified a st nning s ccess. 2itho t the microscope and 7nowledge of bacteria and vir ses, Gohn B nn wo ld have been groping in the dar7 when it came to treating disease. :er# little has been left in the historical record that s ggests what 7ind of diagnosis and treatment B nn gave his patients. 4owever, 6etitia 4argrave mentioned in one of her letters abo t the treatment of Mrs. 4arriet 5ladmanHs son9 >4e got a do'e of calomel M her co sin . r B nn the m breed .r at =ed =iver having ass red her that the practice of giving salts or senna afterwards was a fallac# M A ite seless she ses calomel on all occasions, from the facilit# with which it can be administered.@ 119 $alomel, also 7nown as merc ro s chloride was A ite seless itself as a c rative, it co ld almost alwa#s be fo nd in the bag of a nineteenth cent r# &nglish ph#sician in the form of bl e pills, b t its efficac# was as a p rgative to 7eep the bowels open. "f the h ndreds of dr gs listed in the 1,/- %harmacopoeia onl# opi m had m ch therape tic benefit. 1/0 )sing merc ro s chloride as a la(ative to c re disease was in 7eeping with the cent ries old idea that disease and illness was ca sed b# an imbalance of bod# fl ids or h mo rs. 8herefore, to c re disease, the ph#sician sed whatever techniA es were at his disposal to prod ce sweats, vomiting, bleeding and the voiding of bladder and bowels, so that the bad h mo rs co ld be disposed of and deposited o tside the bod#. 8he most common illnesses were the vario s maladies all classified as fevers, which were treated b# bleeding. $ pping and leeches were sed for bloodletting, b t more ordinaril# vario s si'ed 7nives, with names li7e the
11F 11-

4.B.$.*., $.1O-//, Jing "eorge !!! ShipHs 6og, fo. -5. 4.B.$.*., B./F9OaO116, Nor7 %ost Go rnal, ?ovember 1, 1,09. 115 She obvio sl# was sent to live with her motherHs native famil# beca se she did not accompan# her grandfather and brother to 5reat Britain. She never saw her father or brother again, altho gh her eldest son wo ld come to live with them in =ed =iver for five #ears d ring the first half of the 1,-0s. 116 8homas 4. Shepherd and Gohn Britton, +dinburgh in the Nineteenth Century (?ew Nor7, 1969) Zreprint[, ,. 11+ =o# %orter, >4ospitals and S rger#,@ The Cambridge !llustrated History of Medicine ($ambridge, 1996), //F. 11, St bbs, 101. 119 Margaret *rnett Mac6eod, ed., The Letters of Letitia Hargrave (?ew Nor7, 1969) Zreprint[, 6etitia 4argrave to Mar# Mactavish, September 1/, 1,-F, 1+0. 1/0 &dward Shorter, >%rimar# $are,@ The Cambridge !llustrated History of Medicine ($ambridge, 1996), 1/-.

99

>lancet@ or the >scarifactor@, were sed to ma7e an incision in order to >breath a vein.@ %atients adored bloodletting and p rging in moderate doses. Some insisted, for e(ample, on being bled ever# spring J st for the ass med health benefits. 8he maJor innovation to come along d ring .r. B nnHs era, which is sed toda#, was the ph#sical e(amination9 8he ta7ing of the p lse, the po7ing and prodding of the abdomen, tapping the chest and listening with an ear against the bod#;and later with a stethoscope;had come into vog e d ring the ?apoleonic #ears. *ltho gh their pop larit# ma# not have spread to &dinb rgh when B nn was a medical st dent, the# wo ld certainl# have been common b# the time he ret rned. 3or Gohn B nn the chance to learn more abo t the medicine of the da# was c t short. Gohn Mc?ab was still loo7ing o t for the welfare of his grandson, and he planned for him to follow in his footsteps b# becoming a s rgeon for the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan#. Mc?ab sent a letter dated .ecember 10, 1,1, to the 6ondon head office of the 4B$ to reA est that Gohn be considered for a position. 8he min te boo7 recorded that >if a S rgeon is wanted, the merits of his 5randson will be ta7en into consideration.@ 1/1 Mc?ab m st still have had some infl ence beca se a position soon became available, and Gohn B nn left Scotland for 4 dson Ba# aboard the &dd#stone the ne(t spring. 8he news that he was ret rning to the land of his birth was devastating to him. 4e wrote in a note in his te(tboo79 >*pril /9, 1,19;toda# 1 leave the )niversit# for m# native co ntr#, 4 dsonHs Ba#. 2hat is before me 5od 7nows b t 1 thin7 1 am going to the .evil in a cold co ntr#. 3arewell happiness, farewell m# intellect al pleas res, farewell m# Goll# Bl es (a gro p of st dents)< in three months 1 shall be among a parcel of hair# fro'en devils and thin7ing of da#s never to ret rn.@ 1// 3o r months later, d ring a torrential downpo r, B nn disembar7ed b t not before he penned a second note9
Sept. 1, 1,19. 2ell here 1 am at Moose 3actor# as wet as a drowned rat;ver# little pleased with m# berth. * strange pac7 of ncivili'ed so ls 1 have got among to be s re;the# spea7 &nglish some of them;b t 1 ver# m ch wish 1 were either h ng or bac7 at g* ld =ee7ieH among m# Goll# Bl es. 5oodb#e to happiness;where it will end 1 7now not;b t a precio s 7ettle of fish m# old 5randdad has made of it.1/F

8en #ears awa# from = pertHs 6and wo ld certainl# be more than long eno gh to forget, or want to forget, his h mble childhood. 8his #earning for Britain was a feat re that he now shared with his father. 2h# Gohn Mc?ab s mmoned the #o ng B nn to 4 dson Ba# before he finished his medical training is not 7nown. %erhaps ill!health and infirmit# had worried him abo t being able to contin e helping GohnHs career;a help he patentl# felt he co ld do witho t;in the f t re beca se Mc?ab died less than a #ear after GohnHs arrival at Moose 3actor#. 8his 19!#ear!old with J st two #ears of medical school evidentl# had eno gh training to replace Mr. 5eorge Simms as s rgeon and be >f ll# A alified for the Sit ation.@1/- So began a short and nremar7able career with the compan# of advent rers. B nnHs entire career wo ld be spent in the 4B$Hs So thern .epartment, in a series of posts str ng between 6a7e S perior and Games Ba#. 4e wo ld not meet his father, who was still wor7ing near Nor7 3actor#, d ring his time with the $ompan#. 2ith the depart re of Simms aboard the &dd#stone, B nn now had to administer to the ills of ever#one who came to Moose 3actor#. G st two wee7s after SimmHs e(it, .r. B nn had his medical training tested when an 1ndian, "ld Shinna ps, arrived at the post with his wife, both of whom were s ffering from starvation and ill health. She died the same evening, and it was B nnHs opinion that >he cannot s rvive man# da#s,@ which he did not. 1/5 8he vario s c ts, bro7en bones and fevers at the post were not eno gh to 7eep a medical man emplo#ed f ll!time in his profession. "ther d ties also occ pied B nnHs time in = pertHs 6and. * few months after his arrival, in a tas7 that wo ld have bro ght bac7 memories of his childhood, he was o t h nting partridges with a Mr. Goseph 5ladman. 1/6 4e was also as7ed to deliver letters to nearb# inland depots. 4is wor7 at Moose 3actor# was c t short when the death of his patron and grandfather necessitated a trip to Montreal to loo7 after his effects. 3or that period in time, B nnHs trip to Montreal and bac7 was a whirlwind Jo rne#. 6eaving Moose 3actor# on Ma# -, 1,/0, he arrived at Michipicoten post on 6a7e S perior on G ne 1+th. .eparting from there ten da#s later, he was bac7 from $anada J st two months later. 4e arrived to a region of the So thern .epartment that was e(periencing tro ble that #ear. 4e left Michipicoten for ?ew Br nswi7 4o se on "ctober 5th with letters, one of which as7ed for provisions d e to the fail re to proc re eno gh fish that s mmer. *ndrew Stewart, the chief of Michipicoten, personall# as7ed B nn to confirm the hardship at the post when he arrived at ?ew Br nswi7 4o se, where he sta#ed the entire winter.1/+ Gohn B nnHs character was assessed for the first time in the ?ew Br nswi7 district report9
1t being late in the fall when Mr. B nn arrived at ?ew Br nswi7 on his ro te to Moose and there being no means in m# power of forwarding him, he was nder necessit# of remaining. . ring his residence here he at m# reA est too7 pon him the charge of the store he was also of assistance to me in o tpostingaMr. B nnHs idea are in m# opinion worth# a gentleman, and officer. 1/,
1/1 1//

4.B.$.*., *.1O5/, 6ondon Min te Boo7 1,1,!/1, fo. 5. B nn A oted in Mitchell, 51. 1/F !bid. 1/4.B.$.*., *.6O19, 6ondon $orrespondence " twards, Ma# 19, 1,19. 1/5 4.B.$.*., B.1F5OaO1/0, Moose 3actor# Go rnal, September 1,, 1,19. 1/6 !bid., ?ovember /F, 1,19. 1/+ 4.B.$.*., B.1/9OaO11, Michipicoten %ost Go rnal, "ctober 5, 1,/0. 1/, 4.B.$.*., B.1-5OeO11, ?ew Br nswi7 =eport on .istrict 1,/0!/1, /1.

100

2ith those comments B nn wo ld seemed to have been ass red a length# career with the 4B$ 3or the ne(t few #ears he wor7ed at vario s posts between ?ew Br nswi7 4o se and Moose 3actor#, in s ch capacities as a cler7 and acco ntant. 4owever, he appeared not to have had m ch ambition to sta# with the $ompan#. 4e left Nor7 3actor# shortl# before $hristmas in 1,/-, and arrived in 3ort 5arr# on 3ebr ar# /, 1,/5 in the compan# of three men with dogs and sleds.1/9 4e came to =ed =iver to settle with old 8homas B nn, who had arrived in the settlement a few #ears earlier, after leaving the $ompan#Hs emplo# nder somewhat controversial circ mstances. 8homas B nn had the misfort ne to loc7 horns with a rising star in the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan#, 5eorge Simpson. 8he mis nderstanding between the two men was a classic clash of disparate personalities. B nn was an affable old fellow who was fond of telling stories that had a certain amo nt of embellishment to them. * =ed =iver resident, 4arriet $owan, wo ld later relate how as a small child she remembered old B nn, who was a freA ent visitor to her ho se, and how he delighted in telling children abo t the >horror in &ngland when the 3rench Eing and L een Marie *ntoinette were beheaded.@1F0 )ndo btedl#, B nn wo ld have embellished the >horror@ of the 3rench =evol tion, ta7ing pleas re in watching the childrenHs e#es grow as big as sa cers as he described the wor7ings of the g illotine. Simpson b# contrast was the newl# appointed governor of the ?orthern .epartment who was o t to trim the deadwood in the $ompan# in the wa7e of its amalgamation with its former rival the ?orth 2est $ompan#. 4e probabl# wo ld not long s ffer a person who was relativel# old, seemed somewhat indolent to Simpson and who happened to be the brother!in!law of Betse# Sinclair. &ven for his time, SimpsonHs se of f r trade women wo ld ma7e it safe to label him a heel when describing his cavalier attit de to women. 4is mission seems to have been to distrib te his .?* in as man# places in = pertHs 6and as he co ld. >2hite fish seems to be favo rable to procreation and had 1 a good pimp in m# s ite 1 might have been inclined to deposit a little of m# Spawn,@ he wrote. 1F1 *s historian S#lvia :an Eir7 s ggests, Simpson was new to f r! trading co ntr# and was nfamiliar with the long!standing c stom of sta#ing with one woman for #ears, decades or for life.1F/ 1nstead, Betse# Sinclair was an >e(pensive appendage@ 1FF whom he wished not >to be tro bled withad ring the b s# Season.@1F- 1f these comments werenHt eno gh, Simpson wrote that >if she is nmar7etable 1 have no wish that she sho ld be a general accommodation shop to all the #o ng b c7s at the 3actor# and in addition to her own chastit# a padloc7 ma# be sef l.@ 1F5 8homas B nn, who was old eno gh to be SimpsonHs father, co ld not have been satisfied with the treatment his sister!in!law received, and as his biographer s ggests he ma# have given him a tong e lashing on the se of his wifeHs sister. 1F6 *n arrogant man li7e Simpson wo ld probabl# not have accepted this 7ind of s bordination and ma# have deliberatel# forced B nn to retire to before he was prepared. 4owever, the $ompan# did provide him with a c60 a #ear ann it# for seven #ears and a piece of land in the =ed =iver Settlement, so that in 1,/F B nn settled there a #ear and a half before his son arrived. So nding m ch li7e his son when he stepped off the &dd#stone, 8homas B nn felt himself e(iled to =ed =iver. >1 some how cannot completel# ma7e p m# mind to ma7e it m# residence for the rest of m# life, tho gh when 1 shall A it it 1 do not 7now.a1 #et wish for old &ngland, more than 1 sed to do,@ he wrote to ?anc# and 3ann# ?icholl. 1F+ Net, those feelings of loneliness certainl# s bsided when Gohn B nn came to the colon#, and the relationship that distance had cooled became m ch closer than ever. .r. B nn probabl# moved in with his father and soon after began his occ pation as the doctor for the colon#. 4e most li7el# replaced a Mr. $ ddie, who had received a c150 ann al salar# with a c50 allowance for living e(penses in 1,/F, and >it being nderstood that he is to attend to the poor who cannot pa# him.@ 1F, Being the doctor of the =ed =iver $olon# was a h ge nderta7ing. *s the elder B nn wrote to ?anc#, his son was >m ch harassed b# his b siness, M is obliged to 7eep / 4orses. No will not be s rprised at that when 1 tell #o that the Settlement is pwards of 60 miles in length M there is no other medical man in it.@ 1F9 8homas B nn displa#ed a certain amo nt of pride in his sonHs profession and responsibilities beca se he often boasted again to ?anc# Ba#le# abo t how large an area he had to administer, especiall# in 1,-F when a scarlet fever epidemic carried off, according to B nn, >more than 100 inhabitants,@1-0 and he as7ed, with a meas re of nderstatement, ?anc# to imagine how his son >was s fficientl#
1/9 1F0

4.B.$.*., B./F5OaO16, 3ort 5arr# %ost Go rnal, 3ebr ar# /, 1,/5. 2. G. 4eal#, 2omen of Red River (2innipeg, 196+) Zreprint[, /0. 1F1 =. 4arve# 3leming, ed., Minutes of Council of the Northern )e(artment of Ru(ertCs Land$ 89=8;@8 (8oronto, 19-0), 5eorge Simpson to Gohn 5eorge Mc8avish, ?ovember 1/, 1,//, -/F. 1F/ S#lvia :an Eir7, FMany Tender TiesI: 2omen in %ur Trade ,ociety$ 8>A?;89A? (2innipeg, 19,0), 161. 1FF 3leming, Simpson to Mc8avish, ?ovember 1/, 1,//, -/-. 1F!bid., Simpson to Mc8avish, G ne -, 1,//, -11. 1F5 !bid., Simpson to Mc8avish, ?ovember 1/, 1,//, -/-. 1F6 Ba#le#, --. 1F+ %.*.M., B nn $orrespondence, letter X/, 8homas B nn to ?anc# and 3ann# ?icholl, G l# /0, 1,/-. 1F, &. 4. "liver, ed., The Canadian North;2est: !ts +arly )evelo(ment and Legislative Records , vol. 1, ("ttawa, 191-), /5F. 8went#! eight #ears later 5overnor &den $olvile was pa#ing .r. B nn c100 for his services, which was not as m ch as Mr. $ ddie received, b t b# 1,51 there were two doctors in the settlement and B nnHs rem neration ma# reflect that fact. 1F9 %.*.M., B nn $orrespondence, letter X6, 8homas B nn to ?anc# Ba#le#, * g st 6, 1,-0.

101

emplo#ed@ in ministering to the sic7. 1-1 1n the s mmer he patrolled the 60 mile length of the settlement on horsebac7, and in winter he drove along the road in a parchment carriole, which =ed =iver resident, Barbara $ampbell, remembered >was made of b ffalo hide prepared so as to be what we called parchment. 2ith his feet and 7nees wrapped in a b ffalo robe, nder that, and a warm b ffalo coat on and a f r cap p lled down over his ears, he was comfortable on even the coldest da#s.@ 1-/ .r. B nn contin ed to patrol the entire settlement ntil .r. 2illiam $owan came to =ed =iver in 1,50, when the# split the settlement in two with $owan ta7ing the pper part and B nn the lower. "n G l# /F, 1,/9, Gohn B nn married $atherine, the da ghter of 8homas 8homas. 8he #o ng co ple too7 p a river lot right ne(t to GohnHs father and step!mother. 8he# probabl# were helpf l to the elder B nn who had ta7en p a profession he co ld scarcel# have imagined while growing p in 6ondon< as he wrote to ?anc#, >tho gh #o wo ld hardl# conceive it, 1 am a farmer.@ 1-F 8he# had three sons9 8homas bapti'ed on Ma# 16, 1,F0, Gohn bapti'ed on *pril 15, 1,F/ and 2illiam 8homas bapti'ed on .ecember 15, 1,FF. *ltho gh two of the sons wo ld reach ad lthood, with 8homas going on to pla# an important role in the =ed =iver =esistance and =ielHs provisional government, neither one wo ld live be#ond their middle!aged #ears. .r. B nnHs famil# life, nonetheless, was interr pted for a #ear as he decided to ret rn to the )niversit# of &dinb rgh to pgrade his training for the large settlement he attended. 4is Jo rne# to Scotland offered his father a chance to have his dear friend be paid a visit b# his son. *ltho gh 6ondon is not on the wa# to &dinb rgh, the elder B nn confidentl# wrote ?anc# that, >m# son Gohn has J st resolved to ta7e a trip to 6ondon for a season. 4e will not be there long, b t most li7el# will call pon #o .@ 1-- *s his biographer implies, 8homas B nn ndo btedl# begged his son to ma7e a side trip to 6ondon to loo7 p his old friend. 1-5 .r. B nnHs father wished that he was going to visit his birthplace. 1n a somewhat melanchol# letter he wrote9
1 received a letter from m# son Gohn b# the 2inter pac7et dated last 3eb#., he informs me how 7indl# he was received b# #o , M the 7ind inA iries #o made abo t me. *ccept, m# dear friend, m# gratef l than7s for #o r affectionate remembrance, M believe me that #o M famil# are fondl# recollected b# me. 4ow strong the happ# da#s of former times are imprinted in m# memor#. 1-6

*ltho gh Gohn B nn did not grad ate in his second crac7 at medical school, he did pass eno gh e(aminations to become a 6icentiate of the =o#al $ollege of S rgeons. 4is goal had not been to grad ate b t to pgrade his s7ills and visit >* ld =ee7ie@ one more time. 4e ma# have learned more abo t the efficac# of the ph#sical e(amination, which was still a new innovation in 1,1+;the stethoscope, for e(ample, had not been perfected at the time. Most maJor changes in the improvement of health care, however, still la# in the f t re. 4is ret rn to =ed =iver sho ld have signaled the beginning of the happiest #ears of his life, with a #o ng wife and famil#, b t traged# soon visited pon him. $atherine B nn died on Gan ar# F, 1,F-, a month after giving birth to her third son, who was ver# sic7l# and wo ld die thirteen #ears later. Gohn B nn s bseA entl# moved in with his father and step!mother, who too7 over the tas7 of caring for his three #o ng sons. .r. B nn never remarried and there does not seem to be a compelling reason wh# he did not do so. 4is fatherHs letters to ?anc# often mentioned how his son was still single and still living with him. B nn occasionall# attempted the b siness of finding a mate witho t m ch s ccess. 3or e(ample, 2illiam =oss wrote to his brother Games abo t B nnHs fail re at finding love at a social gathering9 >Gohn B nn has been pa#ing his addresses to Miss *. =oss and the Ball was to crown it with s ccess b t there was no!go he was not so m ch as loo7ed at and got dead dr n7 to the bargain.@ 1-+ 2as he an alcoholic or had some sort of personalit# disorder that made him ndesirable to womenB 1t seems strange that a man of his position wo ld not have remarried. 4is personal rep tation seemed to be be#ond reproach, as contemporar# characteri'ations called him >a well informed man and a capital companion,@ 1-, and >the most sensible man in the settlement.@1-9 ?ot ever#one had s ch a high opinion of B nn< 6etitia 4argrave, for e(ample, described the =ed =iver Settlement as having >no right medical man@ and B nn as not being a doctor >of an# pretensions, as he is a 4alf!Breed, M prett# old.@150 She also described him as being >delicate@ and in bad health for man# #ears. $onceivabl#,
1-0

1n a letter to Games 4argrave, Gohn $harles, in charge at 3ort 5arr#, does not give the impression that the 1,-F epidemic 7illed more than a h ndred people, altho gh it did hit the colon#Hs children partic larl# hard, and $harles had to give p his apartments in the fort in order to ma7e them a temporar# hospital. 5. %. de 8. 5la'ebroo7, ed., The Hargrave Corres(ondence$ 89=8;89:@ (8oronto, 19F,), Gohn $harles to Games 4argrave, .ecember /, 1,-F, -5/. 1-1 %.*.M., B nn $orrespondence, letter X+, 8homas B nn to ?anc# Ba#le#, * g st +, 1,--. 1-/ 4eale#, /01. 1-F %.*.M., B nn $orrespondence, letter X-, 8homas B nn to ?anc# Ba#le#, * g st 6, 1,F/. 1-%.*.M., B nn $orrespondence, letter XF, 8homas B nn to ?anc# Ba#le#, * g st F, 1,F1. 1-5 Ba#le#, 6/. 1-6 B nn to Ba#le#, * g st 6, 1,F/. 1-+ %.*.M., =oss %apers, X16/, 2illiam =oss to Games =oss, 3ebr ar# 9, 1,56. 1t was possible that =oss was tal7ing abo t .r. B nnHs son also named Gohn, b t earlier in the letter =oss does mention that the ball was initiated b# .r. B nn and G dge Blac7 and that >there was a partic lar motive for ma7ing the Ball.@ Still, .r. B nnHs motive ma# have been to see his son co rting Miss =oss. 1-, &laine *llan Mitchell, >* =ed =iver 5ossip,@ The /eaver (Spring 1961), 9. 1-9 &. &. =ich and *. M. Gohnson, eds., +den ColvileCs Letters (6ondon, 1956), &den $olvile to Sir 5eorge Simpson, Ma# //, 1,51, /15. 150 Letters of Letitia Hargrave , 6etitia 4argrave to Mrs . gald Mac8avish, Ma# 16, 1,-/, 105, 4argrave to Mac8avish, *pril 10,

10/

his health ma# have prevented him from ta7ing another wife. 4is professional life, however, was m ch more s ccessf l. .r. B nn accepted so man# official positions and sat on so man# committees that one wo ld be forgiven for thin7ing that medicine was J st his hobb#. 4e sat reg larl# as a member on the $o ncil of *ssiniboia. 4e held the positions of magistrate, coroner, sheriff and recorder, ma7ing him as m ch a legal professional as a medical one. *s a recorder he sat as J dge on civil trials and sat with a J r# on criminal cases, adJ dicating cases from litigation over bad debts to m rders. *s coroner he prono nced the m#sterio s death of Sir 5eorge SimpsonHs co sin, 8homas Simpson, to be a s icide. 8o detail his activities in the p blic sphere wo ld ta7e p more space than is allowed here. 4owever, his p blic career is detailed A ite well in =o# St. 5eorge St bbsH boo7, %our Recorders of Ru(ertCs Land . "ne of the more interesting events in =ed =iver that B nn witnessed and was involved in was the 3oss!%ell# scandal. 8he scandal began in the spring of 1,50 when $aptain :a ghan 3oss and Mrs. Sarah Ballenden, a mi(ed!blood woman, ins lted Mrs. *nne %ell#. 8he historian 3rits %anne7oe7 s ggests that Mrs. %ell#, a white woman, was Jealo s that the prettier half!breed had a higher social standing beca se of her marriage to $hief 3actor Gohn Ballenden. 8herefore, Mr. and Mrs. %ell#, the clerg# and the 5overnor of *ssiniboia retaliated b# believing the r mo rs of se( al impropriet# between 3oss and Mrs. Ballenden and conseA entl# sh nned her sociall#. 151 8he gossip abo t 3oss and Ballenden was so rampant that 3oss charged the %ell#s with >defamator# conspirac#.@ *t the trial Gohn B nn was called to testif#, and he fiercel# defended the hono r of Mrs. Ballenden. 3oss won his case and Ballenden appeared to be vindicated. 1nstead the settlement became split into pro and anti!Ballenden camps. 8he deep division in the comm nit# was almost comical in the e(tremes that the main participants wo ld go to avoid seeing one another. 8he new *ssociate 5overnor of the 4B$, &den $olvile, recalled one s ch scene9
*ltogether the state of things is most npleasant, tho gh somewhat l dicro s, withal. 3or instance, toda#, the Bishop M his sister were calling on s, M in the middle of the visit 1 heard a 7noc7 at the door, M s specting who it was r shed o t M fo nd Mr. M Mrs. Ballenden. 1 had to cram them into another room till the BishopHs visit was over, b t as he was then going to see the %ell#Hs he had to pass thro gh this room, so that 1 had to bolt o t M p t them into a third room. 1t was altogether li7e a scene in a farce. 15/

$olvile initiall# sided with the pro!Ballenden camp and allowed Mrs. Ballenden to sta# at 6ower 3ort 5arr# while her h sband was awa# on b siness. >1 have A ite made p m# mind that Mrs. Ballenden has been an ill sed woman, M 1 thin7 %ell# richl# deserves all he has got,@ he wrote. 15F 4owever, $olvile later wrote that Ballenden showed >her tr e colo rs@ b# spending a few da#s with 3oss after a cop# of a letter was allegedl# intercepted that began >M# own darling $hristopher,@ and which reA ested he pa# her a visit that he did, remaining >closeted in her rooms for two da#s and nights.@ 15- 8he scandal blew p again, and this time .r. B nn co ld not bring himself to defend Mrs. Ballenden an# longer. She had to leave 6ower 3ort 5arr# and sta# with a nearb# famil#. 3oss, along with Mrs. Ballenden, became a pariah in the settlement, foc sing his anger and fr stration at B nn. >Z3oss[ am ses himself b# writing lampoons on 8hom, .r. B nn and others, and 1 wish he were o t of this,@ wrote $olvile.155 Ballenden soon left the settlement for ?orwa# 4o se and died a premat re death in 1,5F. 8his was the same #ear that Gohn B nnHs father passed awa#. 8homas B nn never made it bac7 to 6ondon, d#ing on Gan ar# 15, 1,5F, at the age of ,+. %erhaps he was li7e one of .r. B nnHs patients who longed for her old home in Scotland, and on her death bed cried o t, >"h, if 1 co ld onl# see a hill, 1 thin7 1 wo ld live.@ 156 )ndo btedl#, this loss wo ld have been hard for B nn, having lived with his father for close to twent# #ears. St bbs s ggests that a period of madness that B nn s ffered later that #ear was partiall# ca sed b# grieving for his dead father. 15+ ?evertheless, he still had his half!sister 3ann# to 7eep him compan#, b t when she got married a few #ears later and moved twent# miles awa#, B nn fo nd himself alone. 4is sol tion was to give p ho se7eeping and ta7e p >residence in one of the $ompan#Hs establishments.@ 15, 4is loneliness became even more ac te a few #ears after changing residence. >M# eldest Son had the misfort ne to lose his wife s ddenl# a few Months ago;a loss which fell heavil# on m#self, as 1 had loo7ed for comfort in the 7indness of a most affectionate da ghter.@ 159 )nable to find a wife of his own he so ght the affections of his sister and da ghter!in!law. 1t wo ld seem that a c rse plag ed the famil# as three generations of B nns lost their first wives to death. .eath soon claimed .r. Gohn B nn. 4e wo ld not live to see the changes that came to =ed =iver in a few short #ears. ?or did he witness the part his son pla#ed in the =iel =esistance, tr#ing to achieve nit# between the two parts of
1,-F, 1--. 151 3rits %anne7oe7, A ,nug Little %loc&: The ,ocial Origins of the Riel Resistance 89><;A? (2innipeg, 1991), 1/-!5. 15/ +den ColvileCs Letters, $olvile to Sir 5eorge Simpson, * g st 15, 1,50, 19F. 15F !bid., $olvile to Simpson, September 19, 1,50, 19+. 15!bid., Gan ar# -, 1,51. 155 !bid., $olvile to Simpson, Ma# //, 1,51, /10. 156 4eal#, -9. 15+ St bbs, 9,. 15, %.*.M., B nn $orrespondence, letter X1/, Gohn B nn to 2illiam Ba#le# Gr., * g st 10, 1,56. 159 %.*.M., B nn $orrespondence, letter X1F, B nn to Ba#le#, * g st 10, 1,5+.

10F

the settlement b# becoming a part of =ielHs provisional government. 2hen he died B nn was one of the most respected members of the comm nit#. 4e ma# have bal7ed at ret rning from Scotland to the co ntr# of his birth, b t he redeemed himself b# forging a powerf l relationship with his father, whom he barel# 7new as a child. 8he 5overnor and $o ncil of *ssiniboia was >painf ll# conscio s how diffic lt it Zwo ld[ be to s ppl# his place in the vario s offices which he filled with so m ch credit to himself, and so m ch advantage to the whole Settlement.@160 ($ontrib ted b# 8odd 6amirande and the Metis =eso rce $entre.) Reference
See also, Elassen, 4.$. >Gohn B nn.@ !n )ictionary of Canadian /iogra(hy, :ol. 1U (1,61!1,+0). 8oronto9 )niversit# of 8oronto %ress, 19+69 10/!10F.

Bunn, ;homas, M.&.A. (1,F0!1,+5)
8homas B nn was born at the =ed =iver Settlement on 16 Ma# 1,F0, the first son of Gohn B nn and $atherine 8homas, both Metis. .r Gohn B nn (1,0F!1,61), 8omHs father, was a s rgeon with the 4 dsonHs Ba# $ompan# (4B$) at Moose 3actor#. 4e then left 4B$ service and moved to =ed =iver in 1,/-. Gohn B nn served as a member of the $o ncil of *ssiniboia. 8homas B nnHs grandfather, 8homas 8homas, was also a s rgeon and rose to the position of 4B$ 5overnor in 1,1F. 8homas was a farmer thro gho t his life in the St. *ndrews %arish. 4e was raised in the parish of St. %a l (Middlech rch) and ed cated at the =ed =iver *cadem#. 4e married 1sabella $lo ston, the da ghter of ?anc# S therland and Gohn $lo ston, in 1,5-. 1sabella died in 1,5+ giving birth to their da ghter 1sabella. 8heir son, Gohn, was born in 1,55. 8homas then married =achel 4arriot, the da ghter of Gohn 4arriott and ?anc# =owand in 1,59. 8he# s bseA entl# had eight children. 1n 1,6- B nn ho se was completed on river lot 9+ on the east side of the =ed river opposite St. $lementHs $h rch. 4is brother Gohn =obert B nn (b. 1,F/) was married to Gemima $lo ston. * second brother, 2illiam 8homas, was born in 1,FF and died at age thirteen (1,-+). 1n 1,6,, he was appointed to the $o ncil of *ssiniboia having previo sl# served as cler7 of the $o ncil and the L arterl# $o rt of *ssiniboia from 1,65!1,69. B nn was made a delegate to the $o ncil from St. $lements in 1,69. 4e was a s pporter of =iel and chaired the famo s open!air meetings of Gan ar# 1,+0 when .onald *. Smith spo7e to the =ed =iver pop lation. B nn then served on the committee arranging the elections to the $onvention of 3ort# and he himself became on of the delegates to the $onvention representing St. $lements. 4e served as Secretar# of State in the %rovisional 5overnment. 1n ManitobaHs first election of .ecember 1,+0, B nn was elected as M%% from St. $lements. B nn was called to the bar in 1,+1 and was cler7 for the first 5eneral L arterl# $o rt in Ma# of 1,+1. 8homas B nn died on 11 *pril 1,+5.

Bushman (Beau$hman, Beau$hemin) +amilies in Montana
5abriel Bea chman, Beachman, B shman. (1,F,!19-0) 5abriel was born in Montana in 1,F,, the son of Bea chman and =ed ?est, who was the da ghter of 2easel and 6oo7 at 5ro nd. 4e married Marg erite *' re (b. 1,50) on Gan ar# F, 1,+/ at 6ebret, Sas7atchewan.

160

"liver, Min tes of a Meeting of the 5overnor and $o ncil of *ssiniboia, G ne ,, 1,61, -+,.

10-

Marg erite *' re was born on .ecember -, 1,50 in the .a7ota 8erritor#, the da ghter of *ntoine *' re 161 and :ictoire 6ariviere. 8he co ple had five children< Marie born 1,+/, .oph s born 1,+F, 5abriel born 1,+9, 8homas born 1,,6, Goseph born 1,,,, and 6o is born 1,9/. 8he *' res had also moved to Montana. 8he ).S. 1,,0 $ens s for St. %eterIs Mission, Montana lists9 • *ntoine *' re *ge 55. • 2ife9 :ictoria *ge //. $hildren9 • Moses son age // born .a7ota. • *lphonse *' re son age 19 born .a7ota. • $ecile *' re da ghter. age 1- born .a7ota. • Br no *' re son age 1+ born .a7ota. • G stine *' re da ghter age1/ born .a7ota. • *ndrew *' re son age 10 born .a7ota. • 5abriel *' re son born .a7ota. • *le(ander *' re son age - born Montana. 5abriel B shman (Bea chman) Gr. (1,+9!19+1) 5abriel was born on Gan ar# /9, 1,+9. 5abriel married $elina 8 rcotte and had 16 children. 4e passed awa# on * g st F, 19+1 in 2olf %oint, Montana. $elina 8 rcotte was born in 2illiston, ?orth .a7ota, in 1,,F, the da ghter of Gean Baptiste 8 rcotte16/ (1,F5!190/) son of :ital 8 rcotte and Madeleine $aplette, and Marg erite .ecotea . (1,-6! 19-5) $elina was first married to Gohn Br nelle and had a child. $elina then married 5abriel B shman (Bea chemin) on Gan ar# F0, 1901. She passed awa# on G l# /5, 19-9 in %oplar, Montana. Goseph B shman (b. 1,90) 5abriel B shman had a #o nger brother Goseph Bea chemin (b. 1,90) who married Sarah 8 rcotte. 2e do not 7now her relationship to $elina 8 rcotte. *doph B shman (b. 1,6/) *dolph was reportedl# born in a b ffalo camp north of 3ort Benton in 1,6/ to 3rench $anadian parents. 4e was said to have moved to 8eton $o nt# in 1,++ and event all# to have settled on a homestead in the .eep $ree7 area. 8he Montana $ens s of 19-0 lists *dolph B shman9 age +, born 1,6/, living $ho tea , wife &llen age 6-, son 2illis age F5, and son 5renn age //. 5abriel b shman Sr. and Marg erite *' re had a son .oph s born in 1,+F. 8his raises the A estion as to whether *doph is their son.

Burns, #eorge +lett.
5eorge B rns (%amena#wa#as7 ng, >%rett# So nding Step@) was the son of Moses B rns and the grandson of Metis leader Michel $ardinal. 5eorge was the namesa7e of =everend 5eorge 3lett who had christened his father Moses B rns. 4e event all# dropped B rns as a s rname and went b# 5eorge 3lett. 4e married &mma $oo7 from the ?arrows between 6a7e Manitoba and 6a7e 2innipegosis. 8he# had eight children.

Burns, Moses.
See Eeesee7oowenin.
161

*ntoine *' re was born in St Boniface on /, Ma# 1,/5 to *ntoine *' re (1+9-!1900, died at 6ero#, ?...) and $harlotte %elletier (1+,5!1,,5). *ntoine married :ictoire 6ariviere and had 16 children. 4e passed awa# on F1 Gan 191- in ?orth .a7ota. :ictoire was born in 1,/F to 4#acinthe 6ariviere and Gosephte Br nea . 8he co ple had 16 children. :ictoire passed awa# on Gan ar# 1/, 1,,9 in 3ort Nates, So th .a7ota.
162

Jean Baptiste Turcotte was born 22 Februar 1837 in !t. Boni"ace# $e% $i&er !ett'e(ent. )e %ie% about 1902 in Be'court. Jean "irst (arrie% *n+,'i-ue .oc/a %it .a-uin# t/e %au+/ter o" Jean .a-uin an% 0ene&ie&e *inani1ip21i1 3atter+rasse in 1858 in !t. Boni"ace# 4anitoba. *n+,'i-ue was born about 1840 in near $e% 3a1e# 45. !/e %ie% 1884 an% was burie% in Be'court# 5ort/ 6a1ota. Jean t/en (arrie% 4ar+uerite 6ecoteau (6escoteau7)# t/e %au+/ter o" 3ouis 6ecoteau an% 8sabe''e 3a&er%ure# a"ter 1883. 4ar+uerite was born on 4arc/ 1# 1852 in 6e&i's 3a1e# 6a1ota Territor . T/e are 'iste% in t/e 1892 Turt'e 4ountain $ecor%s 9ensus as Fa(i' 228.

105

Buxton, .enry Sr. (1+9F!1,+0)
4enr# Sr. was born in .erb#shire, &ngland prior to removing to $anada. 4e married 3rances 8homas, born circa 1+95, the Metis da ghter of 8homas 8homas (b.1+65) (and Sarah ($ree) on Ma# /0, 1,/, at St. GohnIs *nglican $h rch. 4enr# and 3rances arrived in the "regon 8erritor# in the =ed =iver emigration of 1,-1. 16F 3rances wife died from a fall from her horse shortl# after arriving in the west. 4enr# spent a brief time in what is now 2ashington state before settling in 2ashington $o, "regon< a letter b# Mrs. Sarah &. B (ton in 1,-F states that the# had never received their land patent and had sold the land< 4enr# Sr. died at 3orest 5rove in 1,+0. 4enr# B (ton, born in Stanfree, &ngland in 1+9-, orphaned at the age of seven. "n the 1+ th of Ma#, 1,/1, 4enr# embar7ed the 4 dson Ba# ship, V%rince of 2alesV at 5ravesend, bo nd for $anada. 4e signed a five #ear contract with the 4 dsonIs Ba# $o. as laborer at he ann al rate of 15 po nds. 8he vo#age was eventf l since ice flows were far to the so th that spring. 8he V%rince of 2alesV and the V&dd#stoneV became st c7 fast in the ice along with the three ships of $aptain %arr#Is arctic e(pedition. )pon his arrival at Nor7 3actor# in * g st 1,/1, 4enr# went at once to the )pper =ed =iver (2innipeg, Manitoba) where he wor7ed o t his contract. Before 1,/, he began wor7ing as a cler7 for 8homas 8homas, a s rgeonOofficer of the $ompan#. 8homas and his wife, Sarah (a $ree 1ndian) agreed to allow their da ghter 3rances to marr# 4enr# when he reA ested her hand in 1,/,. 8hat same #ear 8homas died and left a large estate to each of his si( da ghters. ?ow 4enr# and 3rances had wealth be#ond their wildest dreams. 8he# wo ld have contin ed farming in the fertile =ed =iver :alle# had it not been for an irresistible offer made b# the British and *merican governments Jointl#. 3ifteen head of cows, si(teen ewes and s fficient wor7 o(en or horses for farming were promised to pioneers willing to brave the wilds of the 2ashington and "regon territories. 1n G ne of 1,-1 4enr#, 3rances, and their son 4enr# Gr. Joined twent#!two other =ed =iver carts heading westward along the $arlton 8rail. 8he# followed the Bow =iver p into the =oc7# Mo ntains where the# abandoned their carts and made the remainder of the trip to 3ort 2alla 2alla on horsebac7. *t some point on the Jo rne# 3rances fell from her horse while fording a river and was criticall# inJ red. She never recovered and was one of the first settlers to be b ried near the modern cit# of 8acoma. % get so nd area was nfavorable to 4enr# Sr. and his #o ng son 4enr# Gr. and the ne(t spring fo nd them heading so th to 8 alatin %lains (now 3orest 5rove area in "regon) where 4enr# too7 p a donation land claim of 6-0 acres. Meanwhile a =everend *sahel M nger and his wife Sarah came to "regon from 1llinois as missionaries to the 1ndians. 4e wor7ed on the side as blac7smith and his ministr# to the VheathensV was ns ccessf l. 4is lac7 of s ccess bore heavil# on *sahelIs heart and he too7 it to mean that he had ins ffieient faith. "ne fatef l da# in 1,-1 he decided to p t his faith to the test and threw himself onto his bla'ing forge in order to bring abo t the miracle that wo ld releaase 5odIs power to save the 1ndians. no miracle came abo t that da# and poor Sarah M nger fo nd herself widowed. ?ot long after that 4enr# B (ton Sr., himself a widower, wed the nfort nate Sarah who alread# had one da ghter, Sarah &. 1n 1,-9 4enr# Sr., a man of vision and ind str#, along with the Smiths, $lar7s, and other earl# settlers fo nded %acific )niversit# at 3orest 5rove. 4enr# Sr. died in 3orest 5rove, "regon in 1,+0 at age ++. =eference9 http9OOwc.rootsweb.ancestr#.comOcgi!binOigm.cgiBopn5&8MdbnwhitmanMidn1/0+F

Buxton, .enry "r. (1,/9!1,99 )
4enr# Gr was born "ctober ,, 1,/9 at =ed =iver, the Metis son of 4enr# B (ton (b. 1+9F) and his Metis wife 3rances 8homas. 4enr# arrived at the $ol mbia =iver in the northwest with his father and mother in the =ed =iver emigration of 1,-1.16- 4e spent a brief time in what is now 2ashington state before settling in 2ashington $o, "regon. 1n 1,-6 he married =osanna 2oole#. 4e died on Gan ar# 19, 1,99 in 3orest 5rove 5rove, 2ashington, "regon.
163

1n 1,-1 the 4B$ organi'ed a part# of /F families from =ed =iver to emigrate to the $ol mbia =iver, hoping that, as settlers, the# wo ld strengthen British claims to the "regon, then in disp te with the )nited States. Games Sinclair (1,10!1,56) led the part# across the plains and thro gh the little!7nown so thern =oc7# Mo ntains.
164

1n 1,-1 the 4B$ organi'ed a part# of /F families from =ed =iver to emigrate to the $ol mbia =iver, hoping that, as settlers, the# wo ld strengthen British claims to the "regon, then in disp te with the )nited States. Games Sinclair (1,10!1,56) led the part# across the plains and thro gh the little!7nown so thern =oc7# Mo ntains.

106

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