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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Introduction Notation Commentary

Embedment Design Examples CCD Method


Reported by ACI Committee 349 Ronald J. Janowiak Chair O. Abhat A. Adediran* H. Ashar R. Bandyopadhyay* P. Carrato R. Cook R. Eligehausen W. Fuchs B. Galunic* P. Ghosal H. Graves* O. Gurbuz J. Hammell* G. Harstead C. Heinz* C. Hookham R. Janowiak* J. Joshi R. Klingner N. Lee D. Naus D. Nuta R. Orr B. Stojadinovic B. Talukdar D. Ward A. Whittaker A. Wong C. Zalesiak

To TAC Denver 11/06

*Committee 349 members who were major contributors to the development of this report.

CONTENTS

PART AExamples: Ductile single embedded element in semi-infinite concrete

Example A1Single stud, tension only, no edge effects Example A2Single stud, shear only

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Example A3Single stud, combined tension and shear Example A4Single bolt, combined tension and shear

PART BExamples: Ductile multiple embedded elements in semi-infinite concrete Example B1(a)Four-stud embedded plate, tension only, wide spacing Example B1(b)Four-stud embedded plate, tension only, close spacing Example B1(c)Four-bolt, surface-mounted plate, tension only, close spacing, close to a corner Example B2(a)Four-stud embedded plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment Example B2(b)Four-anchor surface-mounted plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment Example B3Four-threaded anchors and surface-mounted plate, combined axial, moment and shear load Example B4(a)Four-stud embedded plate in thin slab, tension only Example B4(b)Four-stud rigid embedded plate in thin slab, tension only

APPENDIX ATABLES Table 1Materials for headed and threaded anchors Table 2Threaded fastener dimensions Table 3Required embedment for ductile behavior, free field, single anchor Table 4Anchor head and nut dimensions and concrete pullout strength Table 5Hardened washer dimensions and concrete pullout strength

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

APPENDIX BACI 349, Appendix D, Code and Commentary

(Editors Note: For the convenience of the User, the provision of ACI 349-06, Appendix D, will be reproduced here. To reduce the volume of paper during TAC review, these provisions are not attached herein.)

INTRODUCTION

This report was prepared by the members of the ACI 349 Subcommittee on Steel Embedments to provide examples of the application of the ACI 349 Code to the design of steel embedments. The first edition of this report, published in 1997, was based on ACI 349-97 that used the 45-degree cone breakout model for determining the concrete breakout strength. The 2001 edition of the code marked a major departure from the previous editions with the adoption of the concrete capacity design (CCD) method. The model for the concrete breakout strength used in the CCD method is a breakout prism having an angle of approximately 35 degrees. In addition, the concrete breakout strength for a single anchor away from the edge is proportional to the embedment depth raised to the power of 1.5 and not embedment depth squared as used in the previous versions of the code. These and other changes in the code results in designs that are somewhat different than those obtained using the previous versions. The examples used in this report are based on the ACI 349-06 Appendix D Code and illustrate how the CCD method is applied. Note that in previous editions of the ACI 349 Code, the anchorage design was given in Appendix B. Because the ACI 318-05 Code now includes its own appendix on anchorage design (Appendix D) that uses a nearly identical approach and because the ACI 349 Code is a dependent code, the chapters and Appendices in ACI 349 are changed to be consistent with ACI 318.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Most of the example problems used in this report were also done in the previous versions so that the user can compare the approach and the final results with the previous version.

As was done in previous codes, the underlying philosophy in the design of embedments is to attempt to assure a ductile failure mode. This is similar to the philosophy of the rest of the concrete building codes wherein, for example, flexural steel for a beam is limited to assure that the reinforcement steel yields before the concrete crushes. In the design of an embedment for direct loading, the philosophy leads to the requirement that the concrete breakout, concrete pullout, side-face blowout, and pryout strength must be greater than the tensile or shear strength of the steel.

This report includes a series of design examples starting with simple cases and extending to more complex cases for ductile embedments. The format for each example follows the format of the ACI Design Handbook, SP-17, and provides a reference back to the code paragraph for each calculation procedure.

Though nearly identical in format with the current ACI 318-05, the ACI 349 version of Appendix D has some differences that will be demonstrated in the examples. The major difference is that ACI 349 imposes a more severe penalty on connections that are not ductile (D.3.6.3), and in D.3.6.1, the ACI 349 Code provides an explicit method for determining when an embedment is controlled by the strength of steel and when it can be considered to be controlled by concrete.

1 2 3 4

NOTATION All notations and definitions are same as defined in Chapter 2 of the code. Other notations, wherever used, are defined in the body of the examples.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Editors Note

The example problems presented in this report were developed using the symbols used in ACI 349-01. As such the 1 , 2 , 3 . etc. factors have been used instead of their new symbols, for example, cp,N . Before publication, the document will be edited to reflect the new symbols.

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COMMENTARY

ACI 349-06 specifies acceptance criteria for tension and shear loads on individual anchors and on group of anchors. It specifies that the loads be determined by elastic analysis. Plastic analysis is permitted provided that deformational compatibility is taken into account, equilibrium is satisfied on the deformed geometry (taking into account the change in stiffness due to yielding), deformation does not lead to structural instability, and the nominal strength of the anchor is controlled by ductile steel elements. This document does not provide detailed methods of analyses as to how to calculate the loads on anchors, but does specify design rules when the internal tension or shear loads are eccentric.

The evaluation of loads in each anchor and the effect on the group strength is fairly well defined in the design examples for single anchors (Examples A1 to A4) and four anchors (Examples B1 and B4) under tension.

Examples B2a, B2b, and B3 have four anchors under applied moments. The embedment depth is sufficient such that the strength for tension loads in the anchors is controlled by ductile yielding of the steel.

When designing the base plates in each problem, no distinction between the AISC load factors (and factors) and the ACI load factors (and -factors) is made. The Engineer should reconcile the differences between these two codes when designing the base plate.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

When the Engineer is faced with base plate and anchorage configuration differing from those used in these example problems, the Engineer must apply the code requirements and use rationale assumptions appropriate for these other design configurations.

Strength-reduction factor for frictional resistance is not explicitly defined in the code. As frictional resistance is not related to a steel mode of failure, the examples have used the -factor from D.4.4c or D.4.5c (depending upon whether 9.2 or C.2 of the code is used, respectively).

The Engineer should exercise proper judgment before applying the relief offered by the frictional resistance. The relief from frictional resistance should not be considered for grouted base plates, because grout often cracks, at least partially, and they are not often well bonded with the existing concrete. Also, for new designs of base plates on concrete without grout, it is prudent to neglect this relief; however, using engineering judgment, the contribution of friction resistance may be included to re-evaluate an existing base plate subjected to an increase in shear loading. Finally, frictional resistance should not be relied upon when concrete failure modes govern.

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Example A1Single stud, tension only, no edge effects

Design an embedment using a stud welded to an embedded plate.


Given: Concrete edges c = 12 in. h = 18 in. Concrete material fc = 4,000 psi Stud material (A108)i fy = 51 ksi fut = 65 ksi Plate 3 x 3 x 3/8 in. thick Fy = 36 ksi Loads Nu = 8 kips Where Nu is the applied factored external load using load factors from Appendix C of the code. Assumptions: Concrete is cracked factors are based on Condition B in D.4.5 of the code. (no supplementary reinforcement)

CODE SECTION

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

STEP 1: Determine required steel area and diameter of the stud


44. 45. 46. 47. Equation No. (D-1)

D.4.1.1 D.5.1.2

Equate the external factored load to the internal design strength and solve for the required steel

Nn Nu

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. D.3.6.1 4. D.4.5 5. D.5.1 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. D.5.1.2 17. 18. 19. 20. D.5.1.2 21. 22. 23.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
area of the stud. Assume embedment will be designed as ductile in accordance with D.3.6.1 (in Step 2). Therefore: = 0.80 for tension. Calculate nominal steel strength of selected stud. Anchor diameter 3/8 1/2 0.110 0.196 Effective area, Ase in.2 controls

CALCULATION
Nn = Ns = nAsefut Nu = 8 Ase,req (D-3)

= nAsefut = 0.80 * 1.0 * Ase * 65 kips = 0.154 in.2 required

Use one 1/2 in. diameter stud Ase = 0.196 in.2 > 0.154 in.2 Ns = nAsefut = 1.0 * 0.196 * 65 = 12.74 kips fut =65 1.9fy = 1.9 * 51 = 96.9 ksi 125,000 psi (D-3)

Calculate the nominal steel strength, Ns.

Check that the material tensile and yield strengths meet requirements of D.5.1.2. (See also Endnote 1)

OK

24. STEP 2: Determine required embedment length for the stud to prevent concrete 25. breakout failure in tension
26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. D.5.2 D.3.6.1 Calculate the required embedment depth for the stud to prevent concrete breakout failure. The depth will be selected so that the stud will be governed by the strength of the ductile steel element. This will produce a ductile embedment and justify the use of the -factor for steel used previously. The requirements for a ductile design are given in D.3.6.1. To prevent concrete breakout for tension load, requires that: 0.85*Ncb Ns.

From Step 1: Ns = 12.74 kips 0.85 * Ncb,req = Ns. Ncb,req = Ns/0.85 = 12.74/0.85 = 14.99 kips
N cb = AN 2 3 cp,N N b AN 0

D.5.2.1

Concrete breakout strength for a single stud: For a single stud away from edge:

lb

(D-4) (D-6) (D-10) (D.5.2.7) (D-7)

D.5.2.5 D.5.2.6 D.5.2.7

Modification factors for: Edge effects 2 Concrete cracking 3 Splitting control factor cp,N applies to postinstalled anchors only k = 24 for cast-in headed stud

AN AN/AN0 2 3 cp,N Nb

= AN0 = 1.0

= 9 hef2

= 1.0 = 1.0 = N/A for studs


1 = k fc' hef.5 lb

53. D.5.2.2

10

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Assume hef < 11 in.

CALCULATION
1 24 (4000) hef.5 = = 1518 hef1.5 lb = 1.52 hef1.5 kips

Determine required embedment length hef,req

Ncb,req 14.99 hef,req

= 14.99 kips = 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.52 hef1.5 = 4.60 in.

Use 1/2 in. x 4-3/4 in. long stud Total length of a stud L, before weld, is equal to the embedment length plus the head thickness plus allowance for burn off. Standard length and head dimensions are given by the manufacturer. Typical values are given in Table 6, Appendix A. Calculate Ncb using hef,provided hef,provided = 4.75 - .312 + .375 - burn off (0.125 in.) = 4.69 in. > 4.60 in.

OK

Ncb = 1.52 * 4.691.5 = 15.44 kips

21.
22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

STEP 3: Check pullout strength of stud


D.5.3 D.3.6.1 Calculate the pullout strength of the stud in tension in accordance with D.5.3. Design embedment as ductile in accordance with D.3.6.1. Concrete is cracked per problem statement. Calculate pullout strength of anchor. Npn = 4Np Np = Abrg8fc = Abrg * 8 * 4 = 32 Abrg kips 4 = 1.0 Abrg = * (1.02 - 0.52)/4 = 0.59 in.2 Npn = 1.0 * 32 * 0.59 = 18.88 kips 0.85Npn = 0.85 * 18.88 = 16.05 kips > Ns = 12.74 kips Therefore ductile Use 1/2 in. diameter x 4-3/4 in. long stud OK (D-14) (D-15)

D.5.3.1 D.5.3.4

D.5.3.5

4 = 1.0 for cracked concrete. Calculate the bearing area. From manufacturer data, stud head diameter is 1.0 in. for a 1/2 in. diameter stud (see also Table 6 in Appendix A).

D.3.6.1

Design embedment as ductile, in accordance with D.3.6.1: 0.85 Npn Ns

11

CODE SECTION 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

STEP 4: Check concrete side-face blowout


D.5.4 Because this stud is far away from an edge, side-face blowout Nsb will not be a factor, and will not be checked in this example. N/A

STEP 5: Summary Given Step 1 D.4.5.a Step 2 D.4.5.c Step 3 D.4.5.c Step 4 D.4.5.c D.4.1.2 Applied load Design steel tensile strength Design concrete breakout strength Design concrete pullout strength Design concrete side face-blowout strength Design strength of stud in tension Nu = 8 kips Ns = 0.8 * 12.74 = 10.19 kips Ncb = 0.75 * 15.44 = 11.58 kips Npn =0 .75 * 18.88 = 14.16 kips Nsb = N/A Nn = min (Ns, Ncb, Npn) = min (10.19, 11.58, 14.16) OK = 10.19 kips > Nu = 8 kips

D.3.6.1

Ductility

min (0.85Ncb, 0.85Npn) Ns min (0.85 * 15.44, 0.85 * 18.88) = 13.12 12.74 kips OK

30.
31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

STEP 6: Check plate thickness


AISC Because the load is applied directly over the stud, the only requirement on plate thickness is that it satisfies the minimum thickness required for stud welding. Stud welding of 1/2 in. diameter studs is acceptable on 3/8 in. thick plate per D.6.2.3. OK

1 2 3

Stud material is A108, material properties per AWS D1.1, 2002, Table 7.1, Type B stud, yield strength = 51 ksi, tensile strength = 65 ksi. It has elongation of 20% and reduction in area of 50%, meets the definition of a ductile steel element given in D.1, and meets the tensile strength requirements of D.5.1.2 and D.6.1.2: fut 1.9fy (65 1.9*51.0 = 96.9 ksi). ii In the above example, the effective embedment length hef is taken to the face of the concrete. If the plate was larger than the projected surface area, then the embedment length would exclude the thickness of the embedded plate.

12

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Example A2Single stud, shear only Design an embedment using a stud welded to an embedded plate.
Given: Edge c1 c2 h Concrete fc

= 10 in. = 18 in. = 18 in. = 4000 psi

Stud material (A108) fy = 51 ksi fut = 65 ksi Plate Assume 3 x 3 x 3/8 in. thick Fy = 36 ksi Loads Vu = 6 kips

Where Vu is the applied factored external load using load factors from Appendix C of the code. Assumptions: Concrete is cracked -factors are based on Condition B in D.4.5 of the code (no supplementary reinforcement)

CODE SECTION 45.


46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud


D.4.1 D.6.1.2 D.3.6.1 Equate the external factored load to the internal design strength and solve for the required steel area of the stud. Assume embedment will be designed as ductile in accordance with D.3.6.1 (in Step 2). Vn Vn Ase,req Vu = Vs = nAsefut = Vu/(nfut) Equation No: (D-2) (D-18)

13

CODE SECTION
1. D.4.5 2. 3. D.6.1 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. D.6.1.2 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Therefore: = 0.75 for shear loads. Design required area of stud using the steel strength provision. Anchor dia. 3/8 1/2 0.110 0.196 Effective Area, Ase in.2 controls

CALCULATION
Ase,req = 0.75 = 6/(0.75 * 1 * 65) = 0.123 in.2 required

Use one 1/2 in. diameter stud Ase = 0.196 in.2 > 0.123 in.2 Vs = nAsefut = 1.0 * 0.196 * 65 = 12.74 kips fut =65 OK (D-18)

Calculate nominal shear capacity of the selected stud. Material properties are given. See Endnote 1. Check that D.6.1.2 is met. (See also Table 6, Appendix A for additional stud properties).

1.9fy = 1.9 * 51 = 96.9 ksi 125 ksi OK

20. STEP 2: Determine required edge distance to prevent concrete breakout failure in 21. shear
21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. D.3.6.1 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. D.6.2.1 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. D.6.2.3 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. Ensure that the embedment design is controlled by the strength of the embedment steel. The requirement for ductile design is given in D.3.6.1. For shear load this requires that: 0.85Vcb Asefut 0.85Vcb Asefut min Vcb = Asefut/0.85 = 0.196 * 65 / 0.85 = 14.99 kips

Calculate concrete breakout strength Vcb in shear for a single stud. Calculate projected area for a single stud. See figure above for illustration of Av0. Because edges are far enough away, Av and Av0 are equal. For cast-in headed studs, or headed bolts, that are welded to steel attachments having a minimum thickness equal to the greater of 3/8 in. or half of the anchor diameter, the basic concrete breakout strength Vb is determined using D.6.2.3. See definition in D.0 for limits on l.

Vcb =

AV 6 7Vb AV 0

(D-20) (D-22)

= 4.5c12 Av0 Av = Av0 Av/Av0 = 1.0

Vb = 8(l/d0 ) 0.2 d 0 f c' c1.5 lb 1

(D-24)

l 8d0 Definition in D.0 Assume l = 2.5 in. (l/d0) = 2.5/.5 = 5.0 Vb = 8 * 5.0.2 * 0.5.5 * 4000.5 * c11.5 = 494 c11.5 lb = 0.494 c11.5 kips

14

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. D.6.2.6 5. D.6.2.7 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

Modification factors for shear for: Edge effects 6 Cracked concrete 7 Concrete is cracked per problem statement. No additional supplementary steel is provided.

6 = 1.0 7 = 1.0 Vcb,req= 14.99 kips = 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 0.494 c11.5 = .494* c11.5 kips c1,req = 9.73 in. (required) < 10.0 in. (provided)

OK

Calculate Vcb using c1 = 10 in. provided

Strength controlled by steel Vcb = 0.494 * 101.5 = 15.62 > 12.74 kips

20. 21.
22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

STEP 3: Determine the required embedment length for the stud to prevent concrete pryout failure
D.6.3 D.3.6.1 Determine the required effective embedment length to prevent pryout. Ductility requirements of D.3.6.1 shall be satisfied: 0.85 Vcp Vs Vs = 12.74 kips (D-18) See Step 1 (Note: Same value as for tension Ns)

0.85 * Vcp Vs = 12.74 Vcp,req = 12.74/0.85 = 14.99 kips Vcp = kcpNcb kcp = 2.0 Ncb,req = 14.99/2.0 = 7.50 kips - required (D-28)

D.6.3

Design required embedment depth, from the concrete pryout strength requirement. Assume hef > 2.5 in. Therefore, kcp = 2.0. Ncb is the required concrete breakout strength in tension. Calculate the required embedment depth of the anchor to prevent breakout. The approach is identical to that for tension used in Example 1.

D.5.2

N cb =

AN 2 3N b AN 0

(D-4)

AN/AN0 = 1.0 Because this is a single stud away from edges, modification factors are all 1. D.5.2.2 Basic concrete breakout strength for a single anchor in tension: k = 24 for cast-in headed studs. Assume hef < 11 in. 2 3 Nb = = = 1.0 = 1.0
1 k ( f c' ) hef.5

(D-7)
1.5 ef

24 (4000) h

15

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
= 1.52 hef kips. 7.50 = 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.0 * (1.52) hef
1. 5 1 .5

hef,req

= 2.90 in.

required

Use 1/2 in. x 3-1/2 in. long stud See Appendix A, Table 6, for stud head dimensions. Note that 0.312 in. is head thickness and 0.125 in. is burn off. hef provided: hef = 3.50 - 0.312 - 0.125 = 3.06 in. > 2.90 Vcp = kcpNcb = 2.0 * 1.52 * 3.061.5 = 16.27 > 12.74 kips OK

Calculate Vcp using hef = 3.06 in.

OK

STEP 4: Check pullout strength of stud to check head of the stud Checking of stud head is required to develop the concrete breakout strength Ncb used to check concrete pryout. D.5.3 D.5.3.4 Procedure is the same as that used in Example A1. Calculate the nominal pullout strength Npn of the anchor in tension in accordance with D.5.3. Npn Np Concrete is cracked per problem statement. Therefore, 4 = 1.0. Bearing area is based on manufacturer data. (See Table 6 in Appendix A). = 4Np = Abrg8fc = 8 * 4 * Abrg = 32 Abrg kips 4 = 1.0 Abrg = 0.589 in.2 Npn D.3.6.1 Design embedment as ductile, in accordance with D.3.6.1: 0.85 Npn Ns Ns for this problem is calculated in the pryout section shown in Step 3. = 1 *32 * 0.589 = 18.8 kips (D-14) (D-15)

D.5.3.5

0.85Npn = 0.85*18.8 = 16 kips > Ns = 12.74 kips Therefore ductile OK

Use 1/2 in. diameter x 3 1/2 in. long stud Specified 1/2 in. diameter anchor head dimension OK

52.

STEP 5: Summary of design strength 16

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Given Step 1 D.4.5.a Step 2 D.4.5.c Step 3 D.4.5.c D.4.1.2

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Applied load Design steel shear strength Design concrete breakout strength Design concrete pryout strength Design strength of stud in shear

CALCULATION
Vu = 6 kips

Vs = 0.75 * 12.74 = 9.56 kips OK Vcb = 0.75 * 15.62 = 11.72 kips OK Vcp = 0.75 * 16.27 = 12.20 kips Vn = min (Vs, Vcb, Vcp) = min (9.56, 11.72, 12.20) = 9.56 > 6 kips OK min (0.85Vcb, 0.85Vcp) Vs min (0.85 * 15.62, 0.85 * 18.8) = 13.28 > 12.74 kips OK

D.3.6.1

Ductility

25.
26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38.

STEP 6: Check plate thickness


AISC D.6.2.3 Select plate thickness equal to or greater than 3/8 in. or half the anchor diameter. Tests have also shown that plate rupture is prevented when d0/t < 2.7.
i

= max (3/8 in., 0.5/2=.25 in.) = 3/8 in.

min t > 0.5/2.7 = .19 in. < 3/8 in. 3/8 in. thick plate is OK

1 2 3

Stud material is A108, material properties per AWS D1.1, 2002, Table 7.1, Type B stud, yield strength = 51 ksi, tensile strength = 65 ksi. It has elongation of 20% and reduction in area of 50%, meets the definition of a ductile steel element given in D.1, and meets the tensile strength requirements of D.5.1.2 and D.6.1.2: fut 1.9fy (65 1.9 * 51 = 96.9 < 125 ksi). ii Goble, G. G., 1968, Shear Strength of Thin Flange Composite Sections, AISC Engineering Journal, Apr.

17

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Example A3Single stud, combined tension and shear Design an embedment using a stud welded to an embedded plate.
Given:

Edge c1 c2 h = 12 in. = 20 in. = 18 in.

Concrete fc = 4000 psi Stud material (A108) fy = 51 ksi fut = 65 ksi Plate 3 x 3 x 3/8 in. thick Fy = 36 ksi Loads Nu Vu = 8 kips = 6 kips

Where Nu and Vu are the applied factored external loads using load factors from Appendix C of the code. Assumptions: Concrete is cracked -factors are based on Condition B in D.4.5 of the code (no supplementary reinforcement)

18

CODE SECTION 1.
2. 3. D.4.1.1 4. 5. 6. 7. D.5.1 8. D.5.1.2 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. D.3.6.1 14. 15. D.4.5 16.D.5.1.2/D.6 17. .1.2 18. 19. 20. 21. D.6.1 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. D.7.3

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud


Equate the external factored load to the internal design strength and solve for the required steel area of the stud. Use the tension provisions of D.5.1 to determine the required steel area for tension load. Ase,t = required steel area for tension load Assume embedment will be designed as ductile in accordance with D.3.6.1 (in Step 2). Therefore, = 0.80 for tension and 0.75 for shear. Steel material is ductile (See Endnote 1). Use the shear provisions of D.6.1 to determine the required steel area for shear load. Ase,v = required steel area for shear Add the area of steel required for tension to the area of steel required for shear. Total required area Ase,req = (Ase,t + Ase,v )/1.2 This assumes interaction between tension and shear, which will be checked in Step 8. Effective area, Ase in.2 controls Use one 5/8 in. diameter stud Ase = 0.307 in.2 > 0.231 in.2 OK Calculate nominal steel strength Vs Ns = nAsefut = 1.0 * 0.307 * 65 = 19.96 kips Vs = nAsefut = 1.0 * 0.307 * 65 = 19.96 kips Ase,req = (0.154 + 0.123)/1.2 = 0.231 in.2 Equation No. Nn Nn Ase,t Ase,t Nu = Ns = nAse,tfut = Nu / (nfut) = (8 /0.80 * 1.0 * 65) = 0.154 in.2 (D-1) (D-3)

Vn Vn = Vs Ase,v

Vu = nAse,vfut

(D-2) (D-17)

= Vu/(nfut) = 6/(0.75 * 1.0 * 65) = 0.123 in.2

Anchor diameter 1/2 0.196 5/8 0.307

Calculate nominal steel strength Ns

19

CODE SECTION
1 2. 3.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

4. 5.

STEP 2: Determine required embedment length of the stud to prevent concrete breakout failure in tension
Calculate the required embedment depth for the stud to prevent concrete breakout failure. The depth will be selected so that the stud will be governed by the strength of the ductile steel element. This will produce a ductile embedment and justify the use of the -factor used above. The steel capacity is based on the selected stud diameter. The requirements for a ductile design are given in D.3.6.1. For tension load, this requires that 0.85*Ncb Ns Calculate concrete breakout strength for a single anchor For a single stud away from edge: Modification factors for: Edge effects 2 Concrete cracking 3 cp, N applies to post installed anchors only k = 24 for cast-in-place stud. Assume hef < 11 in. AN/AN0 = 1.0 2 3 cp, N = 1.0 = 1.0 = N/A for studs (D-7)
1.5 ef

6. 7. D.5.2 8. D.5.2.1 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. D.3.6.1 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. D.5.2.1 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. D.5.2.5 31. D.5.2.6 32. D.5.2.7 33. 34. D.5.2.2 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51 52. 53.

From Step 1 Ns = 19.96 kips (D-3)

0.85 * Ncb,req Ns. Ncb,req = Ns/0.85 = 19.96/0.85 = 23.48 kips


N cb = AN 2 3 cp,N N b AN 0

lb

(D-4)

1 Nb = k ( f c' ) hef.5 lb

= 24 (4000) h
1.5

Required embedment length hef,req

= 1.52 hef kips


1 23.48 = 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.52 hef.5 ,req

hef,req = 6.20 in. In this example, the total length of the stud L is equal to the embedment length plus the head thickness plus allowance for weld burn off. Head dimensions are given by the manufacturer. Typical values are given in Table 6 in Appendix 1.

required

Use 5/8 in. x 6-3/4 in. long stud hef,provided = 6.75 - .312 - .187 + .375 in. = 6.63 in. > 6.20 in. OK c1 = 12 in. > 1.5 * hef = 1.5 * 6.63 = 9.94 in.

Calculate Ncb using hef,provided

edge distance has no effect.

20

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
Ncb = 1.52 * 6.631.5 = 25.95 kips

8.
9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

STEP 3: Check pullout strength of stud


Stud head is required to develop the concrete breakout strength Ncb. D.5.3 D.5.3.4 Procedure is similar to that used in Example A1. Calculate the nominal pullout strength Npn of the stud in tension in accordance with D.5.3. Concrete is cracked per problem statement. D.5.3.5 Therefore, 4 = 1.0. Bearing area is based on manufacturer data. (Appendix A, Table 6). Npn Np = 4Np (D-14)

= Abrg8fc (D-15) = Abrg * 8 * 4 = 32 Abrg kips

4 = 1.0 Abrg = 0.92 in.2 = 1.0 * 32 * 0.92 Npn = 29.44 kips

Table 6

D.3.6.1

Design embedment as ductile, in accordance with D.3.6.1: 0.85 Npn Ns Ns for this problem is calculated in Step 1. 0.85Npn = 0.85 * 29.44 = 25.02 kips > Ns = 19.96 kips Therefore ductile 5/8 in. diameter x 6-3/4 in. long stud OK

36.
37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51.

STEP 4: Check concrete side-face blowout


D.5.4 RD.5.4 Because this stud is relatively far away from an edge, side-face blowout will not be a factor. According to the commentary, sideface blowout is not a concern if c > 0.4hef. In this example: hef = 6.63 in.; 0.4hef = 0.4 * 6.63 = 2.6 in. c = 12 in. > 2.6 in. Because c > 0.4hef, side-face blowout calculation is not required. The calculation will be done to illustrate the method. See also Table 7 in Appendix A.

N sb = 160c Abrg
c = 12 in. Abrg = 0.92 in.2 fc = 4000 psi Nsb

f c'

(D-16) Table 6

= 160 * 12 * 0.920.5 * 40000.5 = 116.5 kips

0.85 Nsb= 99.0 kips > Ns = 19.96 kips OK 5/8 in. diameter x 6-3/4 in. long stud OK

21

CODE SECTION

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

1. STEP 5: Determine required edge distance to prevent concrete breakout failure in shear
2. 3. D.3.6.1 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. D.6.2.1 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. D.6.2.3 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. D.6.2.6 33. D.6.2.7 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. Step 1 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. Ensure that the embedment design is controlled by the strength of the embedment steel. The requirement for ductile design is given in D.3.6.1. For shear load this requires that: 0.85Vcb Asefut

0.85Vcb Asefut Vcb,req = Asefut/0.85 = 0.307 * 65 / 0.85 = 23.48 kips


Vcb = AV 6 7Vb AV 0

Calculate concrete breakout strength Vcb in shear for a single stud. Calculate projected area for a single stud. See figure above for illustration of Av0. Because edges are far enough away, Av and Av0 are equal. For cast-in headed studs or headed bolts that are welded to steel attachments having a minimum thickness equal to the greater of 3/8 in. or half of the anchor diameter, the basic concrete breakout strength Vb is determined using D.6.2.3. See definition in D.0 for limits on . Modification factors for shear for: Edge effects, 6 Cracked concrete, 7 Concrete is cracked per problem statement. No additional supplementary steel is supplied.

(D-20) (D-22)

Av0 = 4.5c12 Av = Av0 Av/Av0 = 1.0

Vb = 8(l / d 0 ) 0.2 d 0

1 f c' c1 .5

(D-24)

/d0 = 6.63/0.625 = 10.61 > 8.0 Use /d0 = 8.0 D.0 Vb = 8 * 80.2 * 0.6250.5 * 40000.5 * c11.5 = 606 c11.5 lbs = 0.606 c11.5 kips 6 = 1.0 7 = 1.0 23.48 = 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 0.606 c1,req1.5 c1,req = 11.45 in. < 12.0 in. Strength controlled by steel OK

Steel strength in shear Vs. Calculate Vcb using c1 = 12 in. provided

Vs = 19.96 kips Vcb = 0.606 c11.5 = 0.606 (12)1.5 = 25.19 kips

22

CODE SECTION 1.
2. 3. D.6.3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. D.3.6.1 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. D.6.3 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

STEP 6: Check concrete pryout failure


Pryout strength of the stud is checked using D.6.3. For an anchor or stud designed for tension, this will not govern. The calculations are for illustration of the method. Ductility requirements of D.3.6.1 shall be satisfied: 0.85 Vcp Vs 0.85 * Vcp Vs. = Vs/0.85 Vcp,req = 19.96/0.85 = 23.5 kips Vcp = kcpNcb kcp = 2.0 Ncb = 25.95 kips Vcp = 2 * 25.95 = 51.9 kips >> 23.5 kips (D-28)

Ncb is calculated in Step 2

OK

5/8 in. diameter x 6-3/4 in. long stud is OK

23.
24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

STEP 7: Summary
D.4.1.2 TENSION Applied load Step 1 D.4.5.a Step 2 D.4.5.c Step 3 D.4.5.c Step 4 D.4.5.c D.4.1.2 Steel strength Concrete breakout strength Concrete pullout strength Concrete side face-blowout strength Design strength of stud, tension SHEAR Applied load Step 1 D.4.5.a Step 2 D.4.5.c Step 3 D.4.5.c D.4.1.2 Steel strength Concrete breakout strength Concrete pryout strength Design strength of stud, shear Nu = 8 kips Ns = 0.80 * 19.96 = 15.97 kips Ncb = 0.75 * 25.95 = 19.46 kips Npn =0 .75 * 29.44 = 22.08 kips Nsb = 0.75 * 116.5 = 87.40 kips Nn = min (Ns ,Ncb ,Npn, Nsb ) = min (15.97, 19.46, 22.08, 87.40) = 15.97 kips > Nu = 8 kips OK Vu = 6 kips Vs = 0.75 * 19.96 = 14.97 kips Vcb = 0.75 * 25.19 = 18.89 kips Vcp =0 .75 * 51.9 = 38.9 kips Vn = min (Vs ,Vcb ,Vcp) = min (14.97, 18.89, 38.9) = 14.97 kips > Vu = 6 kips

OK

23

CODE SECTION
1. 2. D.3.6.1 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Ductility tension

CALCULATION
min (0.85Ncb, 0.85Npn, 0.85 Nsb) Ns min (0.85 * 25.95, 0.85 * 18.88, 0.85 * 116.5) min (22.06, 16.05, 99.03) = 22.06 > Ns = 19.96 kips OK min (0.85Vcb, 0.85Vcp) > Vs min (0.85*25.19, 0.85*51.9) min (21.41, 44.12) = 21.41 > Vs = 19.96 kips

Shear

OK

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.
29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

STEP 8: Check interaction of tension and shear forces


Vu/Vn > 0.2 Full strength in tension shall not be permitted. Nu/Nn > 0.2 Full strength in shear shall not be permitted. Vu/Vn Nu/Nn = 6.0/14.97 = 0.40 > 0.2 = 8.0/15.97 = 0.50 > 0.2

D.7 D.7.1 D.7.2 D.7.3

Nu
Nu V + u 1.2 N n Vn

N n

Vu

Vn

= 0.50 + 0.40 = 0.90

(D-3) OK

0.90 < 1.2

STEP 9: Calculate minimum plate thickness


D.6.2.3 Select plate thickness equal to or greater than 3/8 in. or half the anchor diameter. Tests have also shown that plate rupture is prevented when d0/t < 2.7.
i

= max (3/8 in., 0.5/2=.25 in.) = 3/8 in.

treq > 0.5/2.7 = 0.19 in. < 3/8 in. 3/8 in. thick plate is OK

Stud material is A108, material properties per AWS D1.1, 2002, Table 7.1, Type B stud, yield strength = 51 ksi, tensile strength = 65 ksi. It has elongation of 20% and reduction in area of 50%, meets the definition of a ductile steel element given in D.1, and meets the tensile strength requirements of D.5.1.2 and D.6.1.2: fut 1.9fy (65 1.9 * 51.0 = 96.9 ksi). ii Goble, G. G., 1968, Shear Strength of Thin Flange Composite Sections, AISC Engineering Journal, Apr.

24

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Example A4 Single bolt, combined tension and shear


Design an embedment using a high-strength bolt, F1554 Gr. 105 (AB1051). Given: Edge c1 = 24 in. c2 = 24 in. h = 36 in. Concrete fc = 4000 psi Bolt material (AB105) fy = 105 ksi fut = 125 ksi Plate 3/8 in. thick Fy = 36 ksi Loads Nu = 40 kips Vu = 20 kips Where Nu and Vu are the applied factored external loads using load factors from Appendix C of the code. Assumptions: Concrete is cracked -factors are based on Condition B in D.4.5 of the code (no supplementary reinforcement)

CODE SECTION 32.


33. 34. 35 36. D.4.1.1 37. 38. D.5.1.2 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. D.3.6.1 44. D.4.5.a 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. D.6.1 50. D.4.5.a 51. D.6.1.2 52. 53.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the bolt


Equate the external factored load to the internal design strength and solve for the required steel area of the bolt. Use the tension provisions of D.5.1 to determine the required steel area for tension load. Ase,t = required steel area for tension load. Assume embedment will be designed as ductile in accordance with D.3.6.1 (in Step 2). Therefore, = 0.80 for tension and 0.75 for shear. Assume bolt is far away from an edge. Use the shear provisions of D.6.1 to determine the required steel area for shear load. Ase,v = required steel area for shear load. Nn Nu Nn = Ns = nAse,tfut Ase,t = Nu /(nfut) Equation No. (D-1) (D-3)

Ase,t = 40/(0.8 * 1 * 125) = 0.40 in.2

Vn Vn Ase,v Ase,v

Vu (D-2) = Vs = n0.6Ase,vfut (D-18) = Vu/(n0.6fut ) = 20/(1.0 * 0.6 * 0.75 * 125) = 0.36 in.2

25

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. D.7.3 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Add the area of steel required for tension to the area of steel required for shear. Total required area, Ase = (Ase,t + Ase,v )/1.2 This assumes interaction between tension and shear, which will be checked in Step 8. Anchor diameter 1.0 0.606 1.125 0.763 Effective area, Ase in.2 controls

CALCULATION

Ase = (0.40 + 0.36)/1.2 = 0.64 in.2

Use one 1-1/8 in. diameter headed bolt Ase = 0.76 in.2 > 0.64 in.2 Ns = nAsefut = 1 * 0.76 * 125 = 95.0 kips Vs = n 0.6 Asefut = 1 * 0.6 * 0.76 * 125 = 57.0 kips OK

Calculate nominal steel strength Ns in tension.

Calculate nominal steel strength Vs in shear.

25. STEP 2: Determine required embedment length for the bolt to prevent concrete 26. breakout failure in tension
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. D.5.2 Calculate the required embedment depth for the bolt to prevent concrete breakout failure. The depth will be selected so that the anchor will be governed by the strength of the ductile steel element. This will produce a ductile embedment and justify the use of the -factor used above. The steel capacity is based on the selected anchor diameter. Use Ns to determine required hef. The requirements for a ductile design are given in D.3.6.1. For tension load, this requires that: 0.85 * Ncb Ns 0.85 * Ncb, Ns. Ncb,req = Ns/0.85 = 95.0/.85 = 111.8 kips D.5.2.1 Calculate concrete breakout strength for a single bolt For a single bolt away from edge:
N cb = AN 2 3 cp , N N b AN 0

From Step 1 Ns = 95.0 kips

D.3.6.1

(D-4)

AN/AN0 = 1.0

26

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. D.5.2.5 4. D.5.2.6 5. D.5.2.7 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Modification factors for: Edge effects 2 Concrete cracking 3 cp,N applies to post-installed anchors only Basic concrete breakout strength: k = 24 for cast-in-place anchors

CALCULATION

2 3 cp,N

= 1.0 = 1.0 = N/A for bolts (D-7)


1.5

1 Nb = k ( f c' ) hef.5

1 = 24 (4000) hef.5

= 1.52 hef kips. Determine the required effective embedment depth hef,req Determine bolt length L
N cb = AN 2 3 N b AN 0

(D-4)
1.5

111.8 hef,req L head)

= 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.52 hef = 17.57 in.

= 17.57 + 0.75 (thickness of = 18.32 in.

Use 18.5 in. Use 1-1/8 in. diameter, F1554 Gr105 bolt embedded 18.5 in. into the concrete. Calculate Ncb using hef, provided Note: For 11 in. hef 25 in., the basic concrete breakout strength Nb can alternatively be calculated using Eq. (D-8) that yields larger loads. This was neglected in this example. hef,provided OK Ncb = 1.52 * 17.751.5 = 113.7 kips = 18.5 - .75 = 17.75 in. > 17.57 in.

37.
38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

STEP 3: Check pullout strength of bolt


D.5.3 Procedure is the same as that used in Example A1. Calculate the pullout strength of the bolt in tension in accordance with D.5.3. Calculate pullout strength Np D.5.3.5 Concrete is cracked per problem statement. 4 = 1.0 ASTM F 1554 recommends a heavy hex head and washer. Appendix A, Table 4(c), Abrg = 1.85 in.2 = Abrg8fc = Abrg * 8 * 4 = 32 Abrg 4 = 1.0 (D-15) Npn = 4Np

(D-14)

27

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
For this combination of steel strength and concrete strength, the anchor head alone is not sufficient to develop the required bearing strength. Find required net bearing area. Design embedment as ductile in accordance with D.3.6.1. .85 Npn Ns

CALCULATION
Npn = 1.0 * 32 * 1.85 = 59.2 kips < Ns, 95 kips

D.3.6.1

Find the total area of bearing surface. See Appendix A, Table 4 for anchor head areas. Design a washer to meet the required bearing area. From Table 5 we can see that the SAE washers will not work, and U.S. standard washers seem too thin. Try a square plate.

0.85Npn = Ns = 95 kips (Ns from Step 1) Npn,req = 95/0.85 = 111.8 kips 111.8 = 32 Abrg Abrg,req = 111.8/32 = 3.49 in.2 AD = 0.99 in.2 anchor area Atotal,req = 3.49 + 0.99 = 4.48 in.2 For 1-1/8 in. bolt, hex head area is: AH = 2.85 in.2 areq = 4.48 2.85 = 1.63 in.2. Use a square plate 2-1/4 in. each side. Awasher = 2.252 = 5.06 in.2 > 4.48 in.2 = 5.06 0.99 = 4.07 in.2 > 3.49 in.2 = 1.0 * 32 * 4.07 =

Calculate Npn using Abrg, provided D.3.6.1 Check ductility, 0.85Npn Ns According to D.5.2.8, when adding a washer at the head of an anchor, it is permitted to calculate the projected area of the failure surface by projecting the failure surface outward 1.5hef from the effective perimeter of the washer. Therefore, the concrete breakout strength can be revised.

OK Abrg,provided Npn 130.24 kips

OK

0.85Npn = 0.85 * 130.24 = 110.7 kips > Ns, 95 kips Use 1-1/8 in. diameter AB 105 bolt, embedded 18.5 in., with a square washer 2-1/4 in. sides and 3/8 in. thick.

46. STEP 4: Check concrete side-face blowout 47. 48. D.5.4 49. 50. 51. Because this anchor is far away form an edge, side-face blowout will not be a factor, and will not be checked in this example.

28

CODE DESIGN PROCEDURE CALCULATION SECTION 1. STEP 5: Determine required edge distance to prevent concrete breakout failure in 2. shear
3. 4. D.6.1.2 5. 6. 7. 8. D.3.6.1 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. D.6.2.1 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. D.6.2.6 37. D.6.2.7 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 52. Compute nominal steel strength in shear Vs = n0.6Asefut = 1.0 * 0.6 * 0.76 * 125 = 57 kips

Ensure that the embedment design is controlled by the strength of the embedment steel. The requirement for ductile design is given in D.3.6.1. For shear load, this requires that: 0.85Vcb Asefut

0.85Vcb Vs Vcb,req = Vs/0.85 = 57 / 0.85 = 67.06 kips


Vcb = AV 6 7Vb AV 0

Calculate concrete breakout strength Vcb in shear for a single anchor. Calculate projected area for a single anchor. See figures for illustration of Av0. Because edges are far enough away, Av and Av0 are equal. The basic concrete breakout strength Vb is determined using D.6.2.2. See definition in D.0 for limits on .

(D-20) (D-22)

Av0 = 4.5c12 Av = Av0 Av/Av0 = 1.0

Vb = 7(l / d 0 ) 0.2 d 0

1 f c' c1 .5

(D-23)

= 17.75/01.125 = 15.78 > 8.0 /d0 Use /d0 = 8.0 D.0 Vb c11.5 = 7 * 80.2 * 1.1250.5 * 40000.5 * = 711 c11.5 lb = 0.711 c11.5 kips = 1.0 = 1.0

Modification factors for shear for: Edge effects, 6 Cracked concrete, 7 Concrete is cracked per problem statement. No additional supplementary steel is supplied.

6 7

67.06 = 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 0.711 c1,req1.5 c1,req = 20.72 in. < 24 in. Strength controlled by steel OK

Calculate Vcb using c1 = 24 in. provided

Vcb = 0.711 c11.5 = 0.711 (24)1.5 = 83.60 kips

29

CODE SECTION
2. 3. D.6.3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

1. STEP 6: Check concrete pryout failure


For a bolt designed for tension, as in Step 2, concrete pryout failure will not govern, and hence, this step is not required. Vcp is calculated for illustration. Ncb is calculated in Step 2. Vcp = kcpNcb kcp = 2.0 Ncb = 113.7 kips Vcp = 2 * 113.7 = 227.4 kips >> 95 kips (D-28)

11.

STEP 7:

Summary
TENSION Applied load Steel strength Concrete breakout strength Concrete pullout strength Concrete side face-blowout strength Design strength of stud, tension SHEAR Applied load Steel strength Concrete breakout strength Concrete pryout strength Design strength of stud, shear Ductility Tension Nu = 40 kips

12. 13. D.4.1.2 14. 15. 16. 17. Step 1/ 18. D.4.5.a Step 2/D.4.5.c 20. Step 3/D.4.5.c 22. Step 4/D.4.5.c 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. D.4.1.2 28. 29. 30. Step 1/D.4.5.a 32. Step 2/D.4.5.c 34. Step 3/D.4.5.c 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. D.3.6.1 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

Ns = 0.80 * 95.0 = 76.0 kips Ncb = 0.75 * 113.7 = 85.3 kips Npn =0 .75 * 130.24 = 97.68 kips N/A Nn = min (Ns, Ncb, Npn ) = min (76.0, 85.3, 97.68) = 76.0 kips > Nu = 40 kips Vu = 20 kips

OK

Vs = 0.75 * 57.0 = 42.75 kips Vcb = 0.75 * 83.60 = 62.70 kips Vcp =0 .75 * 227.4 = 170.55 kips Vn = min (Vs, Vcb, Vcp) = min (42.75, 62.70, 170.55) = 42.75 kips > Vu = 20 kips

OK

min (0.85Ncb, 0.85Npn, 0.85 Nsb) Ns min (0.85 * 113.7, 0.85 * 130.24, N/A) min (96.65, 110.70) = 96.65 > Ns = 95.0 kips OK min (0.85Vcb, 0.85Vcp) > Vs min (0.85 * 83.60, 0.85 * 227.4) min (71.06, 193.29) = 71.06 > Vs = 57.0 kips

Shear

OK

30

CODE SECTION
2. 3. D.7 4. D.7.1 5. 6. 7. 8. D.7.2 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

1. STEP 8: Check interaction of tension and shear forces


Vu/Vn > 0.2 Full strength in tension shall not be permitted Nu/ Nn > 0.2 Full strength in shear shall not be permitted Vu/Vn = 20/42.75 = 0.47 > 0.2 (D-30)

Nu/ Nn

= 40/76.0 = 0.53 > 0.2

Nu V + u 1.2 Nn Vn

(D-30)

0.53 + 0.47 = 1.00 < 1.2

OK

22.
23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

STEP 9: Calculate minimum plate thickness


AISC Select plate thickness using the appropriate steel code. This step is not included in this example.

i ASTM F 1554-00 specification, Grade 105, Class 1A, bolt material will be used. Bolt identification is (AB105) with a tensile strength in the range of 125 to 150 ksi, and minimum yield strength of 105 ksi for 1/4 to 3 in. diameters. Reductions in area requirements vary. For anchor diameters < 2 in., elongation in 2 in. is 15%, and reduction in area is 45% and meets the definition of a ductile steel element given in D.1. Also, max fut = 1.4 fy. According to D.6.1.2, fut shall be 1.9 fy or 125, 000 psi. See also Table 1 for other materials.

31

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Example B1(a)Four-stud embedded plate, tension only, wide spacing


Design an embedment with four welded studs and an embedded plate for a 3 x 3 x 3/16 in. A501 structural tube attachment where anchors are spaced 3hef apart. Given: Concrete edges c = c1 = c2 = 15 in. h = 18 in. Concrete material fc = 4,000 psi Stud material (A29/A108)i fy = 51 ksi fut = 65 ksi Plate Fy = 36 ksi Load Nu = 28 kips Where Nu is the applied factored external load using load factors from Appendix C of the code. The wide spacing indicates that each of the four anchors develops full tensile capacity. Assumptions: Concrete is cracked -factors are based on Condition B in D.4.5 of the code (no supplementary reinforcement) Ductile embedment design in accordance with D.3.6.1.

CODE SECTION 35.


36. 37. 38 D.4.1.1 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. D.4.5 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. D.5.1 50. 51. 52. 53.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
Equation No. (D-1)

STEP 1: Determine the required stud diameter


Equate internal design strength (Nn) to the external factored load (Nu). In a ductile design, the internal strength (Nn) is controlled by the steel strength of the stud (Ns). The required steel strength of the stud (Ns,req) is multiplied by = 0.80 for tension because the embedment and the steel stud is ductile and the load factors are based on Appendix C of the code. Solve for the required steel area for a single stud (Ase,req). Anchor diameter Effective area, Ase in.2 Nn Nu Nn = Ns= nAsefut 0.80 * Ns,req 28 Ns,req = 28/0.8 = 35.0 kips Ns,req = nAse,req fut 35.0 = 4 * Ase,req * 65 Ase,req = 35.0/(4 * 65) = 0.13 in.2 required Use 1/2 in. diameter studs Ase = 0.196 > 0.13 in.2 (D-3)

OK

32

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
3/8 1/2 0.110 0.196 controls

CALCULATION

D.5.1 Determine the nominal tensile strength Ns of 4-1/2 in. diameter studs.

Ns = nAsefut = 4 * 0.196 * 65 = 51.0 kips

(D-3)

8. STEP 2: Determine the minimum embedment length and spacing for the studs to prevent 9. concrete breakout failure in tension
10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. Ensure steel strength controls: To prevent concrete breakout failure in tension the required design concrete breakout tensile strength ( Ncbg,req) has to be greater than or equal to the nominal tensile strength of the embedment steel (Ns). The design concrete breakout strength shall be taken as 0.85 times the nominal strength. Ncbg is the nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a group of anchors. AN is not calculated because it is assumed that spacing is not limited. Therefore, only the ratio AN/AN0 is needed. Modification factors are all 1.0 for: Eccentricity effects 1 Edge effects 2 cmin = 15 in. per problem statement. Edge effects factor 2 will be 1.0 as long as cmin 1.5 * hef or hef cmin/1.5. Therefore, the embedment hef needs to be less than 15/1.5 = 10 in. to ensure no reduction due to edge distance. Concrete cracking 3. Concrete is cracked per problem statement. cp,N is not used for cast-in-place anchors Nb is the basic concrete breakout strength in tension of a single anchor in cracked concrete. Assume the embedment will be less than 11 in., and use Eq. (D-7). For cast-in-place anchors use k = 24. D.5.2 Ncbg is the nominal concrete breakout strength in

D.3.6.1

* Ncbg req Ns Ns = 51.0 kips Step 1

D.3.6.1

0.85 * Ncbg,req Ns Ncbg,req 51/.85 Ncbg,req = 60.0 kips Ncbg =

D.5.2 D.5.2.1

AN 1 2 3 cp , N N b AN 0

(D-5)

AN = 4 * AN0 AN/AN0 = 4

D.5.2.4 D.5.2.5

1 2

= 1.0 = 1.0

D.5.2.6 D.5.2.7 D.5.2.2

3 cp,N Nb Nb

= 1.0 = N/A for studs


1 k f c' hef.5

(D-7)

= 24(4,000)0.5(hef)1.5 = 1.52(hef)1.5 kips

33

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
tension of a group of anchors.

CALCULATION
Ncbg =

Calculate the minimum required effective embedment depth hef by setting Ncbg equal to Ncbg,req. Determine the total length L of the stud: The total required length L of the stud is equal to the required effective embedment depth hef plus the head thickness, plus allowance for burn off, (minus the plate thickness, which is conservatively ignored in this problemii). Typical values for head thickness, and burn off are provided in Table 6 of Appendix A.

= 4 * 1.0 * 1.0 *1.0 * 1.52 * (hef)1.5 = 6.08 * (hef)1.5 6.08 * (hef)1.5 = 60.0 kips hef req = 4.6 in. Lreq = hef + head thickness + burn off = 4.6 + 0.312 + 0.125 = 5.04 in.

AN 12 3Nb AN 0

(D-5)

Use 4-1/2 in. diameter x 5-1/4 in. long studs. hef,provided = 5.25 0.312 0.125 (burn off) = 4.81 in. Spacing required between anchors is: 3 * 4.81 = 14.43 in. Use spacing s = 15 in.

D.5.2.1

Determine the spacing s: Assume no limits on spacing. Space anchors at 3 times hef. Determine the actual concrete breakout failure (Ncbg) using the actual embedment and spacing.

D.5.2 D.5.2.1

Ncbg is the nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a group of anchors. Determine AN Ncbg = AN

AN 12 3Nb AN 0

(D-5)

D.5.2.1

Determine ANO

= (3 hef + s)2 = (3 * 4.81 + 15)2 = 866.1 in.2 = 9 * hef2 = 9 * (4.81)2 = 208.2 in.2 (D-6)

D.5.2.1

The ratio of AN/ANO is limited to 4.

ANO

AN/ANO = 866.1/208.2 = 4.16 > 4.0 The embedment is less than 11 in. Therefore, Eq. (D-7) is used to calculate the basic concrete breakout strength. Also, because the embedment is less than 10 in., 2 is 1.0 as assumed previously. Use 4.0 Nb = 1.52 (hef)1.5 = 1.52 * (4.81)1.5 = 16.03 kips (D-7)

Ncbg = 4 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 16.03 = 64.1 kips

34

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
0.85 * Ncbg = 0.85 * 64.12 = 54.5 > 51.0 (Ns) kips OK

ii

In the above example, the effective embedment length hef is taken to the face of the concrete. If the plate was larger than the projected surface area, then the embedment length would exclude the thickness of the embedded plate.

9. 10.
11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

STEP 3: Check pullout strength of stud


D.5.3.1 D.5.3.1 D.5.3.5 D.5.3.4 Determine Npn Npn is the nominal pullout strength in tension of a single anchor. Np is the pullout strength in tension of a single anchor in cracked concrete. Concrete is cracked per problem statement. Calculate the bearing area. The anchor head diameter is 1.0 in. for a 1/2 in. diameter stud (Table 6, Appendix A). Npn = 4Np Np = Abrg8fc (D-14) (D-15)

4 = 1.0 Abrg = * (1.002 - 0.502)/4 = 0.59 in.2 Np Npn = 0.59 * 8 * 4 = 18.9 kips = 4Np = 1.0 * 18.9 = 18.9 kips/bolt = 75.6 kips (4 bolts) (D-14)

D.3.6.1

Check ductility 0.85 * Npn Ns

0.85 * Npn = 0.85 * 75.6 = 64.3 > 51.0 kips (Ns) OK

34. STEP 4: Check concrete side-face blowout 35. D.5.4.1 Check concrete side-face blowout. 36. If c > 0.4 hef , side-face blowout will not be a factor 37. 38. 39. STEP 5: Summary
Applied load Design steel tensile strength Design concrete breakout strength Design concrete pullout strength Design concrete side face-blowout strength 40. 41. Given 42. Step 1/D.4.5.a 44. Step 2/D.4.5.c 46. Step 3/D.4.5.c 48. Step 4/D.4.5.c 50.

c > 0.4 hef = 0.4 * 4.81 = 1.92 in. c = 15 in. > 1.92 in.

OK

Nu Ns

= 28 kips = 0.8 * 51.0 = 40.8 kips

Ncbg = 0.75 * 64.1 = 48.1 kips Npn = 0.75 * 75.6 = 56.7 kips Nsb = N/A

35

CODE SECTION
1. 2. D.4.1.2 3. 4. 5. 6. D.3.6.1 7. 8. 9. 10.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Design strength of stud in tension

CALCULATION
Nn = min (Ns, Ncbg, Npn) = min (40.8, 48.1, 56.7) = 40.8 kips > Nu = 28 kips

OK

Ductility:

min (0.85Ncbg, 0.85Npn) Ns min (0.85 * 64.1, 0.85 * 75.6) min (54.5, 64.3) = 54.5 > Ns = 51.0 kips

OK

11.

STEP 6: Check plate thickness

12. Select plate thickness using the appropriate steel 13. AISC code. This step is not included in this example. A 14. sample calculation for a base plate design is 15. provided in Example B1(b). 16. 17. 18. 19. i Stud material is A29/A108, material properties per AWS D1.1, 2006, Table 7.1, Type B stud, yield strength = 51 20. ksi, tensile strength = 65 ksi. It has elongation of 20% and reduction in area of 50%, meets the definition of a 21. ductile steel element given in D.1, and meets the tensile strength requirements of D.5.1.2 and D.6.1.2: fut 1.9fy (65 22. 1.9 * 51.0 = 96.9 ksi).

36

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Example B1(b)Four-stud embedded plate, tension only, close spacing


Design an embedment with four welded studs and a rigid embedded plate for a 3 x 3 x 3/16 in. A501 structural tube attachment. Given: Concrete edges cmin = 15 in. h = 18 in. Base plate 8 x 8 in. Spacing s = 6 in. Concrete material fc = 4000 psi Stud material (A108)i fy = 51 ksi fut = 65 ksi
1.5hef C 1.5hef S

Plate Fy = 36 ksi Load Nu = 28 kips where Nu is the applied factored external load using load factors from Appendix C of the code. Assumptions: Concrete is cracked -factors are based on Condition B in D.4.5 of the code (no supplementary reinforcement) Ductile embedment design is in accordance with D.3.6.1.

1.5hef C

S PLAN

1.5hef

CODE SECTION
47. 48. 49. 50.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
Equation No. (D-1)

STEP 1: Determine the required stud diameter.


D.4.1.1 Equate internal design strength Nn to the external factored load Nu. Nn Nu

37

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. D.4.5 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. D.5.1 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. D.5.1 23. 24. 25.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
In a ductile design, the internal strength Nn is controlled by the steel strength of the stud Ns

CALCULATION
Nn = Ns = nAsefut

The required steel strength of the stud Ns,req is multiplied by = 0.80 for tension because the embedment and the steel stud is ductile and the load factors are based on Appendix C of the code. Solve for the required steel area Ase,req for a single stud.

0.80 * Ns,req

28

Ns,req = 28/0.8 = 35.0 kips Ns,req = nAse,reqfut 35.0 = 4 * Ase,req * 65 Ase,req = 35.0/(4 * 65) = 0.13 in.2 required Use 1/2 in. diameter studs Ase = 0.196 > 0.13 in.2 Ns = nAsefut = 4 * 0.196 * 65 = 51.0 kips OK (D-3) (D-3)

Anchor diameter 3/8 0.110 1/2 0.196

Effective area, Ase in.2 controls

Determine the nominal tensile strength Ns of 4-1/2 in. diameter studs.

26. STEP 2: Determine the minimum embedment length of the studs to prevent 27. concrete breakout failure in tension
28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. D.3.6.1 Ensure steel strength controls: To prevent concrete breakout failure in tension, the required design concrete breakout tensile strength Ncbg,req has to be greater than the nominal tensile strength of the embedment steel N s. The design concrete breakout strength shall be taken as 0.85 times the nominal strength. Ncbg is the nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a group of anchors. D.5.2.4 D.5.2.5 * Ncbg,req > Ns Ns = 51.0 kips 0.85 * Ncbg,req > Ns Ncbg,req > 51/.85 Ncbg,req > 60.0 kips Ncbg = Step 1

D.3.6.1

D.5.2

AN 1 2 3 cp , N N b AN 0

(D-5)

Modification factors are all 1.0 for: Eccentricity effects 1 Edge effects 2 cmin = 15 in. per problem statement. Edge effects factor 2 will be 1.0 as long as cmin 1.5 * hef or hef cmin/1.5. Therefore, the embedment hef needs to be less than 15/1.5 = 10 in. to ensure no reduction due to

1 = 1.0 2 = 1.0

38

CODE SECTION
1. 2. D.5.2.6 3. 4. 5. D.5.2.7 6. 7. 8. D.5.2.2 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. D.5.2.1 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. D.5.2.1 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. D.5.2.1 31. 32. 33. 34. D.5.2.1 35. 36. 37. D.5.2.2 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. D.5.2.1 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. D.5.2.1 53. 54.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
edge distance. Concrete cracking 3. Concrete is cracked per problem statement. cp,N is not used for cast-in-place anchors Nb is the basic concrete breakout strength in tension of a single anchor in cracked concrete. Assume the embedment will be less than 11 in., and use Eq. (D-7). For cast-in-place anchors, use k = 24. Ncbg is the nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a group of anchors.

CALCULATION
3 = 1.0 cp,N = N/A for studs Nb = k
1 f c' hef.5

(D-7)

Nb = 24*4,0000.5hef1.5 = 1.52hef1.5 Ncbg =

AN 12 3 N b AN 0

(D-5)

Ncbg = (AN/AN0) * 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.52 * hef1.5 = (AN/AN0) * 1.52 * hef1.5

Use trial and error; increase hef until Ncbg is equal to or greater than the required Ncbg,req First iteration: Try hef = 8 in. AN is the projected area of the failure surface for the group of anchors. See Figure RD.5.1 in Commentary for guidance in calculating AN. Spacing s is 6 in. per problem statement. AN0 is the projected area of the failure surface of a single anchor remote from edges. Ratio of areas. Basic concrete breakout strength AN = [(3 * hef) + s]2 = [(3 * hef) + 6]2 = [(3 * 8) + 6]2 = 900 in.2 AN0 = 9 * hef 2 = 9 * 82 = 576 in.2 = 900/576 = 1.56 (D-6)

AN/AN0

Nb = 1.52hef1.5 = 1.52 * 81.5 = 34.4 kips Ncbg =

Nominal group concrete breakout strength, Ncbg Because Ncbg of 53.6 kips is less than required, 60.0 kips, we need to increase the effective embedment depth hef, and try again. Second Iteration: Try hef = 9 in. Determine AN

AN 12 3 N b AN 0

(D-5)

Ncbg = 1.56 * 34.4 Ncbg = 53.6 kips < 60 kips

(No good)

AN = [(3 * 9)+ 6]2 = 1089 in.2 AN0 = 9 * hef2 (D-6)

39

CODE SECTION
1. D.5.2.1 2. 3. 4. 5. D.5.2.1 6. 7. 8. 9. D.5.2.2 10. 11. 12. 13. D.5.2 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. D.5.2 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. D.5.2.1 43. 44. 45. 46. D.5.2.1 47. 48. 49. 50. D.5.2.1 51. 52. 53. 54. D.5.2

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Determine AN0

CALCULATION
= 9 * (9)2 = 729 in.2 AN/AN0 = 1089/729 = 1.49 Nb = 1.52 * hef1.5 = 1.52 * 91.5 = 41.0 kips Ncbg = 1.49 * 41.0 Ncbg = 61.3 kips 60.0 kips hef = 9 in. is OK OK

Determine the ratio of AN/AN0

Basic concrete breakout strength

Nominal group concrete breakout strength Ncbg Because the concrete breakout strength Ncbg of 61.3 kips is greater than the required value of 60 kips, the embedment depth, hef, of 9 in. will produce a ductile design. Determine the total length of the stud L. The total required length of the stud L is equal to the required effective embedment depth hiief, plus the head thickness, plus some additional length to account for burn off (minus the plate thickness, which is conservatively ignored in this problem). Typical values for head thickness and burn off are provided in Table 6, Appendix A. Determine the concrete breakout strength Ncbg in tension of the anchor group using the final embedment and spacing Determine actual hef

Lrequired = hef + head thickness + burn off L = 9.0 + 0.312 + 0.125 = 9.4 in.

Use 4-1/2 in. diameter x 9-1/2 in. long studs

hef

= L head thickness burn off = 9.5 0.312 0.125 = 9.06 in.

s = 6 in. Spacing is 6 in. as per statement problem. Determine AN AN = [(3.0 * hef) + s]2 = [(3.0 * 9.06) + 6]2 = 1101 in.2 AN0 = 9 * hef2 = 9 * 9.062 = 739 in.2 AN/AN0 = 1100/739 = 1.49 Determine the ratio of AN/AN0. Nb Determine basic concrete breakout strength. The = 1.52* hef1.5 = 1.52 * 9.061.5 = 41.5 kips (D-6)

Determine AN0

40

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
embedment is less than 11 in. Therefore, Eq. (D-7) is used to calculate the basic concrete breakout strength. Also, because the embedment is less than 10 in., 2 is 1.0 as assumed above.

CALCULATION

Nominal group concrete breakout strength Ncbg

Ncbg = 1.49 * 41.5 = 61.7 kips 0.85 * Ncbg = 0.85 * 61.7 = 52.4 > 51.0 kips OK

Check ductility 0.85 * Ncbg > Ns

17.
18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

STEP 3: Check pullout strength of stud


Determine Npn Npn is the nominal pullout strength in tension of a single anchor. Np is the pullout strength in tension of a single anchor in cracked concrete. Concrete is cracked per problem statement. Calculate the bearing area. The anchor head diameter is 1.0 in. for a 1/2 in. diameter stud (Table 6, Appendix A).

D.5.3.1 D.5.3.1 D.5.3.5 D.5.3.4

Npn Np 4 Abrg Np

= 4Np = Abrg8fc = 1.0 = * (1.002 - 0.502)/4 = 0.59 in.2 = 0.59 * 8 * 4 = 18.9 kips = 4Np = 1.0 * 18.9 = 18.9 kips/bolt = 75.6 kips (4 bolts)

(D-14) (D-15)

D.4.5

Npn

(D-14)

Check ductility 0.85 * Npn > Ns

0.85 * Npn = 0.85 * 75.6 = 64.3 > 51.0 kips

OK

44.
45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51.

STEP 4: Check concrete side-face blowout


Check concrete side-face blowout. If c 0.4 hef , side-face blowout will not be a factor c 0.4 hef 0.4 * 9.06 3.6 in. c = 15 in. > 3.6 in.

OK

41

CODE SECTION 1.
2. 3. Given 4. Step 1/D.4.5.a 6. Step 2/D.4.5.c 8. Step 3D.4.5.c 10. Step 4 12. 13. 14. D.4.1.2 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. D.3.6.1

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

STEP 5: Summary
Applied load Design steel tensile strength Design concrete breakout strength Design concrete pullout strength Design concrete side face-blowout strength Design strength of stud in tension Nu = 28 kips Ns = 0.8 * 51 = 40.8 kips Ncbg = 0.75 * 61.7 = 46.3 kips Npn = 0.75 * 75.6 = 56.7 kips Nsb = N/A Nn= min (Ns , Ncbg , Npn) = min (40.8 , 46.3, 56.7) = 40.80 kips > Nu = 28 kips OK min (0.85Ncbg, 0.85Npn) > Ns min (0.85 * 61.7, 0.85 * 75.6) > 51.0 min (52.4, 64.3) = 52.4 > Ns = 51.0 kips controls

Ductility:

23.
24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51.

STEP 6: Calculate the required plate thickness


The plate is 8 x 8 in. as per problem statement. D.3.1 The plate must transmit to the studs all loads used in the design of the attachment Appendix C load factors are conservative compared with AISC Evaluate sections a-a and b-b to determine minimum load capacity Yield of the plate material is 36 ksi The plate shall be designed in accordance with the AISC-LRFD code. The design flexural strength is based on the limit state of yielding and is equal to bMn where, per Chapter F of AISC: b = 0.90 Mn = Mp = FyZ 1.5My
beff aa, max = 8" beff aa 2t ds 2t

1.5

3 6 8

1.5

Evaluate plate at Section a-a:

At face of tube (a-a): Tension in two boltsiii T2bolts = 28/2 = 14.0 kips

42

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
a = 1.5 + 3/32 = 1.6 = T2boltsa = 14 * 1.6 = 22.4 in.-kips

Moment in plate at section a-a: Use the midsurface of the tube as point of fixity. Nominal capacity of plate. The effective width is assumed to be equal to the width of the attachment plus 2t on either side. Use the plastic section modulus Z. Assume plate thickness is 1/2 in. Plastic moment:

Mua-a

Mp = Z * Fy Z = 1/4 * baa * t2 ba-a = 3 + 2 * 0.5 + 2 * 0.5 = 5 in. Fy = 36 ksi Mp = Z * Fy = 1/4 * 5 * t2 * 36 = 45.0 t2 bMn = bZFy = 0.9*45t2 = 40.5t2

Nominal moment capacity Mn

Required thickness on Section a-a Evaluate Section b-b: Force in one bolt: Applied moment: The distance w is the distance from the corner anchor to the midsurface of the tube.

tmin a-a =

22.4 / 40.5 = 0.74 in.

T = 28/4 = 7 kips Mu = Tw w Mu 1.5*20.5 + ttube/2 = 2.25 in. = 7 * 2.25 = 15.8 in.-k

be be

b, b ff m ax

1.5

3 6 8

1.5

43

ff b b

CODE SECTION

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

1. 2. 3. 4. MP b-b = Z * Fy The nominal moment capacity at Section b-b: 5. 6. Z = 1/4 * bb-b * t2 7. The effective width at Section b-b is assumed to 8. bb-b = 4*(3/4) in. be equal to 4t, 2t on either side of the corner of the 9. = 3.0 < 2w = 2*2.25 = 4.5 tube, but not greater than 2w. From Section a-a 10. evaluation, t = 0.74 in. Use t = 0.75 in. 11. Fy = 36 ksi 12. 13. Mp = Z * Fy 14. = * 3.0 * t2 * 36 15. = 27t2 16. 17. bMn = 0.9*27t2 18. = 24.3t2 19. tmin = 15.8 / 24.3 = 0.81 in. controls 20. 21. Use t = 7/8 in. 22. 23. Use 8 in. x 8 in. x 7/8 in. embedded plate. 24. 25. 26. iStud material is A29/A108, material properties per AWS D1.1, 2006, Table 7.1, Type B stud, yield 27. strength = 51 ksi, tensile strength = 65 ksi. It has elongation of 20% and reduction in area of 50%, meets 28. the definition of a ductile steel element given in D.1, and meets the tensile strength requirements of 29. D.5.1.2 and D.6.1.2: fut 1.9fy (65 1.9 * 51.0 = 96.9 ksi). 30. 31. 32. 33. ii In the above example, the effective embedment length hef is taken to the face of the concrete. If the 34. plate was larger than the projected surface area, then the embedment length would exclude the thickness 35. of the embedded plate. 36. 37. 38. 39.
iii

A note about prying: In this problem, it is assumed that prying does not occur, and the force in individual anchors under the applied tension force is not increased by the prying effect. Prying may exist depending on the thickness of the plate, the location of the anchor, and the stiffness of the anchor. It is assumed that there is no prying in this example.

44

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

Example B1(c)Four-bolt surface-mounted plate, tension only, close spacing, close to a corner
Design an embedment with four post-installed undercut anchors and a surface-mounted plate for a 3 x 3 x 3/16 in. A501 structural tube attachment. Given: Concrete edges c = c1 = c2 = 12 in. Base plate 8 x 8 in. Anchor spacing s = 6 in. Concrete material fc = 4000 psi Anchor material (F1554 Gr 36)i: fy = 36 ksi fut = 58 ksi
1.5hef S 1.5hef C

Anchor type Threaded, undercut Plate Fy = 36 ksi Load Nu = 28 kips where Nu is the applied factored external load using load factors from Appendix C of the code.

C 1.5hef S PLAN 1.5hef

Assumptions: Concrete is cracked -factors are based on Condition B in D.4.5 of the code (no supplementary reinforcement) Ductile embedment design is in accordance with D.3.6.1.
h hef

c<1.5hef

s Nu

1.5hef

1.5 1

SECTION AA

CODE SECTION

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

48.
49. 50. 51.

STEP 1: Determine the required anchor diameter


D.4.1.1 Equate internal design strength Nn to the Nn Nu Equation No. (D-1)

45

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. D.4.5 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. D.5.1 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. D.5.1.2 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
external factored load Nu. In a ductile design, the internal strength Nn is controlled by the steel strength of the stud Ns. The required steel strength of the stud Ns,req is multiplied by = 0.80 for tension because the embedment and the steel stud is ductile and the load factors are based on Appendix C of the code. Solve for the required steel area for a single stud Ase,req. Anchor diameter 1/2 0.142 5/8 0.226 Effective area, Ase in.2

CALCULATION

Nn = Ns = nAsefut 0.80 * Ns,req 28 Ns,req = 28/0.8 = 35.0 kips Ns,req = nAse,reqfut 35.0 = 4 * Ase,req * 58 Ase,req = 35.0/(4 * 58) = 0.15 in.2 required Use 5/8 in. diameter anchors Ase = 0.226 > 0.15 in.2 Ns = nAsefut = 4 * 0.226 * 58 = 52.4 kips (D-3)

OK (D-3)

Determine the nominal tensile strength Ns of 45/8 in. diameter bolts. Note: It is assumed that prying will not occur. See Footnote iii in Example B1(b).

25. STEP 2: Determine the minimum embedment of the anchors to prevent concrete 26. breakout failure in tension
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. D.3.6.1 Ensure steel strength controls: In accordance with D.3.6.1, the design of the embedment will be controlled by the strength of the embedment steel. Following D.3.6.1, this goal is met when the nominal steel strength of the anchor Ns is set equal to 0.85 times the nominal strength of the concrete controlled strengths (Ncbg, Np, etc.). Note that 0.85 is not a -factor. Ncbg is the nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a group of anchors. AN is the projected area of the failure surface for the group of anchors. See Figure RD.5.1 in Commentary and the figure at the beginning of this problem for guidance in calculating AN. Spacing s is 6 in. per problem statement. Edge distance c is 12 in. per problem statement. Because it is not known if the edge distance affects AN, (that is, it needs to be checked that cmin 1.5hef). We will assume it does, and calculate 2 and AN for each iteration. D.5.2.1 AN0 is the projected area of the failure surface AN0 = 9 * hef2 (D-6) 0.85Ncbg Ns Ncbg Ncbg Ncbg,req Ns/0.85 52.4/0.85 =61.7 kips

D.5.2 D.5.2.1

Ncbg =

AN 1 2 3 cp , N N b AN 0

(D-5)

AN = [(1.5 * hef) + s + c] * [(1.5 * hef) + s + c] AN = (1.5 hef+ 18)2

46

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
of a single anchor remote from edges.

CALCULATION

D.5.2.4 D.5.2.5 D.5.2.6 D.5.2.7 D.8.6

Modification factors: Eccentricity effects 1. Assume no load eccentricity. Edge effects 2 Concrete cracking 3. Concrete is cracked per problem statement. cp,N depends on tests. cp,N = 1.5hef/cac. If no tests are done then, cac = 2.5 * hef. If reinforcement is included to control splitting or if analysis indicates cracking at service loads, then cp,N is taken as 1.0. In this problem, we will assume adequate reinforcing exists to preclude splitting. Therefore, use cp,N= 1.0.

1 2 3

= 1.0 = [0.7 + 0.3 * (cmin/(1.5 * hef)] (D-11) = 1.0

cp,N = 1.0

D.5.2.2

Nb is the basic concrete breakout strength in tension of a single anchor in cracked concrete. Assume the embedment will be less than 11 in., and use Eq. (D-7). Use k = 24 for this undercut post-installed anchor. For post-installed anchors, k values may be increased up to 24 provided that product-specific testing is done in accordance to D.3.3. Use iteration on hef until Ncbg is equal to or greater than Ncbg,req . First iteration Try hef = 9 in. same embedment used in Example B1(b). Determine AN for the corner location. Note that the embedment dimensions are symmetric and that it is located near a corner.

Nb

= k

1 f c' hef.5

(D-7)

Nb

= 24 * 40000.5hef1.5 = 1.52hef1.5

First iteration hef = 9 in. AN AN = (1.5 hef + 18)2 = (1.5 * 9 + 18)2 = 992.3 in.2 (D-6)

D.5.2.1

Determine AN0

AN0 = 9 * hef2 = 9 * 92 = 729 in.2 AN/AN0 = 992.4/729 = 1.36 2 = 0.7 + 0.3 * [cmin/(1.5 * hef)] = 0.7 + 0.3 * [12/(1.5 * 9)] = 0.7 + 0.26 = 0.97

D.5.2.1 D.5.2.5

Determine the ratio of AN/AN0. Determine edge effect factor 2

(D-11)

cp,N = 1 D.5.2.2 Basic concrete breakout strength Nb = 1.52(hef)1.5 = 1.52(9)1.5 = 41.0 kips

47

CODE SECTION
1. 2. D.5.2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. D.5.2.1 11. 12. 13. 14. D.5.2.1 15. 16. 17. D.5.2.1 18. 19. 20. D.5.2.5 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. D.5.2.2 27. 28. 29. 30. D.5.2.1 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Nominal group concrete breakout strength Ncbg Because Ncbg is less than Ncbg,req, the effective embedment depth needs to be increased. Second iteration Try hef = 16 in. Determine AN for the corner location.

CALCULATION
Ncbg =

AN 1 2 3 cp , N N b AN 0

(D-5)

Ncbg = 1.36 * 1.0 * 0.97 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 41.0 Ncbg = 54.1 kips < 61.7 kips (No good) Second iteration hef = 16 in. AN AN = (1.5 hef + 18)2 = (1.5 * 16 + 18)2 = 1764 in.2 = 9 * hef2 = 9 * 162 = 2304 in.2 (D-6)

Determine AN0 Determine the ratio of AN/AN0 Determine edge effect factor 2

AN0

AN/AN0 = 1764/2304 = 0.77 2 = 0.7 + 0.3 * [cmin/(1.5 * hef)] = 0.7 + 0.3 * [12/(1.5 * 16)] = 0.85 (D-11)

cp,N = 1 Basic concrete breakout strength. Nb = 1.52(hef)1.5 = 1.52(16)1.5 = 97.3 kips

Nominal group concrete breakout strength Ncbg

Ncbg =

AN 1 2 3 cp , N N b AN 0

(D-5)

Ncbg = 0.76 * 1.0 * 0.85 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 97.3 Ncbg = 62.9 kips = 61.7 kips OK for ductility Use 5/8 in. diameter anchor, with 16 in. embedment depth. Check strength Ncbg = 0.75 * 62.9 = 47.2 > 28 kips OK

45.
46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

STEP 3: Check pullout strength of anchor


D.3.6.1 Ensure steel failure: To prevent concrete breakout failure in tension the design concrete breakout tensile strength, nNpn, has to be greater than or equal to the nominal tensile strength of the embedment steel Ns. To satisfy the ductility requirements of D.3.6.1, the design pullout strength shall be 0.85Npn Ns 0.85 Npn Ns Npn Ns/0.85 Npn 13.1/0.85

D.3.6.1

48

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. D.5.3.1 7. 8. 9. D.5.3.2 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
taken as 0.85 times the nominal strength. Determine Npn Npn is the nominal pullout strength in tension of a single anchor. For post-installed expansion and undercut anchors, the values of NP shall be based on the 5% fractile of tests performed and evaluated according to D.3.3. It is not permissible to calculate the pullout strength in tension for such anchors. Therefore, testing for this specific anchor needs to show a result greater than Npn,req, or the testing needs to show that pullout does not occur at all.

CALCULATION
Npn,req= 15.4 kips for single anchor

19.
20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

STEP 4: Check concrete side-face blowout


D.5.4.1 Check concrete side-face blowout. c > 0.4hef 0.4 * 16 = 6.4 in. c = 12 > 6.4 O.K.

26.

STEP 5: Summary

27. Applied load Nu 28. Given = 28 kips 29. Step1/D.4.5.a Design steel tensile strength Ns = 0.8 * 52.4 = 41.9 kips 31. Step2/D.4.5.c Design concrete breakout strength Ncbg = 0.75 * 62.9 = 47.1 kips 33. Step 3D.4.5.c Design concrete pullout strength(testing) Npn = Check with manufacturer 35. 36. Step 4 Design concrete side face-blowout strength Nsb = N/A 37. 38. D.4.1.2 Design strength of stud in tension Nn = min (Ns, Ncbg) 39. = min (41.9, 47.1) 40. = 41.9 kips > Nu = 28 kips O.K. 41. 42. D.3.6.1 Ductility: 0.85Ncbg Ns 43. 0.85 * 62.9 52.4 kips 44. 53.5 > 52.4 kips O.K. 45. 46. Plate design: same as Example B1(b). 47. 48. 49. i Anchor material is ASTM F1554 Gr 36. It has elongation of 23% and reduction in area of 2 in., and meets the 50. definition of a ductile steel element given in D.1 (fut = 58 ksi < 1.9fy = 1.9 * 36 = 64 ksi).

49

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

Example B2(a)Four-stud embedded plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment


Design an embedment using welded studs and an embedded plate for a 3 x 3 x 1/4 in. A501 structural tube attachment. Given: Concrete edges c1 = 18 in. h = 18 in. s = 5 in. c2 = 35 in. Concrete material fc = 4000 psi Stud material A108i: fy = 51 ksi fut = 65 ksi Plate: Fy Loads: Mu Vu = = = 36 ksi 70 in.-kips 12.4 kips

where Mu, and Vu are the applied factored external loads as defined in Appendix C of the code. Note that the loads in this example have been selected to provide an example in which the anchors in tension must also carry shear. Assumptions: Concrete is cracked -factors are based on Condition B in D.4.5 of the code (no supplementary reinforcement)

1.5hef C1 S

1.5hef

Vu

Mu
1.5 1
C2

ANCHORS IN TENSION

Vu hef H

dh
1 1.5

PLAN

SECTION AA
50

CODE DESIGN PROCEDURE SECTION 1. STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the studs
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. BASE PLATE Determine the plate size and thickness and anchor bolt size for moment Assume a 1/2 in. thick, 7 x 7 in. plate. Stud spacing, s = 5 in., is given. Assume the center of compression force resultant is at a distance dc = 2t away from the outer edge of the supported member, the structural tube. The center of the tension force is at the center of the anchors in tension.

CALCULATION

dc=2t Mu
t

ds

dt Vu

C d
1 2

Determine the lever arm d between the center of compression and tension forces. Calculate the tension in the anchors. AISC Chapter F Design the plate using the AISC LRFD Code.ii Use the plastic moment Mp to define the nominal strength of the plate in bending, and use b = 0.9 in accordance with the AISC Code. Assume that the full width of the base plate is effective. Strength of steel plate is greater than the applied ultimate moment, but close to the limit. Use 5/8 in. plate. ANCHORS Tension: D.4.1.1 D.5.1.2 D.4.5 Determine the required stud area Aset for tension. Assume ductile design and use the corresponding factor in accordance with D.4.5. = 0.8 for tension load From Appendix A, Table 2: Effective area Anchor (gross area for stud) in.2 diameter, in. 3/8 0.110 1/2 0.196 5/8 0.307

= dt + d s + d c =1.0 + 3.0 + 1.0 = 5.0

= Mu/d = 70/5.0 = 14.0 kips

Mupl = Tdt = 14.0 * 1.0 = 14.0 in.-k Mn = Mp = FyZ bMp = 0.9FyZ Z = 1/4 (7)(0.5)2 = 0.44 in.3

bMp = 0.9(36)(0.44) = 14.3 > Mupl =14 k-in. OK Use plate, 7 x 7 x 5/8 in. thick plate

T n fut

= Nu = Ns = nAsetfut = 0.80 = 2 anchors = 65 ksi

Aset,req = Nu/nfut

51

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. D.6.1

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
= 14.0/(0.8 * 2 * 65) Aset,req = 0.135 in.2 Use 4-1/2 in. diameter studs. Ase
=

Aset,prov = 0.196 in.2

OK

Shear: Shear forces in anchors: From the figure on the right the forces in each anchor group and force due to friction can be calculated.

Mu Vu Vs1 Vf1
=0.4C

Vs2 C d
1 2

From above, C and T are already calculated Determine friction force Vf1 Shear strength Because this is an embedded base plate, shear strength may be calculated using either direct shear or shear friction; however, only the direct shear option will be shown herein.iii. Using the steel area Ase determined from tension above, calculate the available shear strength of the anchors. Shear strength using direct shear and friction from compression A. Assume all four anchors resist shear (Concrete breakout strength needs to be checked; see Step 3) Strength of front and back anchors, Vs1 and Vs2: Total strength of front and back anchors: Strength-reduction factor: Design strength of anchors at Line 1, Vs1 and Line 2, Vs2 (Note: strength is based on fut, not

C Vf1

= T = 14.0 kips = 0.4C = 0.4 * 14 = 5.6 kips

Asev = Asev1 + Asev2 Asev1 = Asev2 Asev1 = nAse= 2 * 0.196 = 0.392 in.2 Vs1 = Vs2 = nAse1fut = 2 * 0.196 * 65 = 25.5 kips Vs = 2 * 25.5 = 51.0 kips (D-18)

52

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. D.4.5c 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. D.6.1.4 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
fy) Total design steel strength of four anchors

CALCULATION
= 0.75

Vs1 = Vs2 = 0.75 * 25.5 = 19.1 kips Additional shear strength is provided from friction on the compression side of the plate. is taken as 0.75 from Condition B. Vs = 2 * 19.1 = 38.2 kips Vf1 Design shear strength of the connection, four anchors plus frictional resistance: Note: It is prudent to ignore the shear strength provided by frictional resistance, especially for a new design. It is included herein, however, to illustrate the procedure as the code permits it. It is best utilized to avoid rework if shear demand increases later due to a reanalysis or retrofit. = 0.4C = 0.4 * 14 = 5.6 kips

Vf1 = 0.75 * 5.6 = 4.2 kips

Vs + Vf1 = 38.2 + 4.2 = 42.4 kips > 12.4 kips

OK

B. Assume all shear taken by back two anchors (Line 2 in figure). Friction will not be included Design strength of anchors Vs2 at Line 2: Vs2 = 19.1 kips Vs2 > Vu = 12.4 kips OK

34. STEP 2: Determine required embedment length for the studs to prevent concrete breakout failure 35. in tension
36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. D.5.1 Calculate the steel strength of anchors in tension. Only anchors on Line 2 resist tension. Ns = 2Asetfut = 2(0.196)(65) = 25.5 kips = 0.85Ncbg

D.5.2.2 D.3.6.1

Calculate the required concrete breakout strength of anchors in tension to ensure that embedment is ductile. Concrete breakout strength for a group of anchors: Try 5-5/8 in. long Nelson stud.

Ns

Ncbg,req = 25.5/0.85 = 29.9 kips Ncbg =

AN 12 3 cp , N N b AN 0

(D-5)

D.5.2.1

Calculate AN0. Note that because the failure surface extends to the top of the concrete, the thickness of the plate is added to the anchor

53

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
length. hef = 5.625 + tplate burn off (See Table 6) = 5.625 + 0.625 - 0.125 = 6.125 in.

CALCULATION
AN0 = 9(hef)2 = 9 * (6.125)2 = 337.6 in.2 AN = (2 * 1.5 * 6.125 + 5)(2 * 1.5 * 6.125)

(D-6)

Calculate AN. There are no edge effects, because 1.5 * 6.125 = 9.2 in. < c1 = 23 in.

Modification factors are all 1.0 for: Eccentricity effects 1 Edge effects 2 D.5.2.4 D.5.2.5 D.5.2.6 D.5.2.7 D.5.2.2 Concrete breakout strength for group Concrete cracking 3 Concrete corner splitting cp,N Basic concrete breakout strength Nb of a single anchor in tension in cracked concrete: k = 24 for cast-in anchors

= 429.5 in.2 AN/AN0 = 429.5/337.6 = 1.3 1 2 3 = 1.0 = 1.0 = 1.0 (D-12) (D-7) (D-9) (D-10)

cp,N = N/A (not post-installed) Nb


' 1 .5 = k fc hef

= 24 (4000)0.5hef1.5 = 1.52(6.125)1.5 = 23.0 kips

D.5.2.1 Embedment is ductile in tension. Strength controlled by steel. This satisfies the shear friction requirement from Step 1. Ncbg =

AN 12 3 cp , N N b AN 0

= 1.3 (1.0)(1.0)(1.0)23.0 = 29.9 kips Ncbg,req = 29.9 kips OK Use 4-1/2 in. diameter x 5-5/8 in. long anchors at 5 in. spacing

44.
45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

STEP 3 : Check pullout strength of anchor


D.5.3 D.5.3.4 Calculate the pullout strength of the anchor in tension in accordance with D.5.3. Design embedment as ductile in accordance with D.3.6.1. Npn Np D.5.3.5 Concrete is cracked per problem statement. 4 = 1.0 = 4Np = Abrg8fc = 8 * 4 Abrg = 32 Abrg

(D-14) (D-15)

54

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. D.3.6.1 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Calculate the bearing area. From manufacturer data, anchor head diameter is 1.0 in. for a 1/2 in. diameter stud (See Table 6 in Appendix A).

CALCULATION
4 Abrg = 1.0 = * (1.02 - 0.52)/4 = 0.59 in.2

Pullout strength to maintain ductile design in accordance with D.3.6.1.

Npn

= 1 * 3 2* 0.59 = 18.9 kips

0.85Npn = 0.85 * 18.9 = 16.1 kips each anchor = 32.2 kips for two anchors Ns = 25.5 kips Ductile 1/2 in. diameter studs are OK for pullout

25.
26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

STEP 4 : Check concrete side-face blowout


D.5.4 Check anchors closest to the edge for side-face blowout. c1 > 0.4hef 18 in. > 0.4 * 6.125 = 2.45 in. Side-face blowout Nsb need not be checked.

55

1.

STEP 5 : Check concrete breakout failure in shear

2. 3. To determine the critical concrete breakout strength, three modes of failure would be considered. They are shown 4. below. The first mode places the failure cone at the front anchors, and a strength check is made against 1/2 of the 5. applied shear Vu. The second mode considers the failure cone initiating at the back anchors, and a strength check is 6. made against the total shear Vu. The final mode is a conservative check, which assumes that all of the shear is acting at 7. the front anchors. This check might be considered if significantly oversized holes are used as in a column base plate. 8. Per the note on Fig. RD.6.2.1(b) of the Commentary, the only check that is required for this problem is Mode 2, 9. because the studs are welded to the anchor plate. 10.
11.

12. 13. 14.


15.

Mu
1 2

Vu
Vu/4

Vu/4 Vu/4 Vu

V u/2

V u/2

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.
29. 30. 31.

Vu/4
1 2

Mode 1

SECTION AA
PLAN

Mu Vu
Vu/2

Strength c1 Vcbg1

Vs1

Vu

23 in.

Vu

Vu/2

Vu

25.1 kips19.1 kips* 8.2 kips**

37.

32. Mode 2 33. (Only check 34. required for 35. welded studs) 36.

c1

Ductility 0.85Vcbg2
28.5 kips

Vs2

Vu

PLAN

SECTION AA

23 in.

25.5 kips 8.2 kips**

* from page 3 ** Shear to be resisted = 12.4 4.2 = 8.2 kips, page 3

38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

Mu
1 2

Vu Vu

Vu/2 Vu/2 Vu

Mode 3

SECTION AA
PLAN

53.

56

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. D.6.2.1 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. D.6.2.5 18. D.6.2.6 19. D.6.2.7 20. 21. D.6.2.3 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. D.3.6.1 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. D.4.5 39. 40. 41. D.6.2.1 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56.

Determine concrete breakout strength using Mode 2. For a plate with welded studs Mode 2 can be used to calculate the concrete breakout strength. Therefore c1=18 + 5 = 23 in. The failure cone passes through the bottom of the slab, so the Av equation uses the full slab thickness (h = 18 in. < 23 in.).

Vcbg =
(D-21)

Av 5 6 7Vb Avo

Av = (3c1+s)(h) = (3 * 23 + 5)(18)=1332 in.2 Avo= 4.5 c12=4.5 * 232=2381 in.2 22) Av/Avo = 0.56 5 = 1.0 No eccentricity 6 = 1.0 c2 > 1.5c1 7 = 1.0 (D-

Modification factors: Eccentricity on Anchor group 5 Second edge effect 6 Assumed cracked 7 Note: by definition, l is limited to 8do= 4 in.

(D-26) (D-24)

l Vb = 8 d o

0.2

do fc ' (c1 )1.5


0 .2

Nominal concrete breakout strength: Check ductility, two anchors on Line 2:

4 = 8 0 .5

0.5 4000 (23 )1.5

= 59.8 kips Vcbg2 = 0.56*1.0*1.0*1.0*59.8 = 33.5 kips 0.85Vcbg2 = 0.85 * 33.5 = 28.5 > Vs2 = 25.5 kips Mode 2 is ductile = 0.75

Check for strength: Strength-reduction factor: Design group concrete breakout strength:

Vcbg = 0.75 * 33.5 = 25.1 > Vu = 8.2 kips OK for strength

50. STEP 6 : Check group pryout


D.6.3 Concrete pryout of the anchors in shear must be checked Two anchors : Vcpg= kcp * Ncbg kcp = 2 for hef > 2.5 in. (D-29)

Ncbg= 29.9 kips

57

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Vcpg= 2 * 29.9 = 59.8 kips 0.85 * Vcpg = 0.85 * 59.8 = 50.8 > 25.5 kips Ductile

7.

STEP 7 : Summary
Stud: Diameter d0 = 1/2 in. Length L = 5-5/8 in. Effective depth hef = 6.13 in. Base plate thickness, t = 5/8 in. Anchors are ductile TENSION Applied load Steel strength Concrete breakout strength Concrete pullout strength Concrete side face-blowout strength Design strength of stud, tension Nu = 14.0 kips Step 1
5 5/8"1/8" burnoff

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Step 1 19. Step 1/ D.4.5.a 21. Step 3/D.4.5.c 23. Step 5/ D.4.5.c 25. Step 6/ D.4.5.c 27. 28. D.4.1.2 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Step 1 34. Step 1/D.4.5.a 36. Step 3/D.4.5.c 38. Step 7/D.4.5.c 40. 41. D.4.1.2 42. 43. 44. 45.

5/8"

1/2"

Ns = 0.80 * 25.5 = 20.4 kips Ncbg = 0.75 * 29.9 = 22.4 kips Npn =0.75 * 2 * 18.9 = 28.4 kips c1 > 0.4hef so this is not applicable Nn = min (Ns, Ncbg, Npn ) = min (20.4, 22.4, 28.4) = 20.4 kips > Nu = 14.0 kips Vu = 8.2 kips

SHEAR: Mode 2 (frictional resistance counted) Applied load, 12.4 4.2 = 8.2 kips, page 6, Steel strength Concrete breakout strength (nonductile) Concrete pryout strength Design strength of stud, shear

6 1/8"

OK

Vs = 0.75 * 25.5 = 19.1 kips Vcbg= 0.75 * 33.5 = 25.1 kips Vcpg= 0.75 * 59.8 = 44.9 kips Vn = min (Vs, Vcbg, Vcpg) = min (19.1, 25.1, 44.9) = 19.1 kips > Vu = 8.2 kips

OK

46.
47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

STEP 8 :
D.7.3

Check for tension-shear interaction


Anchors subject to combined shear and tension forces must meet the tension-shear interaction requirements of D.7 Mode 2:

Nu V + u 1 .2 N n Vn

(D-30)

58

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

D.7.2

Design strength in shear: Vu > 0.2 * design shear strength interaction check is required

Vn

= 19.1 kips

Step 3

(0.2)Vn= 0.2 * 19.1 = 3.8 < 8.2 kips 14/20.4 + 8.2/19.1 = 0.69 + 0.43 = 1.12 < 1.2 OK If the frictional resistance was ignored, then the aforementioned interaction equation becomes and the anchors have to be redesigned.

14/20.4 + 12.4/19.1 = 0.69 + 0.65 = 1.34 > 1.2

Mode 3 assumption: An alternate assumption is that all of the shear is taken by only the anchors on the compression side. With this assumption, there is no interaction check because the anchors in tension are not in shear and the anchors in shear are not in tension. This approach, however, requires that Mode 3 failure for the concrete shear breakout strength (Step 5) be checked. Mode 3 will have lower concrete breakout strength, and is more likely to lead to a nonductile design.
i

Stud material is A108, material properties per AWS D1.1, 2002, Table 7.1, Type B stud, yield strength = 51,000 psi, tensile strength = 65,000 psi. It has elongation of 20% and reduction in area of 50%, meets the definition of a ductile steel element given in D.1, and meets the tensile strength requirements of D.5.1.2 and D.6.1.2: fut 1.9fy (65 1.9 * 51 = 96.9 ksi). ii Notes on steel design: The plate will be designed using the AISC-LRFD code (American Institute of Steel Construction, 1999, Load Resistance Factor Design for Structural Steel Buildings, AISC, Chicago, Ill.). In applying it to this example, some conservative simplifying assumptions will be made: a) Loads: This example assumes that the loads are the same as used in the previous editions of the ACI and therefore we used the Appendix C -factors. The AISC Code uses the ASCE 7 (Ref. xx) load factors, and the strengthreduction factors are determined accordingly. The loads used in this example are therefore conservative, and will be used with the LRFD design. b) Strength-reduction factors: The strength-reduction factors will be those of the AISC-LRFD Code ( 0.9 for bending). c) Strength design: The nominal strength of a section in bending in the LRFD Code is based on a plastic section modulus Z and yield strength Fy of the steel material (Mn = Mp = ZFy). This approach will be followed in this example. iii D.4.3 of the code requires the resistance to combined tensile and shear loads to be considered in design. In this problem, the tensile load on some of the anchors comes from the moment. The moment is assumed to be a result of the shear acting some distance from the face of the base plate. The anchorage, therefore, has no net externally applied tension force. The tension results in an equal and self-equilibrating compression force. The code is not clear if the tension shear interaction equation is to be applied on an anchor-by-anchor basis or on the entire base plate. Also, because Appendix D permits shear to be resisted by direct shear through individual anchors or by shear friction, either approach could be used; however, only the direct shear procedure is shown in this example problem.

59

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Example B2(b)Four-anchor surface-mounted plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment


Design an embedment using cast-in-place anchors and a flexible surface-mounted plate for a 3 x 3 x 1/4 in. A501 structural tube attachment. Given: Concrete edges c1 = 18 in. h = 18 in. s = 5 in. c2 = 35 in. Concrete material fc = 4000 psi Rod material F1554 Gr.105i: fy = 105 ksi fut = 120 ksi Plate Fy Loads Mu Vu = = = 36 ksi 70 in.-kips 12.4 kips

Where Mu, and Vu are the applied factored external loads using load factors as defined in Appendix C of the code. See introduction for commentary on the distribution of stresses to the anchors for this problem. Assumptions: Concrete is cracked -factors are based on Condition B in D.4.5 of the code (no supplementary reinforcement)

1.5hef C1 S

1.5hef

Mu Vu hef
1.5 1

Vu

C2

1.5

dh

ANCHORS IN TENSION

41 42 43

SECTION AA

PLAN

60

CODE SECTION 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the rod


Try 7 x 7 in. plate with 5 x 5 in. rod spacing. Calculate the tension force in the anchors and compression reaction force in the concrete from the applied forces. Assume, conservatively, that the center of compression force resultant is at the outer edge of the supported member, the structural tube. (Alternately, it can be assumed that the center of the compression force is at a distance of 2t from the outer edge of the tube as used in Example B2(a). This, however, requires the designer to estimate plate thickness and later verify that the thickness is no less than that assumed). The center of the tensile force is at the center of the anchors in tension. Determine the required rod area Aset for tension. Assume ductile design and use the corresponding -factor in accordance with D.4.5. Try 1/2 in. diameter rods. Gross crosssectional area is 0.196 in.2 Tensile stress area is 0.142 in.2 (see Table 2, Appendix A) Anchor diameter, in. 3/8 1/2 5/8 Effective area Ase, in.2 0.078 0.142 0.226

ds Mu

dt Vu

C d=4"
1 2

Nu

D.5.1.2 D.4.5

=C = Mu/d = 70/4 = 17.5 kips = Ns = nAsetfut = 0.80 = 2 anchors = 120 ksi

Nu n fut

Aset,req = Nu/nfut = 17.5/(0.80 * 2 * 120) = 0.091 in.2 Use 1/2 in. diameter rods Aset,prov = 0.142 > 0.091 in.2 OK

D.6.1.2 D.6.1.4

Because this is a surface-mounted plate, only direct shear D.6.1.2 is applicable. The nominal shear strength is the sum of the shear strength provided by the anchors and the friction force between the base plate and concrete due to the compressive reaction, Shear resistance = Vs+ Vf = 0.60 Asevfut + 0.40C

61

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
taken as 0.4C . Assume threads in shear plane. Shear strength of four anchors

CALCULATION

Vs = 0.60nAsevfut = 0.6 * 4 * 0.142 * 120 = 40.9 kips = 0.75 Vs = 0.75 * 40.9 = 30.68 kips Vf1 = 0.40C = 0.40T = 0.40 (17.5) = 7 kips

Strength-reduction factor Design strength of four anchors D.6.1.4 Additional shear strength provided by friction between the base plate and concrete. (See note in Step 1 of Example B2(a) about the prudency of considering the shear strength from frictional resistance) D.4.5c Strength-reduction factor Design strength provided by friction Design shear strength of the connection (four anchors and frictional resistance)

= 0.75 Vf1 = 0.75 * 7 = 5.25 kips Vs + Vf1 = 30.68 + 5.25 = 35.93 kips > 12.4 kips OK

29.

STEP 2:

Design base plateii


ds Mu
Nominal flexural strength of base plate, per AISC LRFD Code, is, Mn = Mp = FyZ. The tension in the anchor is based on the applied moment, and is not based on the full tensile capacity of the anchor

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. AISC LRFD 36. Chapter F 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. AISC LRFD 48. Chapter F 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

dt Vu

C d=4"
Mupl
1 = Tdt 2

= (17.5)(1.0)
= 17.5 in.-kips

The factor for flexure b is 0.90

bMn = bFyZ = 0.9Fy(bt2/4) =0.9 (36)(7)t2/4 =56.7t2 56.7t2 = 17.5

Required plate thickness per AISC:

62

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
t = 0.55 in.

Use 7 X7 X 5/8 plate

5. STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the studs to prevent concrete 6. breakout failure
7. 8. D.5.1 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. D.3.6.1 14. 15. 16. 17. D.5.2 18. D.3.6.1 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. D.5.2.4 32. D.5.2.5 33. D.5.2.6 34. D.5.2.7 35. 36. 37. D.5.2.2 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. Calculate design tension on anchors assuming two studs resist tensile loads. Ns (D-3) = nAsetfut = 2 * 0.142 * 120 Calculate the concrete breakout strength of anchors in tension so that embedment is ductile. Concrete breakout strength for a group of anchors Try 1/2 in. diameter headed rod with 8-1/2 in. effective length hef. = 34.1 kips Ns = 0.85Ncbg

Ncbg, req= 34.1/0.85 = 42.6 kips Ncbg= AN0

AN 1 2 3 cp , N N b AN 0
= 9(hef)2 = 9 * 8.52 = 650 in.2

(D-5) (D-6)

Modification factors are all 1.0 for: Eccentricity effects 1 Edge effects 2 Concrete cracking 3 Without splitting reinforcement cp,N Basic concrete breakout strength Nb of a single anchor in tension in cracked concrete. k = 24 for cast-in anchors

AN

= (2 * 1.5 * 8.5 + 5)(2 * 1.5 * 8.5) = 778 in.2

AN/AN0 = 778/650 = 1.20 1 = 1.0 2 = 1.0 3 = 1.0 cp,N = N/A

Nb Concrete breakout strength for group.

= k

1 f c' hef.5

(D-8) = 24 (4000)0.5(hef)1.5 = 1518(hef)1.5 lbs = 1.52 * 8.51.5 kips = 37.6 kips

63

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
Ncbg Ncbg =

AN 1 2 3 N b AN 0

= 1.20 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 37.6 = 45.1 > 42.6 kips OK

Therefore, embedment is ductile Strength controlled by steel Use 4 -1/2 in. diameter anchors with 81/2 in. embedment depth at 5 in. spacing

15.
16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

STEP 4: Check pullout strength of anchor


D.5.3 Calculate the pullout strength of the anchor in tension in accordance with D.5.3. Design embedment as ductile in accordance with B.3.6.1. Concrete is cracked per problem statement. 4 = 1.0 Calculate the bearing area. Assume heavy hex head for the rod. Appendix A, for 1/2 in. diameter rod, F = 7/8 in., C = 1.0 in. Ahead = (3F2/2)tan30 Ahead = (3 * 0.8752/2)(0.577) = 0.663 in.2 Arod = * 0.52 /4 = 0.196 in.2 Pullout capacity for two anchors Determine required bearing area Try a hardened washer, with diameter D. (Table 5 SAE hardened washer) 0.85Npn = 0.85 * 2 * 15.0 Good =25.5 < Ns =34.1 kips, No Npn Np = 4Np (D-14)

D.5.3.5

= Abrg8fc (D-15) = 8 * 4 * Abrg = 32 Abrg 4 = 1.0 Abrg = Ahead Arod = 0.663 - 0.196 = 0.47 in.2 -see also Table 4(c) = 1 * 32 * 0.47 = 15.0 kips each anchor

Npn

Abrg req = 34.1/(2 *32 * 0.85) =0.625 in.2 each anchor D2 D = 4 * (0.625)/ = 0.89 in. each anchor

Use a 1/2 in. washer with OD 1.167 in. Ahead Abrg = * 1.1672 /4 = 1.07 in.2 = Ahead Arod = 1.07 0.196

64

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
= 0.874 > 0.625 in.2 Check: Npn = 1 * 32 * 0.874 = 27.9 kips each anchor = 55.9 kips for 2 anchors 0.85Npn = 0.85 * 55.9 = 47.5 >Ns = 34.1 kips Ductile, OK Use 1/2 in. diameter rods with 1.167 in. OD SAE hardened washer on head.

18.
19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

STEP 5: Check concrete side-face blowout


D.5.4 Check anchors closest to the edge for sideface blowout. c1 > 0.4hef D.5.4.1 18 in. > 0.4(6.125) = 2.45 in. Side-face blowout Nsb need not be checked.

25.

STEP 6: Check concrete shear breakout

65

CODE SECTION 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

To determine the critical concrete breakout strength, three modes of failure should be considered. They are shown below. The first mode places the failure cone at the front anchors, and a strength check is made against 1/2 of the applied shear Vu. The second mode considers the failure cone initiating at the back anchors, and a strength check is made against the total shear Vu. The final mode is a conservative check, which assumes that all of the shear is acting at the front anchors. This check might be considered if significantly oversized holes are used as in a column base plate.
Mu Vu
1 2

10. 11.

12. 13. 14. Mode 1 15. 16. 17.


18. 19.

Vu/2

Vu/2

Concrete breakout

Steel strength

Applied load

Vu/4 Vu/4 Vu Vu/4 Vu/4


1 2

c1 0.85Vcbg1 Vs1 Vs1 in. k k k


18 22.4 20.5 15.4

Vu1 k
3.6*

Vu2 k
3.6*

SECTION AA
PLAN

DUCTILE OK for strength, see pages 6 & 7

20.

* Shear to be resisted = 12.4 5.25 = 7.15 kips Each row resists, 0.5 * 7.15 = 3.6 kips

21. 22. 23.


24. 25.

Mu Vu
1 2

Concrete breakout

Steel strength

Applied load

26. 27. 28. Mode 2 29.


30.
31. 32..

Vu

Vu

Vu/2 Vu/2
1 2

c1 0.85Vcbg2 Vs2 Vs2 in. k k k


23 24.9 20.5 15.4

Vu1 k
3.6*

Vu2 k
3.6*

DUCTILE OK for strength, see pages 7 & 8 * see note above

33.
34.

SECTION AA
PLAN

35. 36. 37. 38.


39. 40.

Mu Vu
1 2

Concrete breakout

Steel strength

Applied load

41. 42. 43. Mode 3 44.


45.

Vu
Vu/2 Vu Vu/2
1 2

c1 0.85Vcbg1 Vs1 Vs2 in. k k k


18 22.4 20.5 15.4

Vu1 k
7.2

Vu2 k
0

DUCTILE OK for Strength


SECTION AA
PLAN

46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55.

D.6.2

Mode 1: Because the plate is not rigidly connected to the anchor, check the anchors nearest to the edge using 1/2 the applied shear.

Vcbg =
(D-21)

Av 5 6 7Vb Avo

66

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. D.6.2.5 8. D.6.2.6 9. D.6.2.7 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. D.6.2 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. D.6.2.5 45. 46. D.6.2.6 47. 48. D.6.2.7 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Therefore, c1=18. Note that the depth of Av is limited by h.

CALCULATION

Av = (3c1+s)(h) = (3 * 18 + 5)(18) = 1062 in.2 (D-22)

Eccentricity on anchor group 5 Second edge effect 6 Second edge effect 7 assumed cracked Note: by definition, l is limited to 8do= 4 in.

Avo= 4.5 c12 = 4.5*182 = 1458 in.2 Av/Avo=1062/1458=0.73 5= 1.0 No eccentricity 6= 1.0 c2 > 1.5c1 (D-26) 7=1.0

l Vb = 7 d o

0. 2

do

f c ' (c1 )1.5

(D-23)

4 V b = 7 0. 5

0 .2

0.5 4000 (18)1.5

Vb = 36.2 kips
Vcbg = 0.73(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(36.2)
Ductility check From Step 1 Vs = 40.9/2 = 20.5 kips (two anchors) strength Mode 2: Next, check against failure at the back anchors under the full shear. Therefore, c1 = 23. Note that the depth of Av is limited by h. Vcbg = 26.4 kips 0.85 Vcbg =0.85(26.4) =22.4 > Vs =20.5 kips Ductile, OK Vs = 0.75 * 20.5 = 15.40 kips

Vcbg =

Av 5 6 7Vb Avo

(D-21)

Av = (3c1+s)(h) Eccentricity on anchor group 5 Second edge effect 6 Second edge effect 7 assumed cracked = (3 * 23 + 5)(18) = 1332 in.2 Avo= 4.5 c12 = 4.5*232 = 2381 in.2 (D-22) Av/ Avo=0.56 5= 1.0 No eccentricity

Note: by definition, l is limited to 8do = 4 in.

67

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
6= 1.0 c2> 1.5c1 (D-26) 7= 1.0

l Vb = 7 d o

0.2

do

f c ' (c1 )1.5

(D-23)

4 Vb = 7 0.5
Ductility check From Step 1, Vs = 40.9/2 = 20.5 kips (two anchors) Strength Note to reader: See Problem B2(a) for discussion of the assumptions regarding the distribution of shear stresses in the steel anchors in a Mode 2 failure.

0.2

0.5 4000 (23)1.5

Vb = 52.3 kips
Vcbg = 0.56(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(52.3)
Vcbg = 29.2 kips Vcbg = 0.75 * 29.2 = 21.9 kips 0.85Vcbg =0.85(29.2) =24.9 > Vs = 20.5 kips Ductile, OK Vs = 0.75 * 20.5 = 15.40 kips

Mode 3 assumption: An alternate assumption is that all of the shear is taken by only the anchors on the compression side. With this assumption, there is no interaction check because the anchors in tension are not in shear and the anchors in shear are not in tension. This approach, however, requires that Mode 3 failure for the concrete shear breakout strength (Step 3) be checked. Mode 3 will have lower concrete breakout strength and is more likely to lead to a nonductile design, although in this particular example, it is ductile.

47.
48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

STEP 7: Check group pryout


D.6.3 Concrete pryout of the anchors in shear must be checked: Mode 1 is checked herein, Mode 2 can be similarly checked. (Note: The code states that Ncbg is taken from Vcpg = kcp * Ncbg kcp = 2 for hef > 2.5 in. (D-29)

Ncbg = 45.1 kips

68

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Eq. (D-5).)

CALCULATION
Vcpg = 2 * 45.1 = 90.2 kips

Vcpg= 0.75 * 90.2 = 67.7 kips > 12.4 kips O.K

7.

STEP 8: Summary
5/8" 1/2" 1.167"

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Step 1 23. Step 3/D.4.5.a 25. Step 3/D.4.5.c 27. Step 4/D.4.5.c 29. Step 5/D.4.5.c 31. 32. D.4.1.2 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. D.4.1.2 38. 39. 40. 41. Step 1/D.4.5.a 43. Step 6/D.4.5.c 45. Step 7/D.4.5.c 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

Rod diameter d0= 1/2 in. Plate thickness t = 5/8 in.

TENSION Applied load Steel strength Concrete breakout strength Concrete pullout strength Concrete side-face blowout strength Design strength of stud, tension Nu = 17.5 kips (from applied moment)

Ns = 0.80 * 34.1 = 27.3 kips Ncbg = 0.75 * 45.1 = 33.8 kips Npn = 0 .75 * 55.9 = 41.9 kips c1 > 0.4hef so this is Not Applicable Nn = min(Ns, Ncbg, Npn ) = min(27.3, 33.8, 41.9)

SHEAR - Mode 2 (frictional resistance considered) Applied load Steel strength, two anchors Concrete breakout strength Concrete pryout strength Design strength of stud, shear

OK

= 27.3 kips > Nu = 17.5 kips

Vu Vs Vcbg Vcpg Vn

= 12.4 5.25 = 7.2 kips = 0.75 * (20.5) = 15.40 kips = 0.75 * 29.2 = 21.9 kips =0 .75 * 90.2= 67.7 kips = min (Vs, Vcbg, Vcpg) = min (15.4, 21.9, 67.7) = 15.4 kips > Vu = 7.2 kips

69

8 1/2"

Effective length h = 8-1/2 in.

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
OK

6.
7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

STEP 9 : Check for tension-shear interaction


D.7.3
i

Tensionshear interaction, Mode 2

17.5/27.3 + 7.2/15.4 = 1.11 < 1.2

OK

ASTM F 1554-00 specification, Grade 105, Class 1A, rod material will be used. Rod identification is (AB105) with a tensile strength in the range of 125 to 150 ksi, and minimum yield strength of 105 ksi for to 3 in. diameters. Reductions in area requirements vary. For anchor diameters < 2 in., elongation in 2 in. is 15%, reduction in area is 45%, and meets the definition of a ductile steel element given in D.1. Also, max fut = 1.4 fy. According to D.6.1.2, fut shall be 1.9 fy or 125, 000 psi. See also Table 1 for other materials. ii Notes on steel design: The plate will be designed using the AISC-LRFD code (American Institute of Steel Construction, 1999, Load and Resistance Factor Design for Structual Steel Buildings, AISE, Chicago, Ill.). In applying it to this example, some conservative simplifying assumptions will be made: Loads: This example assumes that the load combinations are the same as used in the previous editions of the ACI and therefore we used the Appendix C factors. The AISC-LRFD code uses the ASCE 7 load factors, and the strength-reduction factors are determined accordingly. The loads used in this example are therefore conservative, and will be used with the LRFD design. Strength-reduction factors: The strength-reduction factors will be those of the AISC-LRFD code ( 0.9 for bending). Strength design: The nominal strength of a section in bending in the LRFD code is based on a plastic section modulus Z and yield strength Fy of the steel material (Mn = Mp = ZFy). This approach will be used in this example. iii AISC recommends oversizing holes for base plates. The forthcoming AISC Design Guide will contain the following table for recommended rod hole size. In cases like this, it is possible to have the anchors closest to the edge make contact with the base plate before the back anchors contact. The resulting breakout cone shown in Mode 3 would need to be evaluated.

70

CODE SECTION

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
Maximum Permitted Nominal a,b Anchor Rod Hole Dimensions , in. Shear Holes (diameter) 5/8 13/16 15/16 1 1/16 1 1/4 1 9/16 1 13/16 2 1/16 db+5/16 Normal Holes (diameter) 1 1/16 1 3/16 1 5/16 1 9/16 1 13/16 2 1/16 2 5/16 2 3/4 db+1 1/4

Anchor Rod Diameter, db in. 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4

2
a

The upper tolerance on tabulated nominal dimensions shall not exceed 1/16-in. b The slight conical hole that naturally results from punching operations with properly matched punches and dies is acceptable.

71

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Example B3Four-threaded anchors and surface-mounted plate, combined axial, moment and shear load
Design a group of four threaded headed anchors to resist seismic loads given below. The supported member is a W10x15 stub column. Design parameters are provided as follows.
Given: Concrete edges c1 = 8 in. c2 > 24 in h = 16 in. Base plate 12 x 12 in. Bolt spacing s = 8 in. Concrete material fc = 4000 psi (concrete) fc = 9000 psi (grout) Bolt material (F1554 Gr. 36 anchor rods)i fy = 36 ksi fut = 58 ksi Plate Fy = 36 ksi

Load Vu = 7 kips e = 18 in. (height of stub column above surface of concrete) Mu = Vu x e = 126.0 in.-kips 3.0 kips Nu = Where Mu, Nu, and Vu are the required factored external loads using load factors from Chapter 9 of the code. Assumptions: Concrete is cracked -factors are based on Condition B in D.4.4 of the code (no supplementary reinforcement) Ductile embedment design is in accordance with D.3.6.1

9 10 11

72

Vu
1.5hef

Nu

c1

1.5hef

1.5

C2

C1 1.5hef

S 1.5hef

PLAN

SECTION AA

Nu

Vu

1.5hef

c1

1.5hef

C2

1.5

1
C1 1.5hef S 1.5hef PLAN

SECTION AA

1 2 3 4 CODE SECTION 5.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

STEP 1: Design for moment and tension


The plate size is 12 x 12 in., and the spacing s of the anchors is 8 x 8 in. Assume plate thickness t is 1 in. The first step is to calculate the tension force in the anchors and compression reaction force in the concrete from the applied forces. The base plate is just large enough in area to accommodate the column profile, that is, small

73

1.5

hef

1.5

hef

CODE SECTION
1. AISC 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 10.17.1 41. 9.3.2.5 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
base plate (per AISC). For the shear toward the edge of the slab, the resultant tension from the moment is taken by the two lefthand side (Line 2) bolts, and the compression is taken in bearing on the effective bearing area. The bearing area is taken to the edge of the plate. The effective bearing area is taken as a distance t around the compression flange. This is an approximation. The error introduced into the calculation is negligible.

CALCULATION
8" de 12" 8"
t t Effective bearing area t

12" 2
d

Nm

Cm

The exact location of the compression resultant is difficult to determine. For design, take the resultant to act at the outside edge of the compression flange. This approximate analysis is deemed adequate. Determine the moment arm d. Determine the tension in the bolts and compression in the concrete.

Nu

Nu

de d d
Nm

12 in 10 in = 1.0 in. 2 12 in 8 in = 12 in. d e 2 = 9 in. =


= =

Mu d

Check the effective bearing area based on the location of the resultant compression assumed previously. The bearing capacity is as given in the noted code section. An assumption has been made in this example that the grout under the plate, though unconfined, does not control because it is at least 9000 psi in compressive strength. Check the concrete instead. The -factors are as given in Chapter 9. is 0.65 for bearing. Due to confinement, use the maximum allowed factor, 2.

Nm Nm

126 in kips 9 in = 14 kips

Cm = N m C m 2 (0.85f c )Abearing

Abearing = (3.96 + 2 )(0.27 + 1 + 1) Abearing = 13.53 in 2

Abearing = (bf + 2t )(t f + t + d e )

C m 2(0.65 )(0.85 x 4 ksi )Abearing C m 2(0.65 )(0.85 x 4 )13.53 in 2 C m 59.8 kips 14 kips 59.8 kips OK

74

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. D.4.4 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. D.5.1.2 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
Nub Nub Nub = (in two bolts ) 2 3kips = 14 kips + 2 = 15.5 kips
Nu

Nm +

Nu

C
The effect of the tension force in shifting the location of the compression resultant is deemed negligible, and hence, it is conservative to algebraically add the bolt force distribution from moment to that from tension. Nu is the tension in the column, and Nub is the tension in the two bolts. Likewise, the compression on the bearing area can be reduced directly by the tension force even though the forces are centered at different locations. is 0.75 for tension strength in steel. Determine the required bolt area Aset reqd for tension. F1554 Gr. 36 is a ductile steel element. The -factors are as given in D.4.4. Note that Aset reqd is the effective tensile area required, and n is the number of bolts resisting the tension force. Note that the bolts resist shear as well, hence the margin in area of bolt provided (Aset). See Step 2 for consideration of shear. Net tensile area of threaded bolts can be found in Table 2 of Appendix A.

= Cm

C C N ub N ub

(on bearing area ) 2 3kips = 14kips 2 = 12.5 kips Ns = n Aset f ut

(D-3)

Aset req 'd Aset req 'd Aset req 'd

N ub

n f ut
0.75 (2 )58

= 15.5 =

0.18 in 2

Use in. diameter threaded rods.

Ab = 0.44 in 2 (nominal area )

Aset = 0.334 in 2 (effective area )

N s = Aset n f ut N s = 0.75 (0.334 )(2)58 N s = 29.06 kips (two bolts )

(D-3)

N s > Nub
29.06 kips > 15.5 kips
OK

44. STEP 2: Design for shear


45. Concrete breakout modes (options) that will be used in design.

75

CODE SECTION
1

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Nu Vu
2

CALCULATION

Vu

Vu/2 Vu/2
Vu

a)
PLAN
1 2

Nu Vu SECTION AA

Shear resisted by two anchors farthest from edge

Vu/2 Vu/2

Vu
Vu

PLAN

SECTION AA

b) Shear resisted by two anchors closest to edge SHEAR FORCE TOWARD EDGE

Vu/2 Vu/2

Vu

PLAN

76

CODE SECTION

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Nu Vu

CALCULATION

Vu

SECTION AA

c) Shear resisted by two anchors closest to edge


Vu
1 2

Nu

Vu

Vu/2 Vu/2
Vu

PLAN

SECTION AA

d) Shear resisted by two anchors farthest from edge SHEAR FORCE AWAY FROM EDGE 1. D.6.1.2 2. D.6.1.3 3. D.4.4 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. This is a base plate on grout therefore Section D.6.1 is applicable. Note that surface mounted plates with grout often come with oversized bolt holes.ii Therefore, in this example, it will be assumed that only two anchors are engaged in resisting shear. There are two options for analysis. The first is to assume the bolts in tension also carry shear and compute the available shear strength from steel based on that assumption. Alternatively, assume that only the bolts in the compression take the shear and compute the shear strength based on that assumption. Both will be checked in the solution presented. Compute the steel shear capacity

77

CODE SECTION
1. D.6.1.2 2. D.6.1.3 3. D.6.1.4 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. D.4.4 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
In Options (a) and (c), the bolts in tension also resist shear. This is critical case for steel strength of anchor. Note that the 0.8 factor for grout (D.6.1.3) applies to Eq. (D-19) The -factor is 0.65 for steel in shear and 0.7iii for the friction between the base plate and the concrete Section D.6.1.4 states that the friction (0.4CF) between the base plate and the concrete (in this case, grout) shall be permitted to be used to resist shear. Therefore, combine the provisions of D.6.1.4 with Eq. (D-19) to obtain the shear strength. Check for tension-shear interaction based on steel strength only for the bolts loaded in both tension and shear. See Step 9.

CALCULATION

V u V n V n = (0.8 )V s + (0.4C F ) V u = (0.8 )0.6 n Ase f ut + (0.4C F ) (D-19)


(0.8) 0.6 n Ase f u = 0.65 (0.8)0.6 (2)(0.334)58 (0.8) 0.6 n Ase f u = 12.09 kips (0.4 C F ) = 0.70 (0.4 (12.5)) = 3.50 kips
V u (0.8 )0.6 n Ase f ut + (0.4C F ) (D-19) 7 12.09 + 3.50
7 15.39 kips OK

Options (a) and (c)

23. STEP 3: Design for base plate


24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

The plate thickness was assumed at the beginning of the example problem to be 1 in. To check the required plate thickness, there are two possible failure modes: 1. Yielding of the plate in the tension region around the two tension bolts. 2. Yielding of the plate in the compression region. Pryout of the bolts in the tension region is ignored.
Failure Mode 1: Tension yielding of the plate around the bolts in tension Plate bending approximation: Assume that the plate is fixed along the web and the flange of the wide flange shape in tension and that the plate acts as a cantilever between the bolts and the web and flange of the wide flange. Also assume the effective width b of plate for stress computation is 2t each side of the point of maximum stress. Therefore, b = 4t, where t is the thickness of plate. This approximation is conservative because it maximizes the moment arm for moment computation and minimizes the effective width
y

8"
de t

12"

8"

t t

Effective bearing area

12"

N ub

=
x

15.5 2

= 7.8 kips per bolt

My

Mx
Max stress point

12"

x x x

= = =

de tf 2 12in . 8 in . 1in . 0.27 in . 2 0.73 in

B s

78

12"

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
of the plate resisting this moment. It also ignores the clamping effect at the bolt location.

CALCULATION
y = y = y = s tw 2 2 8 in. 0.115 in. 2 3.88 in
4t 4.0 in
= = N ub (x ) = 7.8 (0.73 in ) 5.7 k in

b b
My My

= =

4 (1in )

Mx Mx
Mu Mu
M n M n

= =
= =
= =

N ub (y ) = 7.8 (3.88 in ) 30.1k in


2 M x2 + M y

5.7 2 + 30.12

30.6 k in
0 .9 F y Z = 0.9 F y
2

bt 2
4 32.4 k in

0.9 (36 ksi )

4 (1) 4

M n

Mu

32.4 k in 30.6 k in OK Use 1 in. thick plate

C t t
Failure Mode 2iv: The compression is acting in the effective bearing area. The bearing area is taken as fixed along the column web and compression flange. The maximum cantilever distance of the area loaded in bearing relative to the fixed axis is the maximum of t or de. The bearing area

= 12.5 kips = max (t , d e ) = = 1. 0 2C 0.9 F y Abearing

2 (12.5 ) 0.9 (36 )13.53

t
OK

0.24 in . < 1.0 in .

79

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
can be taken to be under a uniform pressure equivalent to C/Abearing This means that the assumed plate thickness is adequate both for tension and compression on the plate.

CALCULATION

8. STEP 4: Determine required embedment length for the bolts to prevent concrete breakout failure
9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. D.5.2 17. D.3.6.1 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. D.4.4 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. D.5.2.4 46. D.5.2.5 47. D.5.2.6 48. D.5.2.7 49. 50. 51. D.5.2.1 The required embedment length for the anchors will be determined using the concrete breakout strength of the anchors in tension. Section D.5.2 applies. Steel strengths remain as previously calculated. The shear force is seismic, and hence, has a reversible direction. The critical tension breakout cone is that closest to the edge. This is depicted in Options (c) and (d) in Step 2. If the steel strength is less than 85% of the nominal concrete tension breakout strength, then the connection will be ductile for tension load; otherwise, it is nonductile. Notations are consistent with Section RD.5.2.1. Assume Condition B exists. Also assume that the anchors use a standard A563 nut and a F436 washer at the end of the anchors to serve as the anchor head. Provide embedment hef (F in sketch) = 12 in. Bolt dimension: d = 3/4 in th = 2 in. E = 13.25 in. L = 18.5 in. (for a double nut)

N s = 0.334 * 2 * 58 = 38.7kips

N ub

= 15.5 kips

N s < 0.85 N cbg ( for steel to control ) N cbg , reqd > 38.7 kips = 45.5 kips 0.85

Modification factors are as computed for: Eccentricity effects 1 Edge effects 2 Concrete cracking 3 Post-installed anchor effect cp,N Not required in this case.

hef = 12 in . A N cbg = n 1 2 3 cp ,N N b Ano

(D-5)

80

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. D.4.4 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
1.5hef 1.5hef

c1

s1

Tension breakout cone

1.5hef

(c)
An = (1.5hef + c1)(1.5hef +s1 +1.5hef ) c1 = 8in. An = (1.5(12) + 8)(1.5 (12) + 8 +1.5(12)) An = 1144in 2
2 Ano = 9hef

) An = 1296in 2 n Ano = 2(1296 = 2592in 2 OK 1 = 1.0 (No eccentricity ) c 2 = 0.7 + 0.3 min (D-11) 1.5 hef
2 = 0 . 7 + 0. 3 3 = 1 .0
Basic concrete breakout strength Nb of a single anchor in tension in cracked concrete.

= 9 (12)

= 1296 2 in

(cracked
5

8 18

0.83

concrete )

Nb = 16 f c hef3

11in . < hef < 25 in . (D-8)


5

Nb = 16 4000 (12) 3 = 63.65kips

N cbg =
Tensile strength controlled by steel. Check strength

N cbg

1144 (1.0)(0.833 )(1.0)(1.0)63.65 1296 Ns = 46.80 kips > = 45.5 kips 0.85

is 0.70 for tension strength in concrete against tension breakout


Tension-shear interaction remains as computed in Step 9.

Ductile. OK. Embedment is ductile for tension

N cbg = 0.7 (46.80 kips ) N s N cbg = 32.76 kips


> 29.06 kips

Use four rods 3/4 in. diameter x 18.5 in. long with hef = 12 in.

81

CODE SECTION

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION
N pn = 4 N p
(D-14) (D-15)

1. STEP 5: Check pullout strength of anchor


2. D.5.3 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. D.5.2.8 13 D.5.3.4 14. D.5.3.5 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. D.3.6.1 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Calculate the pullout strength of the anchor in tension in accordance with D.5.3. From Table 4b in Appendix A, a concrete strength of 4400 psi is needed to avoid pullout of a hex head nut. To obtain a ductile design we must either use a heavy hex nut or provide washer. For this example problem a washer is provided. Width across the flat for an A563 hex nut is 1.125 in. Use the outside diameter (OD) of the washer and the diameter of the anchor do to compute the bearing area of the head. The OD of a F463 (USS dimensions) circular washer is 1.468 in. for a 3/4 in. bolt. From D.5.2.8, check that the OD is less than diameter for the nut plus two times thickness of washer tw. Pullout capacity to maintain ductile design in accordance with D.3.6.1. Number of bolts in tension is used in the computation of pullout.

N p = Abrg

8 f c

4 = 1.0 cracked concrete O .D . = min( 1.468,1.125 + 2 t w ) O .D . = min( 1.468,1.125 + 2 (0.136 )) = 1.4 Abrg Abrg
N pn

N pn = 1.0 (1.1)8 (4000 ) = 35.2 kips N png = n N pn N png , reqd N png

do 4 1.4 2 0.75 2 = = 1.1in 2 4 = 4 Abrg 8 f c =

(O .D .
(

Ns ( for ductile response ) 0.85 = 2 (35.2 ) = 70.4 kips > 45.5 kips >

Ductile, OK

is 0.70 for tension strength in concrete against pullout.

N png = 0.7(70.4 ) = 49.3 kips


49.3 kips > N s = 29.06 kips
3/4 in. diameter bolts are OK for pullout

31. STEP 6: Check concrete side-face blowout


32. D.5.4 33. 34. Check if side-face blowout needs to be investigated using the code limits given in Section D.5.4.

c 1 = 8 in > 0.4 h ef = 0.4 (12 ) = 4.8 in OK. Ignore side-face blowout

35. STEP 7: Check concrete shear breakout


36. D.6.2 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. Because the base plate is not rigidly attached to the anchor bolts, two shear failure cones need to be checked. Note that these two shear breakout cones need to be checked even if all the bolts resist shear. This is done to prevent the zipper effect in which the concrete supporting the two bolts closest to the edge fails first and causes the failure of the concrete around the two bolts farther from the edge. Two bolts failure cone: Option (a) Note: For Option (a) where the shear is towards the edge and tension bolts resist shear,
Vs = 0.6 n Ase f ut Vs = 0.6 (2 )(0.334 )(58)

Vsg = 23.2 kips Vcbg , reqd

(two bolts ) (two bolts )

23.2 kips = 27.3 kips 0.85

82

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. D.6.2.1 9. D.6.2.2 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
c1 = c1 + s = 8 + 8 = 16 in. Section D.6.2.2 applies. Check for slab depth limitations. h = 16 in. < 1.5c1 = 1.5*16 = 24 in. Limit cone depth to 16 in.

CALCULATION

c1

Concrete edge

s1

Shear breakout cone

1.5c1

1.5c1

Compute areas

V cbg =

Av 5 6 7V b Avo

0 .2 1 d o f c c 1 .5

(D-21) (D-23)

All factors are set to 1 because there isnt any eccentricity for the shear load, no perpendicular edge effects, and concrete is cracked.

Vb

l = 7 d o

Av = (2 (1.5 { }) + 8 ) { } = 896 in 2 16 16
2 Avo = 4.5 c 1

Av = (2 (1.5 c 1 ) + s 1 )H 1
=

4 .5 { } 16

= 1152 in 2

Shear strength is controlled by steel for Option (a) where the shear load is taken by the bolts farthest from the edge.

5 = 1. 0 6 = 1. 0 7 = 1. 0
l l

= min (hef , 8 d o ) = min (12 , 8 {0.75}) = min (12 , 6 ) = 6 in . 6 0.75


0.2

Vb = 7

0.75 4000 (16 )

1.5

V b = 37.2 kips
Vcbg = Vcbg 896 (1.0)(1.0)(1.0)37.2 1152 = 28.9 kips > 27.3 kips

Ductile

83

CODE SECTION
1. D.6.2.1 2. 3. D6.2.2 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. D.4.4 31. D.3.6.3 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 40. D.6.3 41. 42. 43. 44. D.6.3.1 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Two bolts failure cone: Option (b) c1 is 8 in. with shear towards the edge and compression bolts loaded in shear. Compute areas. Check for slab depth limitations. h = 16 in. > 1.5c1 = 12 in. Cone depth OK.

CALCULATION

Concrete edge

s1 c1

Shear breakout cone

1.5c1 H 1.5c1 1.5c1

c 1 = 8 in Av = (2 (1.5 c 1 ) + s 1 )1.5{c 1}
2 Avo = 4.5 c 1

Av = (2 (1.5 {8}) + 8 )12 = 384 in 2


=
0.2

4.5 {8}

= 288 in 2
1.5

Vb = 7

6 0.75

0.75 4000 (8 )

V b = 13.2 kips
Vcbg = Vcbg 384 (1.0)(1.0)(1.0)13.2 288 = 17.5 kips < 27.3 kips

Concrete breakout strength controls for Option (b). Because bolts in compression take the shear load, no tension-shear interaction check is required. Check shear strength against shear load. is 0.70 for shear strength in concrete against breakout. Note that the 0.6 penalty factor from D.3.6.3 applies here.

Nonductile V cbg = (0.6 )V cbg

V cbg = 0.7 (0.6 )17.5 kips


> V u = 7.0 kips

V cbg = 7.4 kips


OK

39. STEP 8: Check concrete shear pryout


For pryout, check the tension cone for the two bolts closest to the edge. Note Ncbg computed in Step 4. Two bolts failure cone: Option (c): From Section D.6.3.1, kcp is 2 because hef > 2.5 in. This concludes the checks for the connection design. This connection is a ductile design for tension, and nonductile for shear.

N cbg = 46.8 kips

(2 bolts )
(D-28)

V cpg = k cp N cbg

Vcpg = 2 (46.8) = 93.6 kips > 27.3 kips

Ok for pryout but because nonductile in shear, apply the 0.6 penalty.

Vcpg = 0.7 (0.6)93.6 kips Vcpg = 39.3 kips > Vu = 7.0 kips

Vcpg = (0.6 )Vcpg

84

CODE SECTION STEP 9:


1. D.7 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. D.7.3 7. 8. 9 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

DESIGN PROCEDURE Check for Tension-Shear Interaction


Note that when concrete failure controls (that is, nonductile failure), there is no interaction between tension and shear (see Section 7). The tension-shear interaction is therefore checked on the steel strength and load on two bolts. Nub is the tension taken by two bolts

CALCULATION

Vu Vu N ub

= 7.0 kips

(applied load )

= 7.0 kips 3.50 kips = 3.50 kips if applied load is reduced by friction = 15.5 kips

Vn = 15.39 kips (including friction ) Vn = 12.09 kips (excluding friction ) N n = N s = 29.06 kips

Note that from observation, Section D.7.1 and D.7.2 do not govern. Also note that the friction between the base plate may be used to directly reduce the shear load on the connection, or may be neglected preferably for a new design interaction ratio considering both scenarios presented

N ub V 15.5 7 + u = + = 1.11 < 1.20 N n Vn 29.06 12.09

OK for the case where friction is not considered.


N ub V 15.5 3.50 + u = + = 0.82 < 1.20 N n Vn 29.06 12.09 OK for the case where friction is considered.

85

1 STEP 10:
1. Given 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Step 1 10. Step 4 11. Step 5 12. Step 6 13. 14. Step 2 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Step 7 20. 21. Step 8 Design concrete shear breakout strength (includes the 0.6 penalty because concrete controls) Design concrete shear pryout strength (includes the 0.6 penalty because concrete controls) Design steel shear strength (includes grout and compression effects) Design steel shear strength (excludes compression effects)

Summary
Applied load on the embed attachment: Vu = 7 kips e = 18 in. (height of stub column above surface of concrete) Mu = Vu x e = 126.0 in.-kips Nu = 3.0 kips
N ub Vub

Resulting applied load on critical two bolts: Design steel tensile strength Design concrete tension breakout strength Design concrete tension pullout strength Design concrete side blowout strength

= 15.5 kips = 7 kips

N s = 29.06 kips (two bolts ) N cbg = 32.76 kips


N png = 49.3 kips
N sb = NA

Vn = 15.39 kips Vn = 12.09 kips

Vcbg = 7.4 kips Vcpg = 39.3 kips

22. iAnchor material is ASTM F1554 Gr 36. It has a tensile elongation of 23%, reduction in area of 40%, and meets the 23. definition of a ductile steel element given in D.1 (fut = 58 ksi < 1.9fy = 1.9 * 36 = 64 ksi). 24. iiSee Appendix A for recommended hole sizes for base plates, taken from AISC Design Guide 1. (American Institute 25. of Steel Construction, Column Base Plates, Design Guide 1, AISC, Chicago, Ill.) 26. iii factor for concrete shear breakout, specified in Section D.4.4c Condition B, is assumed to convert 27. nominal shear strength resulting from friction between the base plate and the concrete to design strength. 28. iv American Institute of Steel Construction, AISC-LRFD Manual of Steel Construction, Load Resistance 29. Factor Design, V. 2, 2nd edition, Chicago, Ill., pp. 11-59.

86

hef

1.5hef

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Example B4(a)Four-stud embedded plate in thin slab, tension only


Describe the checks required to assure splitting failure does not occur.
Given: Concrete edges c1 = 10 in. c2 = 10 in. h = 7-1/2 in. s1, s2 = 6 in. = 1/2 in. = 5 in.

d0 hef

Concrete material fc = 4000 psi Stud Material (A108)i: fy = 51 ksi fut = 65 ksi Plate: Fy = Load: Nu = 36 ksi 18 kips

Where Nu is the applied factored external load using load factors from Appendix C of the code. Assumptions: Concrete is cracked -factors are based on Condition B in D.4.5 of the code (no supplementary reinforcement)
C2 1.5hef

S2

1.5hef

C2
C1 1.5hef S1
1.5

1.5hef

S2 Nu

1.5hef

AN

SECTION AA

87

1 CODE SECTION 1. STEP 1:


2. D.8.1 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Minimum center-to-center spacing for cast-in anchors (anchors are not torqued)

CALCULATION
s 4d0 d0 = 1/2 in. 4d0 = 4 * (1/2) = 1.5 in. s = 6 in. > 2.0 in. Given OK

Check the required spacing to preclude splitting failure

8. STEP 2:
9. D.8.2 10. 11. 7.7 12. 13.

Check for minimum edge distance to preclude splitting failure


Minimum edge distance for cast-in anchors Minimum cover for No. 5 bar and smaller cmin = c1 = c2 = 10 in. Cover required = 1.5 in. cmin = 10 in. > 1.5 in. OK

14. STEP 3: Check for minimum slab thickness to preclude splitting failure
15. D.8.5 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. The value of hef for an expansion or undercut post-installed anchor shall not exceed the greater of either 2/3 of the member thickness or the member thickness less 4 in. No guidance is given for cast-in anchors. Therefore, assume no additional check is required for this example 7-1/2 in. slab OK for cast-in stud

23. STEP 4: Summary


Step 1/ D.8.1 Step 2/ D.8.2 Step 2/ 7.7 Step 3/ D.8.5 Step 3/ D.8.5 29. Minimum spacing for cast-in anchors Minimum edge distance Minimum cover for No. 5 bar and smaller hef Minimum slab thickness: No code requirement for cast-in anchors s = 6 in. 4d0 = 4 * 1/2 = 2.0 in. cmin = 10 in.

Cover required = 1.5 in. < 10 in. 5 in.

30. iStud material is A108, material properties per AWS D1.1, 2004, Table 7.1, Type B stud, yield strength 31. = 51 ksi, tensile strength = 65 ksi. It has elongation of 20% and reduction in area of 50%, and meets 32. the definition of a ductile steel element given in D.1, and meets the tensile strength requirements of 33. D.5.1.2 and D.6.2.1.2: fut 1.9 fy (65 1.9 * 51.0 = 96.9 ksi).

88

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

Example B4(b)Four-stud rigid embedded plate in thin slab, tension only


Design an embedment using post-installed anchors.
Given: Concrete edges c1 = c2 = 10 in. s1 = s2 = 6 in. h = 7.5 in. Concrete material fc = 4000 psi Stud material (A108)i fy = 50 ksi fut = 60 ksi Plate 3 x 3 x 5/8 in. thick Fy = 36 ksi Loads Nu = 18 kips Where Nu is the applied factored external load using load factors from Appendix C of the code. Assumptions: Concrete is cracked -factors are based on Condition B in D.4.5 of the code (no supplementary reinforcement)

CODE SECTION
45. D.4.1.1 46. D.5.1.2 47. 48. 49. D.3.6.1 50. D.4.5 51.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

44. STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the anchor


Equate the external factored load to the internal design strength and solve for the required steel area of the stud. Assume embedment will be designed as ductile in accordance with D.3.6.1 (in Step 2). Therefore: = 0.85 for tension. Equation No. (D-1) (D-3)

Nn Nu Nn = Ns = nAsefut Nu = 18 = nAsefut = 0.85 * 4.0 * Ase * 60 kips

89

CODE SECTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. D.5.1.2 12. 13.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Calculate nominal steel strength of selected stud. Effective Anchor diameter area, Ase in.2 1/4 0.049 3/8 0.110 Calculate the nominal steel strength Ns.

CALCULATION
Ase = Nu / nfut min Ase = 0.088 in.2 required

Use four 3/8 in. diameter studs Ase = 0.110 in.2 > 0.088 in.2 Ns = nAsefut (D-3) = 4.0 * 0.110* 60 = 26.4 kips fut =60 1.9fy or 125 ksi fut =60 1.9fy = 1.9*50 = 95 ksi OK

Check that the material tensile and yield strengths meet requirements of D.5.1.2

14. STEP 2: Determine required embedment length for the anchor to prevent concrete 15. breakout failure in tension
16. D.5.2 17. D.3.6.1 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. D.5.2.1 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. D.5.2.5 34. D.5.2.6 35. D.5.2.7 36. 37. D.5.2.2 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. Table 6, Calculate the required embedment depth for the stud to prevent concrete breakout failure. The depth will be selected so that the stud will be governed by the strength of the ductile steel element. This will produce a ductile embedment and justify the use of the factor for steel used previously. The requirements for a ductile design are given in D.3.6.1. To prevent concrete breakout for tension load requires that: 0.85 * Ncb Ns. Concrete breakout strength for an anchor group: For a four-stud group away from edge: See Table A1 Modification factors for: Edge effects 2 Concrete cracking 3 Modification post-installed cp,N k = 17 for post-installed anchors

From Step 1: Ns = 26.4 kips 0.85* Ncbg = Ns. Ncbg = Ns/0.85 = 26.4/0.85 = 31.05 kips Ncbg= AN/AN0 2 3 cp,N Nb

AN 12 3 cp , N , N b AN 0
= 1.96 = 1.0 = 1.4 =1
1 = k fc' hef.5 lbs (D-7) 1 = 17 ( 4000)hef.5 = 1075 hef1.5 lbs = 1.08 hef1.5 kips

(D-4)

(D-10)

(D-7)

Determine required embedment lengthii, hef reqd:

Ncbg 13.84 hef1.5 hef reqd

= 13.84 kips = 1.96 * 1.0 * 1.4 * 1 * 1.08 = 4.78 in.

Use 3/8 x 5 in. long stud Total length of a stud L, before weld, is equal to hef provided = 5 - .187 + .375

90

CODE SECTION
1.Appendix A 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. D.3.6.1 8. 9. 10. D.4.1.2 11. 12 13.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
the embedment length plus the head thickness plus allowance for burn off. Standard length and head dimensions are given by the manufacturer. Typical values are given in Table 6, Appendix A. Calculate Ncb using hef provided Final check: a) Ductility: b) Strength

CALCULATION
- burn off (0.125 in.) = 5.06 in. > 4.78 in. OK

Ncbg =1.96 * 1.4 * 1.08 * 51.5 = 33.13 kips 0.85 * Ncbg Ns 0.85 * 33.13 = 28.16 > 26.4 kips Ncbg Nu 0.75 * 33.13 = 24.85 > 18 kips OK OK

14. STEP 3: Check pullout strength of anchor


15. D.5.3 16. D.3.6.1 17. 18. 19. D.5.3.1 20. 21. 22. D.5.3.4 23. 24. 25. 26. D.5.3.5 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. D.3.6.1 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. Calculate the pullout strength of the stud in tension in accordance with D.5.3. Design embedment as ductile in accordance with D.3.6.1. Concrete is cracked per problem statement. Calculate pullout strength of anchor.

Npn = 4Np 4Np = 4Abrg8fc =4Abrg * 8 * 4 = 128 Abrg 4 = 1.0 Abrg = * (0.75 2 0.3752)/4 = 0.33 in.2 Npn = 1.0 * 128 * 0.33 = 42.4 kips

(D-14) (D-14) (D-15)

4 = 1.0 for cracked concrete. Calculate the bearing area. From manufacturer data, stud head diameter is 0.750 in. for a 3/8 in. diameter stud (see also Table 6 in Appendix A).

Design embedment as ductile, in accordance with D.3.6.1: 0.85 Npn Ns

0.85Npn = 0.85 * 42.4 = 36.04 kips > Ns = 26.4 kips Therefore, ductile OK

Use 3/8 in. diameter x 5 in. long stud Use standard stud length OK

43. STEP 4: Check concrete side-face blowout


44. D.5.4 45. 46. Because this stud is far away from an edge, side-face blowout Nsb will not be a factor, and will not be checked in this example. N/A

91

CODE SECTION

DESIGN PROCEDURE

CALCULATION

1. STEP 5: Summary
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. D.4.1.2 13. 14. Applied load Steel strength (Step 1) Concrete breakout strength (Step 2) Concrete pullout strength (Step 3) Concrete side face-blowout strength (Step 4) Design strength of stud Nu = 18 kips Ns = 0.8 * 26.4 = 21.12 kips Ncbg = 0.75 * 33.13 = 24.85 kips Npn =0 .75 * 42.4 = 36.04 kips Nsb = N/A Nn = min (Ns ,Ncb ,Npn) = min (21.12,24.85,36.04) = 21.12 kips > Nu = 18 kips

OK

15. STEP 6: Check plate thickness


16. AISC 17. 18. 19.

Because the load is applied directly over the stud, the only requirement on plate thickness is that it satisfies the minimum thickness required for stud welding.

Stud welding of 3/8 in. diameter studs is acceptable on 5/8 in. thick plate per D.6.2.3. OK

20. iStud material is A108, material properties per AWS D1.1, 2002, Table 7.1, Type B stud, yield strength = 21. 51 ksi, tensile strength = 65 ksi. It has elongation of 20% and reduction in area of 50%, meets the 22. definition of a ductile steel element given in D.1, and meets the tensile strength requirements of D.5.1.2 23. and D.6.1.2: fut 1.9fy (65 1.9 * 51.0 = 96.9 ksi). 24. ii In the above example, the effective embedment length hef is taken to the face of the concrete. If the 25. plate was larger than the projected surface area, then the embedment length would exclude the 26. thickness of the embedded plate.

92

1 2
Material Grade or Type

Table 1 MATERIALS FOR HEADED AND THREADED ANCHORS1


Diameter (in.) Tensile Strength Min. (ksi) Yield Strength, Min. (ksi) Method Elongation, Min. (%) Length Reduction of Area, Min. (%) ACI 349 Ductility Criterion

Comments
Structural Welding Code Steel, Section 7, covers welded headed or welded bent studs. AWS D1.1 requires studs to be made from colddrawn bar stock conforming to the requirements of ASTM A108. ASTM F1554, Standard Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and 105-ksi Yield Strength is the preferred material specification for anchors. *Diameters larger than 2 in. (up to 4 in.) are available, but the reduction of area will vary for Grade 55. ASTM A193, Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for HighTemperature Service: Grade B7 is an alloy steel for use in high-temperature service. ASTM A307, Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60000 PSI Tensile Strength: ACI 349 specifies that elements meeting ASTM A307 shall be considered ductile. Note that Grade C conforms to tensile properties for ASTM A36. ASTM A36, Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel: Because ACI 318 considers ASTM A307 to be ductile, A36 will also qualify because it is the basis for ASTM A307 Grade C. ASTM A449, Standard Specification for Quenched and Tempered Steel Bolts and Studs: This specification is for general high-strength applications.

Welded Studs AWS D1.1:2004 ASTM A29-05 / A 108-03 ASTM F1554-04 2 (HD, T)

B 1010 1020

1/2 to 1

65

51

0.2%

20

2 in.

50

Ductile

36 55 105

1/4 to 4 2* 1/4 to 3 2-1/2

58 75 125 125 115 100 60 58

36 55 105 105 95 75 36

0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%

23 21 15 16 16 18 18 23

2 in. 2 in. 2 in. 4D 4D 4D 2 in. 2 in.

40 30 45 50 50 50

Ductile *Ductile Ductile Ductile Ductile Ductile Ductile Ductile

ASTM A193-05 (T)

B7

2-1/2 to 4 Over 4 to 7 1/4 to 4 1/4 to 4

ASTM A307-04 (Gr. A: HD) (Gr. C: T) ASTM A36-05 (T) ASTM A449-04b (HD, T)

A C

To 8 1/4 to 1

58 120 105 90

36 92 81 58

0.2% 0.2% 0.2%

23 14 14 14

2 in. 4D 4D 4D

35 35 35

Ductile Ductile Ductile Ductile

Over 1 to 1-1/2 Over 11/2 to 3

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Notes: 1. The materials listed are commonly used for concrete fasteners (anchors). Although other materials may be used (for example, ASTM A 193 for high temperature applications and ASTM A 320 for low temperature applications), those listed are preferred for normal use. Structural steel bolting materials, such as ASTM A 325 and A 490, are not typically available in the lengths needed for concrete fastening applications. Anchor type availabilities are denoted as follows: HD = headed bolt, and T = threaded bolt.

93

EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES APPENDIX A - TABLES

ACI 349.2R-XX

Table 2 Threaded fastener dimensions 1


Diameter2 d0, in. 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.500 1.750 2.000

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Threads per inch n 20 16 13 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 5 4.5

Effective area Gross3 AD in.2 0.049 0.110 0.196 0.307 0.442 0.601 0.785 0.994 1.227 1.485 1.767 2.405 3.142 Effective4 Ase in.2 0.032 0.078 0.142 0.226 0.334 0.462 0.606 0.763 0.969 1.16 1.41 1.90 2.50

Nominal steel strength Ns Stud5 Threaded6 kips 3.2 7.2 12.8 19.9 28.7 39.1 51.1 64.6 79.8 96.5 114.9 156.3 204.2 kips 1.8 4.5 8.2 13.1 19.4 26.8 35.1 44.3 56.2 67.3 81.5 110.2 144.9

Notes 1. Table taken from AISC, Manual of Steel Construction 2. Concrete breakout strength is limited to anchor diameter no greater than 2 in. and length no greater than 25 in. (D.4.2.2) 3. Use Gross Area, AD, for studs 4. Use Effective Area, A se, for threaded anchors (Note - Ase is same as A K in AISC) Ase = 0.7854*(d0-(0.9743/n))2 5. Ns = AD*fut; fut = 65 ksi; See Table 1 for other materials 6. Ns = Ase*fut; fut = 58 ksi; See Table 1 for other materials A108 65 fut (ksi) F1554 Gr. 36 58

94

EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES APPENDIX A - TABLES

ACI 349.2R-XX

Table 3(a) Required embedment for ductile behavior, free field, single anchor
1

F1554 Grade 36

Ductility factor Fd
Ns = Ase*fut

0.85 Required embedment depth hef for ductile behavior


1

2 3

Nominal bolt diameter d 0,

Bolt areas Gross area of bolt, AD in. 0.049 0.110 0.196 0.307 0.442 0.601 0.785 0.994 1.227 1.485 1.767 2.405 3.142
2

fut ksi 58 kips 1.8 4.5 8.2 13.1 19.4 26.8 35.1 44.3 56.2 67.3 81.5 110.2 144.9 3000 in. 1.4 2.5 3.8 5.2 6.7 8.3 10.0 11.6 13.6 15.4 17.5 21.3 25.6

Concrete strength, psi 4000 in. 1.3 2.3 3.4 4.7 6.1 7.6 9.1 10.6 12.4 14.0 15.9 19.4 23.3 5000 in. 1.2 2.1 3.2 4.4 5.7 7.0 8.4 9.8 11.5 13.0 14.7 18.0 21.6 6000 in. 1.1 2.0 3.0 4.1 5.3 6.6 7.9 9.2 10.8 12.2 13.9 16.9 20.3 8000 in. 1.0 1.8 2.7 3.7 4.8 6.0 7.2 8.4 9.8 11.1 12.6 15.4 18.5

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 23 24

Effective 2 area, Ase in.2 0.032 0.078 0.142 0.226 0.334 0.462 0.606 0.763 0.969 1.16 1.41 1.90 2.50

in. 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.500 1.750 2.000

Notes: 1.5 1. FdNb = Ns; Fd = 0.85; Nb = 24(fc').5*hef ; hef = (Ns/(0.85*24*fc'.5)2/3 2. Ase taken from Table 2.

95

EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES APPENDIX A - TABLES

ACI 349.2R-XX

Table 3(b) Required embedment for ductile behavior, free field, single anchor
1

F1554 Grade 105

Ductility factor Fd
Ns = Ase*fut fut ksi 105 kips

0.85 Required embedment depth hef for ductile behavior


1

2 3 4 5

Nominal bolt diameter d0 in.

Bolt areas Gross area of bolt AD, in.


2

Concrete strength, psi 3000 in. 4000 in. 5000 in. 6000 in. 8000 in.

Effective 2 area Ase , in.


2

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 23

0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.500 1.750 2.000

0.049 0.110 0.196 0.307 0.442 0.601 0.785 0.994 1.227 1.485 1.767 2.405 3.142

0.032 0.078 0.142 0.226 0.334 0.462 0.606 0.763 0.969 1.16 1.41 1.90 2.50

3.3 8.2 14.9 23.7 35.1 48.5 63.6 80.1 101.8 121.8 147.6 199.4 262.3

2.1 3.8 5.6 7.7 10.0 12.3 14.8 17.3 20.2 22.8 25.9 31.7 38.1

1.9 3.4 5.1 7.0 9.0 11.2 13.4 15.7 18.4 20.7 23.6 28.8 34.6

1.8 3.2 4.7 6.5 8.4 10.4 12.5 14.6 17.1 19.2 21.9 26.7 32.1

1.6 3.0 4.5 6.1 7.9 9.8 11.7 13.7 16.1 18.1 20.6 25.2 30.2

1.5 2.7 4.1 5.5 7.2 8.9 10.7 12.4 14.6 16.5 18.7 22.9 27.4

Notes: 1.5 1. FdNb = Ns; Fd = 0.85; Nb = 24(fc').5*hef ; hef = (Ns/(0.85*24*fc'.5)2/3 2. Ase taken from Table 2.

96

EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES APPENDIX A - TABLES

ACI 349.2R-XX

Table 3(c) Required embedment for ductile behavior, free field, single anchor
1

Stud - fut 65

Ductility Factor: Fd 0.85


Ns = Ase*fut Required embedment depth hef for ductile behavior
1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 23

Nominal bolt diameter d0 in. 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.500 1.750 2.000 Notes:

Bolt areas Gross area of bolt AD, in.


2

fut ksi 105 kips 5.2 11.6 20.6 32.2 46.4 63.1 82.5 104.4 128.9 155.9 185.6 252.6 329.9 3000 in. 2.8 4.8 7.0 9.4 12.0 14.7 17.6 20.6 23.7 26.9 30.2 37.1 44.3

Concrete strength, psi 4000 in. 2.5 4.3 6.3 8.5 10.9 13.4 16.0 18.7 21.5 24.4 27.4 33.7 40.3 5000 in. 2.3 4.0 5.9 7.9 10.1 12.4 14.8 17.4 20.0 22.7 25.5 31.3 37.4 6000 in. 2.2 3.8 5.5 7.5 9.5 11.7 14.0 16.3 18.8 21.4 24.0 29.5 35.2 8000 in. 2.0 3.4 5.0 6.8 8.6 10.6 12.7 14.8 17.1 19.4 21.8 26.8 32.0

Effective 2 area Ase , in.


2

0.049 0.110 0.196 0.307 0.442 0.601 0.785 0.994 1.227 1.485 1.767 2.405 3.142

0.032 0.078 0.142 0.226 0.334 0.462 0.606 0.763 0.969 1.16 1.41 1.90 2.50

1. FdNb = Ns; Fd = 0.85; Nb = 24(fc').5*hef ; hef = (Ns/(0.85*24*fc'.5)2/3 2. Ase taken from Table 2.

1.5

97

EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES APPENDIX A - TABLES

ACI 349.2R-XX

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4(a) Anchor head and nut dimensions and concrete pullout strength (square head)
Ductility factor Fd

0.85

Concrete pullout strength, N p * Fd5 Nominal bolt diameter f'c (psi) Gross area of head AH3, based on width F Height H, in. 0.188 0.250 0.313 0.438 0.500 0.625 0.688 0.750 0.875 0.938 1.000 in.2 0.14 0.32 0.56 0.88 1.27 1.72 2.25 2.85 3.52 4.25 5.06

Threaded anchor steel strength Ns6


ASTM F 1554 Gr 36 ASTM F 1554 Gr 55 Required f'c7 for ductile behavior psi 3800 4200 4300 4400 4500 4500 4600 4500 4700 4600 4700 ASTM F 1554 Gr 105 Required f' c7 for ductile behavior psi 5400 5800 6000 6100 6300 6400 6400 6400 6500 6500 6600

Bolt areas

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

d0, in. Head size 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.500 1.750 2.000 Nut Size 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625

Gross area of Effective area, bolt, AD Ase2 in.2 0.049 0.110 0.196 0.307 0.442 0.601 0.785 0.994 1.227 1.485 1.767 2.405 3.142
8

Width F, in. 0.375 0.563 0.750 0.938 1.125 1.313 1.500 1.688 1.875 2.063 2.250

Width C, in. 0.500 0.813 1.063 1.313 1.563 1.875 2.125 2.375 2.625 2.938 3.188

Net bearing area, Abrg4 in.2 0.09 0.21 0.37 0.57 0.82 1.12 1.46 1.85 2.29 2.77 3.30

3000 kips 2 4 7 12 17 23 30 38 47 56 67

4000 kips 2 6 10 16 22 31 40 50 62 75 90

5000 kips 3 7 12 19 28 38 50 63 78 94 112

6000 kips 4 8 15 23 34 46 60 76 93 113 134

8000 kips 5 11 20 31 45 61 80 101 124 151 179

fut = 58 kips 1.8 4.5 8.2 13.1 19.4 26.8 35.1 44.3 56.2 67.3 81.5

Required f' c7 for ductile behavior fut = 75 psi 3000 3200 3300 3400 3500 3500 3500 3500 3600 3600 3600 kips 2.4 5.9 10.6 17.0 25.1 34.6 45.4 57.2 72.7 87.0 105.4

fut = 105 kips 3.3 8.2 14.9 23.7 35.1 48.5 63.6 80.1 101.8 121.8 147.6

in.2 0.032 0.078 0.142 0.226 0.334 0.462 0.606 0.763 0.969 1.16 1.41 1.90 2.50 0.032 0.078 0.142 0.226

0.049 0.110 0.196 0.307

0.438 0.625 0.813 1.000

0.625 0.875 1.125 1.438

0.250 0.313 0.438 0.563

0.19 0.39 0.66 1.00

0.14 0.28 0.46 0.69

2.9 5.7 9.5 14.1

3.9 7.6 12.6 18.9

4.8 9.5 15.8 23.6

5.8 11.4 18.9 28.3

7.7 15.2 25.2 37.7

1.8 4.5 8.2 13.1

1900 2400 2600 2800

2.4 5.9 10.6 17.0

2500 3100 3400 3600

3.3 8.2 14.9 23.7

3500 4300 4700 5000

Notes: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Dimensions taken from AISC Steel Design Manual See Table 2 for definition of Ase AH = F2 or AH = 1.5F2tan30 Abrg = AH-AD Np=8f'cAbrg (D5.3.4); Fd=factor for ductile behavior (D.3.6.1) Ns = Asefut f'c req'd =f'c(Ns/NpFd) For other diameters, the nut dimensions match the head
98 d0

EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES APPENDIX A - TABLES

ACI 349.2R-XX

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4(b) Anchor head dimensions and concrete pullout strength (hex head)
Ductility factor Fd

0.85

Concrete pullout strength, Np * Fd5


Nominal bolt diameter Bolt areas Gross area of head AH3, based on width F Height H, in. 0.188 0.250 0.375 0.438 0.500 0.563 0.688 0.750 0.875 0.938 1.000 1.188 1.375 in.2 0.17 0.27 0.49 0.76 1.10 1.49 1.95 2.47 3.04 3.68 4.38 5.97 7.79 f'c (psi)

Threaded anchor steel strength Ns6


ASTM F 1554 Gr 36 ASTM F 1554 Gr 55 Required f'c7 for ductile behavior psi 3000 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5700 5700 5900 5800 5900 5900 5900 ASTM F 1554 Gr 105 Required f' c7 for ductile behavior psi 4200 7400 7500 7700 7900 8000 8000 8000 8200 8100 8300 8200 8300

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

d0, in. 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.500 1.750 2.000

Gross area of Effective area, bolt, AD Ase2 in.2 0.049 0.110 0.196 0.307 0.442 0.601 0.785 0.994 1.227 1.485 1.767 2.405 3.142 in.2 0.032 0.078 0.142 0.226 0.334 0.462 0.606 0.763 0.969 1.16 1.41 1.90 2.50

Width F, in. 0.438 0.563 0.750 0.938 1.125 1.313 1.500 1.688 1.875 2.063 2.250 2.625 3.000

Width C, in. 0.500 0.625 0.875 1.063 1.313 1.500 1.750 1.938 2.188 2.375 2.625 3.000 3.438

Net bearing area, Abrg4 in.2 0.12 0.16 0.29 0.45 0.65 0.89 1.16 1.47 1.82 2.20 2.62 3.56 4.65

3000 kips 2 3 6 9 13 18 24 30 37 45 53 73 95

4000 kips 3 4 8 12 18 24 32 40 49 60 71 97 127

5000 kips 4 6 10 15 22 30 40 50 62 75 89 121 158

6000 kips 5 7 12 19 27 36 47 60 74 90 107 145 190

8000 kips 6 9 16 25 36 48 63 80 99 120 142 194 253

fut = 58 kips 1.8 4.5 8.2 13.1 19.4 26.8 35.1 44.3 56.2 67.3 81.5 110.2 144.9

Required f' c7 for ductile behavior fut = 75 psi 2300 4100 4200 4200 4400 4400 4400 4400 4500 4500 4600 4500 4600 kips 2.4 5.9 10.6 17.0 25.1 34.6 45.4 57.2 72.7 87.0 105.4 142.5 187.4

fut = 105 kips 3.3 8.2 14.9 23.7 35.1 48.5 63.6 80.1 101.8 121.8 147.6 199.4 262.3

Notes: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Dimensions taken from AISC Steel Design Manual See Table 2 for definition of Ase AH = F2 or AH = 1.5F2tan30 Abrg = AH-AD Np=8f'cAbrg (D5.3.4); Fd=factor for ductile behavior (D.3.6.1) Ns = Asefut f'c req'd = f'c(Ns/NpFd)
d0

32 33 34 35 36 37

99

EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES APPENDIX A - TABLES

ACI 349.2R-XX

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4(c) Anchor head dimensions and concrete pullout strength (heavy hex)

Ductility factor F d

0.85

Concrete pullout strength, Np * Fd5


Nominal bolt diameter Bolt areas Gross area of head AH3, based on width F Height H, in. in.2 f'c (psi)

Threaded anchor steel strength Ns6


ASTM F 1554 Gr 36 ASTM F 1554 Gr 55 Required f'c7 for ductile behavior psi ASTM F 1554 Gr 105 Required f' c7 for ductile behavior psi

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

d0, in. 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.500 1.750 2.000

Gross area of Effective area, bolt, AD Ase2 in.2 0.049 0.110 0.196 0.307 0.442 0.601 0.785 0.994 1.227 1.485 1.767 2.405 3.142 in.2 0.032 0.078 0.142 0.226 0.334 0.462 0.606 0.763 0.969 1.16 1.41 1.90 2.50

Width F, in.

Width C, in.

Net bearing area, Abrg4 in.2

3000 kips

4000 kips

5000 kips

6000 kips

8000 kips

fut = 58 kips

Required f' c7 for ductile behavior fut = 75 psi kips

fut = 105 kips

0.875 1.063 1.250 1.438 1.625 1.813 2.000 2.188 2.375 2.750 3.125

1.000 1.250 1.438 1.688 1.875 2.063 2.313 2.500 2.750 3.500 3.625

0.375 0.438 0.500 0.563 0.688 0.750 0.875 0.938 1.000 1.188 1.375

0.66 0.98 1.35 1.79 2.29 2.85 3.46 4.14 4.88 6.55 8.46

0.47 0.67 0.91 1.19 1.50 1.85 2.24 2.66 3.12 4.14 5.32

10 14 19 24 31 38 46 54 64 85 108

13 18 25 32 41 50 61 72 85 113 145

16 23 31 40 51 63 76 90 106 141 181

19 27 37 48 61 76 91 108 127 169 217

25 36 50 65 82 101 122 145 170 225 289

8.2 13.1 19.4 26.8 35.1 44.3 56.2 67.3 81.5 110.2 144.9

2600.0 2900.0 3100.0 3300.0 3400.0 3500.0 3700.0 3700.0 3800.0 3900.0 4000.0

10.6 17.0 25.1 34.6 45.4 57.2 72.7 87.0 105.4 142.5 187.4

3400 3700 4000 4300 4400 4500 4800 4800 5000 5100 5200

14.9 23.7 35.1 48.5 63.6 80.1 101.8 121.8 147.6 199.4 262.3

4700 5200 5700 6000 6200 6400 6700 6700 7000 7100 7300

Notes: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Dimensions taken from AISC Steel Design Manual See Table 2 for definition of Ase AH = F2 or AH = 1.5F2tan30 Abrg = AH-AD Np=8f'cAbrg (D5.3.4); Fd=factor for ductile behavior (D.3.6.1) Ns = Asefut f'c req'd =f'c(Ns/NpFd)
d0

100

EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES APPENDIX A - TABLES

ACI 349.2R-XX

Table 5
1

Hardened washer dimensions1 and concrete pullout strength


Ductility factor F d 0.85

2 3

Hardened washers: SAE dimensions


5 6

Bolt Areas 4 Nominal bolt diameter Gross area of Effective 2 bolt AD, area, A se , in2 in2

Washer dimensions

Concrete pullout strength, Np * Fd

Threaded anchor steel strength Ns


ASTM F1554 Gr 36 Required f'c7 for ductile behavior psi ASTM F1554 Gr 55 Required f'c7 for ductile behavior ksi

f'c, psi Equivalent diameters OVERHANG

ASTM F1554 Gr 105 Required f'c7 for ductile behavior ksi

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 27

d0 in.

OD in.

ID in.

Thickness H, in.

Gross area of Extra thick head AH3, in2

Net bearing 4 area A brg , in2

Square

Hex

Heavy hex

Square

Hex

Heavy hex

3000 kips

4000 kips

5000 kips

6000 kips

8000 kips

fut = 58 k

fut = 75 k

fut = 105 k

0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.500 1.750 2.000

0.049 0.110 0.196 0.307 0.442 0.601 0.785 0.994 1.227 1.485 1.767 2.405 3.142

0.032 0.078 0.142 0.226 0.334 0.462 0.606 0.763 0.969 1.16 1.41 1.90 2.50

0.563 0.813 1.167 1.313 1.469 1.750 2.000 2.250 2.500 2.750 3.000 3.375 3.750

0.281 0.406 0.531 0.656 0.813 0.938 1.063 1.250 1.375 1.500 1.625 1.875 2.125

.051/.080 .051/.080 .074/.121 .074/.121 .108/.160 .108/.160 .108/.160 .136/.177 .136/.192 .136/.213 .153/.213 .153/.213 .153/.213

0.25 0.52 1.07 1.35 1.69 2.41 3.14 3.98 4.91 5.94 7.07 8.95 11.04

0.20 0.41 0.87 1.05 1.25 1.80 2.36 2.98 3.68 4.45 5.30 6.54 7.90

0.42 0.63 0.85 1.06 1.27 1.48 1.69 1.90 2.12 2.33 2.54

0.46 0.59 0.79 0.98 1.18 1.38 1.58 1.77 1.97 2.17 2.36 2.76 3.15

0.92 1.12 1.31 1.51 1.71 1.90 2.10 2.30 2.49 2.89 3.28

0.07 0.09 0.16 0.13 0.10 0.13 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.21

0.05 0.11 0.19 0.16 0.14 0.19 0.21 0.24 0.27 0.29 0.32 0.31 0.30

0.12 0.10 0.08 0.12 0.15 0.17 0.20 0.23 0.25 0.24 0.23

4 8 18 21 26 37 48 61 75 91 108 133 161

5 11 24 28 34 49 64 81 100 121 144 178 215

7 14 30 36 43 61 80 101 125 151 180 222 269

8 17 36 43 51 74 96 122 150 182 216 267 322

11 22 47 57 68 98 128 162 200 242 288 356 430

1.8 4.5 8.2 13.1 19.4 26.8 35.1 44.3 56.2 67.3 81.5 110.2 144.9

1400 1600 1400 1800 2300 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2300 2500 2700

2.4 5.9 10.6 17.0 25.1 34.6 45.4 57.2 72.7 87.0 105.4 142.5 187.4

1800 2100 1800 2400 2900 2800 2800 2800 2900 2900 2900 3200 3500

3.3 8.2 14.9 23.7 35.1 48.5 63.6 80.1 101.8 121.8 147.6 199.4 262.3

2500 3000 2500 3300 4100 4000 4000 4000 4100 4000 4100 4500 4900

.305/.375

Hardened washers: U.S standard dimensions Bolt Areas

Washer dimensions

Concrete pullout strength, Np * Fd

Threaded anchor steel strength Ns


ASTM F 1554 Gr 36 ASTM F 1554 Gr 55

28 Nominal bolt diameter f'c (ksi) ASTM F 1554 Gr 105 Require d f'c7 for ductile behavio r ksi 1300 1800 1700 1700 1900 2100 2300 2400 2600 2600 2800 2500 3000

29

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

d0 in. 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.500 1.750 2.000

Gross area of Effective bolt AD, area, A se2, 2 in2 in 0.049 0.032 0.110 0.078 0.196 0.142 0.307 0.226 0.442 0.334 0.601 0.462 0.785 0.994 1.227 1.485 1.767 2.405 3.142 0.606 0.763 0.969 1.160 1.405 1.899 2.50

OD in. 0.750 1.000 1.375 1.750 2.000 2.250 2.500 2.750 3.000 3.250 3.500 4.250 4.500

ID in. 0.313 0.438 0.375 0.656 0.813 0.938 1.063 1.250 1.375 1.500 1.625 1.875 2.125

Thickness H, in. .064/.080 .079/.093 .122/.146 .136/.160 .136/.160 .136/.160 .136/.192 .126/.192 .126/.192 .126/.192 .153/.213 .153/.213 .153/.213

Gross area of head AH3, 2 in. 0.44 0.79 1.48 2.41 3.14 3.98 4.91 5.94 7.07 8.30 9.62 14.19 15.90

Net bearing area A brg4, in.2 0.39 0.67 1.29 2.10 2.70 3.37 4.12 4.95 5.84 6.81 7.85 11.78 12.76

3000 kips 8 14 26 43 55 69 84 101 119 139 160 240 260

4000 kips 11 18 35 57 73 92 112 135 159 185 214 320 347

5000 kips 13 23 44 71 92 115 140 168 199 232 267 401 434

6000 kips 16 28 53 86 110 138 168 202 238 278 320 481 521

8000 kips 21 37 70 114 147 184 224 269 318 371 427 641 694

Require d f'c7 Require for 7 d f'c for ductile behavio ductile r behavior fut = 75 fut = 58 k ksi k ksi 1.8 700 2.4 900 4.5 1000 5.9 1300 8.2 900 10.6 1200 13.1 900 17.0 1200 19.4 1100 25.1 1400 26.8 1200 34.6 1500 35.1 44.3 56.2 67.3 81.5 110.2 144.9 1300 1300 1400 1500 1500 1400 1700 45.4 57.2 72.7 87.0 105.4 142.5 187.4 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 1800 2200

fut = 105 k 3.3 8.2 14.9 23.7 35.1 48.5 63.6 80.1 101.8 121.8 147.6 199.4 262.3

Notes: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Hardened Washers to S.A.E. Dimensions (Material = ASTM 563 ) See Table 2 for definition of A se AH = (OD)2/4 Abrg = AH-AD Np=8f'cAbrg (D5.3.4); Fd=0.85 for ductile behavior (D.3.6.1) Ns = Asefut f'c req'd = fcp(Ns/NpFd)

101