By Rasiel Suarez

Copyright © 2005 by Rasiel Suarez. All Rights Reserved. Dirty Old Books™

A tongue-in-cheek subsidiary of:
Dirty Old Coins, LLC PO Box 8996 Asheville, NC 28814-8996 USA www.dirtyoldbooks.com FAX 1-612-677-3842 No part of this book may be reproduced mechanically or otherwise without written permission from the Author. Brief excerpts may be published without prior authorization for the purposes of review and evaluation. Quantity discounts of this book are available. Requests to the Publisher should be directed in writing using the contact information provided above. Catalog number cross-referencing permission extended courtesy of Spink & Son, David R. Sear, David L. Vagi & Trustees of the British Museum. Photography credits listed in the end section. Typesetting by Publication Services, Inc. Font conversion provided by Applied Symbols. First Published January, 2005 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Suarez, Rasiel., 1969— ERIC st The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins / Rasiel Suarez—1 ed. Includes Index and Bibliographical references. 1. Numismatics. 2. Coins: Ancient. 3. Coins: Roman Imperial ISBN 0-9764664-0-6 Printed in Hong Kong, China Regal Printing Co., www.regalprinting.com.hk

For ERIC

Table of Contents Foreword Introduction About Roman Coins Denominations Coins of Other Ancient Cultures Identifying Roman Coins How To Use This Book Mintmarks Mint Map Pricing And Grading Bibliography Reference Catalogs Cited Imperial Catalog Coin Terms Used Glossary Rarity Tables Index of Rulers Photography Credits Additional Web Resources i ii iii iii viii xiii xiv xv xvii xviii xix xix 1 611 613 614 617 618 618

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Introduction
Roman imperial coins are probably the most studied and written about era in the field of ancient numismatics. It might be questioned why another book on the subject is necessary given the lopsided attention this part of history has already received. Many of these books will focus on a limited topic or time period and study it in depth while others attempt to tackle the entire length of the Roman empire. Some appeal to the casual history buff and others are written for and by scholars. And all of them, including this effort, suffer from being quickly outdated thanks to new discoveries of coins, historical data and analyses that constantly reshape old theories. The aim of this book is to provide first and foremost the collector of Roman coins with an easy to use guide to understand in as concise a manner as possible the corpus of money issued from the time of the first emperor to the last; a period in history spanning over half a millennium. Naturally, as user-friendliness is given top priority for the sake of the collector other users may be disappointed. The scholar will lament the exclusion of obscure issues, the historian will find little new research, the investor and others concerned primarily with the worth of their coins will find this book nearly useless and those whose interest lies in any subject not covered will rightfully feel disenfranchised. On the other hand Roman coin collectors will at long last find in a single book a comprehensive account of nearly every variant of legend and type known for each of the over two hundred emperors, empresses and other imperials in whose name coins were minted during this time. In addition, a full-fledged catalog of known coins is also provided with each entry having a unique number to facilitate reference among collectors and students. Traditionally, coin guides for ancient coins tend to have full pages of coin photographs at the end of the book. While a more efficient and cost-effective approach, I have chosen instead to include the photographs at the end of each emperor‟s section to make them more accessible. Every feature, again, has been crafted to make this enormous amount of information as easy to understand as possible in as condensed a format as is practical. Just like with any other reference book, the data herein could not possibly have been compiled without extensive help from many others whose interests and expertise are as diverse as the coins themselves. Of particular importance in this endeavor must be noted The Roman Imperial Coinage series of books which is largely regarded as the most definitive and certainly most consulted work on Roman coins. This 13-volume set took the better part of a century to complete and is, in fact, an ongoing project with the collaboration of many of the world‟s top numismatists. Spink and Son, its publishers, have graciously allowed for the cross-referencing of their catalog numbers to the listings in this book. David Sear, an author who has devoted his life to the study of ancient coins has also allowed for similar cross-referencing rights to his own highly acclaimed books. Many, many friends, too numerous to list have provided photos of their coins and sometimes the coins themselves for inclusion. The Swiss numismatic firm of Leu donated hundreds of dollars worth of old catalogs, always a prime ground for research. The British Museum provided photographs of some of the world‟s rarest coin photographs free of charge. And I am equally indebted to CNG, Numismatik Lanz, Münzen & Medaillen and many other firms and scores of individuals for making a wealth of information accessible over the last two years it has taken to put all of it neatly across the space of a few hundred pages.

Co-founder Dirty Old Coins, LLC

Rasiel Suarez

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About Roman Coins
One of the most recognizable cultural traits of the Romans was how systematic and methodical they were. In war, politics and art the Romans preferred a strict discipline and adherence to their rules. Naturally, this emphasis on consistency carried over into their currency policies. For hundreds of years millions of coins were handmade by untold numbers of craftsmen and almost every one is instantly recognizable to the collector or student as Roman. It is remarkable that in good times and in bad they could be counted on to make one coin look nearly identical to the next. Even to the bitter end, when coins were little more than metal scraps with scribbled on designs they retained a „look and feel‟ uniquely theirs. Asides from aesthetics the Romans were consistent as well with the content they chose to portray on their coins. From them we inherit the legacy of mating a person‟s face to the obverse, appropriately referred to as „heads‟ informally, with a design on the back. Many of the themes they chose to put on these reverses have also become staple ingredients in modern western culture as well. The Romans were masters of propaganda and learned early on how to exploit every element of a coin‟s design to further the imperial message of a strong and cohesive empire. To this end they employed a vast number of symbols, insignia and inscriptions to drive home the point. Most Roman coins feature religious or military themes. Issues of a civic or purely secular nature are relegated to a secondary role and the few times they appear they are still meant to glorify the pomp and glory of the emperor and, by extension, the Roman people. Ancient coins have been collected since antiquity as ambassadors to the past. Augustus, the first Roman emperor, is said to have amassed a world-class coin collection specimens of which he often gave to dignitaries. So many kings and nobles from the middle ages on collected ancient coins that the collecting of coins itself became known as the “hobby of kings”. Nowadays there are millions of coin collectors the world over and many are discovering that owning an ancient coin need not be hopelessly expensive. European metal detectorists are finding coins in record numbers of every culture that made them. While the silver and gold ones are sold directly to dealers many of the coppers, which are found in the hundreds of thousands every year, are individually too difficult and/or damaged to restore. These are therefore often sold in their as-found state for as little as a dollar or two each. Any would-be archaeologist then has the chance to restore, attribute and value their ancient coin and in the process have a lot of fun learning about ancient history.

Denominations
Roman coins came in many different denominations. The weight and metal type of each coin determined how much purchasing power each coin had. Eventually, coin designs would to a certain extent explicitly state the value of the coin but it is uncertain whether these official values were honored by merchants and the public in general. The absolute base unit in Roman coinage is the Uncia, a small copper coin the size of a small button which was never struck in large quantities and is today very rare. 16 Unciae are equivalent to an As which is the first commercially functional coin. In turn, 16 Asses make up the famous Denarius, a silver, U.S.-dime sized coin which circulated for hundreds of years and influenced coinage in just about every successive Western culture up into modern times. Although a fascinating subject, it‟s disappointing to learn that we lack a good understanding of what the actual value of Roman coins were. Necessary food staples were often heavily subsidized by the government to ensure their accessibility. The emperor and his officials understood that a hungry citizenry was a grave liability. What records survive, therefore, tend to point out these set prices but the going rate for other luxuries is largely speculative. For what it‟s worth, a rough sketch of salaries would have a gold Aureus or Solidus as a month‟s pay for an ordinary soldier. And a Denarius or two could be earned in a day by a skilled laborer. In turn, a family meal consisting of bread, olive oil, wine and perhaps some meat would cost a Denarius or one of its equivalents. For early imperial coinage the relative values are as follows: 1 Aureus = 2 Quinarii = 25 Denarii = 100 Sestertii = 200 Dupondii = 400 Asses = 800 Quadrans = 6,400 Unciae Considering the expense in labor and materials that was borne in the production of the small-change Quadrans and Uncia it‟s not hard to see why these denominations existed more as a theoretical currency keystone than as real coins.

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The first crack in the Roman economical machine appeared under the reign of Nero who cut back the purity of the Denarius from 98% fineness (essentially as pure as could possibly have been refined on a large scale basis back then) to 93%. The debasement did not link up with an official decrease in the nominal value of the coin itself so that the extra 5% silver was clear and free profit for the emperor. However, it took virtually no time for the public at large to see that the old Denarius was intrinsically worth more than the new one. This created an immediate hoarding of the old silver coins which could now be melted and then sold as scrap. In fact, finding today a pre-reform Denarius is considerably more difficult and expensive than Nero‟s new Denarii. From then on each new emperor lowered the fineness of the Denarii a percent or two so that by the time of Gordian III, the last emperor to issue significant quantities of Denarii, a Denarius was actually no more than about 35% silver by weight. Another unintended effect was that as the silver coins became cheaper the copper ones became more expensive. After all, each Denarius was now being made by more and more copper to fill in for the missing silver. What was happening was that a 3 gram silver coin was 2 grams copper but the whole coin was still valued at several multiples more than the Sestertii, Dupondii and Asses which weighed between 10-30 grams a piece. Therefore, rather than the government risk striking copper coins which would only wind up being melted it chose to not strike them much in the first place. Gold on the other hand was considered sacred. As much as it may have pained each emperor to part with his dwindling supplies of its most precious metal no soldier would risk his life unless it was for real gold. Not until the situation had grown into a series of deep crises in the middle of the third century that emperors decided to tinker with the next best thing: their weight. The Aureus which had traditionally weighed between 7-8 grams each went as far down as just over 2 grams under the reign of Gallienus. How the paymasters kept a straight face on pay day is anyone‟s guess and it‟s quite possible that the scam was masqueraded as salary increases by paying two or three of these Aurei while, of course, the total outlay of metal was still below the traditional amount. As the fineness in silver was steadily lowered, and the weight of the Aureus became erratic, new denominations were introduced to further blur the government‟s cost-cutting schemes and attempts to curb rampant inflation. The silver Antoninianus was introduced around the year 215 under Caracalla at a nominal value of two Denarii and, for gold, the Binio was introduced a few years later as a double Aureus. Since gold coins were never a major part of everyday commerce the Binio was a nonstarter but the Antoninianus drove the Denarius into extinction within 30 years of its introduction. And it, too, would suffer severe debasement and reduction in weight. By the mid-250‟s the Ant reached the critical low point in the silver-copper alloy, about 18%, where it no longer resembled a silvery coin even when freshly minted. Debasing this coin further served no practical purpose because it was blatantly obvious it was no longer silver. A decision was therefore made to stop making silver coins altogether and simply apply a silver wash to the Ants as a last processing step of the coin blanks. When new, these coins looked much better than the previous 18% silver Ants. However, shortly after entering circulation the silver coating wore off across the high points of the coin to reveal the copper beneath. Many such coins continued to circulate long after the silvering was fully gone and yet they were still officially considered silver coins! By the early 290‟s the Roman economy was in a state of near-collapse as the old currency value schedules were maintained relative to a silver coinage that existed only as a dim memory. The emperor Diocletian set into motion a series of monetary reforms meant to rectify the situation. The Antoninianus was suspended and new denominations introduced including a new Denarius of high silver content termed “Argenteus” (but officially worth 2.5 Denarii each) and the Follis which had a negligible amount of silver but was as hefty as an old As. The Aureus would be reborn under more predictable weights as well and the whole coinage system was overhauled from top to bottom in the hopes of stabilizing the economy. Some of the denominations caught on and some, specifically the Argenteus, would see a quick demise due to the chronic lack of silver. What little silver was initially breathed into the Follis was pulled and the weight, too, dwindled swiftly from a high of about 10g until it was a small copper coin of about 2-3g each within a few years‟ time. This reduced Follis enters the fourth century as the new de facto standard copper coin to serve the same general purpose as the Denarius of two centuries before (if not the actual buying power). Since it is unclear what the Romans of the time called it today‟s numismatists give it the generic term of a class three bronze or AE3 for short (AE is the abbreviation for Aeratus, Latin for copper).

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Even though during the fourth century the AE3 is king there are several other important denominations. After Diocletian‟s reforms settle into a new swing over the following years, a new gold standard is introduced under Constantine I with the flagship Solidus, a successor to the old Aureus which is now made to unerring precision at 72 to a Roman pound of gold, or about 4.4g a piece. It is so successful that it was still being made 500 years later under Byzantine emperors easily outlasting the Denarius itself and, possibly, any other denomination to this age. While the relationship between bronze coins and their silver and gold cousins are poorly understood the relative values between silver and gold are as follows: 1 Solidus = 2 Semisses = 3 Tremisses = 24 Siliquae The Siliqua is the last major successor to the old Denarius. It is thinner and lighter at only 2-3g each and never approaches the popularity of the Denarius. Except for rare occasions it is the one denomination that is not survived by the fall of the Roman empire itself in 476. While the gold and silver remain stable into the fifth century and beyond the last days of the Western half of the Roman empire see the bronze coinage shrink quickly into a morass of teeny coppers known as AE4‟s. They survive in large quantities today but prove difficult to identify due to careless minting methods and heavily debased alloys which fared poorly in the soil upon their loss or burial. The following table lists the most important denominations with rare fractions and multiples being omitted.

Main Roman Imperial Coin Denominations
Denomination Aureus Binio Quinarius Solidus Metal Gold Gold Gold Gold Weight 7-8g 5.5-6g 2.5-4g 4.4g Value 25 Denarii 2 Aurei ½ Aureus 24 Siliquae ½ Solidus ⅓ Solidus 9 Siliquae 4 Sestertii Circ. Dates c.200 BCE – 305 CE 251-310 c.200 BCE – 305 CE 310-c.963 Notes Weights fluctuate wildly mid-third century Weights fluctuate wildly mid-third century. Very rare The Solidus is reborn as Basil I‟s Histamenon Nomisma with same weight and purity until replaced in the 1040‟s by the Hyperpyron. th Rare prior to 6 century Scripulum is a measure of weight. Ancient name remains unknown. Extremely rare. Weights were never adhered to very strictly but typical Denarius in Augustan times was nd 3.8g dropping to 3.4g by 2 century and sometimes as low as 2g under the Severan dynasty. When first introduced in 211 BCE the Denarius was tariffed at 10 Asses and was retariffed to 16 Asses in 118 BCE. A denomination meant for use in the eastern provinces to mimic traditional silver coinage in the region but using Latin legends and imperial portraits. The name of this coin in antiquity is unknown. Present usage is named after Caracalla whose formal name was Antoninus and who first introduced this coin. The radiate bronze coins under Diocletian may be a separate denomination or simply a size-reduced Antoninianus. A severely debased Argenteus is minted in Trier from c.310-319. Note also that this coin is essentially the same as the light Miliarense. Rare

Semissis Tremissis 1-½ Scripulum Denarius

Gold Gold Gold Silver

2.25g 1.5g 1.7g 2.5-4g

310-c.867 c.380-c.867 310-c.380 211 BCE – 244 CE

Cistophoric Tetradrachms Antoninianus

Silver

10-12g

3 Denarii

27 BCE – 138 CE 215-285

Silver

3-5g

2 Denarii

Argenteus

Silver

3-4g

2-½ Denarii ½

c.290-c.310

Quinarius

Silver

1.3g-

211 BCE –

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Siliqua Silver 2g 1.5-3g Denarius th 1/24 Solidus c.230 CE 310 – c.650 Weights were erratic but steadily diminished over time from around 3g early th on to less than 2g by the 5 century. Although sporadically minted during Byzantine times it had been phased out of general production by the 460‟s. The Miliarense comes in three separate weight categories of uncertain value relative to the Siliqua or Solidus except as raw bullion weight. The “light” Miliarense of approximately 3.5g, a regular ~4.5g coin and the “heavy” miliarense of ~5.2g It is possible that the Sestertius continued to be struck in extremely limited quantities until Diocletian‟s reform in or around the year 285. However, after the Severan dynasty the Sestertius became increasingly scarce and underweight, occasionally falling to under 10g. Prior to 23 BCE the Sestertius existed as a rare denomination in silver. Its value however had always been fixed to a quarter of a Denarius. The Sestertius and the Dupondius are typically struck from Orichalcum, a brassy alloy. Using the convention of radiate crowns for double value, the double Sestertius is an exotic denomination begun under Trajan Decius. Some rare pieces have been noted weighing upwards of 44g but typical weights hover around 25g. The last double Sestertii were apparently minted during the reign of Aurelian at a rather emaciated weight of ~17g. From the year 64 forward emperors on the Dupondius are depicted with a radiate crown. This visual aid eases the distinction between it and the larger Sestertius and the smaller As. Empresses do not get a similar distinction until the 220‟s when a bust resting on a crescent was introduced, a feature which was never thoroughly consistent in use. It is often impossible to tell for certain whether a coin is a heavier than usual As or a light Dupondius on those coins that normally lack a radiate crown. Rare and often struck anonymously. Last issues were used in the outer provinces. Julian II introduces a large silvered bronze coin of ~8.5g, quite possibly a rebirth of the Follis. It is continued by Jovian and struck in very limited quantities by Valens & Valentinian I before disappearing. Large copper medals and so-called “contorniates” are minted sporadically from the early 300‟s and well into the 500‟s. They were

Miliarense

Silver

3.5g5.2g

~2 Siliquae

310-c.717

Sestertius

Bronze/ Brass

22-30g

¼ Denarius 2 Dupondii

23 BCE – c.275

Double Sestertius

Bronze

25-40g

2 Sestertii

251-274

Dupondius

Bronze/ Brass

11-15g

½ Sestertius

23 BCE – c.260

As

Copper/ Bronze Bronze Bronze Bronze

10-12g

½ Dupondius ½ As ½ Semis ?

c.280 BCE – c.275 c.210 BCE – c.180 CE c.210 BCE – c.180 CE 360‟s

Semis Quadrans AE1

2-3g 2.5-4g >25mm

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rare in their own time, struck for ceremonial purposes, as presentation pieces or other special occasions and unlikely to have entered circulation as money. The typical AE2 weighs 4-5g and is sometimes called a “Centenionalis” though the term is far from universally accepted. th AE2‟s from the 5 century are exceedingly rare but, strangely, seem to have had a little revival under Leo I and his wife Verina in the 450‟s. The greater part of extant ancient Roman coins fall under this category. Perhaps hundreds of millions were struck during the fourth century and seem to have served as the general-purpose coin in commerce of the day. They typically weigh about 3g each and were largely phased out of production by the last decade of this century but erratic production continued until Anastasius‟ reform in 498. The AE4 is to the fifth century what the AE3 was to the fifth. They are found today in large quantities but careless production processes, poor alloys and small size conspire against easy identification. This class of bronze is proposed to differentiate them from the larger AE4‟s th struck in the first half of the 4 century which were initially conceived as posthumous coins struck in honor of deified emperors and empresses and then as the very large issue in celebration of the refounding of Byzantium as Constantinople. The first mainstream AE4‟s appeared late in the 340‟s but were abandoned within a decade until 379 when the emperor Gratian authorized the minting of a small coin of about 12mm diameter. This smaller module would quickly eclipse the AE3 in popularity and is apparently the main engine of small commerce for the entire fifth century with larger bronzes becoming practically nonexistent during this period. Its weight hovered around 0.9-1.14g and by the early 400‟s settles into a diameter range of about 10mm.

AE2

Bronze

2225mm

2x AE3 (?)

350-c.390

AE3

Bronze

1622mm

?

c.300-430

AE4

Bronze

<16mm

?

c.317-498

AE5 (proposed)

Bronze

<12mm

?

c.380-498

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Coins of Other Ancient Cultures
In learning about Roman coins it is helpful to be able to distinguish them from other ancient coins. A short guide is presented outlining the major differences between these.

Let us examine first the coins which we will be dealing with in this book. Roman imperial coins span a period of over 500 years beginning, technically, with the first issues following the Roman Senate‟s bestowment of the title Augustus th on Octavian in 27 BC and gradually blending into what will become known as the Byzantine culture in the 6 century. During this entire period almost every coin minted within the borders of the Roman empire will feature a ruler from the present imperial court as a portrait on the obverse of each and every coin. This trait alone is so consistent that it becomes an easily identifiable signature which can be used to quickly rule out the majority of other ancient coinmaking cultures. The second main features are the inscriptions themselves which although 1,500-2,000 years old are still often perfectly readable to anyone familiar with the Latin alphabet. Roman imperial coins are the most plentiful and cheapest coins of antiquity. It is therefore a safe bet that any coin from antiquity that has a person‟s portrait and has at least partially readable Latin legends can be assumed to be a Roman coin.

Roman imperatorial coins immediately precede the imperial period. This rather brief numismatic period extends from shortly before the death of Julius Caesar until Octavian is given his title of Augustus; less than 20 years in all. Numismatically, this period blends characteristics of the Roman republican period before and the coming imperial age. Among these are the first examples of living persons being featured on coins. The imperatorial period issues some gold and copper coinage but are of excessive rarity today. The Roman economy during this time is nearly monopolized by the silver Denarius.

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The Republican period precedes the Imperatorial and the Roman coinage of the day is heavily influenced by Greek art. From about 200 BCE until near the end of Julius Caesar‟s life these coins will employ the usual Roman rebadged Greek gods with Latin inscriptions but are otherwise similar in makeup to contemporary Greek coins. As was the case with imperatorial Rome, the Denarius is the backbone of the economy.

The Greeks were the inventors of coins. From about 550 BCE until conquered by the Romans they strike millions of coins in all metals but prefer silver as the medium of exhange. Greek coins undergo several periods whereby the art styles change significantly. The coins make heavy use of traditional Greek mythology. As a whole, the written word is moderated or unused so as to not compete with the art which is generally regarded to be the greatest numismatic legacy the world has witnessed.

There are several contemporary cultures which issued coins during the Roman imperial period. After the various Greek nations fell one by one to the Romans the skills of their moneyers were put to good use. Unlike other regions within the Roman empire the Romans allowed for the issue of their own autonomous coinage using Greek legends and traditional themes so long as the various Roman gods and, most importantly, the incumbent emperor were featured prominently. As a class, Roman provincial coins, or more specifically, Greek imperial as they‟re more appropriately termed, are very similar to Roman imperial coins with the only major difference being the use of Greek legends. They were also restricted to bronze and limited runs of silver but never gold which was a privilege reserved for Rome on most occasions. The last of these provincial coins are struck in the late 200‟s and coins with Greek legends will not reappear until the Byzantine period.

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Immediately to the east in what is now known as the Holy Land coins had been made for centuries. The Jews and other nearby civilizations produced a distinctive coinage paralleling the Roman imperial period and then incorporating some of its elements after the region was annexed by the Romans. Asides from the use of Hebrew and other archaic alphabets the coins scrupulously omit any representation of living beings, particularly humans, which was considered sacrilegious.

The Greek and then Roman empires‟ most formidable enemies were the Persians with whom they constantly quarreled. They left behind a significant body of numismatic material that began shortly after the Greeks themselves invented coinage and evolved over time into the modern Islamic currency. Coins issued in antiquity will look quite exotic to Western eyes from the inscrutable inscriptions to the designs. Portraits feature equally exotic headgear and dress.

The Celts were not one people. They were a diverse number of tribes inhabiting all European regions not under direct Roman control. They include Spanish, British, Germanic and near-eastern nations of semi-nomadic makeup and lumped together under the Roman pejorative “Barbarian”. The extent of their coinage was limited insofar as their economies were more primitive. However, trade was an important element of their various civilizations and many found the convenience of coinage. The style used on Celtic coins is hard to reign in given how dissimilar the various tribes were. Most uniquely distinguishable is their abstracted portraiture and rendition of animals, particularly horses.

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Minor Celtic tribes along near the Roman empire‟s borders were influenced and occasionally even Romanized to a degree. What commerce they engaged with amongst themselves, outsiders and Romans alike was presumably facilitated with their acquired wealth, mainstream Roman coins and coins of their own making which closely resembled official issues. The bulk of these mimic Roman bronzes of the fourth century with varying degrees of craftsmanship but all are connected by the thread of illiterate “writing” in place of true inscriptions.

After the fourth century these tribes amalgamated with other Celts to form new tribes and would continue to copy the core Roman currency well into the sixth century, often taking care to honor the nominal Byzantine emperor of the day who was still regarded as the legal sovereign of the former Roman lands. Bronzes ceased to be made in any appreciable quantities but gold production began in earnest under the banner of the Vandals, Ostrogoths, Avars, Merovingians and many others.

As the Roman influence vanished and the Byzantine influence waned these tribes now began to slowly disassociate themselves from the old empire and instead issued coins honoring their own kings. In the vacuum that was left the inhabitants of Western Europe gained stronger identities and new cultures were born giving way to the medieval period. Coin craftsmanship will for the next 1,000 years be far below the standards of the Greeks and Romans and acquire a look and feel unique and easy to identify. However, a thorough knowledge of European medieval coinage is intricate th and difficult to master. It will not be until the 16 century when Arabic numeral dating on coins and the eventual introduction of machine-stamped coins that the modern age of currency is born.

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Meanwhile the Byzantines carry on the political legacy of the Romans by continuing the now ancient imperial tradition. Spanning a full millennium the Byzantine currency undergoes many changes over the years. The ending section of this book introduces the Byzantine age while the coins are still fully indistinguishable from their Italian counterparts. In fact, at this stage the mints in Constantinopolis and Rome still closely coordinate their coin production to give every appearance of a seamless monetary system and, by extension, a solidly unified empire. The book closes with the reign of Anastasius who is a pivotal figure in reforming coinage in a new direction that breaks with the past. Numismatic historians prefer to pin this date as the start of the Byzantine period.

There are other cultures in ancient times where coins were struck. Highlighted above are a few of these. Next to the coins of Persia, India has the most extensive variety with many different kingdoms striking unique designs which occasionally borrow Western elements but are always infused with a healthy dose of regional relevance.

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Identifying Roman Coins
The first step in learning anything about a coin is to be able to decipher the clues given in its design. Fortunately, Roman emperors wanted you to know who was pictured on the coin‟s obverse. Even better, the Romans gave birth to the Latin alphabet making the inscriptions quite readable assuming they‟re not too worn or missing. Lastly, the coins themselves follow very predictable conventions in their designs so that what is learned for one coin can be applied in identifying the next. The typical Roman coin will look something like this:

At first that string of letters may seem daunting to interpret. While each letter appears recognizable it looks like one big, alien word. For all their inventiveness, the Romans seem to have ran out of steam after designing the letter Z and the idea of spacing between words never really caught on. Dots occasionally serve this function but normally the coin lettering will be all bunched up like in this photo. The Latin alphabet used in Roman times is somewhat shorter than the English one. There are no J‟s, U‟s or Y‟s. Instead, an I is used where a J would normally be found and, likewise, a V is the U or Y stand-in. All writing is always upper case. Knowing this, in the sample photo the string of letters encodes not only the name of the emperor, in this case Maximian which is readable starting the third letter in, but also several of his titles. Since there were many titles bestowed on emperors the only way to cram them into the available space was to abbreviate them. In this particular coin the first two letters are D and N which stand in Latin for Dominus Noster (Our Lord), then MAXIMIANO (a Latin form of the name Maximian), FELICISSIMO (roughly translating to “most dutiful”), then SEN (short for senior) and lastly AVG for Augustus, the most important imperial title. A literate Roman back then would understand this inscription to mean something like “Our Lord Maximian, most dutiful senior Augustus”. The reverse reads PROVIDENTIADEORVMQVIESAVGG. Breaking this up yields Providentia Deorvm Qvies Avgg which translates to “By the providence of the Gods there is peace”. This particular coin speaks therefore of the peaceful transition of power from the emperor, Maximian, to his appointed successor. Other coins will follow this basic principle and the connection to modern coins should be obvious thereby making the identification of each one easier. On the other hand, many ancient coins will prove more difficult to figure out because they‟re worn, damaged or have legends that are too difficult to make out. Those features that are visible will have to suffice in correctly attributing the coin. It is unfortunately not unusual to find a coin that resists identification because there is simply too little to go on. However, even in these cases it should at least be possible to determine the approximate age and region of the coin.

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How to Use This Book
In the following pages you will find a format that will become familiar from emperor to emperor. After a short biography, known coin inscriptions and designs are broken down into four parts. Not every legend will be found with every bust or reverse type and the known combinations are given in a numbered listing known as a catalog. The available photographs of the busts and reverse designs are then organized into plates at the end of the section.

1. The name of the ruler followed by title and reign dates. In the case of empresses dates given are for when they were born and died. 2. A short biography of the ruler. 3. Notes on the availability and general pricing of his or her coins.

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4. Known bust types for this ruler. The general order of description is to list first what, if anything is worn on the head and then continue to list the type of dress visible on the bust and, finally, whatever the effigy might be holding with his right hind followed by his left hand. In a few cases coin obverses will have a design rather than a portrait. A lettered listing will follow with known types. 5. Obverse legends known for the ruler, arranged alphabetically. 6. Reverse legends. 7. Description of known types. 8. Mint location. City name is given as known in antiquity. See elsewhere in introductory section for current name and location. 9. Metal type and denomination. AU is for gold, AR silver and AE is copper. 10. References to listings in other catalogs for the same catalog are provided where researched and/or available. Blank spaces in this field may mean either that the coin is unlisted or is listed in a work not researched by the author. 11. Photographs of the busts and types. Photographs are not to scale. 12. Catalog entries are provided in a numbered sequence that includes the most common known combinations of the busts, types and legends. In addition, mintmarks and the occasional note unique to this listing will be entered after the combination. A listing that reads, for example, B1, O1, R05, T20 simply means that a coin is known with bust number 1, obverse legend number one, reverse legend five and reverse type number 20. Leading zeroes are added where necessary in order to make the headings line up and sort correctly. The numbers reset for the next ruler. Where a coin has field markings in addition to the exergue a “/” will separate the field from the exergue. A coin therefore that has an A in one of its reverse fields and XXX in the exergue will be described as A / XXX. If a coin has field markings in both fields it might then read A / B / XXX. Where the arrangement may present confusion additional comments will be provided.

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Mintmarks
For hundreds of years Rome kept a close eye on the output of its coins. As there were only a few mints operational at any one time, with Rome itself reserving the lion‟s share of this output, quality control and accurate bookkeeping was a task that the mint officials could handle without resorting to the practice of placing marks on the coins themselves to know what was going on. However, near the latter half of the third century, the quality of the coins had suffered greatly under the stress of inflation and a centralized system made for an impractical way of distributing the (cheaper) currency being made. It was at this time that mintmarking really began to take hold and, within a few years, the process had become the most intricate and methodical the world would ever witness. Although silver and gold would eventually get some mint marks here and there it was the low value bronze denominations which received full attention in this area. Oddly, down to the very last days before the fall of Rome even the sorriest little copper would be duly impressed with the mark of its city of origin and, frequently, its officina as well. The big idea therefore was for the government to keep track of who was making what and how much of it. Specie in gold and silver had such tight controls that general accounting practices were generally sufficient to minimize corruption and fraud. Copper coinage on the other hand was being produced on a very massive scale. Each mint each year may have made hundreds of millions of coins and, not surprisingly, most were of the copper variety meant for general circulation. This scale of manufacture would not be repeated again until the industrial age so a system for all those coins coming into circulation was imperative. The treasury‟s primary need in accounting was to make sure the correct number of coins were being made to pay off the government‟s expenditures. Each mint was therefore bound to a number of rules that they were to follow both for accounting as well as to ensure a supply of coins that were as seamless in terms of look and feel from one mint to the next. Designs were therefore carefully coordinated between the various mints and for specific lengths of time. The painstaking practice of ensuring that every single coin looked essentially identical from one end of the empire to the other and a level of detail that dictated the precise, hyper-correct placement of individual letters and other design elements can be considered as part of the quintessentially Roman way of precision engineering. The very first mintmarks employed under the Roman imperial period usually consisted of cryptic symbols just meant to reveal the city of origin. This practice was far from widespread and given the normal variances from region to region it is now known without doubt that some coins were made in certain locations or at least general areas even without these mintmarks based on stylistic differences alone. But these differences were much too subtle for administrators to bother with. When the need presented itself the mint marking system was put into place and within a matter of a few years the practice was more or less standardized across hundreds of thousands of square miles. No sooner than explicit mint marks begin appearing that identify each city of origin than it becomes necessary to break it down further into individual series and, as noted above, often the officinae involved too. A typical late Roman bronze will often carry additional symbols that reveal separate production runs. Understanding this system is complex and their meanings are not always universally agreed upon. But generally speaking some conventions can be followed with enough consistency that they soon become familiar to the collector. The first step then is to identify the name and location of all these mints. The map on the following page identifies the main ones in operation during the fourth and fifth centuries.

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In addition to the above locations, several other cities hosted mint operations during brief periods. Sometimes an emperor on a war campaign chose to bring along these facilities to ensure a close eye on the soldiers‟ payroll. A partial list of minor mints includes: Ambianum – Amiens, France Barcino – Barcelona, Spain Carnuntum – near Vienna, Austria Colonia Agrippinensis – Cologne, Germany Laodiceia ad Mare – Laodikeia, Syria Ostia – near Rome, Italy Palmyra – near Tadmur, Syria Narbo Martius – Narbonne, France Tarraco – Tarragona, Spain Tripolis – Tripolis, Turkey Viminacium – Kostolac, Yugoslavia Now that we‟ve taken a brief overview of their names and locations let‟s take a look at the mint marks themselves. The simplest type of mint mark just wants to identify its city of mintage and the first thing to remember is that it almost always will be located on the bottom of the reverse of the coin. This area, typically delineated by a line separating the design from the mintmark itself, is called the exergue. This bronze coin belonging to Constantius Gallus, a minor figure of the fourth century, was minted in Sirmium given the readable string ASIRM). The A and the dot would have provided an administrator extra information useful in pinning down who was responsible for making the coin and at what approximate time. One might consider how this level of detail has never to this day been found again and should give pause to wonder just how meticulous these people were! In the meantime and for the purpose of cracking the system let us remember that the mint city will be an abbreviation consisting of one to several letters and will usually be embedded with additional symbols. Learning how they abbreviated their city names is usually the first step in recognizing where a particular coin was made. Relatively few, unfortunately, are generous enough to spell out the first four letters of the city name like in this example! Barring the many exceptions that will be found, some forms of usage predominate: Alexandria: ALE Antioch: ANT or ANA

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Arles: A, ARL, CONS (after being renamed Constantia in the fourth century. To distinguish from Constantinople the officina letter always precedes the CONS in Arles and always comes after the CONS for Constantinople issues) Aquileia: AQ Constantinople: CON or CONS Cyzicus: K, KYZ or MKV Heraclea: H, HT, HERACL or HERAC London: L, ML or LON Lugdunum (Lyons): LG or LVG Nicomedia: N, NIC, NIKO Rome: R or RF Sirmium: SIRM Siscia: SIS or SISC Thessalonica: TES or TS Ticinum: T Trier: TR Whenever possible, the above “keys” should be visually isolated from other symbols preceding or stuck on as suffixes. Another very popular convention used was to use the form SMxy where x would be the 1- to 3-letter city code followed by y, the officina. SM stood for Sacra Moneta (sacred mint). The officina is simply and literally the office or internal department in charge of minting the coins. The physical building that housed the machinery and staff for minting coins may have had up to a dozen or more simultaneously operating officinae. Sometimes each officina would be given the task of dedicating its output to a certain design or emperor but more typically they shared equally in the output. Each was therefore expected to stamp their coins with the signature of their crew; all, again, for the sake of full accounting. The officinae were identified by a numbering system whose nomenclature depended on their general location. Cities in the western half of the empire normally used an ordinal sequence where you would have the first, second, third and so on officinae. This being Latin, they would have used the words prima, seconda, tertia, qvarta, etc. They would then use the first letter of each ordinal along with the city code. For example, a coin from Rome could have a mintmark RP (Roma Prima) which would indicate that it came from the first officina. Just as often you could have the officina letter precede the city code so that a QA would indicate the fourth officina for Arles. A logistic problem occurs when we arrive at the fifth officina, qvinta in Latin, because there is obviously no way to distinguish between the Q for qvarta and qvinta. The Romans evidently didn‟t burn too many mental calories on this one and in these cases just grabbed the fifth Greek alphabet letter E. On the rather rare instances where a sixth or greater number officina was operating they resorted to using more Greek characters. The eastern mint cities tend to use letters from the Greek alphabet to accomplish the same task. The sequence begins A, B, Γ, Δ, E, S, Z, H, Ө and I. They can go further for series that were very popular, for example a ΔE would be the sum of letter values 4 and th 5 from the above sequence to arrive at the 9 officina. Normally however only the first four to five letters were used and, by the fifth century when fewer coins were being made, it was usual to have only A and B operating Matters become trickier when unrelated symbols get appended to these codes but the general form should be recognizable as the ancillary symbols change frequently from issue to issue while the relative position of the city code and officina do so less often. Where the collector comes across a coin with many letters and symbols jumbled together it might well be daunting to sort it all out but with increasing familiarity with the system it is only a matter of time before a casual glance will tell you all you need to know to identify each coin... provided, of course, that the mintmark is still visible.

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Pricing and Grading
Almost every coin collector is interested, if not obsessed, with the worth of their coins. Despite the occasional, overlyserious numismatist admonishing the newer hobbyist in playing this down in favor of just learning and studying the coins the truth is that it is an integral part of the fun of collecting. The collector therefore desperately needs a pricing guide to know what to expect when adding or selling pieces from the collection. I can‟t do that. There are no shortage of pricing guides out there for ancient coins but the bitter truth is that they‟re all laughably inaccurate and in the end up confusing more than giving real-world use. There are several reasons for this. Unlike the case with modern coins there are no „population reports‟ to indicate how rare or common each coin type is in an absolute sense. Over time, coins that were previously rare become less so thanks to new hoard discoveries and sometimes coins that are temporarily plentiful vanish from the marketplace. Then there is the issue of where you buy and sell coins. An exclusive dealer may list a given coin for several hundred dollars while another can offer the very same type for a $100 and you could spot the same on eBay for $50. It happens ALL the time. In light of this there is little point in taking the trouble to give even a rough price range for each coin catalogued. Depending on your personal level to stomach risk and how much research you want done on your behalf you will feel comfortable shopping in a venue where prices should be more or less stable for that tier. This ultimately will be the true learning grounds. However, this book at least notes general trends for each emperor and where possible further broken down by the major denominations. This should hopefully be enough to spur the collector to do a little comparative research to identify what is a bargain and what is clearly overpriced. Every coin book geared towards the collector will repeat the mantra about grading and conservation and I will be pedantic enough to repeat it here. It is an unwavering truism that conservation beats rarity in all but the most extreme cases. Unless you have come across a major rarity assume that the worth of your coin will very largely depend on its visual appeal. An ancient gold coin will in most cases look mint state or nearly so because it likely traded hands infrequently until it was lost. Bronzes on the other hand range from the abominable to strikingly well preserved (but should never look coppery like modern, untoned copper coins. This is an unequivocal indication of harsh cleaning!). Silver coins tend to be fairly well preserved but will show the most wear since many of them traded for many decades. A mint state coin will command a premium. The rule of thumb is that in coins beauty sells and rarity is only a secondary factor in determining value. Of course, this “rule” applies only in a general sense. A rare coin be it for type or ruler WILL be marketable assuming a decent state of preservation and the rarest types/rulers will stil be very sought even when poorly preserved. However, a poorly preserved rather common coin will find almost no interest among your fellow collectors. So what are the grading standards? Just as is the case with modern coins ancients are graded along much the same lines. One can even get an ancient coin slabbed just like a modern coin and will carry a grade using the American grading standard... a practice that finds quite little support among die-hard ancient coin enthusiasts. But this book does not concern itself with grades for the simple reason that nowadays grading ancient coins is largely irrelevant. Unlike the mail order catalogs of years gone by one typically buys a coin from a well-photographed coin today in a glossy color catalog, the internet or on site at a coin show. There is therefore little need for a grade as such since the visual confirmation of what you would be getting is infinitely more useful than the information conveyed by an assigned grade of questionable value. For what it‟s worth, let‟s examine what the general consensus is regarding grading:

Rather than waste time with an euphemistic grades of AG, G or VG, the lowest rung of collectible ancient Roman coins are thankfully just described imperfect as they are. In most cases wear as such won‟t be the major issue with these coins

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but rather unsightly toning, die cracks and/or other structural problems, or a bad case of corrosion. Coins with any but a small part broken off are hardly ever worth anything on the market.

Those coins graded “fine” will be found to be essentially intact in terms of overall design but with a considerable portion of its initial detail worn off or obscured by corrosion. This represents the bulk of ancient coins available today.

You would expect a Roman coin in Very Fine or VF condition to be overall problem-free and with all its major features visible. Some wear and/or small imperfections are to be expected including coins that are slightly off-center.

An EF (extremely fine) coin is in practice the highest grade coin you can hope to come across. Excepting coins given the holy-grail grade of FDC, see next, which probably no universal body of numismatists will agree on by the way, the EF coin is as good as it gets. To achieve this grade it should have only a touch of wear (if not outright mint state), be well centered, struck from new dies, be whole in every way and basically say “Hey, I‟m beautiful and perfect. Buy me”. It will be rare to find a bona fide EF bronze.

FDC is French for Fleur de Coin, the ne plus ultra of the numismatic world. It‟s a term unfortunately much abused by both the inexperienced and those of shaky morals who will indiscriminately give any coin the grade without a second thought, often adding a few seemingly pre-requisite + or ! signs to drive home the point. Sigh. A real FDC coin needs no such gimmicky hype for it should be instantly breathtaking and considered the very paradigm of that type. In fact, a purist will say that by definition this excludes all bronzes by mere reason of their toning which, however attractive, has degraded them from perfection. Whatever. It‟s ok to ignore any coin marketed as FDC that does not instantly dazzle. In a sense, so long as you can rely on the picture, it‟s ok to ignore any assigned grade :-)

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Bibliography
R. A. G. Carson and J. P. C. Kent. Late Roman Bronze Coinage. New York: Sanford J. Durst, 1989. Harold Mattingly and Edward A. Sydenham. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. I. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1923 C. H. V. Sutherland. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. 1. London: Spink and Son, 1984 Harold Mattingly and Edward A. Sydenham. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. II. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1926 Harold Mattingly and Edward A. Sydenham. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. III. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1930 Harold Mattingly, Edward A. Sydenham and C. H. V. Sutherland. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. IV pt. 1. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1936 Harold Mattingly, Edward A. Sydenham and C. H. V. Sutherland. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. IV pt. 2. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1938 Harold Mattingly, Edward A. Sydenham and C. H. V. Sutherland. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. IV pt. 2. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1949 Harold Mattingly, Edward A. Sydenham and Percy H. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. V pt. 1. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1927 Harold Mattingly, Edward A. Sydenham and Percy H. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. V pt. 2. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1933 C. H. V. Sutherland and R. A. G. Carson. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. VI. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1967 C. H. V. Sutherland and R. A. G. Carson. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. VII. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1966 J. P. C Kent. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. VIII. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1981 J. W. E. Pearce. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. IX. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1951 J. P. C Kent. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. X. London: Spink & Son, Ltd., 1994 David R. Sear. Byzantine Coins And Their Values. London: Seaby, Ltd., 1987

Reference Catalogs Cited
BMC Bastien BN C Calicó Cr. Depeyrot Estiot Gnecchi Göbl LRBC MIB Ratto RIC S SB Shiel SNG Tantalus Wildwinds Vagi

British Museum Catalogue
Pierre Bastien

Le monnayage de l'atelier de Lyon : de la reóuverture de l'atelier par Aurélien à la mort de Carin Catalogue de la Bibliothèque Nationale Henri Cohen Description Historique des Monnais Frappeés sous L‟Empire Romain Xavier Calicó The Roman Avrei vols. I & II Michael Crawford‟sRoman Republican Coinage Georges Depeyrot Les monnaies d'or de Dioclétien à Constantin I (284-337) Sylviane Estiot Ripostiglio della Venèra: Nuovo Catalogo Illustrato Francesco Gnecchi Medaglioni Romani Robert Göbl Moneta Imperii Romani Late Roman Bronze Coinage W. Hahn Moneta Imperii Byzantini Rodolfo Ratto Monnaies Byzantines The Roman Imperial Coinage vols. I - X David Sear Roman Coins and Their Values David Sear Byzantine Coins and Their Values Norman Shiel The Episode of Carausius and Allectus: The Literary and Numismatic Evidence
British Academy Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum; various collections as noted The Tantalus Registry at http://www.tantaluscoins.com/index.php The Wildwinds database at http://wildwinds.com/coins/ric/i.html David Vagi Coinage and History of the Roman Empire Vol II

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1
Originally called Octavian, his name is today known simply as Augustus which was the title given him by the Senate in the year 27 B.C. He was the grandnephew of Julius Caesar and was following an illustrious military career when Caesar was murdered. On hearing of this he set in motion a series of alliances meant to Augustus 27 BCE -14 CE avenge his great-uncle's assassins. He recruited Lepidus and Marc Antony for the task, defeated Brutus and his co-conspirators and then carved up the Roman world among the three. Lepidus was thus left in control of the African provinces, Marc Antony with Egypt and the eastern Octavian the rest including Rome itself. The Triumvirate as it was called was unstable and they each began to plot against the other. Within a few years however Lepidus would be stripped of his powers and Marc Antony would be defeated in a major battle. Antony and his wife Cleopatra then committed suicide leaving Octavian as sole emperor. Octavian then became known and referred to by his title and went on to rule the Roman Empire for another 40 years. He did this while cooperating with the Senate and to him Romans owed much of the grandeur and influence that this empire became known for.

Augustus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u) v) Bare head left Bare head right Laureate head left Laureate head right Radiate head left Radiate head right Agrippa crowned head facing left on left and Augustus bare head right on right Altar Apollo laureate head right Branches (2) Cippus reading SPQR / IMP CAE / QVODV / M SEX / EAPQIS / ADADE Cornucopia; S C across fields Feronia diademed, draped bust right Fortuna Victrix helmeted bust right, holding patera over Fortuna Felix, diademed bust Hands, in handshake, holding caduceus Hercules diademed head right with club Honos head right Liber head right, wearing crown of Ivy leaves Quadriga right Sol radiate head right Simpulum on left and Lituus on right Venus diademed head right Venus diademed, draped bust right Victory diademed bust right Victory standing right on galley prow, holding wreath and palm Virtus helmeted, draped bust right Wreath, AVGVSTVS / TRIBVNIC / POTEST within Wreath, OB above, CIVIS within, SERVATOS below

The coinage of Augustus is extensive and complicated. In fact, his long reign straddles two numismatic periods, the so-called Imperatorial and the Imperial with which this volume focuses on. The Imperatorial period is itself a transitional time that fuses elements of the former Republican coinage and the coming age of the emperors with the biggest innovation being the engraving of portraits of living people on the obverse. Julius Caesar was first among these and when coins started showing up in Rome with the face of the elderly dictator the outrage was so widespread that it helped solidify the conspiracy that ultimately ended his life. But the genie was out of the bottle. Even the self-proclaimed defenders of the old Republic would henceforth find it increasingly more acceptable to strike coins with their own likenesses on them. The practice proved so popular (to heads of state if not the populace at large) that it would continue all the way into modern times. While many countries today would find issuing coins with the portrait of a sitting president or prime minister just as inappropriate as back in 44 B.C. in others it is considered normal and a stimulant to nationalistic pride, especially in countries with an active system of royalty. In any case, it is beyond the scope of this book to list the nearendless amount of issues struck during the time of Augustus. This chapter will therefore list the various legends and types in longest use and which are today most common in the market. During the record 56 years the man known as Octavian, and then as Augustus, ruled he had literally millions of handmade coins put into circulation. These ran the gamut from heavy silver and gold medals issued for presentation purposes to foreign dignitaries and military commanders, forerunners of today’s proof issues, to ordinary gold, silver and copper denominations used to pay the armies and meant to be exchanged for goods on the marketplace as well as a convenient system of paying the state taxes owed. Of the former very, very few are left over today and it’s small wonder that on the few times they’re offered for sale the selling prices are measured in the six digits. Among the latter many escaped the melting pot simply because they were lost prior to the point where they had become so worn that they stopped being useful as money. Among these by far the most commonly available today is the series featuring Gaius and Lucius, the Caesars the aged Augustus intended to succeed him. Usually found fairly worn or porous they can be had for around $100 each. Mint-state examples can be located but for about ten times that much.
28) 29) CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT CAESAR AVGVST TRIB POTEST

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) AVGVR PONTIF AVGVS TR POT AVGVST AVGVST DIVI F LVDOS SAE AVGVST TRIB POTEST AVGVSTVS AVGVSTVS COS XI AVGVSTVS DIVI F AVGVSTVS TR POT AVGVSTVS TR POT VII AVGVSTVS TR POT VIII C ANTISTI VETVS III VIR C ANTISTIVS VETVS III VIR C CAESAR COS PONT AVG C CAESAR III VIR R P C CAESAR CAESAR / AVGVSTVS CAESAR AVG TR POTEST CAESAR AVG TRIB POT CAESAR AVG TRIB POTEST CAESAR AVG TRIBVN POTES CAESAR AVG TRIBVNI POTES CAESAR AVG TRIBVNIC POTEST CAESAR AVGV TRIB POTEST CAESAR AVGV TRIBVN POTES CAESAR AVGVS TRIBVN POTEST CAESAR AVGVST

2
30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) CAESAR AVGVST TRIBVN POTEST CAESAR AVGVST TRIBVNI POTEST CAESAR AVGVSTVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE CAESAR AVGVSTVS TR POT CAESAR AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST CAESAR COS VI CAESAR DIVI F COS VI CAESAR DIVI F COS VII CAESAR III VIR R P C CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C CAESAR IMP VII CAESAR PONT MAX CAESARI / AVGVSTO CAESARI AVGVSTO CAISAR COM ASIAE COSSVS CN F LENTVLVS COSSVS LENTVLVS M AGRIPPA COS TER DIVO AVGVSTO DIVVS AVGVSTVS DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER GALLVS MESALLA III VIR III VIR AAA F F IMP / DIVI F IMP AVGVST TR POT IMP CAESAR IMP CAESAR AVG TR POT VIII IMP CAESAR AVGVS TR POT IIX 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) IMP CAESAR AVGVS TR POT VIII IMP CAESAR AVGVSTV IMP CAESAR AVGVSTVS IMP CAESAR DIVI F AVGVST COS VII IMP CAESAR DIVI F AVGVSTVS IMP XX IMP CAESAR DIVI F COS VI LIBERTATIS IMP CAESAR DIVI F III VIR ITER R P C IMP CAESAR DIVI IVLI F IMP CAESAR TR POT IIX IMP CAISAR L AQVILLIVS FLORVS III VIR L CANINIVS GALLVS III VIR L LENTVLVS FLAMEN MARTIALIS L VINICIVS L F III VIR LAMIA SILIVS ANNIVS M DVRMIVS III VIR M DVRMIVS III VIR HONORI P PETRON TVRPILIAN III VIR PVLCHER T AVRVS REGVLVS Q RVSTIVS FORTVNA SPQR CAESARI AVGVSTO SPQR IMP CAESARI SPQR IMP CAESARI AVG COS XI TRI POT VI TVRPILIANVS III VIR TVRPILIANVS III VIR FERO TVRPILIANVS III VIR FERON No legend

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) A LICIN NERVA SILIAN III VIR AAA FF AEGVPT / CAPTA AEGVPTO / CAPTA APRONIVS SISENNA AAA FF ASIA RECEPTA AVG F TR POT XV AVGVST AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT AVGVSTVS BALBVS PRO P R C ANTIST VETVS FOED P R CVM GABINVS C ANTIST VETVS III VIR C ANTISTIVS REGIN GABINIS C ANTISTIVS REGINVS C ASINIVS C F GALLVS III VIR AAA FF C CAES C CAESAR DICT PERP PONT MAX C CASSIVS C F CELER III VIR AAA FF C CASSIVS CELER III VIR AAA FF C CENSORINVS L F AVG III VIR AAA FF C GALLIVS C F LVPERCVS III VIR AAA FF C GALLIVS LVPERCVS III VIR AAA FF C MARCI L F CENSORIN AVG III VIR AAA FF C MARIVS C F TRO III VIR C MARIVS TRO III VIR C N PISO C N F III VIR AAA FF C N PISO C PLOT L SVRDIN C N PISO C PLOTIVS L SVRDIN C N PISO L SVRDIN C PLOT RVF C PLOTIVS RVFVS III VIR AAA FF C SVLPIC PLATORIN C SVLPICIVS PLATORIN CAESAR / AVGVSTVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS SIGN RECE CAESAR COS VI CAESAR COS VII CIVIBVS SERVATEIS CAESAR DIVI F CAESAR DIVI F ARME CAPT CAESAR IMP VII CAESARI AVGVSTO CIVIB ET SIGN MILIT A PART RECVP CIVIB ET SIGN MILIT A PART RECVPER COL NEM CONSECRATIO CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R COS / IMP CAESAR AVG / XI COS ITER ET TER DESIG CRISPINV AAA FF DIVA AVGVSTA DIVVS IVLIVS FORTVN REDV / CAESARI AVG / SPQR III VIR AAA F IMP / CAE SAR / DIVI F IMP D CAES AVG RESTITVIT IMP NERVA CAES AVG REST 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) IMP NERVA CAESAR AVGVSTVS REST IMP T CAES AVG RESTITVIT IMP T VESP AVG REST IOVIS / TONANTIS L AQVILLIVS FLORVS III VIR L CANINIVS GALLVS III VIR L MESCINIVS L MESCINIVS RVFVS L MESCINIVS RVFVS III VIR L NAEVIVS SVRDINVS III VIR AAA FF L SVRDINVS III VIR AAA FF L VINICIVS L F III VIR LENTVLVS FLAMEN MARTIALIS M AGRIPPA COS TER COS SVS LENTVLVS M AGRIPPA PLATORINVS III VIR M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBA T Q P M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P CL GELL Q P M DVRMIVS M MAECILIVS TVLLVS III VIR AAA FF M SALVIVS OTHO III VIR AAA FF M SANQVINIVS III VIR M SANQVINIVS Q F III VIR AAA FF OB CIVIS / SERVATOS P BETILIENVS BASSVS P CARISI LEG P CARISIVS / LEG / AVGVSTI P CARISIVS AVGVSTI P CARISIVS LEG PRO P R P LICINIVS STOLO III VIR AAA FF P LVRIVS AGRIPPA III VIR AAA FF P PETRON TVRPILIAN III VIR P STOLO / III VIR P STOLO III VIR AAA FF PLOTIVS RVFVS III VIR AAA FF PLVRIVS AGRIPPA III VIR AAA F F PONTIF MAXIM PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POT XXXIIII PRO VALETVDINE Q AELIVS L F LAMIA III VIR AAA FF Q AELIVS LAMIA III VIR AAA FF Q SALVIVS IMP COS DES II QVOD / VIAE / MVN / SVNT QVOD VIAE MVN SVNT SEX NONIVS QVINCTILIAN III VIR AAA FF SIGNIS / PARTHIC / RECEPT SIGNIS / PARTHIC / RECEPTIS SIGNIS / PARTHICIS / RECEPTIS SIGNIS / RECEPTIS SIGNIS PARTHICIS RECEPTIS SP / QR SPQR SPQR PARE / CONS SVO SPQR PAREN / CONS SVO SPQR PARENT / CONS SVO SPQR PARENTI / CONS SVO T CRISPINVS III VIR AAA FF

3
113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) T CRISPINVS SVLPICIAN III VIR AAA FF T CRISPINVS SVLPICIANVS III VIR AAA FF T QVINCTI CRISPIN III VIR AAA FF T QVINCTIVS CRISPIN III VIR AAA FF T QVINCTIVS CRISPINVS III VIR AAA FF TI CAESAR AVG F TR POT XV TI SEMPRONIVS GRACCVS III VIR AAA FF TVRPILIANVS III VIR 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) TR POT XXV TR POT XXVII TR POT XXVIIII TR POT XXX TR POT XXXI VOLVSVS VALER MESSAL III VIR AAA FF VOT P SVSC PRO SAL ET RED I O M SACR No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) Agrippa crowned head right Altar Altar reading FOR RE Apex with ancile on either side Apollo standing left, holding pick and harp Apollo standing left on platform, sacrificing over altar and holding lyre Augustus advancing left, raising hand and holding spear Augustus advancing right, raising hand and holding spear. Augustus and Agrippa seated left on platform Augustus driving two oxen right, holding whip Augustus riding chariot pulled by two elephants left, holding palm and scepter Augustus riding horse right on pedestal reading SPQR / IMP / CAES; city walls in background Augustus riding quadriga right, holding branch. Augustus seated left on platform reading LVD.S giving money to one of two citizens standing to left; bowl in lower center Augustus seated left on platform, receiving branch from soldier Augustus seated left on platform, receiving branches from two citizens. Augustus seated left on platform; reaching for baby held by citizen to left Augustus seated left, holding branch Augustus seated left, holding Victory Augustus seated right on platform, handing out coins to two citizens; vase on floor between them. Augustus standing left, holding arm of kneeling Sicilia and shield Augustus standing on right, resting hand on shield and placing star on Julius Caesar, holding Victory and scepter Barbarian kneeling right, holding vexillum reading X Boar standing right, impaled by spear Branches (2) Bull butting left Bull butting right Bull standing right Caius and Lucius standing, facing, between them shield and spears with simpulum and lituus above. Caius riding horse right, holding sword; legionary eagle with standard on either side to left and in background. Capricornus advancing left, bearing cornucopia and globe Capricornus advancing right, bearing cornucopia and globe Capricornus advancing right, bearing globe Club Column on thunderbolt; Augustus standing atop Column; Augustus standing left atop, holding scepter Comet Cornucopia; large S and C on either side. Crescent, star above Crocodile chained to palm tree with wreath atop Crocodile standing right Diana (Luna) advancing right, pullin arrow from quiver and holding bow Diana (Luna) standing left, holding spear and bow; dog to left Eagle standing facing on globe; large S and C on either side Eagle standing left on globe Flower, in bloom Globe with rudder in front Grain ears, tied Herm on thunderbolt Julius Caesar bare head right, comet above Julius Caesar laureate head right Julius Caesar standing, facing, holding Victory on globe and spear, being crowned with star by Augustus to right, holding shield. Large SC Legend M AGRIPPA COS / DESIG Livia seated left, holding grain ears and torch. Livia seated right, holding patera and scepter; large S and C to either side. Livia seated right, holding scepter and branch Marc Antony bare head right Mars standing left, holding vexillum and parazonium. Mercury seated right on rock, holding lyre Neptune standing left, stepping on globe, holding apluster and trident Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia Quadriga riding left Quadriga riding right, carrying modius with grain ears Quadriga riding right, carrying palm branch Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Senate building (Curia Julia); architrave reading IMP CAESAR with Victory and statue on either side on roof Shield Shield reading CL.V Shield reading CL.V, legionary eagle to left and standard to right; SPQR: letters arranged at each corner starting at top left. Shield reading S.P.Q.R / CL.V Sphinx crouching left. Tarpeia buried to waist in shields, raising hands. Temple with (4) columns, currus with legionary eagle within Temple with (4) columns, Julius Caesar within and DIVO IVL on pediment above Temple with (4) columns, Mars within, holding legionary eagle and standard. Temple with (6) columns

4
78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) Temple with (6) columns, Jupiter standing within, holding thunderbolt and scepter Temple with (6) columns, legionary eagle and two standards within Temple with (6) columns, Mars within, holding legionary eagle and standard. Thunderbolt Tiberius bare head right Tiberius riding quadriga right, holding scepter with eagle atop Toga; legionary eagle to left and wreath to right Triumphal arch; Augustus riding elephant biga right atop, being crowned by Victory Triumphal arch; Augustus riding oncoming quadriga atop; IMP CAESAR on pediment Triumphal arch; Augustus riding oncoming quadriga atop with Victory on either side Triumphal arch; Augustus riding oncoming quadriga atop with Victory on either side and central arch reading SPQR / IMP CAE Triumphal arch; Augustus riding quadriga right atop, being crowned by Victory to left Trophy with spears and shield set on galley prow with rudder and anchor Victory advancing left, holding shield reading SP / QR Victory hovering right over shield reading CLV; column in background Victory standing left on cippus, holding wreath and palm, snake on either side. Victory standing left on galley prow, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm Victory standing on globe, facing, holding palm and trophy. Victory standing on globe, facing, holding wreath and vexillum Victory standing right on globe, holding branch and legionary eagle Victory standing right on globe, holding torch and palm Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm Victory standing right, crowning trophy Victory standing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing, facing, holding shield reading SPQR Wreath Wreath, AVGVSTO / OBCS within Wreath, AVGVSTVS within Wreath, CA in dotted circle within Wreath, candelabrum within Wreath, Capricornus advancing right, bearing cornucopia within. Wreath, OB / CIVIS / SERVATOS within Wreath, SC within Wreath, shield reading SPQR / CLV within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Antioch Ephesus Lugdunum Nemausus 5) 6) 7) Pergamum Roma Spain

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) B2, O03, R128, T099 B2, O06, R128, T072 B2, O08, R128, T016 Exe: IMP X B2, O08, R128, T027 Exe: IMP X B2, O08, R128, T042 Exe: SICIL and IMP XII across fields B2, O08, R128, T043 Exe: SICIL and IMP X across fields B2, O14, R017, T051 B2, O85, R128, T097 IMP CAESAR across fields B4, O08, R016, T030 Exe: AVGVST B4, O33, R006, T083 Exe: TI CAESAR B4, O33, R008, T029 Exe: C L CAESARES B4, O33, R092, T056 B4, O58, R063, T014 Exe: AVG SVF P Bd, O17, R128, T110 Bl, O82, R128, T105

Reference(s)
RIC I 121, C 331 RIC I 511, C 334 RIC I 164a, C 132 RIC I 166a, BMC 450, C 136 RIC I 196, BMC 489, C 171 RIC I 172, C 145 BMC 74 RIC I 268, BMC 622, C 113 RIC I 198, C 39 RIC I 223, BMC 508, C 299 RIC I 206, BMC 513, C 42 RIC I 219, BMC 544, C 222 RIC I 350, C 466 RIC I 206 (1st ed.), BMC 317 RIC I 278, BMC 5, C 476

AR Tetradrachm
16) 17) 18) 19) B2, O56, R009, T002 B2, O56, R128, T048 AVGV STVS across fields B2, O56, R128, T048 AVGV STVS across rev. fields, lituus in front of bust in obv. B2, O56, R128, T109 AVGVSTVS under capricornus RIC I 482, C 33 RIC I 481, C 32b RIC I 490, C 32a RIC I 480, C 16

AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
20) B6, O49, R045, T002 RIC 78 (IViii, Trajan Decius)

AR Denarius
21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) B1, O32, R104, T070 B1, O81, R043, T087 B1, O85, R038, T100 CAESAR DIVI F across fields B1, O85, R128, T095 CAESAR DIVI F across fields B2, O06, R024, T065 Lituus behind obv. bust B2, O06, R062, T023 B2, O06, R069, T022 B2, O08, R077, T050 RIC I 86b, C 267 RIC I 132, C 85 RIC I 254 RIC I 255, C 64 RIC I 399, C 456 RIC I 416, C 383 RIC I 415 RIC I 338, C 1

5
29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) B2, O08, R128, T005 Exe: ACT and IMP X across fields B2, O08, R128, T015 Exe: IMP X B2, O08, R128, T016 Exe: IMP X B2, O08, R128, T026 Exe: IMP X B2, O08, R128, T027 Exe: IMP X B2, O08, R128, T033 Exe: IMP XI B2, O08, R128, T042 Exe: SICIL and IMP XII across fields B2, O08, R128, T043 Exe: SICIL and IMP XII across fields B2, O09, R088, T004 B2, O15, R010, T034 Legend is arranged vertically on either side of club B2, O16, R007, T108 B2, O16, R009, T028 B2, O32, R014, T066 B2, O32, R031, T008 B2, O32, R061, T021 Exe: SICIL B2, O32, R061, T046 B2, O32, R074, T025 Exe: III VIR B2, O32, R079, T104 B2, O32, R079, T112 B2, O32, R104, T070 B2, O32, R106, T069 B2, O32, R120, T039 B2, O32, R120, T073 B2, O32, R128, T071 B2, O32, R128, T076 B2, O32, R128, T103 B2, O32, R128, T110 B2, O36, R003, T041 B2, O39, R097, T081 B2, O40, R072, T058 Lituus behind rev. bust B2, O40, R073, T058 B2, O58, R012, T006 B2, O65, R048, T066 B2, O65, R048, T075 B2, O66, R128, T054 B2, O79, R099, T089 B2, O79, R127, T058 B2, O81, R042, T087 B2, O85, R038, T062 B2, O85, R054, T068 B2, O85, R128, T031 Exe: AVGVSTVS B2, O85, R128, T032 Exe: AVGVSTVS B2, O85, R128, T049 IMP CAESAR across fields B2, O85, R128, T060 CAESAR DIVI F across fields B2, O85, R128, T067 B2, O85, R128, T077 B2, O85, R128, T086 B2, O85, R128, T088 Exe: L VINICIVS B2, O85, R128, T090 IMP CAESAR across fields B3, O32, R051, T037 DIVVS IVLIVS across fields B3, O44, R107, T062 B4, O08, R016, T030 Exe: AVGVS F B4, O08, R128, T017 Exe: IMP XIIII B4, O08, R128, T027 Exe: IMP XII B4, O32, R051, T037 DIVVS IVLIVS across fields B4, O32, R070, T001 B4, O32, R128, T092 B4, O33, R006, T083 Exe: TI CAESAR B4, O33, R008, T029 Exe: C L CAESARES B4, O33, R092, T057 B4, O33, R118, T082 B4, O44, R128, T074 SP QR across fields B4, O44, R128, T079 MAR VLT across fields B4, O85, R033, T025 B4, O85, R128, T019 IMP CAESAR across fields, thunderbolt behind obv. Bust Bc, O85, R128, T010 Exe: IMP CAESAR Bc, O85, R128, T036 CAESAR DIVI F across fields Be, O72, R128, T012 Bg, O84, R035, T023 Bh, O78, R041, T003 Exe: EX SC, Obv. Exe: ANTIAT Bk, O74, R009, T011 Bl, O74, R035, T023 Bm, O43, R108, T084 Bm, O85, R109, T084 Bn, O69, R034, T064 Bp, O85, R038, T008 CAESAR DIVI F across fields Bp, O85, R128, T007 CAESAR DIVI F across fields Bq, O12, R047, T066 Br, O85, R128, T061 CAESAR DIVI F across fields Bs, O85, R128, T013 Exe: IMP CAESAR Bt, O69, R009, T011 RIC I 171a, S 1611 RIC I 162a, C 131 RIC I 165a, S 1609 RIC I 169, C 141 RIC I 167a, S 1610 RIC I 174 RIC I 197a, C 172 RIC I 182, C 168 RIC I 343, C 438 Cr. 518/1 RIC I 540 RIC I 475, S 1593 RIC I 410, C 347 RIC I 406, C 529 RIC I 310, C 366 RIC I 309 RIC I 317, C 430 RIC I 40a RIC I 79a, S 1626 RIC I 86a, S 1633 RIC I 43a RIC I 300, C 495 RIC I 299, C 494 RIC I 42a, C 294 RIC I 74a RIC I 93, C 283 RIC I 77a, C 208 RIC I 275a, C 2 Cr. 523/1a Cr. 517/1 S 1504 RIC I 366, C 343 Cr. 538/1 Cr. 540/2 Cr. 534/3 RIC I 144, C 233 RIC I 148, C 325 RIC I 136 RIC I 252, C 69 RIC I 543a, C 126 RIC I 128 RIC I 126, S 1592 RIC I 269a, C 114 RIC I 257, S 1550, C 61 RIC I 266, C 122 RIC I 472, C 182 RIC I 267, C 123 RIC I 359, C 544 RIC I 265, C 119 RIC I 37b, C 98 RIC I 113b, C 277a RIC I 199, C 40 RIC I 201a, C 133 RIC I 176 RIC I 37a, C 98 RIC I 414 RIC I 222, C 301 RIC I 207, C 43 RIC I 220, C 223 RIC I 226, C 2 RIC I 119, C 279 RIC I 105a, S 1623 RIC 32a RIC I 270, C 116 RIC I 272, C 117 RIC I 271, S 1559 RIC I 362 RIC I 288, C 484 RIC I 322, S 1605 RIC I 311, C 427 RIC I 314, C 433b RIC I 99, C 78b RIC I 100, C 80 RIC I 303, C 357 RIC I 253 RIC I 251, C 70 RIC I 367, C 348 RIC I 256, C 60 RIC I 264 RIC I 301, C 354

AR Quinarius
110) B2, O03, R081, T101 111) B2, O16, R128, T094 112) B2, O41, R005, T093 RIC I 1a RIC I 474, S 1643 RIC I 276, S 1568

Note: The entire bronze coinage series until the mid-3 century normally features an S and C across the reverse fields of each coin which stand for Senatus Consulto, “By authority of the Senate”. To avoid repetition these will be omitted but may be assumed to be present unless otherwise noted. AE Sestertius
113) 114) 115) 116) 117) B2, O06, R128, T107 Bv, O85, R015, T053 Bv, O85, R066, T053 Bv, O85, R078, T053 Bv, O85, R085, T053

rd

6

Reference(s)
RIC I 501, C 570 RIC I 370 RIC I 383 RIC I 341, C 520 RIC I 345, C 441

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
118) B4, O50, R057, T053 RIC 136 (II, Nerva), C 570

AE Dupondius
119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) B3, O28, R076, T053 Ba, O54, R044, T041 Bu, O85, R015, T053 Bu, O85, R019, T053 Bu, O85, R078, T053 Bu, O85, R089, T053 RIC I 429, C 518 RIC I 155, C 7 RIC I 372, S 1659 RIC I 375, C 408 RIC I 342, S 1666 RIC I 347, C 440

AE Dupondius (Posthumous)
125) 126) 127) 128) 129) B5, O50, R046, T018 B5, O50, R050, T055 B5, O51, R059, T091 B5, O51, R128, T111 B6, O50, R056, T047 Exe: SC RIC 56 (I, Caligula), S 1811, C 87 RIC 101 (I, Claudius) RIC 189 (II, Titus) RIC 79 (I, Tiberius), S 1787 RIC 131 (I, Nerva), C 568

AE As
130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) B1, O28, R076, T053 B1, O28, R091, T053 B1, O63, R093, T053 B2, O16, R009, T106 B2, O28, R075, T053 B2, O28, R091, T053 B4, O42, R128, T002 Exe: ROM ET AVG RIC I 432, S 1686 RIC I 428 RIC I 471, S 1689 RIC I 486 RIC I 435 RIC I 427 RIC I 230

AE As (Posthumous)
137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) B2, O50, R056, T002 Exe: SC B5, O51, R055, T045 B5, O51, R058, T045 B5, O51, R128, T002 Exe: PROVIDENT B5, O51, R128, T044 B5, O51, R128, T056 B5, O51, R128, T081 Large S C across fields RIC 133 (II, Nerva), C 566 RIC 156 (II, Domitian), C 562 RIC 198 (II, Titus) RIC 81 (I, Tiberius), S 1789, C 228 RIC 82 (I, Tiberius), S 1790 RIC 72 (I, Tiberius) RIC 83 (I, Tiberius)

AE Quadrans
144) 145) 146) 147) 148) Bb, O52, R004, T053 Bb, O53, R080, T053 Bf, O73, R053, T038 Bf, O77, R053, T002 Bo, O73, R053, T053 RIC I 447, S 1701 RIC I 465 RIC I 422, S 1695 RIC I 425, C 415 RIC I 421, S 1694

7
Augustus Busts

8
Augustus Types

9
Augustus Types (continued)

10
Augustus Types (continued)

11

Livia
58 BCE – 29 CE

Livia was the mother of Tiberius and grandmother of Claudius. She married at the age of 15 and was forced to get a divorce a year or two later to marry Octavian instead. After her death at 87 she was consecrated by Claudius.

Busts:
1) 2) a) b) Diademed, draped bust right Veiled head right Carpentum led by two mules right Carpentum led by quadriga right

Livia’s coins are known only in bronze, were struck posthumously and are all fairly rare. Any well preserved coin may be expected to cost a few hundred dollars with superb specimens being so rare as to defy realistic pricing.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) IVSTITIA PIETAS SALVS AVGVSTA SPQR / IVLIAE AVGVST SPQR / IVLIAE / AVGVST No legend

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVGVSTI F TR POT ITER TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG TR POT XXIIII TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXIIII TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXXVII

Type:
1) Large SC

Mint:
1) Roma

AE Dupondius (Posthumous)
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) B1, O1, R2, T1 B1, O3, R2, T1 B2, O2, R1, T1 Ba, O4, R3, T1 Ba, O5, R3, T1 Bb, O6, R4, T1

Reference(s)
RIC 46 (I, Tiberius), C 4 RIC 47 (I, Tiberius), C 5 RIC 43 (I, Tiberius), C 1 RIC 50 (I, Tiberius) RIC 51 (I, Tiberius), C 6 RIC 60 (I, Tiberius), C 66

Livia Busts

Livia Type

12

Agrippa
b.63 – d.12 BCE
Bust:
1) Head left wearing rostral crown.

Lifelong friend of Augustus, Agrippa was also his most able and trustworthy general. In return for his friendship Augustus had him marry his only daughter, Julia, to him.

Obverse:
1) M AGRIPPA L F COS III

In coins, Agrippa is represented by only one obverse and reverse type and all of these are posthumous As issues with the main strikings apparently falling under the threeyear reign of Caligula; a half century after his death! Fortunately, these Asses are quite common and may often be found for as little as $10 on the Internet and coin shows’ “junk bins”. However, nicely preserved specimens will cost considerably more.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) IMP T VESP AVG REST IMP D AVG REST No legend

Type:
1) Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident.

Mint:
1) Roma

AE As (Posthumous)
1) 2) B1, O1, R1, T1 B1, O1, R3, T1

Reference(s)
RIC 457 (II, Domitian) RIC 58 (I, Caligula), BMC 161 (Tiberius), C 3

13

Nero Claudius Drusus
38 – 9 BCE

Drusus was an able and widely admired general and privately favored by Augustus as his successor. However, he died from an accident leaving his brother Tiberius as the most eligible candidate. He was also the father of the future emperor Claudius.

Busts:
1) 2) 3) Bare head left Laureate head left Laureate head right

Nero Claudius Drusus never saw a coin with his name and portrait. In fact, it took half a century after his death before this honor was conferred by his son when he became emperor. During Roman times the striking of coins honoring dead rulers was a relatively short affair. After all, each coin that did so was one that was not honoring the present ruler. Thanks to this, coins for this long dead general are few and far between. The most common among these are Sestertii that tend to come to market in marginal condition. Even so they tend to command stiff prices. Next up, insofar as usual looks are concerned at least, are his scarce Denarii a sample of which can sometimes be found for $500-$1,500 depending on quality. Regardless of your budget, don’t hold your breath waiting on a mint state specimen.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) NERO CLAVD DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) DE GERMANIS IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM TR P PP COS VIII TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMPPP No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Claudius seated left, holding branch, weapons on floor Legend SC Shields (2), crossed, over vexillum and spears Triumphal arch reading DE GERM; statue of Claudius riding horse right, holding scepter and two trophies with seated captives on either side above Triumphal arch reading DE GERMANIS; statue of Claudius riding horse left and two trophies above

Mints:
1) 2) Caesarea Cappadociae Roma

AU Aureus (Posthumous)
1) B2, O3, R5, T5

Reference(s)
RIC 71 (I, Claudius), C 3

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
2) 3) B2, O3, R1, T3 B2, O3, R5, T4 RIC 74 (I, Claudius), C 6 RIC 70 (I, Claudius), C 2

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
4) 5) B1, O3, R3, T1 Exe: SC B1, O3, R4, T1 Exe: SC RIC 93 (I, Claudius) RIC 109 (I, Claudius), C 8

Nero Claudius Drusus Busts

Nero Claudius Drusus Types

14
The father of Caligula, brother of Tiberius and stepson of Augustus, Germanicus held an enviable imperial pedigree. He was an able and loved general who had the rare Augustan traits of moderation and leadership without excess. Even though Augustus appointed b.15 BCE - d.19 CE Tiberius emperor he far preferred the qualities of Germanicus and left plans in place to ensure that he stayed in the limelight and perhaps succeed Tiberius. Unfortunately, his popularity grew to such an extent that Tiberius became jealous for he knew that it would take little arm-twisting from the part of Germanicus to mount a coup that would probably end in his deposing. Tiberius's worries would be laid to rest however when Germanicus died suddenly and unexpectedly of a mysterious illness, possibly the effects of poisoning.

Germanicus

Busts:
1) 2) a) Bare head left. Bare head right Germanicus riding quadriga right, holding scepter

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) GERMANICVS / CAESAR GERMANICVS C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS CAES TI AVG F COS II Γ M GERMANICVS CAES TI AVGV COS II Γ M GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N GERMANICVS CES TI AVGV COS II Γ M

All the coins for Germanicus were made posthumously. First Caligula seems to have given him a short run of Drachms, coins meant for commerce in the easternmost provinces. After that he and then Claudius kicked it into high gear and flooded the Roman markets everywhere with a series of Dupondii and Asses. Some decades later Titus, and then Domitian, also honored the beloved “founding father”. Many of these big copper coins are sold by dealers today and, depending mostly on condition, will cost anywhere from a few dollars each for the barely recognizable ones to many hundreds for those rare ones that look as if they were minted a week ago.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) ARTAXIAS GERMANICVS C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR POT III PP C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR POT IIII PP D CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST DIVVS AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST IMPERATOR PONT MAX AVG TR PONT SIGNIS RECEPT / DEVICTIS GERM TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P IMP PP

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Augustus radiate head left Germanicus standing left, raising hand and holding scepter with eagle atop. Letters SC Letters SC; legend reading TR P PP COS VIII RESTITV inside of outer legend. Letters SC; legend reading TR P PP COS VIII RESTITVIT inside of outer legend. Neptune standing left, holding trident and dolphin Sacrificial implements: simpulum and lituus.

Mints:
1) 2) Caesarea Cappadociae Roma

AR Cistophoric Drachm (Posthumous)
1) B2, O2, R10, T7

Reference(s)
RIC 63 (I, Caligula)

AE Dupondius (Posthumous)
2) Ba, O1, R11, T2 RIC 56 (I, Caligula)

AE As
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) B1, O6, R02, T3 B1, O6, R03, T3 B1, O6, R04, T3 B1, O6, R09, T3 B2, O5, R12, T3 RIC 35 (I, Caligula) RIC 43 corrected (I, Caligula) RIC 50 (I, Claudius), C 4 RIC 228 (II, Titus) RIC 106 (I, Claudius), C 9

15
Germanicus Busts

Germanicus Types

Agrippina I
c.14 BCE - d.33 CE
Bust:
1) Draped bust right

Mother of Caligula.

Obverses:
1) 2) AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI CAESARIS AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI

In coins, Agrippina is one of the few, if not the only, empress posthumously honored by no less than three different emperors. And all of these can be considered fairly rare, blue-ribbon items today. While it’s conceivable that a beaten up Sestertius could be found for under $100 it would be a poor excuse of a coin indeed. One you wouldn’t mind showing off will easily cost several hundred dollars and you may have to wait a while before the opportunity comes up. Showroom condition Sestertii, almost regardless of emperor or empress, cost in the thousands of dollars so a top grade rarity such as Agrippina can be expected to cost that much more.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM TR P PP COS VIII REST MEMORIAE / AGRIPPINAE TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P IMP PP

Types:
1) 2) Carpentum pulled left by two mules. Legend SC

Mint:
1) Roma

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
1) 2) 3) B1, O1, R1, T2 B1, O1, R3, T2 B1, O2, R2, T1 SPQR above

Reference(s)
RIC 231 (II, Titus), C 4 RIC 102 (I, Claudius), C 3 RIC 55 (I, Caligula), C 1

16
Agrippina I Bust

Tiberius served as a general during several conquests under Augustus. Although Augustus was his step-father, the emperor intended for his successor to be his friend Agrippa. However, because Agrippa, and later his own adopted sons, died while Augustus was still in power he finally (and reluctantly) settled on Augustus 14-37 Tiberius. Whether he felt like second fiddle or not is left to speculation but what is for certain is that, unlike Augustus, he retained an uneasy relationship with the Senate and one which would eventually see him "divorcing" himself from its day-to-day business by his self-imposed exile to the island of Capri.

Tiberius

In the beginning Tiberius ruled wisely and competently. He conferred with the Senate constantly and presented himself as a hardworking advocate of the people. But soon he became cynical after the flattery of Senators and rumors of betrayal. It was at this point that he quickly descended into a bitter and reclusive old man and then retired to Capri for the remainder of his life. While deathly ill and advanced in age, Caligula had him smothered with his own bed sheets... lest Tiberius decide to change his mind about naming him his successor. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) a) Bare head left Bare head right Laureate head left Laureate head right Tiberius seated left, holding patera and scepter

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) CIVITATIBVS ASIA RESTITVTIS TI CAES AVG PM TR P XXXIV TI CAES AVG PM TR P XXXV TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERATOR V TI CAESAR AVGVSTVS TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG PONT MAX TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VII TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS IMP VII TI CAESAR DIVI AVGVST F IMPERAT V TI CAESAR DIVI AVGVST F IMPERAT VII TI CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI F AVGVSTVS TI CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI F IMPERATOR V TI DIVI F AVGVSTVS No legend

The coins of Tiberius are rather boring in their unimaginative use of just a handful of types for almost two decades straight. The Denarii have become known worldwide as the “tribute penny” which is mentioned in the Bible. This is somewhat controversial considering the coin had probably not seen wide circulation throughout the middle east until after Jesus’s crucifixion but it is at least plausible that they did to some extent along with the more established Denarii of Augustus and other silver coins of the region. Whether appropriately called or not the Tribute Penny is easily available today starting at a bit over $100 for a shopworn specimen and climbing up to about $250-$300 for a nice one. The same type is also available as an Aureus for beaucoup bucks but, then again, they never were just a penny either. Bronzes are much more varied when it comes to types and are again widely available though unfortunately a majority will not be prime examples. The typical coin will be moderately worn, porous and have only a part of its legends readable but need not cost more than around $100; of course, as overall coin appeal rises so will the numbers in the price tag.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXIIII CLEMENTIAE DIVOS AVGVST DIVI F DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER PATRIAE DRVSVS CAES TI AVG F COS II P IT DRVSVS CAES TI AVG F COS II TR P DRVSVS CAES TI AVG F COS TR P IT IMP D CAES DIVI VESP AVG REST IMP T CAES DIVI VESP AVG REST IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG RESTITVTIT IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVGVST MODERATIONI

17
16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) MODERATIONIS PONT MAXIM COS III IMP VII TR POT XXI PONT MAXIM COS III IMP VII TR POT XXII PONTIF AVGVST PONTIF MAX TR POT XXXIIX PONTIF MAX TR POT XXXVI PONTIF MAX TR POT XXXVII PONTIF MAXIM PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XVII PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXII PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIIII PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXXVI PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXXVII PONTIFEX TRIBVN POTESTATE XII TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXXVI TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F IMP VIII TR POT XVI TR POT XX 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) TR POT XXII TR POT XXIIII TR POT XXV TR POT XXVI TR POT XXVII TR POT XXVIII TR POT XXVIIII TR POT XXX TR POT XXXI TR POT XXXII TR POT XXXIII TR POT XXXIIII TR POT XXXV TR POT XXXVI TR POT XXXVII TR POT XXXVIII No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Altar; two Victories standing on columns on either side, facing each other. Augustus bare head right, star above Augustus laureate head right, star above. Augustus radiate head left, star above. Caduceus, winged Cornucopiae (2), crossed over winged caduceus and two branches. Drusus, bare head left. Large SC Legend TR P PP COS VIII RESTITVIT within outer legend. Livia seated right, holding patera and scepter. Livia seated right, holding scepter and branch Pax seated right, holding spear and branch Rudder on globe over large globe. Tiberius bare headed, facing bust on shield decorated with doily-like lacework and outer wreath. Tiberius laureate, facing bust within wreath on shield rimmed with dots and branches. Tiberius riding quadriga right, holding branch and scepter with eagle atop. Victory seated right on globe, holding wreath with both hands Wreath, PONTIF / MAX within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Caesarea Cappadociae Commagene Lugdunum Roma

AU Aureus
1) B4, O11, R23, T11

Reference(s)
RIC I 25, BMC 30, C 15

AR Denarius
2) 3) 4) 5) B4, O11, R03, T03 B4, O11, R23, T11 B4, O11, R32, T16 Exe: IMP VII B4, O11, R33, T16 Exe: IMP VII RIC I 28 RIC I 2 RIC I 4

AE Sestertius
6) 7) 8) 9) B1, O15, R16, T01 Exe: ROM ET AVG B3, O15, R16, T01 Exe: ROM ET AVG B4, O13, R16, T01 Exe: ROM ET AVG Ba, O01, R01, T08 RIC 240 (I, Augustus), C 28 RIC 241b (I, Augustus), C 30 RIC 246 (I, Augustus) RIC I 48, C 3

AE Dupondius
10) 11) B4, O09, R17, T06 B4, O13, R15, T01 Exe: ROM ET AVG RIC I 90 RIC 236a (I, Augustus)

AE As
12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) B1, O09, R12, T08 B1, O09, R26, T08 B1, O14, R24, T10 B3, O09, R20, T13 B3, O09, R28, T05 B3, O09, R28, T05 RIC 211 (II, Titus), C 73 RIC I 44 RIC I 34 RIC I 64 RIC I 59 RIC I 65, C 22

18
Tiberius Busts

Tiberius Types

Drusus
13 BCE – 23 CE

Son of Tiberius who was murdered (by poisoning) by his wife Livilla in league with a plot by the traitorous Sejanus.

Busts:
1) a) Bare head left Crossed cornucopiae, winged caduceus within; heads of Drusus’ children atop cornucopiae

Obverses:
1) 2) DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N No legend

Although many low-end bronzes exist that are sold for only a few dollars each, those that are easily attributable and have good eye appeal are rather pricey. The Asses are the most common and tend to cost around $100-$300 for a presentable specimen, The Sestertii are much rarer and, given the unusual design of heads-on-cornucopiae, are much more expensive. Another commemorative series of Asses were issued under Titus and Domitian and these are also rare.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II IMP D CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER

Types:
1) 2) Larrge SC Neptune standing left, holding trident and dolphin

19
Mint:
1) Roma

AE Sestertius
1) Ba, O2, R1, T1

Reference(s)
RIC 42 (I, Tiberius), C 1

AE As
2) B1, O1, R4, T1 RIC 45 (I, Tiberius)

AE As (Posthumous)
3) B1, O1, R3, T1 RIC 216 (II, Titus)

Drusus Busts

Antonia
36 BCE - 37 CE
Busts:
1) 2) Bare headed, draped bust right Grain crowned, draped bust right

Daughter of Augustus and mother of Claudius.

Obverse:
1) ANTONIA AVGVSTA

Without question these are among the more difficult coins to find from the era. Antonia was one of several personages in Claudius’s lineage to be honored posthumously and none of these are very plentiful. Still, enough Dupondii have come down through the ages that they may be found frequently enough. A so-so specimen may cost around $100 with nice ones up to about $1,000. Denarii are scarcer but not unheard of. When available they are usually worn and/or with problems. But even so they remain marketable and sought after.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI SACERDOS DIVI AVGVSTI TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP PP

Types:
1) 2) 3)

Claudius standing left, holding simpulum and scroll Constantia standing, facing, holding staff with torch atop and cornucopia. Torches (2), lit and tied together with a ribbon.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus (Posthumous)
1) 2) B2, O1, R1, T2 B2, O1, R2, T3

Reference(s)
RIC 65 (I, Claudius), C 1 RIC 67 (I, Claudius), C 4

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
3) 4) B2, O1, R1, T2 B2, O1, R2, T3 RIC 66 (I, Claudius), C 2 RIC 68 (I, Claudius), C 5

20
AE Dupondius (Posthumous)
5) 6) B1, O1, R3, T1 B1, O1, R4, T1 RIC 92 (I, Claudius), C 6 RIC 104 (I, Claudius)

Antonia Busts

Caligula's real name was Gaius Caesar but earned the nickname with which he is known by from the type of army boots he wore during childhood. One of the most enigmatic Roman emperors, the early part of his career had him start out as an ordinary and modest man. His granduncle Tiberius had wished Caligula along Augustus 37-41 with Gemellus (Caligula's cousin) to be joint emperors. Instead, Caligula adopted him but never gave him any official role. At some point Caligula underwent a transformation, supposedly after an illness that transformed him into a maniacal and cruel person. As seen on the erotic movie of the same name, Caligula would take joy in perverse and sadistic acts that often ended in the murder of innocent people. He also made no subtleties for his hatred of the Senate, the members of which were objects of his ridicule (or worse). It was only a matter of time before a conspiracy was hatched and he was murdered.

Caligula

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) a) b) c) Bare head left Bare head right Laureate head left Laureate head right Large SC Pietas seated left, holding patera Pileus; S C across fields

Caligula is a tough emperor to score. Silver and gold coins are quite rare and expensive. The picture improves considerably for bronzes of which there are many and abundance keeps prices in check. But, and this is a big “but”, these bronzes, the affordable ones, are usually pretty rottenly preserved. Far and away the most common of these are the copper Asses featuring a Vesta reverse with the goddess seated left and holding a patera. Typically, they are found with a million little potmarks and other blights of corrosion. Those that look especially horrible, yet still undeniably attributable, can be had for maybe just $20 or so. A hundred dollars buys you the same thing but significantly more presentable. And then a jewel of a bronze will set you back, say, $500 which is still only entry-level territory for a Denarius.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) C CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR POT C CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR POT COS C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PM TR POT C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT IIII COS IIII C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P III PP C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P IIII PP

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) ADLOCVT / COH AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM IMPERATOR PONT MAX AVG TR POT NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES PM TR POT COS PM TR POT IIII PON M TR P III PP COS DES III PON M TR P IIII PP COS QVAT PON M TR P IIII PP COS TERT SPQR / PP / OB CIVES / SERVATOS SPQR / PP / OB CS VESTA No legend

21
Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Agrippina I draped bust right Augustus radiate head right Augustus radiate head right; star on either side. Caligula standing left on platform, raising hand, facing five soldiers to left Caligula standing left, sacrificing over altar; attendant with sacrificial bull to left, another to right, holding patera. Temple with six columns in background. Caligula’s sisters Agrippina, Drusilla and Julia standing, facing, each holding a cornucopia; Drusilla also holding patera. Germanicus bare head right Large RCC Nero and Drusus each riding a horse right Simpulum and lituus Vesta seated left, holding patera and scepter. Wreath, SPQR / PP / OBCIVES / SERVATOS Wreath, SPQR / PP / OBCS

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Caesarea Cappadociae Lugdunum Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) B2, O02, R16, T03 B4, O06, R05, T07

Reference(s)
RIC I 1, C 10 RIC I 25, C 6

AR Denarius
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) B2, O01, R03, T01 B2, O01, R05, T07 B2, O02, R16, T03 B4, O01, R03, T01 B4, O01, R04, T02 B4, O06, R03, T01 B4, O06, R04, T02 B4, O06, R16, T13 RIC I 8, C 4 RIC I 12 RIC I 2, C 11 RIC I 14 RIC I 16 RIC I 22 RIC I 24, C 7 RIC I 28, C 21

AE Sestertius
11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) B3, O03, R16, T12 B3, O05, R01, T04 B3, O05, R02, T06 Exe: SC B3, O09, R16, T12 B3, O10, R16, T12 Bb, O04, R16, T05 DIVO AVG and S C across fields; Obv. Exe: PIETAS Bb, O09, R16, T05 DIVO AVG and S C across fields; Obv. Exe: PIETAS Bb, O10, R16, T05 DIVO AVG and S C across fields; Obv. Exe: PIETAS RIC I 37, C 24 RIC I 32, C 1 RIC I 33 RIC I 46, C 25 RIC I 53, C 26 RIC I 36, C 9 RIC I 44, C 2 RIC I 51, C 11

AE Dupondius
19) Ba, O05, R07, T09 RIC I 34

AE As
20) 21) 22) B1, O05, R15, T11 Large S C across fields B1, O09, R15, T11 Large S C across fields B1, O10, R15, T11 Large S C across fields RIC I 38, C 27 RIC I 47, C 28 RIC I 54, C 29

AE Quadrans
23) 24) Bc, O08, R11, T08 Bc, O08, R12, T08 RIC I 41 (1923 ed.), C 8 RIC I 52, C 7

22
Caligula Busts

Caligula Types

23
After the murder of Caligula, the Praetorian Guard had to come up with a worthy successor and fast lest the Senate step in and revert back to the pre-Julius Caesar type of Republic. The only relative of Caligula they could find was Claudius who was Caligula's uncle. An otherwise unfit man to rule, Claudius was a recluse of whom Augustus 41-54 little was known about by design. Because he suffered physical deformities he was kept out of the limelight to avoid embarrassment. At the age of 46 he was unveiled to the public by his uncle Caligula and he held a position as Suffect Consul or "replacement" consul. But don't get the wrong idea, this was done by Caligula entirely to spite the Senate and had nothing to do with any affection he had for Claudius himself.

Claudius I

Nevertheless, by bringing him out in public Claudius gained a degree of acceptance. To augment this perception it was noted that he was highly educated and not inept as an administrator. In the turn of events that was to happen next this all played out in his favor. When the Praetorian Guard thus announced his candidacy to the seat of power the Senate had to oblige and ratify the decision. As a ruler, the only truly poor decision he made was to marry his niece. She turned out to be nothing but trouble for him and pursued an agenda of grooming her son as Claudius's replacement. She was skillful in this endeavor and easily manipulated Claudius himself to carry out her goals. When Nero's place as rightful heir was a sure thing she simply poisoned him and Nero took his place. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) a) b) Bare head left Bare head right Laureate head left Laureate head left of Claudius over Agrippina II Laureate head right Hand holding scales, P •N •R below Modius with grain ears

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) DIVVS CLAVDIVS AVGVSTVS TI CL CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP PP TI CLAVD CAES AVG TI CLAVD CAES AVG AGRIPP AVGVSTA TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM PM TRIB POT PP TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG PM TR P TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG PM TR P III TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG PM TR P IIII TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG PM TR P VI IMP X TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG PM TR P VI IMP XI TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG PM TR P VIIII IMP XVI TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG PM TR P VIIII IMP XVIII TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG PM TR P X IMP PP TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG PM TR P X PP IMP XVIII TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG PM TR P XI IMP PP COS V TI CLAVDIVS CAES AVG PM TR P IMP PP TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP PP

Well, if you don’t mind an atrocity that looks as though it was something scraped off the bottom of a shoe, you could pay $10 or $20 for a sorry copper coin. But why settle for something of this sort that you would be embarrassed to show your friends or spouse? Instead, $50-$100 will go a long way in getting a coin with more eye appeal. For this price range you shouldn’t expect a coin worthy of a museum display case but at this point you’ve reached that threshold where the Law of Diminishing Returns really kicks in. Those truly beautiful bronzes with gorgeous patinas will cost hundreds, and often thousands, of dollars. The Denarius is still a rare sight under the reign of Claudius. When found they are usually pretty worn and invariably always expensive. Mint-state silver, as well as gold, is the kind of antiquity you have no reason to expect to be offered by an ordinary coin dealer.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE CERES AVGVSTA CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI DIANA EPHESIA IMP D CAES AVG REST IMP T VESP AVG REST IMP T VESP AVG RESTITVIT IMP T VESPASIAN AVG REST IMP TITVS VESP REST LIBERTAS AVGVSTA NERO CLAVD CAES DRVSVS GERM PRINC IVVENT NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP PACI AVGVSTAE PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT PON M TR P IMP COS II PON M TR P IMP PP COS II

24
17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) PONT MAX TR POT IMP PONT MAXI TR POT IMP PRAETOR RECEPT SPES AVGVSTA VICTORIA AVGVSTI No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) Agrippina II laureate, draped bust right. Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch Claudius riding quadriga left, holding scepter with eagle atop Claudius standing right on left, shaking hands with soldier to right, holding legionary eagle. Constantia seated left, raising hand Constantia standing left, raising hand and holding spear. Diana statue facing, holding modius above head Fortification reading IMPER RECEPT; soldier with legionary eagle and secondary palisades within. Funerary quadriga riding right. Legend SC Libertas standing, facing, holding pileus and raising hand. Minerva advancing right, holding spear and shield. Nemesis advancing right, holding caduceus and pulling veil; snake to right Nero bare headed, draped bust left. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple with (2) columns reading ROM ET AVG; Claudius within, holding scepter and being crowned by woman, holding cornucopia. Temple with (4) columns, Diana within Triumphal arch reading DE BRITANN; statue of Claudius riding horse left with trophy on either side above. Triumphal arch reading DE GERMANIS; statue of Claudius riding horse left with trophy on either side above. Triumphal arch; statue of Claudius riding horse right with trophy on either side above. Victory advancing left, holding shield reading OB / CS Victory seated right on globe, holding wreath with both hands. Wreath, EX SC / OB / CIVES / SERVATOS within. Wreath, EX SC / OB CIVES / SERVATOS within. Wreath, EX SC / PP / OB CIVES / SERVATOS within. Wreath, shield reading COS DES / PRINCI / IVVENT within Wreath, SPQR / PP / OB CS within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Caesarea Cappadociae Ephesus Lugdunum Pergamum Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) B5, O05, R03, T05 B5, O05, R22, T24 B5, O06, R01, T01 B5, O07, R22, T08 B5, O07, R22, T19 B5, O07, R22, T24 B5, O09, R13, T13 B5, O09, R19, T04 B5, O09, R22, T08 B5, O11, R13, T13 B5, O11, R22, T27 B5, O12, R13, T13

Reference(s)
RIC I 13, BMC 16, C 5 RIC I 15, C 34 RIC I 80, BMC 72, C 3 RIC I 7, C 33 RIC I 3 RIC I 5, BMC 3, C 33 RIC I 27, C 55 RIC I 29, BMC 28 RIC I 25, BMC 23, C 43 RIC I 38, C 57 RIC I 40 RIC I 46, BMC 51, C 60

AU Quinarius
13) B5, O07, R22, T21

AR Tetradrachm
14) 15) 16) B1, O03, R22, T16 B3, O01, R22, T17 B4, O04, R04, T07 RIC I 120 RIC I 118, C 30 RIC I 119, C 1

AR Denarius
17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) B5, O05, R03, T05 B5, O05, R22, T24 B5, O06, R01, T01 B5, O06, R11, T14 B5, O07, R13, T13 B5, O09, R22, T08 B5, O11, R03, T05 B5, O11, R13, T13 B5, O11, R22, T27 RIC I 14 RIC I 16 RIC I 81, C 4 RIC I 83, C 5 RIC I 10 RIC I 26 RIC I 32 RIC I 39 RIC I 41, C 87

25
26) 27) 28) 29) 30) B5, O12, R13, T13 B5, O12, R22, T18 B5, O13, R13, T13 B5, O13, R22, T27 B5, O16, R13, T13 RIC I 47 RIC I 45 RIC I 58, C 66a RIC I 60, C 94 RIC I 62

AE Sestertius
31) 32) 33) 34) 35) B5, O20, R12, T20 B5, O20, R20, T15 Exe: SC B5, O20, R20, T15 Exe: SC B5, O20, R22, T23 B5, O21, R22, T25

Reference(s)
RIC I 98, C 48 RIC I 115, C 85 RIC I 99, C 85 RIC I 96, C 39 RIC I 112, C 38

AE Setertius (Posthumous)
36) B3, O21, R06, T15 RIC 234 (II, Titus), C 103

AE Dupondius
37) 38) B1, O20, R02, T02 B1, O21, R02, T02 RIC I 94 anecdotal RIC I 110, C 1

AE As
39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) B1, O20, R02, T02 B1, O20, R10, T11 B1, O20, R22, T12 B1, O21, R03, T06 B1, O21, R03, T06 B1, O21, R10, T11 B1, O21, R22, T12 RIC I 94 RIC I 97 RIC I 100 RIC I 111 RIC I 95 RIC I 113 RIC I 116

AE Quadrans
46) 47) Ba, O18, R14, T10 Bb, O18, R16, T10 RIC I 84, C 70 RIC I 90, C 72

Claudius I Busts

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Claudius I Types

Britannicus
b. ca.41 – d.55

Britannicus was the son of Claudius and presumptive heir to the throne until Agrippina showed up with her own son Nero. Between the two they plotted to eliminate Britannicus and managed to poison him just like they had his father.

Bust:
1) Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Despite the fact that during this period the mint in Rome was striking millions of coins hardly any of them bore the name and portrait of Claudius’s son. He was killed before he had much of a chance to entrench himself in Roman politics. This, of course, makes the few extant coins very rare. You can count on any attributable coin to fetch thousands regardless of condition.

Obverse:
1) TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS

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Reverse:
1) No legend

Type:
1) Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield

Mint:
1) Roma

AE Sestertius
1) B1, O1, R1, T1

Reference(s)
BMC 226 (Claudius), C 2

Mother of Nero. Infamous for treachery and desire for power, Agrippina married the emperor Claudius and was involved in a number of political moves worthy of her own daytime soap opera. It is suspected she got rid of Claudius, after removing other potential rivals, by 6 - d.59 feeding him poisoned mushrooms. She did this as much to ensure her son Nero would succeed him as much as to place herself at the upper crust of Rome's powerbrokers. Nero himself grew wary of her ways and eventually had her murdered.

Agrippina II

The coins of Agrippina II are elusive. Her bronze Sestertii minted during Claudius’s lifetime can be found with a measure of regularity but those that came during the beginning of Nero’s reign are quite rare. These latter have obverse designs which feature both her bust as well Nero’s looking in at each other. Because it was difficult to squeeze two full-size busts on a coin the size of a nickel or smaller they were bunched up together so that both their noses are touching. When the coins came out Roman citizens poked fun at the two and rumors began flying about an incestuous relationship. The mints quickly changed designs thereby aiding in making these coins so rare today. They are, by the way, properly attributed to Agrippina rather than Nero based on the legend which nominates her Augusta while Nero gets second billing as Caesar. Back to the Sestertius, these can sometimes be found on eBay for a few hundred dollars a piece and are typically in marginal condition. Well-preserved, any coin of hers is bound to be worth thousands.

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Bust:
1) 2) a) Draped bust left Draped bust right Nero bare head right facing Agripping II draped bust left

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) NERONI CLAVD DIVI F CAES AVG GERM IMP TR P TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P IMP PP No legend

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) AGRIPP AVG DIVI CLAVD NERONIS CAES MATER AGRIPPINA AVG GERMANICI F CAESARIS AVG AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI CAESARIS AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Carpentum led by two mules advancing left Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch Legend SC Nero bare headed, draped bust left. Wreath, EXSC within

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) Ba, O1, R1, T5

Reference(s)
RIC 1 (I, Nero), BMC 6, C 6

AR Denarius
2) Ba, O1, R1, T5 RIC 2 (I, Nero), BMC 3, C 7

AE Sestertius
3) 4) B2, O1, R2, T3 B2, O3, R3, T1 RIC 102 (I, Nero) RIC 103 (I, Nero)

AE Dupondius
5) B1, O2, R3, T2

Agrippina II Busts

Agrippina II Types

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One of ancient history's most infamous characters, Nero rose to power in his mid-teens following the death of Claudius, his adoptive father. To speed things along he had Britannicus poisoned and in league with his mother Agrippina had had Claudius poisoned as well. His next few years were fairly Augustus 54-68 unremarkable one way or the other largely in part because of Agrippina's overbearing influence. He corrected the problem, however, by having her executed on the pretext that she had a unfavorable view of Poppaea, his new mistress. Because he was already married to a certain Octavia he had her exiled and murdered as well. He would later kick Poppaea to death while she was pregnant. To round things out he had his teacher Seneca, another influential man of his age, commit suicide on suspicions of him and others plotting against him.

Nero

Popular legend holds that he set fire to Rome. Modern historians dismiss this account as an exaggeration but his decision to hold a poetry recital with the conflagration as his background was a crass political blunder that would hurt his popularity immensely. Needing to find a scapegoat, he chose to point the finger at Christians who up until then had been but a fledgling cult. For the next 300 years Christians would be vilified for every ailment within the empire and used regularly as cannon fodder in the Coliseum. In one of the more bizarre spectacles imaginable, Nero would set Christians on fire and held in position to act as torches during his parties. Becoming ever more hated for his cruelty and the demoralizing effect of the execution of countless innocent individuals, one by one far-flung provinces seceded and named emperors among their own. When Nero was unable to deal with the insurgencies he lost hope and fled to the countryside. The Senate then issued a warrant for his arrest and, on hearing of this, decided to commit suicide... but not before asking one of his slaves to commit suicide first just to see what it was going to be like! Bust s:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) a) b) Bare head left Bare head right Bare head right over Agrippina II draped bust right Bare-headed, draped bust left Bare-headed, draped bust right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust right Radiate head left Radiate head right Altar with owl atop Cippus with helmet atop with shield and spear leaning against it

Nero left the world a wide variety of coins struck in bronze, brass, silver and gold. The collector will find that the bronzes are quite a bit scarcer than for the previous emperors so far while the silver Denarii are the first to be found that are not only commonly available but reasonably affordable as well. Nero tinkered with the silver content of the Denarius in an unwise bid to stretch the output of the silver mines and pay off the soldiers with a slightly cheaper coin. It hardly took any time for Rome’s savvy merchants to notice that the new money was of a lower fineness than that of his predecessors. Exploiting the fact that the Denarius itself was still worth just as much as before, the old Denarii were rapidly hoarded and withdrawn from circulation. This caused an immediate shortage of money which forced Nero to issue literally millions of new coins. The effect of the public hoarding and possibly melting the old coins to sell as bullion along with the intense new striking campaign makes Nero’s Denarii much more common than those of, say, Caligula or Claudius. While a mint state Denarius can often be a thousanddollar affair one that has gracefully aged may only cost $100 or so. Sestertii, Dupondii and Asses are, as mentioned above, not as common anymore as they were for the previous emperors but there are now many more types and the artistry has improved considerably. One such well preserved specimen is often worth many thousands of dollars and considered a supreme example of classical Roman art.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) IMP NERO CAESAR AVG IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P XIII PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P XIV PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERMANIC IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR POT PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TRIB POT PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PM TR P PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PM TR POT PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR P PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONTIF IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONTIF MAX TRIB POT PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PP IMP NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P PP IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P XIII PP NERO CAE AVG IMP NERO CAES AVG IMP NERO CAESAR NERO CAESAR AVG GER IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP NERO CAESAR AVG IMP

30
31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) NERO CAESAR AVG IMP TR POT PP NERO CAESAR AVG IMP TR POT XI P PP NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS NERO CL CAE AVG NERO CL CAE AVG GER NERO CL CAES AVG GER NERO CL DIVI F CAES AVG PM TR P II NERO CLA CA AVG GER NERO CLA CAE AVG GER NERO CLA CAES AVG GER NERO CLAV CAE AVG NERO CLAV CAE AVG GER NERO CLAV CAE AVG GER PM TR P IM NERO CLAV CAES AVG GER NERO CLAV CAESAR AVG NERO CLAV CAESAR AVG GER NERO CLAVD CAE AVG NERO CLAVD CAE AVG GER NERO CLAVD CAES AVG GER NERO CLAVD CAES AVG GERM NERO CLAVD CAES DRVSVS GERM PRINC IVVENT NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GE NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P IMP P NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P IMP PP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM IMP PP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P IMP P NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P IMP PP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERMA NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERMAN NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERMANI NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERMANIC NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERMANICV NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS NERO CLAVD DIVI CLAVD F CAESAR AVG GERM NERO CLAVD DIVI CLAVD F CAESAR AVG GERMA NERO CLAVD DIVI CLAVD F CAESAR AVG GERMANI NERO CLAVD DIVI F CAES AVG GERM IMP TR P COS NERO CLAVDIVS CAES AVG GERM NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GER NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P IMP P NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P IMP PP NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P IMP P NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P IMP PP NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMA NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMA IMP NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMAN NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANIC NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS NERONI CLAVDIO DRVSO GERM COS DESIGN

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) AGRIPP AVG DIVI CLAVD NERONIS CAES MATER AGRIPPINA AVGVSTA MATER AVGVSTI AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE ANNONA AVGVSTI CERES AVGVSTI S POR OST C AVGVSTVS AVGVSTA AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS CER QVINC ROM CO CER QVINQ ROM CON CERT QVINC ROM CO CERT QVINC ROM CON CERTA QVINC ROM CO CERTA QVINC ROM CON CERTAMEN QVINC ROM CO CONCORDIA AVGVSTA CONG I DAT POP CONG II DAT CONG II DAT POP CONG II DAT POP R DIVOS CLAVD AVGVST GERMANIC PATER AVG EQVESTER / ORDO / PRINCIPI / IVVENT GENIO AVGVSTI GER PM TR P IMP PP GER PON MAX TR P IMP PP IANVM CLVSIT PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IVPPITER CVSTOS MAC AVG PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT PM TR P IMP PP 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) PM TR P IMP PP PON M TR P IMP PP PON MA TR P IMP PP PON MAX TR P IMP PP PONTIF MA TR P IMP PP PONTIF MAX TR P II PP PONTIF MAX TR P III COS II PONTIF MAX TR P III PP PONTIF MAX TR P IIII PP PONTIF MAX TR P IMP PP PONTIF MAX TR P V PP PONTIF MAX TR P VI COS IIII PP PONTIF MAX TR P VI PP PONTIF MAX TR P VII COS IIII PP PONTIF MAX TR P VIII COS IIII PP PONTIF MAX TR P VIIII COS IIII PP PONTIF MAX TR P X COS IIII PP PONTIF MAX TR POT IMP PP PONTIF MAX TR POTEST IMP PP PORT AVG QER QVINC ROMAE CONS SACERD COOPT IN OMN CONL SVPRA NVM SECVRITAS AVGVSTI TR PON PP TR POT PP VESTA VICT AVG VICTORIA AVGVSTI No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) Agrippina II draped bust right Agrippina II veiled, diademed, draped bust right Altar Annona standing right on left, resting hand on hip and holding cornucopia, facing Ceres seated to right, holding grain ears over modius and torch; galley prow in background. Apollo advancing right, playing lyre. Branch Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch. Claudius laureate head right Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding patera Jupiter seated left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Macellum Magnum market; statue at entrance, holding scepter. Nero riding horse left, holding spear; soldier in background also riding horse left, holding standard. Nero riding horse right, holding spear; soldier behind also riding horse right, holding vexillum. Nero riding horse right, holding spear; solider holding vexillum to right and soldier holding standard to left. Nero seated left on platform to right, accompanied by Praetorian Prefect, facing official in center giving donative to citizen to left; Minerva in background, holding owl and scepter. Nero seated right on platform to left, official in center giving donative to citizen on ladder, holding baby and with child to lower right; Liberalitas and Minerva in background. Nero standing left on left, holding patera and scepter, and Poppaea (or Messalina) standing left on right, holding patera and cornucopia. Nero standing left on platform, raising hand, accompanied by Praetorian Prefect, facing three soldiers to left; temple in background. Nero standing, facing, holding branch and Victory on globe.

31
21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) Nero standing, facing, holding patera and cornucopia Port of Ostia viewed from above, ringed by harbor buildings and galleys within. Quadriga of elephants riding left, carrying Claudius and Augustus, each holding a scepter. Roma seated left, holding scepter and resting arm on shield. Roma seated left, holding Victory and parazonium. Roma seated left, holding wreath and parazonium. Roma standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield. Sacrificial implements: simpulum over altar to left and lituus over patera to right. Salus seated left, holding patera. Securitas seated right, resting head on hand and holding scepter; altar to right. Shield reading EQVESTER / OR DO / PRINCIPI / IVVENT Standards (2), legionary eagle in center. Table; letter S, urn and wreath above. Temple of Janus (doors and building structure) Temple of Janus (doors only) Temple with (6) columns, Vesta seated within, holding patera and scepter. Triumphal arch with quadriga above and statue of Mars on left wing. Victory advancing left, holding shield reading SPQR Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding Palladium. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm Victory seated right on globe, holding opened wreath Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield Virtus standing left, stepping on weapons, holding parazonium and spear. Wreath, Agrippina II draped bust right within Wreath, EX SC within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Caesarea Cappadociae Lugdunum Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) B02, O30, R42, T46 B02, O30, R44, T07 EX SC across fields B02, O30, R44, T44 EX SC across fields B03, O72, R01, T23 EX SC in left field B04, O51, R52, T28 B07, O22, R26, T11 B07, O22, R59, T29 Exe: SALVS B07, O27, R07, T20 B07, O33, R06, T18 B07, O33, R15, T09 B07, O33, R25, T35 B07, O33, R26, T11 B07, O33, R59, T25 Exe: ROMA B07, O33, R59, T29 Exe: SALVS

Reference(s)
RIC I 19, BMC 21, C 213 RIC I 23, BMC 25, C 217 RIC I 25, BMC 27, C 219 RIC I 6, BMC 7, C 3 RIC 76 (I, Claudius) RIC I 63, BMC 77, C 120 RIC I 66, BMC 94, C 317 RIC I 46, BMC 56 RIC I 44, BMC 52, C 42 RIC I 48, BMC 61 RIC I 50, BMC 64, C 114 RIC I 52, BMC 67, C 118 RIC I 54, BMC 81, C 257 RIC I 59, C 313

AR Drachm
15) B07, O69, R20, T08 RIC I 621

AR Denarius
16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) B02, O30, R44, T07 EX SC across fields B02, O30, R44, T07 EX SC across fields B02, O30, R44, T46 B02, O30, R45, T27 EX SC across fields B04, O51, R52, T28 B05, O85, R59, T31 B07, O21, R26, T11 B07, O21, R59, T25 RO MA across fields B07, O21, R59, T29 Exe: SALVS B07, O21, R59, T32 B07, O22, R26, T11 B07, O22, R59, T29 Exe: SALVS B07, O27, R07, T20 B07, O33, R06, T18 B07, O33, R15, T09 B07, O33, R26, T11 B07, O33, R56, T36 B07, O33, R59, T25 Exe: ROMA B07, O33, R59, T29 Exe: SALVS RIC I 24, C 218 RIC I 30 RIC I 22 RIC I 28, C 222 RIC 77 (I, Claudius) RIC 79 (I, Claudius) RIC I 69, C 123 RIC I 70 RIC I 72 RIC I 68 RIC I 64 RIC I 67 RIC I 47, C 45 RIC I 45, C 43 RIC I 49, C 67 RIC I 53, C 119 RIC I 62, C 335 RIC I 55, C 258 RIC I 60, C 314

AR Quinarius
35) B07, O72, R59, T42

32
AE Sestertius
36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) B05, O85, R59, T31 B06, O11, R58, T39 B06, O18, R04, T04 Exe: SC B06, O18, R16, T17 Exe: SC B06, O56, R58, T39 Exe: II B06, O57, R28, T34 B06, O57, R50, T22 B06, O57, R59, T14 Exe: DECVRSIO B06, O57, R59, T25 Exe: ROMA B06, O57, R59, T37 B06, O62, R16, T17 Exe: SC B06, O62, R59, T37 B06, O76, R18, T16 Exe: SC B06, O76, R59, T14 Exe: DECVRSIO B06, O78, R59, T15 Exe: DECVRSIO B07, O11, R59, T25 Exe: ROMA B07, O14, R58, T39 B07, O18, R53, T30 Exe: SC B07, O20, R04, T04 Exe: SC B07, O24, R59, T24 Exe: ROMA B07, O56, R59, T37 B07, O57, R05, T22 B07, O57, R25, T34 B07, O57, R28, T34 B07, O57, R59, T14 Exe: DECVRSIO B07, O57, R59, T25 Exe: ROMA B07, O57, R59, T37 B07, O62, R59, T17 Exe: SC B07, O75, R59, T19 Exe: ADLOCVTCOH B07, O76, R18, T16 Exe: SC B07, O76, R59, T14 Exe: DECVRSIO

Reference(s)
RIC 108 (I, Claudius), C 99 RIC I 495, C 22 RIC I 503 RIC I 410, C 346 RIC I 439 RIC I 441, C 252 RIC I 397, C 86 RIC I 274 RIC I 393, C 306 RIC I 146 RIC I 162, C 79 RIC I 171, C 84 RIC I 108, C 95 RIC I 591, C 266 RIC I 600, C 342 RIC I 520, C 324 RIC I 496, C 23 RIC I 356, C 284 RIC I 178, C 37 RIC I 438, C 146 RIC I 264, C 146 RIC I 396, C 86 RIC I 273 RIC I 143, C 308 RIC I 153, C 69 RIC I 134 RIC I 160, C 78 RIC I 165, C 91

AE Dupondius
67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) B06, O11, R53, T30 Exe: SC B06, O57, R53, T30 Exe: II B06, O62, R58, T39 Exe: II B09, O55, R27, T12 S C across lower fields B09, O57, R27, T12 Exe: II B09, O57, R58, T10 Exe: II B09, O62, R58, T39 Exe: II B10, O23, R29, T34 B10, O23, R59, T25 Exe: ROMA B10, O57, R58, T39 Exe: II B10, O57, R58, T39 Exe: II B10, O57, R59, T25 Exe: ROMA B10, O62, R53, T30 Exe: II B10, O62, R58, T39 RIC I 519 RIC I 407 RIC I 410, C 346 RIC I 400, C 128 RIC I 185 RIC I 197 RIC I 199, C 348 RIC I 342 RIC I 344, C 279 RIC I 196, C 349 RIC I 377 RIC I 296 RIC I 115

AE As
81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) B01, O11, R59, T38 B01, O12, R59, T38 B02, O07, R59, T38 B02, O11, R59, T38 B02, O18, R59, T03 Exe: ARAPACIS B02, O56, R59, T38 B06, O29, R59, T39 B06, O57, R27, T12 Exe: SC B07, O07, R59, T38 B07, O29, R29, T34 B07, O29, R59, T39 B07, O65, R48, T05 B07, O76, R58, T39 B07, O83, R48, T05 RIC I 606, C 303 RIC I 546 RIC I 543 RIC I 605, C 302 RIC I 526, C 29 RIC I 475 RIC I 313 RIC I 402, C 65 RIC I 368 RIC I 306, C 171 RIC I 312 RIC I 380 RIC I 210

AE Semis
95) B07, O26, R08, T33 Exe: SC RIC I 233, C 47

AE Quadrans
96) 97) Ba, O42, R30, T06 Bb, O42, R30, T06 RIC I 260, C 185 RIC I 317

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Nero Busts

Nero Types

34
Nero Types (continued)

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Another of the short-lived emperors during the Roman civil wars of this period, Galba was the Governor of Spain at the time of Nero's downfall. Coming from a Senatorial background, he was a likely candidate to succeed Nero from the Senate's point of view and was thus given the title. Galba made his way to Rome where he Augustus 68-69 proceeded to make enemies out of all his former supporters. Most critical among these was his decision to deny the customary donatives to the army on his accession. This bit of ill-will towards the hands that fed him precipitated a number of events that would eventually lead to his murder. Otho, another recently disenfranchised governor and former protégé of Galba's, gathered an army and set to remove Galba. For his part, Galba reacted to this latest affront by performing another round of purging within the Praetorian Guard and succeeded only in finding them step aside on Otho's arrival.

Galba

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) a) b) c) Bare head left Bare head right Bare-headed, cuirassed bust left Bare headed, cuirassed bust right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Galba riding horse right, raising hand Galba riding horse left, raising hand Hispania laureate, draped bust right; two javelins and shield below

Galba proves to be a tough emperor to acquire. His coins while not particularly rare are aggressively sought after and this tends to keep bidding competitive. His Denarii are found in all grades with the worn – but attributable – typically costing around a hundred dollars and going up quickly from there. A mint state coin will easily cost over a thousand dollars. This is still very much the heyday of the big bronze. The three main denominations, the Sestertius, Dupondius and As all are available with Galba’s trademark frowning portrait. As with the Denarius, an age-battered coin can often be found for under $100 but a well-preserved specimen often well beyond the reach of most collectors’ budgets.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) GALBA IMP GALBA IMPER GALBA IMPERATOR IMP GALBA IMP GALBA CAESAR AVG PP IMP SER GALBA AVG IMP SER GALBA AVG TR P IMP SER GALBA AVGVSTVS IMP SER GALBA CAE AVG TR P IMP SER GALBA CAES AVG PM TR P IMP SER GALBA CAES AVG PON M TR P IMP SER GALBA CAES AVG TR P IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG PM IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP SER SVLP GALBA CAES AVG TR P IMP SER SVLPI GALBA CAES AVG TR P IMP SER SVLPIC GALBA CAES AVG TR P IMP SER SVLPICIVS GALBA CAESAR AVG SER GALBA AVG SER GALBA AVG IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG SER GALBA IMP SER GALBA IMP AVG SER GALBA IMP AVGVSTVS SER GALBA IMP CAES AVG SER GALBA IMP CAES AVG PM TR P SER GALBA IMP CAES AVG TR P SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG PM T P SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG PM TR P SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG PM TR P PP SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG PM TR POT

33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47)

SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG PO MA TR P SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG PON MA TR P SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR P SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG TR P SER GALBA IMPERATOR SER SVLPI GALBA IMP CAE AVG PM TR P SER SVLPI GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG PM TR P SER SVLPI GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG TR P SER SVLPIC GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG PM TR P SER SVLPICI GALBAE IMP A SER SVLPICIVS GALBA SER SVLPICIVS GALBA IMP AVG SER SVLPIVS GALBA IMP AVG SERV GALBA IMP SERVIVS GALBA IMPERATOR

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) AEQVITAS AEQVITAS AVGVSTI AVG IMP BON EVEN BON EVENT BONI EVENTVS CERES AVGVSTA CONCORD AVG CONCORDIA PROVINCIA CONCORDIA PROVINCIARVM DIVA AVGVSTA FELICITAS AVGVST FIDES PVBLICA 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) FORTVNA AVG GALLIA GALLIA HISPANIA HISPANIA HISPANIA CLVNIA SVL HONOS ET VIRTVS IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM TR P PP COS VIII IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST IMP T VESP AVG REST LIB AVG LIBERT AVG LIBERTAS AVGVS

36
27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) LIBERTAS AVGVST LIBERTAS AVGVSTA LIBERTAS PVBLICA LIBERTAS RESTITVTA MARS VICTOR PAX AVG PAX AVGVST PAX AVGVSTA PAXS AVGVSTI PIETAS AVGVSTI QVADRAGENS REMISSAE QVADRAGENS VMA REMISSA QVADRAGENS VMAE REMISS ROMA RENASC ROMA RENASCEN ROMA RENASCENS ROMA RENASCES ROMA RESTI 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) ROMA VICTRIX SALVS AVGVSTA SALVS AVGVSTI SALVS GEN HVMANI SALVS GENE HVMANI SALVS GENERI HVMANI SECVRITAS P ROMANI SENATVS PIETATI AVGVSTI VESTA VICTORIA VICTORIA IMPERI ROMANI VICTORIA P R VICTORIAE GALBAE AVG VICTORIAE IMP GALBAE AVG VIRTVS XXXX REMISSA No legend

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aequitas standing right, holding scale and scepter Aesculapius standing, facing, holding thrysus and scepter with snake coiled around it. Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and caduceus. Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch. Concordia seated left, holding branch and scepter. Concordia standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, leaning on cippus, holding patera and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Galba riding horse right, raising hand. Galba seated to right, receiving Palladium from Hispania to left, holding cornucopia. Galba standing right on platform, accompanied by lictor, addressing soldiers to lower right. Galba standing to right, holding hand of kneeling Libertas; Roma in background Galba standing, facing, holding Victory and branch, being crowned by Senate to right, holding branch. Gallia to left, holding scepter, shaking hands with Hispania to right, holding shield and spear. Galliae (3) bare headed, draped busts right; a grain ear in front of each bust Galliae (3) bare heads right; a grain ear in front of each bust Genius standing left, holding patera and grain ears Hispania draped bust right; two javelins and shield below and behind. Hispania standing left, holding grain ears and shield with two spears. Honos standing right, holding scepter and cornucopia, facing Virtus to right, stepping on helmet, holding parazonium and spear Legend SC Legend TR P PP COS VIIII RESTITVIT within outer legend and surrounding large SC Legionary eagle on thunderbolt; standard on either side. Libertas bare head right Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter. Livia standing left, holding patera and scepter. Mars standing, facing, holding spear and trophy. Pax seated left, holding branch and caduceus. Pax seated left, holding branch and winged caduceus. Pax standing left, holding branch and caduceus. Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax standing left, holding caduceus and grain ears; globe to left. Pax standing left, leaning on cippus, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Pax(?) standing left, holding branch and shield. Pietas standing, facing, raising hand over altar and touching chest Roma advancing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter with eagle atop Roma advancing right, holding Victory on globe and scepter with eagle atop. Roma advancing right, holding Victory on globe and spear. Roma seated left, holding spear and parazonium; weapons on floor Roma seated left, holding Victory; shield to side. Roma seated left, holding spear and resting arm on shield Roma seated left, resting on trophy, holding branch and scepter with eagle atop. Roma seated left, holding Palladium and spear. Roma standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter with eagle atop. Roma standing left, stepping on globe, holding branch and spear. Salus seated left, holding patera and scepter Salus standing left, stepping on globe, sacrificing over altar and holding rudder. Shield over two crossed spears; SPQR laid out with each letter in a cardinal point starting with S in the “West” Soldier to left leading three bound captives through arch to right Standards (3) on galley prows Triumphal arch, quadriga atop. Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. Vesta seated left, holding patera and Palladium. Victory advancing left, holding Palladium and palm. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing on globe, facing, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right, holding shield on column reading PR Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield on cippus reading SPQR Virtus helmeted bust right Virtus standing left, holding Victory on globe and parazonium Virtus standing, facing, holding parazonium and spear.

37
68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) Wreath, EX SC / OB / CIVES / SER within. Wreath, EX SC / OB / CIVES / SERVATOS within Wreath, shield within reading SP QR Wreath, SPQR / OB / CIV / SER within. Wreath, SPQR / OB / CIV SER within. Wreath, SPQR / OB / CIVES / SERVATOS within Wreath, SPQR / OB / CS within. Wreath, SPQR / OB CS within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Karthago Lugdunum Roma Spain, uncertain locality (probably Tarraco)

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) B2, O06, R60, T75 B3, O23, R48, T50 B6, O03, R42, T41 B6, O13, R11, T29 B6, O13, R48, T50 B6, O14, R43, T39 B6, O30, R60, T74 Ba, O01, R17, T21

Reference(s)
RIC I 164, C 286 RIC I 146, C 232 RIC I 2, C 195 RIC I 184, BMC 4 RIC I 213 corrected RIC I 61, BMC 191

AR Denarius
9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) B2, O06, R60, T74 B5, O01, R29, T28 B5, O01, R42, T41 B6, O01, R42, T41 B6, O03, R11, T29 B6, O03, R40, T41 B6, O03, R45, T48 B6, O04, R42, T41 B6, O06, R10, T07 B6, O06, R17, T22 B6, O06, R60, T67 VIR TVS across fields B6, O13, R10, T29 B6, O13, R17, T22 B6, O13, R40, T39 B6, O13, R40, T41 B6, O13, R48, T50 B6, O13, R48, T50 B6, O13, R60, T67 B6, O14, R10, T29 B6, O14, R11, T29 B6, O14, R55, T60 B6, O14, R60, T67 B6, O20, R60, T12 Exe: IMP B6, O30, R10, T07 B6, O37, R10, T07 B8, O13, R43, T47 Ba, O24, R60, T19 Exe: TRES GALLIA RIC I 167, C 287 RIC I 26 RIC I 28, C 209 RIC I 36, C 45 RIC I 41 RIC I 45, C 223 RIC I 29, C 209 RIC I 149, C 40a RIC I 155, C 82 RIC I 179 RIC I 186, C 55 RIC I 191 RIC I 195 RIC I 197 RIC I 211 RIC I 22, C 238 RIC I 221, C 344 RIC I 224, C 58 RIC I 4 RIC I 234 RIC I 236, C 343 RIC I 145 RIC I 120, C 38 RIC I 49, C 34 RIC I 204, C 208a RIC I 92, C 308

AE Sestertius
36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) B5, O28, R08, T06 Exe: SC B5, O36, R29, T28 B6, O07, R60, T72 B6, O26, R60, T44 Exe: ROMA B6, O27, R60, T68 B6, O28, R28, T28 B6, O28, R60, T42 Exe: ROMA B6, O28, R60, T57 B6, O30, R60, R59 B6, O36, R29, T28 B8, O16, R29, T28 B8, O18, R29, T28 B8, O36, R29, T28 B8, O36, R60, T58 B8, O36, R60, T59 B8, O36, R60, T72 B8, O39, R60, T14 Exe: ADLOCVTIO / SC RIC I 381, C 28 RIC I 389, C 110 RIC I 259, C 302 RIC I 420 RIC I 435, C 60 RIC I 442, C 110 RIC I 447 RIC I 270, C 256 RIC I 387, C 108 RIC I 309, C 130 RIC I 310, C 131 RIC I 388, C 112 RIC I 403 RIC I 398, C 245 RIC I 405, C 295 RIC I 467, C 2

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
53) B6, O16, R21, T24 RIC 245 (II, Titus), C 350

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AE Dupondius
54) B6, O07, R29, T28

Reference(s)
RIC I 275, C 120

AE Dupondius (Posthumous)
55) B6, O28, R22, T24 RIC I 246, C 351

AE As
56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) B2, O12, R29, T27 B2, O27, R29, T28 B2, O40, R60, T53 B6, O12, R01, T02 B6, O18, R07, T04 Exe: SC B6, O28, R53, T55 B6, O31, R11, T29 B6, O40, R01, T02 RIC I 372, C 124 RIC I 491 RIC I 308 RIC I 67, C 50 RIC I 492

Galba Busts

39
Galba Types

40
Clodius Macer was an opportunist who took advantage of a revolt following Nero's death and the power struggle that ensued. He gambled that by appropriating northern Africa, Rome's food supply, he would strongarm the senate into accepting him as the next Augustus. Instead, Galba's fortunes improved and he consolidated Propraetor Africae 68 power instead. Galba then suppressed Macer's small army and had him executed. Curiously, he stands alone in the long roster of men who usurped the throne but not the imperial title.

Clodius Macer

Busts:
1) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Bare head right Africa draped bust right Africa draped bust right, two javelins behind bust Karthago draped bust right, cornucopia behind bust Libertas standing left, holding pileus and patera Lion head right Roma helmeted head right Victory draped bust right

All of Macer's coins are exceedingly rare. In fact, there are only about 85 known to date, only 20 of which bear his portrait. A toned Denarius with portrait (see first coin on plates) sold at a Classical Numismatic Group auction in January of 2002 for $26,000.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) a) L C MACRI L C MACRI CARTHAGO L CLODI MACRI L CLODI MACRI CARTHAGO L CLODI MACRI LIBERA L CLODI MACRI LIBERATRIX L CLODIVS MACER ROMA

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) L CLODI MACRI LIB AVG MACRIANA LIB LEG PROPRA AFRICA PROPRAE AFRICAE SICILIA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Galley sailing left Galley sailing right Legionary eagle, vexillum on either side. Triskelis in shape of three bent legs; head of Medusa at center Trophy

Mint:
1) Karthago

AR Denarius
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) B1, O7, R4, T2 Bust exe: SC Bd, O3, R3, T3 LEG I across lower fields, “MAC” of MACRIANA in reverse legend placed in exergue, SC across obv fields Be, O3, R2, T3 LEG III across lower fields, SC in bust exergue Bf, Oa, R1, T5 Bust exe: SC Bg, O1, R2, T3 LEG III across lower fields, SC in bust exergue

Reference(s)
RIC I 39, C 13b RIC 20, C 2 C9 RIC I 15

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Clodius Macer Busts

Clodius Macer Types

A former friend of Nero's and a key figure in the Roman political elite, Otho’s fortunes turned for the worse when he became involved with a woman desired by Nero himself. In order to remove his competition, Nero simply exiled him to faraway Portugal under the guise of a promotion. Some ten years later, after Nero's own illAugustus 69 fated end, Otho hoped to return to Rome as Caesar under Galba who had gathered an army and prepared to claim the crown. Galba had had a politically favorable relationship with Otho and it's conceivable that the two could have had such an agreement. On becoming Augustus, however, Galba for whatever reason sidestepped Otho and named Piso Licianus, a garden variety aristocrat, as his successor. Infuriated at hearing the news of this betrayal, Otho summoned a sympathetic army and within days had Galba executed and placed himself as emperor.

Otho

Otho still had to deal with the approaching army of Vitellius who were already en route to fight Galba. Although he set out with an able army to meet Vitellius's forces an unexpected turn of events had Otho commit suicide just prior to a major engagement. He did this, apparently, out of a patriotic need to end the civil war. Busts:
1) 2) Bare head left Bare head right

Obverses:
1) 2) IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) CERES AVG PAX ORBIS TERRARVM PONT MAX SECVRITAS P R VICTORIA OTHONIS

Perhaps one of the most popular sets among collectors of Roman coins is the gathering of one of each of the so-called “12 Caesars” as popularized by the ancient Roman historian Suetonius in his book of the same name. Well, for those collectors Otho is usually the last coin of the set because the coins are rarely found for under $200-$300 each with $500-$1,000 being more typical. And Otho stands alone among the long roster of emperors who did not issue rd any copper coins… not counting late-3 century emperors who issued silvered coins with bronze cores. But, on the other hand, at least Otho’s Denarii are fairly plentiful and even an Aureus appears from time to time for the well-heeled.

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and scepter. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and cornucopia Jupiter seated right, holding thunderbolt and scepter Otho riding horse right, aiming spear Pax standing left, holding branch and caduceus. Securitas standing left, holding wreath and scepter. Vesta seated left, holding patera and scepter.

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8) 9) Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm.

Mints:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) B2, O1, R2, T5 B2, O1, R4, T6

Reference(s)
RIC I 3, BMC 1 RIC I 7, BMC 13, C 16

AR Denarius
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) B1, O1, R4, T6 B2, O1, R2, T5 B2, O1, R4, T6 B2, O1, R5, T8 B2, O1, R5, T9 B2, O2, R2, T5 B2, O2, R3, T1 B2, O2, R3, T2 B2, O2, R3, T3 B2, O2, R3, T4 B2, O2, R3, T7 B2, O2, R4, T6 RIC I 10, C 15 RIC I 4 RIC I 8, C 17 RIC I 16 RIC I 14, C 27 C 4a RIC I 19 RIC I 20, C 11 RIC I 21 RIC I 22, C 12 RIC I 24 RIC I 12

Otho Bust

Otho Types

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Galba appointed Vitellius as Governor in the Rhine region in 68. He did this as no favor to Vitellius but rather as a strategic move to pass off a hot potato. Because Vitellius came from an aristocratic and decidedly non-military background, he calculated that the army of the region would have their hands full in dealing with this Augustus 69 persona non grata. Whether the generals of the army in question saw through the attempted ruse or simply accepted the decision was irrelevant and backfired for Galba. Aware of the discontentment within the army of the situation in Rome, Vitellius and his men prepared to do something about it. The army set out for Rome in a journey that took several months that was noted as being more of a carnival parade than a military procession.

Vitellius

However, the honeymoon was soon over for Vitellius who was neither the darling of the army nor especially influential elsewhere. True to his hedonistic background, he decided to throw massive parties throughout Rome while his enemies assembled armies to depose him. When he finally realized he was in real danger, too late, he met with a contact from the approaching army of Vespasian and made an agreement to abdicate in return for peaceful retirement. He then announced his decision to the Senate creating a scandal. Feeling that this cowardice was wholly unbecoming of an emperor a mob of angry citizens and soldiers broke through to his quarters where he was hiding and ripped him to shreds. Of all things, the biographers of Vitellius note that his chief vice was none other than gorging himself with food. It was said he couldn't even bear to make a sacrifice of food at the altar without stealing a couple bites first! Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Bare head right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, draped bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) A VITELLIVS AVG IMP GERMAN A VITELLIVS GER IMP AVG P MAX TR P A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG PM TR P A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P A VITELLIVS GERM IMP TR P A VITELLIVS GERMA IMP AVG PM TR P A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP AVG PM TR P A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P A VITELLIVS GERMANICVS IMP A VITELLIVS GERMANICVS IMP AVG A VITELLIVS GERMANICVS IMP AVG PM TR P A VITELLIVS IMP AVG PM T P P A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN A VITELLIVS IMP GERMANICVS

While not cheap, the coins of Vitellius are readily available in all collectible grades. Expect to pay around $100 for an “entry level” coin and prices rise quickly from there. A problem that is typical of the coins of Vitellius, as well as those of Otho, are the normally small flans they were struck on. Unless the coin was struck perfectly centered some of the legends will be missing. If they hadn’t worn off already, that is! Naturally, those coins with full legends will command a premium. The most commonly available type is of the Altar with dolphin and raven reverse.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) AEQVITAS AVGVSTI ANNONA AVG ANNONA AVGVSTI CERES AVG CLEMENTIA IMP GERMAN CLEMENTIA IMP GERMANICI CONCORD AVG CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGVSTI CONCORDIA P R CONCORDIA PRAETORIANORVM CONSENSVS EXERCITVVM CONSENSVS HISPANIARVM FIDES EXERCITVM FIDES EXERCITVVM FIDES PRAETORIANORVM HONOS ET VIRTVS 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) I O MAX CAPITO I O MAX CAPITOLINVS IVPPITER VICTOR L VITELL CENSOR II L VITELL CENSOR III L VITELLI III COS CENSOR L VITELLIVS COS III CENSOR LIBERI IMP GERM AVG LIBERI IMP GERMAN LIBERIS IMP GERMANICI LIBERTAS AVGVSTI LIBERTAS RESTITVTA MARS VICTOR PAX AVGVSTI PAX GER ROM PAXS AVGVSTI PONT MAXIM 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) ROMA RENASCENS SECVRITAS IMP GERMAN SECVRITAS P ROMANI SENAT P Q ROMANVS SPQR / OB / CIV / SER SPQR / OB / CS VESTA P R QVIRITIVM VICTOR AVGV VICTOR AVGVSTI VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGVSTI VICTORIA IMP GERMAN VICTORIA IMP GERMANICI XV VIR SACR FAC XV VIR SACR FCA No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) Altar Annona standing left, holding Victory and cornucopia; modius to left and galley prow to right. Clementia seated left, holding branch and scepter. Concordia seated left, holding branch and scepter.

44
5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia Concordia seated left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia Concordia standing left, holding branch and cornucopia Hands, in handshake Hispania standing left, holding shield and javelins. Honos standing right on left, holding scepter and cornucopia, facing Virtus to right, stepping on helmet, holding parazonium and spear. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter Legend FIDES / EXERCITVVM Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter. Libertas standing, facing, holding pileus and scepter. Mars advancing left, holding spear and two standards Mars advancing left, holding Victory and trophy Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia Pax standing left, setting weapons on fire and holding cornucopia. Roma standing right, holding Victory and spear Securitas seated left, resting head on arm; altar to left. Securitas seated right, holding scepter, facing altar to right Spain standing left, holding grain ears and shield with two spears. Temple with (2) columns; Jupiter seated within, holding thunderbolt and scepter Altar; dolphin above and raven below. Vesta seated left, holding patera and torch Vesta seated left, holding trophy and scepter. Vesta seated left, raising hand and holding torch. Vesta seated right, holding patera and scepter. Victory advancing left, holding shield Victory advancing left, holding shield reading SP / QR Victory advancing left, touching trophy with seated captive at base Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory seated left, holding patera and palm. Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, stepping on helmet, holding shield on palm tree reading OB / CIVES / SER Vitellius’s father seated left, raising hand and holding scepter with eagle atop Vitellius standing left on right, shaking hands with Roma to left, holding spear with shield. Vitellius’s son bare head right, facing his daughter’s draped bust left. Wreath, SPQR / OB / CIV / SER within Wreath, SPQR / OB / CS within

Mints:
1) 2) Roma Spain

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) B2, O10, R12, T15 B2, O13, R13, T22 B2, O13, R38, T29 B2, O14, R36, T21 B2, O14, R46, T34 B2, O14, R47, T34 B3, O04, R24, T36 B3, O04, R29, T14 B3, O04, R48, T24

Reference(s)
RIC I 4 RIC I 32, C 84 RIC I 11 RIC I 15, BMC 97 RIC I 16, BMC 98 RIC I 94, BMC 23, C 54 RIC I 104, C 46 RIC I 108, BMC 38, C 110

AR Denarius
10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) B1, O08, R10, T05 B1, O08, R48, T24 B1, O09, R10, T05 B1, O09, R14, T08 B1, O09, R20, T14 B2, O04, R40, T40 B2, O13, R12, T15 B2, O13, R41, T27 B2, O13, R43, T30 ® in front of bust B2, O14, R12, T15 B3, O04, R10, T05 B3, O04, R20, T11 B3, O04, R29, T14 B3, O04, R34, T28 B3, O04, R48, T24 B3, O04, R50, T33 B3, O08, R10, T05 B3, O08, R20, T14 B3, O08, R26, T38 B3, O08, R29, T14 B3, O08, R40, T40 B3, O08, R48, T24 B3, O08, R49, T24 B3, O09, R48, T24 B3, O09, R50, T33 B3, O13, R14, T08 B3, O13, R15, T08 B3, O13, R19, T23 B3, O13, R45, T30 B3, O14, R15, T08

RIC I 66, C 21 RIC I 67 RIC I 68 RIC I 23 RIC I 33 RIC I 36, C 101 RIC I 6 RIC I 90, S 2196 RIC I 93, C 42 RIC I 105 RIC I 107, S 2200, C 72 RIC I 109, S 2201 RIC I 110 RIC I 73, C 20 RIC I 75, S 2197, C 44 RIC I 79, C2 RIC I 81, S 2198, C 48 RIC I 83 RIC I 86 RIC I 70 RIC I 71, C 121 RIC I 30, C 31 RIC I 27 RIC I 56 RIC I 62 RIC I 54

45
AE Sestertius
40) 41) 42) B4, O07, R07, T04 B4, O11, R30, T16 B4, O11, R31, T17

Reference(s)
RIC I 133 RIC I 115, C 61 RIC I 118, C 67

AE Dupondius
43) B4, O07, R09, T06 RIC I 162, C 15

AE As
44) 45) 46) 47) 48) B2, O13, R05, T03 B2, O13, R15, T08 B2, O13, R29, T14 B2, O13, R35, T19 B2, O13, R45, T30 RIC I 39 RIC I 42 RIC I 43 RIC I 45 RIC I 46

Vitellius Busts

Vitellius Types

46
Vespasian was the son of a businessman and tax collector. By befriending people in high places, he gained a foothold in the Senate and eventually was appointed as Proconsul of Africa in the year 63. From there he became more of a VIP under Nero and was put in charge of suppressing certain revolts in Israel. During this Augustus 69-79 period civil war broke out following the Nero's death and he took the opportunity to have himself named Emperor. He then took his troops towards Rome where he defeated Vitellius, the last of the pretenders to the throne and a former colleague and friend.

Vespasian

He spent the rest of his reign rebuilding the wreck that was left of Rome following the troubles of 69 and rebuilding the Roman economy. He also expanded the empire's borders within Britain and granted citizenship to the inhabitants of vast sections under Roman control. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) a) b) c) d) e) f) Bare head left Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, draped bust left. Radiate head left Radiate head right Palm tree Sol radiate, draped bust facing Trophy Vespasian riding elephant quadriga right, holding scepter and Victory Vespasian riding quadriga right, holding branch and scepter Winged caduceus inside two cross cornucopiae

The oldest imperial Denarii one can purchase at a truly affordable price will be those of Vespasian. Some of these can be had for as little as $20 or $30 for a well preserved specimen. Even mint state or near-mint state coins are readily available for comparatively reasonable prices. The big bronzes are also easily found and those that are of higher grade are staple items of the ancient coin dealer. The prices for the several different denominations depend largely on their condition. For Vespasian’s reign those coins boasting of his triumph over the conquest of the jews are especially sought after.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG DIVO VESPASIANO DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIAN DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS MP CAE VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P PP COS III IMP CAES AVG VESPAS COS II TR POT IMP CAES VES AVG IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS IMP CAES VESP AVG COS VII IMP CAES VESP AVG PM IMP CAES VESP AVG PM COS IIII IMP CAES VESP AVG PM COS IIII CE IMP CAES VESP AVG PM COS IIII CEN IMP CAES VESP AVG PM COS V CENS IMP CAES VESP AVG PM T P COS IIII CENS IMP CAES VESP AVG PM T P COS V CENS IMP CAES VESP AVG PM T P COS VI IMP CAES VESP AVG PM T P COS VII IMP CAES VESPAS AVG IMP CAES VESPAS AVG PM COS IIII IMP CAES VESPAS AVG PM TR P IIII PP COS IIII IMP CAES VESPAS AVG PM TR P PP COS III IMP CAES VESPAS AVG PM TR P PP COS VI IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS II IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS IIII IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS V IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS VIII PP IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS VIIII IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM T P COS IIII CENS IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM T P COS VIII PP IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P PP COS II IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P PP COS III IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P PP COS IIII IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P PP COS V CENS IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P PP COS VI IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P PP COS VII IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P PP COS VIII IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P PP COS VIIII IMP CAES VESPASIAN COS IIII IMP CAES VESPASIANVS AVG IMP CAES VESPASIANVS AVG COS III IMP CAES VESPASIANVS AVG PM TR P IMP CAES VESPASIANVS COS VIII

48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86)

IMP CAESAR IMP CAESAR AVG VESPASIANVS IMP CAESAR VESP AVG IMP CAESAR VESP AVG CENS IMP CAESAR VESP AVG CENSOR IMP CAESAR VESP AVG COS IIII IMP CAESAR VESP AVG COS V CENS IMP CAESAR VESP AVG COS VI IMP CAESAR VESP AVG COS VII IMP CAESAR VESP AVG PM T P COS IIII CENS IMP CAESAR VESP AVG PM TR P PP IMP CAESAR VESP AVGVST IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P PP IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P PP IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P PP IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG PM TR P PP COS IIII IMP CAESAR VESPASIA AVG IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS III IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS IIII IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS VIIII IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM T P PP COS II D III IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG TR POT PP COS III IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVGVSTVS IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN CONS VIII IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN COS VIII IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN COS VIIII IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG COS II IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG P IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG PM T P PP COS II IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG PM T P PP COS II DES III IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG PM T P PP COS III IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG PM TR P IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG PM TR P PP COS III IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG PM TR P PP COS III DES IIII IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG TR P

47
87) 88) 89) IMP VESP AVG IMP VESP AVG COS VIII IMP VESP AVG PM T P 90) 91) 92) IMP VESPA CAESAR AVGVS IMP VESPASIAN AVG No legend

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) AEQVITAS AVGVST AEQVITAS AVGVSTI AETERNITAS AETERNITAS P R ANNONA AVG AVG VESPAS LIBERI IMP AVGVR PON MAX AVGVR TRI POT CAE DVM ET T CAES IMP VESPAS CAES AVG F DES IMP AVG F COS DES IT CAES AVG F DESIG IMP AVG F COS DESIG ITER CAESAR AVG F COS CAESAR AVG F PR CAESAR AVG F DES IMP AVG F COS DESIT CAESARES VESP AVG CAESARES VESP AVG FILI CERES AVGVST CONCOR AVG CONCORD AVGVST CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGVSTI CONCORDIA SENATVI CONSECRATIO CONSEN EXERCIT CONSENSVS EXERCIT CONSENSVS EXERCITVVM COS DESIG III TR POT COS III COS III FORT RED COS III TR POT COS ITER COS ITER FORT RED COS ITER TR POT COS ITER TR POTESTATE COS V COS VI COS VII COS VIII COS VIIII DE IVDAEIS DEVICTA IVDAEA DIVA DOMITILLA AVGVSTA FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS REDVCI FIDES EXERCITVVM FIDES FORTVNA FIDES PVBL FIDES PVBLICA FORTVNA AVGVST FORTVNA AVGVSTI FORTVNAE REDVCI GENIVM P R HISPANIA HONOS ET VIRTVS IMP IMP CAES VESP AVG P TRI P COS II IMP CAES VESP AVG P TRI P II COS IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P PP COS II IMP T CAESAR DIVI VESP AVG PM TR P PP COS VIII IMP T FLAVIVS CAESAR AVG F IMP V PP COS II DESIG III IMP XIIII IMP XIX IMPERATOR CAESAR IOVIS CVSTOS IVD CAP IVDAEA IVDAEA CAPTA IVDAEA DEVICTA IVDEA CAPTA LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS LIBERTAS AVGVSTI LIBERTAS PVBLICA LIBERTAS RESTITVTA MARS CONSERVAT MARS VICTOR MARS VLTOR NEP RED PACI AVGVSTAE 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) PACI AVGVSTI PACI ORB TERR AVG PACIS EVENT PACIS EVENTVM PAX PAX AVG PAX AVGVST PAX AVGVSTI PAX P ROMANI PM T P PP COS IIII PM TR P PP COS III PM TR P PP COS VI PM TR P PP COS VII PM TRIB P COS IIII PON M TR P PP COS III PON MAX TR P COS II PON MAX TR P COS V PON MAX TR P COS VI PON MAX TR P COS VII PON MAX TR POT PP COS V CENS PONT MAX PONT MAX TR P COS II DESIG III PONT MAX TR POT PP COS VIII CENS PONT MAX TRIB POT PONTIF MAXIM PONTIF TR P COS IIII PRINCEPS IVVENTVT PRINCIP IVVENT PROVIDEN ROMA ROMA ET AVGVSTVS COS ITERVM TRIBVN POT ROMA PERPETVA ROMA RESVRGENS ROMA RESVRGES ROMA VICTRIX SALVS AVG SALVS AVGVSTA SALVS AVGVSTI SECVRITAS AVGVST SECVRITAS AVGVSTI SECVRITAS P R SECVRITAS P ROMANI SECVRITAS POPVLI ROMANI SIGNIS RECEPTIS SPES AVGVSTA SPQR / OB / C S T CAESAR T ET DOM C EX T ET DOMIT CAESARES PRIN IVVEN T ET DOMIT CAESARES PRINC IVVEN T FLAVI VESPASIANVS CAESAR T IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG F COS DESG II TITVS ET DOMITIAN CAES PRIN IV TITVS ET DOMITIAN CAES PRIN IVEN TITVS ET DOMITIAN CAESARES PRIN IVEN TITVS ET DOMITIAN CAESARES PRIN IVIN TITVS ET DOMITIAN CAESARES PRIN IVVEN TITVS ET DOMITIANVS CAES PRIN IV TITVS ET DOMITIANVS PRINC IVVEN TR POT COS TR POT X COS VIIII TRI POT TRI POT II COS III PP TRIVMP AVG TVTELA AVGVSTI VESP AVG VESPASIANVS VESTA VIC AVG VICT AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGVST VICTORIA AVGVSTI VICTORIA IMP VESPASIANI VICTORIA MP VESPASIANI VICTORIA NAVALIS VIRTVS AVGVST No legend

48
Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and palm. Aequitas standing left, holding scale and scepter Aeternitas standing left, holding heads of Sun and Moon over altar Altar Annona seated left, holding grain ears Annona seated left, holding fruit basket with both hands. Bull standing right Caduceus, winged Caduceus, winged, inside two crossed cornucopiae Capricornus advancing left, globe below Capricornus holding rudder on globe, cornucopia above. Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and cornucopia Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and scepter. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch Chair Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia seated left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Cow standing right Domitilla draped bust right Eagle perched on globe Eagle standing left on cippus Eagle standing right Eagle standing right on cippus Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding globe and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding patera and branch. Fides standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left on altar, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding branch and rudder on globe Fortuna standing left, holding branch and rudder on globe with cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding galley prow and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding globe and caduceus Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, resting hand on galley prow and holding cornucopia Funerary quadriga advancing left Funerary quadriga advancing right Galley prow right, star above Genius standing left, holding patera and grain ears. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Goat standing left, being milked by farmer seated to right Hands, in handshake, grasping grain ears and caduceus Hands, in handshake, holding caduceus and grain ears. Hands, in handshake, holding caduceus and two palms. Hispania standing left, holding two javelins with shield and grain ears. Honos to left, holding scepter and cornucopia, facing Virtus to right, holding parazonium and spear. Judaea seated left, resting head on hand; palm tree in center and bound, standing captive to right with weapons piled all around Judaea seated right, hands bound; trophy to left. Judaea seated right, resting head on hand; palm to left and weapons piled all around Judaea seated right, resting head on hand; palm tree in center and bound, standing captive to left with weapons piled all around Judaea seated right, resting head on hand; trophy to left. Judaea standing left; palm tree to right Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt. Jupiter standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Legend SC Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter. Libertas standing left, holding wreath and scepter. Mars advancing left, holding Victory and trophy. Mars advancing right, holding spear and eagle Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars advancing right, holding spear. Mars standing left, holding spear and trophy Mars standing left, holding spear and trophy; corn ear growing to left Mars standing, facing, holding spear and trophy; altar to right. Minerva advancing right, holding palm and Victory; snake by feet. Modius, grain ears inside Nemesis advancing right, pulling dress and holding caduceus; snake to right. Neptune standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding acrostolium and trident. Neptune standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding dolphin and trident. Neptune standing left, stepping on globe, holding acrostolium and scepter Neptune standing left, stepping on globe, holding dolphin and trident Orbis draped bust left Orbis draped bust right Oxen (2) advancing left. Palm tree Pax seated left, holding branch Pax seated left, holding branch and caduceus Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter Pax seated right, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and caduceus Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax standing left, holding branch. Pax standing left, leaning on cippus with purse atop, holding branch and winged caduceus. Pax standing left, leaning on cippus, holding winged caduceus and branch. Pax standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus with branch. Pax standing right, holding branch and setting fire to pile of weapons; statue of Minerva behind Pax.

49
87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) Pegasus advancing right Pig advancing left, three piglets following. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Roma lying right on Rome’s seven hills with wolf suckling Romulus and Remus in front, holding parazonium; Tiber to right. Roma seated left, holding Victory and parazonium. Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Roma seated left, holding wreath and parazonium Roma standing left, holding Victory and parazonium Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear. Roma standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding spear and parazonium. Salus seated left, holding patera and scepter Salus seated left, holding patera. Salus standing right, leaning on column, holding and feeding snake. Securitas seated left, resting head on hand. Securitas seated left, resting head on hand; altar to left. Securitas seated right, resting head on hand and holding scepter; altar to right. Shield reading SC held by two capricornii; globe below. Shield reading SC on cippus with urn atop, branch on either side. Soldiers (2) standing, shaking hands Spears (2), shield on either side. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (3) Standards (3), each on a galley prow Temple with (4) columns Temple with (4) columns, statue of Vesta standing within, another statue on either side of temple. Temple with (6) columns, statues within and atop Titus (or Domitian?) riding horse left, holding spear. Titus and Domitian each riding horse right, holding branch. Titus and Domitian each riding horse right, led by soldier. Titus and Domitian each riding horse right. Titus and Domitian seated on platforms, facing each other, two senators standing in center. Titus and Domitian seated right, each holding a branch. Titus and Domitian standing, facing, each holding patera Titus bare head right Titus bare head right, facing Domitian bare head left Titus riding quadriga right, holding branch and scepter Titus standing left, holding branch and spear Titus standing right, holding spear and parazonium, facing Domitian to right, holding spear. Trees (2), COS V in between Trophy Tutela seated left, holding a baby in each arm. Venus standing right, holding scepter and apples. Vespasian riding horse right, raising hand. Vespasian riding horse right, spearing enemy. Vespasian riding quadriga right, holding branch and scepter Vespasian seated left, holding branch and scepter Vespasian seated right, holding branch and scepter Vespasian standing left on platform, receiving vexillum from Victory to upper left. Vespasian standing left, holding scepter, receiving Palladium from Victory to upper left. Vespasian standing left, raising hand and holding spear. Vespasian standing left, sacrificing over altar in front of temple; Victory crowning him from behind. Vespasian standing left on right, shaking hands with kneeling Roma Vespasian standing left on right, shaking hands with kneeling Roma; Minerva standing in background, holding shield Vespasian standing left on right, receiving Victory from Roma to left Vespasian standing on rostral column, holding spear and parazonium Vespasian standing right, stepping on globe, holding spear and parazonium, facing palm tree in center and Judaea seated to right, resting head on hand. Vespasian, Titus and Domitian standing right, receiving flower from Spes to right. Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. Vesta seated left, holding simpulum Vesta standing left, holding simpulum and scepter. Vexillum Victory advancing left, holding shield reading SPQR Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left on cippus, holding wreath and palm; snake on either side. Victory standing left on galley prow, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, holding shield on trophy; captive seated left in front of trophy, resting head on hand Victory standing left, holding shield reading SPQR Victory standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right on globe, crowning trophy and holding palm. Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right on galley prow, holding wreath and palm Victory standing right, crowning standard and holding palm. Victory standing right, holding shield on palm reading SPQR; captive seated in front of palm, resting head on hand. Victory standing right, holding shield on palm; captive seated in front of palm, resting head on hand. Victory standing right, holding shield reading VIC / AVG Victory standing right, holding standard and palm. Victory standing right, holding up shield with both hands. Victory standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield reading OB / CIV / SER on palm Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield reading OB / CIV / SER on palm; Judaea seated right, resting head on hand. Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield on palm; Judaea seated right, resting head on hand. Virtus standing left, holding spear and parazonium Virtus standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding spear and parazonium Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus Wreath, AVG within Wreath, OB CIVES SERVATOS within

50
176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) Wreath, SC within Wreath, SPQR / ADSERTORI / LIBERTATIS / PVBLIC within Wreath, SPQR / ADSERTORI / LIBERTATIS / PVBLICAE within Wreath, SPQR / OB / CIVES / SERVATOS within Wreath, SPQR / OB C S within Wreath, SPQR / OB CIV / SER within Wreath, SPQR / PP / OB CS within Wreath, SPQR within

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Asia, various localities 3) 4) Illyricum, locality uncertain Lugdunum 5) 6) Roma Tarraco?

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) B02, O77, R034, T019 B03, O10, R146, T111 B03, O12, R055, T120 B03, O12, R141, T077 B03, O13, R077, T070 B03, O13, R156, T131 B03, O23, R079, T067 B03, O77, R003, T003 B03, O77, R012, T121 B03, O77, R031, T035 B03, O77, R036, T007 B03, O77, R096, T152 B03, O77, R156, T051 Exe: IVDAEA B03, O86, R028, T033 B03, O86, R032, T069

Reference(s)
BMC 132 RIC II 69c, BMC 109, C 579 RIC II 357, C 1 RIC II 39, BMC 60, C 565 RIC II 46, BMC 273, C 273 RIC II 54, BMC 79 RIC II 302, BMC 403, C 284 RIC II 2, BMC 1 RIC II 96, BMC 176, C 117 RIC II 92, C 370 RIC II 15, BMC 31, C 225 RIC II 11, C 98 RIC II 279, BMC 374, C 92

AU Aureus (Posthumous)
16) B03, O03, R156, T104 RIC 62 (II, Titus), C 148

AU Quinarius
17) 18) B03, O77, R150, T150 B03, O78, R150, T150

AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
19) B06, O02, R022, T023

AR Denarius
20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) B02, O01, R005, T005 B02, O01, R156, T088 Exe: IMP XIX B02, O77, R037, T062 B02, O77, R064, T054 B02, O77, R072, T056 B02, O77, R139, T141 B02, O77, R152, T154 B02, O77, R156, T022 B03, O01, R005, T005 B03, O01, R016, T014 B03, O03, R156, T104 B03, O09, R114, T098 B03, O09, R156, T183 B03, O10, R103, T133 B03, O12, R007, T089 B03, O12, R008, T089 B03, O12, R141, T060 B03, O12, R141, T077 B03, O12, R156, T131 B03, O12, R156, T145 PON MAX across fields B03, O12, R156, T145 TRI POT across fields B03, O13, R008, T089 B03, O13, R020, T017 B03, O13, R077, T070 B03, O13, R103, T133 B03, O13, R151, T161 B03, O13, R156, T131 B03, O13, R156, T145 TRI POT across fields B03, O13, R156, T146 B03, O15, R047, T043 B03, O15, R114, T098 B03, O16, R151, T159 B03, O21, R019, T012 Exe: Q The Q and  symbols indicate Ephesus as the mint city B03, O21, R078, T149 Exe: Q B03, O21, R156, T174 Exe: Q B03, O22, R077, T070 RIC II 131b, S 2280, C 30 RIC II 109, BMC 214 RIC II 103, C 126 RIC II 124b, C 223 RIC II 259b RIC II 120, C 560 RIC II 268, C 630 RIC II 98b RIC II 131a, C 29 RIC II 132, S 2283 RIC II 62, S 2568, C 149 RIC II 67, C 431 RIC II 66b, C 516 RIC II 65, S 2305, C 387 RIC II 29, S 2281, C 42 RIC II 30, S 2282, C 43 RIC II 38, C 564 RIC II 39, S 2313, C 566 RIC II 36, S 2298, C 358 RIC II 37, S 2312, C 561 RIC II 42, C 45 RIC II 43, C 74 RIC II 46, C 274 RIC II 48, C 388 RIC II 52, S 2317 RIC II 54, C 643 RIC II 49, C 563 RIC II 50, S 2316, C 574 RIC II 55, S 2291, C 164 RIC II 57, C 432 RIC II 78 RIC II 312, C 65 RIC II 316, C 280 RIC II 311, C 37 RIC II 361, C 274

51
56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) B03, O22, R156, T131 B03, O22, R156, T142 B03, O50, R103, T133 B03, O50, R156, T125 B03, O61, R006, T121 Q to left of Titus’s bust B03, O61, R019, T012 Exe: Q B03, O61, R069, T119 Exe: Q B03, O61, R078, T149 Exe: Q B03, O62, R019, T012 Exe: ² B03, O62, R078, T150 ² in right lower field B03, O62, R078, T150 Exe: ² B03, O62, R080, T073 Exe: ² B03, O62, R156, T174 ² in field B03, O63, R019, T012 Exe: * B03, O63, R078, T150 Exe: o in lower left field, * in lower right field B03, O63, R156, T174 Exe: * B03, O77, R012, T121 B03, O77, R030, T002 B03, O77, R031, T035 B03, O77, R032, T002 B03, O77, R032, T060 B03, O77, R032, T077 B03, O77, R032, T080 B03, O77, R036, T007 B03, O77, R036, T087 B03, O77, R037, T038 B03, O77, R037, T062 B03, O77, R064, T054 B03, O77, R066, T051 B03, O77, R095, T008 B03, O77, R095, T133 B03, O77, R096, T076 B03, O77, R096, T152 B03, O77, R096, T153 B03, O77, R097, T008 B03, O77, R097, T008 B03, O77, R103, T008 B03, O77, R139, T010 B03, O77, R139, T155 B03, O77, R156, T024 B03, O77, R156, T024 B03, O77, R156, T041 Exe: IMP XIX B03, O77, R156, T066 IMP XIX across fields B03, O77, R156, T074 Exe: COS VIII B03, O77, R156, T131 Exe: IMP B03, O86, R032, T069 B03, O86, R068, T052 74 RIC II 364 RIC II 363, C 645 RIC II 83, C 176 RIC II 72, C 110 RIC II 321, C 1 RIC II 320, C 66a RIC II 322 RIC II 323, C 278 RIC II 329, C 67 RIC II 333, S 2270 RIC II 326, C 279 RIC II 334, C 293 RIC II 328, C 40 RIC II 336, C 68 RIC II 337, C 277 RIC II 335, C 39 RIC II 2, S 2399 RIC II 4, C 84 RIC II 5, S 2284 RIC II 7, C 88 RIC II 10, S 2285 RIC II 9 RIC II 96, C 118 RIC II 375 RIC II 108, C 136 RIC II 104, S 2288 RIC II 124a, S 2295, C 222 RIC II 15, S 2296 RIC II 75, S 2299, C 362 RIC II 77, S 2300, C 364 RIC II 90, S 2301, C 366 RIC II 93, S 2303, C 368 RIC II 102, C 375 RIC II 377, S 2275 RIC II 84, C 390 RIC II 118, C 554 RIC II 114, C 552 RIC II 98a RIC II 99a, S 2287 RIC II 113, C 550 RIC II 110, S 2293, C 216 RIC II 107, S 2289, C 133 RIC II 279, C 93 RIC II 289, S 2262, C 243

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
103) 104) 105) 106) B03, O03, R156, T036 Exe: EX SC B03, O03, R156, T103 B03, O03, R156, T104 EX SC across fields B03, O03, R156, T155 EX SC across fields

Reference(s)
RIC 60 (II, Titus), C 146 RIC 63 (II, Titus), S 2569, C 497 RIC 62 (II, Titus), S 2568 RIC 59a (II, Titus), S 2565, C 144

AE Sestertius
107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) B03, O36, R067, T050 Exe: SC B03, O06, R067, T050 Exe: SC B03, O36, R069, T050 Exe: SC B03, O36, R067, T047 Exe: SC B03, O36, R067, T142 Exe: SC B03, O24, R085, T081 B03, O36, R086, T081 B03, O36, R108, T095 B03, O36, R112, T139 B03, O36, R156, T060 Exe: SC B03, O36, R151, T170 Exe: SC B02, O28, R069, T049 Exe: SC B03, O40, R085, T078 Exe: SC B03, O82, R063, T123 RIC II 424, C 232 RIC II 425, C 236 RIC II 426, C 238 RIC II 427, C 239 RIC II 435, C 313 RIC II 437, C 326 RIC II 443, C 419 RIC II 445 RIC II 447, C 440 RIC II 468, C 625 RIC II 490, C 247 RIC II 574, C 320

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
121) Bd, O92, R058, T055 RIC 143 (II, Titus), C 205

AE Dupondius
122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) B05, O17, R042, T025 B05, O18, R042, T025 B06, O18, R042, T025 B06, O19, R042, T025 B06, O20, R042, T025 B06, O28, R156, T093 Exe: ROMA RIC II 539b, C 151 RIC II 555, C 152 RIC II 554 RIC II 567 RIC II 578, S 2346 RIC II 476, C 411

52
128) B06, O29, R084, T085 129) B06, O31, R047, T028 RIC II 753a, C 166

AE As
130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) B02, O77, R098, T009 B03, O28, R067, T050 Exe: SC B03, O28, R154, T160 B03, O28, R156, T004 Exe: PROVIDEN B03, O28, R156, T021 B03, O29, R067, T051 B03, O54, R001, T002 B03, O54, R156, T107 B03, O56, R001, T002 B03, O56, R156, T107

Reference(s)
RIC II 798c, C 738 RIC II 490 RIC II 503a, C 607 RIC II 494, C 397 RIC II 497, C 480 RIC II 489 RIC II 482, S 2352 RIC II 560b, S 2361 RIC II 580a, C 4 RIC II 583a

AE Semis
140) B03, O89, R156, T176 RIC II 795

AE Quadrans
141) Ba, O91, R089, T147 RIC II 504,C 343

Vespasian Busts

Vespasian Types

Vespasian Types (continued)

53

54
Vespasian Types (continued)

55

Domitilla
?-?
Bust:
1) a) Draped bust right Carpentum pulled by two mules right

Wife of Vespasian (and mother of Titus and Domitian). All coins are posthumous.

Obverse:
1) 2) DIVA DOMITILLA AVGVSTA MEMORIAE / DOMI / TILLAE

There aren’t any easy to find empresses from the first century and Domitilla is no different. She appears infrequently at major auctions in the form of either a Denarius or a Sestertius both of which were struck in a limited run after her death. And both tend to come to market rather shopworn and the bronze, of course, typically faring the worse of the two. Both fluctuate in prices from around a minimum of $500 to over $2,000 for exceptional grades.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) CONCORDIA AVGVST FORTVNA AVGVST IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM TR P PP COS VIII PIETAS AVGVST

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Large SC Peacock Pietas seated left; child to left.

Mint:
1) Roma

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
1) B1, O1, R1, T1

Reference(s)
RIC 71 (I, Titus), C 3

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
2) Ba, O3, R2, T2 Exe: SPQR RIC 153 (I, Titus), C 1

Domitilla Busts

Domitilla Types

56
Titus succeeded Vespasian, his father, when he died. Unlike Vespasian, however, the reign of Titus was short-lived and tragic. He had to deal with the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius that obliterated Pompey by coordinating relief efforts in the area as well as related rebuilding projects. From this catastrophe he went to play the Augustus 79-81 same role following a major fire that broke out in Rome only to have an outbreak of plague decimate the population shortly after that. In the face of these disasters all he could do would be to throw city-wide parties in hopes of restoring some morale. He himself died not long afterwards of obscure causes and would be widely mourned by Roman citizens. It’s easy to imagine his power-hungry and restless brother playing a part in his untimely death, and historians do like to speculate about this possibility but there is frankly not much evidence to base such a charge.

Titus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Bare head right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate head right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) DIVO AVG T DIVI VESP F VESPASIANO DIVO TITO DIVVS TITVS AVGVSTVS IMP CAES T VESP AVG GERM IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM TR P PP COS VII IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM TR P PP COS VIII IMP T CAES P AVG PM TR P COS VIII IMP T CAES VESP AVG PM TR P COS VII IMP T CAES VESP AVG PM TR P COS VIII IMP T CAES VESP AVG PM TR P PP COS VII IMP T CAES VESP AVG PM TR P PP COS VIII SC IMP T CAES VESP AVGVST PM TR P COS VIII IMP T CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS II IMP T CAESAR COS III IMP T CAESAR DIVI VESPAS F AVG IMP T CAESAR VESPASIANVS IMP T CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG IMP T VESP AVG COS VIII IMP TITVS CAES VESP AVG PM TR P PP COS VII IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P COS V IMPERATOR T CAESAR AVGVSTI F T CAES IMP T CAES IMP AVG F PON TR P COS VI CENSOR T CAES IMP AVG F TR P COS VI CENSOR T CAES IMP PON TR P COS II CENS T CAES IMP PON TR P COS III CENS T CAES IMP PON TR POT T CAES IMP PONT T CAES IMP PONT TR P COS V CENSOR T CAES IMP TR POT T CAES IMP VESP CEN T CAES IMP VESP CENS T CAES IMP VESP P TR P CENS T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT CENS T CAES VESP AVG PM TR P COS V T CAES VESP IMP PON TR POT COS II CENS T CAES VESPAS IMP P TR P COS II T CAES VESPAS IMP PON TR POT COS II T CAES VESPASIAN IMP P TR P COS II T CAES VESPASIAN IMP PON TR POT COS II

Squished in between the long reigns of Vespasian before and Domitian afterwards, Titus only gets a brief year as emperor. However, he kept the mints working overtime during that short period and under Vespasian he was Caesar for a long time. All this adds up to plenty of coins of his still around today even if they are a bit more expensive. Most available will be the Denarius a common type of which can be found for around $100. The big copper of the day is well represented also but will be quite a bit more expensive in anything but filler grade.

43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67)

T CAES VESPASIAN IMP PON TR POT COS III CENS T CAES VESPASIAN IMP PON TR POT COS VI T CAESAR AVG VESPASIANVS COS VII T CAESAR IMP COS II CENS T CAESAR IMP COS III CENS T CAESAR IMP COS IIII T CAESAR IMP COS V T CAESAR IMP PONT T CAESAR IMP VESP T CAESAR IMP VESP CEN T CAESAR IMP VESPASIAN T CAESAR IMP VESPASIAN COS VI T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS COS VI T CAESAR IMPER PONT T CAESAR VESPAS IMP PON TR POT T CAESAR VESPASIAN IMP III PON TR POT II COS II T CAESAR VESPASIAN IMP IIII PON TR POT II COS II T CAESAR VESPASIAN IMP IIII PON TR POT III COS II T CAESAR VESPASIAN IMP PON TR POT T CAESAR VESPASIANVS T CAESAR VESPASIANVS TR P COS II T CAESAR VESPASIANVS TR P COS VI T DIVO AVG DIVI VESP F VESPASIANO TITVS IMP

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) AEQVITAS AVGVST AEQVITAS AVGVSTI AETERNIT AVG AETERNIT AVGVST AETERNITAS ANNONA AVG ANNONA AVGVST BONVS EVENTVS AVGVSTI CAESAR DOMITIAN COS DES II CERES AVG CERES AVGVST 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) CIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVT CONCORD AVG CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGVST CONCORDIA AVGVSTI CONGIAR PRIMVM P R DAT CONSECRATIO COS IIII COS V COS VII DES VIII PP COS VI 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) COS VII DIVO AVG VESP SPQR DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESP DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIAN DIVVS VESPASIAN DOMITILLAE IMP CAES VESP AVG SPQR FELICIT AVGVST FELICIT PVBLIC FELICITAS PVBLIC FELICITAS PVBLICA

57
33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) FIDES PVBL FIDES PVBLICA FORTVNA AVGVST FORTVNAE REDVCI GENI P R GENIO P R IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMIT AVG PM TR P PP IMP T CAES VESP AVG PM TR P COS VIII IMP T VESP AVG REST IMP VIII IMP XIIII IOVIS CVSTOS IVD CAP IVDAEA CAPTA IVDAEA DEVICTA IVLIA AVGVSTA DIVI TITI F MEMORIAE DOMITILLAE SPQR NEP RED PAX AVG PAX AVGS PAX AVGVST PAX AVGVSTI 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) PIETAS AVGVST PON MAX TR P COS VI PON MAX TR POT PP COS V CENS PON TR POT PONTIF TR P COS III PONTIF TR P COS IIII PONTIF TR P COS V PONTIF TR POT PONTIF TRI POT PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS PROVIDENT AVGVST PROVIDENTIA COS VII ROMA ROMA VICTRIX SALVS AVG SALVTI AVGVSTI SECVRITAS AVG SECVRITAS AVGVST SECVRITAS AVGVSTI SPQR SPQR OB CIV SER TR P COS VII DES VIII PP 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) TR P IX IMP XV COS VII TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII PP TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII PP TR P VIIII IMP XV COS VII PP TR POT COS III CENSOR TR POT COS IIII TR POT COS VI CENSOR TR POT VII COS VI TR POT VIII COS VII TR POT VIIII COS VII VESP PON TR P VESTA VIC AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGVST VICTORIA AVGVSTI VICTORIA NAVALIS No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and scepter Aeternitas standing left, holding heads of Sun and Moon; altar to left Aeternitas standing right with foot on globe, holding cornucopia and scepter Altar Altar, dolphin above Altar, two ravens and wreath above Anchor, dolphin coiled around it Annona seated left, holding grain ears Annona standing left, holding Aequitas and cornucopia; modius and grain ears to left, galley prow to right. Boar advancing right Branches Bull butting right Caduceus, winged Capricornus over globe to left Capricornus over globe to right, cornucopia above. Carpentum being pulled by two mules Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and scepter Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch Chair; dolphin below Chairs (2), wreath atop Coliseum Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia Cornucopiae (2), crossed, with winged caduceus in between Cow standing right Eagle standing on cippus, facing Eagle standing on globe Eagle standing right Elephant standing left Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, holding cornucopia and scepter Fides standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Fortuna standing left on cippus, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Galley prow right; star above Genius standing left, holding patera and grain ears Genius standing left, sacrificing at altar and holding cornucopia Hands, in handshake, holding caduceus and grain ears Hands, in handshake, holding winged caduceus and grain ears. Jupiter standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars standing left, holding spear and trophy Neptune standing left, stepping on globe, holding acrostolium and trident. Oxen (2) standing left Palm tree; Judea seated to left and captive standing to right Palm tree; Judea seated to left and weapons to right Palm tree; Judea seated to right and Titus standing to left, stepping on globe, holding spear and parazonium Palm tree; Judea seated to right and weapons to left Pax seated left, holding branch Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and caduceus Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia Pax standing left, holding caduceus and branch Pax standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Pax standing left, leaning on cippus with purse atop, holding branch and winged caduceus. Pax standing left, leaning on cippus, holding branch and caduceus Pax standing left, leaning on cippus, holding branch and caduceus; altar to left Pax standing left, leaning on cippus, holding branch and cornucopia Pax standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus with branch Pegasus Pig and three piglets standing left Providentia standing, facing away, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding spear and helmet. Quadriga riding left, carrying grain ears.

58
64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) Roma seated left, holding Victory and parazonium Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear Roma seated left, holding wreath and parazonium Roma seated left, holding wreath and trophy. Roma seated right, holding spear; wolf suckling Romulus and Remus to right and birds in fields. Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear Salus seated left, holding patera Salus seated left, holding patera and scepter Securitas seated left, holding scepter; modius to left Securitas seated right, holding scepter and resting head on arm; altar to right Shepherd seated left, milking a sheep Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (3) Table; thunderbolt atop Temple with (4) columns, statue within and to either side. Temple with (6) columns Throne; grain ears atop Titus and Domitian standing, facing each other, shaking hands; Pietas standing in center background Titus riding horse left, receiving Palladium from Roma to left, stepping on globe. Titus riding quadriga left Titus riding quadriga right, holding scepter with eagle atop and branch Titus seated left among weapons, holding branch. Titus seated left, holding Victory and spear Titus seated right, holding scepter and branch Titus standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding Victory and spear; two supplicants and palm tree to left Titus statue on rostral column, facing, holding scepter and resting hand on hip Trophy; captive kneeling right at base Trophy; captive kneeling to right, holding standard Trophy; seated captive on either side Venus standing right, leaning on cippus, holding helmet and spear. Vespasian seated left, holding branch and scepter. Vespasian seated left, holding Victory and scepter Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and torch Victory advancing left, holding shield reading SPQR Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left on galley prow, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, leaning on cippus, holding cornucopia and palm Victory standing right, holding shield reading VIC / AVG on palm Victory standing right on galley prow, holding wreath and palm Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm Victory standing right, holding wreath and palm Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; boat below Wreath, goat standing left within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Asia Lugdunum Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) B3, O20, R78, T007 B3, O20, R80, T089 B3, O35, R95, T106 VIC AVG across fields B3, O52, R51, T057 B3, O55, R05, T002 B3, O55, R20, T025 B3, O55, R95, T068 Exe: COS VI B3, O63, R11, T018

Reference(s)
RIC II 26a, BMC 71, C 308 RIC II 10, BMC 12 RIC 158 (II, Vespasian), C 352 RIC 168a (II, Vespasian), BMC 110, C 131 RIC 209 (II, Vespasian), BMC 302, C 13 RIC 188 (II, Vespasian), BMC 187, C 53 RIC 194 (II, Vespasian), BMC 223, C 64 RIC 219 (II, Vespasian), C 30

AR Tetradrachm
9) B3, O20, R95, T076 RIC II 74, BMC 149, C 398

AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
10) 11) B6, O02, R18, T004 B6, O02, R18, T028 RIC 82b (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 405 RIC 81a (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 404

AR Denarius
12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) B2, O20, R78, T007 B2, O20, R78, T021 B2, O20, R78, T077 B2, O20, R80, T014 B3, O17, R11, T018 B3, O17, R79, T090 B3, O20, R08, T036 RIC II 26b, C 310 RIC II 25b, C 319 RIC II 23b, C 314 RIC II 28, C 31a RIC II 1, C 334a RIC II 31, S 2503, C 25

59
19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) B3, O20, R21, T077 B3, O20, R78, T005 B3, O20, R78, T006 B3, O20, R78, T007 B3, O20, R78, T021 B3, O20, R78, T029 B3, O20, R78, T077 B3, O20, R78, T080 B3, O20, R78, T092 B3, O20, R79, T063 B3, O20, R79, T089 B3, O20, R79, T090 B3, O20, R80, T014 B3, O20, R80, T017 B3, O20, R80, T089 B3, O20, R80, T093 B3, O20, R80. T063 B3, O33, R63, T087 B3, O33, R69, T070 B3, O35, R50, T043 B3, O35, R95, T047 B3, O51, R95, T011 COS III in field B3, O53, R20, T026 B3, O53, R60, T049 B3, O55, R22, T042 B3, O55, R44, T040 B3, O55, R64, T093 B3, O55, R66, T093 B3, O55, R86, T063 B3, O55, R86, T090 B3, O55, R95, T044 Exe: COS VI B3, O62, R06, T008 B3, O62, R95, T061 Exe: IMP XIII B3, O63, R11, T018 B5, O35, R16, T023 B5, O35, R50, T043 B5, O35, R95, T047 B5, O35, R95, T084 RIC 266 (II, Vespasian) RIC II 27a, C 321 RIC II 27b, C 321 RIC II 26a, S 2517, C 309 RIC II 25a, C 318 RIC II 22a, C 303 RIC II 23a, S 2513, C 316 RIC II 24a, C 313 RIC II 21a, C 306 RIC II 6, C 276 RIC II 5, C 274 RIC II 7, S 2510, C 280 RIC II 8, S 2508, C 270 RIC II 10, C 272 RIC II 9, S 2507, C 268 RIC II 12, C 277 RIC 169 (II, Vespasian), C 168 RIC 155 (II, Vespasian), C 121 RIC 172 (II, Vespasian), C 47 RIC 191a (II, Vespasian) RIC 185 (II, Vespasian), C 162 RIC 195 (II, Vespasian), C 65 RIC 176 (II, Vespasian), C 106 RIC 206 (II, Vespasian), C 336 RIC 208 (II, Vespasian), C 334 RIC 197 (II, Vespasian), S 2440, C 67 RIC 218d (II, Vespasian), S 2436, C 17 RIC 220 (II, Vespasian), S 2443, C 104 RIC 219 (II, Vespasian), S 2437, C 31 RIC 365 (II, Vespasian), C 44 RIC 366 (II, Vespasian) RIC 367 (II, Vespasian) RIC 368 (II, Vespasian), S 2435, C 358

AE Sestertius
57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) B2, O09, R30, T030 B2, O09, R54, T052 B2, O09, R95, T075 B3, O06, R53, T052 B3, O06, R53, T052 B3, O06, R95, T041 B3, O06, R95, T045 B3, O09, R53, T052 B3, O24, R67, T069 B3, O38, R95, T084 Exe: SC B3, O42, R93, T104 B3, O60, R95, T041 B3, O61, R95, T041 B4, O59, R95, T088 Exe: SC

Reference(s)
RIC II 89, C 74 RIC II 100, C 222 RIC II 181 RIC II 94, C 139 RIC II 182, C 203 RIC II 95, C 139 RIC 772 (II, Vespasian), C 184 RIC 645 (II, Vespasian), C 226 RIC 614 (II, Vespasian), C 385 RIC 636 (II, Vespasian), C 201

AE Dupondius
71) 72) 73) B2, O50, R82, T024 B3, O50, R82, T024 B6, O06, R67, T066 Exe: SC RIC II 813c (II, Vespasian) RIC II 813a (II, Vespasian) RIC II 183, C 189

AE As
74) 75) 76) 77) 78) B2, O09, R01, T001 B2, O26, R02, T001 B2, O27, R82, T105 B3, O41, R94, T105 B3, O49, R01, T001 RIC II 121b, C 5 C8 RIC 670 (II, Vespasian), C 363 RIC II 627, C 387 RIC 676 (II, Vespasian), C 3

AE Semis
79) 80) 81) B3, O15, R95, T046 B3, O23, R58, T013 B3, O57, R95, T048 RIC 807 (II, Vespasian), C 156 RIC 812 (II, Vespasian), C 225

60
Titus Busts

Titus Types

61
Titus Types (continued)

62
Domitian was one of Vespasian's sons and brother of Titus. Upon the death of Titus, Domitian was given the title of Augustus and thus became the emperor. Domitian campaigned extensively in Britain and present-day Germany, ultimately being successful in both areas. He was also intensely concerned with the soundness Augustus 81-96 of the economy and frequently revised tax laws to maximize the treasury's income and kept tax collectors busy round-the-clock. However, he did use these monies to rebuild Rome which had been through two major fires and the construction of many new building projects.

Domitian

For all the good he did, Domitian was still hated by the Senate which was kept on a short leash at all times. Suspicious of others by nature, anyone he suspected of plotting against him was summarily executed. Not much better fate befell any other government official suspected of embezzling funds or conducting otherwise corrupt dealings. Another move which earned him enemies was the fact that he legislated strict moral laws while making no concessions in his own promiscuous affairs and other eccentric behaviors. Like so many other emperors, Domitian was assassinated in a plot that was left largely uninvestigated but that many scholars believe his successor, Nerva, played a role in. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) c) d) e) f) Bare head right Bare-headed, cuirassed bust right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, draped bust left Laureate, draped bust right Radiate head right Apollo laureate, draped bust right, branch in front Minerva helmeted, draped bust right Rhinoceros advancing left Rhinoceros advancing right

With a quarter century in power, the longest stay of any first century ruler, there are plenty of coins left of Domitian. From humble sub-As denominations to highly prized Aurei there is something available within the reach of any collector’s budget. While a Denarius is typically the most accessible coin, Domitian’s big copper is also well represented and, except for the very well preserved specimens, relatively affordable as well. Domitian has a thing for the war goddess Minerva and the greater portion of his surviving Denarii feature her in one of four predominant “poses”. Like other emperors of the period, the legends are normally comprised of abbreviations of annually increasing titles which afford us an easy way to date the coin to within a year of so of having been minted.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) CAE AVG F DOMIT COS II CAES AVG F DOMIT COS II CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIANVS COS VII CAES DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIANVS COS VII CAESAR AVG F DOMIT COS III CAESAR AVG F DOMITIAN COS II CAESAR AVG F DOMITIAN COS III CAESAR AVG F DOMITIAN COS IIII CAESAR AVG F DOMITIAN COS V CAESAR AVG F DOMITIAN COS VI CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS DES II CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS II CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS III CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS IIII CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS V CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VII CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII CAESAR F DOMITIAN COS II DIVVS CAESAR IMP DOMITIANI F DOMITIAN GERMANICVS DOMITIANVS AVG GERM DOMITIANVS AVGVSTVS DOMITIANVS AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMIT AVG GERM IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMIT AVG PM TR P PP IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AVG IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AVG GER COS X IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AVG PM IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GER COS XVII CENS PERP P IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS X IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS PERP P IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS POT IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS POT PP IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PERP P

42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59)

IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIII CENS PERP P IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PERP P IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PERP P IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PERP P IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVII CENS PERP P IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVII CENS PERPE IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P IIII IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P V IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P VI IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P VII IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P VIII IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P VIII CENS PERP P IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P VIIII IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P X IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P XI IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P XII IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P XIII IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P XIIII

63
60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P XIIII IMP XXII IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P XV IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P XVI IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR POT IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM TR P VIII IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERMAN PM TR P VII IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERMANIC COS XIII IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERMANIC COS XIIII IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS X IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI CENS POT IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XII IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM TR P VIII IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERMANICVS IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG PM COS VIII IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG PONT IMP CAES DOMITIANVS IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERMANIC IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERMANICVS IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM COS VII IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM COS VIII IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) IMP CAESAR DOMIT AVG GER COS XII CENS PERP P IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG PM IMP D CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM TR P PP COS VII IMP D CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM TR P PP COS VIII IMP DOM AVG IMP DOMIT IMP DOMIT AVG GE IMP DOMIT AVG GER IMP DOMIT AVG GERM IMP DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI IMP DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII IMP DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIII IMP DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV IMP DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI IMP DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVII IMP DOMITIAN AVG GERM IMP DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XII IMP DOMITIAN CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM TR P PP COS VII IMP DOMITIAN CAES DIVI VESP F AVG PM TR P PP COS VIII IMP DOMITIANVS AVG No legend

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) AEQVITAS AVGVST AETERNITATI AVGVSTI ANNONA AVG ANNONA AVGVSTI AVG AVG GERM CAESAR DOMIT COS II CAPIT RESTIT CENS P PP CERES AVGVST CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGVST COS III COS IIII COS V COS VII COS VII DES VIII COS VII DES VIII PP COS XIIII COS XIIII CENS PER PP COS XIIII LVD SAEC A POP FRVG AC COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC COS XIIII LVD SAEC SVF PD COS XVII CENS P PP DIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F SPQR DIVO AVG T DIVI VESP F VESPASIANO DIVO VESP DIVVS CAESAR IMP DOMITIANI F DOMIT COS II DOMITIA AVGVSTA DOMITIA AVGVSTA IMP DOMIT DOMITIA DOMITIAN AVG PM COS VI DOMITIANVS COS II FELICITAS PVBLICA FIDEI PVBLICAE FIDES PVBL FORTVNAE AVGVST FORTVNAE AVGVSTI GERMANIA CAPTA GERMANICVS COS XIIII GERMANICVS COS XV GERMANICVS COS XVI GERMANICVS COS XVII IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AVG PM IMP DOMIT AVG GERM IMP T VESP AVG REST IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POT PP IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POTES PP IMP VIIII COS XI CENSORIA POTESTAT PP IMP XI COS XI CENS P PP IMP XI COS XII CENS P PP IMP XII COS XII CENS P PP IMP XIII COS XII CENS P PP IMP XIIII COS XII CENS P PP IMP XIIII COS XIII CENS P PP IMP XIIII COS XIII CENSOR PERPETVVS PP IMP XIIII COS XIIII CENS P PP IMP XIX COS XIIII CENS P PP 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) IMP XV COS XIIII CENS P PP IMP XVI COS XIIII CENS P PP IMP XVII COS XIIII CENS P PP IMP XVIII COS XIIII CENS P PP IMP XXI COS XIIII CENS P PP IMP XXI COS XV CENS P PP IMP XXI COS XVI CENS P PP IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P PP IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P PP IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI VICTORI IVDEA CAPTA IVPPITER CONSERVATOR IVPPITER CVSTOS MONETA AVGVST MONETA AVGVSTI PACI AVGVSTAE PACI AVGVSTI PACI ORB TERR AVG PACIS PAX AVG PAX AVGVST PM TR POT III IMP V COS X PP PM TR POT IIII IMP VIII COS XI PP PON MAX TR P COS IIII PRINC IVVENT PRINCEPS IVVENTVT PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS PRINCIP IVVENT PROVIDEN ROM ET AVG ROMA SALVS AVG SALVS AVGVST SALVTI AVGVST SALVTI AVGVSTI SECVRITAS AVGVSTI T DIVO AVG DIVI VESP F VESPASIANO TR P COS VII TR P COS VII DES VIII PP TR P COS VIII DES VIIII PP TR P COS VIII PP TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII PP TR POT COS VIII PP TR POT COS VIIII PP TR POT II COS IX DES X PP TR POT II COS VIIII DES X PP TR POT IMP II COS VIII DES IX PP TR POT IMP II COS VIII DES VIII PP TR POT IMP II COS VIII DES VIIII PP VESTA VICTORIA AVGVST VICTORIA AVGVSTI VICTORIA NAVALIS VICTORIAE AVGVSTI VIRTVTI AVGVSTI No Legend

64
Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) Aeternitas standing left, holding heads of sun and moon. Aequitas standing left, holding scale and scepter. Altar Altar, eagle on either side Altar, lit Altar, priest on either side Anchor, dolphin coiled around Annona seated right, holding grain ears. Annona seated right, holding grain ears; boy to right also holding grain ears and galley prow above, in background. Baby seated on globe with outstretched arms; sevens stars in field Branch. Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and cornucopia Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch, modius on altar behind; Annona standing right on left, resting arm on hip and holding cornucopia. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch Cippus to left reading COS/XIIII/LVD/SAEC/FEC, candelabrum center and herald to right, holding scepter and shield. Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Cornucopia Domitia draped bust right. Domitian riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter. Domitian riding horse right, raising hand Domitian riding horse right, spearing enemy. Domitian riding quadriga left, holding branch and scepter. Domitian seated left, offering gift to mother and child; temple behind them. Domitian seated right, facing citizens pouring offerings; temple behind them. Domitian standing left, holding Palladium Domitian standing left, holding parazonium and spear; Rhine lying down to left. Domitian standing left, holding scepter and spear, being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm. Domitian standing left, holding scepter; kneeling captive to left, holding shield. Domitian standing left, sacrificing over altar, musicians playing to right, Tellus lying down holding cornucopiae and citizen restraining sacrificial pig. Domitian standing left, sacrificing over altar, musicians playing; temple in background. Domitian standing left, sacrificing over altar, two musicians playing to left; temple in background. Domitian standing left, sacrificing over altar, two musicians playing and priest holding lamb to left; temple in background. Domitian standing left, sacrificing over altar, two musicians playing and priest holding bull to left; temple in background. Domitian standing left, sacrificing over altar; temple in background. Domitian standing right, facing three kneeling citizens; temple behind them. Domitian standing right, sacrificing over altar; three soldiers to right Eagle between two standards. Eagle perched on branch with wreath in beak. Eagle perched on thunderbolt. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, leaning on cippus, holding branch and caduceus. Fides standing left, holding fruit basket and grain ears. Fides standing right, holding fruit basket and grain ears. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fruit basket Germania seated right, resting head on hand. Germania seated right, resting head on hand; broken spear below. Grain ears Hands, in handshake, holding standard on galley prow Helmet, shield and tree. Herald advancing left, holding scepter and shield. Judea seated by trophy and soldier. Jupiter seated left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Legend SC. Lyre. Mars advancing left, holding Victory and trophy. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mercury advancing left, holding eagle and caduceus. Minerva advancing right, aiming spear and holding shield. Minerva helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding scepter over shoulder Minerva helmeted, cuirassed bust left. Minerva helmeted bust right. Minerva standing left, holding spear. Minerva standing left, holding thunderbolt and spear; shield to right Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield. Minerva standing right on galley prow, aiming spear and holding shield; owl to lower right. Minerva standing right on galley prow, aiming spear and holding shield. Minerva standing right, aiming spear and holding shield. Minerva, winged, advancing left, holding javelin and shield. Modius with grain ears Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Owl standing left. Owl standing right. Pax diademed, draped bust right. Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax standing left, holding caduceus and branch. Pax standing left, holding cornucopia and setting fire to pile of weapons with torch. Pegasus advancing right. Raven perched left on branch.

65
85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) Raven perched right on branch. Rhinoceros advancing left. Rhinoceros advancing right. Roma seated left, holding wreath and parazonium. Salus seated left, holding grain ears. Salus standing right, leaning on column and with legs crossed, feeding snake. Shields and various weapons. Shields crossed in front of vexillum. Shrine with (4) columns Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (3) Temple with (2) columns, Jupiter(?) seated within.; two Victories on either side of temple. Temple with (4) columns; Cybele standing within. Temple with (4) columns; Juno, Jupiter and Minerva in center. Temple with (4) columns; Jupiter(?) seated within, two standing aides either side. Temple with (4) columns; Minerva within, holding shield and javelin, advancing right. Temple with (4) columns; Serapis seated within holding patera and scepter. Temple with (4) columns; Vesta standing within, another staute on either side, each holding a scepter Temple with (6) columns; Jupiter(?) seated within, two standing aides either side. Temple with (8) columns; Jupiter(?) seated within. Throne with grain ears Throne with helmet Throne with thunderbolt. Titus seated left, holding branch and scepter; altar in front. Altar, dolphin above. Altar, globe above. Altar, snakes coiled around it. Triumph arch adorned with elephants. Trophy, seated captive on either side Trophy; standing captive to right and seated captive to left. Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. Victory advancing left, holding shield reading SPQR. Victory advancing right, holding branch. Victory advancing right, holding eagle with both hands. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and trophy. Victory standing left, touching standard and holding palm. Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, touching trophy reading DE GER; seated captive at base of trophy. Virtus standing left, stepping on helmet, holding parazonium and spear. Virtus standing right, stepping on helmet, holding parazonium and spear. Winged caduceus. Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; boat below. Wreath over two chairs. Wreath, cippus within reading LVD / SAEC / FEC; COS XIIII across fields. Wreath, goat standing left within Wreath, SC within.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Ephesus Lugdunum Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) B1, O028, R042, T023 B4, O002, R110, T102 B4, O002, R116, T020 B4, O003, R087, T094 B4, O015, R010, T015 B4, O015, R015, T127 B4, O015, R116, T018 B4, O028, R040, T049 B4, O028, R041, T069 B4, O028, R042, T049 B4, O048, R049, T049 B4, O079, R072, T040 B4, O079, R101, T003 B4, O079, R109, T065 B4, O085, R031, T019

Reference(s)
RIC II 185a, BMC 213 RIC II 230 (Vespasian) RIC II 232 (Vespasian), C 663 RIC II 232 (Vespasian), C 374 RIC II 248 (Vespasian), C 29 RIC II 241 (Vespasian), C 50 RIC II 237 (Vespasian), C 46 RIC II 127, BMC 143, C 148 RIC II 163, BMC 171, C 150 RIC II 184, BMC 211, C 163 RIC II 66b, BMC 81, C 182 RIC II 40, BMC 51, C 319 RIC II 19, C 576 RIC II 33, C 607 RIC II 210, BMC 58, C 3

AR Tetradrachm
16) 17) 18) B4, O060, R024, T095 B4, O074, R116, T095 B4, O084, R116, T095 RIC II 223 RIC II 226, C 667 RIC II 227, C 668

AR Denarius
19) 20) 21) B2, O030, R011, T012 Exe: EPE B2, O030, R078, T079 Exe: EPE B3, O021, R087, T090 RIC II 348 (Vespasian), C 38 RIC II 350 (Vespasian), C 337

66
22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) B4, O001, R014, T083 B4, O002, R116, T020 Legend starts left field, clockwise B4, O002, R116, T020 Legend starts right field, counter-clockwise B4, O003, R086, T094 B4, O015, R010, T015 B4, O015, R014, T083 B4, O015, R015, T127 B4, O015, R116, T021 B4, O021, R087, T051 B4, O021, R087, T090 B4, O021, R087, T115 B4, O021, R087, T140 B4, O022, R087, T051 B4, O022, R087, T064 B4, O022, R087, T106 B4, O023, R087, T005 B4, O023, R087, T106 B4, O023, R087, T130 B4, O048, R048, T048 B4, O048, R048, T071 B4, O048, R049, T048 B4, O049, R050, T071 B4, O049, R051, T064 B4, O049, R052, T064 B4, O050, R052, T067 B4, O050, R052, T069 B4, O050, R055, T069 B4, O050, R055, T071 B4, O051, R055, T064 B4, O051, R055, T068 B4, O051, R055, T069 B4, O052, R022, T053 B4, O052, R058, T064 B4, O052, R058, T068 B4, O052, R058, T071 B4, O052, R064, T069 B4, O052, R116, T016 B4, O052, R116, T129 B4, O054, R064, T064 B4, O054, R064, T068 B4, O054, R064, T071 B4, O055, R064, T064 B4, O055, R064, T068 B4, O055, R064, T069 B4, O055, R064, T071 B4, O056, R064, T064 B4, O056, R064, T068 B4, O056, R064, T069 B4, O056, R065, T064 B4, O056, R065, T068 B4, O056, R065, T069 B4, O056, R065, T071 B4, O057, R065, T064 B4, O057, R065, T069 B4, O057, R066, T068 B4, O058, R066, T064 B4, O058, R066, T068 B4, O058, R066, T069 B4, O058, R066, T071 B4, O059, R066, T064 B4, O059, R066, T064 B4, O059, R067, T068 B4, O059, R067, T069 B4, O059, R067, T071 B4, O061, R067, T063 B4, O061, R067, T064 B4, O061, R067, T068 B4, O061, R067, T069 B4, O061, R067, T071 B4, O065, R057, T064 B4, O073, R116, T064 B4, O079, R018, T007 B4, O079, R028, T010 B4, O079, R072, T040 B4, O079, R093, T089 B4, O079, R099, T003 B4, O079, R099, T007 B4, O079, R099, T064 B4, O079, R099, T105 B4, O079, R099, T107 B4, O079, R099, T109 B4, O079, R099, T128 B4, O079, R101, T107 B4, O079, R103, T067 B4, O079, R103, T069 B4, O079, R103, T105 B4, O079, R103, T109 B4, O079, R103, T128 B4, O079, R106, T064 RIC II 232 (Vespasian), C 664 RIC II 232 (Vespasian), C 664 RIC II 233 (Vespasian), C 375 RIC II 248 (Vespasian), C 30 RIC II 238 (Vespasian), C 47 RIC II 241 (Vespasian), C 51 RIC II 242 (Vespasian) RIC II 246 (Vespasian), C 393 RIC II 239 (Vespasian), C 382 RIC II 244 (Vespasian), C 378 RIC II 245 (Vespasian), C 389 RIC II 45 (Titus), C 395 RIC II 41 (Titus) corrected RIC II 47 (Titus) RIC II 50 (Titus) RIC II 51 (Titus) RIC II 49 (Titus), C 390 RIC II 66b, C 183 RIC II 73, C 194 RIC II 79 RIC II 86 RIC II 93, C 215 RIC II 92 RIC II 100 RIC II 102, C 222 RIC II 101 RIC II 117 RIC II 137, C 252 RIC II 140, C 250 RIC II 138, C 253 RIC II 116, C 73 RIC II 115, C 70 RIC II 147, C 261 RIC II 150, C 259 RIC II 148, C 262 RIC II 152, C 265 RIC II 155, C 263 RIC II 154, C 264 RIC II 153 RIC II 157, C 270 RIC II 159, C 267 RIC II 158, C 268 RIC II 166, C 273 RIC II 169, C 271 RIC II 168, C 272 RIC II 167, C 274 RIC II 172, C 281 RIC II 173, C 279 RIC II 174, C 278 RIC II 175, C 283b RIC II 178, C 282 RIC II 177, C 283 RIC II 176, C 284 C 284c RIC II 179 RIC II 189, C 286 RIC II 188, C 287 RIC II 186 RIC II 196, C 295 RIC II 190, C 292 RIC II 193, C 290 RIC II 192, C 291 RIC II 191, C 293 RIC II 107, C 235 RIC II 131, C 246 RIC II 14, C 63 RIC II 209a RIC II 40 RIC II 41, C 412 RIC II 19, C 577 RIC II 20, C 568 RIC II 22, C 560 RIC II 15 RIC II 16, C 575 RIC II 21 RIC II 18, C 571 RIC II 24, C 597 RIC II 28, C 593 RIC II 31 RIC II 25, C 596 RIC II 27, C 594 RIC II 26, C 595

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111) 112) 113) 114) 115) B4, O079, R106, T068 B4, O079, R109, T046 B4, O084, R098, T007 B4, O084, R098, T105 B4, O084, R098, T128 RIC II 38, C 601 RIC II 32, C 610 RIC II 4, C 552 RIC II 2 RIC II 5, C 553

AR Quinarius
116) B4, O003, R112, T120

Reference(s)
RIC II 235a (II, Vespasian)

AE Sestertius
117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) B4, O005, R081, T080 B4, O005, R116, T062 B4, O005, R116, T064 B4, O007, R116, T064 B4, O019, R116, T094 B4, O038, R116, T037 B4, O038, R004, T014 Exe: SC B4, O042, R070, T056 Exe: SC B4, O043, R070, T056 Exe: SC B4, O043, R116, T028 Exe: SC B4, O044, R070, T056 Exe: SC B4, O044, R116, T028 Exe: SC B4, O045, R116, T056 Exe: SC B4, O046, R116, T056 Exe: SC B4, O069, R116, T029 B4, O069, R117, T035 B4, O070, R116, T027 RIC II 155b (II, Titus) RIC II 159 (II, Titus), C 422 RIC II 157a (II, Titus) RIC II 157d (II, Titus) RIC II 714 (II, Vespasian), C 450 RIC II 288a RIC II 277b, C 18 RIC II 342b, C 311 RIC II 358 RIC II 363, C 512 RIC II 388, C 314 RIC II 390, C 513 RIC II 401, C 315 RIC II 412, C 316 RIC II 258 RIC II 256, C 491 RIC II 286, C 504

AE Dupondius
134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) B7, O041, R038, T046 B7, O041, R116, T061 B7, O041, R116, T092 B7, O045, R038, T046 B7, O045, R115, T125 B7, O050, R056, T059 B7, O053, R022, T033 B7, O069, R003, T009 Exe: SC B7, O069, R035, T043 RIC II 326a, C 123 RIC II 328, C 432 RIC II 329, C 538 RIC II 405, C 133 RIC II 406, C 659 RIC II 381, C 87 RIC II 262, C 11 RIC II 263

AE As
143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) B4, O004, R010, T015 B4, O004, R116, T069 B4, O005, R011, T017 Exe: SC B4, O011, R088, T020 B4, O016, R112, T122 Exe: SC B4, O034, R116, T118 B4, O035, R100, T064 B4, O038, R074, T076 B4, O040, R095, T093 B4, O040, R115, T125 B4, O042, R115, T125 B4, O044, R075, T076 B4, O045, R038, T046 B4, O045, R038, T076 B4, O046, R115, T125 B4, O053, R022, T032 B4, O068, R095, T093 B4, O069, R095, T093 B6, O011, R034, T041 B6, O017, R001, T002 B6, O017, R034, T041 B6, O020, R116, T020 RIC II 165c (II, Titus) RIC II 169b (II, Titus), C 442 RIC II 166b (II, Titus), C 39 RIC II 716 (II, Vespasian), C 402 RIC II 242b RIC II 242a RIC II 301b RIC II 304a, C 418 RIC II 356b, C 651 RIC II 395, C 332 RIC II 407 RIC II 408 RIC II 424a, C 660 RIC II 385a, C 85 RIC II 251 RIC II 272, C 417 RIC II 710 (II, Vespasian) RIC II 694a (II, Vespasian) RIC II 695a (II, Vespasian), C 98

AE Semis
165) Ba, O096, R116, T085 RIC II 398a, C 527

AE Quadrans
166) Bb, O092, R045, T059 167) Bc, O104, R045, T059 168) Bd, O104, R045, T059 RIC II 436b RIC II 435 RIC II 434

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Domitian Busts

Domitian Types

69
Domitian Types (continued)

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Domitian Types (continued)

Wife of Domitian. Domitia was forced to marry Domitian early in his political career. She bore him a son who died in infancy and some time later Domitian had her sent away so that he could pursue a relationship with Domitilla, his own niece. However, Domitia was not ? – d.126 forgotten and it wasn't long before he had her recalled even though his liaison with Domitilla would continue. Domitia would find her revenge, however, when she was asked to become involved in the plot to depose him and she willingly participated in his assassination.

Domitia

Bust:
1) Draped bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) DOMITIA AVG IMP CAES DIVI F DOMITIAN AVG DOMITIA AVG IMP DOMITIAN AVG GER DOMITIA AVG IMP DOMITIAN AVG GERM DOMITIA AVGVSTA DOMITIA AVGVSTA IMP DOMIT DOMITIA AVGVSTA IMP DOMITIANI DOMITIAE AVG IMP CAES DIVI F DOMITIAN AVG

The coins of this empress are very rare and unlikely to be found outside of a major auction. Provincial AE denominations are somewhat easier to come by though nearly always in poor condition. A halfway passable Denarius will still cost hundreds of dollars and the Aureus, exceptionally rare items, between ten and twenty thousand dollars.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) CONCORDIA AVGVST DIVI CAES MATER DIVI CAESAR MATRI DIVI CAESARIS MATER DIVVS CAESAR IMP DOMITIANI F PACI AVGVST PIETAS AVGVST VENVS AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Baby seated on globe, raising hands; seven stars around. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and scepter Domitia seated left, raising right hand and holding scepter; child to left. Domitia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Peacock Pietas seated left, holding scepter; child to left. Venus standing right, facing away, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding helmet and cradling scepter.

Mints:
1) 2) Ephesus Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) B1 O3 R1 T5 B1 O5 R1 T5 B1 O5 R5 T1

Reference(s)
RIC 215a, C 4 RIC 212 (Domitian) RIC 213 (Domitian)

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AR Tetradrachm
4) B1 O4 R8 T7

Reference(s)
RIC 230 (Domitian)

AR Denarius
5) 6) 7) B1 O5 R1 T5 B1 O5 R5 T1 B1 O5 R7 T6 RIC 212 (Domitian), BMC 61 RIC 213 (Domitian), C 11 RIC 214 (Domitian), C 12

Domitia Bust

Julia Titi
65 – 91
Busts:
1) 2) 3) a) Diademed, draped bust right Draped bust left Draped bust right Carpentum drawn right by two mules

Following a brief marriage to a cousin, Julia Titi had a long-lasting affair with her uncle Domitian. She died well shy of her 30th birthday due to a botched abortion.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) DIVA IVLIA DIVA IVLIA AVGVSTA DIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F IVLIA AVGVSTA IVLIA AVGVSTA DIVI TITI F IVLIA AVGVSTA T AVG F IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA

Another rare empress, Julia Titi can be difficult to find. Both her bronzes and Denarii are of about equally limited availability. Of course, the silver tends to hold its shape better but many collectors prefer the bigger size and heft of the bronze coins. While prices vary widely depending on condition one should expect to pay at least $500 for a Denarius. Bronzes are harder to set a price because they are often found in very poor condition which limits their marketability. However, a presentable Dupondius, the commonest copper-based denomination, will command hundreds of dollars at a minimum and quite possibly thousands.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) AVGVSTA CERES AVGVST CONCORDIA AVGVSTI DIVI TITI FILIA IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER PP SALVS AVG VENVS AVG VENVS AVGVST VESTA No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and scepter Julia Titi riding elephant biga right, holding grain ears and scepter Legend SC Peacock Salus seated left, holding patera. Venus standing right, facing away, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding helmet and cradling scepter. Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter.

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Mints:
1) 2) Ephesus Roma

AU Aureus (Posthumous)
1) B1, O2, R10, T2

Reference(s)
RIC 219 (II, Domitian), C 19

AR Tetradrachm
2) B3, O5, R10, T7 Exe: VESTA RIC 231 (II, Domitian), C 15

AR Denarius
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) B1, O6, R06, T5 B1, O6, R07, T6 B1, O7, R07, T6 B1, O7, R08, T6 B3, O8, R10, T7 Exe: VESTA RIC 54 (II, Titus), C 11 RIC 55a (II, Titus), C 12 RIC 55b (II, Titus), C 13 RIC 56 (II, Titus), C 14 RIC 57 (II, Titus), C 16

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
8) Ba, O3, R05, T3 Obv. Exe: SPQR RIC 400 (II, Domitian), C 9

AE Dupondius (Posthumous)
9) 10) B3, O8, R02, T3 B3, O8, R10, T7 Exe: VESTA RIC 177 (II, Titus), C 2 RIC 180 (II, Titus), C 18

Julia Titi Busts

Julia Titi Types

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Nerva's career as emperor ended less than two years after his accession to the throne. Up to that point he had been a longtime central politician under the various emperors before him, particularly Domitian and Nero. However, he started off as emperor under a precarious relationship with the army which Augustus 96-98 rightly suspected him of being involved in the conspiracy against Domitian. He made things right in their eyes by presenting them with an embarrassingly apologetic speech and appointing Trajan as his successor. Trajan was at the time an admired general engaging the Germanic tribes. He died in 98 following a stroke and afterwards Trajan forced the Senate to consecrate him.

Nerva

Busts:
1) 2) b) c) d) Laureate head right Radiate head right Grain ears Modius with grain ears Juno draped head right

In the two years or so being on the throne Nerva managed to make a lot of coins. They are available in gold, silver and bronze today on the cheap… well, the silver and bronze ones anyway! The main challenge is finding a Denarius or, say, an As in nice shape that one cost an arm and a leg. For cheap you can expect to get a worn silver or a corroded bronze coin. Mint state coins are rare and typically cost several hundred dollars and up, up, up. Somewhere between the two extremes one can expect to find a nice, representative coin of this emperor for about a hundred dollars or so. Prices fluctuate quite a bit not only on overall condition but based on reverse types as well. Some of these types are highly sought after regardless of condition.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) DIVO NERVAE IMP NERVA CAES AVG IMP NERVA CAES AVG GERM PM TR P II IMP NERVA CAES AVG GERM PM TR POT IMP NERVA CAES AVG GERM PM TR POT PP IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR P COS II DESIGN III PP IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR P COS II PP IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR P COS III PP IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR P II COS III PP IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR POT IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR POT II IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR POT PP IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR POT PP COS III IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR POT PP COS IIII IMP NERVA CAES AVG PONT MAX TR P IMP NERVA CAES AVG REST IMP NERVA CAESAR AVGVSTVS REST

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) ADLOCVT AVG AEQVITAS AVGVST ANNONA AVGVST CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM CONGIAR P R CONSECRATIO COS II DESIGN III PP COS III COS III PATER PATRIAE COS III PP COS IIII DIVVS AVGVSTVS DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER FISCI IVDACI CALVMNIA SVBLATA FORTVNA AVGVST FORTVNA PR IMP II COS III DES IIII PP 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) IMP II COS III DESIGN IIII PP IMP II COS IIII PP IVSTITIA AVGVST LIBERTAS PVBLICA MONETA AVGVST PAX AVG PAX AVGVSTI PLEBEI VRBANAE FRVMENTO CONSTITVTO PM TR P COS III PP PROVIDENTIA SENATVS ROMA RENASCENS SALVS PVBLICA TR POT COS II TVTELA ITALIAE VEHICVLATIONE ITALIA REMISSA VICTORIA AVGVST No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Altar Annona standing left, holding grain ears and scepter. Annona standing to left, holding cornucopia facing Ceres seated to right, holding torch; modius on altar between and galley prow in background. Caduceus, winged Eagle Fortuna seated left, holding grain ears and scepter. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Grain ears Hands, in handshake Hands, in handshake, holding legionary eagle on galley prow. Justitia seated right, holding scepter and branch. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter. Luna (Diana) advancing forward, pulling arrow from quiver and holding bow; deer behind. Modius with grain ears

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16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Mules (2), one standing to left and in front of the second standing to right, grazing; shafts and harness in background. Nerva seated right on platform accompanied by lictor and officer giving donative to citizen to lower right; Minerva and Liberalitas in background. Nerva seated right on platform accompanied by officer giving donative to citizen to lower right; Minerva and Liberalitas in background. Nerva seated to right, raising hand, facing Italia to left; two children between them. Nerva standing right on platform, addressing four soldiers; temple in background. Nerva standing, shaking hands with soldier. Palm tree Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Rudder on globe Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Salus seated left, holding grain ears. Standards (3) Temple with (2) columns, Diana within. Temple with (2) columns, Diana within; DIANA PERG inscribed above Temple with (2) columns, Nerva within to left, being crowned by Roma to right, holding cornucopia; ROM ET AVG inscribed above. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) B1, O08, R02, T01 B1, O08, R04, T10 B1, O08, R04, T11 B1, O08, R15, T08

Reference(s)
RIC II 13, C 5 RIC II 14, C 19 RIC II 15, BMC 27, C 28 RIC II 16, BMC 36, C 65

AR Tetradrachm
5) 6) 7) 8) B1, O12, R08, T29 B1, O12, R08, T31 B1, O13, R34, T32 COM ASI across fields B1, O13, R34, T32 COS III across fields RIC II 119 RIC II 116, C 42 RIC II 122 corrected, C 14a

AR Denarius
9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) B1, O03, R09, T08 B1, O03, R19, T10 B1, O03, R19, T27 B1, O04, R09, T27 B1, O07, R04, T10 B1, O07, R04, T11 B1, O07, R21, T13 B1, O07, R29, T28 B1, O08, R02, T01 B1, O08, R04, T10 B1, O08, R04, T11 B1, O08, R15, T08 B1, O08, R16, T07 B1, O08, R20, T12 B1, O08, R21, T13 B1, O08, R29, T28 B1, O09, R04, T10 B1, O10, R09, T27 RIC II 42, C 86 RIC II 48, S 3031, C 96 RIC II 47, C 95 RIC II 24, C 48 RIC II 2, C 16 RIC II 3, C 25 RIC II 7, S 3034 RIC II 9, S 3035, C 132 RIC II 13, C 6 RIC II 14, S 3020 RIC II 15, C 29 RIC II 16, S 3025 RIC II 17, S 3026, C 79 RIC II 18, C 101 RIC II 19 RIC II 20, C 134 RIC II 26, C 22 RIC II 34, C 51

AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
27) B2, O1, R06, T06 RIC 83a (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 152

AE Sestertius
28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) B1, O07, R15, T08 B1, O08, R04, T11 B1, O08, R14, T23 B1, O08, R15, T08 B1, O08, R21, T13 B1, O08, R23, T24 B1, O08, R25, T15 B1, O08, R32, T17 Exe: SC B1, O09, R15, T08 RIC II 60, C 67 RIC II 80, C 30 RIC II 82, C 57 RIC II 83 RIC II 316, C 114 RIC II 88, C 123 RIC II 89, C 127 RIC II 93, C 143 RIC II 98

AE Dupondius
37) 38) B2, O07, R21, T13 B2, O09, R15, T08 RIC II 65, C 109 RIC II 99, C 74

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AE As
39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) B1, O07, R04, T10 Exe: SC B1, O07, R15, T08 B1, O08, R02, T01 B1, O08, R04, T10 Exe: SC B1, O08, R21, T13 B1, O09, R15, T08 B1, O09, R21, T13

Reference(s)
RIC II 53, C 17 RIC II 83, C 68 RIC II 77, S 3060 RIC II 79, C 21 RIC II 86, C 115 RIC II 98, C 73 RIC II 100, C 119

AE Quadrans
46) Bb, O02, R34, T05 RIC II 112, C 138

Nerva Busts

Nerva Types

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Trajan was probably one of the fondest-remembered Roman emperors. During Nerva's reign he was singled out as the heir to the throne. Nerva died soon after and the General wrapped up his battles along the German borders and packed up for Rome. Here he was received as a hero and he reciprocated by walking humbly Augustus 98-117 through the admiring crowds. He put the Senate on notice that they would be allowed to resume their administrative duties without his personal interference. He then set out on large-scale building programs and set up a charity for orphaned children. But the beloved emperor was a military man at heart and could not wait to return to the business of fighting the empire's enemies and expanding its borders. He added Dacia (Romania), Armenia and Mesopotamia to the roster of domains. His military campaigns slowed under several provincial revolts and he suffered a fatal stroke on his return from one of these.

Trajan

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust left Laureate, draped bust right Radiate head right Radiate, draped bust right

With a long reign and an economy at its peak, the Roman treasury struck millions of beautiful coins of Trajan, many of which have survived. Of course, all that beauty doesn’t come without a price what with mint state Denarii fetching hundreds of dollars and high-grade Sestertii often thousands. However, as long as one can get by on less than museum-grade pieces the collector will find many affordable coins to choose from in a wide assortment of denominations. Trajan was a warrior first and foremost and the greater part of his coins will portray military themes and honor the favored gods of war. It will also become evident that Trajan’s coins set records for most titles stuffed around the rim of each coin; all the better to represent his wartime accolades.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) DIVI TRAIANO PARTH AVG PATRI DIVO TRAIANO DIVO TRAIANO PATRI AVG DIVVS TRAIANVS PATER AVGVSTVS FORVM TRAIAN IMP CAES NER TRAIAN AVG IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GER DAC IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GER DAC PARTH IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GER DAC PARTHICO IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GERM DAC IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG PM TR P COS VI PP IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIMO AVG GERM DAC IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIM AVG GER DAC PARTHICO IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PARTHICO PM TR P COS VI PP IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GERM IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GER DAC IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM DAC PM TR P VII IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM DACICVS PM IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM PM IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM PM TR P IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM PM TR P PP IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM PM TR P VI IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V PP IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P CS AP IMP CAES TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP IMP CAESAR TRAIAN AVG GERM IMP NER TRAIAN AVG GER DACICVS IMP NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PM TR P IMP NERVA CAES TRAIAN AVG GERM PM IMP NERVA CAES TRAIAN AVG GERM PM TR P PP IMP NERVA TRAIANVS AVG GER DACICVS IMP NERVAE TRAIANO AVG DAC PM TR P COS VI PP IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V DES VI PP IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V PP IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP IMP TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PM TR P IMP TRAIANVS IMP TRAIANVS AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP IMP TRAIANVS AVG GERM DACICVS

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) AETERNITAS ARMENIA ET MESOPOTAMIA IN POTESTATEM P R REDACTAE AVGVSTI PROFECTIO CONGIARVM TERTIVM CONSECRATIO CONSERVATORI PATRIS PATRIAE 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) COS II COS II DES III PP COS II PP CONG PR COS III DES IIII PP COS III PP CLEMENTIA AVG COS V CONGIAR SECVND

77
13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) COS V DES VI COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC COS VI PP SPQR COS VI PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC DAC PARTHICO PM TR POT XX COS VI PP DACIA AVGVST DACICVS COS IIII PP DACICVS COS V PP DARDANICI DECIVS MVS DIVI NERVA ET TRAIANVS PAT DIVVS PATER TRAIAN FELICITAS AVGVST FIDES EXERCIT FORTVNA AVGVSTI FORTVNAE AVGVSTI FORTVNAE REDVCI IMP HADRIAN DIVI NER TRAIAN OPT FIL REST IMP IIII COS IIII DES V PP MARS VICTOR METALL VLPIANI METALL VLPIANI DELM METALL VLPIANI PANN METALLI PANNONICI PARTHICO PM TR P COS VI PP SPQR PLOTINAE AVG PM TR P COS DES II PM TR P COS II PP PM TR P COS III PP PM TR P COS IIII PP 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) PM TR P COS V PP PM TR P COS VI PP SPQR PM TR P XX COS VI PP PONT MAX TR POT COS II PORTVM TRAIANI PROVIDENTIA AVGVSTI SPQR REGNA ADSIGNATA REST ITALIA REX PARTHIS DATVS REX PARTHVS ROMA REST SALVS GENERI HVMANI SENATVS POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI TR P COS II PP TR P COS IIII PP TR P VII IMP IIII COS IIII DES V PP TR P VII IMP IIII COS V PP TR POT COS TR POT COS II TR POT COS II PP TR POT COS III PP TR POT COS IIII PP TR POT XX COS VI PP TRIVMPHVS PARTHICVS VIRTVTI ET FELICITATI No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) Abundantia seated left, holding scepter Abundantia seated right, holding scepter Abundantia standing left, holding grain ears over child and cornucopia. Abundantia standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia; galley prow to lower right. Abundantia standing right, pouring out cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Aeternitas standing left, holding heads of Sun and Moon Altar Aqua Traiana lying left under arch, holding reed. Arabia standing left, holding branch over camel and cradling bundle of rods. Arabia standing, facing, holding branch and cinnamon sticks; camel to left. Arabia standing, facing, holding branch and cinnamon sticks; ostrich to left Boar standing right Bridge, boat below Captive seated left on weapons, resting head on hand. Captive seated left on weapons, resting head on hand; trophy to left. Captive seated right on weapons, hands bound Captive seated right, resting head on hand Captive seated right, resting head on hand; trophy in background. Captive standing left by weapons, hands bound. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and scepter. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears over modius and torch Circus Maximus; bird’s eye view of interior including central obelisk Clementia seated left, holding patera and scepter Club Club and lion skin Column with eagle atop Concordia seated left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia Concordia seated left, sacrificing over altar and holding two cornucopiae. Cuirass Dacia seated left, holding standard; two children to left, one holding grapes and the other grain ears. Dacia seated right, scimitar below Danube lying left, holding on galley prow tip, drapery flying overhead. Eagle Felicitas seated left Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia; altar to left. Felicitas standing left, leaning on column, holding caduceus Fides standing left, holding grain ears and fruit basket. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and two cornucopiae Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on galley prow and cornucopia. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Genius standing left, holding patera and grain ears Germania seated left on shield, holding branch Germania seated left, resting head on hand. Grain ears in tied bundle Hadrian laureate bust right Hercules standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding club Hercules standing, facing, holding club and lion skin Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter

78
55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt over Trajan and scepter; Trajan holds branch. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and rod Mars advancing left, holding Victory and trophy. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mars standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield; kneeling captive with raised arms to left. Mars standing right, holding spear and shield Mars standing, facing, holding spear and trophy Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus Nerva laureate, draped bust right facing bareheaded, draped bust of Trajan’s father. Owl Oxen (2) advancing right, priest(?) leading them from behind. Pax seated left, holding branch and cornucopia; kneeling captive to left. Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, leaning on column, holding branch Pax standing left, stepping on captive, holding branch and cornucopia Pax standing left, torching pile of weapons and holding cornucopia Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar and holding hand to chest. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Providentia standing left, leaning on column, raising hand over globe and holding scepter. Providentia standing left, raising hand over globe and holding scepter. Roma seated left, holding Victory and parazonium Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear Roma seated left, stepping on helmet, holding Victory and spear. Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear; kneeling captive to left. Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar Saturn standing left, holding branch and scepter Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand; altar to left. Securitas standing left, holding wreath and cornucopia Sol radiate, draped bust right Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (3) Table with wreath and cruet atop Temple with (2) columns, Diana seated within Temple with (8) columns, Jupiter within Tiber subduing Dacia to left and holding branch Trajan advancing right, raising hand and holding spear. Trajan riding horse left followed by cavalryman. Trajan riding horse left, holding spear Trajan riding horse left, holding spear and Victory. Trajan riding horse right, holding spear; soldier with standard in front, cavalryman behind. Trajan riding horse right, raising hand Trajan riding horse right, soldier leading and three behind Trajan riding horse right, soldier on either side Trajan riding horse right, spearing enemy. Trajan riding quadriga left, holding branch and scepter Trajan riding quadriga left, holding wreath and scepter Trajan riding quadriga right, holding branch and scepter Trajan standing left, sacrificing over altar Trajan seated left on platform, lictor behind, king Parthamaspates and kneeling captive to lower left. Trajan seated left on platform, accompanied by two lictors, facing three kings. Trajan seated right on platform, accompanied by two lictors, facing several soldiers. Trajan seated to right, holding scepter, facing woman to left holding baby, child to her side. Trajan standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter, being crowned by Victory, holding palm. Trajan standing left, reaching out to two children Trajan standing left, stepping on captive, holding spear Trajan standing, facing, holding branch and scepter, being crowned by flying Victory; two eagles and child on either side at base. Trajan standing, facing, holding scepter and parazonium, being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm. Trajan standing, facing, holding spear and parazonium; Armenia lying to lower left and Euphrates and Tigris to right. Trajan standing, facing, trophy on either side. Trajan to left, holding parazonium and spear, being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm. Trajan to left, holding scepter, receiving globe from Nerva to right Trajan to left, holding spear, facing Roma to right, holding hand of kneeling captive in center. Trajan to left, holding spear, handing over kneeling captive (Dacia?) to woman to right (the Senate?) Trajan to left, sacrificing over altar in center, facing Genius to right, holding cornucopia Trajan to right, holding hand of Italia, holding globe; two children between them. Trajan to right, holding hand of Roma to left; two children between. Trajan to right, holding Victory facing Roma to left, seated right and holding scepter Trajan to right, stepping on captive, touching trophy and holding spear. Trajan’s column; statue of Trajan atop Trajan’s column; statue of Trajan atop, eagle on either side. Trajan’s father bare-headed, draped bust right Trajan’s father seated left, holding patera and scepter Trajan’s forum; quadriga and statues atop. Trajan’s harbor, port buildings and ships within Triumphal arch Trophies (2) Trophy, seated captive on either side. Trophy, weapons at its base Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter Vesta seated left, holding patera and torch Via Traiana lying left, holding wheel and branch Victory advancing left, holding branch and palm Victory advancing left, holding shield reading SPQR and palm. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, sacrificing over altar, holding palm.

79
144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) Victory seated left, holding patera and branch. Victory seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Victory seated left, holding patera and palm Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm. Victory seated right on cippus, holding shield Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and trophy Victory standing left on shields, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, leaning on column, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding palm. Victory standing right on galley prow, holding wreath and palm Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield on cippus. Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield on cippus. Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield on palm reading DA / CI / CA Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield on palm reading VIC / DAC Victory standing, facing, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing, facing, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield Virtus standing right, stepping on helmet, holding spear and parazonium Virtus to right, holding spear and parazonium, facing Felicitas to right, holding caduceus and cornucopia Weapons in a pile (shields, cuirass, spears, etc.), variously arranged Wolf standing left Wolf standing right Wreath, COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC within Wreath, COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI within Wreath, SC within Wreath, SPQR OB CIV SER within

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) B2, O13, R44, T134 Exe: PARTHIA CAPTA B2, O14, R44, T041 Exe: FORT RED B2, O20, R41, T044 B2, O38, R14, T054 B4, O14, R44, T041 Exe: FORT RED B4, O14, R44, T081 Exe: SALVS AVG B4, O38, R14, T022 B4, O38, R14, T091 B4, O40, R56, T101 B4, O41, R56, T138 Exe: VIA TRAIANA B4, O44, R23, T061 B4, O44, R69, T130 Exe: FORVM TRAIAN B6, O41, R56, T127

Reference(s)
RIC II 325, BMC 606, C 186 RIC II 321, C 151 RIC II 4, C 205 RIC II 319, C 153 BMC 585 RIC II 109, BMC 258, C 65 RIC II 146, C 97 RIC II 208, BMC 246 RIC II 266, BMC 484, C 647 BMC 509, C 168 RIC II 292, BMC 449, C 557

AR Tetradrachm
14) 15) 16) 17) 18) B2, O23, R62, T050 B2, O23, R62, T088 B2, O25, R07, T088 B2, O25, R07, T090 B2, O25, R69, T050 COS II across fields RIC II 717, C 607 RIC II 719, S 3113, C 608 RIC II 718, C 52 RIC II 720, BMC 709, C 53

AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
19) 20) B7, O02, R05, T008 B7, O02, R05, T035 RIC IViii 86a (Trajan Decius), C 590 RIC IViii 85b (Trajan Decius), C 666

AR Denarius
21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) B2, O14, R44, T047 B2, O14, R44, T075 PRO AVG across fields B2, O20, R14, T087 B2, O20, R40, T001 B2, O20, R40, T030 B2, O20, R40, T137 B2, O20, R41, T001 B2, O20, R41, T030 B2, O20, R41, T053 B2, O20, R41, T068 B2, O20, R41, T137 B2, O20, R42, T137 B2, O20, R41, T146 B2, O20, R42, T001 B2, O20, R42, T037 B2, O20, R42, T053 B2, O20, R42, T058 B2, O20, R42, T141 B2, O20, R42, T142 RIC II 348 RIC II 358, C 308 RIC II 10, C 213 RIC II 1, BMC 36 RIC II 2, C 212 RIC II 9, S 3143, C 203 RIC II 32, C 219 RIC II 33, BMC 64 RIC II 37, C 216 RIC II 38, C 222 RIC II 40, BMC 60, C 214 RIC II 53, C 229 RIC II 41, C 223 RIC II 54, C 237 RIC II 56, C 238 RIC II 49, BMC 86 RIC II 52, C 228 RIC II 60, C 242 RIC II 61, C 244

80
40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) B2, O20, R42, T146 B2, O20, R42, T153 B2, O20, R42, T154 B2, O20, R42, T156 B2, O20, R42, T159 B2, O20, R46, T001 B2, O20, R46, T029 B2, O20, R46, T037 B2, O20, R46, T068 B2, O20, R46, T137 B2, O20, R46, T146 B2, O34, R57, T029 B2, O34, R57, T067 B2, O34, R57, T118 B2, O38, R14, T006 B2, O38, R14, T007 AET AVG across fields B2, O38, R14, T012 B2, O38, R14, T015 Exe: DAC CAP B2, O38, R14, T016 Exe: DAC CAP B2, O38, R14, T020 Exe: DAC CAP B2, O38, R14, T034 Exe: DANVVIVS B2, O38, R14, T037 B2, O38, R14, T039 B2, O38, R14, T044 B2, O38, R14, T057 B2, O38, R14, T068 B2, O38, R14, T070 B2, O38, R14, T072 B2, O38, R14, T074 B2, O38, R14, T078 B2, O38, R14, T080 B2, O38, R14, T087 B2, O38, R14, T135 B2, O38, R14, T141 B2, O38, R14, T150 B2, O38, R14, T151 B2, O40, R14, T006 B2, O40, R14, T078 B2, O40, R56, T004 B2, O40, R56, T006 B2, O40, R56, T018 B2, O40, R56, T019 B2, O40, R56, T045 B2, O40, R56, T057 B2, O40, R56, T060 B2, O40, R56, T066 B2, O40, R56, T071 B2, O40, R56, T087 B2, O40, R56, T088 B2, O40, R56, T114 B2, O40, R56, T134 B2, O40, R56, T152 B2, O40, R56, T160 B2, O40, R56, T162 B2, O41, R56, T003 Exe: ALIM ITAL B2, O41, R56, T011 Exe: ARAB ADQ B2, O41, R56, T012 Exe: ARAB ADQ B2, O41, R56, T041 Exe: FORT RED B2, O41, R56, T074 Exe: PIET B2, O41, R56, T088 B2, O41, R56, T095 B2, O41, R56, T126 B2, O41, R56, T129 B2, O41, R56, T138 Exe: VIA TRAIANA B2, O41, R56, T157 B4, O14, R44, T037 B4, O40, R56, T004 B4, O40, R56, T037 B4, O40, R56, T060 B4, O40, R56, T066 B4, O41, R56, T041 B5, O40, R56, T045 B6, O07, R37, T058 B6, O07, R37, T075 B6, O07, R37, T082 B6, O07, R37, T085 B6, O10, R37, T037 B6, O10, R37, T162 B6, O13, R44, T037 B6, O13, R44, T058 B6, O13, R44, T076 PRO VID across fields B6, O13, R44, T162 B6, O13, T44, T047 B6, O14, R44, T037 B6, O14, R44, T037 B6, O14, R44, T041 Exe: FORT RED B6, O14, R44, T047 B6, O14, R44, T058 B6, O14, R44, T075 PRO AVG across fields RIC II 57, C 239 RIC II 67, C 248 RIC II 59, C 241 RIC II 65, C 246 RIC II 58, C 240 RIC II 12, BMC 4 RIC II 13, C 294 S 3152 RIC II 21, BMC 2, C 288 RIC II 22, C 295 RIC II 31, C 594 RIC II 30, C 592 RIC II 28, BMC 55 RIC II 118, S 3122 RIC II 91, C 3 RIC II 142, C 89 RIC II 98, BMC 390, C 120 RIC II 96, C 118 RIC II 99, C 121 RIC II 100, C 136 RIC II 121, BMC 301, C 81 RIC II 120, BMC 305 RIC II 122, S 3125 RIC II 114, C 63 RIC II 126, C 83 RIC II 102, C 196 RIC II 104, C 199 RIC II 116, S 3121, C 69 RIC II 115, S 3120, C 66 RIC II 127, S 3127, C 84 RIC II 147, BMC 358, C 98 S 3130 RIC II 129, C 76 RIC II 128, BMC 328, S 3129 RIC II 178, C 481 RIC II 165 RIC II 169, C 462 RIC II 218, BMC 175 RIC II 220, C 537 RIC II 183, S 3160 RIC II 154, C 371 RIC II 162 RIC II 187, BMC 218 RIC II 190, S 3161 RIC II 191, C 457 RIC II 228, C 575 RIC II 212, C 514 RIC II 225, C 571 RIC II 194, C 425 RIC II 163, C 378 RIC II 202, BMC 230 RIC II 243, BMC 472, S 3117 RIC II 245 RIC II 244, C 26 RIC II 254 RIC II 262 RIC II 295 RIC II 291, BMC 445, C 497 RIC II 292, C 558 RIC II 252, BMC 500, S 3323, C 140 RIC II 266, S 3173, C 648 RIC II 286, C 451 RIC II 344, C 279 RIC II 167 RIC II 172, C 403 RIC II 161 RIC II 189, C 418 RIC II 177, BMC 204 RIC II 331, C 190 RIC II 361 RIC II 370, S 3156 RIC II 326, C 152 RIC II 332, C 191 RIC II 334, C 193 RIC II 346 RIC II 340, C 271 RIC II 365, C 317 RIC II 353, C 272 RIC II 349 RIC II 343, S 3150 RIC II 345, C 280 S 3139, C 154 RIC II 347, C 276 RIC II 337, C 270 RIC II 360

81
129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) B6, O14, R44, T127 B6, O14, R44, T162 B6, O14, T44, T142 B6, O40, R56, T047 B6, O40, R56, T058 B6, O41, R56, T037 B6, O41, R56, T047 B6, O41, R56, T058 B6, O42, R15, T037 B6, O42, R15, T041 Exe: FORT RED B6, O42, R15, T058 B6, O42, R15, T127 RIC II 356, C 284 RIC II 355, C 273 RIC II 180, C 396 RIC II 157 RIC II 271, C 404 RIC II 278, C 399 RIC II 269, C 372 RIC II 301, C 106 RIC II 308, C 149 RIC II 299, S 3133, C 163 RIC II 307, C 115

AR Quinarius
141) B2, O38, R14, T147 Exe: SC

Reference(s)
RIC II 134, BMC 345, C 72

AE Sestertius
142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) B2, O23, R62, T067 B2, O23, R63, T067 B2, O23, R65, T067 B2, O27, R56, T004 B2, O27, R56, T016 Exe: SC B2, O27, R56, T023 B2, O27, R56, T042 B2, O27, R56, T066 B2, O27, R56, T071 B2, O27, R56, T079 B2, O27, R56, T081 B2, O27, R56, T087 B2, O27, R56, T092 B2, O27, R56, T101 B2, O27, R56, T117 B2, O27, R56, T158 B2, O28, R47, T131 B2, O28, R56, T014 Exe: SC B2, O28, R56, T024 Exe: SC B2, O28, R56, T132 Exe: SC B4, O27, R56, T071 B4, O28, R56, T132 Exe: SC B4, O28, R69, T108 Exe: IMPERATOR VIII / SC B6, O28, R02, T115 B6, O28, R18, T032 Exe: PROVINCIA / SC B6, O28, R49, T108 Exe: SC B6, O28, R51, T106 B6, O28, R55, T037 B6, O28, R55, T041 Exe: FORT RED / SC B6, O28, R69, T108 Exe: IMPERATOR VIII / SC RIC II 383, C 590 RIC II 390, BMC 715 RIC II 432, BMC 745 RIC II 492, C 469 RIC II 561, C 532 RIC II 480 RIC II 500, C 478 BMC 804 RIC II 503, BMC 800, C 407 RIC II 489, BMC 778, C 391 RIC II 485, BMC 772 RIC II 519, C 459 BMC 793 RIC II 534, BMC 836, C 503 RIC II 549, C 516 RIC II 527, C 454 RIC II 632 RIC II 569 RIC II 571, C 545 RIC II 572, C 547 RIC II 504 RIC II 573 BMC 1019 RIC II 642, C 39 RIC II 666, BMC 1043 RIC II 667, BMC 1046, C 328 RIC II 672, C 352 RIC II 652, BMC 1026, C 158 RIC II 655

AE Dupondius
172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) B7, O23, R62, T001 B7, O23, R63, T001 B7, O23, R64, T001 B7, O23, R65, T001 B7, O27, R56, T003 B7, O27, R56, T009 B7, O27, R56, T012 Exe: ARABADQ B7, O27, R56, T012 Exe: ARABADQVIS B7, O27, R56, T012 Exe: ARABDAQ B7, O27, R56, T031 B7, O27, R56, T044 B7, O27, R56, T058 B7, O27, R56, T081 B7, O27, R56, T087 B7, O27, R56, T101 B7, O27, R56, T110 B7, O27, R56, T135 B7, O28, R18, T031 Exe: PROVINCIA / SC B7, O28, R25, T036 B7, O41, R56, T011 Exe: ARABADQ B7, O41, R56, T011 Exe: ARABADQVIS B8, O15, R48, T074 B8, O15, R55, T115 B8, O16, R55, T036 B8, O16, R55, T040 B8, O16, R55, T125 B8, O28, R29, T040 B8, O28, R55, T036 RIC II 385, C 595 RIC II 398, C 618 RIC II 411, C 629 RIC II 428, BMC 748, S3225, C 639 RIC II 460 RIC II 464, C 22 RIC II 465, C 36 RIC II 467, C 36 RIC II 582, BMC 911, C 567 RIC II 502, C 497 RIC II 590, C 375 RIC II 487, C 389 RIC II 520, C 461 RIC II 538, C 506 RIC II 550, BMC 899, C 518 RIC II 586, BMC 905, C 573 RIC II 623, BMC 990 RIC II 626, C 146 RIC II 613, C 31 RIC II 615 RIC II 665, C 322 RIC II 676 RIC II 674, C 353 RIC II 653, C 160 RIC II 679, C 360 RIC II 635

AE As
200) 201) 202) 203) B2, O23, R63, T139 B2, O23, R64, T139 B2, O23, R64, T161 B2, O23, R65, T139 RIC II 402, C 617 RIC II 411 RIC II 410

82
204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) B2, O23, R65, T139 Exe: SC B2, O27, R56, T016 B2, O27, R56, T067 Exe: SC B2, O27, R56, T081 Exe: SC B2, O27, R56, T090 B2, O27, R56, T138 B4, O28, R55, T141 B6, O15, R55, T132 RIC II 434, BMC 753, C 640 RIC II 561, C 532 RIC II 503, S 3231 RIC II 515, C 486 RIC II 577, C 550 RIC II 521, BMC 938, C 436 RIC II 675, C 355 RIC II 681

AE Semis
212) B2, O18, R69, T052 213) B2, O18, R69, T088 214) B7, O17, R17, T168

Reference(s)
RIC II 689, BMC 1059, C 336 RIC II 687, S 3247 RIC II 645, C 123

AE Quadrans
215) B2, O18, R21, T021 216) B2, O18, R69, T164 217) B2, O18, R69, T165 RIC II 704, BMC 1107, C 139 RIC II 694, BMC 1061, S 3246 RIC II 692, BMC 1060

Trajan Busts

83
Trajan Types

84
Trajan Types (Continued)

85
Trajan Types (Continued)

86

Plotina
b. ca.70 – d.129
Bust:
1) Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Plotina was the wife of Trajan. She died without leaving Trajan an heir but used her influence to position Hadrian in line to succeed her husband.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) PLOTINA AVG DIVI PLOTINA AVG IMP TRAIANI PLOTINA AVGVSTA IMP TRAIANI PLOTINA AVGVSTA IMP TRAIANI CAES PLOTINAE AVG

For the most part the coins of this empress are maddeningly difficult to find. Even the Denarii don’t seem to be much more in abundance than her Aurei or any bronze denomination. The few that do turn up every now and then always come with stiff asking prices in the four figures.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) AVG GER DAC PARTHICI PM TR P COS VI PP CAES AVG GERMA DAC COS VI PP COS III PATER PATRIAE FELICITAS AVG COS III FIDES AVGVST MATIDIAE AVG TRAIANI PARTHICI VESTA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Eagle Fides standing right, holding grain ears and fruit basket Matidia, diademed draped bust right Vesta seated left, holding Palladium Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. Vesta seated left, holding scepter

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) B1, O2, R2, T5 B1, O5, R6, T3

Reference(s)
RIC 730 (II, Trajan), C 2 RIC 34 (II, Hadrian), C 1

AR Denarius
3) B1, O2, R2, T5 RIC 730 (II, Trajan), C 3

AE Sestertius
4) B1, O2, R5, T2 RIC 740 (II, Trajan), C 12

Plotina Bust

Plotina Types

87

Marciana
? – 114
Bust:
1) Diademed, draped bust right

Sister of Trajan and mother of Matidia.

Obverses:
1) 2) DIVA AVGVSTA MARCIANA MARCIANA AVG SOROR IMP TRAIANI

Trajan honored no less than three separate women by putting their names and faces on coins. But he was stingy in doing so. As a percentage of the overall number of coins struck during his reign well less than 1% were of any of these women. Marciana and her daughter Matidia got the bum rap because most of their coins were posthumous. One may assume from this slight treatment that Trajan didn’t like them but historical accounts dispute this. It was just a peculiarity of the Roman zeitgeist. Regardless, apart from the rare new find, these coins mostly recycle from the estates of dead collectors to those of wealthy collectors still living. The average Denarius will cost at least a grand or two and “average” is pretty much as good as it gets. Forget mint state coins this side of gold.

Reverses:
1) 2) CAES AVG GERMA DAC COS VI PP CONSECRATIO EX SENATVS CONSVLTO

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Carpentum pulled by mules Eagle standng left Eagle standing right Marciana riding elephant biga left, holding patera and scepter. Matidia seated left, holding patera and resting hand on child; child to left.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) B1, O1, R2, T2

Reference(s)
RIC 743 (II, Trajan), C 3

AR Denarius
2) B1, O2, R1, T5 Exe: MATIDIA AVG F RIC 742 (II, Trajan), C 2

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
3) 4) B1, O1, R2, T2 B1, O1, R2, T3 RIC 743 (II, Trajan), C 4 RIC 745 (II, Trajan), C 8

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
5) 6) B1, O1, R2, T2 B1, O1, R3, T4 RIC 748 (II, Trajan), C 6 RIC 750 corrected (II, Trajan), C 13

Marciana Bust

Marciana Types

88

Matidia
c.68 – 119
Bust:
1) Diademed, draped bust right

Daughter of Marciana and mother of Sabina, Hadrian's wife. She is also the niece of Trajan.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) DIVA AVGVSTA MATIDIA DIVA MATIDIA AVGVST DIVA MATIDIA AVGVSTA MATIDIA AVG DIVAE MARCIANAE F

No more difficult or easy to find than either Plotina or Marciana, the three matriarchs are fiendishly difficult to get. Low-grade bronzes are the first ones to turn up and depending on how unappealing the overall coin is, especially that all-important part reading”MATIDIA”, the cost will be anywhere from a few hundred dollars to many, many hundreds of dollars. The Denarii benefit from a bit more pricing uniformity thanks to the grades being more predictable. And it’s probably not very surprising to know that they tend to come pretty worn. Even at this stage they will still cost near a thousand dollars per with a $3,000 beauty not raising any eyebrows. Numismatica Ars Classica sold at auction a very nice Aureus in 2002 for just over $10,000.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) CONSECRATIO PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVGVST

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) Eagle standing left Eagle standing right Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar Pietas standing, facing, holding heads of child on either side

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) B1, O4, R3, T4

Reference(s)
RIC 759 (II, Trajan), BMC 659, C 9

AR Denarius
2) B1, O4, R3, T4 RIC 759 (II, Trajan), BMC 660, C 10

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
3) 4) B1, O1, R1, T2 B1, O1, R1, T1 RIC 751 (II, Trajan) RIC 756 (II, Trajan)

AE Sestertius
5) B1, O4, R3, T4 Exe: SC RIC 761 (II, Trajan), C 11

Matidia Bust

Matidia Types

89
Hadrian was the cousin of Trajan with whom he had a rocky lovehate relationship. However, his relationship with Trajan turned out to be less consequential to his own rise to becoming emperor. It is widely thought that Trajan himself never actually selected Hadrian as his successor but his powerful aunt, who was very fond of Augustus 117-138 Hadrian and took the role of surrogate mother, forged documents to the effect when Trajan was on his deathbed. Hadrian is remembered chiefly by his active role in the military, by the prolific building of all sorts of city and military improvements, by being a shrewd economic strategist as well as for his infamous homosexual relationship with a boy named Antinous.

Hadrian

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) a) b) Bare head left Bare head right Bare-headed, draped bust left Bare-headed, draped bust right Laureate bust left Laureate bust right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust left Laureate, draped bust right Radiate bust right Radiate head right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right Eagle standing right Hercules bust right, wearing lion skin

Hadrian reigns during the height of the Roman Golden Age. The immense amount of wealth pouring into Rome from all corners of the then known world translate into, among other things, an earnest pursuit of art. And this naturally includes the cash being made. As the years go by Hadrian ages gracefully on the coins he’s portrayed on from youth to full maturity. Every coin made seems to have been given special attention to convey a sense of realism and glory. And, thankfully, many of these look as though they were made just yesterday. These immaculately preserved coins come with dizzying price tags when in gold or copper but can be routinely found in silver for $100-$200 each. Considering that each and every one of them was handmade by a team of professionals almost 2,000 years ago that is a true bargain! If paying that much is regardless too much then you can still expect to get a lot of coin for $50 or so. A “starter” Denarius or As can be had for just a few dollars.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36)

AVGVST HADRIANVS PP AVGVSTVS HADRIANVS DIVVS HADRIANVS AVG HADRIANO TRAIANO CAESARI HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP HADRIANVS AVG PP REN HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS PP HADRIANVS OPT AVGVSTVS IMP CAE D TR PAR F D NER N TRA HADRIANO AVG IMP CAE DI TRAIAN F DIV NER NEP TRA HADRIANO AVG IMP CAES DIVI TRA PARTH F DIVI NER NEP TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG IMP CAES DIVI TRAIAN AVG F TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER IMP CAES HADRIANVS AVG COS III IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG PP IMP CAES TRA HADRIANVS AVG IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG G D PAR IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER D PAR IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI NER IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA PARTH F IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO OPT AVG G D PAR IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO OPT AVG G D PART IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO OPT AVG G D PARTH IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO OPT AVG GER DAC IMP CAES TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG IMP CAES TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG PM TR P COS IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG PM TR P COS III IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG GE D P IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG GER DAC IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG PM TR P IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG PM TR P COS III IMP TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) ADLOCVTIO ADOPTIO TRIBVNIC POTEST ADVENTVI AVG AFRICAE ADVENTVI AVG ALEXANDRIAE ADVENTVI AVG ARABIAE ADVENTVI AVG ASIAE 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) ADVENTVI AVG BITHYNIAE ADVENTVI AVG BRITANNIAE ADVENTVI AVG CILICIAE ADVENTVI AVG GALLIAE ADVENTVI AVG HISPANIAE ADVENTVI AVG ITALIAE

90
13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) ADVENTVI AVG IVDAEAE ADVENTVI AVG MACEDONIAE ADVENTVI AVG MAVRETANIAE ADVENTVI AVG MOESIAE ADVENTVI AVG NORICI ADVENTVI AVG PHRYGIAE ADVENTVI AVG SICILIAE ADVENTVI AVG THRACIAE ADVENTVS AVG ADVENTVS AVGVSTI AEGYPTOS AELIVS CAESAR AEQVITAS AVG AETERNITAS AVG AETERNITAS AVGVSTI AFRICA ALEXANDRIA ANN DCCLXXIIII NAT VRB P CIR CON ANNONA AVG ANNONA AVGVSTI ASIA BRITANNIA CAPPADOCIA CLEMENTIA AVG CLEMENTIA AVG COS III PP CLEMENTIA AVG PP COS III COH PRAETOR COHORT PRAETOR CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM CONCORDIA TR POT COS II CONSECRATIO COS COS III COS III PP COS III PP CLEMENTIA AVG COS III PP IVSTITIA AVG DAC PARTHICO PM TR P COS PP DACIA DIANA EPEHSIA COS DIANA EPHESIA DISCIPLINA AVG DIVI NER NEP PM TR P COS DIVIS PARENTIBVS DIVO TRAIANO PART AVG PATRI DIVO TRAIANO PATRI DIVO TRAIANO PATRI AVG DIVVS TRAIAN AVG PARTH PATER ESERC SYRIACVS EXER BRITANNICVS EXER CAPPADOCICVS EXER MOESIACVS EXERC BRITAN EXERC DACICVS EXERC GERMA EXERC HISPAN EXERC HISPANICVS EXERC SYRIAC EXERC SYRIACVS EXERCITVS DACICVS EXERCITVS GERMANICVS EXERCITVS MAVRETANICVS EXERCITVS NORICVS EXERCITVS RAETICVS EXERCITVS SYRIACVS FELIC AVG PM TR P COS III FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS AVG COS III PP FELICITAS AVGVSTI FELICITAS P R FELICITATI FELICITATI / AVG FELICITATI / AVGG PP FELICITATI AVG FIDES PVBLICA FORT RED FORT REDVCI FORT RFDVCI FORTV AVGVS FORTVNA AVG FORTVNA AVGVST FORTVNA EPHESIA FORTVNA SPES FORTVNAE REDVCA FORTVNAE REDVCI FORTVNAE REDVCI COS III PP GENIO P R GERMANIA HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS HILARITAS P R HISPANIA IMP CAES ANTONINVS IMP CAES DIVI TRA PARTH F DIVI NER NEP TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GERM DAC IMP CAESAR AVGVSTVS IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG IMP T AELIVS CAESAR ANTONINVS INDVLGENTIA AVG INDVLGENTIA AVG COS III PP INDVLGENTIA AVG PP IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI CVSTODI IOVI VICTORI IOVIS OLYMPIVS ITALIA ITALIA FELIX IVDAEA IVSTITIA AVG IVSTITIA AVG PP L AELIVS CAESAR LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERALITAS AVG COS III PP LIBERALITAS AVG III LIBERALITAS AVG IIII LIBERALITAS AVG PP LIBERALITAS AVG VI LIBERALITAS AVG VII LIBERTAS PVBLICA LOCVPLETATORI ORBIS TERRARVM MARTI MAVRETANIA MONETA AVG MONETA AVGVSTI NILVS PARTH F DIVI NER NEP PM TR P COS PARTHIC DIVI NER NEP PM TR P PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F PM TR P COS PP PATIENTIA AVGVSTI PAX AVG PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVG COS III PP PIETAS AVGVSTI PIETATI AVG COS III PP PLOTINAE AVG PM TR P COS DES II PM TR P COS DES III PM TR P COS II PM TR P COS III PM TR POTES COS III PONT MAX TR POT COS PONT MAX TR POT COS DES II PONT MAX TR POT COS DES III PONT MAX TR POT COS II PONT MAX TR POT COS III PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA AVGVSTI COS III PROVIDENTIA DEORVM RELIQVA VETERA H S NOVIES MILL ABOLITA RESTITVTORI ACHAIAE RESTITVTORI AFRICAE RESTITVTORI ARABIAE RESTITVTORI ASIAE RESTITVTORI BYTHINIAE RESTITVTORI GALLIAE RESTITVTORI HISPANIAE RESTITVTORI ITALIAE RESTITVTORI LIBYAE RESTITVTORI MACEDONIAE RESTITVTORI NICOMEDIA RESTITVTORI ORBIS TERRAR RESTITVTORI ORBIS TERRARVM RESTITVTORI PHRYGIAE RESTITVTORI SICILIAE ROMA ROMA AETERNA ROMA FELIX ROMA FELIX COS III PP ROMAE AETERNAE ROMVLO CONDITORI SABINA AVGVSTA SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI SALVS AVG SALVS AVGVSTI SALVS PVBLICA SECVR PVB COS III PP

91
190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) SECVRITAS AVG SICILIA SPES P R SPQR TELLVS STABIL TRANQVILLITAS AVG TRANQVILLITAS AVG COS III PP TRANQVILLITAS AVG PP TRIBVNIC POTESTAS COS III VENERI GENETRICI 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) VENERIS FELICIS VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGVSTI VIRTVTI AVG VIRTVTI AVGVSTI VOT PVB VOT PVB PM TR P COS III VOTA PVBL VOTA PVBLICA No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) Abundantia seated left, holding sickle over modius and cornucopia Abundantia standing left, stepping on modius, holding sickle and cornucopia. Aelius bare-headed bust right Aequitas seated left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aequitas standing left, holding scale and scepter. Aesculapius standing left, holding scepter with snake around it Aeternitas standing left, holding heads of Sun and Moon Africa lying left, holding grain ears and cornucopia Africa lying left, holding scorpion and cornucopia; modius to left Africa lying left, holding sistrum and resting arm on basket; modius to left Africa lying left, resting arm on lion’s head Alexandria lying left, holding grain ears and branch; grain ears on ground to left. Alexandria standing left, holding sistrum and snake in basket. Altar Annona seated left, facing child with cornucopia; galley in background. Annona seated right, facing child with cornucopia. Annona seated right, holding cornucopia; modius with grain ears to lower right. Annona standing left, holding grain ears and rudder; galley to left. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia; galley prow to right Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and rudder on galley prow Annona standing right, hand on hip and holding cornucopia; modius with grain ears and galley prow to right. Antoninus Pius bare headed, draped bust right Antoninus Pius laureate bust right Apollo standing left, holding raven and branch Apollo standing right, holding deer and bow Apollo standing right, holding plectrum and lyre Asia standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding hook and rudder. Britannia seated, facing, resting head on hand and holding scepter; shield to right Caduceus Cappadocia standing left, holding Mt. Argaeus and standard. Capricorn standing right Ceres advancing right, holding grain ears and scepter. Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and cornucopia; modius to left Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and scepter. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch. Clementia standing left, holding patera and scepter. Clementia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Clementia standing left, sacrificing over altar and leaning on column, holding scepter. Club Concordia seated left, holding patera and resting arm on Spes Concordia seated left, holding patera and resting arm on Spes; cornucopia below chair. Concordia standing left, holding eagle and standard. Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter; galley prow to left. Concordia standing left, leaning on column, holding patera and cornucopia. Crescent; seven stars above Crescent; star above Crescent; star and dot above Cybele seated left, holding patera over lion. Dacia seated left, holding standard and scimitar Diana standing right, holding arrow and bow. Diana standing right, raising hand and holding bow; dog by feet. Diana standing, facing, holding patera and bow; deer to left. Eagle in center; peacock to left and owl on helmet to right. Eagle standing right Eagle standing right on globe Eagle standing right on thunderbolt Eagle standing right, standard on either side Egypt lying left, holding sistrum and resting arm on bread basket; ibis to left. Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas seated left, holding cornucopia and branch. Felicitas seated left, holding cornucopia and caduceus. Felicitas standing left, holding branch and caduceus. Felicitas standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding branch and scepter. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and branch. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia; wheel to lower left Felicitas standing left, leaning on column, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fides standing right, holding grain ears and fruit tray Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding patera and cornucopia with rudder on globe

92
76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, leaning on column, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna to left, holding rudder on globe across from Spes, holding flower and raising skirt. Galley sailing left Galley sailing right Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Genius standing left, holding patera and grain ears. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears. Genius standing right on left, holding scepter, facing Genius to right, pouring cornucopia over altar and holding another cornucopia. Genius standing right, stepping on globe, holding scepter and cornucopia. Germania standing, facing, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Germania standing, facing, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Goat standing right, suckling child. Grain ears Griffin advancing left Griffin advancing right Griffin poised left. Hadrian advancing right; (3) soldiers following, each holding a standard. Hadrian advancing right; (4) soldiers following, each holding a standard. Hadrian on horse to left, hailing (3) soldiers, each holding a standard Hadrian on horse to right, hailing (3) soldiers, each holding a standard Hadrian on horse to right, hailing (5) soldiers, each holding a standard Hadrian riding eagle skywards Hadrian riding horse left, raising hand Hadrian riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter Hadrian riding horse right, holding spear Hadrian riding horse right, raising hand. Hadrian seated left, giving money to a citizen Hadrian seated left, giving money to two citizens Hadrian seated left, Liberalitas with coin counter in background, attendant gifting money to citizen on steps to lower left. Hadrian seated left, raising hand; Liberalitas to left, pouring cornucopia into citizens’ togas. Hadrian seated to right on pedestal facing woman to left, holding baby, with child to side. Hadrian standing left on platform, raising hand, facing five citizens to left, raising hands; temple with four columns to right Hadrian standing left on right, holding hand of kneeling Achaea to left; palm in vase between them. Hadrian standing left on right, holding hand of kneeling Africa to left, holding grain ears; grain ears growing on ground between them. Hadrian standing left on right, holding hand of kneeling Asia to left, holding scepter. Hadrian standing left on right, holding hand of kneeling Bithynia to left, holding acrostolium. Hadrian standing left on right, holding hand of kneeling Hispania to left, holding branch; rabbit on ground between them Hadrian standing left on right, holding hand of kneeling Orbis to left Hadrian standing left on right, holding hand of kneeling Phrygia to left, holding scimitar. Hadrian standing left on right, holding hand of kneeling Sicilia to left, holding grain ears. Hadrian standing left on right, receiving globe from Trajan to left Hadrian standing left on right, sacrificing over altar; three citizens and sacrificial bull to left Hadrian standing left on right, shaking hands with Roma to left, holding spear. Hadrian standing left, holding rudder on globe and spear Hadrian standing left, raising hand and holding spear; two standards to left, one to right. Hadrian standing left, raising hand towards flying eagle bearing scepter. Hadrian standing left, sacrificing over altar. Hadrian standing right on left and Genius to right, sacrificing over altar between them. Hadrian standing right on left, facing several soldiers Hadrian standing right on left, facing two children; Judea to right standing left, sacrificing over altar. Third child to extreme right. Hadrian standing right on left, holding globe with Trajan Hadrian standing right on left, holding hand of kneeling Africa, holding grain ears; plants on ground between them. Hadrian standing right on left, holding hand of kneeling Arabia. Hadrian standing right on left, holding hand of kneeling Asia, holding scepter. Hadrian standing right on left, holding hand of kneeling Bithynia, holding acrostolium. Hadrian standing right on left, holding hand of kneeling Gallia Hadrian standing right on left, holding hand of kneeling Hispania, holding branch; rabbit on ground between them. Hadrian standing right on left, holding hand of kneeling Hispania; rabbit on ground in between them. Hadrian standing right on left, holding hand of kneeling Italia, holding cornucopia. Hadrian standing right on left, holding hand of kneeling Libya. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Africa, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Africa, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia; calf by altar Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Africa, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears; calf by altar Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Africa, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding standard; calf by altar Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Alexandria, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding bird. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Arabia, standing left sacrificing over altar. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Asia, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Bithinia, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding rudder; calf by altar. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Cilicia, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding standard. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Gallia, standing left, sacrificing over altar; calf by altar Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Hispania, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding branch. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Italia, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Italia, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia; calf by feet or altar. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Judea, standing left, sacrificing over altar and child to either side of her; calf by feet or altar. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Judea, standing left, sacrificing over altar and child to either side of altar; calf by feet or altar. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Judea, standing left, sacrificing over altar and child to either side of her. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Macedonia, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding whip. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Mauretania, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding vexillum; calf by feet or altar. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Mauretania, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears; calf by feet or altar. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Moesia, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding quiver with arrows; calf by feet or altar. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Noricum, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding standard; calf by feet or altar. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Phrygia, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scimitar; calf by feet or altar. Hadrian standing right on left, raising hand, facing Sicilia, standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears; calf by feet or altar. Hadrian standing right on left, receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding thunderbolt; eagle between them. Hadrian standing right on left, shaking hands with Felicitas to right, holding caduceus. Hadrian standing right on left, shaking hands with Fortuna, seated to right, holding cornucopia

93
165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) 218) 219) 220) 221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) 231) 232) 233) 234) 235) 236) 237) 238) 239) 240) 241) 242) 243) 244) 245) 246) 247) 248) 249) 250) 251) 252) 253) Hadrian standing right on left, shaking hands with Fortuna, standing to right, holding cornucopia Hadrian standing right on left, shaking hands with Roma seated to right, holding spear. Hadrian standing right on left, shaking hands with Roma standing to right, holding spear. Hadrian standing right on left, shaking hands with Trajan to right Hadrian standing right, raising hand, facing four soldiers to right; praetorian prefect to left Hadrian standing right, stepping on crocodile, holding spear and parazonium. Hadrian standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding spear and parazonium. Hadrian standing, facing, under arch, holding phoenix on globe Hercules seated left, holding club and two arrows. Hercules seated right, holding club on shield and two arrows. Hercules seated right, holding club on shield and Victory. Hercules seated, facing, resting hand on club and holding distaff Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding apple; galley prow to left and Tiber(?) to right. Hercules standing right, resting hand on hip and holding club with lion skin. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia; child on either side. Hilaritas standing right, holding palm and touching head. Hilaritas standing, facing, pulling veil with both hands Hispania lying left, holding branch; rabbit to lower left. Hispania lying left, holding branch; rabbit to lower right. Indulgentia seated left, raising hand and holding scepter. Italia standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia Janus standing, facing, hand on hip and holding scepter. Janus standing, facing, holding scepter and hand on hip. Jupiter seated left, holding Diana Ephesia and scepter Jupiter seated left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter; eagle by feet. Jupiter seated right, holding scepter and Victory on globe; eagle by feet. Jupiter standing left, holding eagle and scepter Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing, facing, holding axe and spear Justitia seated left, holding patera and scepter Liber standing left, pouring cup over panther and holding thrysus. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Liberalitas standing right, pouring out cornucopia Libertas seated left, holding branch and scepter Libertas standing left, holding pileus and branch Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter. Lictor standing left, holding fasces, setting fire to documents. Lictor standing left, holding fasces, setting fire to documents; two citizens to left, raising hands Lictor standing left, holding fasces, setting fire to documents; three citizens to left, raising hands Lictor standing right, holding fasces, setting fire to documents; two citizens to right, raising hands Luna advancing right, holding torch in each hand. Luna standing left, holding patera and torch; deer to left. Lunus standing left, holding patera and scepter Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mars standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Mauretania leading horse left and holding two spears Mauretania leading horse right and holding two spears Mauretania standing left, holding two spears and reins of horse behind Mauretania standing right, holding reins of horse behind and two javelins. Minerva advancing right, aiming spear and shield Minerva seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Minerva standing left, holding patera and spear with shield Minerva standing left, holding spear and shield. Minerva standing left, holding thunderbolt and spear; shield by feet. Minerva standing left, raising hand and holding spear; tree to left, rabbit to lower left. Minerva standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding spear. Minerva standing left, sacrificing over candelabrum and, holding spear; snake on shield to side. Minerva standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield Minerva standing right, holding spear and trophy Minerva standing, facing, holding spear and shield Modius with grain ears Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Nemeses (2) standing, facing each other, each pulling her dress Nemesis advancing right, pulling dress and holding branch. Nemesis standing left, holding sistrum; wheel by feet. Nemesis standing left, pulling dress and holding purse; wheel by feet. Nemesis standing right, pulling dress and resting hand on wheel. Neptune sacrificing left over patera, holding trident. Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident Neptune standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding acrostolium and trident. Neptune standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding acrostolium and dolphin Neptune standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter and dolphin Neptune standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding trident and dolphin Neptune standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding trident. Neptune standing left, stepping on globe, holding acrostolium and dolphin Neptune standing right, holding trident and seagull Neptune standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding acrostolium and trident. Neptune standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding dolphin and trident Neptune standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding trident and dolphin Neptune standing, facing, holding acrostolium and trident Nilus lying left, holding reed and cornucopia with child hanging on; child riding hippopotamus to left, crocodile below. Nilus lying left, holding reed and cornucopia; hippopotamus to left, crocodile below. Nilus lying right, holding reed and cornucopia; child to left, child in center, child riding hippopotamus to right and crocodile below Nilus lying right, holding reed and cornucopia; hippopotamus to right, crocodile below. Nilus lying right, holding reed and cornucopia; reeds to right, crocodile below Oceanus lying left, holding anchor.

94
254) 255) 256) 257) 258) 259) 260) 261) 262) 263) 264) 265) 266) 267) 268) 269) 270) 271) 272) 273) 274) 275) 276) 277) 278) 279) 280) 281) 282) 283) 284) 285) 286) 287) 288) 289) 290) 291) 292) 293) 294) 295) 296) 297) 298) 299) 300) 301) 302) 303) 304) 305) 306) 307) 308) 309) 310) 311) 312) 313) 314) 315) 316) 317) 318) 319) 320) 321) 322) 323) 324) 325) 326) 327) 328) 329) 330) 331) 332) 333) 334) 335) 336) 337) 338) 339) 340) 341) 342) Owl standing on helmet Patientia seated left, raising hand and holding scepter Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter. Pax seated left, holding Victory and branch. Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding branch and cornucopia; anchor in left field. Pegasus advancing left Pegasus advancing right Pietas seated left, holding patera and scepter. Pietas standing left, raising hands Pietas standing left, raising hands over altar Pietas standing left, raising hands over altar; stork to right. Pietas standing right, raising hands Pietas standing right, raising hands over altar Pietas standing, facing, raising hands Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, leaning on column, raising hand over globe and holding cornucopia. Providentia standing left, leaning on column, raising hand over globe and holding scepter Providentia standing left, raising hand over globe and holding scepter. Pudicitia advancing right. Pudicitia seated left Pudicitia standing left, pulling veil. Pudicitia standing, facing River god lying left, holding reed; water below Roma seated left, holding branch and spear. Roma seated left, holding branch and spear; shield to side. Roma seated left, holding heads of Sun and Moon and spear; shield to side. Roma seated left, holding Palladium and spear; shield to side. Roma seated left, holding parazonium and spear Roma seated left, holding Victory and cornucopia; shield to side Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear; shield to side Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear; snake on altar to right Roma seated right, holding Victory and spear Roma seated right; holding spear and parazonium; shield to side Roma seated right; holding spear and shaking hands with Hadrian Roma standing left, holding Palladium and spear Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear Roma standing right, holding spear and cornucopia. Roma standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding spear and parazonium Roma standing right, stepping on helmet, holding spear and cornucopia. Roma standing right, stepping on helmet, holding spear and resting hand on shield Roma standing right, stepping on helmet, holding Victory and cornucopia Roma standing, facing, holding spear; Senate to left, Hadrian to right. Romulus advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Sabina draped bust left. Sacrificial implements: knife, lituus, apex and simpulum on axe Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar and holding rudder on globe. Salus seated left, sacrificing over altar Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding rudder on globe. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar. Salus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Salus standing left, stepping on globe, holding patera and rudder. Salus standing right, feeding snake on altar. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas seated left, holding cornucopia and resting head on hand. Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand. Securitas seated right, resting head on hand and holding scepter Sol radiate bust right Sol riding quadriga left Sol riding quadriga right Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Spes standing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (3) Statue of Artemis, grain ear on either side Statue of Diana Ephesia, raising hands Statue of Diana Ephesia, raising hands, deer on either side Statue of Proserpina, holding grain ears Statue of Venus, Cupid to lower right. Tellus lying left, holding branch and leaning on fruit basket Tellus lying left, holding resting hand on globe and leaning on fruit basket Tellus standing left, holding plow handle and rake; two plants on right. Temple with (10) columns Temple with (2) columns, Hercules standing within, resting hand on club; attendant on either side; river god lying right below. Temple with (2) columns, Hercules standing within, resting hand on club; river god lying left below. Temple with (2) columns, Minerva holding patera and spear and shield by feet within Temple with (2) columns, Proserpina within Temple with (4) columns reading ROM S P AVG on frieze and COM BIT across fields; statue of Hadrian within, holding spear and Victory. Temple with (4) columns, Apollo holding deer and bow within Temple with (4) columns, Hercules standing within, resting hand on club and raising hand; indeterminate object below. Temple with (4) columns, statue of Diana Ephesia within, raising hands Temple with (4) columns, two Nemeses standing, facing each other within Temple with (6) columns, statue of Ephesia within Temple with (8) columns reading ROM S P AVG on frieze and COM BIT across fields. Thunderbolt Tiber lying left, holding rudder

95
343) 344) 345) 346) 347) 348) 349) 350) 351) 352) 353) 354) 355) 356) 357) 358) 359) 360) 361) 362) 363) 364) 365) 366) 367) 368) 369) 370) 371) 372) 373) 374) 375) 376) 377) 378) 379) 380) 381) 382) 383) Time(?) lying left, holding wheel. Trajan bare headed bust right over diademed bust of Plotina Trajan bust to left, facing bust of Plotina to right; star above each. Trajan laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Trajan’s father seated left, holding branch and scepter. Tranquillitas standing left, leaning on column, holding scepter Triumphal arch Trophy, shields at base. Venus seated left Venus seated left, holding Cupid and spear. Venus standing, facing, holding Victory with trophy and resting hand on shield. Vexillae (2) with standard on either side Vexillum with standard on either side Victory advancing right, holding trophy Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, pulling dress and holding branch. Victory advancing right, raising hand to head and holding palm. Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, holding eagle and palm. Victory standing left, holding vexillum and palm Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right, pulling dress and holding palm Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield on palm. Virtus standing left, holding parazonium and spear. Virtus standing left, holding spear and parazonium. Virtus standing left, stepping on helmet, holding parazonium and spear. Virtus standing right, stepping on helmet, holding spear and parazonium Virtus standing, facing, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Weapons in a pile Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus Wolf standing right Wolf standing right, suckling Romulus and Remus Wreath, AELIANA PINCENSIA within Wreath, COS III within Wreath, IOVI OPTIMO MAXIMO SPQR within Wreath, MET NOR within Wreath, SC within Wreath, SPQR AN FF HADRIANO AVG PP within Wreath, VIC AVG within Wreath, VOTA SVSCEPTA within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Asia, locality uncertain Bythinia, locality uncertain Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) B02, O05, R122, T196 B02, O07, R047, T123 B03, O05, R104, T182 B04, O05, R028, T012 B04, O05, R087, T071 B08, O07, R045, T316 B08, O07, R045, T373 Exe: III B08, O29, R152, T247 B08, O29, R152, T331 B09, O24, R059, T346 B11, O07, R046, T102 B11, O08, R209, T104 Exe: COS III B11, O14, R030, T343 B11, O29, R151, T302 Exe: SALVS AVG B11, O29, R152, T286

Reference(s)
RIC II 252a, C 878 RIC II 204b, BMC 530, C 485 RIC II 305h, C 828 RIC II 298, BMC 808 RIC II 241, C 715 RIC II 168, BMC 378 RIC II 193, BMC 448, C 422 RIC II 72, C 1079 RIC II 56, C 1083 RIC II 24b, BMC 45 RIC II 188e, BMC 439 RIC II 348, C 410 RIC II 144, BMC 333, C 162 RIC II 46, C 1349 BMC 133

AU Quinarius
16) B11, O07, R046, T302 RIC II 180, C 365

AR Tetradrachm
17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) B02, O01, R091, T076 B02, O08, R046, T076 B02, O08, R046, T190 B02, O08, R046, T192 B02, O08, R046, T197 B02, O08, R046, T230 B02, O08, R046, T321 B02, O08, R046, T323 B02, O08, R053, T322 B02, O08, R052, T323 B02, O08, R053, T323 C 374 RIC II 499 RIC II 497, C 275 RIC II 485, C 323a RIC II 510 RIC II 489 RIC II 527, C 539 RIC II 474

96
28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) B02, O08, R209, T337 B04, O08, R046, T027 B04, O08, R046, T053 B04, O08, R046, T193 B04, O08, R046, T219 B08, O08, R046, T284 B08, O15, R209, T340 RIC II 475a RIC II 482, C 285 C 275a RIC II 503, C 294 RIC II 511, C 347f RIC II 461a, C 240a

AR Denarius
35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) B01, O05, R028, T010 B01, O07, R086, T080 Exe: COS III PP B01, O07, R125, T199 B02, O05, R021, T121 B02, O05, R023, T059 B02, O05, R025, T006 B02, O05, R029, T014 B02, O05, R031, T228 B02, O05, R033, T028 B02, O05, R046, T076 B02, O05, R079, T066 B02, O05, R079, T163 B02, O05, R082, T064 B02, O05, R087, T071 B02, O05, R089, T165 B02, O05, R090, T073 grain ear in exergue B02, O05, R092, T076 B02, O05, R100, T088 B02, O05, R104, T182 B02, O05, R136, T229 B02, O05, R138, T251 B02, O05, R144, T265 B02, O05, R159, T270 B02, O05, R159, T273 B02, O05, R182, T282 B02, O05, R183, T298 B02, O05, R186, T310 B02, O05, R192, T319 B02, O05, R201, T361 B02, O07, R046, T314 B02, O07, R114, T184 Exe: COS III B02, O07, R123, T196 Exe: COS III B02, O07, R126, T199 B02, O07, R145, T263 B03, O07, R037, T037 B04, O05, R097, T165 B04, O05, R201, T359 B04, O07, R114, T184 Exe: COS III B04, O07, R129, T199 B04, O07, R147, T263 B04, O07, R196, T348 B06, O21, R139, T264 PIE TAS across fields B06, O26, R139, T042 Exe: CONCORD B06, O26, R141, T196 Exe: IVSTITIA B06, O29, R149, T042 Exe: CONCORD B06, O29, R149, T196 Exe: IVSTITIA B06, O29, R149, T258 Exe: PAX B06, O29, R150, T302 Exe: SALVS AVG B06, O29, R151, T042 Exe: CONCORD B06, O29, R151, T196 Exe: IVSTITIA B06, O29, R151, T264 PIE TAS across fields B06, O29, R151, T267 VOT PVB across fields B06, O29, R152, T008 AETER AVG across fields B06, O29, R152, T041 B06, O29, R152, T042 Exe: CONCORD B06, O29, R152, T067 FEL AVG across fields B06, O29, R152, T067 FELIC AVG across fields B06, O29, R152, T067 B06, O29, R152, T076 B06, O29, R152, T078 B06, O29, R152, T085 B06, O29, R152, T107 Exe: LIBERAL AVG / III B06, O29, R152, T211 B06, O29, R152, T257 B06, O29, R152, T259 B06, O29, R152, T267 VOT PVB across fields B06, O29, R152, T267 B06, O29, R152, T269 B06, O29, R152, T270 PRO AVG across fields B06, O29, R152, T277 PV DIC across fields B06, O29, R152, T284 B06, O29, R152, T302 Exe: SAL AVG B06, O29, R152, T302 Exe: SALVS AVG B06, O29, R152, T302 B07, O05, R186, T306 B07, O07, R037, T037 B08, O05, R023, T059 B08, O05, R028, T010

Reference(s)
RIC II 299g, C 139 RIC II 209, C 653 RIC II 225, S 3455, C 84 RIC II 296a, C 96 RIC II 228, S 3457, C 122 RIC II 300, C 154 RIC II 230, C 170 RIC II 301, C 188 RIC II 379, C 376 RIC II 234a, C 614 RIC II 237, C 628 RIC II 238, S 3489, C 649 RIC II 241, C 716 RIC II 243, C 762 Curtis Clay collection RIC II 244a, S 3494, C 762 RIC II 302, C 805 RIC II 305, C 822 RIC II 256a, S 3507, C 963 RIC II 309, C 989 RIC II 257a, C 1028 RIC II 261, C 1204 RIC II 262, S 3531, C 1201 RIC II 265, C 1312 RIC II 266a, C 1316 RIC II 267a, C 1334 RIC II 274, C 1411 RIC II 286a, S 3548, C 1461 Curtis Clay collection RIC II 212, C 846 RIC II 215, C 894 RIC II 216, C 918 RIC II 218, C 1039 RIC II 606, C 221 RIC II 248 RIC II 282c, C 1455 RIC II 213, C 857 RIC II 217, C 927 RIC II 219, C 1046 RIC II 222, C 1443 RIC II 13, C 1023 RIC II 9, C 248 RIC II 6, C 875 RIC II 17, C 251 RIC II 19, C 876 RIC II 21 RIC II 51, C 1352 RIC II 39, C 252 RIC II 42, C 877 RIC II 45, C 1027 RIC II 47, C 1475 RIC II 115, C 131 RIC II 82, C 1149 RIC II 118b, C 255 RIC II 119, C 599 RIC II 121, S 3487, C 601 RIC II 83, C 1143 RIC II 85, C 1157 RIC II 86b, S 3521, C 1155 RIC II 90a, C 1089 RIC II 132, C 913 RIC II 67, S 3516, C 1073 RIC II 95, C 1148 RIC II 94, C 1123 RIC II 52, C 1476 RIC II 97, S 3524, C 1116 RIC II 96, C 1115 RIC II 133, S 3530, C 1198 RIC II 135, C 1260 RIC II 77c, C 1104 RIC II 137b, C 1326 RIC II 139, C 1354 RIC II 98, C 1151 RIC II 206 RIC II 297, S 3456, C 99 RIC II 299d, C 138

97
113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) B08, O05, R079, T066 B08, O05, R083, T080 Exe: AVGVSTI B08, O05, R092, T074 B08, O05, R092, T076 B08, O05, R097, T072 B08, O05, R136, T229 B08, O05, R144, T263 B08, O05, R144, T265 B08, O05, R168, T134 B08, O05, R169, T115 B08, O05, R169, T135 B08, O05, R180, T279 B08, O05, R183, T298 B08, O05, R186, T302 B08, O05, R186, T306 B08, O05, R186, T310 B08, O05, R194, T328 B08, O05, R201, T359 B08, O05, R201, T361 B08, O05, R208, T125 B08, O07, R046, T001 Exe: • B08, O07, R046, T001 B08, O07, R046, T002 B08, O07, R046, T041 B08, O07, R046, T046 B08, O07, R046, T048 B08, O07, R046, T051 B08, O07, R046, T174 B08, O07, R046, T175 B08, O07, R046, T203 B08, O07, R046, T217 B08, O07, R046, T220 B08, O07, R046, T228 B08, O07, R046, T246 B08, O07, R046, T274 Exe: • B08, O07, R046, T275 B08, O07, R046, T276 B08, O07, R046, T280 B08, O07, R046, T283 Exe: • B08, O07, R046, T285 B08, O07, R046, T288 Exe: • B08, O07, R046, T300 B08, O07, R046, T301 B08, O07, R046, T319 B08, O07, R046, T361 B08, O07, R046, T365 B08, O07, R046, T370 B08, O07, R180, T279 B08, O07, R189, T313 B08, O08, R046, T001 B08, O08, R046, T005 B08, O08, R046, T047 B08, O08, R046, T080 B08, O08, R046, T225 B08, O08, R046, T275 B08, O08, R046, T284 B08, O08, R046, T288 B08, O08, R046, T295 B08, O08, R046, T361 B08, O08, R152, T005 B08, O08, R152, T285 B08, O08, R197, T348 B08, O08, R209, T081 Exe: COS III B08, O29, R151, T302 Exe: SALVS AVG B08, O29, R152, T005 B08, O29, R152, T060 Exe: FEL P R B08, O29, R152, T078 B08, O29, R152, T080 B08, O29, R152, T084 B08, O29, R152, T085 B08, O29, R152, T181 HI LAR and P R across fields B08, O29, R152, T203 LIB PVB across fields B08, O29, R152, T284 B08, O29, R152, T302 Exe: LIB PVB B08, O29, R152, T302 Exe: SAL AVG B08, O29, R152, T306 SAL AVG across fields B08, O29, R152, T319 B08, O29, R152, T356 B09, O21, R139, T072 Exe: FORT RED B09, O21, R139, T258 Exe: PAX B09, O26, R141, T042 Exe: CONCORD B09, O29, R151, T258 Exe: PAX B09, O29, R152, T302 Exe: SAL AVG B10, O29, R152, T200 Exe: LIB PVB B11, O08, R046, T005 B11, O08, R046, T225 B11, O08, R046, T301 B11, O08, R142, T255 B11, O26, R141, T168 Exe: ADOPTIO RIC II 234d, C 615 RIC II 240, C 712 RIC II 245 RIC II 244c, C 768 RIC II 247, C 783 RIC II 256d, C 966 RIC II 260 RIC II 257c, S 3513, C 1028 RIC II 324, C 1247 RIC II 327, C 1260 RIC II 326d, C 1270 RIC II 264, C 1304 RIC II 266c, S 3538, C 1317 RIC II 270, C 1342 RIC II 268, C 1329 RIC II 267d, C 1336 RIC II 276, C 1425 RIC II 282d, S 3547, C 1456 RIC II 286d, C 1461 RIC II 290, S 3550, C 1484 RIC II 146 RIC II 170 RIC II 169, C 381 RIC II 172, S 3475, C 328 RIC II 202, C 465 RIC II 200, S 3484, C 460 RIC II 147, C 315 RIC II 149, C 330 RIC II 148, C 332 RIC II 175, C 374 RIC II 152 RIC II 154 RIC II 197 RIC II 155 RIC II 179, C 394 RIC II 178, C 393 RIC II 176, C 392 RIC II 165, C 341 RIC II 164, C 339 RIC II 161, S 3471, C 349 RIC II 163, S 3472, C 337 RIC II 199, C 455 RIC II 398, C 454 RIC II 181, S 3479, C 390 RIC II 183, C 361 RIC II 182, C 358 RIC II 160, C 353 RIC II 220, C 1038 RIC II 221, S 3541, C 1399 RIC II 338, C 380 RIC II 399, C 382 RIC II 355, C 458 RIC II 351 RIC II 330d, C 295 RIC II 343, C 366 RIC II 333 RIC II 332, C 338 RIC II 337, C 354 RIC II 345, C 362 RIC II 381, C 1121 RIC II 380, C 1100 Curtis Clay collection RIC II 352 RIC II 46, C 1330 RIC II 80, S 3520, C 1119 RIC II 120, S 3486, C 600 RIC II 86a, S 3521, C 1155 RIC II 113a, C 1174 RIC II 88, S 3522, C 1094 RIC II 90b, C 1090 RIC II 126, C 815 RIC II 128, C 906 RIC II 77b, S 3591 RIC II 127a, C 903 RIC II 137a, S 3539, C 1324 RIC II 138, C 1323 RIC II 100, C 1153 RIC II 101, S 3527, C 1131 RIC II 10, C 749a RIC II 4, C 250 RIC II 44, S 3511, C 1015b RIC II 137c, C 1327 RIC II 127d, C 905b RIC II 339e, S 3473, C 383 RIC II 330e, S 3468 C 456 RIC II 3, C 4

98
202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) B11, O29, R151, T072 Exe: FORT RED B11, O29, R152, T038 Exe: CLEM B11, O29, R152, T042 Exe: CONCORD B11, O29, R152, T080 B11, O29, R152, T122 B11, O29, R152, T194 B11, O29, R152, T200 Exe: LIB PVB B11, O29, R152, T217 B11, O29, R152, T291 B13, O05, R029, T014 B13, O05, R134, T212 B13, O08, R112, T184 Exe: COS III B13, O08, R122, T196 Exe: COS III B13, O08, R195, T348 B13, O29, R152, T253 RIC II 41, S 3493, C 745 RIC II 117, S 3463 RIC II 118c, C 255 RIC II 113c, C 1174 RIC II 110 RIC II 63, C 1059 RIC II 127c, C 904 RIC II 69, S 3517, C 1063 RIC II 76, C 1107 C 156b C 951b RIC II 361 RIC II 362 RIC II 367, C 1438 C 1111

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
217) B02, O03, R044, T056

Reference(s)
RIC 389 (II, A. Pius), C 271

AR Quinarius
218) B06, O29, R152, T358 219) B06, O29, R152, T361 RIC II 103, C 1127 RIC II 108

AE Medallion
220) B11, O35, R137, T229 C 972

AE Sestertius
221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) 231) 232) 233) 234) 235) 236) 237) 238) 239) 240) 241) 242) 243) 244) 245) 246) 247) 248) 249) 250) 251) 252) 253) 254) 255) 256) 257) 258) 259) 260) 261) 262) 263) 264) 265) 266) 267) 268) 269) 270) 271) 272) 273) B04, O05, R003, T142 B04, O05, R010, T148 Exe: SC B04, O05, R012, T150 Exe: SC B04, O05, R015, T156 Exe: SC B04, O05, R023, T059 Exe: SC B04, O05, R168, T134 Exe: SC B04, O07, R084, T080 Exe: COS III PP B04, O07, R085, T080 Exe: COS III B05, O08, R209, T231 B06, O12, R154, T072 Exe: FORT RED / SC B06, O12, R155, T042 Exe: CONCORD B06, O13, R050, T168 Exe: SC B06, O31, R156, T020 Exe: ANNONA AVG B06, O31, R157, T020 Exe: ANNONA AVG B06, O31, R157, T042 Exe: CONCORDIA B06, O31, R157, T072 Exe: FORT RED B06, O31, R158, T067 B06, O31, R158, T109 Exe: LIBERTAS RES / TITVTA B06, O31, R158, T190 Exe: SC B06, O35, R132, T200 Exe: SC B06, O35, R146, T268 B06, O35, R161, T124 B06, O35, R162, T206 Exe: SC B06, O35, R162, T207 Exe: SC B06, O35, R174, T116 Exe: SC B08, O05, R021, T167 Exe: SC B08, O05, R023, T059 Exe: SC B08, O05, R025, T006 B08, O05, R079, T068 B08, O05, R209, T231 B08, O07, R046, T110 Exe: SC B08, O07, R046, T237 B08, O07, R046, T284 Exe: SC B08, O07, R049, T196 Exe: SC B08, O07, R086, T080 Exe: COS III PP B08, O07, R152, T101 Exe: EXPED AVG B08, O08, R046, T073 Exe: FORT RED B08, O08, R103, T179 Exe: COS III B08, O08, R209, T379 B11, O29, R152, T035 B12, O05, R176, T117 Exe: SC B13, O05, R021, T167 Exe: SC B13, O05, R028, T010 Exe: SC B13, O05, R091, T074 B13, O05, R096, T165 B13, O05, R163, T111 Exe: SC B13, O05, R209, T050 Exe: DACIA B13, O05, R209, T096 Exe: DISCIPLINA AVG / SC B13, O05, R209, T169 Exe: COHOR PRAETORI / SC B13, O05, R209, T250 Exe: SC B13, O07, R046, T284 Exe: SC B13, O07, R047, T073 Exe: FORT RED B13, O35, R136, T229 RIC II 872 RIC II 884, C 31 RIC II 888, S 3565, C 48 RIC II 897, C 63 RIC II 838, C 112 RIC II 950, C 1251 RIC II 719, C 663 C 699 RIC II 828, C 1373 RIC II 542 RIC II 534, C 523 RIC II 560, C 180 RIC II 548, C 178 RIC II 550, C 264 RIC II 551, C 756 RIC II 563 RIC II 568, C 949 RIC II 561 RIC II 583, C 948 RIC II 587, C 1042 RIC II 589, C 1207 RIC II 592, C 1282 RIC II 593, C 1213 RIC II 594 RIC II 741, C 85 RIC II 839d, C 111 RIC II 743, C 125 RIC II 749, C 609 RIC II 779, C 1374 RIC II 640, C 417 RIC II 634 RIC II 636c, C 343 RIC II 710d, C 889 RIC II 706 RIC II 613a, C 592 RIC II 969, C 729 RIC II 970, C 819 RIC II 971, C 862 RIC III 610, C 1075 RIC II 741, C 82 RIC II 840, C 144 RIC II 760, C 770 RIC II 938, C 1218 RIC II 849, C 528 RIC II 746, C 542 RIC II 781, C 1377 RIC II 636e, C 343 RIC II 707, C 738 RIC II 586

99
AE Dupondius
274) 275) 276) 277) 278) 279) 280) 281) 282) 283) B14, O31, R156, T020 Exe: ANNONA AVG B14, O31, R157, T020 Exe: ANNONA AVG B14, O31, R157, T072 Exe: FORT RED B14, O35, R188, T309 B14, O35, R204, T370 B15, O07, R045, T262 Exe: SC / III B15, O08, R103, T179 Exe: COS III B15, O35, R146, T268 B17, O35, R137, T229 B17, O35, R146, T268

Reference(s)
RIC II 560, C 181 RIC II 555, C 179 RIC II 557, C 759 RIC II 604, C 1358 RIC II 658, C 436 RIC II 974, C 820 RIC II 608, C 1041 RIC II 600, C 977 RIC II 601

AE As
284) 285) 286) 287) 288) 289) 290) 291) 292) 293) 294) 295) 296) 297) 298) 299) 300) 301) 302) 303) 304) 305) B01, O05, R170, T150 Exe: SC B02, O05, R031, T021 B06, O31, R152, T258 B06, O31, R157, T320 Exe: SC B08, O05, R025, T006 B08, O05, R031, T021 B08, O05, R209, T217 B08, O07, R046, T292 B08, O07, R046, T311 B08, O07, R047, T294 B08, O07, R048, T037 B08, O07, R086, T080 Exe: COS III PP B08, O07, R188, T307 Exe: COS III B08, O08, R046, T311 B08, O31, R152, T265 PIE AVG and S C across fields B11, O35, R152, T258 B13, O05, R028, T010 Exe: SC B13, O05, R035, T031 B13, O05, R092, T074 B13, O05, R194, T327 Exe: SC B13, O07, R046, T285 Exe: SC B13, O07, R113, T184 Exe: SC RIC II 957, C 1277 RIC II 796, C 166 RIC II 616b, C 1142 RIC II 795 RIC II 797, C 165 RIC II 827, C 1359 RIC II 665 RIC II 669 RIC II 716, C 482 RIC II 714, C 510 RIC II 719, C 667 RIC II 678, S 3692, C 1357 RIC II 975 RIC II 616d, C 1142 RIC II 840, C 144 RIC II 848, C 202 RIC II 812, C 773 RIC II 835, C 144 RIC II 666, C 346 RIC II 725

AE Semis
306) B11, O29, R152, T341 Exe: SC 307) Ba, O31, R152, T341 Exe: SC RIC II 619, C 1165 RIC II 621, C 1166

Hadrian Busts

100
Hadrian Types

101
Hadrian Types (continued)

102
Hadrian Types (continued)

103
Hadrian Types (continued)

104
Hadrian Types (continued)

Wife of Hadrian. Sabina was married to Hadrian at the age of twelve and the two never got along well. While Hadrian accused her of nagging the real problem seems to be her inability to accept her husband's relationship with Antinous, the young slave boy who was the true b. ca.88 – d.137 love of his life. The rumor mill of the time whispered that Hadrian had her commit suicide or that he poisoned her himself. However, both these options seem unlikely in the face of her consecration by him as well as the fact that he had long before accepted his marriage. By the time she died he was gravely ill himself and would not survive her for more than a year.

Sabina

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Diademed, draped bust left Diademed, draped bust right (Style “A”: hair let down towards neck line) Diademed, draped bust right (Style “B”: hair coiled up in bun) Veiled, draped bust right with grain ears in veil

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) DIVA AVG SABINA DIVA AVGVSTA SABINA SABINA AVGVSTA SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG PP SABINA AVGVSTA IMP HADRIANI AVG PP

Sabina is the earliest Roman empress that is easily found and affordable to most ancient coin collectors. Earlier emperors issued coins sporadically honoring their wives or other close relatives, often only posthumously, but these coins were often relegated to playing a minor role in the makeup of the available currency. It is a bit odd too considering that it was more or less an open secret how Sabina and Hadrian’s relationship was tense and distant. With some patience and luck one may find a good Denarius for around $50 on Ebay but the going rate seems to be two or three times that from a dealer or at a coin show. Bronzes typically survive in deplorable condition which while keeping prices down are more often than not relegated to “hole filler” status.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGVSTA CONSECRATIO COS III INDVLGENTIA AVG PP IVNONI REGINAE MONETA AVG PIETAS PIETAS AVG PIETATI PVDICITIA VENERI GENETRICI VESTA No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) Altar Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch. Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch; modius to left.

105
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) Concordia seated left, holding patera; cornucopia below. Concordia seated left, holding patera and scepter; cornucopia below. Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia standing left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, leaning on column, holding patera and cornucopia. Crescent, star above. Eagle standing left. Indulgentia seated left, raising hand and holding scepter. Juno standing left, extending hand and holding scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock by feet. Pietas seated left, holding patera and scepter. Pietas standing, facing, placing hands on head of a child on either side of her. Pudicitia standing left, pulling veil. Pudicitia standing left, raising hand. Sabina riding eagle right Venus standing left, pulling veil and holding apple. Venus standing right, pulling veil and holding apple. Venus standing right, pulling veil and holding Victory. Venus standing right, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding helmet and spear; shield behind column. Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) B1, O5, R01, T04

Reference(s)
RIC 398 (II, Hadrian), BMC 901, C 13

AR Denarius
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) B1, O3, R04, T09 B1, O5, R01, T04 B1, O5, R06, T14 B2, O3, R01, T05 B2, O3, R01, T07 B2, O3, R07, T07 B2, O3, R11, T22 B2, O3, R12, T25 B2, O5, R01, T04 B2, O5, R01, T05 B2, O5, R05, T11 Exe: COS III B2, O5, R11, T18 B2, O5, R13, T25 B3, O5, R14, T02 B3, O5, R14, T19 B3, O5, R14, T24 B3, O5, R14, T25 Exe: SC RIC 398a, l (II, Hadrian), S 3920 RIC 401b (II, Hadrian) RIC 391 (II, Hadrian), C 24 RIC 390 (II, Hadrian), S 3918, C 3 Curtis Clay collection RIC 396 (II, Hadrian), S 3924 RIC 398a, r (II, Hadrian), C 12 RIC 399 (II, Hadrian), C 25 RIC 417 (II, Hadrian), C 36 RIC 407 (II, Hadrian), C 62 RIC 410 (II, Hadrian), S 3925, C 81 RIC 411 (II, Hadrian), C 91 RIC 415 (II, Hadrian), S 3931, C 95 RIC 412 (II, Hadrian), C 89 RIC 408 (II, Hadrian), C 64

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
19) 20) B4, O1, R03, T10 B4, O1, R10, T01 Exe: AVG RIC 421 (II, Hadrian), C 34 RIC 422a (II, Hadrian), C 56

AE Sestertius
21) 22) 23) 24) B2, O5, R12, T22 B2, O5, R13, T25 B3, O5, R01, T07 B3, O5, R14, T02 Exe: SC RIC 1035 (II, Hadrian), C 74 RIC 1036 (II, Hadrian), C 82 RIC 1017 (II, Hadrian), C 7 RIC 1019 (II, Hadrian), C 69

AE Dupondius
25) B3, O5, R14, T02 Exe: SC C 70

AE As
26) 27) B1, O5, R01, T04 Exe: SC B3, O5, R14, T02 Exe: SC RIC 1037 (II, Hadrian), C 16 RIC 1023 (II, Hadrian), C 70

106
Sabina Busts

Sabina Types

107

Aelius
Caesar 136-137
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Bare head left Bare head right Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped bust right

Hadrian appointed Aelius as his Caesar to succeed him but died of illness shortly before his own death. Aelius would probably have made a fine emperor as he was well liked by Roman citizens and was a capable military leader.

Finding a coin of Aelius is a bit tricky. You’re not likely to just stumble onto one. He is equally well represented in silver and copper. The Denarii naturally tend to hold up better than the various bronze denominations but due to scarcity neither is abundantly available in the top grades. Given the wide states of preservation for the bronzes it’s difficult to pin down a price range. Suffice to say that any which is well enough preserved to be attributable will be marketable. For a worn Denarius expect to pay a minimum of $100 with $200-$500 being more typical.

Obverse:
1) L AELIVS CAESAR

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) CONCORDIA FELICITAS AVG HISPANIA TR POT COS II TRIB POT COS II

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) Aelius standing on left, shaking hands with Roma seated on cuirass on right, holding spear. Aelius standing on right, raising hand, facing Ceres to left, holding grain ears and torch Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Concordia seated left, holding patera Concordia seated left, holding patera; cornucopia under chair. Concordia seated left, lying on cornucopia, holding patera Concordia standing left, holding patera Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia standing left, leaning on column, holding patera. Diana standing right, holding arrow and bow Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fides standing right, holding grain ears and fruit basket Fortuna standing left, holding flower and cornucopia; rudder to right Hispania lying left, holding branch Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield. Pannonia standing, facing, holding standard Pannonia standing, facing, holding vexillum Pannonia standing, facing, holding vexillum and raising skirt. Pietas standing left, raising hand and holding cornucopia Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar and other hand over chest. Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Pietas standing right, raising hand over altar Pietas standing right, raising hand over altar and holding incense box. Pietas standing right, raising hand over altar and other hand over chest. Pietas standing, facing, raising hands, altar by feet. Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt Spes standing left, holding flower and raising skirt.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) B1, O1, R4, T04 Exe: CONCORD B1, O1, R4, T24 PIE TAS across fields

Reference(s)
RIC 443 (II, Hadrian), C 12 RIC 444c (II, Hadrian), C 42

AU Quinarius
3) B2, O1, R3, T11 RIC 430 (II, Hadrian), C 51

108
AR Denarius
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) B2, O1, R1, T08 B2, O1, R3, T04 Exe: CONCORD B2, O1, R3, T11 B2, O1, R3, T13 B2, O1, R3, T24 PIE TAS across fields B2, O1, R3, T24 B2, O1, R3, T30 B2, O1, R4, T04 Exe: CONCORD

Reference(s)
RIC 428 (II, Hadrian) RIC 436, (II, Hadrian) S 3967 RIC 430 (II, Hadrian), C 50 RIC 431 (II, Hadrian), C 52 RIC 439 (II, Hadrian) RIC 432 (II, Hadrian), C 53 RIC 435 (II, Hadrian)

AE Sestertius
12) 13) B2, O1, R3, T27 Exe: SALVS B2, O1, R3, T30 RIC 1063 (II, Hadrian), C 44 RIC 1055 (II, Hadrian), C 56

AE Dupondius
14) B2, O1, R3, T13 RIC 1065 (II, Hadrian)

AE As
15) 16) B2, O1, R3, T18 PANNO NIA across fields B4, O1, R3, T29 RIC 1071 (II, Hadrian), S 1217 RIC 1067 (II, Hadrian), C 59

Aelius Busts

Aelius Types

109
Antoninus succeeded Hadrian once the latter's death and gained the "Pius" suffix after his goodwill in securing a Senate proclamation consecrating Hadrian. Through a combination of good luck and an even-keeled, frugal personality, he was able to pull off the most exemplary and peaceful reign of any emperor Augustus 138-161 before or since. He was more interested in modernizing Roman law and its infrastructure than on waging wars of conquest. After his death he was consecrated himself and the empire started another slide into troubled times.

Antoninus Pius

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) a) Bare head left Bare head right Bare headed, cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust left Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped bust right Laureate bust right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust left Laureate, draped bust right Radiate head left Radiate head right Eagle standing right

Another long-reigning emperor at the height of the Pax Romana translates into a great deal of numismatic material available left over from the days of Mr. Pius. The Denarius spearheads the list, a nice one of which can be purchased for well under a hundred dollars. Copper comes in all shapes, sizes, colors and conditions range from the eyesore to the breathtaking with corresponding price tags. And for when a splurge is warranted even the golden Aureus is not too hard to find for a few thousand dollars.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) ANTONINVS AVG PIVS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS COS III ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P TR P XXII ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP COS II ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP COS III ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP COS IIII ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP IMP II ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS III ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS IIII ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P X ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XI ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XI COS IIII ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XII ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XIII ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XIIII ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XIX ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XV ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XVI ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XVII ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XVIII 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XX ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XXI ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XXII ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XXIII ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XXIIII ANTONINVS AVG PIVS TR P COS II ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS DIVO PIO DIVVS ANTONINVS IMP ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS IMP CAES AEL ANTONINVS AVG IMP CAES AELIVS ANTONINVS AVG IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP IMP II IMP T AEL CAES ANTONINVS IMP T AEL CAES ANTONINVS AVG IMP T AEL CAES HADR ANTONINVS IMP T AEL CAES HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS IMP T AEL CAES HADRI ANTONINVS IMP T AEL CAES HADRI ANTONINVS AVG PIVS IMP T AEL CAES HADRI ANTONINVS PIVS IMP T AEL CAESAR HADR ANTONINVS IMP T AELIVS CAESAR ANTONINVS

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) AED DIVI AVG REST AEDE DIVI AVG REST AEQVITAS AVG AETERNITAS AFRICA COS II ALEXANDRIA ALEXANDRIA COS II ANNONA AVG ANNONA AVG COS IIII ANNONA AVG FELIX APOLLINI AVGVSTO ASIA COS II AVG PIVS PM TR P COS DES II AVG PIVS PM TR P COS II AVG PIVS PM TR P COS II PP AVGVSTA AVRELIVS CAES AVG F COS AVRELIVS CAES AVG P II F COS AVRELIVS CAES AVG P II F COS DES AVRELIVS CAES AVG P II P COS AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG P II F COS AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG P II F COS DES BONO EVENTVI 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) BONO EVENTVI COS II BONVS EVENTVS COS IIII BRITANNIA BRITANNIA COS IIII CAPPADOCIA CLEMENTIA AVG CONCORD COS IIII CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA EXERCITVM CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM CONCORDIAE CONG AVG VIIII COS IIII CONSECRATIO COS II COS III COS III DES IIII COS IIII COS IIII LIB V COS IIII LIBERAL AVG V COS IIII VOTA DACIA DARDANICI DES IIII

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47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) DISCIPLIN AVG DISCIPLINA AVG DIVA FAVSTINA DIVO PIO FELIC SAEC COS IIII FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS AVG COS II FELICITAS AVGVSTI FELICITAS COS IIII FELICITATI AVG COS IIII FIDES EXERC COS IIII FORTVNA AVG FORTVNA AVG COS II FORTVNA AVGVSTI COS II FORTVNA COS IIII FORTVNA OBSEQVENS FORTVNA OPSEQVENS GENIO SENATVS GENIVS POP ROMANI GENIVS POPVLI ROMANI HILARITAS HISPANIA HONORI AVG COS IIII IMP II IMPERATOR IMPERATOR II IMPERATOR II BRITAN IMPERATOR II BRITANNIA IMPERATOR II MARTI VLT INDVLGENTIA AVG COS IIII IOVI LATIO IOVI STATORI ITALIA IVNONI SISPITAE LAETITIA COS IIII LIB IIII LIBERALITAS LIBERALITAS AVG II LIBERALITAS AVG III LIBERALITAS AVG IIII COS IIII LIBERALITAS AVG V LIBERALITAS AVG VIIII COS IIII LIBERALITAS AVGVS LIBERALITAS COS II LIBERALITAS IIII LIBERALITAS V COS IIII LIBERALITAS VII COS IIII LIBERT LIBERTAS COS IIII LIBERTAS PVBLICA LIBERTAS PVBLICA COS II MARTI VLTORI MAVRETANIA MAVRETANIA COS III MONETA AVG MONETA AVGVSTI MONETA AVGVSTI COS II MVNIFICENTIA AVG COS IIII OPI AVG P II PP TR POT II COS II PACI AVG COS IIII PARTHIA PAX AVG PAX AVG COS IIII PHOENICE PIETAS AVG PIETATI AVG COS IIII PM TR P COS II PM TR P IIII COS III PP PM TR POT COS PM TR POT COS DES II PM TR POT COS II PM TR POT COS III PM TR POT COS IIII LIB III PM TR POT XX COS IIII PM TR POT XXI COS IIII LIB VIII PONT MAX TR POT COS PP TR P COS III PRIMI DECENNALES PROVIDENTIA DEORVM PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM REX ARMENIIS DATVS REX QVADIS DATVS 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) ROMA AETERNA ROMA COS IIII ROMAE AETERNAE ROMVLO AVGVSTO SALVS AVG SALVS AVG COS II SALVS AVG COS IIII SALVS AVGVSTI SALVS PVBLICA SALVTI AVG COS IIII SCYTHIA SECVRITAS AVG SECVRITAS PVBLICA SICILIA SICILIA COS II SPES PR SYRIA TEMPL DIV AVG REST TEMPL DIVI AVG REST TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST TEMPLVM DIVI AVG REST TEMPORVM FELICITAS TIBERIS TR P COS II TR P COS III TR P COS III DES IIII TR P COS IIII IMP III TR POT COS II TR POT COS II G P R TR POT COS II PAX TR POT COS III TR POT COS III DES IIII TR POT COS III ITALIA TR POT COS III TIBERIS TR POT COS III VICT AVG TR POT COS IIII TR POT COS IIII ITALIA TR POT COS IIII IVSTITIA TR POT COS IIII LIBERALITAS AVG VIIII TR POT COS IIII VICT AVG TR POT XI COS IIII TR POT XII COS IIII TR POT XIIII COS IIII TR POT XIIII COS IIII ANNONA AVG TR POT XIIII COS IIII IVSTITIA TR POT XIIII COS IIII MON AVG TR POT XIIII COS IIII PIETAS TR POT XIIII COS IIII PIETATI TR POT XIIII COS IIII ROMA TR POT XIX COS IIII TR POT XV COS IIII TR POT XV COS IIII ANNONA AVG TR POT XV COS IIII ROMA TR POT XVII COS IIII ANNONA AVG TR POT XVIIII COS IIII ANNONA AVG TR POT XX COS IIII TR POT XXI COS IIII TR POT XXI COS IIII LIB VIII TR POT XXII COS IIII TR POT XXIII COS IIII TR POT XXIIII COS IIII TRANQVILLITAS AVG TRIB POT COS TRIB POT COS DES II TRIB POT COS DES II CONCORD TRIB POT COS II PAX TRIB POT COS III TRIB POT COS PIETAS VENERI FELICI VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGVSTI VIRTVS AVG VOTA VOTA SOL DEC II VOTA SOL DECENN II VOTA SVSCEP DEC III VOTA SVSCEP DECENN III VOTA SVSCEPTA DEC III VOTA SVSCEPTA DECENNAL III VOTA VIGENNALIA No legend

111
Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) Aeneas advancing right, carrying Anchises and holding hand of Ascanius to left Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Aeternitas standing left, holding caduceus and phoenix on globe. Aeternitas standing left, holding globe and pulling veil. Aeternitas standing left, holding globe and scepter Africa standing left, holding basket and cornucopia; lion’s head to lower left. Africa standing left, holding crown and cornucopia Africa standing left, holding crown and grain ears. Alexandria standing left, holding crown and ibis. Alexandria standing right Altar. Annona seated left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Annona seated right, holding cornucopia Annona seated right, holding cornucopia; modius to right. Annona standing left, holding grain ears and anchor. Annona standing left, holding grain ears and cornucopia Annona standing left, holding grain ears and resting hand on modius on galley prow. Annona standing left, holding grain ears and rudder. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and anchor Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and rudder on galley prow. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and scepter. Annona standing left, holding modius on cippus and grain ears over modius. Annona standing left, holding tablet and rudder; in background, modius on galley prow to left and lighthouse to right. Annona standing right, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia; galley prow to right. Annona standing right, resting hand on modius and holding branch over fruit basket Annona standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding rudder on globe and modius Antoninus Pius advancing right with one soldier to right and three to left Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius riding quadriga left Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius seated left on platform with a lictor standing on either side of platform. Antoninus Pius riding horse left, raising hand and holding parazonium Antoninus Pius riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Antoninus Pius riding quadriga left, holding scepter with eagle atop. Antoninus Pius riding quadriga of elephants left, holding branch. Antoninus Pius seated left on platform facing Liberalitas to left, holding coin counter and cornucopia; citizen to far left Antoninus Pius seated left on platform with Liberalitas to left, holding coin counter and cornucopia and lictor to right; citizen to far left Antoninus Pius seated left, crowning King of Armenia Antoninus Pius seated left, holding branch and scepter. Antoninus Pius seated left, holding globe; being crowned by Victory hovering to right Antoninus Pius standing left on right, touching Armenian king to left Antoninus Pius standing left, holding branch and spear. Antoninus Pius standing left, holding coin counter Antoninus Pius standing left, holding globe. Antoninus Pius standing left, sacrificing over altar Antoninus Pius standing left, sacrificing over altar; bull by altar. Antoninus Pius standing right on left, holding Concordia, shaking hands with Faustina I to right Antoninus Pius standing right on left, holding Concordia, shaking hands with Faustina I to right; Marcus Aurelius and Faustina below in center, also shaking hands. Antoninus Pius standing right, sacrificing over altar; two witnesses to right and temple in background. Apollo seated left, holding branch; statue on column to right Apollo standing, facing, holding patera and lyre. Asia standing left, holding crown and anchor. Asia standing left, holding crown and anchor; galley prow to left. Britannia seated left, holding spear. Britannia seated left, holding standard and spear; shield to right Britannia seated left, holding standard. Britannia seated left, resting head on hand; shield and scepter to left Cappadocia standing left, holding crown and vexillum. Capricornii (2) back to back over globe Ceres seated left, holding scepter and grain ears. Ceres seated left, holding torch and grain ears. Ceres standing right on left, holding grain ears next to Proserpina to right, holding pomegranate. Clementia seated left, holding patera and scepter. Clementia standing left, holding patera and raising skirt. Clementia standing left, holding patera and scepter Club and winged caduceus, crossed. Column with statue of Antoninus Pius atop. Concordia seated left, holding patera and resting arm on Spes Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter Concordia standing left, holding patera and two cornucopiae Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand Concordia standing left, holding vexillum and cornucopia Concordia standing left, holding Victory and standard Concordia standing left, leaning on column, holding patera Concordia standing, facing, holding scepter and cornucopia Cornucopia Cornucopiae (2), crossed, caduceus in between. Cornucopiae (2), crossed, child’s head atop each. Cornucopiae (2), crossed, winged caduceus in between. Eagle standing center on thunderbolts with owl on globe to left and peacock to right Eagle standing center with owl to left and peacock to right Eagle standing center with peacock to left and owl to right Eagle standing left on globe Eagle standing right Eagle standing right on altar Eagle standing right on globe. Elephant advancing left.

112
86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) Elephant advancing right. Faustina I draped bust right Felicitas standing left, holding branch and caduceus Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and branch Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, holding capricornus and caduceus. Felicitas standing left, holding globe and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, leaning on column, holding caduceus Felicitas standing left, leaning on column, holding globe and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand. Fides standing right, holding grain ears and fruit dish Fides standing, facing, holding a standard in each hand. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Fortuna standing right, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna standing right, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Funeral pyre. Genius standing left, holding branch and scepter. Genius standing left, holding patera and grain ears. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears. Genius standing, facing, holding scepter and cornucopia. Hands, in handshake, grasping winged caduceus and grain ears. Hercules seated on cuirass, facing, holding club and arrows. Hercules standing left, holding club and bow with arrow. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia. Hispania standing left, holding crown and branch; rabbit by feet. Honos standing, facing, holding branch and cornucopia Honos standing, facing, holding rudder and cornucopia. Indulgentia seated left, raising hand and holding scepter. Italia seated left on globe, holding cornucopia and scepter. Janus standing, facing, holding scepter. Juno advancing right, aiming spear and holding spear; snake to right Jupiter seated left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing, facing, holding scepter and thunderbolt. Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter standing, facing, resting hand on hip and holding scepter; eagle to lower right. Justitia seated left, holding patera and globe. Justitia seated left, holding patera and scepter. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and scepter Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and vexillum Liberalitas standing left, holding vexillum and cornucopia Liberalitas standing left, pouring out cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Libertas standing left, raising hand and holding pileus. Libertas standing right, holding pileus and raising hand. Luna (Diana) standing right, holding arrow and bow Marcus Aurelius bare head left Marcus Aurelius bare head right Marcus Aurelius bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust left Marcus Aurelius bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Marcus Aurelius bare headed, draped bust left Marcus Aurelius bare headed, draped bust right Marcus Aurelius laureate head right. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars hovering right on left, facing Rhea Sylvia lying left Mars standing left, holding Victory and spear. Mars standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Mars standing right, holding spear with shield Mauretania standing left, holding crown and spear. Mauretania standing left, holding crown and two spears. Minerva advancing right, aiming javelin and holding shield. Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield. Modius with grain ears Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Munificentia standing left, holding wreath and scepter; lion by feet. Ops seated left, holding scepter and pulling veil Ops seated left, resting hand on globe and cradling scepter. Parthia standing left, holding crown and quiver with arrows and bow. Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, setting fire to pile of weapons and holding torch. Phoenicia standing left, holding wreath and scepter; galley prow to left and palm tree to right. Pietas seated left, holding patera and scepter. Pietas standing left, holding baby in each arm; child on either side. Pietas standing left, holding globe and baby, child on either side. Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box Pietas standing right, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Pietas standing, facing, holding deer hind quarter and fruit basket over modius. Pig with piglets kneeling right under tree Providentia standing left, raising hand over globe and holding scepter. Roma seated left leaning on shield on galley prow, holding Victory and spear Roma seated left, holding Palladium and spear; shield to side. Roma seated left, holding spear; shield to side

113
175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) 218) 219) 220) 221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) 231) 232) 233) 234) 235) Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear; shield to side. Romulus advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar and holding rudder on globe Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding rudder on globe. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake Scythia standing left, holding crown and grain ears. Securitas seated left, holding patera. Securitas seated left, holding scepter Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand. Securitas seated right, resting head on hand and holding scepter Securitas standing left, leaning on column, holding scepter. Shields (2) with extensions top and bottom. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (3) Syria standing left, holding crown and cornucopia. Temple with (2) columns, Antoninus Pius standing within, holding scepter with eagle atop and branch Temple with (4) columns, Vesta standing within, holding branch and Palladium Temple with (8) columns, Augustus and Livia within Temple with ten columns Temple with ten columns, Roma seated within. Thracia standing left, holding crown and palm. Throne with winged thunderbolt Thunderbolt, winged Tiber lying left, holding reed. Tranquilitas standing left, holding rudder and grain ears. Tranquilitas standing right, holding rudder and grain ears. Venus standing left, holding apple and cornucopia. Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. Vesta standing left, holding simpulum and Palladium. Vesta standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding Palladium Victory advancing left, holding shield reading BRITAN Victory advancing left, holding shield reading SPQR Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding trophy Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory flying left, placing opened wreath on shield on column. Victory riding quadriga right. Victory seated left, holding patera and palm Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm Virtus standing left, holding spear and parazonium Virtus standing right, stepping on globe, holding spear and parazonium Wolf standing left, suckling Remus and Romulus Wolf standing right, suckling Remus and Romulus Wolf standing right, suckling Remus and Romulus; cave ceiling above Wolf standing right, suckling Remus and Romulus; tree in background. Wreath, AN F F OPTIMO PRINCIPI within. Wreath, PRIMI / DECEN / COS IIII within Wreath, PRIMI / DECEN / NALES / COS IIII within. Wreath, SECVND DECEM ANNALES COS IIII within. Wreath, SPQR / OPTIMO / PRINCIPI within Wreath, SPQR AMPLIATORI CIVIVM within Wreath, SPQR AN F F OPTIMO PRINCIPI within Wreath, TR POT / XIX / COS IIII within.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) B02, O15, R040, T002 B02, O17, R081, T060 B02, O35, R180, T042 B02, O35, R180, T160 Exe: PAX B02, O37, R192, T066 Exe: CONCORD B02, O39, R013, T166 B08, O10, R018, T141 B08, O10, R021, T137 B08, O10, R211, T223 B08, O11, R165, T151 B08, O19, R040, T042 B08, O21, R040, T042 B09, O08, R185, T213 B09, O10, R021, T137 B09, O10, R134, T181 B09, O11, R211, T034 Exe: LIB IIII B09, O15, R040, T002

Reference(s)
RIC III 177, C 237 RIC III 199a, C 477 RIC III 214 RIC III 216a RIC 453 (III, Hadrian), C 477 RIC III 14b RIC III 421c C 20 RIC III 105a, C 1172 RIC III 158, C 1147 RIC III 206, C 305 RIC III 233e, C 314 RIC III 266, C 1013 RIC III 141, C 495 RIC III 48, C 239

114
18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) B09, O19, R093, T129 B09, O20, R040, T042 B09, O25, R208, T043 Exe: COS IIII B14, O04, R165, T173 B14, O15, R151, T076 Exe: COS IIII B14, O21, R040, T042 RIC III 207 RIC III 226c, C 309 RIC III 294a RIC III 147d RIC III 185, C 812 RIC III 233a

AU Aureus (Posthumous)
24) B02, O31, R036, T102

Reference(s)
RIC 435 (III, M. Aurelius), C 163

AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
25) B16, O30, R036, T011 RIC 90 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 1189

AR Denarius
26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) B01, O41, R013, T002 B02, O04, R153, T215 B02, O04, R157, T152 B02, O04, R157, T159 B02, O04, R160, T226 B02, O10, R011, T049 B02, O10, R029, T063 B02, O10, R031, T073 B02, O37, R123, T096 B02, O37, R192, T068 B02, O37, R192, T135 B02, O37, R192, T151 B02, O39, R013, T090 B02, O39, R013, T159 B02, O39, R015, T099 B02, O39, R015, T159 B02, O39, R015, T215 B02, O39, R192, T090 B02, O41, R013, T096 B02, O41, R013, T002 B02, O41, R013, T151 B02, O41, R123, T090 B07, O08, R179, T179 B08, O15, R040, T098 B09, O04, R039, T159 B09, O04, R039, T222 B09, O04, R040, T002 B09, O04, R040, T067 B09, O04, R040, T088 B09, O04, R040, T108 B09, O04, R040, T202 B09, O04, R149, T198 B09, O04, R153, T108 B09, O04, R153, T152 B09, O04, R153, T159 B09, O04, R153, T178 B09, O04, R157, T098 B09, O04, R157, T108 B09, O04, R157, T132 B09, O04, R157, T152 B09, O04, R157, T178 B09, O04, R160, T226 B09, O04, R165, T127 LIB IIII across fields B09, O04, R165, T127 B09, O04, R165, T130 Exe: LIB IIII B09, O04, R165, T159 B09, O04, R165, T222 B09, O04, R204, T044 Exe: COS IIII B09, O04, R208, T043 Exe: COS IIII B09, O04, R208, T043 Exe: COS IIII B09, O06, R101, T153 B09, O06, R109, T159 B09, O08, R121, T014 B09, O08, R121, T025 B09, O08, R121, T059 B09, O08, R121, T179 B09, O08, R179, T014 B09, O08, R179, T016 B09, O08, R179, T017 B09, O08, R179, T101 B09, O08, R179, T159 B09, O08, R186, T020 B09, O08, R186, T026 B09, O10, R003, T002 B09, O10, R008, T152 B09, O10, R018, T137 B09, O10, R018, T140 B09, O10, R018, T141 B09, O10, R031, T068 RIC III 10d, C 78 RIC III 58b, C 875 RIC III 51, C 857a RIC III 95a, C 914 RIC III 63b(a), C 59 RIC III 64a, S 4061, C 123 RIC III 65a, C 135 RIC III 5a, C 668 RIC 447a (III, Hadrian), C 1058 RIC 448 (III, Hadrian), C 1057 RIC III 11a RIC III 23a, C 84 RIC III 34 RIC III 35 RIC III 25, C 86 RIC III 12a, C 79 RIC III 10a, S 4053, C 78 RIC III 9a, S 4052, C 67 RIC 446 (III, Hadrian) RIC III 254, S 4126, C 982 RIC III 117, C 187 RIC III 118, S 4064 RIC III 127a, S 4066 RIC III 129, S 4070, C 203 RIC III 130, C 258 RIC III 136, C 344 RIC III 137, S 4079, C 345 RIC III 143d, C 809 RIC III 43, C 833 RIC III 44, C 814 RIC III 42, C 831 RIC III 46, C 836 RIC III 49, C 836 RIC III 54b, C 873 RIC III 50, C 861 RIC III 58a, C 875 RIC III 56, C 876 RIC III 95c, C 915 RIC III 155, C 491 RIC III 150, C 940 RIC III 156, S 4089, C 490 RIC III 153 RIC III 154, S 4121, C 945 RIC III 291a C 1115 RIC III 283a RIC III 76b RIC III 78b RIC III 262, C 1021 RIC III 260, C 1016 RIC III 259, S 4127, C 1006 RIC III 264, C 1023 RIC III 250, C 985 RIC III 249, C 983 RIC III 251, C 987 RIC III 252, C 979 RIC III 274, S 4131, C 1038 RIC III 275, C 1039 RIC III 61a, S 4049, C 13 RIC III 62b, C 33 RIC III 63b(c), C 60 RIC III 417b, C 14 RIC III 66, C 136

115
95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) B09, O10, R064, T103 B09, O10, R065, T107 B09, O10, R072, T219 B09, O10, R112, T167 B09, O10, R127, T203 B09, O10, R202, T222 B09, O10, R202, T223 B09, O12, R150, T198 B09, O13, R040, T017 B09, O13, R040, T019 B09, O13, R040, T043 B09, O13, R040, T043 B09, O13, R040, T180 B09, O13, R211, T229 B09, O13, R211, T230 B09, O15, R040, T002 B09, O15, R040, T019 B09, O15, R040, T043 B09, O15, R040, T090 B09, O15, R040, T098 B09, O15, R040, T104 B09, O15, R040, T183 B09, O16, R040, T104 B09, O17, R040, T099 B09, O17, R040, T104 B09, O18, R040, T017 B09, O18, R040, T159 B09, O18, R040, T210 B09, O19, R040, T017 B09, O19, R040, T099 B09, O19, R040, T209 B09, O20, R040, T017 B09, O20, R040, T101 B09, O20, R040, T209 B09, O21, R040, T017 B09, O21, R040, T100 B09, O21, R040, T209 B09, O21, R040, T210 B09, O21, R093, T041 B09, O21, R093, T131 B09, O22, R040, T017 B09, O22, R040, T017 B09, O22, R040, T209 B09, O22, R040, T210 B09, O22, R113, T164 B09, O22, R139, T184 B09, O25, R001, T198 Exe: COS IIII B09, O25, R040, T196 B09, O25, R063, T098 Exe: COS IIII B09, O25, R139, T184 B09, O25, R149, T198 Exe: COS IIII B09, O25, R149, T198 Exe: COS IIII B09, O25, R150, T198 Exe: COS IIII B09, O25, R205, T044 Exe: COS IIII B09, O25, R207, T043 Exe: COS IIII B09, O26, R051, T093 B09, O26, R056, T092 B09, O26, R061, T101 B09, O26, R107, T160 B09, O26, R131, T175 B09, O26, R136, T184 B09, O35, R172, T160 Exe: PAX B09, O35, R172, T206 Exe: TRANQ B09, O35, R180, T017 B09, O35, R180, T160 Exe: PAX B09, O35, R180, T169 B09, O35, R180, T206 B09, O39, R014, T108 B09, O41, R013, T096 RIC III 69a, S 4084, C 398 RIC III 70d, C 407 RIC III 111a RIC III 79, C 619 RIC III 80a, C 681 RIC III 102c RIC III 105c, C 1176b RIC III 163, C 286 RIC III 162, S 4067, C 283 RIC III 164, C 217 RIC III 168d, C 301 RIC III 167, C 280 RIC III 171a, C 670 RIC III 172, C 673 RIC III 177a, C 238 RIC III 175, C 284 RIC III 183, C 304 RIC III 178, S 4071, C 252 RIC III 179, C 263 RIC III 180, C 218 RIC III 181, S 4075 RIC III 189, C 219 RIC III 194, C 265 RIC III 196, C 220 RIC III 244a, C 293 RIC III 246, C 256 RIC III 243, C 202 RIC III 204, C 288 RIC III 205, C 267 RIC III 203, C 196 RIC III 221, C 290 RIC III 222, S 4073 RIC III 219, S 4065, C 197 RIC III 231, C 291 RIC III 232, C 291 RIC III 229a, C 198 RIC III 229b, C 200 RIC III 237, C 518 RIC III 234 RIC III 239, C 292 RIC III 240, C 272 RIC III 238, C 201 RIC III 313c, S 4098 RIC III 305, C 741 RIC III 284, C 2 RIC III 285, S 4077, C 331 RIC III 286, S 4083, C 390 RIC III 288, C 740 RIC III 272a, C 802 RIC III 290a, S 4107, C 804 C 799 RIC III 292a, S 4139, C 111 RIC III 293a, s 4140 RIC III 298, S 4080, C 360 RIC III 299, C 374 RIC III 300a, C 383 RIC III 301, C 573 RIC III 303, S 4104, C 696 RIC III 304, C 735 RIC III 200c, S 4095, C 582 RIC III 202 RIC III 210, S 4123 RIC III 216a, C 585 RIC III 217, S 4097, C 617 RIC III 218, C 826 RIC III 26, C 91 RIC III 12c, S 4055, C 80

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
164) 165) 166) 167) B02, O31, R036, T082 B02, O31, R036, T083 B02, O31, R036, T102 B02, O31, R050, T037

Reference(s)
RIC 429 (III, M. Aurelius), C 247 RIC 430 (III, M. Aurelius), C 155 RIC 436 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5193 RIC 442 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5194

AE Medallion
168) B09, O14, R211, T048

AE Sestertius
169) B02, O45, R193, T167 PIE TAS and S C across fields 170) B07, O09, R069, T113 171) B07, O10, R046, T183 RIC 1093 (III, Hadrian), C 610

116
172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) 218) 219) 220) 221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) 231) 232) 233) 234) 235) 236) 237) 238) 239) B08, O21, R076, T115 Exe: SC B09, O04, R154, T118 B09, O04, R156, T225 Exe: SC B09, O04, R157, T090 B09, O04, R157, T096 B09, O04, R160, T225 Exe: SC B09, O04, R160, T226 Exe: SC B09, O04, R204, T044 Exe: COS IIII B09, O04, R208, T043 Exe: COS IIII B09, O06, R018, T141 Exe: SC B09, O07, R052, T091 B09, O08, R179, T097 B09, O08, R185, T026 B09, O08, R185, T188 Exe: SC B09, O09, R040, T035 Exe: LIBERALITAS / AVG IIII B09, O09, R040, T040 B09, O09, R040, T161 PAX AVG and S C across fields B09, O09, R040, T172 Exe: SC B09, O09, R069, T113 B09, O09, R211, T032 Exe: COS IIII / SC B09, O10, R008, T024 B09, O10, R011, T049 B09, O10, R033, T071 B09, O10, R034, T046 B09, O10, R064, T103 B09, O10, R072, T053 Exe: BRITANNIA B09, O10, R072, T096 B09, O10, R072, T214 B09, O10, R072, T220 BRI TAN and S C across fields B09, O10, R078, T122 B09, O10, R098, T146 B09, O10, R101, T153 B09, O10, R105, T155 Exe: SC B09, O10, R109, T159 B09, O10, R128, T039 Exe: SC B09, O10, R132, T199 B09, O10, R132, T200 Exe: SC B09, O10, R133, T170 Exe: SC B09, O10, R134, T184 B09, O10, R141, T191 B09, O10, R198, T199 Exe: SC B09, O10, R211, T116 Exe: IATALIA B09, O10, R211, T170 Exe: SC B09, O10, R211, T193 B09, O10, R211, T217 Exe: VICTORIA AVG / SC B09, O11, R087, T034 Exe: SC B09, O11, R211, T143 B09, O11, R211, T151 B09, O11, R211, T175 Exe: SC B09, O13, R008, T019 Exe: COS IIII B09, O15, R040, T002 B09, O15, R151, T076 Exe: COS IIII B09, O19, R040, T101 B09, O19, R139, T184 B09, O20, R136, T184 B09, O22, R095, T132 B09, O22, R095, T134 B09, O25, R040, T196 Exe: SC B09, O25, R149, T198 Exe: COS IIII B09, O25, R204, T043 Exe: COS IIII B09, O25, R208, T043 Exe: COS IIII B09, O26, R113, T165 B09, O27, R113, T164 B09, O27, R113, T167 PIE TAS and S C across fields B09, O35, R118, T096 B09, O35, R172, T038 Exe: SC B09, O35, R172, T174 B12, O10, R134, T184 RIC III 914 anecdotal RIC III 788 RIC III 545a RIC III 546, S 4238, C 846 RIC III 648, C 917 RIC III 650 RIC III 792, C 1107 RIC III 794 RIC III 1212, C 34 RIC III 770, C 363 RIC III 943a, C 988 RIC III 964, C 1017 RIC III 967, C 1008 RIC III 774, C 498 RIC III 765, C 318 RIC III 777, C 594 RIC III 759, C 225 RIC III 772, C 414 RIC III 767a, C 320 RIC III 597 RIC III 598, C 62 RIC III 600, C 139 RIC III 601, C 146 RIC III 605, S 4177, C 400 RIC III 745, C 119 RIC III 716, C 426 RIC III 717a, C 433 RIC III 719, C 114 RIC III 607, C 460 RIC III 609, C 550 RIC III 610, C 556 RIC III 612 RIC III 616, S 4200, C 589 RIC III 619, C 686 RIC III 622, C 699 RIC III 623, C 703 RIC III 629, C 775 RIC III 635a, C 710 RIC III 640 RIC III 651, C 1075 RIC III 746, C 464 RIC III 628 RIC III 626, C 754 RIC III 654 RIC III 775, C 511 RIC III 778, C 751 RIC III 779, C 745 RIC III 780, C 753 RIC III 840, C 39 RIC III 855, C 232 RIC III 857, C 813 RIC III 885, C 268 RIC III 886, C 728 RIC III 906, C 732 RIC III 929, C 543 RIC III 916a, C 535 RIC III 999, C 332 RIC III 1004, C 805 RIC III 1026, C 1105 RIC III 1010 RIC III 1031, C 621 RIC III 1045, C 628 RIC 1083a (III, Hadrian), C 604 RIC III 530b, C 653 RIC III 889 RIC III 874, C 690 RIC III 635b, C 712

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
240) B02, O31, R036, T102 241) B09, O31, R036, T081

Reference(s)
RIC 1266 (III, M. Aurelius), C 165 RIC 1265 (III, M. Aurelius), C 162

AE Dupondius
242) 243) 244) 245) 246) 247) 248) 249) 250) 251) 252) B16, O08, R179, T014 Exe: SC B16, O08, R179, T120 B16, O08, R179, T171 B16, O08, R179, T171 B16, O09, R037, T183 B16, O09, R069, T113 B16, O10, R008, T024 B16, O10, R052, T089 B16, O10, R052, T091 B16, O10, R064, T103 B16, O10, R072, T214 RIC III 956, C 986 RIC III 953, C 978 RIC III 551 RIC III 802, C 415 RIC III 656, S 4264, C 36 RIC III 658 RIC III 659 RIC III 660a, C 403

117
253) 254) 255) 256) 257) 258) 259) 260) 261) B16, O10, R134, T184 B16, O11, R211, T143 B16, O15, R040, T002 B16, O18, R095, T132 B16, O20, R136, T184 B16, O22, R095, T134 B16, O22, R179, T208 B16, O26, R113, T165 B16, O35, R172, T012 Exe: ANNONA RIC III 668, S 4283, C 714 RIC III 807, C 752 RIC III 858, C 233 RIC III 950, C 545 RIC III 909a, C 733 RIC III 932, C 541 RIC III 1035, C 625 RIC III 898, C 51

AE As
262) 263) 264) 265) 266) 267) 268) 269) 270) 271) 272) 273) 274) 275) 276) 277) 278) 279) 280) 281) 282) 283) 284) 285) 286) 287) 288) 289) 290) 291) 292) B02, O45, R192, T108 Exe: SC B08, O04, R160, T190 Exe: SC B09, O04, R058, T098 B09, O04, R058, T098 B09, O04, R157, T096 B09, O04, R157, T150 B09, O04, R157. T090 B09, O04, R160, T099 B09, O04, R160, T144 B09, O06, R072, T170 B09, O08, R179, T014 Exe: SC B09, O08, R179, T097 B09, O08, R179, T159 B09, O08, R179, T171 B09, O08, R211, T235 B09, O09, R040, T098 B09, O10, R023, T106 B09, O10, R033, T071 B09, O10, R072, T132 Exe: LIBERT B09, O10, R072, T192 Exe: ANCILIA B09, O11, R211, T049 B09, O11, R211, T232 Exe: SC B09, O13, R008, T019 Exe: COS IIII B09, O15, R040, T196 Exe: SC B09, O18, R040, T159 B09, O21, R009, T024 B09, O22, R027, T055 Exe: SC B09, O22, R052, T089 B09, O22, R052, T090 B09, O35, R172, T126 Exe: IVSTITIA B12, O04, R160, T144

Reference(s)
RIC III 1088a, S 4322, C 1066 RIC III 533b, C 650 RIC III 558 RIC III 546, C 846 RIC III 563, C 842 RIC III 565, C 854 RIC III 700a RIC III 694, C 885 RIC III 733, C 450 RIC III 956, C 986 RIC III 943a, C 988 RIC III 945, C 980 RIC III 957, C 977 RIC III 958, C 999 Exe: SC RIC III 760 RIC III 676, C 106 RIC III 678, C 140 RIC III 738, C 533 RIC III 736a, C 30 RIC III 824, C 748 RIC III 827a, C 791 RIC III 840 RIC III 955, C 257 RIC III 921, C 45 RIC III 934, C 117 RIC III 937 RIC III 936, C 372 RIC III 881, C 474 RIC III 694c, S 4315, C 885

AE As (Posthumous)
293) B02, O31, R036, T084 RIC 1262 (III, M. Aurelius)

AE Quadrans
294) B09, O04, R040, T057 295) Ba, O36, R040, T202 RIC III 711, C 181

Antoninus Pius Busts

118
Antoninus Pius Types

119
Antoninus Pius Types (continued)

120
Antoninus Pius Types (continued)

121

Faustina I
b. ca.100 - d.141
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Diademed, draped bust left Diademed, draped bust right Draped bust right Veiled bust left Veiled bust right Veiled, diademed bust left Veiled, diademed bust right

Wife of Antoninus Pius. Her death was deeply mourned by Antoninus despite widely circulating rumors of her being unfaithful to him. Her daughter Faustina II, another woman of questionable repute, married Marcus Aurelius who would also eventually go on to grieve the loss of his wife.

Among the most common of empresses to be found are the “Faustinas”. This mother-daughter duo were both honored while living and quite a while posthumously. In fact, in the case of Faustina senior the bulk of her coinage happens after her death. Marginal coins of Faustina start at under $10 and a nice Denarius can be bought for around $30 or so. There is much to be seen in the bronzes, especially lower grade Asses which also typically cost only a few dollars but with bronzes as the coin’s grade increases the price does so exponentially.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) DIVA AVG FAVSTINA DIVA AVGVSTA FAVSTINA DIVA FAVSTINA DIVAE FAVSTINAE DIVA I FAVSTINA FAVSTINA AVG ANTONINI AVG FAVSTINA AVG ANTONINI AVG PP FAVSTINA AVG ANTONINI AVG PII PP FAVSTINA AVGVSTA

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) AED DIV FAVSTINAE AETERNITAS AVGVSTA CERES CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIAE CONSECRATIO COS IIII DEDICATIO AEDIS DIVA FAVSTINA EX SENATVS CONSVLTO 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) FAVSTINIANAE IMP II IMPERATOR II IVNO IVNONI LVCINAE IVNONI REGINAE MATRI DEVM SALVTARI PIET AVG PIETAS AVG PM TR P VI IMP IIII PROV DEOR TR P COS II 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) PVELLAE FAVSTINIANAE SALVTI AVG SALVTI AVGVSTAE TR P VI IMP IIII COS II PAX TR POT COS II VENERI AVGVSTAE VENVS VESTA VOTA PVBLICA No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Aeternitas advancing left, holding starry mantle overhead Aeternitas seated left on globe, raising hand and holding scepter. Aeternitas seated left, holding Phoenix on globe and scepter Aeternitas standing left, holding Phoenix and raising skirt Aeternitas standing right, pulling veil and holding scepter Altar Carpentum pulled by two mules right Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch. Ceres standing left, holding torch and grain ears Ceres standing right, holding scepter and grain ears. Concordia seated left, holding patera and resting arm on cornucopia Concordia seated left, holding patera and resting arm on Spes Concordia seated left, holding Spes and scepter. Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Concordia standing left, leaning on column, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia standing left, leaning on column, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing right, holding scepter and cornucopia Cornucopiae (2), crossed, caduceus in between Crescent, seven stars above. Cybele riding lion left, holding drum Cybele seated left, holding drum and branch Cybele seated right, holding drum; lion on either side. Cybele, holding drum, riding carriage led by two lions left Dove standing right Eagle standing right Faustina I and Antoninus Pius riding quadriga left Faustina I and Antoninus Pius standing on pedestal, together holding Fortuna; Marcus Aurelius and Faustina II beneath, shaking hands over altar. Faustina I and her family in diagram of a two storey house; adults in upper floor and children in lower. Faustina I draped bust right Faustina I riding biga left. Faustina I riding quadriga right, holding torch. Faustina I standing by Antoninus Pius, seated left, both on platform, receiving their children from assistants.

122
35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) Faustina I standing left on right, holding scepter, shaking hands with Antoninus Pius to left, holding scroll. Faustina I, holding grain ears and torch, riding carriage with two elephants left Faustina I, holding scepter, riding carriage with two elephants left Faustina I, holding scepter, riding carriage with two elephants right Faustina I, holding scepter, riding eagle left, upwards. Faustina I, holding scepter, riding eagle right, upwards. Faustina I, holding torch and grain ears, riding carriage with two elephants left Faustina I, holding torch and grain ears, riding carriage with two elephants right Faustina I, holding torch, riding carriage with two elephants right Fecunditas standing right, holding scepter and baby. Fortuna standing left, holding globe and rudder Fortuna standing left, holding patera and rudder Fortuna standing left, holding patera and rudder on globe Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Funeral pyre, Faustina I riding biga right atop. Isis riding oncoming dog, holding sistrum Juno seated right, holding scepter. Juno standing left raising hand and skirt. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left. Juno standing left, holding torch and raising skirt Juno standing left, holding torch and scepter Juno standing left, holding torch in each hand Juno standing left, raising hand and holding torch Juno standing right, holding scepter Juno standing right, raising hand and holding scepter. Juno standing, facing, raising hand and holding scepter Marcus Aurelius and Faustina II standing, shaking hands; Concordia between them in background. Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax standing, facing, holding branch and scepter Peacock advancing left Peacock advancing right Peacock standing, facing, with tail spread. Pietas standing left, raising hand and holding incense box Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar and holding incense box Pietas standing left, raising hands over altar Providentia standing left, holding globe and veil over head Providentia standing left, holding globe and cornucopia Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, raising hand and holding globe Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter Salus standing left, holding snake and leaning on tree Star Temple with (6) columns. Temple with (6) columns; Faustina I seated within Throne; peacock in front, standing left Throne with scepter. Throne with scepter; peacock in front, facing. Throne with scepter; peacock in front, standing right. Throne with wreath and scepter. Throne with wreath and scepter; peacock to left, fruit basket to right. Venus standing left, holding apple and resting hand on shield. Venus standing left, holding arrow and bow Venus standing right, pulling dress and holding apple. Venus standing right, pulling veil and holding apple. Venus standing, facing, pulling veil and holding scepter. Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter Vesta seated left, holding patera and scepter Vesta seated left, holding scepter Vesta standing left, holding Palladium and scepter Vesta standing left, holding Palladium and torch. Vesta standing left, holding simpulum and Palladium Vesta standing left, holding torch and Palladium Vesta standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding Palladium. Vesta standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding torch. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) B2, O9, R17, T054

Reference(s)
RIC 338 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 214

AU Aureus (Posthumous)
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) B2, O1, R02, T047 B2, O1, R32, T061 B2, O2, R20, T069 B2, O3, R02, T080 B2, O3, R03, T056 B6, O3, R03, T057 RIC 349a (III, Antoninus Pius), BMC 285 RIC 404c (III, Antoninus Pius) RIC 394c (III, Antoninus Pius), C 232 RIC 354 (III, Antoninus Pius), BMC 83, C 64 RIC 356 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 97 RIC 375a (III, Antoninus Pius), BMC 406, C 76

123
AR Denarius
8) 9) 10) 11) 12) B2, O7, R05, T013 B2, O9, R17, T054 B2, O9, R17, T083 B2, O9, R30, T092 B9, O9, R17, T081

Reference(s)
RIC 328a (III, Antoninus Pius), C 148 RIC 338d (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4669, C 215 RIC 339a (III, Antoninus Pius), C 214 RIC 342a (III, Antoninus Pius) Tom Mullally collection

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) B2, O1, R02, T073 B2, O1, R02, T078 B2, O1, R02, T091 B2, O1, R06, T035 B2, O1, R07, T058 B2, O1, R09, T079 B2, O1, R20, T069 B2, O1, R32, T012 B2, O3, R01, T080 B2, O3, R02, T005 B2, O3, R02, T046 B2, O3, R02, T061 B2, O3, R02, T071 B2, O3, R02, T084 B2, O3, R03, T010 B2, O3, R03, T012 B2, O3, R03, T051 B2, O3, R03, T055 B2, O3, R03, T056 B2, O3, R03, T059 B2, O3, R03, T069 B2, O3, R03, T082 B2, O3, R03, T087 B2, O3, R03, T092 B2, O3, R03, T093 B2, O3, R03, T095 B2, O3, R03, T097 B2, O3, R03, T099 B2, O3, R04, T009 B2, O3, R04, T010 B2, O3, R07, T058 B2, O3, R07, T066 B2, O3, R15, T053 B2, O3, R23, T034 B2, O5, R13, T020 B3, O3, R07, T007 B3, O3, R04, T010 B7, O1, R04, T027 B7, O1, R20, T069 B7, O3, R02, T061 B7, O3, R02, T084 RIC 350a (III, Antoninus Pius), C 35 RIC 355 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 63 RIC 346b (III, Antoninus Pius), C 41 RIC 381b (III, Antoninus Pius), C 159 RIC 382a (III, Antoninus Pius), C 32 RIC 388 (III, Antoninus Pius) RIC 394 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4598, C 234 RIC 404b (III, Antoninus Pius) RIC 343 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4573, C 1 RIC 347 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4576, C 11 RIC 348 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4577, C 6 RIC 344 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4574, C 26 RIC 351 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4578, C 32 RIC 353a (III, Antoninus Pius), C 61 RIC 360a (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4582 RIC 358 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4581, C 94 RIC 363 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 128 RIC 362 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4584, C 104 RIC 356 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 96 RIC 361 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 101 RIC 373 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4589, C 124 RIC 377 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4590, C 131 RIC 366 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 73 RIC 400 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4601, C 291 RIC 371 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4588, C 72 RIC 369a (III, Antoninus Pius), C 109 RIC 368 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 108 RIC 370 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 116 RIC 379a (III, Antoninus Pius), C 144 RIC 378a (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4591 RIC 382b (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4593, C 165 RIC 384a (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4584, C 175 RIC 391 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4597, C 209 RIC 399 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 262 RIC 359 (III, Antoninus Pius) RIC 387 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 181 RIC 345 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 27 RIC 353b (III, Antoninus Pius), C 61

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) B2, O1, R03, T010 B2, O2, R07, T049 B2, O2, R15, T053 B2, O2, R20, T069 B2, O2, R20, T079 B2, O2, R32, T008 B2, O2, R32, T041 B2, O3, R02, T004 B2, O3, R02, T005 B2, O3, R02, T041 B2, O3, R02, T061 B2, O3, R03, T011 B7, O2, R02, T073 RIC 1169 (III, Antoninus Pius) RIC 1135 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 186 RIC 1143 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 210 RIC 1146a (III, Antoninus Pius), C 240 RIC 1147 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 254 RIC 1141 (III, Antoninus Pius) RIC 1140 (III, Antoninus Pius) RIC 1103 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 15 RIC 1105 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 12 RIC 1113 (III, Antoninus Pius) RIC 1102 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 28 RIC 1118 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 88 RIC 1108 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 37

AE Dupondius (Posthumous)
67) B2, O2, R20, T069 C 241

AE As
68) 69) 70) 71) 72) B2, O8, R05, T013 B2, O8, R05, T014 B2, O8, R05, T018 B2, O8, R17, T083 B2, O8, R28, T089 RIC 1087 (III, Antoninus Pius) RIC 1086 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 149 RIC 1088 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 152 RIC 1092 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 226 RIC 1097 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4685, C 152

AE As (Posthumous)

124
73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) B2, O1, R02, T004 B2, O1, R02, T069 B2, O2, R02, T073 B2, O2, R19, T007 Exe: SC B2, O2, R20, T070 B2, O2, R20, T079 Exe: SC B2, O3, R02, T004 B2, O3, R02, T073 B2, O3, R03, T096 B2, O3, R03, T099 B2, O3, R03, T100 B7, O2, R32, T021 Exe: SC C 343 RIC 1163a (III, Antoninus Pius), C 38 RIC 1191 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4654, C 258 RIC 1194 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 252 RIC 1195 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 255 RIC 1156a (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4637, C 18 RIC 1163b (III, Antoninus Pius) RIC 1178 (III, Antoninus Pius) RIC 1126 (III, Antoninus Pius), S 4619, C 117 RIC 1180 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 118 RIC 1199 (III, Antoninus Pius), C 276

Faustina I Busts

Faustina I Types

125
Faustina I Types (continued)

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Marcus Aurelius owes much of him becoming Augustus to Hadrian who groomed him from childhood for the post. He became Caesar shortly after Hadrian died and the political grooming continued under Antoninus Pius. He had to wait another twenty years or so to become Augustus himself in the Augustus 161-180 year 161. No sooner did this happen than he was thrust in a series of wars that would eat up the rest of his time in office. He died while fighting the ever-harassing tribes of the Germanic region and power then passed to his son Commodus.

Marcus Aurelius

During his lengthy reign he is remembered as being among the noblest and most even-keeled of emperors. He preferred to use the considerable power of his post to pursue a period of enlightenment out of character not only for his age but clear across time to our very own. Gibbon summarizes that he "was severe to himself, indulgent to the imperfections of others, just and beneficent to all mankind." Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) a) b) Bare bust right Bare head left Bare head right Bare headed, cuirassed bust left Bare headed, cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust left Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped bust left Bare headed, draped bust right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust left Laureate, draped bust right Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Eagle, standard on either side; LEG VI across lower fields Woman’s laureate, draped bust right

From awesome, big Sestertii to pristine Denarii to gorgeous Aureii Marcus Aurelius continues to offer us the finest of Roman classical art on coins. While low grade material is ubiquitous and cheap the collector can’t help but notice the often very affordable coins that have passed down through the ages with nary a scratch. Having enjoyed a long reign starting with his Caesarship soon after Antoninus Pius came to power we are left with delicate renderings of his portraits as he passed from childhood into adolescence and then into the grave, bearded maturity of the wise philosopher-king. And because of the continued golden age of the empire we are assured of a good supply of these coins today. As a general pointer, superbly preserved Denarii can be bought in the $100 region on Ebay or somewhat more directly from a coin dealer. While museum-grade bronze pieces will undoubtedly cost an arm and a leg many will find comfort in knowing they can own a downright handsome Sestertius, Dupondius or As for just a few hundred dollars that may well become the highlight of their collection.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) ANTONINVS AVG ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS ANTONINVS ET VERVS AVG REST ANTONIVS AVGVR III VIR R P C AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG P II F AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG P II FIL AVRELIVS CAES AVG P II FIL AVRELIVS CAESAR ANTONINI AVG P II F AVRELIVS CAESAR ANTONINI AVG P II FIL AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG P II F AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG P II F COS AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG P II F COS II AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG P II FIL CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG COS III DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM IMP M ANTONINVS AVG IMP M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXV IMP M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG IMP M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM M ANTONINVS AVG M ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX M ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX MEDIC M ANTONINVS AVG ARMEN PM M ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS M ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS PM M ANTONINVS AVG GERM M ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARM M ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARM TR P XXXI M ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARMATICVS M ANTONINVS AVG GERM TR P XXIX M ANTONINVS AVG GERM TR P XXX M ANTONINVS AVG GERM TR P XXX PP M ANTONINVS AVG IMP II M ANTONINVS AVG PM

127
38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XX M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIII M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIIII M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIX M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXV M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVI M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVIII M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXXI M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS PM M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARM M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXXII M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXXIII M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXXIIII M AVREL CAESAR AVG F II FIL M AVRELIVS CAESAR ANTONINI AVG P II FIL M AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG P II F M AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG P II F COS M AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG P II FIL No legend

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) ANNONA AVG IMP VII COS III ANTONIVS AVGVR CLEMENTIA AVG IMP VI COS III CLEMENTIA AVG TR P XXX IMP VIII COS III COMMODVS CAES AVG FIL GERM CONCORD AVG TR P XV CONCORD AVG TR P XVI CONCORD AVG TR P XVII CONCORD AVG TR P XVIII CONCORD AVGVSTOR TR P XV CONCORD AVGVSTOR TR P XVI CONCORD EXERC IMP VII CONCORDIA CONCORDIA COS II CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM COS III CONCORDIA TR POT III CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR TR P XV COS III CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR TR P XVI COS III CONG AVG III TR P XX IMP III COS III CONG AVG III TR POT XX IMP III COS III CONG AVG IIII TR P XXI IMP IIII COS III CONSECRATIO COS DES II COS II COS III COS III PP DES II DIVVS VERVS FAVSTINAE AVG P II AVG F COMMOD CAES FIL AVG FEL TEMP TR P XV COS III FELIC AVG IMP VI COS III FELICITAS AVG COS III FELICITAS AVG IMP VI COS III FELICITAS AVG IMP VIIII COS III PP FELICITAS AVG IMP X COS III PP FELICITATI CAES FIDES EXERCITVVM FIDES EXERCITVVM IMP VIIII COS III PP FORT DVCI TR P XXX IMP VIII COS III FORT RED COS III FORT RED TR P XXI IMP V FORT RED TR P XXIII IMP V GERMANIA SVBACTA IMP VI COS III GERMANICO AVG IMP VI COS III HILARITAS HONOS IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG IMP VI COS III IMP VII COS III IMP VIII COS III IMP VIII COS III CLEMENTIA AVG IMP VIII COS III DE GERMANIS IMP VIII COS III PAX AETERNA AVG IMP VIII COS III PP PAX AETERNA AVG IMP VIIII COS III PP IMP X COS III PP IMPERATOR II IVSTITIA AVG TR P XXXIII IMP X COS III PP IVVENTAS L AVREL COMMODVS CAES AVG FIL GERM LIB AVG III TR P XX COS III LIB AVGVSTOR TR P XV 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) LIB AVGVSTOR TR P XV COS III LIB AVGVSTOR TR POT XX IMP III COS III LIBERAL AVG TR P XIX IMP II COS III LIBERAL AVG V COS III LIBERAL AVG VI IMP VII COS III LIBERAL AVGVSTOR IMP VIII COS III LIBERALITAS AVG VI IMP VII COS III LIBERALITAS AVG VII IMP VII COS III LIBERALITAS AVG VII IMP VIIII COS III PP M ANTONINVS AVG M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVIII MARTI VICTORI IMP VI COS III MARTI VICTORI IMP VII COS III PAX AVG TR P XX COS III PIET AVG TR P XXXI IMP VIII COS III PP PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVG IMP VIII COS III PIETAS AVG IMP VIIII COS III PP PIETAS AVG TR P XX COS III PM TR P XIX IMP II COS III PM TR P XIX IMP III COS III PM TR P XVIII COS III PM TR P XVIII IMP II COS III PM TR P XX IMP III COS III PROPVGNATORI IMP VIIII COS III PROV DEOR TR P COS II PROV DEOR TR P XV COS III PROV DEOR TR P XVI COS III PROV DEOR TR P XVII COS III PROV DEOR TR P XVIII COS III RELIG AVG IMP VI COS III RESTITVTORI ITALIAE IMP VI COS III SALVTI AVG COS III SALVTI AVGVSTAE SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XV SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVI SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVIII SECVRIT PVB TR P XXIX SECVRIT PVB TR P XXX SECVRITAS PVBLICA IMP VI COS III TR P XIX IMP II COS III TR P XV COS II VIRTVS TR P XV COS III TR P XVII IMP II COS III TR P XVIII COS III TR P XVIII IMP II COS III TR P XX IMP III COS III TR P XX IMP IIII COS III TR P XXI COS IIII TR P XXI IMP IIII COS III TR P XXII IMP IIII COS III TR P XXII IMP V COS III TR P XXIII IMP V COS III TR P XXIIII COS III TR P XXIX IMP VIII COS III TR P XXVI COS III TR P XXVII IMP VI COS III TR P XXX IMP VIII COS III TR P XXX IMP VIII COS III PP TR P XXXI IMP VIII COS III PP 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) TR P XXXII IMP VIIII COS III PP TR P XXXIII IMP VIIII COS III PP TR P XXXIII IMP X COS III PP TR P XXXIII IMP X COS III PP TR P XXXIIII IMP X COS III TR P XXXIIII IMP X COS III PP TR POT COS II TR POT COS III TR POT II COS II TR POT III COS II TR POT III COS II CLE TR POT III COS II CLEM TR POT III COS II HONOS TR POT III COS II IVVENTAS TR POT III COS II PIETAS TR POT III COS II VIRTVS TR POT IIII COS II TR POT IIII COS II HONOS TR POT IIII COS II VIRTVS TR POT VI COS II TR POT VI COS II HONOS TR POT VI COS II VIRTVS TR POT VII COS II TR POT VIII COS II TR POT VIIII COS II TR POT X COS II TR POT XI COS II TR POT XII COS II TR POT XIII COS II TR POT XIIII COS II TR POT XIIII COS II DESIG III TR POT XIX IMP II COS III TR POT XIX IMP III COS III TR POT XV COS II DESIG III TR POT XV COS II VIRTVS TR POT XV COS III TR POT XX IMP II COS III TR POT XX IMP III COS III TR POT XX IMP IIII COS III TR POT XXI IMP IIII COS III TR POT XXII IMP IIII COS III TR POT XXII IMP V COS III TR POT XXIII IMP V COS III VENERI GENETRICI VICT AVG COS III VICT AVG COS III PP VICT AVG TR P XVIII IMP II COS III VICT AVG TR P XX COS III VICT AVG TR P XX IMP IIII COS III VICT AVG TR POT XX IMP III COS III VICT AVG TR POT XX IMP IIII COS III VIRTVS AVG IMP X COS III PP VIRTVS COS II VOTA DEC ANN SVSC TR P XX IMP IIII COS III VOTA PVBLICA VOTA PVBLICA IMP VIIII COS III VOTA PVBLICA IMP VIIII COS III PP VOTA SOL DECENN COS III VOTA SOLVTA DECENNALIVM COS III VOTA SVSCEP DECENN II No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) Aequitas seated left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aequitas standing left, holding scale and scepter. Aesculapius standing left, holding staff with snake coiled around it. Altar, eagle atop

128
5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) Altar, FORT REDVCI within Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia; galley prow to right Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Annona standing left, pouring cornucopia into modius. Annona standing right, holding grain ears and fruit basket. Apollo standing left, holding patera and lyre. Armenia seated left, resting head on hand; trophy to right. Armenia seated left, shield and vexillum behind in background. Captive seated left, trophy in background. Captive seated right, trophy in background. Captive seated right, trophy, spear and shield in background. Captives (2), seated back to back on shields, trophy in between. Clementia standing left holding patera Clementia standing left, holding patera and raising skirt. Clementia standing left, holding patera and scepter Clementia standing left, holding patera in each hand Commodus bare-headed, cuirassed bust right. Commodus bare-headed, draped bust right. Commodus head right. Concordia seated left, holding patera and resting arm on Spes on cornucopia Concordia standing left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand. Diana standing left, holding arrow and bow. Eagle flying right, scepter in claws Eagle standing left on altar Eagle standing left on globe Eagle standing left, wreath in beak Eagle standing right Eagle standing right on altar Eagle standing right on globe Eagle standing right on thunderbolt Eagle standing right, wreath in beak Faustina II head right facing Commodus head left. Felicitas seated right, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia; globe to lower left. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and standard Felicitas standing left, holding patera and caduceus. Felicitas standing left, leaning on column, holding caduceus and scepter. Fides standing left, holding globe and standard Fides standing left, holding spear; two standards on either side Fides standing left, holding Victory and standard. Fides standing right, holding grain ears and fruit basket. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, raising skirt and holding rudder. Fortuna standing right, holding rudder and raising skirt. Funeral pyre Galley sailing left Galley sailing right Genius standing left, holding patera and grain ears. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears Genius standing right, holding scepter and cornucopia. Germania seated left; trophy in background. Germania seated left; trophy with weapons in background. Germania seated right; trophy in background. Germania seated right; trophy with weapons in background. Hands, in handshake, holding caduceus. Hands, in handshake, holding grain ears Hands, in handshake, holding legionary eagle. Hands, in handshake, holding standard. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia. Honos standing left, holding branch and cornucopia Honos standing, facing, holding scepter and cornucopia Jupiter head right Jupiter seated left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Jupiter standing right, aiming thunderbolt at enemy lying to right. Justitia seated left, holding patera and scepter. Juventas standing left, holding branch and scepter. Juventas standing left, sacrificing over candelabrum and holding patera. Juventas standing left, holding branch; trophy to right with shield at base Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter. Lucius Verus bare head right. Marcus Aurelius advancing left over bridge followed by 2 soldiers; three boats under bridge. Marcus Aurelius advancing left over bridge followed by 5 soldiers; three boats under bridge. Marcus Aurelius advancing left over bridge followed by 6 soldiers; three boats under bridge. Marcus Aurelius and Commodus riding quadriga right. Marcus Aurelius and Commodus seated left on platform, attended by lictor and officer giving donative to citizen on steps to lower left. Marcus Aurelius and Commodus seated left on platform; Liberalitas to left, holding coin counter and scepter, citizen on steps to lower left. Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus riding quadriga left. Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus seated left on platform, attended by lictor and officer giving donative to citizen on steps to lower left. Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus seated left on platform; Liberalitas to left, holding coin counter and scepter, citizen on steps to lower left. Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus standing, facing each other, shaking hands. Marcus Aurelius bare head right.

129
94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) Marcus Aurelius laureate head right Marcus Aurelius riding eagle right, holding scepter. Marcus Aurelius riding elephant quadriga right Marcus Aurelius riding horse right, holding spear, soldier to right and 2 soldiers to left Marcus Aurelius riding horse right, holding spear, soldier to right and 3 soldiers to left Marcus Aurelius riding horse right, raising hand and holding parazonium. Marcus Aurelius riding quadriga left, holding scepter with eagle atop. Marcus Aurelius riding quadriga right. Marcus Aurelius left on right, holding hand of kneeling Italia, holding globe, and scepter. Marcus Aurelius left on right, shaking hands with Faustina II to left; Concordia between them, in background Marcus Aurelius seated left, holding branch and scepter. Marcus Aurelius standing left, holding branch and scepter. Marcus Aurelius standing left, holding globe. Marcus Aurelius standing left, holding thunderbolt and spear, being crowned by Victory from behind, holding palm. Marcus Aurelius standing left, sacrificing over altar Marcus Aurelius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Marcus Aurelius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding standard Marcus Aurelius standing left, sacrificing over altar; bull to left Marcus Aurelius standing right on platform, attended by two lictors, addressing three soldiers below. Mars advancing left, holding trophy and spear. Mars advancing left, holding Victory and trophy. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars standing right, holding shield reading SC and spear. Mars standing right, holding shield reading SC on captive and spear Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus. Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus; cock by feet. Minerva advancing right, aiming spear and holding shield. Minerva seated right, holding spear and pulling veil; shield to side. Minerva seated right, holding spear and shield. Minerva standing left, holding branch and spear with shield Minerva standing left, holding owl and resting hand on shield. Minerva standing left, holding owl and spear with shield. Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield. Minerva standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Modius with grain ears Pax seated left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax standing left, setting weapons on fire and holding cornucopia Pietas standing left, holding baby in either arm; child on either side. Pietas standing left, holding patera and scepter. Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar and holding incense box. Pietas standing left, raising hand over child and holding baby. Pietas standing left, raising hand over child and holding incense box Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Pietas standing left, touching child to left and holding baby. Pietas standing, facing, holding patera and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, leaning on column, raising hand over globe and holding scepter. Roma seated left, holding Palladium and parazonium; shield below Roma seated left, holding Palladium and spear; shield below Roma seated left, holding spear; shield below Roma seated left, holding Victory and cornucopia. Roma seated left, holding Victory and parazonium. Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear; shield below Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear Roma standing left, stepping on helmet, holding Victory and spear. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Salus seated left, feeding snake Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas seated left, holding scepter Securitas seated right, resting head on hand and cradling scepter. Securitas standing left, holding wreath and palm. Securitas standing left, leaning on column, raising hand and holding scepter. Securitas standing right, holding wreath over head and palm. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Spes standing left, leaning on column, holding flower. Temple with (4) columns, Mercury within. Thunderbolt, winged Tiber lying left, resting arm on boat and cradling scepter. Trophies (3) Trophy; seated captive to left, standing captive to right. Trophy; standing captive to left, seated captive to right. Venus standing left, raising hand and holding shield. Vesta standing right, holding Palladium and scepter. Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath with both hands. Victory advancing left, holding trophy and wreath. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing left, holding wreath and trophy Victory advancing right, holding trophy and wreath. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory seated left, holding patera and palm. Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and trophy. Victory standing left, holding wreath and trophy. Victory standing right, holding palm and shield reading VIC / AVG on palm

130
183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) Victory standing right, holding palm and shield reading VIC / GER on palm Victory standing right, holding palm and shield reading VIC / PAR on palm Victory standing right, holding trophy; seated captive to right. Virtus seated left, holding parazonium and spear. Virtus seated left, holding patera and palm. Virtus seated right, holding spear and parazonium. Virtus standing left, holding parazonium and spear. Virtus standing left, holding Victory and parazonium Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing right, stepping on helmet, holding spear and parazonium. Weapons, in a pile. Wolf standing right, suckling Romulus and Remus Wreath, METAL / AVRELIA / NIS within Wreath, IVVENTVS within Wreath, PRIMI / DECEN / NALES / COS / III within Wreath, VICT / GERM / IMP VI / COS III within Wreath, VICT / GERMA / IMP VI / COS III within Wreath, VOTA PVBLICA within.

Mints:
1) 2) Caesarea Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) B02, O09, R143, T018 B03, O11, R045, T069 B03, O11, R078, T151 B03, O12, R178, T103 B06, O19, R099, T155 Exe: COS III B07, O07, R153, T115 B07, O09, R146, T147 B07, O24, R113, T184 B09, O10, R132, T127 B09, O11, R045, T069 B11, O24, R115, T001 B13, O45, R048, T099 B14, O17, R089, T140 B14, O20, R182, T106 B14, O24, R113, T174 B14, O26, R107, T011 Exe: ARMEN B14, O27, R083, T040 B14, O30, R121, T041 B14, O47, R129, T109

Reference(s)
RIC 456c (III, A. Pius), C 26 RIC 432a (III, A. Pius), BMC 606, C 233 RIC 424a (III, A Pius), BMC 276, C 450 RIC 434 (III, A. Pius), BMC 610, C 1021 RIC 77 (III, M. Aurelius), BMC 226, C 560 RIC 481 (III, A. Pius), C 753 RIC 457b (III, A. Pius), C 660 RIC 438a (III, A. Pius), C 606 RIC 432b (III, A. Pius), BMC 608, C 234 RIC 189 (III, M. Aurelius), BMC 465, C 898 RIC 295 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 20 (III, M. Aurelius), BMC 14 RIC 250 (III, M. Aurelius), BMC 552a RIC 174 (III, M. Aurelius), C 883 RIC 86 (III, M. Aurelius), C 11 RIC 136 (III, M. Aurelius), BMC 375, C 479 RIC 408 (III, M. Aurelius), BMC 792

AU Quinarius
20) B03, O13, R146, T190 RIC 457a (III, A. Pius), C 26

AR Denarius
21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) B03, O02, R082, T191 B03, O02, R085, T191 B03, O05, R149, T002 B03, O05, R149, T189 B03, O05, R150, T041 B03, O05, R150, T189 B03, O05, R151, T041 B03, O05, R151, T162 B03, O10, R023, T070 B03, O10, R024, T163 B03, O10, R130, T192 B03, O10, R132, T048 B03, O10, R133, T127 B03, O10, R149, T002 B03, O11, R024, T070 B03, O11, R046, T070 B03, O11, R078, T151 B03, O13, R133, T018 B03, O13, R133, T141 B03, O13, R143, T110 B03, O13, R146, T110 B03, O13, R147, T110 B03, O13, R148, T125 B03, O13, R153, T120 B03, O19, R008, T024 Exe: COS III B03, O21, R006, T024 Exe: COS III B03, O21, R007, T024 Exe: COS III B03, O21, R089, T140 B03, O21, R090, T140 B03, O36, R008, T024 Exe: COS III B03, O36, R091, T140 RIC 123 (III, M. Aurelius), C 472 RIC 91 (III, M. Aurelius), C 468 RIC 466a (III, A. Pius), S 4792 RIC 468 (III, A. Pius) RIC 470 (III, A. Pius), C 709 RIC 473 (III, A. Pius), C 721 RIC 475a (III, A. Pius), C 727 RIC 476 (III, A. Pius), C 731 RIC 426 (III, A. Pius), C 100 RIC 431 (III, A. Pius), S 4783 RIC 433 (III, A. Pius), C 1006 RIC 436 (III, A. Pius), C 602 RIC 438b (III, A. Pius), C 608 RIC 466b (III, A. Pius), C 701 RIC 429a (III, A. Pius), S 4784, C 105 RIC 422 (III, A. Pius), C 236 RIC 424 (III, A. Pius), S 4786, C 451 RIC 448b (III, A. Pius), S 4781 RIC 446 (III, A. Pius), S 4789, C 628 RIC 453 (III, A. Pius), C 645 RIC 458 (III, A. Pius), C 661 RIC 461 (III, A. Pius), C 673 RIC 463a (III, A. Pius), C 676 RIC 483 (III, A. Pius), C 762 RIC 59 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 2 (III, M. Aurelius), C 30 RIC 35 (III, M. Aurelius), C 35 RIC 22 (III, M. Aurelius), C 507 RIC 50 (III, M. Aurelius), C 519 RIC 62 (III, M. Aurelius), C 42 RIC 70 (III, M. Aurelius), C 526

131
52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) B03, O36, R108, T038 B03, O36, R108, T123 B11, O02, R082, T008 B11, O02, R082, T012 Exe: ARMEN B11, O02, R082, T040 B11, O02, R082, T191 B11, O02, R085, T012 Exe: ARMEN B11, O02, R085, T191 B11, O16, R006, T024 Exe: COS III B11, O19, R008, T024 Exe: COS III B11, O19, R091, T140 B11, O20, R025, T073 B11, O20, R183, T108 Exe: COS III B11, O20, R184, T197 B11, O21, R006, T024 Exe: COS III B11, O21, R007, T024 Exe: COS III B11, O21, R030, T039 B11, O21, R089, T140 B11, O21, R090, T140 B11, O23, R026, T191 B11, O24, R041, T049 B11, O24, R081, T137 B11, O24, R111, T130 B11, O24, R111, T184 B11, O24, R113, T002 B11, O24, R113, T141 B11, O24, R114, T002 B11, O24, R114, T141 B11, O24, R115, T001 B11, O24, R115, T002 B11, O26, R109, T191 B11, O27, R081, T137 B11, O27, R083, T006 B11, O27, R083, T144 B11, O30, R077, T133 B11, O30, R101, T157 B11, O30, R118, T058 B11, O30, R121, T002 B11, O30, R121, T039 B11, O30, R121, T115 B11, O30, R121, T149 B11, O30, R123, T045 B11, O30, R123, T069 B11, O30, R123, T174 B11, O30, R123, T193 B11, O36, R108, T038 B11, O39, R032, T041 B11, O39, R066, T080 B11, O39, R095, T155 B11, O40, R025, T027 B11, O40, R025, T120 B11, O40, R025, T156 B11, O40, R040, T049 B11, O40, R095, T155 B11, O40, R168, T175 B11, O41, R049, T039 B11, O41, R049, T115 B11, O41, R049, T149 B11, O41, R049, T178 B11, O41, R050, T178 B11, O42, R025, T074 B11, O42, R048, T174 B11, O43, R048, T002 B11, O43, R048, T148 B11, O43, R048, T191 B11, O44, R048, T015 B11, O44, R048, T105 B11, O44, R048, T177 B11, O44, R048, T191 B11, O45, R031, T043 B11, O45, R048, T014 B11, O45, R048, T106 B11, O45, R048, T115 B11, O45, R048, T177 B11, O45, R049, T039 B11, O47, R026, T147 B11, O47, R124, T152 B11, O47, R125, T153 B11, O47, R125, T191 B11, O47, R129, T153 B13, O02, R082, T008 B13, O23, R026, T006 B13, O43, R048, T191 B13, O44, R048, T148 B14, O24, R113, T002 B14, O27, R085, T012 Exe: ARMEN B14, O44, R048, T105 B14, O45, R048, T177 B14, O47, R129, T050 RIC 110 (III, M. Aurelius), C 852 RIC 102 (III, M. Aurelius), C 847 RIC 125 (III, M. Aurelius), C 474 RIC 122 (III, M. Aurelius), C 9 RIC 132 (III, M. Aurelius), C 476 RIC 124 (III, M. Aurelius), C 473 RIC 81 (III, M. Aurelius), S 4881 RIC 92 (III, M. Aurelius), C 469 RIC 1 (III, M. Aurelius),C 32 RIC 60 (III, M. Aurelius), C 40 RIC 73 (III, M. Aurelius), C 525 RIC 228 (III, M. Aurelius), S 4884, C 114 RIC 251 (III, M. Aurelius), C 1036 RIC 245 (III, M. Aurelius), S 4924, C 493 RIC 3 (III, M. Aurelius), C 31 RIC 37 (III, M. Aurelius), BMC 185, C 36 RIC 14 (III, M. Aurelius), C 196 RIC 23 (III, M. Aurelius), C 508 RIC 51 (III, M. Aurelius), C 518 RIC 418 (III, M. Aurelius), C 147 RIC 185 (III, M. Aurelius), C 208 RIC 149 (III, M. Aurelius), C 464 RIC 164 (III, M. Aurelius), C 880 RIC 163 (III, M. Aurelius), S 4933, C 878 RIC 171 (III, M. Aurelius), C 882 RIC 170 (III, M. Aurelius), C 881 RIC 178 (III, M. Aurelius), C 892 RIC 176 (III, M. Aurelius), C 890 RIC 191 (III, M. Aurelius), C 899 RIC 192 (III, M. Aurelius), C 901 RIC 120 (III, M. Aurelius), C 868 RIC 148 (III, M. Aurelius), C 463 RIC 142 (III, M. Aurelius), C 484 RIC 138 (III, M. Aurelius), C 481 RIC 380 (III, M. Aurelius), C 442 RIC 325 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 327 (III, M. Aurelius), C 917 RIC 359 (III, M. Aurelius), C 938 RIC 356 (III, M. Aurelius), C 93 RIC 349 (III, M. Aurelius), C 926 RIC 352 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 374 (III, M. Aurelius), C 945 RIC 375 (III, M. Aurelius), C 946 RIC 378 (III, M. Aurelius), S 4944, C 949 RIC 367 (III, M. Aurelius), C 173 RIC 112 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 203 (III, M. Aurelius), S 4498 RIC 206 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 207 (III, M. Aurelius), C 543 RIC 212 (III, M. Aurelius), C 130 RIC 211 (III, M. Aurelius), C 211 RIC 216 (III, M. Aurelius), C 139 RIC 220 (III, M. Aurelius), C 205 RIC 222 (III, M. Aurelius), C 546 RIC 225 (III, M. Aurelius), 9 RIC 314 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 310 (III, M. Aurelius), C 315 RIC 316 (III, M. Aurelius), C 341 RIC 312 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 324 (III, M. Aurelius), C 355 RIC 227 (III, M. Aurelius), C 113 RIC 237 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 252 (III, M. Aurelius), S 4903 RIC 259 (III, M. Aurelius), S 4902, C 280 RIC 261 (III, M. Aurelius), S 4901, C 290 RIC 278 (III, M. Aurelius), C 297 RIC 282 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 273 (III, M. Aurelius), S 4904, C 261 RIC 276 (III, M. Aurelius), C 292 RIC 285b (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 289 (III, M. Aurelius), C 298 RIC 296 (III, M. Aurelius), C 306 RIC 286 (III, M. Aurelius), C 254 RIC 287 (III, M. Aurelius), C 263 RIC 304 (III, M. Aurelius), C 331 RIC 420 (III, M. Aurelius), C 148 RIC 385 (III, M. Aurelius), C 954 RIC 399 (III, M. Aurelius), C 965 RIC 396 (III, M. Aurelius), C 963 RIC 403 (III, M. Aurelius), C 968 RIC 126 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 424 (III, A. Pius), C 151 RIC 262 (III, M. Aurelius), C 291 RIC 82a (III, M. Aurelius), C 7d RIC 283 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 288 (III, M. Aurelius), C 264 RIC 409 (III, M. Aurelius), C 972

132
141) B16, O21, R089, T140 142) Ba, O03, R002, T058 RIC 25 (III, M. Aurelius), C 510 RIC 443 (III, M. Aurelius)

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) B03, O15, R022, T030 B03, O15, R022, T031 B03, O15, R022, T032 B03, O15, R022, T033 B03, O15, R022, T034 B03, O15, R022, T035 B03, O15, R022, T055 Ba, O02, R002, T056

Reference(s)
RIC 274 (III, Commodus), C 88 RIC 267 (III, Commodus), C 80 RIC 265 (III, Commodus) RIC 272 (III, Commodus), C 84 RIC 273 (III, Commodus), C 91 RIC 269 (III, Commodus), C 83 RIC 275 (III, Commodus), C 97 RIC 443 (III, Commodus)

AE Sestertius
151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) B03, O12, R184, T120 B03, O18, R010, T092 Exe: COS III B03, O54, R132, T048 B03, O59, R059, T079 B03, O59, R078, T151 Exe: SC B09, O60, R148, T125 B11, O18, R011, T092 Exe: COS III B11, O18, R098, T155 Exe: COS III B11, O18, R099, T155 Exe: COS III B11, O31, R055, T193 Exe: DE GERMANIS B11, O40, R025, T098 Exe: PROFECTIO AVG / SC B11, O40, R095, T155 B11, O41, R050, T042 B11, O42, R025, T073 B11, O42, R025, T115 B11, O42, R048, T183 B11, O42, R184, T197 B11, O43, R043, T013 B11, O43, R048, T183 B11, O44, R044. T168 Exe: SC B11, O44, R184, T198 Exe: SC B11, O48, R161, T184 B11, O50, R160, T191 B13, O44, R048, T164 Exe: RELIG AVG B13, O54, R034, T041 B13, O55, R175, T188 RIC 1243a (III, A. Pius), C 576 RIC 795 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 1270 (III, A. Pius), C 614 RIC 1233a (III, A. Pius), C 394 RIC 1234a (III, A. Pius), C 454 RIC 1321 (III, A. Pius), C 678 RIC 826 (III, M. Aurelius), C 54 RIC 835 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 844 (III, M. Aurelius), C 564 RIC 1184 (III, M. Aurelius), C 163 RIC 977 (III, M. Aurelius), C 502 RIC 979 (III, M. Aurelius), C 547 RIC 1136 (III, M. Aurelius), C 163 RIC 989 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 992 (III, M. Aurelius), C 127 RIC 1001 (III, M. Aurelius), C 269 RIC 1003 (III, M. Aurelius), C 495 RIC 1021 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 1029 (III, M. Aurelius), C 272 RIC 1062 (III, M. Aurelius), C 229 RIC 1090 (III, M. Aurelius), C 995 RIC 931 (III, M. Aurelius), C 807 RIC 898 (III, M. Aurelius), C 796 RIC 1076 (III, M. Aurelius), C 534 RIC 1237 (III, A. Pius), C 185 RIC 1250 (III, M. Aurelius), C 576

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
177) B03, O15, R022, T029 178) B03, O15, R022, T033 179) B03, O15, R022, T055 RIC 658 (III, Commodus) RIC 657 (III, Commodus) RIC 662 (III, Commodus), C 98

AE Dupondius
180) 181) 182) 183) 184) B17, O18, R011, T092 Exe: COS III B17, O20, R037, T047 B17, O39, R095, T155 B17, O42, R184, T197 B17, O43, R048, T148 RIC 828 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5021, C 58 RIC 999 (III, M. Aurelius), C 200 RIC 965 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 1004 (III, M. Aurelius), C 496 RIC 1035 (III, M. Aurelius)

AE As
185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) B03, O05, R149, T071 HO NOS and S C across fields B03, O07, R176, T192 B03, O10, R130, T048 B03, O10, R152, T192 B03, O11, R045, T069 B03, O11, R078, T151 Exe: SC B03, O12, R184, T127 B09, O05, R149, T137 B09, O11, R078, T151 Exe: SC B11, O44, R103, T161 B11, O46, R054, T131 RIC 1279 (III, A. Pius), S 4803, C 242 RIC 1288 (III, A. Pius) RIC 1260 (III, A. Pius) RIC 1240a (III, A. Pius), S 4834, C 455 RIC 1264 (III, A. Pius), C 573 RIC 1333 (III, A. Pius) RIC 1234b (III, A. Pius), C 457 RIC 1083 (III, M. Aurelius), C 584 RIC 1202 (M. Aurelius), C 363

AE As (Posthumous)
196) B03, O15, R022, T033 RIC 664 (III, Commodus), C 86

AE Semis
197) Bb, O61, R184, T195

133
Marcus Aurelius Busts

Marcus Aurelius Types

134
Marcus Aurelius Types (continued)

135
Marcus Aurelius Types (continued)

136
Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus. Her claim to fame, or rather notoriety, was her rampant unfaithfulness to Marcus Aurelius who, it seemed, was b. ca.128 - d.175 the only Roman who wasn't on to her. Upon her death a mournful Aurelius asked for her deification. Alarmed at the possible scandal but unwilling to test the will of the beloved emperor the Senate complied.

Faustina II

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Diademed, draped bust right Draped bust left Draped bust right Veiled, draped bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) DIVA AVG FAVSTINA DIVA FAVSTINA PIA DIVAE FAVSTIN AVG MATR CASTROR DIVAE FAVSTINAE PIAE FAVSTINA AVG ANTONINI AVG FAVSTINA AVG P II AVG FIL FAVSTINA AVGVSTA FAVSTINA AVGVSTA AVG P II F FAVSTINA AVGVSTA AVG P II FIL FAVSTINA AVGVSTA P II AVG FIL FAVSTINAE AVG ANTONINI AVG P II FIL FAVSTINAE AVG P II AVG F FAVSTINAE AVG P II AVG FIL

Just as with the rest of the coins of this period the Denarius becomes the default denomination that collectors will find available. But her bronze series is well represented as well with the three main denominations of the Sestertius, Dupondius and As. Many of these can be located in very nice grades although, as usual, the truly top end coins are normally carried via the bigger numismatic firms. A decent Denarius can be had for as little as $20 and a very nice example for just two or three times that much.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) AETERNITAS AVGVSTA AVGVSTI P II FIL CERES CONCORDIA CONCORDIA AVG CONSECRATIO DIANA LVCIF DIANA LVCINA DIVA FAVSTINA FECVND AVGVSTAE FECVNDITAS FECVNDITAS AVGVST FECVNDITAS AVGVSTAE FELICITAS 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) FORTVNAE MVLIEBRI HILARITAS INDVLGENTIA AVG IVNO IVNONI LVCINAE IVNONI REGINAE LAETITIA LAETITIA PVB LAETITIA PVBLICAE LAETITIAE PVBLICAE MATRI CASTRORVM MATRI MAGNAE PIETAS PVDICITIA SAECVLI FELICIT 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) SALVS SALVTI AVG COS TRIB POT SALVTI AVGVSTAE SIDERIBVS RECEPTA TEMPOR FELIC VENERI AVGVSTAE VENERI FELICI VENERI GENETRICI VENERI VICTRICI VENVS VENVS FELIX VENVS GENETRIX VENVS VICTRIX VESTA No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) Aeternitas standing left, holding globe and pulling veil. Aeternitas standing left, holding globe and raising skirt. Aeternitas standing left, leaning on column, holding phoenix on globe. Aeternitas standing, facing, pulling veil and holding torch. Altar Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and raising skirt. Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch. Children (2) seated, facing, stars above Concordia seated left, holding flower; globe below. Concordia seated left, holding patera. Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia standing left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing, facing, raising skirt and holding cornucopia. Crescent surrounded by seven stars Cybele seated left, holding branch and resting arm on drum; lion below Cybele seated left, holding drum; lion on either side. Cybele seated right, holding drum; lion on either side. Dove standing right Eagle Faustina II riding biga right Faustina II riding eagle left, upwards Faustina II riding elephant biga left, holding scepter. Faustina II seated left, holding scepter and phoenix on globe; standards (2) to left. Faustina II seated left, holding scepter and phoenix on globe; standards (3) to left. Faustina II seated left, holding scepter, dancer with veil overhead on either side.

137
27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) Faustina II standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box; standards (2) in background. Faustina II standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box; standards (3) in background. Fecunditas standing left, holding baby in each arm; child on either side. Fecunditas standing left, holding scepter and baby. Fecunditas standing right, holding baby in each arm; child on either side. Fecunditas standing right, holding baby; child on either side. Fecunditas standing right, holding scepter and baby. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia Funeral pyre Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia. Hilaritas standing right, pulling veil and holding palm. Indulgentia seated left, holding patera. Juno seated left, holding child on lap and scepter; another child to left, holding grain ears. Juno seated left, holding patera and scepter. Juno seated left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left. Laetitia standing left, holding globe and scepter. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and scepter. Laetitia standing right, holding scepter and wreath Luna (Diana) standing left, holding arrow and bow Luna (Diana) standing left, holding arrow and resting hand on bow Luna (Diana) standing left, holding scepter with both hands Luna (Diana) standing left, holding torch with both hands. Luna (Diana) standing right, holding scepter with both hands Luna (Diana) standing right, holding torch with both hands. Minerva standing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Peacock flying left, bearing Faustina II towards heaven. Peacock standing left Peacock standing right Peacock standing, facing Pietas seated left, raising skirt and holding cornucopia; child to left. Pietas standing left, holding flower and cornucopia; child to left. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil Pudicitia standing left, pulling veil and raising skirt. Pudicitia standing left, raising hand and pulling dress Pudicitia standing left, sacrificing over altar. Pudicitia standing left, touching head. Pudicitia standing, facing, raising skirt and holding cornucopia Sacrificial ceremony with six members in front of temple with six columns. Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter. Spes standing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Throne with two children Throne with two children; stars above. Throne with scepter across and peacock in front Venus seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Venus standing left, holding apple and rudder on dove Venus standing left, holding apple and rudder with dolphin coiled around Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter Venus standing left, holding apple and touching head. Venus standing left, holding apples and baby wrapped in blankets. Venus standing left, holding dove and scepter. Venus standing left, holding rudder Venus standing left, holding rudder with dolphin coiled around Venus standing left, holding Victory and resting hand on shield Venus standing left, holding Victory and resting hand on shield on helmet. Venus standing left, pulling veil and holding apple. Venus standing right on left, holding arm of Mars to right, holding shield. Venus standing right, holding scepter and apple. Venus standing right, leaning on column, holding spear and helmet Venus standing, facing, pulling veil and holding apple Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. Vesta seated left, holding simpulum and Palladium. Vesta standing left, holding globe and scepter Victory advancing right, holding torch, carrying Faustina II upwards Wreath, PRIMI DECENNALES COS III within.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) B1, O07, R33, T68 B2, O07, R03, T47 B3, O06, R05, T19 B3, O13, R40, T76 B3, O13, R40, T89

Reference(s)
RIC 717a (III, M. Aurelius), C 199 RIC 494b (III, Ant. Pius), C 19 RIC 503a (III, Ant. Pius), C 61 RIC 515b (III, Ant. Pius), C 260 RIC 514 (III, Ant. Pius), C 256

AU Quinarius(s)
6) B3, O13, R40, T89 RIC 514 (III, A. Pius), BMC 1061, C 256

138
AR Denarius
7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) B1, O07, R21, T41 B1, O07, R21, T43 B1, O07, R22, T45 B1, O07, R30, T71 B1, O13, R25, T45 B2, O06, R05, T10 B2, O07, R03, T84 B3, O05, R06, T13 B3, O06, R05, T11 B3, O06, R29, T66 B3, O07, R03, T70 B3, O07, R03, T84 B3, O07, R05, T07 B3, O07, R08, T50 B3, O07, R11, T31 B3, O07, R12, T33 B3, O07, R15, T34 B3, O07, R17, T36 B3, O07, R19, T41 B3, O07, R19, T42 B3, O07, R19, T43 B3, O07, R21, T41 B3, O07, R21, T43 B3, O07, R27, T16 B3, O07, R29, T64 B3, O07, R30, T71 B3, O07, R31, T68 B3, O07, R31, T69 B3, O07, R35, T29 B3, O07, R36, T74 B3, O07, R40, T77 B3, O07, R40, T80 B3, O07, R42, T74 B3, O07, R42, T83 B3, O07, R44, T90 B3, O08, R29, T64 B3, O11, R05, T14 B3, O13, R29, T62 B3, O13, R40, T75 B3, O13, R40, T76

Reference(s)
RIC 698 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5257, C 145 RIC 696 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 701 (III, M. Aurelius), C 148 RIC 712 (III, M. Aurelius), C 191 RIC 506c (III, Ant. Pius), S 4705 RIC 502b (III, Ant. Pius), C 55 RIC 495b (III, Ant. Pius), C 15a RIC 502a (III, Ant. Pius), S 4704, C 54 Curtis Clay collection RIC 497 (III, Ant. Pius), S 4702, C 24 RIC 495a (III, Ant. Pius), S 4700, C 15 RIC 669 (III, M. Aurelius), C 35 RIC 674 (III, M. Aurelius), C 85 RIC 676 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5251, C 95 RIC 677 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5252, C 99 RIC 683 (III, M. Aurelius), C 107 RIC 686 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5254, C 111 RIC 689 (III, M. Aurelius), C 126 RIC 690 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 688 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5255, C 120 RIC 697 (III, M. Aurelius), C 144 RIC 694 (III, M. Aurelius), C 141 RIC 706 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5259, C 172 RIC 708 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 711 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 714 (III, M. Aurelius), C 195 RIC 715 (III, M. Aurelius), C 197 RIC 719 (III, M. Aurelius), C 221 RIC 721 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5264, C 226 RIC 728 (III, M. Aurelius), C 249 RIC 730 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5266 RIC 735 (III, M. Aurelius), C 281 RIC 734 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5268, C 280 RIC 737 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5270, C 286 RIC 508a (III, Ant. Pius), C 184 RIC 500b (III, Ant. Pius), S 4703, C 42 RIC 507a (III, Ant. Pius), C 176 RIC 515b (III, Ant. Pius), C 261 RIC 517a (III, Ant. Pius), C 266

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) B3, O02, R01, T03 B3, O02, R01, T04 B3, O02, R07, T05 B3, O02, R07, T15 B3, O02, R07, T56 B3, O02, R07, T57 B3, O02, R07, T73 B4, O02, R07, T35 RIC 740 (III, M. Aurelius), C 6 RIC 739 (III, M. Aurelius), C 2 RIC 746 (III, M. Aurelius), C 75 RIC 750 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5219, C 83 RIC 744 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5215, C 71 RIC 743 (III, M. Aurelius), C 70 RIC 745 (III, M. Aurelius), S 5216, C 73 RIC 747 (III, M. Aurelius), C 77

AE Sestertius
55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) B1, O07, R12, T33 B1, O07, R21, T43 B1, O07, R33, T68 Exe: SC B1, O07, R38, T84 B1, O13, R29, T61 B3, O06, R28, T59 B3, O07, R22, T45 B3, O07, R30, T71 B3, O07, R30, T71 Exe: SC B3, O09, R44, T92 B3, O09, R45, T48 RIC 1638 (III, M. Aurelius), C 100 RIC 1651 (III, M. Aurelius), C 142 RIC 1668 (III, M. Aurelius), C 200 RIC 1679 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 1404b (III, Ant. Pius), C 187 RIC 1379 (III, Ant. Pius), S 4715, C 173 RIC 1654 (III, M. Aurelius), C 149 RIC 1387 (III, Ant. Pius), C 250 RIC 1383 (III, Ant. Pius), C 210

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) B3, O02, R01, T03 B3, O02, R01, T26 B3, O02, R01, T93 B3, O02, R07, T05 B3, O02, R07, T55 B3, O02, R07, T73 B3, O02, R34, T21 B3, O02, R34, T50 B3, O02, R34, T52 RIC 1692 (III, M. Aurelius), C 4 RIC 1697 (III, M. Aurelius), C 10 RIC 1699 (III, M. Aurelius), C 12 RIC 1706 (III, M. Aurelius), C 72 RIC 1703 (III, M. Aurelius), C 72 RIC 1705 (III, M. Aurelius) RIC 1717 (III, M. Aurelius), C 217 RIC 1716 (III, M. Aurelius), C 216 RIC 1715 (III, M. Aurelius), C 215

AE Dupondius
75) B3, O09, R45, T48 RIC 1383 (III, Ant. Pius), C 211

139
AE As
76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) B1, O07, R05, T11 B1, O07, R33, T68 Exe: SC B1, O13, R25, T45 B3, O07, R39, T86 B3, O07, R45, T15 Exe: SC B3, O13, R29, T62

Reference(s)
RIC 1626 (III, M. Aurelius), C 59 RIC 1671 (III, M. Aurelius), C 201 RIC 1401c (III, Ant. Pius) RIC 1680 (III, M. Aurelius), C 241 RIC 1714 (III, M. Aurelius), C 213 RIC 1403 (III, Ant. Pius), C 179

Faustina II Busts

Faustina II Types

140
Faustina II Types (continued)

141
Sharing the title of Augustus with his brother Marcus Aurelius, history records Verus in a less-than-glowing light. Although an intelligent and handsome man, he didn't seem much interested in political or military affairs. Going through the motions, he followed his war generals who did the dirty work while it was noted he Augustus 161-169 enjoyed a hedonistic lifestyle on the road complete with a traveling theater and frequent banquets to entertain him. It was on the return of one of these battles that he died after a stroke. Consensus holds that his greatest accomplishment was, unflatteringly enough, that he delegated administrative duties to his much more capable brother.

Lucius Verus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Bare head left Bare head right Bare headed, cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped bust left Bare headed, draped bust right Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Many choice, well-preserved coins remain for this emperor. Most commonly offered will be Denarii some of which may cost less than $100 and still be very attractive. Even mint state ones will not cost significantly more. The story changes, predictably, for bronzes which, largely in part due to the weathering of nearly two millennia, are much more difficult to find in the higher grades. While an As or Dupondius may cost only $20 or $30 do not expect it to be especially attractive at these prices. A nearly flawless Sestertius will easily cost several thousand dollars of this or any other “common” emperor. Gold, too, is available although it hardly need be mentioned that an Aureus, regardless of emperor, is likely to cost thousands of dollars except for the worn and/or problem coins.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) DIVVS VERVS IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG IMP CAES L VERVS AVG IMP CAESAR L AVRELIVS VERVS AVG IMP L AVREL VERVS AVG IMP L VERVS AVG L AVREL VERVS ARMENIACVS L AVREL VERVS AVG L AVREL VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS L VERVS AVG L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX MEDIC L VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS VERVS AVG VERVS AVG IMP PARTH MAX

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) ADLOCVT AVG CONCORD AVG COS II CONCORD AVG TR P CONCORD AVGVSTOR CONCORD AVGVSTOR COS II CONCORD AVGVSTOR TR P CONCORD AVGVSTOR TR P COS II CONCORD AVGVSTOR TR P II CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR COS II CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR TR P CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR TR P II CONCORDIAE AVGVSTORVM COS II CONG AVG IIII TR P VII IMP IIII COS III CONSECRATIO COS II FEL TEM COS II FELIC AVG TR P III FORT RED TR P V IMP II COS II FORT RED TR P VIII IMP V FORT RED TR P VIIII IMP V COS III FORT RED TR POT II COS II FORT RED TR POT III HERC PAC TR P IIII IMP II COS II HILARITAS IMP II TR P IIII COS II INDVLGENTIA AVG IVNO L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX LIB AVG III TR P VI COS II LIB AVGVSTOR TR P COS II LIBERAL AVG TR P V IMP II COS II 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) PAX AVG TR P VI COS II PIETAS PIETAS AVG TR P VI COS II PROFECTIO AVG TR P II COS II PROFECTIO AVG TR P III COS II PROV DEOR TR P COS II PROV DEOR TR P II COS II PROV DEOR TR P III COS II SALVTI AVGSTOR TR P III SALVTI AVGVSTAE SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P II COS II TR P II COS II TR P III IMP II COS II TR P IIII COS II TR P IIII IMP II COS II TR P V IMP II COS II TR P V IMP III COS II TR P VI IMP III COS II TR P VI IMP IIII COS II TR P VII COS III TR P VII IMP IIII COS III TR P VIII COS III TR P VIII IMP IIII COS III TR P VIII IMP V COS III TR P VIIII IMP V COS III TR P XIX IMP II COS III TR POT COS II TR POT II COS II TR POT III COS II TR POT IIII IMP II COS II TR POT V IMP II COS II TR POT V IMP III COS II

142
65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) TR POT VI IMP III COS II TR POT VII IMP IIII COS III TR POT VIII IMP IIII COS III TR POT VIII IMP V COS III TR POT VIIII COS III TR POT VIIII IMP V COS III TR POT XIIII COS IIII 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) VENVS VICT AVG TR P III IMP II COS II VICT AVG TR P IIII IMP II COS II VICT AVG TR P VI COS II VICT AVG TR POT VI IMP III COS II No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) Aequitas seated left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Annona standing left, holding roll and oar; modius on galley prow to left. Armenia seated left, resting head on hand, shield and standard behind. Armenia seated left, resting head on hand; trophy behind. Captive, bound, seated right by weapons and trophy. Captive, bound, seated right by weapons. Concordia seated left, holding patera Cybele seated left, holding drum; lion below. Eagle Eagle perched on globe Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Funeral pyre Galley sailing left Galley sailing left, Nike at prow Galley sailing right, Nike at prow Hercules standing, facing, holding branch and club with lion skin. Hercules standing, facing, holding branch and club. Indulgentia seated left, holding scepter. Juno standing left, holoding patera and scepter; peacock to lower left. Liberalitas standing, facing, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius riding quadriga left, one holding scepter with eagle atop, the other a branch. Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius seated left on platform, citizen on steps to lower left. Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius seated left on platform, Liberalitas holding coin counter and citizen on steps to lower left. Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius standing, facing each other, shaking hands. Lucius Verus laureate head right Lucius Verus riding elephant quadriga left Lucius Verus riding elephant quadriga right Lucius Verus riding horse right, holding spear. Lucius Verus riding horse right, spearing enemy. Lucius Verus seated left on platform, attended by two lictors; Armenian king Soemias to lower left, touching head. Lucius Verus standing left on platform, attended by lictor, addressing several soldiers. Lucius Verus standing left, holding globe. Lucius Verus standing right on left, receiving Victory on globe from Roma seated to right, holding spear; shield to side. Lucius Verus standing right on left, shaking hands with Roma seated to right, holding spear. Mars advancing left, holding spear and trophy Mars advancing left, holding trophy and parazonium Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mars standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Minerva standing left, holding branch and spear with shield Minerva standing, facing, holding spear and resting hand on shield Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Providentia standing left, holding globe and cornucopia Roma advancing left, holding Victory and trophy. Roma standing left, stepping on helmet, holding Victory and spear. Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter Trophies (3) Trophies (3); seated captive in front of each one. Two hands holding standard Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter Victory advancing left, holding open wreath with both hands. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, touching trophy with shield by base. Victory standing left, touching trophy. Victory standing right, holding shield reading VIC / AVG on palm. Victory standing right, holding shield reading VIC / PAR on palm. Victory standing right, holding shield reading VIC / PAR on palm; shield leaning against palm. Victory standing right, holding trophy with Armenia seated by its base.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) B02, O13, R45, T58 B02, O13, R46, T31 Exe: REX ARMEN / DAT B06, O02, R41, T48 Exe: COS II B06, O13, R46, T05 Exe: ARMEN B07, O02, R11, T25 Exe: COS II B08, O11, R56, T30 B09, O11, R14, T21

Reference(s)
RIC 522 (III, Marcus Aurelius), BMC 294 RIC 512 (III, Marcus Aurelius), BMC 300 RIC 496 (III, Marcus Aurelius), BMC 232 BMC 236 RIC 456 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 51 RIC 543 (III, Marcus Aurelius), BMC 391 RIC 658 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 52

143
8) 9) B10, O11, R33, T42 B10, O13, R45, T58 RIC 559 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 30 RIC 525 (III, Marcus Aurelius)

AR Denarius
10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) B02, O05, R03, T08 Exe: COS II B02, O05, R38, T44 B02, O05, R39, T44 B02, O06, R40, T44 B02, O13, R47, T04 Exe: ARMEN B02, O13, R47, T39 B06, O02, R16, T33 B07, O11, R20, T12 B07, O11, R33, T42 B07, O11, R49, T07 B07, O11, R50, T07 B07, O11, R51, T42 Exe: PAX B07, O11, R51, T59 B07, O11, R53, T02 B07, O11, R55, T02 B07, O11, R56, T02 B07, O11, R56, T54 B07, O11, R75, T53 B07, O13, R48, T39 B07, O13, R48, T45 B08, O11, R51, T59 B08, O13, R47, T39 B10, O05, R38, T44

Reference(s)
RIC 447 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 21 RIC 463 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 144 RIC 482 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 155 RIC 491 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 156 RIC 501 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 6 RIC 515 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 229 RIC 457 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 61 RIC 586 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 111 RIC 555 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 127 RIC 540 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 273 RIC 548 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 286 RIC 561 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 126 RIC 566 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 279 RIC 576 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 297 RIC 578 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 310 RIC 590 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 316 RIC 581 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 313 RIC 553 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 339 RIC 529 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 263 RIC 537 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 270 RIC 514 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 228

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
33) 34) B02, O01, R15, T10 B02, O01, R15, T13 RIC 596a (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 55 RIC 596b (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 58

AE Medallion
35) B09, O11, R53, T32 C 288

AE Sestertius
36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) B02, O02, R60, T12 Exe: FORT RED B02, O11, R51, T06 B07, O02, R06, T25 Exe: COS II B07, O02, R08, T25 Exe: COS II B07, O02, R18, T16 Exe: COS II B07, O09, R47, T58 B07, O11, R53, T35 Exe: SC B08, O09, R47, T31 Exe: REX ARMEN DAT RIC 1317 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 87 RIC 1443 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 201 RIC 1284 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 161 RIC 1309 (III, Marcus Aurelius) C 83 RIC 1397 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 250 RIC 1463 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 299 RIC 1371 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 161

AR Sestertius (Posthumous)
44) B02, O01, R15, T13 RIC 1511 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 59

AE Dupondius
45) 46) B11, O11, R66, T54 B12, O02, R18, T14 Exe: COS II RIC 1462 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 210 RIC 1330 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 75

AE As
47) 48) B02, O13, R45, T30 B07, O11, R57, T03 RIC 1404 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 257 RIC 1489 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 326

144
Lucius Verus Busts

Lucius Verus Types

145

Lucilla
c.149 –182

Lucilla was the wife of Lucius Verus. After his death she remained influential through the marriage of a senator. In 182 a plot to overthrow Commodus was uncovered in which she played a role and she was subsequently banished to the island of Capri. Fearing that this might not be enough to prevent any future plans of the sort, Commodus had her executed shortly afterwards.

Bust:
1) Draped bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) LVCILLA AVG ANTONINI AVG F LVCILLA AVGVSTA LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F LVCILLAE AVGVSTAE

Compared to the two Faustinae, the easiest of the 2 century empresses to find, Lucilla’s coins are not considerably more difficult to locate and not much more expensive either.

nd

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) CERES CONCORDIA DIANA LVCIFERA FECVNDITAS FECVNDITAS AVGVSTA HILARITAS IVNO REGINA IVNONI LVCINAE LAETITIA MATRI MAGNAE PIETAS PVDICITIA SALVS VENERI GENETRICI VENVS VENVS GENETRIX VENVS VICTRIX VESTA VOTA PVBLICA No legend

Her coins are well represented in all denominations of the period but finding high grade copper will be challenging. An Aureus may be found in pricey auctions with reasonable frequency. This leaves Denarii as the most commonly available coins featuring this empress. In terms of rarity and prices her coins are right on par with those of Crispina.

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) Altar Ceres seated right, holding grain ears and torch Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch. Concordia seated left, holding patera Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia seated left, holding patera; cornucopia under seat. Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Cybele seated, holding drum; lion on either side. Diana standing left, holding torch with both hands. Diana standing right, holding torch with both hands. Fecunditas seated left, holding baby; child on either side. Fecunditas seated left, raising hand; child to right. Fecunditas seated right, holding baby; child on either side. Fecunditas seated right, holding baby; child to left. Fecunditas seated right, holding baby; child to right. Fecunditas standing left, holding patera and scepter. Fecunditas standing right, holding baby and scepter. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia Juno seated left, holding flower and baby. Juno seated left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left. Juno standing left, raising hand and holding baby. Laetitia standing, facing, holding wreath and rudder. Pietas seated left, holding incense box; lit altar to left. Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar and holding incense box. Pudicitia seated left, holding hand over chest Pudicitia seated left, touching head. Pudicitia standing left, holding hand over chest Pudicitia standing left, pulling veil and raising skirt. Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar. Salus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Venus seated left, holding apple and scepter; Cupid to left.

146
34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) Venus seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Venus standing left, holding apple and lifting dress off shoulder. Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter. Venus standing left, holding Victory and resting hand on shield on helmet. Venus standing left, holding Victory and resting hand on shield. Venus standing left, raising hand and holding scepter. Vesta standing left, holding simpulum and Palladium. Vesta standing left, holding simpulum over altar and Palladium. Vesta standing left, holding simpulum over altar and torch. Vestal Virgins (6) sacrificing over altar; Temple of Vesta in background. Wreath, dot within Wreath, VOTA / PVBLI / CA within.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) B1, O3, R11, T26 B1, O3, R15, T36 B1, O3, R20, T45

Reference(s)
RIC 773 (III, Marcus Aurelius) RIC 783 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 69 RIC 790 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 97

AR Denarius
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) B1, O2, R04, T16 B1, O2, R06, T19 B1, O2, R08, T20 B1, O2, R08, T23 B1, O2, R12, T27 B1, O2, R12, T29 B1, O2, R15, T36 B1, O2, R16, T38 B1, O2, R20, T45 B1, O3, R02, T04 B1, O3, R02, T06 B1, O3, R03, T10 B1, O3, R08, T23 B1, O3, R11, T26 B1, O3, R15, T36 B1, O3, R18, T41 B1, O3, R18, T42 RIC 765 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 19 RIC 769 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 28 RIC 770 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 36 Curtis Clay collection RIC 781 (III, Marcus Aurelius), S 5490 RIC 780 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 80 RIC 785 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 71 RIC 786 (III, Marcus Aurelius), S 5492 RIC 791 (III, Marcus Aurelius), S 5494 RIC 758 (III, Marcus Aurelius), S 5479 RIC 759 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 7 RIC 762 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 14 RIC 771 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 38 RIC 775 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 50 RIC 784 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 70 RIC 788 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 92 RIC 789 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 93

AE Medallion
21) B1, O3, R20, T43 C 105

AE Sestertius
22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) B1, O2, R04, T14 B1, O3, R02, T04 B1, O3, R03, T11 B1, O3, R08, T20 B1, O3, R10, T26 B1, O3, R15, T35 B1, O3, R15, T36 B1, O3, R18, T41 RIC 1736 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 21 RIC 1730 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 8 RIC 1734 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 15 RIC 1747 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 37 RIC 1756 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 54 RIC 1767 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 77 RIC 1763 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 72 RIC 1779 (III, Marcus Aurelius), S 5510

AE As
30) 31) 32) B1, O3, R12, T27 B1, O3, R13, T32 B1, O3, R15, T36 RIC 1759 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 64 RIC 1761 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 61 RIC 1764 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 73

147
Lucilla Bust

Lucilla Types

148
Commodus vies with Caligula and Nero as Roman history's most perverse and sadistic of rulers. Like Caligula and Nero before, Commodus was an ordinary (by imperial standards) ruler who succeeded Marcus Aurelius, his father, upon his death. In his one major positive deed, Commodus called off the expedition Augustus 177-192 against the Germans which his father had commenced on terms favorable to Rome. He sped off to Rome where he much preferred living the perks of an emperor to the dirty business of waging wars. While he whiled away his time pursuing a hedonistic lifestyle he was happy to delegate administrative responsibilities to others.

Commodus

Unfortunately, his appointees never seemed to last long on the job. Whether through incompetence, bad luck or corruption, one by one these fell and needed replacement. Commodus little by little began gaining a taste for power as the shuffling of his foremen took place and, finally, he decided to manage the empire himself. It is starting with this period that Commodus began to act increasingly unpredictably and cruel. A botched conspiracy against him, orchestrated by no less than his beloved sister Lucilla, was discovered and his surviving the episode turned him afterwards into a highly paranoid individual who had countless officials executed for disloyalty imagined or real. In his final year of life he shocked Romans of all classes by personally moonlighting as a gladiator. Of course, these fights were arranged so that he could invariably come out the victor. Because of this a record-breaking 700+ victories were scored in his name, each one ending in the deaths of one or more gladiators and/or wild beasts at the Colosseum. A successful conspiracy against him was finally hatched by one of his lovers who first tried poisoning him but he threw up and a wrestler was summoned who strangled him to death on the last day of the year 192. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) Bare head right Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped bust right Head right, wearing lion skin Laureate bust left Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, cuirassed torso right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate bust right, with lion skin and club Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

For the period, Commodus’s coins are no different in terms of prices and availability compared to that of his immediate predecessors. However, it is somewhat surprising that few Denarii remain in mint state or even close to it. While the ever declining fineness of the silver content in the coins themselves is partly to blame one may wonder about the even baser Denarii of Caracalla or Elagabalus which are downright plentiful in truly gem condition. Because of the historical significance, coins featuring Commodus’s portrait wearing a lion’s head skin, the symbolism of which is associated with Hercules, are particularly prized.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) COMM ANT AVG P BRIT COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG COMMODVS CAES AVG FIL COMMODVS CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM COMMODVS CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM COS DIVO COMMODO IMP CAES L AVREL COMMODVS GERM SARM IMP L AVREL COMMODVS AVG GERM SARM L AEL AVR COM AVG PF L AEL AVR COMM AVG P FEL L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL L AVREL COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM L AVREL COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM L AVREL COMMODVS AVG L AVREL COMMODVS AVG GERM SARM L AVREL COMMODVS AVG TR P III L AVREL COMMODVS AVG TR P IIII L AVREL COMMODVS AVG TR P V L AVREL COMMODVS CAES AVG FIL GERM L COMMODVS AVG M ANTONINVS COMMODVS AVG 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) M COMM ANT AVG P BRIT FEL M COMM ANT AVG PIVS BRIT M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT PP M COMM ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT M COMM ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT PP M COMM ANT P PEL AVG BRIT M COMM ANTO AVG PIVS FEL M COMM ANTON AVG PIVS BRIT M COMM ANTON AVG PIVS FEL M COMM ANTONIN AVG BRIT M COMMOD ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT PP M COMMODVS ANT AVG P BRIT FELIX M COMMODVS ANT FELIX AVG P BRIT M COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT M COMMODVS ANTON AVG PIVS M COMMODVS ANTON AVG PIVS BRIT M COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG M COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS M COMMODVS ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG BRIT M COMMODVS AVG PIVS BRIT M COMMODVS N AVG PIVS BRIT

149
Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) ADVENTVS AVG IMP IIII COS II PP ADVENTVS CAES ANN AVG ANN AVG PM TR P VIIII IMP VI COS IIII PP ANN AVG TR P VI IMP IIII COS III PP ANN AVG TR P VII IMP IIII COS III ANN AVG TR P VII IMP IIII COS III PP ANN AVG TR P VIIII IMP VI COS IIII PP ANN PM TR P VIIII IMP VII COS IIII PP ANN PM TR P X IMP VII COS IIII PP ANNO AVG TR P VIIII IMP VII COS IIII PP APOL MONET PM TR P XV APOL MONETAE PM TR P XV IMP VIII COS VI APOL MONETAE PM TR P XVI IMP VIII COS VI APOL PAL APOL PAL PM TR P XVI COS VI APOL PALAT PM TR P XVI COS VI APOLLINI PALATINO AVCT PIET PM TR P XII IMP VIII COS V PP AVCTOR PIETAT PM TR P XII IMP VIII COS V PP AVCTOR PIETAT PM TR P XIIII IMP VIII COS V PP BRITT PM TR P VIIII IMP VII COS IIII PP CONC COM PM TR P XVI COS VI CONC COMMODI CONC MIL CONC MIL PM TR P X IMP VII COS IIII PP CONC MIL PM TR P XI IMP VII COS IIII PP CONC MIL PM TR P XI IMP VII COS V PP CONCOR COMMODI CONCORDIAE COMMODI AVG CONSECRATIO COS PP COS VI PP COS VII PP DPRC DE GERMANIS DE SARMATIS FEL FEL AVG TR P VI IMP IIII COS III PP FEL PVBLICA FELIC COM PM TR P XVII COS VII PP FELIC PERPETVAE AVG FELIC PERPETVAE AVG COS VI FELICITATI CAES FID EXERC FID EXERC PM TR P X IMP VII COS IIII PP FID EXERCIT FIDEI COH PM TR P XII COS V FIDEI COH PM TR P XVI COS VI FIDEI COH PM TR P XVII COS VI FIDEI COHORTIVM AVG FOR FEL PM TR P XIIII COS V DES VI FOR RED FOR RED PM TR P X IMP VII COS IIII PP FOR RED PM TR P XI IMP VII COS V PP FOR RED PM TR P XIII IMP VIII COS V PP FORT FEL PM TR P XIIII COS V PP FORT FELI PM TR P XIIII IMP VIII COS V DES VI FORT FELI PM TR P XIIII IMP VIII COS V PP FORT MANENT PM TR P XIIII COS V PP FORT RED FORTVNAE MANENTI GEN AVG FELIC COS VI HER ROM COND COS VII PP HERC COM PM TR P XVI COS VI HERC COMMODIANO HERC COMMODIANO PM TR P XVI COS VI HERC ROM CONDITORI COS VII PP HERC ROM CONDITORI PM TR P XVII IMP VIII COS VII PP HERCVLI COMITI HERCVLI ROMANO AVG HERCVLI ROMANO AVGVSTO HILAR AVG HILARIT AVG HILARIT AVG PM TR P XII IMP VIII COS V PP HILARITAS HILARITAS AVG HILARITAS AVG TR P VIII IMP V COS III PP IMP II COS II PP IMP III COS II PP IOM SPONSOR SEC AVG IOM SPONSOR SEC AVG COS VI PP IOV EXSVP PM TR P XI IMP VIII IOV EXSVP PM TR P XII IMP VIII IOV IVVEN PM TR P XIIII COS V DES VI IOV IVVEN PM TR P XIIII COS V PP 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI DEFENS SALVTIS AVG IOVI DEFENS SALVTIS AVG COS VI IOVI EXSVPER PM TR P XI IMP VIII COS V PP IOVI EXSVPER PM TR P XII IMP VIII COS V PP IOVI EXSVPER PM TR P XIIII IMP VIII COS V PP IOVI IVVENI PM TR P XIIII IMP VIII COS V PP IOVI VICTORI IMP III COS II PP IOVI VLTORI IVNO REGINA IVPPITER CONSERVATOR IVPPITER COSERVATOR TR P V IMP IIII COS II PP LAET AVG PM TR P XII IMP VIII COS V PP LAETITIA LAETITIAE AVG LIB AVG IIII LIB AVG IIII TR P VI IMP IIII COS III PP LIB AVG PM TR P XV COS VI LIB AVG PM TR P XVII COS VII PP LIB AVG TR P V IMP IIII COS II PP LIB AVG V TR P VII IMP IIII COS III PP LIB AVG VI LIB AVG VI PM TR P XI IMP VII COS V PP LIB AVG VIII LIB AVG VIII PM TR P XVII COS VII PP LIB AVG VIIII LIBERAL AVG VI LIBERAL AVG VII LIBERAL V LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERALITAS AVG II LIBERALITAS AVG II TR P III LIBERALITAS AVG TR P V IMP IIII COS II PP LIBERALITAS AVG VII LIBERT AVG LIBERT AVG PM TR P XI IMP VII COS V PP LIBERT PM TR P XIII IMP VIIII COS V PP LIBERTAS AVG IMP II COS PP LIBERTAS AVG TR P VI IMP IIII COS III MART PAC MART PAC PM TR P XIIII COS V DES VI MART PAC PM TR P XIIII COS V PP MART PACAT PM TR P XIIII IMP VIII COS V PP MARTI VLTORI AVG MARTI VLTORI AVG COS VI MARTI VLTORI AVG COS VI PP MATRI DEV CONSERV AVG MATRI DEVM CONSERV AVG COS VI MAVRETANIA MIN AVG PM TR P XVI COS VI MIN VICT PM TR P XIIII COS V DES VI MINER AVG MINER AVG PM TR P XVI MINER PAC MINER VICT MINER VICT PM TR P XIIII IMP VIII COS V MINER VICT PM TR P XV IMP VIII COS VI MVNIFICENTIA AVG TR P VIII IMP VI COS IIII PP MVNIFICENTIA AVG TR P VIIII IMP VI COS IIII PP NOBILIT AVG PM TR P XII IMP VIII COS V PP NOBILITAS AVG OPTIME MAXIME PACI AETER PM TR P XIIII COS V PP PACI AETER PM TR P XIIII IMP VIII PACI AETERNAE COS V PP PACI AETERNAE CV PP PAT SENAT PATER SENAT PM TR P XII IMP VIII COS V PP PATER SENATVS PIET SENAT PM TR P XIIII COS V PP PIETAS AVG PIETATI AETERNAE COS V PP PIETATI SENATVS PIETATI SENATVS CV PP PM TR P VIII IMP VI COS IIII PP PM TR P VIIII IMP VI COS IIII PP PM TR P VIIII IMP VII COS IIII PP PM TR P X IMP VII COS IIII PP PM TR P XI IMP VII COS IIII PP PM TR P XI IMP VII COS V PP PM TR P XI IMP VIII COS V PP PM TR P XII IMP VII COS V PP PM TR P XII IMP VIII PM TR P XII IMP VIII COS V PP PM TR P XIII IMP VIII COS V PP PM TR P XIIII IMP VIII COS V PP

150
173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) PM TR P XV IMP VIII COS VI PM TR P XVI COS VI PM TR P XVII IMP VIII COS VII PP PM TR P XVIII IMP VIII COS VII PP PONTIF PRINC IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS PROV AVG TR P VIII IMP VI COS IIII PP PROV DEOR TR P VI IMP IIII COS III PP PROVID AVG PROVIDENTIAE AVG PVBLIC FEL PM TR P XII IMP VIII COS V PP PVBLICA FEL ROM FEL PM TR P XVI COS VI ROMAE AETERNAE COS V PP ROMAE AETERNAE CV PP ROMAE FELICI ROMAE FELICI COS VI SAEC FEL PM TR P XI IMP VII COS V PP SAECVLI FELIC SAL GEN HVM SAL GEN HVM COS VI PP SALVS AVG SALVS AVG TR P VII IMP V COS III PP SALVS AVG TR P VIII IMP V COS IIII PP SEC ORB PM TRP XIIII COS V DES VI SECVR ORB PM TR P XIIII SECVRIT ORB SECVRITAS PVBLICA SECVRITAS PVBLICA TR P VI IMP III COS III PP SERAPIDI CONSERV AVG SERAPIDI CONSERV AVG COS VI PP SERAPIDI COSERV AVG COS VI PP SPES PVBLICA TEMP FELI TEMP FELIC TEMP FELIC PM TR P XV IMP VIII COS VI TEMP FELIC PM TR P XV IMP VIIII COS VI TEMP FELIC PM TR P XVI COS VI TEMPOR FELIC TEMPORVM FELICITAS TR P II COS PP TR P II COS PP DE GERM TR P II COS PP DE SARM TR P II IMP II COS 218) 219) 220) 221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) 231) 232) 233) 234) 235) 236) 237) 238) 239) 240) 241) 242) 243) 244) 245) 246) 247) 248) 249) 250) 251) 252) 253) 254) 255) 256) 257) TR P III IMP II COS PP TR P IIII IMP II COS PP TR P IIII IMP II COS II PP TR P IIII IMP III COS II PP TR P V IMP III COS II PP TR P V IMP IIII COS II PP TR P VI IMP IIII COS III PP TR P VII IMP III COS III PP TR P VII IMP IIII COS III PP TR P VII IMP V COS III PP TR P VIII IMP V COS IIII PP TR P VIII IMP VI COS IIII PP TR P VIIII IMP VI COS IIII PP TR P VIIII IMP VII COS IIII PP TR P X IMP VII COS IIII PP TR P XI IMP VII COS V PP TR P XV IMP VIII COS VI TR P XVII IMP VIII COS VII PP TR POT COS TR POT II COS TR POT II COS DE GERM TR POT II COS PP VICTORIAE FELICI VIRT AETER AVG VIRTVS AVG TR P V IMP III COS II PP VIRTVT AVG PM TR P XII IMP VIII COS V PP VIRTVTI AVGVSTI TR P VII IMP IIII COS III PP VOT SOL DEC PM TR P XI IMP VIII VOT SOLV PRO SAL PR VOT SVSC DEC VOT SVSC DEC PM TR P VIIII IMP VII COS IIII PP VOT SVSC DEC PM TR P X IMP VII COS IIII PP VOTA DEC ANN SVSC VOTA DEC ANN SVSC TR P VI IMP IIII COS III PP VOTA P VOTA PVBLICA VOTA PVBLICA IMP II COS II PP VOTA SOLV PRO SAL PR VOTA SVSCEP DECEN TR P VIIII IMP VII No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scales over globe and cornucopia. Aesculapius standing left, holding hand of kneeling Salus to left and staff with snake coiled around. Altar Altar reading FORT REDVCI Annona standing left, holding Ceres over modius and cornucopia; galley prow to right, two people within. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Apollo standing right, leaning on column and with legs crossed, resting head on hand. Apollo standing, facing, holding patera and lyre. Apollo standing, facing, holding plectrum and lyre on column. Archway, Janus within, holding scepter. Bow, club and quiver Bow, quiver, club with lion skin and trident. Britannia standing left, holding scythe and wreath Castor leading horse left, holding spear. Ceres standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding torch and cornucopia. Commodus bare head right. Commodus laureate head right Commodus leading oxen right Commodus riding horse right, holding spear, led by soldier and followed by three other soldiers. Commodus riding horse right, raising hand. Commodus riding horse right, spearing enemy. Commodus riding horse right, spearing lion. Commodus riding horse right, spearing panther. Commodus riding quadriga left, holding branch and scepter; Victory crowning him from behind. Commodus riding quadriga left, holding scepter with eagle atop Commodus riding quadriga left, holding scepter with eagle atop, Victory crowning him. Commodus riding quadriga right, holding scepter with eagle atop Commodus seated left on platform accompanied by Liberalitas, holding coin counter and cornucopia; citizen on steps to lower left. Commodus seated left on platform accompanied by lictor and Liberalitas, holding coin counter and cornucopia; citizen on steps to lower left. Commodus seated left, holding branch and scepter. Commodus seated left, holding globe, being crowned by hovering Victory from behind. Commodus seated left, holding globe. Commodus standing left on platform, raising hand and holding scepter, facing (3) soldiers below. Commodus standing left on platform, raising hand and holding scepter, facing (4) soldiers below. Commodus standing left on platform, raising hand and holding scepter, facing (5) soldiers below. Commodus standing left on platform, raising hand and holding scepter, facing (6) soldiers below. Commodus standing left on right, being crowned by Victory, shaking hands with Serapis and Isis to left; Isis holds sistrum. Commodus standing left on right, holding cornucopia, shaking hands with Felicitas to left, holding caduceus.

151
40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) Commodus standing left, holding branch and cradling scepter. Commodus standing left, holding branch and scepter; trophy to right with weapons at its base. Commodus standing left, holding globe and scepter; Jupiter behind him, standing left, touching his shoulder and holding thunderbolt. Commodus standing left, sacrificing over altar. Commodus standing left, sacrificing over altar; bull lying at altar’s base. Commodus standing left, sacrificing over altar; child by altar, citizen slaying bull to left and musicians in background. Commodus standing left, sacrificing over altar; victimarius with bull to left. Commodus standing right on left, holding scepter, shaking hands with Senator to right, holding scepter. Commodus standing right on left, raising hands, facing Victory on column to right; star in field. Commodus standing to left, facing, holding branch and scepter, next to Jupiter to right, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Commodus standing, facing, holding spear and parazonium. Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter. Concordia standing, facing, holding standard in each hand. Cornucopiae (2) crossed, caduceus within Cornucopiae (2) crossed, winged caduceus within Cybele riding lion right, holding drum and scepter. Eagle standing left on globe Eagle standing right Elephant standing right Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia; modius to left. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter. Felicitas standing left, holding patera and scepter. Felicitas standing left, holding Victory and winged caduceus. Fides standing left, holding globe and standard. Fides standing left, holding grain ears and standard. Fides standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding standard and cornucopia Fides standing right, holding grain ears and fruit basket Fides standing right, holding standard and cornucopia. Fortuna seated left, holding horse by bridle and cornucopia. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia; wheel under chair. Fortuna seated left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Fortuna standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fortuna standing right, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Four Seasons frolicking Galley sailing left Galley sailing right Genius standing left, holding patera and grain ears. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Hercules leading oxen left Hercules leading oxen left, holding club with lion skin. Hercules standing left on right, holding club and receiving grain ears from Africa to left, holding sistrum; lion by her feet. Hercules standing left on right, stepping on galley prow, holding club with lion skin and receiving grain ears from Africa to left, holding sistrum. Hercules standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia; tree to left with lion skin. Hercules standing left, touching trophy and holding club with lion skin. Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding bow. Hercules standing, facing, hand on hip and resting hand on club with lion skin. Hercules standing, facing, holding club and bow. Hercules standing, facing, holding patera and club. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia. Italia seated left on globe, holding cornucopia and scepter. Juno advancing right, aiming spear at snake to lower right and holding shield. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left. Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; seven stars in field. Jupiter seated left, holding branch and scepter Jupiter seated left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; small Commodus to left, holding trophy. Jupiter standing left, holding Victory and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing left, holding Victory; eagle to left. Laetitia standing left, holding branch and palm. Laetitia standing left, holding grain ears and rudder on globe. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear; weapons by feet. Mars standing left, stepping on cuirass, holding branch and spear. Mars standing right, holding spear and shield Mauretania standing in front of horse, holding its bridle and scepter. Minerva advancing right, aiming spear and holding shield. Minerva advancing right, aiming spear and holding shield; owl to right. Minerva advancing right, holding branch and shield. Minerva standing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear; shield to left, trophy to right. Minerva standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding spear with shield. Modius with grain ears. Monetae (3) holding scale and cornucopia. Nobilitas standing right, holding scepter and Palladium Pax seated left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter

152
129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia; shield to left. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, setting fire to weapons and holding scepter. Pietas seated left, raising hand and holding scepter. Pietas seated left, raising hand and holding scepter; child to left. Pietas standing left, holding scepter and hand of kneeling child. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter Roma seated left, holding Victory and cornucopia Roma seated left, holding Victory and parazonium Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Roma seated right, holding Victory and parazonium Roma standing left, holding spear. Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear. Romulus advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar. Salus seated left, holding branch over snake. Salus seated left, Sphinx under chair, feeding snake to left under tree and next to column with statue atop. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter. Salus standing left, holding patera and scepter. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake Securitas seated left, holding globe. Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand. Securitas seated left, holding scepter. Securitas seated right, holding scepter. Serapis standing right, raising hand and holding scepter. Serapis standing, facing, holding branch and scepter. Shield, EQVESTER / ORDO / PRINCIPI / IVVENT within Sol radiate, draped bust right. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple with (2) columns, Janus standing within, holding scepter. Trophy; seated captive on either side. Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath over shield on cippus. Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath over shield reading SC on cippus reading COS V PP Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath over two shields over base reading C V PP Victory advancing left, holding trophy with both hands. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and trophy. Victory advancing right, holding trophy with both hands. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and trophy. Victory seated left, holding patera and palm. Victory seated right, holding shield Victory standing right, holding shield on palm. Victory standing right, holding shield on palm; seated captive to right of palm. Victory standing right, holding Victory on globe on column Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield on palm reading VO / DE Virtus seated left, holding Victory and spear. Virtus seated right, holding spear and parazonium. Virtus standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Weapons in a pile Wreath, club within; HER CVL / RO MAN / AV GV across fields Wreath, EQVESTER ORDO PRINCIPI IVVENT within Wreath, MAGN / IFICENT / IAE AVG / COS VII / PP within. Wreath, PRIMI / DECEN PM / TR P X IMP VII / COS IIII PP / SC within. Wreath, SPQR LAETITIAE CV within. Wreath, TEMPORVM FELICITAS within Wreath, VOT XX within Wreath, VOTIS XX COS VI within

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) B02, O03, R002, T021 B02, O03, R178, T041 Exe: PROVID AVG B08, O26, R167, T079 B08, O39, R162, T100 B11, O12, R071, T089 B11, O16, R221, T112 B11, O27, R065, T088 B12, O10, R214, T182 Exe: DE GERM B12, O13, R111, T110 B12, O16, R218, T015 B12, O24, R164, T034 Exe: FID EXERC B12, O26, R169, T161 Exe: COS V PP

Reference(s)
RIC 604 (III, Marcus Aurelius), BMC 641, C 1 Calico 2316a RIC III 69e, BMC 118 RIC 254b, C 201 RIC 659 (III, Marcus Aurelius), BMC 795, C 768 RIC III 221, C 180 RIC 633 (III, Marcus Aurelius) RIC III 239a, BMC 311 RIC 648 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 760 RIC III 110, C 139

AU Quinarius
13) B11, O27, R173, T170 RIC III 211, BMC 279, C 553

153
AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
14) B14, O08, R031, T057

Reference(s)
RIC 93 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 1009

AR Denarius
15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) B01, O02, R116, T110 B01, O02, R178, T041 B03, O03, R036, T162 B03, O03, R178, T041 B03, O03, R205, T161 B04, O13, R257, T183 B07, O01, R231, T059 Exe: FEL B07, O01, R231, T100 B07, O01, R231, T124 B07, O01, R231, T138 Exe: ROM B07, O01, R231, T143 B07, O01, R232, T006 Exe: ANN B07, O01, R232, T059 Exe: FEL B07, O01, R232, T100 B07, O01, R232, T138 Exe: ROM B07, O01, R232, T143 B07, O13, R042, T039 B07, O13, R071, T089 B07, O13, R081, T042 B07, O13, R088, T098 B07, O13, R105, T111 B07, O13, R111, T110 B07, O13, R130, T180 B07, O13, R175, T016 B07, O13, R175, T067 * in left field B07, O13, R175, T067 B07, O13, R175, T076 * in left field B07, O13, R175, T134 * in left field B07, O13, R175, T167 * in left field B07, O13, R183, T087 B07, O13, R203, T157 B07, O13, R246, T043 B07, O13, R257, T185 B07, O16, R220, T147 B07, O16, R220, T168 B07, O16, R221, T173 B07, O23, R224, T007 B07, O23, R224, T059 B07, O23, R226, T007 B07, O23, R226, T061 B07, O24, R168, T034 B07, O25, R146, T126 B07, O26, R019, T136 B07, O26, R057, T076 B07, O26, R062, T070 Exe: CVPP B07, O26, R083, T098 Exe: COSVPP B07, O26, R084, T099 B07, O26, R086, T103 B07, O26, R099, T107 B07, O26, R101, T108 B07, O26, R122, T111 B07, O26, R128, T113 B07, O26, R148, T102 Exe: CVPP B07, O26, R167, T061 B07, O26, R170, T059 B07, O26, R170, T111 B07, O26, R171, T001 B07, O26, R171, T073 B07, O26, R171, T081 B07, O26, R171, T082 B07, O26, R171, T111 B07, O26, R171, T146 B07, O26, R191, T177 B07, O26, R199, T152 Exe: COSVPP B07, O26, R233, T001 B07, O26, R233, T032 B07, O26, R233, T052 B07, O26, R233, T073 B07, O26, R233, T100 B07, O26, R233, T167 B07, O26, R240, T165 B07, O26, R243, T180 B07, O26, R245, T044 B07, O27, R012, T008 COS VI across fields B07, O27, R016, T010 B07, O27, R023, T051 B07, O27, R049, T065 B07, O27, R063, T083 B07, O27, R085, T103 B07, O27, R104, T111 B07, O27, R120, T110 RIC 599 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 291 RIC 603 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 608 RIC 606 (III, Marcus Aurelius), S 5543, C 77a RIC 617 (III, Marcus Aurelius) RIC 622 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 709 RIC III 251d, C 190 RIC III 97 RIC III 88, C 457 RIC III 94, C 467 RIC III 98a, S 5689, C 660 RIC III 90c, C 460 RIC III 106, C 18 RIC III 108, C 117 RIC III 101, C 472 RIC III 112 RIC III 102, C 476 RIC III 249, C 120 RIC III 254a, S 5646 RIC III 255, S 5648, C 239 RIC III 256, C 245 RIC III 241, C 288 RIC III 239, C 325 RIC III 257, C 346 RIC III 230, C 582 RIC III 233, C 583 RIC III 232, C 584 RIC III 235, S 5685 RIC III 236, S 5686, C 575 RIC III 237, C 568 RIC III 259, C 643 RIC III 261, C 703 RIC III 262, S 5725, C 984 RIC III 248 RIC 663 (III, Marcus Aurelius) RIC 664 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 774 RIC 666 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 775 RIC III 14b, C 811 RIC III 15b, C 805 RIC III 28, C 835 RIC III 29a, C 831 RIC III 155, S 5663, C 385 RIC III 146, S 5630, C 34 RIC III 172, C 162 RIC III 191a, S 5642 RIC III 138, C 241 RIC III 152, C 242 RIC III 173, S 5650, C 259 RIC III 154, C 278 RIC III 201, S 5653, C 279 RIC III 135, C 340 RIC III 175, S 5659, C 350 RIC III 192, C 387 RIC III 137, C 514 RIC III 143, C 523 RIC III 144, C 521 RIC III 164d, C 537 RIC III 166a, C 540 RIC III 167, C 532 RIC III 384, C 532 RIC III 168, S 5681, C 542 RIC III 169, S 5682 RIC III 136, C 664 RIC III 179, C 697 RIC III 120, C 499 RIC III 125, C 505 RIC III 126, C 53 RIC III 131, C 150 RIC III 117, C 486 RIC III 122a, C 492 RIC III 196, C 952 RIC III 160, C 966 RIC III 140, C 1000 RIC III 205, C 22 RIC III 218, S 5629, C 24 RIC III 219, S 5631 RIC III 220, C 127 RIC III 227, S 5643 RIC III 187, C 260 RIC III 208d, S 5654, C 282 RIC III 202a, C 323

154
96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) B07, O27, R127, T113 B07, O27, R136, T120 B07, O27, R137, T122 B07, O27, R139, T120 B07, O27, R173, T031 B07, O27, R186, T140 B07, O27, R198, T152 B07, O27, R211, T053 B07, O32, R154, T040 B07, O32, R184, T062 B07, O32, R230, T181 B07, O32, R231, T167 B07, O39, R227, T137 B07, O39, R229, T112 B07, O39, R229, T118 B07, O39, R229, T129 B07, O39, R229, T143 B07, O39, R229, T149 B07, O39, R230, T060 B07, O39, R230, T068 B07, O39, R230, T081 B07, O39, R230, T119 B07, O39, R230, T124 B07, O39, R230, T130 B07, O39, R230, T181 B07, O41 R224, T007 B07, O41, R103, T110 B07, O41, R106, T110 B07, O41, R107, T109 B07, O41, R107, T110 B07, O41, R223, T162 B07, O41, R224, T059 B07, O41, R224, T129 B07, O41, R224, T137 B07, O41, R224, T140 B07, O41, R227, T112 B07, O41, R228, T143 B08, O09, R237, T149 B08, O16, R222, T179 B08, O39, R229, T129 B11, O09, R237, T101 B11, O09, R237, T149 B11, O09, R237, T167 B11, O16, R032, T144 B11, O16, R218, T144 B11, O16, R218, T146 B11, O16, R222, T074 B11, O17, R218, T147 B11, O22, R032, T148 RIC III 188, C 351 RIC III 222, C 358 RIC III 189, C 366 RIC III 223a RIC III 212, S 5683 RIC III 224, C 655 RIC III 190, C 695 RIC III 209, C 719 RIC III 157, C 397 RIC III 159, C 646 RIC III 93, S 5674, C 466 RIC III 44, C 846 RIC III 54 RIC III 56 RIC III 64 RIC III 58, C 885 RIC III 66, C 903 RIC III 74, C 445 RIC III 75, C 448 RIC III 76, C 435 RIC III 72, C 424 RIC III 81, C 447 RIC III 86, C 940 RIC III 71, C 427 RIC III 14a, C 812 RIC III 22, C 307 RIC III 10, C 302 RIC III 133, C 316 RIC III 36a, S 5655, C 311 RIC III 9a, S 5706, C 791 RIC III 15a, S 5711, C 805 RIC III 17, C 806 RIC III 19, C 804 RIC III 12, S 5707, C 803 RIC III 46, C 842 RIC III 49, C 854 RIC 626 (III, Marcus Aurelius) RIC 636 (III, Marcus Aurelius) RIC 641 (III, Marcus Aurelius), S 5698 RIC 642 (III, Marcus Aurelius) RIC 651 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 64 RIC 650 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 761 RIC 649 (III, Marcus Aurelius), S 5702 RIC III 2, C 779 RIC 647 (III, Marcus Aurelius) RIC 654 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 66

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
145) B07, O33, R031, T056

Reference(s)
RIC 72a (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 61

AR Quinarius
146) B12, O16, R032, T167 RIC 656 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 65

AE Medallion
147) B09, O43, R150, T129 Exe: COSVPP

AE Sestertius
148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) B04, O13, R257, T184 B07, O12, R071, T089 Exe: SC B07, O12, R183, T087 Exe: SC B07, O13, R175, T059 B07, O13, R175, T176 * over SC in field B07, O38, R129, T114 B07, O38, R142, T123 B07, O38, R146, T127 B07, O38, R159, T047 Exe: COS V PP B07, O38, R166, T032 B07, O38, R166, T161 B07, O38, R171, T073 Exe: FOR RED B07, O40, R256, T043 Exe: COS IIII PP B07, O41, R181, T138 B07, O41, R224, T030 Exe: LIB AVG IIII B07, O41, R226, T006 B07, O41, R227, T006 B07, O41, R228, T106 B07, O41, R244, T023 Exe: SC B07, O42, R180, T138 B07, O42, R229, T169 RIC III 637, C 192 RIC III 640, C 203 RIC III 641, C 644 RIC III 607 RIC III 613, C 590 RIC III 527, C 352 RIC III 528, C 369 RIC III 501 RIC III 549, C 410 RIC III 463, C 506 RIC III 460, C 489 RIC III 513, C 153 RIC III 441, C 988 RIC III 312, C 627 RIC III 310, C 310 RIC III 325 RIC III 344 RIC III 348, C 850 RIC III 332a, C 972 RIC III 379, C 620 RIC III 374, C898

155
169) B08, O18, R254, T046 Exe: SC 170) B11, O19, R079, T123 RIC 1595 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 979 RIC 1602 (III, Marcus Aurelius)

AE Dupondius
171) 172) 173) 174) B14, O20, R242, T179 B14, O28, R171, T001 B14, O41, R125, T112 B14, O42, R229, T119

Reference(s)
RIC III 292a, C 961 RIC III 315, C 336 RIC III 368b, C 881

AE As
175) 176) 177) 178) B02, O07, R206, T161 B03, O07, R076, T094 B04, O13, R257, T183 Exe: SC B07, O28, R171, T001 RIC 1545 (III, Marcus Aurelius) RIC 1547 (III, Marcus Aurelius), C 218 RIC III 644, C 193 RIC III 517

Commodus Busts

Commodus Types

156
Commodus Types (continued)

157
Commodus Types (continued)

158

Crispina
? – d.183
Busts:
1) 2) Draped bust left Draped bust right

The wife of Commodus, upon discovering Crispina had been unfaithful to him he had her exiled to an island and executed some time afterwards.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) CRISPINA AVG CRISPINA AVG IMP COMMODI AVG CRISPINA AVGVSTA

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) CERES CONCORDIA DIANA LVCIFERA DIS CONIVGALIBVS DIS GENITALIBVS FECVNDITAS HILARITAS IVNO IVNO LVCINA IVNO REGINA LAETITIA PVDICITIA ROMAE AETERNAE SALVS VENVS VENVS FELIX VENVS VICTRIX

It’s easier to find a bronze Sestertius or Dupondius of Crispina than it is a Denarius which is atypical of second century Roman imperial coinage. It’s unlikely that this was any sort of intentional design apart from an administrative oddity. While the abundance of total coins of Crispina and Lucilla are far less than the Faustinas of the previous generation the Denarii are not hard to find and often can be found in pristine condition. Due to the wide range of conditions available in bronze it’s hard to give any sort of meaningful price range but a $100 should buy a fairly nice Crispina bronze or, for that matter, a Denarius too.

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) Altar Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch. Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Diana standing right, holding torch with both hands. Hands, in handshake. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to lower left. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder on globe. Pudicitia seated left, touching chest Pudicitia standing left, pulling veil. Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar. Venus seated left, holding Minerva Venus seated left, holding Minerva and scepter. Venus seated left, holding Victory and scepter; dove under chair. Venus standing left, holding apple and pulling dress from shoulder. Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter. Venus standing right, facing away, leaning on column, holding helmet and scepter.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) B2 O3 R16 T18

Reference(s)
RIC 287 (Commodus)

AR Denarius
2) 3) 4) B2 O1 R05 T01 B2 O3 R01 T03 B2 O3 R02 T06 RIC 281 (Commodus), C 15 RIC 276 (Commodus), C 1 RIC 278 (Commodus), C 5

159
5) 6) 7) 8) 9) B2 O3 R02 T08 B2 O3 R07 T09 B2 O3 R08 T11 B2 O3 R15 T20 B2 O3 R16 T18 RIC 279 (Commodus), C 8 RIC 282 (Commodus), S 6000 RIC 283 (Commodus), C 21 RIC 286a (Commodus), S 6002, C 35

AE Sestertius
10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) B2 O2 R14 T16 B2 O3 R02 T04 B2 O3 R07 T09 B2 O3 R11 T12 B2 O3 R12 T13 B2 O3 R16 T18 RIC 672 (Commodus) C 32 RIC 665 (Commodus), C 6 RIC 678 (Commodus), C 20 RIC 669 (Commodus), C 27 RIC 670 (Commodus), C 30 RIC 673 (Commodus), S 1690, C 40

AE As
16) 17) B2 O3 R11 T12 B2 O3 T09 T10 RIC 683 (Commodus) RIC 680 (Commodus)

Crispina Busts

Crispina Types

160

Pertinax
Augustus 193

A former grammar teacher, Pertinax dabbled in the army where he found great success and climbed the ranks eventually landing several high ranking army and civil posts. He was then nominated Augustus following the murder of Commodus by a Senate only too willing to put the Commodus legacy behind them.

With prompt resolve, he immediately began deconstructing the corrupt machinery that had been operating under the former administration and restoring civil liberties, a liberalized economy and the dignity of the Senate. Loved then by both the public and the Senate, his key misfortune was securing the favor of the army entrusted to protect him. Financially incapable of providing a large donative as was by now customary upon the accession of a new emperor (Commodus had drained the imperial treasury to just a few hundred thousand Denarii) as well as the promise of restoring the traditionally strict discipline of the army (again, under Commodus the army, too, had become corrupted with all sorts of bribes and other ill-gotten wealth) all amounted to a deep dissatisfaction within the army. The hushed complaints broke out into an impromptu mob that then advanced towards the palace. Naive but ever the patriot Pertinax personally met the discontented to attempt to reason with them and instead wound up skewered before help could arrive. No sooner had his blood been spilled than the whole empire wept for the insensible loss of so bright a leader. His reign lasted all of 86 days and his death eventually precipitated a major civil war. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Bare head right Bare headed, draped bust right Laureate head right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate head right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) DIVVS PERT PIVS PATER IMP CAES P HELV PERT AVG IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG IMP CAES P HELV PERTINAX AVG

Scoring a Pertinax takes a bit of patience and a lot of cash. Coins are “available” in all three metals but all are very rare. Prices for a Denarius, the most abundant denomination, start in the low- to midhundreds of dollars for a barely recognizable coin and go up quickly from there based on condition. Septimius Severus honored Pertinax posthumously on a few coins. These, unfortunately, are also quite rare.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) AEQVIT AVG TR P COS II CONSECRATIO DIS CVSTODIBVS DIS GENITORIBVS IANO CONSERVAT LAETITIA TEMPOR COS II LAETITIA TEMPORVM COS II LIB AVG TR P COS II MENTI LAVDANDAE OPI DIVIN TR P COS II OPI DIVINAE TR P COS II PON M TR P COS II PROVID DEOR COS II PROVIDEN DEORVM COS II PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM COS II ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVLO FRVGIFERO VOT DECEN TR P COS II No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Caduceus with grain ears attached on either side. Eagle perched on globe Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia Funeral pyre, quadriga atop. Janus standing, facing, holding scepter and resting hand on hip. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and scepter. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Ops seated left, holding grain ears Pertinas seated left on platform, raising hand, facing citizen on steps to lower left; lictor and Liberalitas in background. Pertinax standing left, sacrificing over altar. Pietas standing, facing, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box; child to right. Providentia standing left, raising hands toward star. Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory and spear

161
16) Wreath, PRIMI DENNALES COS II within.

Mints:
1) 2) Alexandria Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) B3, O3, R01, T01 B3, O3, R06, T07 B5, O3, R13, T14

Reference(s)
RIC IVi 1, BMC 14, C 1 RIC IVi 4, C 19 RIC IVi 11, BMC 12, C 41

AR Denarius
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) B3, O3, R01, T01 B3, O3, R05, T06 B3, O3, R06, T07 B3, O3, R10, T10 B3, O3, R13, T14 B3, O3, R17, T02 B3, O3, R18, T12 RIC IVi 1, C 2 RIC IVi 3, C 17 RIC IVi 4, S 6041, C 20 RIC IVi 8, S 6045, C 33 RIC IVi 10, C 40 RIC IVi 12 RIC IVi 13

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
11) B1, O1, R02, T03 RIC 24a (IVi, Septimius Severus)

AE Sestertius
12) 13) B3, O4, R15, T14 B3, O4, R18, T12 RIC IVi 21, C 49 RIC IVi 24

AE As
14) B3, O3, R10, T10 RIC IVi 35

Pertinax Busts

Pertinax Types

162
In what was to become one of the most shameful episodes in the political annals of the empire, the death of Pertinax launched a frantic search for an imperial replacement. The imperial guard, who held de facto power, decided to "right the wrongs" of Pertinax in a most self-serving manner: by auctioning off the throne! Two of Augustus 193 Rome's richest Senators, Didius Julianus and Sulpicianus bid back and forth the donative to be given to each soldier until the sum of about 25,000 Sestertii was reached by Julianus. He was at this point declared the winner amid a joyous uproar. A joyous uproar, of course, by the soldiers who managed such a princely sum for themselves. The rest of Rome cowered in angst at what fate may bring them in the near future. Gibbon, the famous Roman historian of the eighteenth century, called it the "most insolent excess of military licence" and recalls that after the initial festivities of the day were over Julianus "...passed a sleepless night; revolving most probably in his mind his own rash folly, the fate of his virtuous predecessor, and the doubtful and dangerous tenure of an empire, which had not been acquired by merit, but purchased by money."

Didius Julianus

And if he did worry he had ample reason to: as soon as news of this travesty reached the various legions scattered about the empire generals were driven to condemn the new emperor and set out to seek the position for themselves, backed by their veteran legions. Septimius Severus, the first to reach the capital, quickly deposed and executed Julianus and then went on to defeat the other rival contenders in a bloody and prolonged civil war. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Laureate head right Laureate bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate head right

With only two months in power, Rome’s mint officials barely had enough time to get new dies ready before the order came to throw them all away and start working on ones for Septimius Severus. But there are a few coins left of this emperor, even gold ones, and all are highly prized by collectors. How prized? A collectable Denarius will cost a couple thousand dollars or thereabouts. Bronze denominations have more variance because of the wider states of preservation but even a very low grade coin will still be several hundred dollars as long as it can be positively attributed to his reign.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) IMP CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG IMP CAES M DID IVLIAN SEVER AVG IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) CONCORD MILIT PM TR P COS RECTOR ORBIS SECVRITAS PR

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Concordia standing, facing, holding legionary eagle and standard Didius Julianus seated left, holding globe. Didius Julianus standing left, holding globe and scroll. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia Securitas standing left, holding wreath and scepter.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) B1, O1, R2, T4 B3, O1, R3, T3 B3, O3, R1, T1

Reference(s)
RIC IVi 2, BMC 4, C 8 RIC IVi 3, C 14 RIC IVi 5, BMC 9, C 1

AR Denarius
4) 5) 6) B1, O1, R1, T1 B1, O1, R2, T4 B1, O1, R3, T3 RIC IVi 1, C 2 RIC IVi 2 RIC IVi 3, C 15

AE Sestertius
7) B1, O3, R1, T1 RIC IVi 14, C 3

163
8) B1, O3, R3, T3 RIC IVi 16, C 17

AE Dupondius
9) B4, O1, R2, T4

Reference(s)
RIC IVi 12, C 13

Didius Julianus Busts

Didius Julianus Types

164

Manlia Scantilla
?-?
Bust:
1) Draped bust right

Wife of Didius Julianus.

Obverses:
1) 2) MANL SCANTILLA AVG MANLIA SCANTILLA AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) IVNO REGINA PIETAS PVBLICA

Although Didius Julianus seems to have been more generous than most other emperors when it came to honoring his wife (and daughter) by way of striking coins with her likeness this doesn’t translate into their easy availability for no other reason than his very short reign. It is worth noting however that for the first time in Roman imperial history an empress appears with nearly the same frequency on coins as her husband. In fact, only one other emperor, the ultra-rare usurper Regalianus, will show as much devotion to his wife in this manner. Known in the gold Aureus, the silver Denarius and in copper Sestertii and Dupondii, all can be expected to cost several hundred dollars even when barely recognizable. More typically, a decent Denarius or Sestertius will cost between $2,000-$5,000.

Types:
1) 2) 3) Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left Pietas raising hands towards altar

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) B1, O1, R1, T2

Reference(s)
RIC 7 (IV, Didius Julianus), C 1

AR Denarius
2) B1, O1, R1, T2 RIC 7 (IV, Didius Julianus), C 2

AE Sestertius
3) B1, O2, R1, T2 RIC 18a (IV, Didius Julianus)

165

Didia Clara
?-?
Bust:
1) Draped bust right

Daughter of Didius Julianus, reputedly the most beautiful woman in Rome at the time.

Obverse:
1) DIDIA CLARA AVG

Very rare in either silver or bronze (and of course, just about unheard of in gold), coins of Didia Clara do turn up on a fairly regular basis along the numismatic auction house circuit. And they always sell for thousands of dollars each.

Reverse:
1) HILAR TEMPOR

Type:
1) Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) B1, O1, R1, T1

Reference(s)
RIC 10 (IV.i, Didius Julianus), C 2

AR Denarius
2) B1, O1, R1, T1 RIC 10 (IV.i, Didius Julianus), C 3

AE Sestertius
3) B1, O1, R1, T1 RIC 20 (IV.i, Didius Julianus), C 4

166
Niger was the governor of Syria at the time of Pertinax's murder. When he heard what had happened he decided he was the right man for the job. His soldiers quickly fell in line and off they went to Rome. A little kink in their plans cropped up when news reached them that the army of Septimius Augustus 193-194 Severus had the same plans. Niger judiciously figured that his chances of defeating Severus in the open field were not good so he retreated at once back to Syria to await Severus on his own turf. Although this made things a bit more difficult for Severus, however, he was still able to defeat his rival in separate battles and then executed.

Pescennius Niger

Busts:
1) 2) 3) Laureate head right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) IMP ACES C PESCE NIGER IVSTI AV IMP C NIGER IVS AVG COS II IMP C PESC NIGER AVG IMP C PESC NIGER IVS AVG COS II IMP C PESCE NIGER AVG IMP CAES C PES NIGER IVS A IMP CAES C PES NIGER IVS AV IMP CAES C PES NIGER IVS AVG COS II IMP CAES C PESC NGER IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IMP CAES C PESC NIGER AVG IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVS IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVS AV IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVS AVG COS II IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVS COS II IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST A IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST AV IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST AVG IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST AVG COS II IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST COS II IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVSTI A IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVSTI AV IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVSTVS AVG IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVSTVS AVG COS II IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVT AV IMP CAES C PESCE NIGER ISTI A IMP CAES C PESCE NIGER ISTI AVG IMP CAES C PESCE NIGER IVS COS IMP CAES C PESCE NIGER IVST AVG IMP CAES C PESCE NIGER IVSTI AV IMP CAES C PESCEN NIGER IVST A IMP CAES C PESCEN NIGER IVST AV IMP CAES C PESCEN NIGER IVST AVG IMP CAES C PESCEN NIGER IVSTI A IMP CAES C PESCEN NIGER IVSTI AV IMP CAES C PESE NIGER AVG IMP CAES C PESE NIGER IV A IMP CAES C PISE NIGER AVG IMP CAES PESC NIGER IVS COS II IMP CAES PESC NIGER IVST AV IMP CAES PESC NIGER IVST AVG IMP CAES PESC NIGER IVT AV IMP CAES PESCE NIGER ISTI AVG IMP CAES PESCE NIGER IVST

As far as the collector is concerned, locating a coin of Pescennius Niger is not very difficult. However, they are fairly pricey. Regardless of condition, so long as the coin can be positively identified expect to pay a minimum of around $500. Due to imperial bronze coins being mostly issued from Rome itself during this period, there are no available Sestertii, Dupondii or Asses. Other than a few exceedingly rare Aurei this leaves only Denarii. If an abbreviated choice of denominations from which to choose is somewhat disappointing, the bewildering amount of variations from one Denarius to the next will make up for it. Given the nature of Niger’s rise to power coins had to be rushed into production from a provincial mint that did not have extensive familiarity with minting mainstream Denarii. The legends are often erratic and blundered and the rendition of the typical numismatic themes of the day seem odd, crude and carelessly executed. None of this takes away the charm of the coins themselves but it does make cataloguing the corpus of his series very challenging. It should therefore not be surprising to find new varieties.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) AETERNITAS AVG APOLLINI SANCTO BONAS SPEI BONI EVENTVS CELERI FRVGIFER CERER FRVG CERERI FRVFER CERERI FRVGIF CERERI FRVGIFER CERERI FRVGIFERI CONCORDIA FELICIA TEMPORA FELICIT TEMPOR FELICITAS TEMPOR FELICITAS TEMPORVM FIDEI EXERCITVI 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) FORTVNA PP FORTVNA RED FORTVNA REDVCI FORTVNAE RED FORTVNAE REDV FORTVNAE REDVC FORTVNAE REDVCI HILARITAS AVG IMVISTO IMPER INVIC IMP INVICT IMPERAT INVICTO IMP INVICTO IMP TA INVICTO IMP TROPAE INVICTO IMP TROPAEA INVICTO IMP TROPHAEA

167
33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) INVICTO MPERAI IOVI CAP PR VRB IOVI CONSER IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI PRAE IOVI PRAE ORBIS IVSTI AVG IVSTITIA AVG IVSTITIA AVGV IVSTITIA AVGVSTI MARTI AVG MARTI AVGVSTO MARTI INVICTO MARTI VICTOR MARTI VICTORI MINER VICT MINER VICTRIS MONET AVG MONETA AVG MONETA COS MONETAE AVG 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) MONETE AVG PIETATI AVG ROMAE AETERN ROMAE AETERNA ROMAE AETERNAE ROMAE ATERAE SAECVLI FELICITAS SAECVLI FLICITAS SALVTI AVG SALVTI AVGVS SALVTI AVGVSTI VICTO IMP TROPAEA VICTOR IVST AVG VICTOR IVSTI AV VICTOR IVSTI AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIAE VICTORIAE AVG VIRTVS AVG VIRTVTI AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) Apollo standing left, leaning on column, holding branch and resting hand on hip Capricorns (2) facing away from each other, hind quarters covered by shield; globe with stars within above and between them. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and scepter Ceres standing left, holding torch in each hand Concordia standing left, raising hand and holding cornucopiae Cornucopiae (2), crossed Cornucopiae (2), crossed, grain ear in between Crescent with seven stars above Fides standing, facing, holding grain ears and fruit basket Fides standing, facing, holding fruit basket and grain ears. Fides standing, facing, holding wreath and grain ears. Fortuna seated left, holding branch and cornucopia Fortuna seated left, holding branch and wreath Fortuna seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fortuna seated left, holding patera and wreath Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna seated left, holding scale and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding palm and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Jupiter seated left, holding eagle and scepter Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter; eagle to left. Justitia standing, facing, holding globe and scepter Justitia standing, facing, holding scale and cornucopia Justitia standing, facing, holding scale and scepter. Mars advancing left, holding spear and trophy Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mars standing left, holding trophy and spear Mars standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield. Mars standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield. Modius, grain ears within Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Moneta standing left, holding scale and raising skirt. Pescennius Niger standing left, sacrificing over altar Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear; shield to side. Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear Salus standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake; altar to lower right. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Trophy Trophy with shields, spears, helmet, etc. (various positions, arrangements) Vexillae (3); center vexillum with shield reading VI / CAV / G Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding cornucopia and resting hand on hip. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding shield reading AVG on column and palm Victory standing left, holding shield reading AVG on trophy and palm. Victory standing right, holding wreath and palm Virtus advancing right, holding spear and shield Victory advancing right, holding wreath with both hands Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Virtus standing, facing, holding spear and resting hand on shield

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Caesarea Capadociae

168
AU Aureus
1) 2) B2, O18, R17, T19 B2, O18, R34, T21

Reference(s)

AR Denarius
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) B1, O11, R54, T34 B1, O12, R49, T31 B1, O13, R14, T06 B1, O14, R48, T31 B1, O14, R53, T33 B1, O14, R66, T44 B1, O17, R23, T19 B1, O17, R40, T24 B1, O18, R16, T43 B1, O18, R23, T14 B1, O18, R58, T37 B1, O18, R60, T08 B1, O18, R62, T39 B1, O27, R21, T12 B1, O27, R67, T44 B1, O31, R23, T18 B1, O33, R53, T33 B1, O41, R62, T39 B1, O41, R64, T39 B1, O41, R71, T47 B1, O41, R73, T52 B1, O42, R37, T21 RIC IVi 66b RIC IVi 59, C 53 C 56e RIC IVi 26c, C 28 RIC IVi 45a, C 43

RIC IVi 73 RIC IVi 75b, C 66a

RIC Ivi 64b RIC Ivi 77, C 68 RIC Ivi 92b, C 80a

Pescennius Niger Busts

Pescennius Niger Types

169
Albinus was the Governor of Britain when the bloody shakeout and high-emperor turnover was happening in Rome. He struck a deal with Septimius Severus under which he acknowledged Severus as Augustus in return for the title of Caesar. Initially this setup was agreeable to Albinus but Severus little by little began positioning Augustus 195-196 himself in the customary fashion of a dynast. Albinus recognized that if Severus's sons were being groomed for imperial roles this could only lead to contesting of the initial agreement down the road and, so, he took matters into his own hands and had himself declared emperor.

Clodius Albinus

His timing was good because Severus had his hands full at the time warring in Persia and the Senate despised Severus anyway. Albinus then packed up the main body of his army and began moving towards Rome to solidify his claim there. However, Severus acted quickly and withdrew from the conflicts out east to settle the score with Albinus. By careful maneuvering he was able to intercept the main forces of Albinus, cut off their supplies and engage his weakened armies which were subsequently obliterated. For his part Albinus committed suicide when all was lost for certain. Severus then returned to Rome where he had those in the Senate who had vouched for Albinus executed for treason. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Bare head right Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped bust right Laureate head right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right

The coinage of Clodius Albinus is split into two main groups. The first comprises those coins that were minted in Rome while he was recognized as Caesar and the second of him as rebel contender which were struck out of his homebase of Lugdunum (now Lyons, France). The Denarii of the first set are considerably easier to find and afford but tend to run fairly low grade as offered by coin dealers and usually the flans are a bit small making complete legends a rarity. On the other hand the Denarii minted in Lugdunum, while rarer, are often of better quality. Bronze denominations are scarce across the board and run on the poorer side of preservation when available. A typically preserved Rome-struck Denarius will cost about $100. High-grade Lugdunum Denarii will likely cost over $500.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES D CL SEPT ALBINO CAE D CLO SEP ALBIN CAES D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES D CLODIVS ALBIN CAES D CLODIVS ALBINVS CAES IMP C D CLO SEP ALBIN AVG IMP CAE D CLO SEP ALB AVG IMP CAE D CLO SEP ALBINV IMP CAES D CL ALBIN AVG IMP CAES D CLO ALBIN AVG IMP CAES D CLO SEP ALB AVG IMP CAES D CLO SEP AVG IMP CAES D CLOD SEP ALB AVG IMP CAES D CLOD SEPT ALBIN AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) AEQVITAS AVG COS II ANNONA AVG COS II CLEMENTIA AVG COS CONCORDIA COS II FEL AVG COS II FELICITAS AVG COS II FELICITAS COS II FIDES AVG COS II FIDES LEGION COS II FORT REDVCI COS II FORT REDVCT COS II FORTITVDO AVG INVICTA FORTVNA AVG COS II FORTVNAE AVG COS II 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) FORTVNAE REDVCI COS II GEN LVG COS II IOVI VICTORI IOVI VICTORI COS II IOVIS VICTORIAE COS II MAR VLT COS II MARS PATER COS II MIN PAC COS II MINER PACIF COS II MONET AVG COS II PAX AVG COS II PM TR P COS III FEL PR PROV AVG COS II PROVID AVG COS PROVIDEN AVG COS II 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) PROVIDENT AVG COS II PROVIDENTIA AVG COS II ROMAE AETERNAE SAEC FEL COS II SAEC FRVGIF COS II SAECVLI FEL COS II SAECVLO FRVGIFERO SAECVLO FRVGIFERO COS II SALVTI AVG COS II SPE AVG COS II SPES AVG COS II VICT AVG COS II VIRTVTI AVG COS II VIRTVTI AVGVSTI

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aesculapius standing left, holding staff with snake coiled around it. Annona standing left, holding grain ears and cornucopia. Clementia standing left, holding patera and scepter. Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and branch. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter. Fides standing right, holding grain ears and fruit basket.

170
10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia; wheel under chair Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Genius standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia; eagle to left. Hands, in handshake, holding legionary eagle. Hercules standing left, resting hand on club and holding globe. Jupiter seated left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Jupiter standing, holding Victory and scepter; eagle to left. Legionary eagle, standard on either side. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield Minerva standing left, holding branch and spear with shield Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Roma seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar. Salus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Saeculum Frugiferum standing left, holding caduceus and trident Saturn seated left, raising hand and holding grain ears; sphinx on either side. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory seated right, holding palm and shield Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, holding parazonium and spear.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Alexandria Lugdunum Roma

AU Aureus
1) B1, O04, R37, T27

Reference(s)
RIC IVi 9b, C 70

AR Denarius
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) B1, O01, R11, T11 Exe: SC B1, O02, R12, T10 B1, O04, R05, T02 B1, O04, R08, T08 B1, O04, R24, T21 B1, O04, R33, T25 B1, O06, R29, T24 B4, O11, R17, T13 B4, O11, R21, T20 B4, O12, R10, T14 B4, O12, R17, T13 B4, O12, R42, T32 B4, O12, R42, T33 RIC IVi 53 RIC IVi 2, S 6140, C 9 RIC IVi 4, C 15 RIC IVi 7, C 48 RIC IVi 11, C 61 RIC IVi 1, C 58 RIC IVi 23c, C 40 RIC IVi 20, C 24 RIC IVi 23b, C 40 RIC IVi 47

AE Sestertius
15) 16) 17) 18) B1, O01, R11, T11 B1, O04, R04, T05 B1, O04, R08, T08 B1, O04, R24, T21 RIC IVi 53b RIC IVi 62, C 7 RIC IVi 52b RIC IVi 54a

AE As
19) 20) B1, O01, R38, T28 B1, O04, R08, T08 RIC IVi 61b, C 72 RIC IVi 58, C 17

171

Clodius Albinus Busts

Clodius Albinus Types

172
Septimius Severus was the remaining emperor of a bloody shakeout period which saw the violent demise of no less than five emperors in less than two years. A Governor in a sleepy quarter of the Empire, Septimius saw a golden opportunity after the murder of Pertinax and with the Augustus 193-211 pretense of avenging his murder he recruited an army and advanced towards Rome. The situation in Rome, meanwhile, was so chaotic that the Senate saw no way out of it but to save their skin by turning tail and declaring Septimius emperor in absentia. He would arrive a few days later to restore order to the city where he was welcomed as a savior. However, any love the Senate had for him quickly dissipated as he too, like Commodus before him (the last emperor of durable reign) was to systematically undermine and terrorize its members. Fortunately for them, Septimius would die a few years later during a campaign against the Scots in Britain.

Septimius Severus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Bare head right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate bust right, wearing lion skin Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right of Septimius Severus over Caracalla laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate head right

The collector who wishes to start off in silver Roman imperial coins will find those of Septimius Severus among the easiest to locate and afford… and usually very attractive as well. For example, a mint state (or nearly so) Denarius for this period may well cost less than $100. Think about it, an 1,800 year old coin that looks as though it was made a few days ago for the cost of a modern collectible coin! Bronze coins are now suddenly considerably scarcer. With Commodus’s death the mint in Rome suddenly finds itself with a lot less copper with which to make coins out of. Or, perhaps better put, the amount of copper it takes to make a Sestertius is now so expensive that the coin threatens to be worth more as bullion than as coin. The State cannot afford to strike coins which will be melted down immediately afterwards and sold at profit so its only choice is to either make them lighter or stop making them altogether. And that is exactly what happened although the change was very gradual and mint policies often reversed themselves, briefly and with hesitation, before abandoning big copper altogether by the mid-third century. Apart from the practical necessities of a still-vibrant economy, the Sestertius, Dupondius and As were an integral part of Roman culture for hundreds of years and there may well have been a wistful sense of loss in discontinuing these denominations. No matter what, a gold Aureus is always a big-ticket item. The fact that in antiquity they circulated so sparingly means that they’re typically found today with very little wear which only helps keep these beauties that much more expensive. Still, as with silver, those who can afford one will find that those of Septimius are among the most easily available. Depending largely on the selling venue, a problem-free Aureus of this age will cost anywhere from $1,000 to over $10,000 for even the most banal of designs. Even with this wide of a price swing the collector should expect to pay near the higher end of this range and should absolutely not be surprised to see an Aureus go for twenty or thirty-thousand dollars given an extraordinary design and/or exceptional craftsmanship.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) DIVO SEPTIMIO SEVERO PIO DIVO SEVERO DIVO SEVERO PIO FELICITAS PVBLICA IMP C L SEP SEVERVS AVG IMP C L SEP SEVERVS P AV IMP C L SEP SEVERVS P AVG IMP C L SEPTI SEVERVS PP AVG IMP CA L SE SEVER AG COS II IMP CA L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II IMP CA L SEP SEV PERT AVG OCS IMP CAE L SEP PERT AVG COS II IMP CAE L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG C II IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG C II C IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG CO II IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG CO III IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II C IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERTI AVG IIII IMP CAE L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP CAE L SEPT SEV PERT AVG N C IMP CAES L SEP SEVERVS PERT AVG IMP CAES L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP CAES SEVE PERTINAX AVG IMP L CAES SEPT SEV PERT AVG TR P VI IMPP INVICT PII AVGG L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG I M IMP XI L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG IMP XI L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG P V IMP XI PARP M L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG PM IMP XI L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG PM IMP XI PAR D N L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX L SEPT SEV PERET AVG IMP I L SEPT SEV PERET AVG IMP II L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP I L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP II L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP III L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP IIII L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP V L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VI L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIIII L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X L SEPT SEV PERTE AVG IMP

53) 54)

L SEPT SEV PERTE AVG IMP II L SEPT SEV PRTE AVG IMP II

173
55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) L SEPT SEVER PERET IMP I L SEPT SEVER PERT AVG IMP VIII L SEPT SEVERVS AVG PART MAX PM TR P VIIII L SEPT SEVERVS PER AVG PIV IMP XI PART MAX L SEPT SEVERVS PER AVG PM IMP XI L SEPT SEVERVS PIVS AVG L SEPT SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT L SEPTIMIVS SEVERVS PERTINAX AVG IMP IIII L SEPTIMIVS SEVERVS PIVS AVG SEVER P AVG PM TR P X COS III SEVER P AVG PM TR P XI COS III 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) SEVERVS AVG PART MAX SEVERVS AVG PART MAX PM TR P VIII SEVERVS AVG PART MAX PM TR P VIIII SEVERVS PIVS AVG SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT SEVERVS PIVS AVG PM TR P VIIII SEVERVS PIVS AVG PM TR P X SEVERVS PIVS AVG PM TR P XI SEVERVS PIVS AVG PM TR P XII SEVERVS PIVS AVGVSTVS

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) ADVENT AVGG ADVENTV AVG FELICISSIMO ADVENTVI AVG FELICISSIMO ADVENTVS AVGVST ADVENTVS AVGVSTI ADVENTVS AVGVSTOR AEQVIT AVG TR P COS II AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGG AEQVITAS II AEQVITAS PP AEQVITATI AVGG AEQVITATI PVBLICAE AETERNIT IMPERI AETERNITAS AVG AFRICA ANNONA AVG CERES ANNONA AVG COS II ANNONA AVG COS II PP ANNONAE AVG ANNONAE AVG COS ANNONAE AVGG ANTONIN PIVS AVG PON TR P V ANTONINVS AVG PON TR P IIII ANTONINVS AVG PON TR P V ANTONINVS AVG PONT TR P IIII ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS ANTONINVS PIVS AVG APOLLINI AVGVSTO AR AD TR P VI COS II PP ARAB ADIAB COS II PP ARAB ADIABENIC ARCVS AVGG AVGVSTI COS BON EVENT BONA SEPS BONA SPEI BONA SPES BONAE SPEI BONI EVENT BONI EVENTV BONI EVENTVC BONI EVENTVS BONI SPES CERER FRVG CERER FRVG II COS CERER FRVGIF COS CERER FRVGIFER CERERI FRVG CONCORDIA CONCORDIA / MILIT CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM CONCORDIAE AETERNAE CONCORDIAE AVGG CONCORDIAE MILITVM CONSECRATIO COS II PP COS III COS III LVDOS SAECVL FEC COS III PP DI PATRII DIS AVSPICIB TR P II DIS AVSPICIBVS PM TR P III COS II PP DIVI M P II F PM TR P III COS II PP FEIICII TEMPOM FELICIT TEMPO FELICIT TEMPOR FELICITAS / SAECVLI FELICITAS AVGG FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS TEMPO FELICITAS TEMPOR FELICITAS TEMPORVM II COS 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) FIDEI LEG TR P COS FORETVN REDVC FORT RDEVC FORT RDVC FORT RED PM TR P XIX COS III PP FORT REDEVC FORT REDVCI COS II FORT REDVC FORTA REDVC FORTV REDV FORTV REDVC FORTVI REDVC FORTVN AVG FORTVN REDV FORTVN REDVC FORTVNA REDVC FORTVNA REDVX FORTVNAE AVGG FORTVNAE REDVCI FVNDAT PACIS FVNDATOR PACIS FVRTVNAE FELICI GENIVS PR HERCVLI DEFENS IIII LIBERALITAS AVGG IMPERII FELICITAS INDVLGENTIA AVG INDVLGENTIA AVGG INVICT IMP INVICTA VIRTVS INVICTO IMP INVICTO IMP I INVICTO IMP TROPAE INVICTO IMP TROPAEA INVICTO IMP TROPAEA II INVICTO IMP TROPEI IOBI VICT IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI INVICTO IOVI PRAE ORBIS IOVI PROPVGNATORI IOVI VICT IOVI VICT PM TR P XV COS III PP IOVI VICTORI IVLIA AVGVSTA IVNO AVGVSTAE IVSTITIA L SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES LAETITIA / TEMPORVM LAETITIA AVGG LEG I ADIVT LEG I ITAL LEG I MIN LEG II ADIVT LEG II ITAL LEG III IT LEG III ITAL LEG IIII FL LEG V MAC LEG VII CL LEG VIII AVG LEG XI CL LEG XIII GEM LEG XIIII GEM M V LEG XXII LEG XXII PRI LEG XXX VL LEG XXX VLP LIB AVG III PM TR P X COS III PP LIBER AVG LIBERA AVG LIBERAL AVG LIBERAL AVG COS 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) LIBERAL AVG TR P COS II LIBERALITAS LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERALITAS AVG II LIBERALITAS AVG V LIBERALITAS AVG VI LIBERALITAS AVGG IIII LIBERALITAS AVGG V LIBERO PATRI LIBERT AVG LIBERTA AVG LIBERTAS AVG LIBERTAS AVGG LIR AVG MAREI VICT MARS PACATOR MARS PATER MART VICT MART VICTO MART VICTOR MART VICTORI MARTI PACIFERO MARTI PACIFERO PM TR P V COS II PP MARTI VICT MARTI VICTOR MARTI VICTORI MINER VICT MINER VICT PM TR P XIIII IMP VIII COS E C MINER VICTRIC MINER VICTRIX MINERVA SANCT MONE AVG MONET AVG MONET AVG COS II PP MONETA AVG MONETA AVG COS II PP MONETA AVGG MONETA II AVG MONETAE AVG MVNIFICENTIA AVG NOBILITAS ORT RDEVC P MAX TR P VIII COS II PP P SEPT GETA CAES PONT P SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES PACATOR ORBIS PACI AET PM TR P VI PACI AETERNAE PACI AVGVSTI PAR AR AD TR P VI PART ARAB PART ADIAB PART MAX PM TR P VIIII PART MAX PM TR P X PART MAX PM TR P X COS III PP PART MAX PONT TR P IIII PART MAXIMVS COS II PP PAX AETERNA PERPETVA CONCORDIA PIETAS PIETAT AVG PM TR IIII COS II PP PM TR P COS PM TR P II COS II PM TR P II COS II PP PM TR P III COS II PP PM TR P IIII COS II PP PM TR P V COS II PP PM TR P VI COS II PP PM TR P VII COS II PP PM TR P VIII COS II PP PM TR P VIIII COS II PP

174
218) 219) 220) 221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) 231) 232) 233) 234) 235) 236) 237) 238) 239) 240) 241) 242) 243) 244) 245) 246) 247) 248) 249) 250) 251) 252) 253) 254) 255) 256) 257) 258) 259) 260) PM TR P X COS III PP PM TR P XI COS III PP PM TR P XII COS III PP PM TR P XIII COS III PP PM TR P XIIII COS III PP PM TR P XIX COS III PP PM TR P XIX COS III PP FORT RED PM TR P XIX COS III PP VICT BRIT PM TR P XV COS III PP PM TR P XVI PM TR P XVI COS III PP PM TR P XVII COS III PP PM TR P XVIII COS III PP PONT III COS II PONTIF COS II PONTIF TR P VII COS II PONTIF TR P VIII COS II PONTIF TR P VIIII COS II PONTIF TR P X COS II PONTIF TR P X COS III PONTIF TR P XI COS II PONTIF TR P XI COS III PONTIF TR P XII COS III PROFECT AVGG FEL PROFECTIO AVG PROVID AVG PROVID AVGG PROVIDENTIA PROVIDENTIA AVG PVDICITIA RECTOR ORBIS RESTITVTOR VRBIS RESTITVTORI VRBIS ROI EVENTVS ROMA AETERNA ROMAE AETERNAE SACRA SAECVLARIA SAEC FELICIT SAEC FRVGIF COS SAECV FELICIT SAECVL FELICIT SAECVLI FELICIT SAECVLI FELICITA 261) 262) 263) 264) 265) 266) 267) 268) 269) 270) 271) 272) 273) 274) 275) 276) 277) 278) 279) 280) 281) 282) 283) 284) 285) 286) 287) 288) 289) 290) 291) 292) 293) 294) 295) 296) 297) 298) 299) 300) 301) 302) 303) SAECVLI FELICITAS SAECVLI FELICITAS COS II SAECVLI FELICITAS COS III SAECVLI FELICITAS COS III PP SAECVLL FELLCIT SAECVLO FRVGIFERO COS II SAECVLO FRVGIFERO TR P COS SALVTI AVG SALVTI AVG PM TR P VI COS II PP SALVTI AVGG SECVRITAS PVBLICA SEVERI AVG P II FIL SOSPITATORI / IOVI SPQR OPTIMO PRINC SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI TELLVS STABIL PM TR POT VIII COS II PP TR P COS TR P III IMP V COS II TR P IMP III COS II PP TR P V IMP COS II PP TR P V IMP III COS II TR P VII COS II PP TR P XIX COS III PP FORT RED TR P XVIII COS III PP VENERI VIC VENERI VICTR VENV P VICT VENVS GENETRIX VIC AVG VIC AVG TR P COS VIC AVGG COS II PP VIC PAR MAX AVG VICT AETERN VICT AETERNAE VICT AVG VICT AVG COS II PP VICT AVG PM TR P III COS II PP VICT AVG TR P COS VICT AVG TR P II COS II VICT AVG TR P II COS II PP VICT AVGG COS II PP VICT BRIT PM TR P XIX COS III PP VICT PART MAX 304) VICT PARTHIC AVGG PM TR P VIIII 305) VICT PARTHICAE 306) VICTOR ANTONINI AVG 307) VICTOR AVG 308) VICTOR AVG TR P COS 309) VICTOR IVST AVG 310) VICTOR IVST AVG II COS 311) VICTOR SEVER AG 312) VICTOR SEVER AVG 313) VICTOR SEVER C AVG 314) VICTORI AVG 315) VICTORIA AVGG 316) VICTORIA AVGVSTI 317) VICTORIA PARTHICA MAXIMA 318) VICTORIAE 319) VICTORIAE AVG 320) VICTORIAE AVGG 321) VICTORIAE AVGG FEL 322) VICTORIAE BRIT 323) VICTORIAE BRITTANNICAE 324) VICTORIVS T AVG 325) VIRT AVG P COS 326) VIRT AVG TR P COS 327) VIRT AVG TR P II COS II PP 328) VIRT AVGG 329) VIRTVS AVG 330) VIRTVS AVG COS II 331) VIRTVS AVGVST 332) VIRTVS AVGVSTI 333) VIRTVS AVGVSTORVM 334) VIRTVTE AVG 335) VIRTVTI AVG 336) VIRTVTI AVGG 337) VOT SVSC DEC PM TR P X COS III PP 338) VOTA PVBLICA 339) VOTA SOLVT DEC COS III 340) VOTA SVSCEP DECEN 341) VOTA SVSCEPTA X 342) VOTA SVSCEPTA XX 343) VOTA SVSCEPTA XX COS III PP 344) VRBI ROMAE 345) No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Africa lying left, holding scorpion and cornucopia; basket with grain ears within to left. Africa standing right, resting hand on hip and holding grain ears; lion to right Altar, lit Annona seated right, holding grain ears; child to right. Annona seated right, holding grain ears; modius to right Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Annona standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding grain ears and cornucopia. Annona standing right on left, holding cornucopia, facing Ceres seated to right, holding patera and torch; modius in center and galley in background. Apollo standing left, holding patera and lyre Basket; fruits and grains within Bridge, boat below Captive seated right; weapons in backround Captives (2) seated back to back on shields Caracalla bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Caracalla laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, facing Geta bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust left Caracalla laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Caracalla laureate, draped bust right Caracalla laureate head right facing Geta bare head left Caracalla standing right on left, holding Victory together with Geta to right Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch Circus: bird’s eye view of façade and interior, gladiators within Concordia sacrificing left, holding two cornucopiae. Concordia seated left, holding patera and scepter Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia standing left, holding standard and scepter; two more standards to left and three to right Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand Cornucopiae (2) crossed, corn ear in between. Crescent, seven stars above Dea Caelestis riding lion right over flowing water, holding drum and scepter Dea Caelestis riding lion right over flowing water, holding drum. Dea Caelestis riding lion right over flowing water, holding thunderbolt. Dea Caelestis riding lion right over flowing water, holding thunderbolt and scepter Eagle standing left on cippus, standard on either side. Eagle standing on globe, facing Eagle standing on thunderbolt, facing Eagle standing right Eagle standing right on altar Eagle standing, facing Elephant advancing right Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, pouring out cornucopia for two citizens, three more waiting their turn.

175
43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) Felicitas standing left, pulling on dress and holding cornucopia; six children to left. Fides standing left, holding fruit basket and grain ears. Fides standing left, holding Victory and standard Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia; wheel under chair Fortuna standing left, holding branch and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding cornucopia in each hand Fortuna standing left, holding palm and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia Fortuna standing, facing, holding cornucopia and rudder; galley prow to left. Funeral pyre Galley sailing left Galley sailing left, animals below and four quadrigae above Genius standing left, holding fruit dish and grain ears Genius standing left, holding patera and two cornucopiae Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar. Geta bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Geta bare headed, draped bust right Hercules standing left on left, resting hand on club and holding lion skin and Liber to right, pouring cup out over panther and holding thrysus. Hercules standing, facing, resting hand on club and holding bow with lion skin Indulgentia seated left, holding patera Italia seated left on globe, holding cornucopia and scepter Julia Domna draped bust facing in center with laureate, draped bust of Caracalla to left and bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Geta to right Julia Domna draped bust right Juno seated left, holding flower and baby Jupiter advancing right, aiming thunderbolt and raising hand Jupiter riding quadriga right, aiming thunderbolt at two giants. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; child on either side Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing, facing, aiming thunderbolt and raising hand Justitia seated left, holding patera and scepter. Liber standing left, pouring cup over panther and holding thrysus. Liber standing right on left, holding cup over panther and thrysus, facing Hercules to right, resting hand on club and holding lion skin. Liber standing right, touching head and holding thrysus; panther to left Liberalitas seated left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mars standing left, holding branch and spear Mars standing left, stepping on helmet, holding branch and spear Mars standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield Mars standing right, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Mars standing right, resting hand on shield on captive and holding spear Medusa head, facing over aegis Minerva helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust right Minerva standing left, holding spear and shield. Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear. Minerva standing left, resting hand on shield. Moneta seated left, holding scale and cornucopia. Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia; coin piles by their feet. Neptune standing left, stepping on rocks, resting hand on lap and holding trident. Neptune standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding trident and acrostolium Nobilitas standing right, holding scepter and Palladium. Pax seated left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Pudicitia seated left, holding scepter in each hand River God lying right, holding shell and rudder Roma helmeted bust right Roma seated left, holding Palladium and scepter; shield below Roma seated left, holding Victory and parazonium Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear Roma seated left, sacrificing over altar and holding spear. Roma seated right, holding Palladium and scepter; kneeling captive to right Roma seated, facing, holding Victory and globe resting on atlas; flying Victory crowning Roma. Roma standing left, holding parazonium and spear with shield Sacrificial procession attended by five veiled members; three of whom are sacrificing over altar and the other two musicians. Saeculum Frugiferum standing left, holding winged caduceus and trident Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar Salus seated left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Securitas seated left, holding globe Septimius Severus and Caracalla seated right, lictor behind, soldier to right Septimius Severus laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, facing Caracalla, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left. Septimius Severus riding horse left, holding spear Septimius Severus riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Septimius Severus riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear; soldier to left leading the horse. Septimius Severus riding horse left, spearing enemy Septimius Severus riding horse right, holding spear Septimius Severus riding horse right, raising hand Septimius Severus riding horse right, raising hand, being led by soldier to right Septimius Severus riding horse right, spearing enemy

176
132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) Septimius Severus riding rearing horse right, holding spear Septimius Severus seated left on right, raising hand and holding scepter, facing Aequitas standing to left, holding a scale and cornucopia Septimius Severus seated left, holding globe and being crowned by Victory hovering to right Septimius Severus seated, facing, holding Victory and shield on kneeling captive, being crowned by Victory hovering to right Septimius Severus standing left on left, holding Victory and spear, being crowned by Roma to right, holding parazonium. Septimius Severus standing left on right, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter, facing Roma seated to left on shield, holding Palladium and spear. Septimius Severus standing left on right, sacrificing over altar with Caracalla standing to left; musicians behind and temple in background. Septimius Severus standing left, holding branch Septimius Severus standing left, holding globe and spear. Septimius Severus standing left, sacrificing over altar Septimius Severus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding spear Septimius Severus standing right on left, holding spear, receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter. Septimius Severus standing right on left, sacrificing over altar in center facing Caracalla to right, also sacrificing; both being crowned by Victory Septimius Severus standing right on left, sacrificing over altar in center; Fortuna to right, seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Septimius Severus, Caracalla and Geta each riding horse left, raising hand. Septimius Severus, Caracalla and Geta each riding horse right Septimius Severus, Caracalla and Geta seated left on platform accompanied by lictor to right and Liberalitas to left; citizen to lower left Septimius Severus, Caracalla and Geta seated right on platform sccompanied by lector to right; citizen to lower right Septimius Severus, Caracalla and Geta standing right, addressing citizen to lower right; two more attendants in background. Septmius Severus standing left, sacrificing over altar and lictor to left and musician to right. Sol radiate, draped bust right Sol riding quadriga left upwards; river god lying on lower right, holding cornucopia. Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip. Spes seated left, holding flower Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt Temple with (2) columns, Aesculapius within, snake on either side Temple with (2) columns, Jupiter standing within, holding patera and scepter Temple with (6) columns, Roma seated within Throne with wreath atop Triumphal arch Trophy with weapons at base Trophy; captive leaning on either side Trophy; captive seated right at base Trophy; seated captive on either side Trophy; seated captive to left and standing captive to right Venus standing right, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding apple and palm Victories (2) standing, facing each other, holding shield on palm with seated captives on either side of its base Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath over shield Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath over shield reading SP / QR Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to left. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and trophy. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and trophy; seated captive to left. Victory advancing right, dragging captive and holding trophy Victory advancing right, holding shield reading VIC / PAR Victory advancing right, holding trophy with both hands. Victory advancing right, holding trophy with both hands; seated captive to right. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and trophy. Victory riding biga right, holding whip Victory riding quadriga right Victory seated left, holding shield reading A / VG and palm Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm Victory seated right, holding palm and shield; trophy to right. Victory seated right, holding shield on palm. Victory seated right, holding shield; trophy to right. Victory standing left, holding shield on cippus and palm. Victory standing left, holding shield reading AVG on cippus and palm Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, stepping on globe, holding shield with both hands. Victory standing right, holding vexillum with both hands; seated captive on either side. Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield on palm Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading SC on cippus and palm Victory standing, facing, holding palm and shield on palm Virtus seated left, holding Victory and parazonium; shield to side. Virtus standing left, holding Victory and spear Virtus standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield. Virtus standing right, holding spear and parazonium. Wreath, VOTIS / DECEN / NALI / BVS within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Alexandria Emesa Laodicea ad Mare Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) B02, O69, R152, T084 B02, O69, R318, T181 B03, O14, R134, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R137, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R326, T197 B03, O20, R145, T084

Reference(s)
RIC IVi 278b, C 297 RIC IVi 11, BMC 13 RIC IVi 14, C 271 RIC IVi 24, BMC 32 RIC IVi 400, BMC 372

177
7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) B03, O20, R252, T112 B03, O43, R062, T065 Exe: COS II PP B03, O43, R299, T171 B03, O44, R210, T179 B03, O48, R064, T173 B03, O66, R014, T016 B03, O66, R094, T139 B03, O66, R249, T141 B03, O69, R051, T026 B03, O69, R122, T057 B03, O69, R148, T148 B03, O69, R152, T084 B03, O69, R192, T134 B03, O69, R192, T152 B03, O69, R221, T077 B03, O69, R221, T124 B03, O69, R226, T093 B03, O69, R228, T185 B03, O69, R230, R175 B03, O69, R249, T110 B03, O69, R252, T110 B03, O69, R254, T084 B03, O69, R303, T171 B03, O69, R318, T181 B03, O69, R333, T146 B03, O71, R014, T016 B04, O66, R118, T070 B07, O38, R012, T001 B07, O38, R055, T027 B07, O38, R183, T097 B07, O38, R305, T174 B07, O51, R214, T154 B07, O64, R014, T016 B07, O64, R068, T069 B07, O69, R101, T033 Exe: IN CARTH B07, O69, R137, T046 B08, O31, R317, T171 B09, O66, R328, T198 RIC IVi 25, BMC 58, C 113 RIC IVi 29, BMC 61 RIC IVi 36, C 382 RIC IVi 66 RIC IVi 155c, BMC 184 RIC IVi 160, BMC 189 RIC IVi 167b, BMC 201 RIC IVi 256, BMC 313 RIC IVi 274, C 254 RIC IVi 279, BMC 352, C 300 RIC IVi 278a RIC IVi 282, BMC 353 RIC IVi 196, BMC 469 RIC IVi 206 RIC IVi 257, BMC 314, C 108 RIC IVi 237 RIC IVi 288, BMC 358, C 605 RIC IVi 291 RIC IVi 277, BMC 346, C 295 RIC IVi 295, C 743 RIC IVi 299, BMC 369 RIC IVi 305, BMC 374, C 770 RIC IVi 174, BMC 254 RIC IVi 161b, BMC 192, C 1 RIC IVi 122, C 20 RIC IVi 502a, C 77 RIC IVi 510b RIC IVi 142b RIC IVi 178b RIC IVi 181a, BMC 379, C 5 RIC IVi 189a, C 460 RIC IVi 311, BMC 265, C 8 RIC IVi 171b

AR Tetradrachm
45) B03, O06, R345, T034 AVGVS / TORVM across fields

Reference(s)
RIC IVi 528, C 55

AR Tridrachm (~9 gm.)
46) B03, O06, R319, T170 RIC IVi 533

AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
47) 48) B10, O02, R056, T004 B10, O02, R056, T037 RIC 96 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 800 RIC 95 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 799

AR Denarius
49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) B02, O20, R107, T162 B02, O20, R324, T171 B02, O38, R345, T200 B03, O14, R043, T058 B03, O14, R073, T011 B03, O14, R074, T045 B03, O14, R124, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R126, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R127, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R128, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R130, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R131, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R132, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R133, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R134, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R135, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R136, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R137, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R138, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R139, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R141, T034 Exe: TR P COS B03, O14, R146, T034 B03, O14, R285, T167 B03, O14, R298, T171 B03, O14, R326, T197 B03, O19, R043, T058 B03, O19, R260, T029 B03, O20, R037, T156 B03, O20, R038, T156 B03, O20, R042, T058 B03, O20, R043, T058

RIC IVi 347, C 66 RIC IVi 349, C 146 RIC IVi 2 RIC IVi 4, C 259 RIC IVi 5 RIC IVi 3, C 256 RIC IVi 7 RIC IVi 8 RIC IVi 9 RIC IVi 10 RIC IVi 11 RIC IVi 12 RIC IVi 13 RIC IVi 14 RIC IVi 15 RIC IVi 16 RIC IVi 17 RIC IVi 18 RIC IVi 22, S 6369, C 682 RIC IVi 24, S 6386 C 68a RIC IVi 365, C 60 RIC IVi 364, S 6266, C 58 RIC IVi 369, C 68

178
80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) B03, O20, R045, T021 B03, O20, R058, T102 B03, O20, R065, T028 B03, O20, R067, T028 B03, O20, R072, T028 B03, O20, R084, T050 B03, O20, R088, T046 B03, O20, R088, T050 B03, O20, R088, T051 B03, O20, R104, T162 B03, O20, R106, T162 B03, O20, R137, T034 B03, O20, R144, T084 B03, O20, R145, T084 B03, O20, R171, T086 B03, O20, R179, T098 B03, O20, R258, T029 B03, O20, R278, T013 B03, O20, R278, T163 B03, O20, R295, T171 B03, O20, R295, T171 B03, O20, R307, T171 B03, O20, R307, T179 B03, O20, R307, T182 B03, O20, R312, T171 B03, O20, R318, T189 B03, O20, R322, T177 B03, O20, R334, T199 B03, O23, R039, T156 B03, O35, R196, T165 Exe: COS II PP B03, O35, R196, T171 B03, O35, R270, T119 B03, O35, R291, T171 B03, O38, R009, T001 B03, O38, R012, T001 B03, O38, R022, T008 B03, O38, R026, T019 B03, O38, R055, T027 B03, O38, R057, T171 B03, O38, R060, T171 B03, O38, R091, T054 B03, O38, R111, T074 B03, O38, R114, T072 B03, O38, R120, T079 B03, O38, R121, T015 B03, O38, R159, T085 B03, O38, R172, T091 B03, O38, R183, T098 B03, O38, R189, T058 B03, O38, R215, T054 B03, O38, R241, T132 B03, O38, R249, T142 B03, O38, R301, T171 B03, O38, R305, T172 B03, O38, R321, T169 B03, O38, R328, T198 B03, O38, R329, T131 B03, O38, R345, T200 B03, O39, R102, T164 B03, O40, R076, T053 B03, O40, R079, T051 B03, O40, R089, T049 B03, O43, R155, T080 B03, O44, R155, T080 B03, O44, R195, T104 B03, O44, R210, T074 B03, O44, R210, T094 B03, O45, R029, T010 B03, O45, R096, T060 B03, O45, R155, T080 B03, O45, R162, T087 B03, O45, R163, T086 B03, O45, R211, T074 B03, O45, R211, T086 B03, O45, R271, T121 B03, O46, R031, T173 B03, O46, R197, T164 Exe: COS II PP B03, O46, R211, T086 B03, O46, R211, T094 B03, O48, R081, T046 B03, O48, R211, T052 B03, O48, R211, T086 B03, O48, R211, T094 B03, O49, R003, T129 B03, O49, R076, T049 B03, O49, R092, T047 B03, O49, R097, T066 B03, O49, R100, T067 B03, O49, R186, T040 RIC IVi 370, C 60 RIC IVi 373 RIC IVi 374a RIC IVi 379, C 173a RIC IVi 383 RIC IVi 376b RIC IVi 389, S 6288, C 232 RIC IVi 391, C 234 RIC IVi 397 RIC IVi 399 RIC IVi 400d, C 283 RIC IVi 411a, S 6314, C 346 RIC IVi 417, C 628a RIC IVi 433, C 659 RIC IVi 435, C 658 C 677 RIC IVi 424, C 675 RIC IVi 425, C 697 RIC IVi 423a C 700b RIC IVi 428, C 749 RIC IVi 431, C 771 RIC IVi 366a RIC IVi 494b RIC IVi 495, C 361 RIC IVi 497, C 642 RIC IVi 499, C 695 RIC IVi 122c, C 21 RIC IVi 500, S 6259, C 21 RIC IVi 501 RIC IVi 502b RIC IVi 125a, C 96 RIC IVi 504, C 100 RIC IVi 126a, S 6280, C 195 RIC IVi 130, C 238 RIC IVi 131, S 6291 RIC IVi 505, S 6295, C 251 RIC IVi 506, C 4 RIC IVi 133, S 6308, C 306 RIC IVi 134, C 320 RIC IVi 510a, C 342 RIC IVi 511a, C 455a RIC IVi 136, S 6332, C 452 RIC IVi 138 RIC IVi 512a, C 600 RIC IVi 141a, C 694a RIC IVi 142a, C 741 RIC IVi 144b, S 6381, C 719 RIC IVi 145a, C 762 RIC IVi 146a, C 763 RIC IVi 520a, C 798

RIC IVi 27a RIC IVi 32, S 6307, C 301 RIC IVi 37, S 6320 RIC IVi 48, S 6325 RIC IVi 49, S 6326, C 381 RIC IVi 40, C 42 RIC IVi 43, S 6283, C 209 RIC IVi 44, C 302 RIC IVi 45, C 309 RIC IVi 46, C 311 RIC IVi 53a RIC IVi 52 RIC IVi 56, C 646 RIC IVi 58, C 48 RIC IVi 62, S 6322, C 363 RIC IVi 60, C 396 RIC IVi 61, C 390 RIC IVi 470, C 265 RIC IVi 69, C 404 RIC IVi 67, C 397 RIC IVi 68, C 391 RIC IVi 74, S 6256, C 6 RIC IVi 78a, S 6281 RIC IVi 210, C 442 RIC IVi 80, C 216 RIC IVi 82, C 348

179
169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) 218) 219) 220) 221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) 231) 232) 233) 234) 235) 236) 237) 238) 239) 240) 241) 242) 243) 244) 245) 246) 247) 248) 249) 250) 251) 252) 253) 254) 255) 256) 257) B03, O49, R212, T104 B03, O49, R212, T171 B03, O49, R213, T052 B03, O49, R213, T060 B03, O49, R213, T105 B03, O49, R246, T106 B03, O49, R271, T121 B03, O49, R338, T141 B03, O50, R097, T066 B03, O50, R155, T084 B03, O50, R213, T052 B03, O50, R213, T052 B03, O50, R213, T154 B03, O50, R242, T128 B03, O51, R022, T008 B03, O51, R055, T027 B03, O51, R111, T074 B03, O51, R168, T088 B03, O51, R194, T105 B03, O51, R214, T154 B03, O51, R301, T171 B03, O53, R307, T194 B03, O56, R081, T051 B03, O66, R022, T006 B03, O66, R027, T017 B03, O66, R094, T139 B03, O66, R118, T070 B03, O66, R216, T169 B03, O66, R244, T106 B03, O66, R249, T142 B03, O66, R293, T169 B03, O66, R328, T198 B03, O69, R001, T126 B03, O69, R009, T133 B03, O69, R014, T016 B03, O69, R014, T019 B03, O69, R014, T123 B03, O69, R016, T002 B03, O69, R016, T003 B03, O69, R059, T083 B03, O69, R060, T161 B03, O69, R060, T171 B03, O69, R068, T149 B03, O69, R069, T041 B03, O69, R090, T047 B03, O69, R094, T139 B03, O69, R098, T084 B03, O69, R101, T033 B03, O69, R122, T057 B03, O69, R151, T084 B03, O69, R152, T084 B03, O69, R154, T084 B03, O69, R192, T152 B03, O69, R198, T165 B03, O69, R200, T165 B03, O69, R219, T047 B03, O69, R220, T061 B03, O69, R221, T007 B03, O69, R221, T077 B03, O69, R221, T197 B03, O69, R222, T007 B03, O69, R222, T061 B03, O69, R222, T132 B03, O69, R226, T003 B03, O69, R226, T061 B03, O69, R226, T124 B03, O69, R226, T166 B03, O69, R226, T186 B03, O69, R228, T024 B03, O69, R228, T024 B03, O69, R228, T059 B03, O69, R228, T060 B03, O69, R228, T078 B03, O69, R228, T187 B03, O69, R229, T076 B03, O69, R229, T101 B03, O69, R229, T108 B03, O69, R229, T119 B03, O69, R229, T155 B03, O69, R230, T076 B03, O69, R230, T101 B03, O69, R230, T119 B03, O69, R245, T092 B03, O69, R249, T110 B03, O69, R273, T158 B03, O69, R303, T171 B03, O69, R318, T182 B03, O69, R320, T135 B03, O69, R337, T139 RIC IVi 85, C 429 RIC IVi 86, S 6328, C 419 RIC IVi 84, C 424 RIC IVi 87, C 436 RIC IVi 88, C 444 RIC IVi 92a, S 6356, C 592 RIC IVi 93, C 647 RIC IVi 96a, C 777 RIC IVi 97, S 6284, C 512 RIC IVi 99, C 304 RIC IVi 104, C 442 RIC IVi 493 RIC IVi 101, S 6331, C 433 RIC IVi 106, S 6353, C 580 RIC IVi 107, C 37 RIC IVi 108, C 76 RIC IVi 111a, S 6289, C 236 RIC IVi 113, S 6311, C 315 RIC IVi 118, S 6319, C 357 RIC IVi 117, C 449 RIC IVi 120c, C 694 RIC IVi 477, C 164 RIC IVi 156, C 41 RIC IVi 157, C 2 RIC IVi 160d, C 203 RIC IVi 161a, C 2 RIC IVi 150, C 454 RIC IVi 166, S 6354, C 586 RIC IVi 167a, S 6357 RIC IVi 170, C 670 RIC IVi 171, C 671 RIC IVi 248 RIC IVi 251, C 6 RIC IVi 252 RIC IVi 250, C 1 RIC IVi 254, C 31 RIC IVi 253 RIC IVi 257, C 109 RIC IVi 259, C 104 RIC IVi 526, C 201 RIC IVi 263, C 134 RIC IVi 261, C 135 RIC IVi 264, S 6279, C 181 RIC IVi 265, S 6282, C 205 RIC IVi 276, C 293 RIC IVi 266, S 6285, C 222 RIC IVi 274 RIC IVi 278, C 298 RIC IVi 277, C 296 RIC IVi 282 RIC IVi 176, C 370 RIC IVi 185, S 6323, C 373 RIC IVi 189b, S 6334, C 461 RIC IVi 195, S 6335, C 464 RIC IVi 198, C 472 RIC IVi 196, S 6336, C 469 RIC IVi 197, S 6337, C 470 RIC IVi 200, S 6338, C 476 RIC IVi 201, C 475 RIC IVi 202, C 480 RIC IVi 207a, C 493 RIC IVi 209, C 487 RIC IVi 213a, C 495 RIC IVi 214, C 498 RIC IVi 211, S 6340, C 489 RIC IVi 218, C 514 RIC IVi 221, C 517 RIC IVi 219, C 504 RIC IVi 220, C 505 RIC IVi 216, C 501 RIC IVi 224, C 510 RIC IVi 226, C 525 RIC IVi 228, S 6346 RIC IVi 229 RIC IVi 230, C 531 RIC IVi 232, C 535 RIC IVi 233, C 539 RIC IVi 234, C 543 RIC IVi 236, S 6348, C 548 RIC IVi 286, C 592 RIC IVi 288, S 6358, C 606b RIC IVi 271, C 245 RIC IVi 295, S 6372, C 744 RIC IVi 299, C 713a RIC IVi 301, BMC 371 RIC IVi 186, C 786

180
258) 259) 260) 261) 262) 263) 264) 265) 266) 267) 268) B03, O69, R342, T139 B03, O69, R342, T144 B03, O70, R223, T076 B03, O70, R223, T101 B03, O70, R223, T119 B03, O70, R230, T076 B03, O70, R230, T101 B03, O70, R230, T119 B03, O70, R322, T179 B03, O70, R322, T195 B06, O49, R246, T106 RIC IVi 308, S 6393 RIC IVi 309 RIC IVi 243, C 563 RIC IVi 244, C 564 RIC IVi 245, C 565 RIC IVi 240, C 540 RIC IVi 241, C 542 RIC IVi 242, C 549 RIC IVi 332, C 727 RIC IVi 336, C 730 RIC IVi 491b, C 593

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
269) 270) 271) 272) 273) B01, O03, R056, T035 B01, O03, R056, T036 B01, O03, R056, T038 B01, O03, R056, T055 B01, O03, R056, T160

Reference(s)
RIC 191c (IVi, Caracalla), C 84 RIC 191b (IVi, Caracalla), C 82 RIC 191d (IVi, Caracalla), C 86 RIC 191f (IVi, Caracalla), C 89 RIC 191e (IVi, Caracalla), C 87

AR Quinarius
274) B03, O69, R060, T171 RIC IVi 258, C 103

AE Medallion
275) B06, O62, R297, T179 276) B07, O62, R063, T065 C 678

AE Sestertius
277) 278) 279) 280) 281) 282) 283) 284) 285) B02, O44, R182, T099 Exe: SC B02, O49, R003, T130 Exe: SC B03, O44, R016, T003 B03, O45, R016, T003 B03, O48, R064, T136 Exe: SC B03, O49, R186, T040 Exe: SC B03, O60, R230, T168 Exe: SC B03, O60, R232, T168 Exe: SC B07, O66, R304, T179 RIC IVi 670d, C 335 RIC IVi 719, C 8 RIC IVi 668, C 26 RIC IVi 676, C 28 RIC IVi 702, C 128 RIC IVi 721, C 351 C 547 RIC IVi 818, C 732 RIC IVi 754

AE Dupondius
286) B10, O44, R016, T003 287) B10, O69, R230, T114 Exe: SC RIC IVi 680, C 30 RIC IVi 802, C 550

AE As
288) B03, O69, R227, T012 Exe: COS III PP / SC 289) B03, O69, R230, T114 Exe: SC 290) B03, O70, R302, T192 Exe: SC RIC IVi 786a, C 523 RIC IVi 804, C 552 RIC IVi 812b, C 724

Septimius Severus Busts

181
Septimius Severus Types

182
Septimius Severus Types (continued)

183
Septimius Severus Types (continued)

184
Septimius Severus Types (continued)

185

Julia Domna
b. ca.170 - d.217
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Diademed, draped bust left Diademed, draped bust right Diademed, draped bust right on crescent Draped bust left Draped bust right Veiled, draped bust right

Julia Domna was the wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Geta and Caracalla. She died in exile of either as a result of breast cancer or after a self-imposed hunger strike following Caracalla's murder.

Among the Denarii of Roman empresses those of Julia Domna are among the most common. Gold, too, is comparatively abundant but bronzes are very difficult to find in all but the sorriest grades. This is also the first empress who has a significant portion of her coinage struck in the middle east. Because there is as yet no systematic form of mintmarks on the coins themselves the collector will have to learn the “styles” of each mint. While those of Rome follow the classical lines of portraiture the eastern mints take a more stylized approach with a considerably greater degree of individualistic touches from die to die. To complicate (if that’s the right word) matters, there is a very wide variety of portraits and hairstyles for her simply because she was an Augusta for over twenty years. The celators zealously marked the progress of her aging as well as the fashion of the day over the course of all those years. Expect a nice Denarius to cost between $40-$75.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) DIVA IVLIA AVGVSTA IVLA DOMNA AVG IVLIA AVGVSTA IVLIA DOMINA AVG IVLIA DOMNA AVG IVLIA DOMNA AVGVSTA IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG IVLIA PIA MATER CASTR

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGG AEQVITAS II AEQVITAS PVBLICA AEQVITATI AVG AEQVITATI AVGG AEQVITATI PVBLICAAE AETERNIT IMPERI ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BONA SPES BONAE SPEI BONI EVENTVS CERER FRVG CERERE AVG CERERE AVGVS CERERI FRVGIF CERES CONCORDIA CONCORDIA FELIX CONSECRATIO DIANA LVCIFERA FECVNDITAS FELICIT TEMPOR FELICITAS FELICITAS AVGG FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS TEMPOR FORT R AVG FORT RED TR P III COS II FORT REDVC FORT REDVCI COS FORTVN REDVC FORTVN REDVCI FORTVNAE FELICI FORTVNAE REDVCI FVNDATOR PACIS HILARITAS INDVLGENTIA AVGG IN CARTH IVNO IVNO CONSERVATRIX IVNO REGINA IVNONEM

43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71)

IVNONI LVCINAE LAETITIA LIBERAL AVG LVNA LVCIFERA MAT AVGG MAT SEN M PATR MATER MATER AVGG MATER CASTRORVM MATER DEVM MATRI CASTR MATRI CASTRORVM MATRI DEVM MATRI MAGNAE MONET AVG MONETA AVG MONETA AVG II COS NOBILITAS P SEPT GETA CAES PONT PELICITAS PIETAS PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVGG PIETAS PVBLICA PIETATI PIETATI AVGVSTAE PM TR P VIII COS II PP PM TR P XII COS II PP PM TR P XVI COS III PP PROVID AVGG

72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99)

PVDICITIA ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVL FELICIT SAECVLI FELICITAS SECVRITAS IMPERII VENER VICT VENER VICTOR VENERI GENETRICI VENERI VICT VENERI VICTOR VENERI VICTR VENERI VICTRICI VENVS CAELESTIS VENVS FELIX VENVS GENETRIX VENVS GENITRIX VENVS VICTRIX VESTA VESTA MATER VESTA SANCTAE VESTAE SANCTAE VICT AVG TR P II COS II PP VICTOR IVST AV VICTORIAE AVGG FE VIRTVS AVG COS VOTA PVBLICA VOTA SVSCEPTA XX No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Caracalla laureate bust right Caracalla laureate head right Caracalla laureate, draped bust right Caracalla laureate, draped bust right facing Geta bare-headed, draped bust left

186
6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) Caracalla laureate, draped bust right facing Geta laureate, draped bust left Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch. Ceres standing left, holding grain ears over modius and scepter. Ceres standing left, holding torch and grain ears. Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae Genius standing left, holding fruit basket and grain ears Grain ears in bundle. Cornucopiae (2), grain ear within Crescent, seven stars above. Cybele riding lion quadriga left, holding branch Cybele seated left, holding branch and scepter; lion on either side. Cybele seated left, holding branch; lion on either side. Cybele standing left, holding branch and drum; lion to left. Cybele standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding drum and scepter; lion to left. Cybele standing, facing, holding drum and scepter. Cybele standing, facing, holding drum. Dea Celestis riding lion right over flowing water. Diana standing left, holding torch with both hands. Fecunditas lying left with hand on globe, the Four Seasons frolicking to left and background. Fecunditas seated right, holding baby; baby in cradle to right Fecunditas seated right, holding baby; child to right. Fecunditas standing left, holding baby; child on either side. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter Felicitas standing left, holding coin counter and scepter Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus. Fortuna seated left, holding caduceus and rudder on globe Fortuna seated left, holding caduceus and rudder on globe; child to left. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding cornucopia and resting arm on rudder Fortuna standing left, holding grain ears and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fruit basket Genius standing left, holding fruit basket and grain ears. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Geta bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia; child to either side. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and scepter Isis standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding baby; rudder in front of altar to left Julia Domna riding peacock right, upwards. Julia Domna seated left, holding branch and scepter Julia Domna seated left, holding phoenix on globe and scepter; (2) standards to left. Julia Domna seated left, holding phoenix on globe and scepter; (3) standards to left. Julia Domna standing left, holding branch and scepter. Julia Domna standing left, sacrificing over altar Julia Domna standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus; three standards in background to left. Julia Domna standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box; three standards in background to left. Julia Domna standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter; three standards in background to left. Julia Domna standing, facing, behind Septimius Severus to left and Caracalla to right, holding together globe. Julia Domna, holding scepter, riding peacock right, upwards Juno seated left, holding flower and bundle of rods. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left. Juno standing right, holding patera and scepter. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder. Legionary eagle, standard on either side. Liberalitas seated left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Luna riding biga left Modius with grain ears. Moneta seated left, holding scale and cornucopia. Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Monetae (3) standing left, holding scale and cornucopia; piles of coins by feet. Nobilitas standing, facing, holding scepter and Palladium. Peacock advancing left Peacock standing left, tail spread Pietas seated left, holding Palladium Pietas seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Pietas standing left, raising hands over altar Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Pietas standing right, holding scepter and baby. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and holding scepter. Pudicitia seated left, touching chest Pudicitia seated left, touching chest and holding scepter. Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory and spear. Securitas seated right, holding globe. Septimius Severus and Julia Domna standing, shaking hands. Septimius Severus laureate bust right facing Caracalla laureate bust left. Septimius Severus laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right facing Caracalla laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left. Septimius Severus standing left, holding branch. Septimius Severus standing left, sacrificing over altar. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple with (4) columns, Vesta standing left, sacrificing over lit altar in temple’s center. Temple with (6) columns, Pietas within Venus seated left, holding apple and scepter; Cupid to left. Venus seated left, raising hand and holding scepter. Venus seated left, raising hand and holding scepter; child to left.

187
95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) Venus standing left, holding apple and pulling dress Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter. Venus standing left, holding patera and scepter. Venus standing left, leaning on column, holding helmet and palm; shield to left Venus standing left, raising hand and holding scepter. Venus standing right, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding apple and palm Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. Vesta seated left, holding simpulum and scepter. Vesta standing left, holding Palladium and scepter Vesta standing left, holding patera and scepter Vestals (2) sacrificing over altar in between them, one holding simpulum and the other a patera; temple in background. Vestals (4), attended by two children, sacrificing over altar; temple in background. Victory advancing left, holding garland over shield on base. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm.

Mints:
1) Alexandria 2) Emesa 3) Laodicea ad Mare 4) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) B5, O3, R08, T005 B5, O3, R21, T024 B5, O3, R39, T060 B5, O3, R44, T064 B5, O3, R48, T016 Exe: AVGG B5, O5, R86, T092 B5, O6, R82, T100 B5, O7, R47, T048

Reference(s)
RIC 540 (IVi, S. Severus), BMC 3 (S. Severus) RIC 548 anecdotal (IVi, S. Severus), BMC 14 (S. Severus), C 31 RIC 559 (IVi, S. Severus), BMC 37 (S. Severus) RIC 562 (IVi, S. Severus), BMC 47 (S. Severus), C 116 RIC 537 (IVi, S. Severus), C 203 RIC 536 (IVi, S. Severus), BMC 48 (S. Severus), C 193 RIC 381 (IVi, Caracalla), BMC 11a (Caracalla), C 110

AR Antoninianus
9) 10) 11) B3, O7, R46, T066 B2, O7, R79, T099 B3, O7, R86, T093 RIC 379a (IVi, Caracalla), C 106 RIC 388a (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 211

AR Denarius
12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) B2, O7, R79, T099 B4, O3, R85, T096 B4, O3, R85, T096 B5, O2, R03, T001 B5, O3, R08, T005 B5, O3, R08, T086 B5, O3, R09, T004 B5, O3, R16, T007 B5, O3, R18, T011 B5, O3, R21, T024 B5, O3, R22, T025 B5, O3, R24, T030 B5, O3, R34, T033 B5, O3, R34, T036 B5, O3, R37, T043 B5, O3, R37, T044 B5, O3, R39, T060 B5, O3, R41, T060 B5, O3, R44, T062 B5, O3, R49, T016 B5, O3, R50, T049 B5, O3, R51, T017 B5, O3, R60, T042 B5, O3, R61, T031 B5, O3, R64, T077 B5, O3, R65, T076 B5, O3, R72, T080 B5, O3, R72, T081 B5, O3, R75, T046 B5, O3, R79, T097 B5, O3, R82, T100 B5, O3, R85, T095 B5, O3, R88, T098 B5, O3, R89, T101 B5, O3, R90, T090 B5, O3, R90, T101 B5, O3, R92, T104 B5, O4, R89, T101 B5, O5, R11, T089 B5, O5, R12, T012 B5, O5, R23, T039 B5, O5, R33, T037 B5, O5, R77, T096 B5, O5, R82, T100 B5, O5, R89, T101 B5, O7, R21, T024 RIC 387 (IVi, Caracalla), C 186 RIC 605 (IVi, Septimius Severus) RIC 540 (IVi, Septimius Severus) RIC 539b (IVi, Septimius Severus) RIC 544 (IVi, Septimius Severus) RIC 546 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6576 RIC 637 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6577 RIC 548 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 27 RIC 549 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 35 RIC 551 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 47 RIC 554 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 57 RIC 552 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6583, C 55 RIC 556 (IVi, Septimius Severus) RIC 557 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6585 RIC 559 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6588, C 82 RIC 560 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 97 RIC 561 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6590, C 101 RIC 562 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 117 RIC 568 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6596, C 131 RIC 564 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6593, C 123 RIC 571 (IVi, Septimius Severus) RIC 572 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6600 RIC 574 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6601, C 156 RIC 576 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6602, C 168 RIC 575 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6603, C 170 RIC 577 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6606, C 177 RIC 578 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6607, C 185 RIC 580 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 198 RIC 581 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6610 RIC 582 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 223 RIC 584 (IVi, Septimius Severus) RIC 583 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6612, C 245 RIC 587 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6614, C 246 RIC 615 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 9 RIC 608 (IVi, Septimius Severus) RIC 619 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 52 RIC 625 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 66 RIC 630 (IVi, Septimius Severus) RIC 536 (IVi, Septimius Severus), S 6608, C 194 RIC 373a (IVi, Caracalla), S 7100, C 32

188
58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) B5, O7, R46, T066 B5, O7, R47, T051 B5, O7, R54, T020 B5, O7, R72, T081 B5, O7, R86, T092 B5, O7, R86, T093 B5, O7, R89, T102 B5, O7, R89, T103 B5, O7, R97, T052 RIC 379c (IVi, Caracalla) RIC 380 (IVi, Caracalla), S 7102, C 114 RIC 382 (IVi, Caracalla), C 137 RIC 385 (IVi, Caracalla), C 165 RIC 389b (IVi, Caracalla), S 7107, C 205 RIC 388c (IVi, Caracalla), S 7106, C 212 RIC 391 (IVi, Caracalla), S 7109, C 226 RIC 390 (IVi, Caracalla), S 7108, C 230

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
67) B6, O1, R20, T073

Reference(s)
RIC 396 (IVi, Caracalla) & 715 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 24

AR Quinarius
68) B5, O3, R39, T060 RIC 559 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 83

AE Sestertius
69) 70) 71) 72) 73) B2, O7, R42, T060 B5, O3, R37, T043 B5, O3, R51, T017 Exe: SC B5, O7, R47, T048 Exe: SC B5, O7, R75, T042 RIC 585 (IVi, Caracalla), C 88 RIC 877 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 74 RIC 859 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 124 RIC 588 (IVi, Caracalla), C 112 RIC 590 (IVi, Caracalla), C 178

AE As
74) 75) 76) B5, O3, R49, T016 B5, O7, R39, T060 B5, O7, R89, T106 Exe: SC RIC 879 (IVi, Septimius Severus), C 119 RIC 598 (IVi, Caracalla), C 86 RIC 607 (IVi, Caracalla), C 234

Julia Domna Busts

Julia Domna Types

189
Julia Domna Types (continued)

190
Caracalla's real name was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. He got the nickname from his habit of wearing a cloak by the same name. Caracalla was the elder son of Septimius Severus and brother of Geta whom he positively hated. Hated so much, in fact, that he had him murdered a few years later. In the mayhem that followed, Augustus 197-217 Caracalla's men went on a killing spree of anyone suspected of being a Geta sympathizer. In the massacre, it's estimated up to 20,000 people lost their lives. Caracalla would go on to rule for another five years but his bad karma caught up with him and he was assassinated in a plot perpetrated by Macrinus.

Caracalla

As an emperor Caracalla possessed few redeeming qualities and among the worst of them would be his ruinous drain on the treasury. Because he knew everyone hated him he sought the protection of the army. And the surest way of getting this protection was to buy it outright. He raised the pay of the solider to about four denarii per day, nearly quadrupling the salary of just a few years prior. And on top of their regular salary he heaped endless bonuses and other concessions meant to endear them. This money could only have come by the oppressive taxation of ordinary citizens as well as the seizures of property of the wealthy under trumped-up charges. This not only intensified the hatred against him but also had the effect of corrupting the military who had become accustomed to this life of luxury and throwing the economy into lasting disarray. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) Bare head right Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed right Bare-headed, draped bust right Laureate head left. Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust left Laureate, draped bust right Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust left Radiate, draped bust right

As is the case with the coins of his parents, Caracalla is also very well represented in the silver Denarius but pretty scarce in the copper denominations. These Denarii today can cost as little as $20 for a well-preserved one. Sometime after his Dad had died – and had his brother murdered – Caracalla’s economists presented him with a grim picture that must have sent shivers down his spine. Basically, his silver mines were shutting down and the inbound treasure from all corners of the empire was dwindling. At the same time his soldiers were getting ever more used to fat paychecks in turn for their loyalty. Something had to be done. The scheme he (they?) came up with was a classic inflationary swindle. They would create a new coin, the Antoninianus, worth twice as much as the Denarius but with a small catch: it was to contain only 80% of the silver of two regular Denarii. This was great business for the imperial treasury which could now turn a tidy profit if it could pay its debts in Ants but demand that taxes be paid in Denarii.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37)

ANT PIVS AVG PON TR P VI ANTON P AVG PON TR P IV COS ANTON P AVG PON TR P V ANTON P AVG PON TR P V COS ANTON P AVG PON TR P VI ANTON P AVG PON TR P VI COS Why this plan didn’t kick off a massive civil war is left to speculation. ANTON P AVG PONT TR P VI ANTON PIVS AVG PON TR P VI Probably because it wasn’t introduced cold turkey and on a massive ANTONIN PIVS AVG PONT TR P V scale. Indeed, his Antoniniani are quite a bit harder to find than the ANTONINVS AVG PON TR P V COS ANTONINVS AVG PONT TR P III Denarius and it wouldn’t be until another twenty years later that the ANTONINVS AVG PONT TR P IIII new denomination caught on and the venerable Denarius retired. ANTONINVS AVG PONT TR P V COS ANTONINVS AVGVSTV ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS ANTONINVS PI AVG BRIT ANTONINVS PI AVGV BRIT ANTONINVS PIVS AVG ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PON TR P IIII ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PON TR P V ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PONT TR P IIII ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PONT TR P VI ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PONT TR P VII ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG DIVO ANTONINO MAGNO 38) M AVR ANTON CAES PONTIF IM C M AVR ANTONINVS AVG 39) M AVR ANTONINVS CAES IMP C M AVR ANTON AVG P TR P 40) M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS AVG 41) M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM MAX IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS PONT AVG 42) M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG 43) M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG P TR P 44) M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG P TR P II 45) M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM IMP CAES M AVR ANTON AVG 46) M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM MAX IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG 47) M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG IMP M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PM TR P XIII 48) M AVRELIVS ANTON AVG

191
Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) ADVENT AVGG ADVENTVI AVG ADVENTVS / AVGVSTOR ADVENTVS AVGVSTI AEQVITAS AVGG AEQVITATI PVBLICAE AETERNIT IMPERI ANNONA AVG ARCVS AVGG AVGVSTI COS BONVS EVENTVS CERERI FRVGIS CONCORDIA CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM CONCORDIA FELIX CONCORDIA MILIT CONCORDIAE AETERNAE CONCORDIAE AVGG CONSECRATIO COS II COS III COS III PP COS IIII PP COS LVD SAECVL FEC COS LVDOS SAECVL FEC DESTINATO IMPERAT DI PATRII FELICIA / TEMPORA FELICITAS FELICITAS AVGG FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS SAECVLI FELICITAS TEMPOR FELICITATEM PVBLICAM FIDEI EXERCITVS FIDES PVBLICA FORT RED PM TR P XIIII COS III PP FORTVNA REDVX FORTVNAE FELICI FVNDATOR PACIS GENIO SENATVS IMP ET CAESAR AVG FILI COS IMPERII FELICITAS INDVL FECVNDAE INDVLGENTIA AVGG INDVLGENTIAE AVG INVICTA VIRTVS IOVI CONSERVATORI IVLIA AVGVSTA IVSTITIA IVSTITIA TR P IVVENTA IMPERII LAETITIA / TEMPORVM LIB AVGG VI ET V LIBERAL AVG VIIII LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERALITAS AVG IIII LIBERALITAS AVG V LIBERALITAS AVG VI LIBERALITAS AVG VII LIBERALITAS AVG VIII LIBERALITAS AVGG LIBERALITAS AVGG COS II LIBERALITAS AVGG IIII LIBERALITAS AVGG V LIBERALITAS AVGG VI 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) LIBERALITAS AVGVS LIBERTAS AVG MARS VICTOR MARS VLTOR MARTI PACATORI MARTI PROPVGNATORI MARTI VLTORI MATRI DEVM MINER VICTRIX MONETA AVG MONETA AVGG NOBILITAS P MAX TR P III P MAX TR P IIII COS P SEPT GETA CAES PONT PACATOR ORBIS PACI AETERNAE PART MAX PM TR P VIIII PART MAX PM TR P X PART MAX PON TR P V COS PART MAX PONT TR P IIII PART MAX PONT TR P V PIETAS PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE PM TR P VIII COS II PP PM TR P XIIII COS III PP PM TR P XIIII COS III PP FORT RED PM TR P XV COS III PP PM TR P XV COS III PP IOV VIC PM TR P XV COS IIII PP PM TR P XVI COS IIII PP PM TR P XVI IMP II PM TR P XVII COS III PP PM TR P XVII COS IIII PP PM TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII PP PM TR P XVIII COS IIII PP PM TR P XVIII IMP III COS IIII PP PM TR P XVIIII COS IIII PP PM TR P XX COS IIII PP PM TR P XX IMP III COS IIII PP PONT TR P II PONT TR P VI COS PONTIF TR P II PONTIF TR P III PONTIF TR P IIII PONTIF TR P VI COS PONTIF TR P VII COS PONTIF TR P VIII COS II PONTIF TR P VIIII COS II PONTIF TR P X PONTIF TR P X COS II PONTIF TR P XI PONTIF TR P XI COS III PONTIF TR P XII COS III PONTIF TR P XIII COS III PONTIF TR P XIIII COS III PONTIFEX TR P II PONTIFEX TR P III PONTIFEX TR P X COS II PRINC IVVENT PRINC IVVENTVTIS PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS PROF AVG PONT M TR P XIX PROF AVGG PONTIF TR P XI COS III PROF AVGG PONTIF TR P XII 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) PROF AVGG PONTIF TR P XII COS III PROF PONTIF TR P XI COS III PROFECTIO AVG PROPAGO IMPERI PROVIDENTIA PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM RECTOR ORBIS RECTORI ORBIS RESTITVTOR VRBIS ROMA AETERNA ROMAE AETERNAE SACRA SAECVLARIA SAECVLI FELICITAS SAL GEN HVM SALVS ANTONINI AVG SECVRIT IMPERI SECVRIT ORBIS SECVRITAS PERPETVA SECVRITAS PVBLICA SECVRITAS TEMPORVM SECVRITATI BRITTANNICAE SECVRITATI PERPETVAE SEVERI AVG P II FIL SEVERI P II AVG FIL SOSPITATORI SPEI PERPETVAE SPES PVBLICA TRAIECTVS PONTIF TR P XI COS III VENERI VICTRICI VENVS VICTRIX VIC PART PM TR P XX COS IIII PP VICT AETERN VICT AETERNAE VICT BRIT PM TR P XIIII COS III VICT PART MAX VICT PARTHICA VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGG VICTORIA AVGVSTI VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM VICTORIA BRIT VICTORIA GERMANICA VICTORIA PARTH MAX VICTORIA PARTHICA MAXIMA VICTORIAE VICTORIAE / AVGG VICTORIAE AVGG VICTORIAE BRIT VICTORIAE BRITTANICAE VICTORIAE PARTHICA VICTORIAE PARTHICAE VIRT AVGG VIRTVS AVGG VIRTVS AVGG PONT TR P IIII VIRTVS AVGVSTOR VIRTVS AVGVSTORVM VOT SOL DEC PONTIF TR P XI COS III VOT SVSC DEC PON TR P V COS VOTA PVBLICA VOTA SOLVT DEC VOTA SOLVT DEC COS III VOTA SVSCEPTA X VOTA SVSCEPTA XX No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Aesculapius standing, facing, holding wand with snake around it; globe to right. Aesculapius standing, facing, holding wand with serpent wound around it; Telesphorus to left, globe to right. Aesculapius standing, facing, holding wand with serpent wound around it; Telesphorus to left. Annona seated left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Apollo seated left, holding branch and resting arm on lyre. Apollo seated right, resting arm on lyre and holding branch Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on column Apollo standing left, holding branch and spear. Bridge with two soldiers, boats passing under. Caracalla and Geta seated left on platform, accompanied by Liberalitas and; citizen to lower left Caracalla and Geta standing, facing each other, sacrificing over altar; three soldiers holding standards and seated captive in background Caracalla and Geta standing, facing, together holding Victory Caracalla and Septimius Severus sacrificing over altar; Concordia behind them, musicians on either side, temple in background. Caracalla and Septimius Severus seated right; attendant behind, citizen in front.

192
16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) Caracalla laureate, draped bust right facing Geta bare-headed draped bust left. Caracalla riding horse left over enemy Caracalla riding horse left, holding spear Caracalla riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear Caracalla riding horse left, spearing enemy Caracalla riding horse right, holding spear Caracalla riding horse right, holding spear; captive to right Caracalla riding horse right, holding spear; soldier to right Caracalla riding horse right, holding spear; soldier to right and another to left Caracalla riding horse right, holding spear; soldier to right and two to left Caracalla riding horse right, spearing enemy Caracalla riding quadriga left, holding scepter with eagle atop. Caracalla riding quadriga right, being crowned by Victory Caracalla riding quadriga right, holding scepter with eagle atop. Caracalla riding rearing horse right, holding spear. Caracalla seated left, accompanied by lictor to right and Liberalitas to left, holding coin counter and cornucopia; citizen to lower left Caracalla seated left, holding scepter, facing Aequitas standing to left, holding scale and cornucopia. Caracalla seated left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Caracalla standing left on right, shaking hands with Plautilla to left Caracalla standing left on right, stepping on crocodile, holding scepter, receiving grain ears from Isis to left, holding sistrum. Caracalla standing left, holding branch and scepter. Caracalla standing left, holding branch and scepter; trophy with shield at base to right Caracalla standing left, holding branch. Caracalla standing left, holding globe and scepter, being crowned by Victory to right; seated captive to left Caracalla standing left, holding parazonium and spear; seated captive to left Caracalla standing left, holding Victory and spear Caracalla standing left, holding Victory and spear; seated captive on either side Caracalla standing left, holding Victory and spear; Victory crowning him. Caracalla standing left, holding Victory on globe and spear; seated captive to left Caracalla standing left, holding Victory on globe with wreath and spear; seated captive to lower left. Caracalla standing left, holding wand and spear; trophy to right. Caracalla standing left, sacrificing over altar Caracalla standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Caracalla standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter; bull behind altar Caracalla standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding spear; Aesculapius and child to left in temple with four columns and witness to right Caracalla standing left, sacrificing over altar in front of temple of Vesta; two Vestals to left and two witnesses and child to right Caracalla standing left, sacrificing over altar, facing victimarius with bull to left and musician in center background Caracalla standing left, stepping on captive, holding parazonium and spear Caracalla standing left, stepping on crocodile, holding scepter and receiving corn ears from Isis to left, holding sistrum Caracalla standing left, touching trophy with seated captive on either side of its base. Caracalla standing right on left, holding spear, being crowned by Victory, shaking hands with Geta to right, holding scepter, being browned by Hercules Caracalla standing right on left, sacrificing over altar, facing Geta to right, holding scepter; musician in center background. Caracalla standing right on left, sacrificing over altar, facing victimarius with bull to right; musician in center background Caracalla standing right on left, shaking hands with Geta to right. Caracalla standing right on left, shaking hands with Plautilla on right; Concordia between them. Caracalla standing right on left, shaking hands with Plautilla to right. Caracalla standing right on platform, accompanied by two lictors, facing soldiers to right Caracalla standing right, holding spear; soldier holding standard to left. Caracalla standing right, holding spear; two standards to left. Caracalla standing, facing, holding spear and parazonium; river god to left, another two lying down to right. Caracalla, Septimius Severus and Geta each riding horse left, raising hand. Caracalla, Septimius Severus and Geta seated left with Liberalitas in front, soldier behind and citizen on steps to lower left. Caracalla, Septimius Severus and Geta seated on platform accompanied by two lictors Caracalla, Septimius Severus and Geta seated right, accompanied by lictor; citizen to lower right Caracalla, Septimius Severus and Geta seated, facing, on platform Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch Circus Maximus: bird’s eye view of galley and animals within. Circus Maximus: bird’s eye view of structure within, obelisk and chariots Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding two cornucopiae Dea Caelestis riding lion right over flowing water, holding thunderbolt and scepter Eagle standing left on altar Eagle standing left on globe Eagle standing left on vexillum; standard on either side Elephant advancing left Elephant advancing right Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and baby. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus. Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand; another standard to right. Fides standing left, standard on either side. Fides standing, facing, holding grain ears and fruit basket Fides standing right, holding grain ears and fruit basket Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair Fortuna standing left, leaning on column, holding cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, leaning on column, holding cornucopia; wheel to left Fortuna standing left, holding cornucopia and rudder. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Four Seasons frolicking. Galley sailing left Galley sailing left; animals below and four quadrigae above Galley sailing right Genius standing left, holding branch Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears. Geta bare headed draped and cuirassed bust right Hercules seated at table with companions and servants Hercules standing left, holding branch and club with lion skin

193
105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and scepter. Indulgentia seated left, raising hand and holding scepter. Italia seated left on globe, holding cornucopia and scepter. Jupiter seated left, holding patera and scepter Jupiter seated left, holding patera and scepter; eagle to left Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left and two standards to right Justitia seated left, holding globe. Justitia seated left, holding patera and scepter. Liber standing right on left, holding cup over panther and thrysus, facing four leopards to right Liber standing right on left, holding cup over panther and thrysus, facing Hercules to right; holding club and lion skin Liber standing right on left, holding cup over panther and thrysus, facing Hercules to right, holding club and lion skin; cippus reading COS / LVD / SAEC / FEC in between Liberalitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia; globe to left Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter. Lion advancing left, holding thunderbolt in mouth Lion leaping left, holding thunderbolt in mouth Luna riding chariot pulled by two bulls to left Mars advancing left, holding branch and trophy. Mars advancing left, holding spear and trophy. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mars standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield; seated captive to left. Mars standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear Mars standing left, stepping on helmet, holding branch and spear. Mars standing right, holding spear and shield. Mars standing, facing, holding branch and spear with shield. Medusa’s head, on aegis. Medusa’s head, winged Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear; shield to left and trophy to right. Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear; trophy to right Minerva standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Monetae (3) standing, facing, each holding a scale; coins piled by their feet. Nobilitas standing right, holding scepter and Palladium; shield to right Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar and holding incense box. Plautilla draped bust right. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Roma helmeted bust left. Roma helmeted bust right. Roma seated left, holding Palladium and spear Roma seated left, holding spear and Palladium. Roma seated left, holding Victory and parazonium Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear; kneeling captive to left Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar and holding cornucopia Salus standing left, holding hand of kneeling citizen and scepter with snake coiled around it. Securitas seated left, holding globe. Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand Securitas seated right, resting head on hand and holding palm. Securitas seated right, resting head on hand and holding scepter. Securitas seated right, resting head on hand and holding scepter; altar to right Septimius Severus laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right facing Caracalla, laureate draped and cuirassed bust left. Septimius Severus radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right over Julia Domna draped bust on crescent. Serapis seated left, raising hand and holding scepter Serapis seated left, raising hand and holding scepter; Cerberus to left Serapis standing left, holding unidentified object and scepter Serapis standing left, raising hand and holding scepter. Sol radiate, draped bust right Sol riding quadriga left, raising hand and holding whip Sol standing, facing, holding globe and spear. Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding whip Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple with (2) columns, Jupiter standing within, holding thunderbolt and scepter Temple with (4) columns, Jupiter standing within, holding thunderbolt and scepter Temple with (6) columns; Roma within in center and outer statues Triumphal arch Trophy; seated captive on either side. Venus standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield Venus standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield; captive on either side. Vexillae (2), standard on each side. Vexillum, standard on each side. Victories (2) standing, facing each other, placing shield on palm with seated captive on each side. Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath over shield Victory advancing left, holding trophy; seated captive to left Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, dragging captive and holding trophy. Victory advancing right, holding trophy with both hands.

194
193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and trophy. Victory riding biga right. Victory seated left, holding shield and palm. Victory seated right, holding shield placed on altar Victory seated right, holding shield reading VO / XX Victory seated right, holding shield reading VO / XX; shield, cuirass and helmet below Victory seated right, holding shield reading VO / XX; trophy to right with seated captive on either side Victory seated right, holding shield; shield below Victory standing left, holding trophy; kneeling captive to left. Victory standing left, holding trophy; seated captive to left. Victory standing left, holding trophy; supplicant kneeling to left. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing right on galley prow, holding wreath and palm Victory standing right on left, stepping on helmet, touching trophy to right with seated captive on either side Victory standing right on left, stepping on helmet, touching trophy to right with seated captive at its base; Britannica standing to right, facing Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield on palm Virtus seated left, holding Victory and parazonium. Virtus standing left, holding spear and shield. Virtus standing left, holding Victory and spear. Virtus standing left, stepping on helmet, holding parazonium and spear; trophy to left with seated captive by its base. Virtus standing right, holding Victory and spear. Virtus standing right, stepping on helmet, holding spear and parazonium. Wreath, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM within Wreath, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG within

Mints:
1) 2) Laodicea ad Mare Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) B03, O39, R155, T157 B05, O18, R014, T013 B05, O18, R121, T128 B05, O18, R178, T195 B05, O18, R180, T196 B05, O18, R188, T066 B05, O18, R193, T058 B05, O19, R054, T011 B05, O19, R093, T005 B05, O19, R097, T110 Exe: IOV VIC B05, O19, R138, T148 B05, O19, R154, T165 B06, O19, R099, T029 Exe: COS IIII PP B06, O20, R106, T173 B06, O20, R154, T165 B07, O20, R101, T051 B07, O20, R103, T054 B08, O04, R017, T167 B08, O09, R081, T102 B08, O12, R017, T167 B08, O15, R081, T102 B08, O15, R139, T174 B08, O15, R183, T189 B08, O18, R053, T098 B08, O18, R141, T151 B08, O18, R167, T190 B08, O20, R102, T169 B08, O20, R103, T050 B08, O20, R105, T125 B08, O20, R105, T171 B08, O20, R106, T170 B08, O20, R138, T148 B08, O33, R075, T138 B08, O33, R159, T177 B08, O36, R052, T044 B08, O36, R124, T044 B10, O18, R115, T133

Reference(s)
RIC IVi 3, BMC 183, C 582 RIC IVi 152 RIC IVi 109a RIC IVi 170 RIC IVi 174, BMC 519, C 633 RIC IVi 205, BMC 576, C 683 RIC IVi 215c RIC IVi 200, BMC 34 RIC IVi 227, C 528 RIC IVi 229, BMC 101, C 575 RIC IVi 210, BMC 55, C 232 RIC IVi 294b, BMC 195, C 391 RIC IVi 309a RIC IVi 257b RIC IVi 59a RIC IVi 52, BMC 260, C 1 RIC IVi 38, C 1 RIC IVi 39b, BMC 163, C 541 RIC IVi 253 RIC IVi 133, BMC 263, C 117 RIC IVi 144a, BMC 295, C 660 RIC IVi 242, BMC 96, C 253 RIC IVi 270a, BMC 148, C 317 RIC IVi 283a, C 366 RIC IVi 280a, BMC 164, C 347 RIC IVi 289a, BMC 186 RIC IVi 309b, BMC 76, C 530 RIC IVi 25a RIC IVi 26b, C 598 RIC IVi 20 RIC IVi 27b, BMC 152, C 405 RIC IVi 80b

AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm
38) B05, O36, R196, T079

AR Antoninianus
39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) B12, O20, R103, T111 B12, O20, R103, T125 B12, O20, R103, T171 B12, O20, R103, T173 B15, O20, R103, T110 B15, O20, R103, T111 RIC IVi 258b RIC IVi 273d, C 322 RIC IVi 263d RIC IVi 265, S 6773, C 289 RIC IVi 260b, C 277a RIC IVi 258a, C 279

195
45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) B15, O20, R103, T126 B15, O20, R103, T127 B15, O20, R103, T171 B15, O20, R103, T175 B15, O20, R106, T173 B15, O20, R162, T183 B15, O20, R162, T184 B15, O20, R163, T039 B15, O20, R168, T199 B17, O20, R103, T112 B17, O20, R103, T125 B17, O20, R103, T127 B17, O20, R103, T171 B17, O20, R103, T173 B17, O20, R105, T171 B17, O20, R105, T173 B17, O20, R105, T175 C 402 RIC IVi 256b, C 294 RIC IVi 263e, C 295 RIC IVi 264c, C 287 RIC IVi 284a RIC IVi 311d RIC IVi 312a, C 612 RIC IVi 299d, C 654 RIC IVi 314b RIC IVi 275b, C 338 RIC IVi 283b, C 368 RIC IVi 274d RIC IVi 263c, C 295d RIC IVi 280d, C 349 RIC IVi 282e, C 356 RIC IVi 281a, C 358

AR Denarius
62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) B02, O38, R026, T157 B02, O38, R089, T146 B02, O38, R129, T046 B02, O38, R150, T140 B02, O38, R158, T177 B02, O39, R150, T140 B02, O39, R155, T157 B02, O39, R158, T177 B03, O38, R034, T084 B03, O38, R043, T082 B03, O38, R073, T130 B05, O18, R028, T096 B05, O18, R047, T020 B05, O18, R053, T098 B05, O18, R059, T121 B05, O18, R068, T124 B05, O18, R082, T172 B05, O18, R100, T158 B05, O18, R115, T132 B05, O18, R116, T021 B05, O18, R116, T132 B05, O18, R117, T097 Exe: COS II B05, O18, R118, T021 B05, O18, R118, T065 B05, O18, R118, T130 B05, O18, R118, T165 B05, O18, R118, T190 B05, O18, R118, T215 B05, O18, R119, T027 Exe: COS III B05, O18, R120, T021 B05, O18, R120, T022 Exe: PROF B05, O18, R120, T023 Exe: PROF B05, O18, R120, T070 B05, O18, R120, T134 B05, O18, R120, T190 B05, O18, R121, T075 B05, O18, R121, T215 B05, O18, R122, T075 B05, O18, R122, T215 B05, O18, R141, T156 B05, O18, R157, T178 Exe: IOVI B05, O18, R187, T153 B05, O18, R192, T058 B05, O18, R193, T049 B05, O18, R194, T047 B05, O18, R195, T057 B05, O18, R196, T029 Exe: COS III B05, O19, R004, T019 B05, O19, R029, T084 B05, O19, R035, T087 B05, O19, R037, T093 B05, O19, R044, T106 B05, O19, R059, T121 B05, O19, R061, T121 B05, O19, R071, T135 B05, O19, R072, T129 B05, O19, R076, T141 B05, O19, R093, T206 B05, O19, R093, T206 B05, O19, R095, T004 B05, O19, R095, T104 B05, O19, R095, T159 B05, O19, R095, T171 B05, O19, R098, T104 B05, O19, R098, T124 B05, O19, R098, T171 B05, O19, R100, T081 B05, O19, R122, T020

Reference(s)
RIC IVi 6, S 6672, C 53 RIC IVi 12, C 180 RIC IVi 13b, C 505 RIC IVi 330, C 566 RIC IVi 16, S 6681, C 597 RIC IVi 2, C 562 RIC IVi 4, S 6679, C 587 RIC IVi 5d, C 594 RIC IVi 7, S 6673, C 74 RIC IVi 9, C 95 RIC IVi 11, C 154 RIC IVi 153 RIC IVi 155, C 108 RIC IVi 157 RIC IVi 158, S 6815, C 128 RIC IVi 161, S 6817, C 143 RIC IVi 163d, C 171 RIC IVi 84, C 427 RIC IVi 83a, C 424 RIC IVi 98 RIC IVi 97, C 436 RIC IVi 96, S 6865, C 441 RIC IVi 88, C 431 RIC IVi 92, S 6863, C 434 RIC IVi 94 RIC IVi 95, S 6864, C 440 RIC IVi 104, C 451 RIC IVi 107, C 511 RIC IVi 108, C 510 RIC IVi 107 anecdotal, C 512 RIC IVi 106, C 456 RIC IVi 100, S 6867 RIC IVi 101 RIC IVi 111, S 6868, C 465 RIC IVi 112, S 6869, C 464 RIC IVi 116a, C 484 RIC IVi 117a, C 477 RIC IVi 166, S 6882, C 422 RIC IVi 156, C 108 RIC IVi 176, C 672 RIC IVi 205, C 684 RIC IVi 204, S 6906, C 682 RIC IVi 150, S 6909 RIC IVi 181, C 693 RIC IVi 87, C 38 RIC IVi 212 RIC IVi 213, S 6800, C 76 RIC IVi 189, C 84 RIC IVi 214, C 104 RIC IVi 216 RIC IVi 219, C 134 RIC IVi 222, S 6818, C 149 RIC IVi 223, S 6819, C 150 RIC IVi 224, C 165 RIC IVi 185, C 188 RIC IVi 190, S 6823, C 188 RIC IVi 195, S 6825 RIC IVi 192, C 196 RIC IVi 196, S 6826, C 206 RIC IVi 194, C 195 RIC IVi 206a, S 6828, C 220 RIC IVi 209a, S 6830, C 224 RIC IVi 208a, S 6829, C 211 RIC IVi 211a, C 230 RIC IVi 118b

196
130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) 218) B05, O19, R122, T075 B05, O19, R122, T215 B05, O19, R123, T074 B05, O19, R123, T144 B05, O19, R123, T215 B05, O19, R135, T064 B05, O19, R138, T148 B05, O19, R180, T190 B05, O19, R180, T192 B05, O20, R046, T105 B05, O20, R055, T121 B05, O20, R072, T129 B05, O20, R098, T104 B05, O20, R098, T171 B05, O20, R101, T006 B05, O20, R101, T007 B05, O20, R101, T036 B05, O20, R101, T081 B05, O20, R101, T104 B05, O20, R101, T113 B05, O20, R101, T171 B05, O20, R103, T001 B05, O20, R103, T002 B05, O20, R103, T008 B05, O20, R103, T039 B05, O20, R103, T086 B05, O20, R103, T111 B05, O20, R103, T125 B05, O20, R103, T145 B05, O20, R103, T156 B05, O20, R103, T169 B05, O20, R103, T171 B05, O20, R103, T175 B05, O20, R105, T110 B05, O20, R105, T111 B05, O20, R105, T112 B05, O20, R105, T125 B05, O20, R105, T126 B05, O20, R105, T127 B05, O20, R105, T171 B05, O20, R105, T173 B05, O20, R105, T175 B05, O20, R106, T108 B05, O20, R106, T112 B05, O20, R106, T127 B05, O20, R106, T170 B05, O20, R106, T173 B05, O20, R106, T176 B05, O20, R106, T200 B05, O20, R162, T183 B05, O20, R162, T184 B05, O26, R072, T129 B05, O26, R076, T141 B05, O26, R098, T104 B06, O15, R156, T044 B07, O15, R149, T162 B08, O15, R007, T166 B08, O15, R011, T101 B08, O15, R030, T083 B08, O15, R087, T182 B08, O15, R111, T174 B08, O15, R112, T174 B08, O15, R139, T174 B08, O15, R146, T160 B08, O15, R149, T162 B08, O15, R149, T162 B08, O15, R156, T044 B08, O15, R164, T188 B08, O15, R184, T212 B08, O18, R087, T182 B08, O18, R185, T212 B08, O31, R151, T161 B08, O33, R036, T089 B08, O33, R036, T090 B08, O33, R075, T138 B08, O33, R075, T139 B08, O33, R077, T141 B08, O33, R159, T177 B08, O34, R159, T177 B08, O35, R124, T044 B08, O35, R149, T165 B10, O15, R030, T083 B10, O18, R001, T097 B10, O18, R003, T097 B10, O18, R015, T034 B10, O18, R017, T167 B10, O18, R025, T118 B10, O18, R030, T083 B10, O18, R045, T076 RIC IVi 116b, C 483 RIC IVi 117b RIC IVi 183, C 192 RIC IVi 184, C 190 RIC IVi 191, C 494 RIC IVi 225, S 6876, C 509 RIC IVi 227d, C 529 RIC IVi 231, C 632 RIC IVi 231a, C 629 RIC IVi 300, S 6808, C 103 RIC IVi 302, C 139 RIC IVi 307, C 152 RIC IVi 206c, C 222 RIC IVi 208c, C 213 RIC IVi 238a, C 242 RIC IVi 246, C 247 RIC IVi 250a RIC IVi 239, C 244 RIC IVi 240, S 6832, C 239 RIC IVi 244, C 241 RIC IVi 251, S 6834, C 302 RIC IVi 253, C 307 RIC IVi 254, S 6835, C 282 RIC IVi 299e, C 655 RIC IVi 266, S 6840, C 315 RIC IVi 258c, S 6836 RIC IVi 273e RIC IVi 255, S 6841, C 284 C 246 RIC IVi 263 RIC IVi 264a, S 6839 RIC IVi 277c, C 343 RIC IVi 275a, C 337 RIC IVi 276, C 340 RIC IVi 283c, C 367 RIC IVi 274a RIC IVi 280c, C 348 RIC IVi 282f RIC IVi 281b, C 359 RIC IVi 287a RIC IVi 285a RIC IVi 284d RIC IVi 289c, C 382 RIC IVi 294c, C 391a RIC IVi 293d, S 6848 RIC IVi 297e RIC IVi 311b, S 6890, C 606 RIC IVi 312d, C 613 RIC IVi 235, S 6815 RIC IVi 236, C 166 RIC IVi 206b, C 221 RIC IVi 32b RIC IVi 33, C 19 RIC IVi 35 RIC IVi 346, C 177a RIC IVi 30a, S 6857, C 413 RIC IVi 55a RIC IVi 39a, C 542 RIC IVi 42c, S 6883, C 558a RIC 351b RIC IVi 43d, C 572 RIC IVi 45d, C 590 RIC IVi 47a RIC IVi 354, S 6902, C 664 RIC IVi 149b, S 6903, C 667 RIC IVi 332, C 568 RIC IVi 24a, C 82 RIC IVi 334, C 82 RIC IVi 336b, C 159 RIC IVi 25d, C 159 RIC IVi 337b, C 168 RIC IVi 26a, C 599 RIC IVi 28, C 600a RIC IVi 27a RIC IVi 22a RIC IVi 120, C 3 RIC IVi 121 RIC IVi 124a, S 6794 RIC IVi 125a, C 5a RIC IVi 74a RIC IVi 127, S 6799 RIC IVi 130a, S 6806, C 97

197
219) 220) 221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) 231) 232) 233) 234) 235) B10, O18, R057, T121 B10, O18, R062, T121 B10, O18, R065, T121 B10, O18, R087, T182 B10, O18, R088, T182 B10, O18, R109, T155 B10, O18, R115, T132 B10, O18, R115, T133 B10, O18, R115, T158 B10, O18, R139, T174 B10, O18, R167, T190 B10, O18, R175, T190 B10, O18, R179, T188 B10, O18, R185, T212 B10, O18, R190, T047 B10, O33, R159, T177 B10, O34, R030, T083 RIC IVi 135, C 122 RIC IVi 134a, C 121 RIC IVi 136b, C 124 RIC IVi 54b, S 6853, C 175 RIC IVi 63, C 178 RIC IVi 69, S 6856, C 499 RIC IVi 81, S 6859, C 421 RIC IVi 80, S 6858, C 420 RIC IVi 82, S 6860, C 422 RIC IVi 141 RIC IVi 144b, C 658 RIC IVi 145, S 6898, C 661 RIC IVi 149a, C 667 RIC IVi 68, S 6908 RIC IVi 338b, C 599 RIC IVi 339, S 6798, C 62

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
236) B01, O27, R019, T078

Reference(s)
RIC 717 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 32

AR Quinarius
237) B05, O18, R078, T143 238) B05, O19, R022, T190 239) B08, O20, R023, T190 RIC IVi 162, C 169 RIC IVi 202b, C 42 RIC IVi 317a, C 45a

AE Sestertius
240) 241) 242) 243) 244) 245) 246) 247) 248) 249) 250) 251) 252) 253) 254) B05, O43, R122, T128 B05, O43, R181, T208 Exe: SC B05, O44, R018, T056 Exe: SC B05, O44, R138, T148 B05, O44, R154, T165 Exe: SC B06, O42, R102, T062 Exe: SC B06, O44, R138, T148 B06, O44, R154, T165 Exe: SC B08, O39, R158, T177 B08, O42, R102, T062 Exe: SC B08, O44, R098, T124 B08, O44, R098, T131 B08, O44, R099, T073 Exe: COS IIII PP / SC B08, O45, R104, T035 Exe: SC B08, O45, R154, T165 Exe: SC RIC IVi 450b, C 474 RIC IVi 464, C 639 RIC IVi 508c, C 29 RIC IVi 511a, C 532 RIC IVi 512d, C 577 RIC IVi 512a RIC IVi 401, C 595 RIC IVi 525c RIC IVi 498a, C 229 RIC IVi 496b RIC IVi 500a, C 236 RIC IVi 544, C 334 RIC IVi 573a, C 580

AE Dupondius
255) B11, O18, R181, T209 RIC IVi 467, C 637

AE As
256) 257) 258) 259) 260) 261) 262) 263) 264) B03, O39, R155, T157 Exe: SC B05, O18, R122, T213 Exe: SC B05, O18, R122, T213 Exe: SC B05, O19, R181, T209 B05, O20, R102, T204 B05, O20, R103, T002 B08, O20, R103, T002 B08, O20, R103, T002 B08, O25, R025, T118 Exe: SC RIC IVi 404, C 586 RIC IVi 458, C 479 RIC IVi 458b RIC IVi 534, C 268 RIC IVi 554a, C 309 RIC IVi 554b RIC IVi 421

198
Caracalla Busts

Caracalla Types

199
Caracalla Types (continued)

200
Caracalla Types (continued)

201
Caracalla Types (continued)

202
Plautilla was the wife of Caracalla. This unhappy union came about by insistence of Septimius Severus, Caracalla's father, who wanted to show his appreciation and support for Plautianus, his Praetorian Prefect. Caracalla apparently hated her for her imperious and ? – d.211 snobby ways and warned her that the only reason she was with him in the first place was in deference to his father's wishes.

Plautilla

Alarmed at what Caracalla might do to her, Plautianus then set up a hasty plot to kill his friend Severus but the plot was revealed and he was executed. Shortly after Severus's death Caracalla made good on his threats and exiled her to an island. This not being good enough he had her executed sometime after. Bust:
1) Draped bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) PLAVTILLA AVG PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE

As with other coins of this period, while the Denarius is now seriously debased (of roughly 50% finenesss) and the Sestertius is suffering from an unhealthy weight loss, at least the artistry of the portraiture continues to be of high grade. Many of coins of Plautilla remain in top notch grades and while nowhere as common as those of her husband Caracalla they are still available at a moment’s notice from any coin dealer and often on Ebay. The average Denarius will sell for somewhere between $50 and $100. Even a truly wonderful piece should not cost much above $200. Any other denomination is likely to be prohibitive in cost if in decent shape.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) CONCORDIA AVGG CONCORDIA FELIX CONCORDIAE CONCORDIAE AETERNAE DIANA LVCIFERA HILARITAS PIETAS AVGG PROPAGO IMPERI VENVS FELIX VENVS VICTRIX

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter. Diana standing left, holding torch with both hands. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia. Pietas standing, facing, holding scepter and child. Plautilla standing right on left, shaking hands with Caracalla to right Venus standing left, holding apple and pulling dress from shoulder. Venus standing left, leaning on shield, holding apple and cradling palm; cupid to lower left.

Mints:
1) 2) Laodicea ad Mare Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) B1, O2, R05, T4 B1, O2, R07, T6

Reference(s)
RIC 366 (IVi, Caracalla) RIC 367 (IVi, Caracalla), C 15

AR Denarius
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) B1, O2, R01, T3 B1, O2, R02, T7 B1, O2, R05, T4 B1, O2, R06, T5 B1, O2, R07, T6 B1, O2, R10, T9 B1, O3, R01, T3 B1, O3, R03, T2 B1, O3, R03, T2 B1, O3, R04, T7 B1, O3, R08, T7 RIC 363 (IVi, Caracalla), S 7065, C 1 RIC 365 (IVi, Caracalla), C 12 RIC 366 (IVi, Caracalla), C 13 RIC 371 (IVi, Caracalla), S 7071, C 14 RIC 367 (IVi, Caracalla), S 7072, C 16 RIC 369 (IVi, Caracalla), S 7074 RIC 359 (IVi, Caracalla), S 7065 RIC 370 (IVi, Caracalla), C 7 RIC 360 (Ivi, Caracalla), C 7 RIC 361 (Ivi, Caracalla), S 7069, C 10 RIC 362 (Ivi, Caracalla), S 7073, C 21

203
AR Quinarius
14) B1, O2, R09, T8

Reference(s)
RIC 368 (Ivi, Caracalla), C 23

AE As
15) 16) B1, O3, R01, T2 B1, O3, R07, T6 RIC 580 (Ivi, Caracalla), C 5 RIC 581 (IVi, Caracalla), C 19

Plautilla Bust

Plautilla Types

204
Geta was Caracalla's brother and son of Septimius Severus. He served as Caesar from 198 until his father's death in 211 at which point he became Augustus, sharing the top slot with Caracalla. Caracalla, in turn, wanted none of this and prepared to rid himself of his unwelcome sidekick. Tricking Geta into a feigned peace Augustus 198-212 summit to be convened on the neutral grounds of their mother's residence, Geta was instead ambushed by a detachment of Caracalla's troops and cold-heartedly slain as he desperately sought refuge in his mother's arms.

Geta

Bust s:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Bare head right Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust left Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Bare-headed, draped bust left Bare-headed, draped bust right Laureate head right Radiate head right

A bit scarcer than either Caracalla’s or Septimius Severus’s coins, Geta’s own coins are still widely available in all grades from the $5 “junk” Denarii to the multithousand dollar Aureus and everything in between. As should be no surprise by now, the Denarius is by far the most well-represented denomination for this boy emperor. For some years now the bronzes have been getting much scarcer. By the early 200’s a Sestertius is a rare coin although they will continue to be struck, along with the Dupondius and the As, for at least another half century. Likewise, any of these bronzes will be rare for Geta, especially in a high grade. Geta begins his appearance on coins as a young child and over the years matures into a young adult. By the time of his murder he is already shown as a young, bearded man.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) GETA CAES PONT COS GETA CAES PONTIF GETA CAES PONTIF COS GETA CAES PONTIFEX IMP CAE L SEPT GETA AVG COS II IMP CAES P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG L SEPT GETA CAES PONT L SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES P SEPT GETA CAES PONT P SEPT GETA CAES PONT COS P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT P SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES P SEPTIMIVS GETA CAESAR P SEPTIMIVS GETA PIVS AVG BRIT

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) ADVENTVS AVGVSTI AEQVITATI PVBLICAE AETERNIT IMPERII BONVS EVENTVS CASTOR CONCORDIA CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM CONCORDIA MILIT CONCORDIAE AETERNAE CONCORDIAE AVGG COS DI PATRII FELICIA TEMPORA FELICITAS AVGG FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS SAECVLI FELICITAS TEMPOR FID EXERC TR P III COS II FORT RED TR P III FORT RED TR P III COS II PP IMP ET CAESAR AVG FILI COS IOVI SOSPITATORI IVLIA AVGVSTA IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG LAETITIA PVBL LAETITIA TEMPORVM LIB AVGG V ET VI LIBERALITAS AVG V 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) LIBERALITAS AVG VI LIBERALITAS AVGG IIII LIBERALITAS AVGG VI ET V LIBERALITAS AVGVSTORVM MARTI VICTORI MINER VICTRIX MINERV SANCT MINERVA MINERVA PACIFERA MINERVAE VICTRICI NOBILITAS PACATOR ORBIS PIETAS PIETAS AVG PIETAS PVBLICA PM TR P II COS II PP PONTIF COS PONTIF COS II PONTIF TR P COS II PONTIF TR P II COS II PONTIF TR P III COS II PONTIF TR P III COS II PP PONTIF TR P III PP PONTIFEX PONTIFEX COS II PRINC IVVENT PRINC IVVENT COS PRINC IVVENTVT 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) PRINC IVVENTVTIS PRINCIPI IVVENT COS PROVID DEORVM PROVIDENTIA DEORVM RESTITVTOR VRBIS RESTITVTORI VRBIS ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVLARIA SACRA SECVRIT IMPERII SEVER INVICTI AVG P II FIL SEVERI P II AVG FIL SPEI PERPETVAE SPES PVBLICA TR P III COS II PP TR P IIII COS II FORT RED TR P IIII COS II PP VICT AETERN VICT BRIT TR P III COS II VICT BRIT TR P IIII COS II VICTORIAE AVGG VICTORIAE AVGVSTORVM VICTORIAE BRIT VICTORIAE BRITTANICAE VIRTVS AVGVSTOR VOTA PVBLICA VOTA SVSCEPTA X No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia; coins piled by feet Caracalla radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, raising hand Castor standing left, holding horse by rein and spear. Concordia standing left, holding standard and scepter; two standards to left and three to right. Diana standing left, holding torch and globe Elephant advancing right. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, holding cornucopia and caduceus Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand; another standard to right.

205
10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) Fides standing left, holding standard; another standard to right. Fortuna lying right on wheel, holding cornucopia. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair. Four Seasons frolicking Galley sailing left; circus animals below, two quadrigae above. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears. Geta and Caracalla seated left on platform with Liberalitas to left, holding coin counter and cornucopia; citizen to lower left. Geta and Caracalla seated, facing each other; Septimius Severus standing in between them, facing forward. Geta and Caracalla seated, facing each other; Septimius Severus seated between them, facing forward. Geta and Caracalla standing left, each raising hand and holding a spear; three soldiers in background and seated captive to lower left. Geta and Caracalla standing, facing each other, each holding a spear, shaking hands; Liber, holding thrysus, crowning emperor on left and Hercules, holding club, crowning emperor on right Geta and Caracalla standing, facing each other, holding together globe; Victory between them over trophy with seated captive at its base. Geta and Caracalla standing, facing each other, sacrificing over altar; musician between them in background. Geta and Caracalla standing, facing each other, shaking hands over altar; Victory between them, crowning each. Geta and Caracalla standing, facing each other, shaking hands. Geta riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter. Geta riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear; soldier leading in front, holding standard. Geta riding horse left, spearing enemy. Geta riding quadriga left, holding scepter with eagle atop Geta riding quadriga right, holding scepter with eagle atop. Geta riding quadriga right, raising hand Geta standing left on right, holding cornucopia, shaking hands with Felicitas to left, holding caduceus. Geta standing left, holding branch and spear. Geta standing left, holding branch and spear; trophy to right with shield at base. Geta standing left, holding globe and scepter. Geta standing left, holding scepter and spear; trophy to right. Geta standing left, sacrificing over altar. Geta standing left, sacrificing over altar; bull by altar. Geta, Caracalla and Septimius Severus, each riding a horse right Janus standing left, holding spear and thunderbolt. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder on globe. Liber standing right by leopard, holding cup and thrysus, facing Hercules to right, holding club and lion skin. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia; globe to lower left. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars standing left, crowning trophy and holding spear with shield. Minerva advancing right, holding branch and spear with shield. Minerva helmeted head right Minerva seated left, feeding snake on tree and holding spear. Minerva seated left, feeding snake on tree and holding spear; owl on shield to right. Minerva standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia. Nobilitas standing right, holding scepter and Palladium Pietas seated left, holding scepter and cornucopia; two children under chair. Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar and holding incense box. Pietas standing left, raising hands over altar Pietas standing right, holding scepter and pulling veil; two children to right. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Securitas seated left, holding globe. Securitas seated left, resting head on hand and holding scepter; altar to left. Septimius Severus laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, facing Caracalla laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left. Sol radiate, draped bust right Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt Temple with (2) columns; Aesculapius standing with, holding scepter with snake coiled around and snake on either side. Temple with (2) columns; Jupiter standing within, holding scepter. Temple with (6) columns; Roma seated within. Victories (2) standing, facing each other, together holding shield on palm tree with seated captives at its base. Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath over shield Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory riding biga right, holding whip Victory seated right, holding shield. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, touching trophy; Britannia standing to right, facing, with captive by feet. Virtus seated left, holding Victory and parazonium. Virtus standing left, stepping on captive, holding parazonium and spear. Wreath, TEM / POR FELI / CITAS within.

Mints:
1) 2) Laodicea ad Mare Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) B3, O01, R81, T37 B3, O09, R15, T07 B3, O12, R54, T39 Exe: COS B5, O08, R67, T60 B5, O09, R66, T02

Reference(s)
RIC IVi 38a, BMC 441 RIC IVi 9b, C 37 RIC IVi 37a, C 161 RIC IVi 3 RIC IVi 21, BMC 244

206
AR Denarius
6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) B1, O12, R46, T16 B3, O08, R17, T32 B3, O08, R68, T66 B3, O09, R41, T55 B3, O09, R54, T33 B3, O09, R65, T61 B3, O09, R73, T71 B3, O12, R35, T51 B3, O12, R46, T35 B3, O12, R54, T39 B5, O01, R14, T07 B5, O01, R36, T51 B5, O01, R81, T37 B5, O02, R36, T51 B5, O07, R83, T80 B5, O08, R17, T07 B5, O08, R67, T60 B5, O08, R69, T66 B5, O09, R03, T63 B5, O09, R05, T03 B5, O09, R14, T07 B5, O09, R15, T07 B5, O09, R32, T43 B5, O09, R39, T53 B5, O09, R54, T33 B5, O09, R57, T34 B5, O09, R65, T61 B5, O09, R69, T66 B5, O09, R73, T71 B5, O09, R83, T80 B5, O12, R11, T29 Exe: COS B5, O12, R29, T43 B5, O12, R33, T45 B5, O12, R35, T51 B5, O12, R36, T51 B5, O12, R37, T47 Exe: COS B5, O12, R45, T51 B5, O12, R46, T16 B5, O12, R46, T35 B5, O12, R46, T37 B5, O12, R52, T30 B5, O12, R54, T39 B5, O12, R59, T58 B5, O12, R61, T59 B5, O12, R67, T60 B5, O12, R81, T37 B6, O06, R47, T16 B6, O06, R48, T08 B6, O06, R48, T16 B6, O11, R01, T26 B6, O11, R19, T11 B6, O11, R20, T11 B6, O11, R20, T12 B6, O11, R28, T43 B6, O11, R28, T44 B6, O11, R48, T08 B6, O11, R49, T08 B6, O11, R70, T05 B6, O11, R70, T08 B6, O11, R70, T40 B6, O11, R78, T73 B6, O11, R78, T76

Reference(s)
RIC IVi 59b RIC IVi 96, C 192 RIC IVi 99, S 7185, C 97 RIC IVi 15b, C 159 RIC IVi 20b, C 183a RIC IVi 101, C 206 RIC IVi 61b, C 117 C 162a RIC IVi 29, C 35 RIC IVi 30, C 78 RIC IVi 38b, S 7207 RIC IVi 25, C 79 RIC IVi 2, S 7174, C 44 RIC IVi 3, C 188 RIC IVi 4, S 7203, C 193 RIC IVi 5, C 1a RIC IVi 6, C 12 RIC IVi 8, C 36 RIC IVi 9a, S 7173 RIC IVi 11, S 7178 RIC IVi 13a, S 7184 RIC IVi 15a, C 159 RIC IVi 18, S 7196 RIC IVi 20a, S 7200, C 183 RIC IVi 21a, C 195 RIC IVi 23, S 7205 RIC IVi 28, C 28 RIC IVi 44, C 69 RIC IVi 103, C 76 RIC IVi 45, S 7181, C 83 RIC IVi 46, C 77 RIC IVi 31, C 81 RIC IVi 34b, S 7186 RIC IVi 59a, S 7187, C 114 RIC IVi 61a, S 7188, C 117 RIC IVi 62b, C 119 RIC IVi 66, C 103b RIC IVi 37b, C 162a RIC IVi 51, S 7197 RIC IVi 52, C 172 RIC IVi 57, C 227 RIC IVi 67, C 129 RIC IVi 69a, C 137 RIC IVi 70b, C 140 RIC IVi 84 C 62a RIC IVi 77, C 62 RIC IVi 76d, C 59 RIC IVi 88 RIC IVi 89, C 68 RIC IVi 69b, C 137 RIC IVi 78a, S 7520 RIC IVi 81, C 200 RIC IVi 80, S 7523, C 198 RIC IVi 79, C 197 RIC IVi 91, C 220 RIC IVi 92, C 219

AR Quinarius
68) B1, O12, R39, T53 RIC IVi 49, C 93c

AE Sestertius
69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) B6, O06, R48, T20 Exe: SC B6, O06, R48, T23 Exe: SC B6, O14, R10, T21 Exe: SC B6, O14, R20, T13 Exe: SC B6, O14, R31, T17 Exe: SC B6, O14, R74, T75 Exe: SC RIC IVi 157b, C 146 RIC IVi 156, C 145 RIC IVi 184, C 25 RIC IVi 168, C 52 RIC IVi 185, C 71 RIC IVi 172b, C 210

AE Dupondius
75) B7, O14, R47, T57 RIC IVi 174a, C 153

207
AE As
76) 77) 78) B6, O06, R47, T46 Exe: SC B6, O06, R48, T57 B6, O14, R20, T13 Exe: SC

Reference(s)
RIC IVi 152 RIC IVi 163, C 133 RIC IVi 176, C 60

Geta Busts

Geta Types

208
Geta Busts (continued)

Macrinus was well respected in the military circles and he eventually gained the position of Praetorian Prefect under Caracalla, which was the highest military position short of Imperator (otherwise equivalent to Emperor). In the spring of 217 it is believed that Caracalla consulted a soothsayer who told him the Augustus 217-218 next emperor would be Macrinus. As soon as Macrinus heard of this, he understood that Caracalla would kill him at the first chance he got just to remove any validity to the prophecy. Gaining the support of his closest guardsmen, a plot to assassinate Caracalla was put together as a preemptive strike and the assassination was carried out successfully. He was then hailed as Augustus by the army and soon after by the Senate.

Macrinus

But Macrinus would prove a weak leader. He had no choice but to introduce lower pay scales for the army and settled for a demeaning peace against the Parthians. This one-two punch engendered a great deal of dissatisfaction at home and abroad and gave birth to a rebellion headed by the teenager Elagalabus. Macrinus moved to quell the revolt but was defeated and forced to flee. Unluckily for him, he was found, captured and executed.

209
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG IMP CA ES M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG

Despite being a “short-termer” as far as imperial tenures go, Macrinus had enough coins minted in his name that today finding one is a rather easy affair. Call it a benefit of the troubled times. As it takes a massive amount of money to wage war, in his case a civil war no less, there’s a correspondingly higher incidence of them having survived the melting pot. So as with the rest of the emperors around this time period, the Denarius is still king despite the recent introduction of the Antoninianus which would eventually replace it as the principal form of Roman money. Macrinus’ Denarii can today be found for $75-$150 a piece on Ebay or about double that at a coin shop. He also made the Antoninianus too which is far scarcer but not appreciably more expensive. Other denominations, particularly the bronzes, are sometimes offered for sale but with the exception of the very worn or coins with other problems they tend to be pricey items usually sold via established auction houses.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) AEQVITAS AVG ANNONA AVG COS II FELICITAS TEMPORVM FIDES MIL PM TR P FIDES MILITVM FIDES PVBLICA IOVI CONSERVATORI LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI PM TR P II COS PP PONT MAX TR P COS PP PONTIF MAX TR P COS PP PONTIF MAX TR P II PONTIF MAX TR P II COS II PONTIF MAX TR P II COS II PP PONTIF MAX TR P II COS PP PONTIF MAX TR P PP PROVIDENTIA DEORVM RESTITVTOR VRBIS SALVS PVBL PM TR P SALVS PVBLICA SECVRITAS TEMPORVM VICT PART PM TR P II COS II PP VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA PARTHICA VOTA PVBL PM TR P

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Annona seated left, holding grain ears and cornucopia Annona seated left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter Fides standing, facing, holding two standards in each hand Fides standing, facing,stepping on helmet, holding standard in each hand Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; Macrinus to left Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Macrinus and Diadumenian seated left on platform, Liberalitas to left, soldier behind and citizen below Macrinus riding quadriga left, holding branch and scepter with eagle atop, being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm Macrinus seated left, holding globe and scepter Macrinus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand; altar to left Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter Victory advancing left holding a wreath in each hand; shield on column on either side Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm Victory seated right, holding shield Victory standing, holding wreath and palm

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) B1, O1, R04, T05 B2, O1, R11, T04 B2, O1, R13, T09

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 57, BMC 61 RIC IVii 25, C 46 RIC IVii 16, BMC 30

210
AR Antoninianus
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) B4, O1, R04, T06 B4, O1, R06, T07 B4, O1, R08, T10 B4, O1, R22, T17 B4, O1, R23, T18 B5, O1, R08, T10

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 63, C 20a RIC IVii 69 RIC IVii 77e, C 38 RIC IVii 88 RIC IVii 95, S 7325

AR Denarius
10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) B1, O1, R02, T03 B1, O1, R04, T05 B1, O1, R06, T07 B1, O1, R08, T09 B1, O1, R08, T09 B1, O1, R08, T10 B1, O1, R13, T05 B1, O1, R13, T08 B1, O1, R13, T09 B1, O1, R13, T17 B1, O1, R13, T19 B1, O1, R16, T19 B1, O1, R18, T05 B1, O1, R18, T09 B1, O1, R22, T17 B1, O1, R23, T18 B1, O1, R23, T19 B1, O1, R24, T21 B1, O1, R27, T06 B1, O1, R27, T10 B2, O1, R19, T16 B3, O1, R01, T01 B3, O1, R06, T08 B3, O1, R11, T04 B3, O1, R11, T04 B3, O1, R11, T14 RIC IVii 55b, C 8 RIC IVii 59, S 7332 RIC IVii 68, S 7334 RIC IVii 72, C 33 RIC IVii 73c, S 7338 RIC IVii 76c, S 7337, C 37 RIC IVii 32 RIC IVii 22, S 7345 RIC IVii 15, S 7342 RIC IVii 23, S 7343 RIC IVii 24, S 7347, C 61 RIC IVii 46, C 98 RIC IVii 4, C 79 RIC IVii 2, C 70 RIC IVii 84, C 114 RIC IVii 94b, C 128 RIC IVii 91 RIC IVii 49, C 137 RIC IVii 6b, C 147 RIC IVii 5b, C 142a RIC IVii 80a, C 108 RIC IVii 53, S 7329, C 2 RIC IVii 67c, C 23 RIC IVii 26, S 7340 RIC IVii 39, C 102 RIC IVii 27, S 7341, C 51

AE Sestertius
36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) B1, O2, R18, T05 B1, O2, R22, T17 Exe: SC B1, O2, R23, T19 B2, O2, R02, T03 Exe: SC B2, O2, R13, T03 B2, O2, R13, T09 B2, O2, R18, T09 RIC IVii 121 RIC IVii 198, C 117 RIC IVii 21, C 123 RIC IVii 169 RIC IVii 137, C 58 RIC IVii 136 RIC IVii 119, C 72

AE As
43) 44) 45) B1, O2, R14, T13 Exe: COS II PP B1, O2, R16, T05 B1, O2, R16, T09 RIC IVii 162, C 107 RIC IVii 156, C 94 RIC IVii 154, C 90

Macrinus Busts

211
Macrinus Types

Diadumenian
Augustus 218
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped head right

Macrinus named his son Diadumenian co-Augustus within a year after his own accession but both perished at the hands of their soldiers soon afterwards. Diadumenian however outlived his father for some time by escaping under disguise and managed to get on a ship bound for Rome but was apprehended at a midway port and then executed.

A couple hundred dollars is all you need to get your hands on this rare emperor. Well, a coin featuring him as Caesar anyway since those of him as emperor are impossibly rare. But the Denarius is easy enough to locate though by no means should it be considered a common type occurrence. And don’t expect an object of great beauty for that price. Well-preserved silver of his can go for two or three times that much. An even cheaper alternative are the provincial bronzes minted in Greek-speaking regions of Asia. These are particularly abundant and affordable though their study is a field beyond the scope of this book.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) IMP C M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN AVG M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES M OPEL ANTONINVS DIADVMENIANVS CAES M OPEL DIADVMENIANVS CAES

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) FIDES MILITVM PRINC IVVENTVTIS SPES SPES PVBLICA FELICITAS TEMPORVM

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) Diadumenian standing left, holding standard and scepter; two standards to right. Diadumenian standing left, holding wand and scepter; two standards to right. Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand; another standard on either side. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt.

212
Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) B1, O2, R4, T4 B2, O2, R2, T1

Reference(s)
RIC 115 (IVii, Macrinus), S 7445, C 22 BMC 83a, C 2

AR Antoninianus
3) B3, O2, R2, T2 RIC 106 (IVii, Macrinus)

AR Denarius
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) B1, O2, R2, T1 B1, O2, R2, T2 B1, O2, R4, T4 B2, O2, R2, T1 B2, O2, R2, T2 B2, O2, R4, T4 RIC 102b (IVii, Macrinus) RIC 108 (IVii, Macrinus), C 14a RIC 117 (IVii, Macrinus) RIC 104 (IVii, Macrinus) RIC 107 (IVii, Macrinus), C 12 RIC 116 (IVii, Macrinus)

AE Sestertius
10) B1, O3, R2, T1 Exe: SC RIC 211 (IVii, Macrinus), C 7

AE As
11) B1, O3, R2, T1 RIC 212 (IVii, Macrinus)

Diadumenian Busts

Diadumenian Types

213
This teenager's big break came directly as a result of the revolt his grandmother, Julia Maesa, instigated against Macrinus. Claiming that Elagabalus was the son of Caracalla, (Julia Maesa was Julia Domna's sister, Caracalla's mother) the army was induced to revolt against Macrinus and restore the supposed dynasty. Macrinus was Augustus 218-222 ill-prepared for the sudden revolt and still in the early stages of recovering from the heavy hand of Caracalla's rule. Finding only lukewarm support from within his own legions, Macrinus was defeated by the upstart in battle. Elagabalus and his puppeteers were able to restore peace at a local level and make their way to Rome to legitimize their claim. On arrival Elagalabus quickly became hated by imposing his Syrian religion as the official state religion and forcing all the members of the Senate to follow its rituals. Add to this the scandal of his open homosexuality and marrying, divorcing and then remarrying a Vestal Virgin which was a taboo of the highest order. He gained so many enemies, in fact, that none other than Julia Maesa herself arranged to have him murdered.

Elagabalus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust left Laureate, draped bust right Laureate, horned, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, horned, draped bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Elagabalus is one of the most prolific issuers of coins in the third century. While there are few bronzes his Denarii are so common that they can often be bought for just a few dollars each. The Antoninianus introduced by Caracalla is continued by although it is still nowhere near as popular as the Denarius itself. His most sought after coins are the ones depicting the object of his obsession, the conical stone of the Sun god Elagabalus, from which the emperor gets his nickname. This stone, widely thought to be a meteorite, would be dragged around the streets of Rome in religious processions that were quite foreign to the average Roman citizen but whose worship was much more mainstream back in Elagabalus’s native Syria.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) ANTONINVS FEL PIVS AVG ANTONINVS P FEL AVG ANTONINVS PIVS AVG ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG IMP ANTONINVS AVG IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS PF AVG IMP CAES ANTONINVS AVG IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS PF AVG IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG IMP CAES M AVR SE ANTONINVS AVG IMP M AVR ANTONIN PIVS AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) ABVNDANTIA AVG ADVENTVS AVG ADVENTVS AVG TR P III ADVENTVS AVGVSTI AEQVITAS AVGVST AEQVITAS PVBLICA AETERNITAS AVG ANNIA FAVSTINA AVGVSTA ANNONA AVGVSTI BONVS EVENTVS CONCORDIA CONS II PP CONSERVATOR AVG CONSERVATOR AVGVSTI CONSVL II CONSVL II PP COS III PP DIVI ANTONININI PII FIL FECVNDITAS FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS FIDES EXERCITVS FIDES MILITVM FIDES PVBLICA FORTVNA AVG FORTVNA REDVX FORTVNAE AVG FORTVNAE REDVCI HILARITAS AVG INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI VICTORI IVL AQVIL SEV AVG IVLIA MAESA AVG LAETITIA PVBL LIB AVG II COS II PP LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERALITAS AVG II LIBERALITAS AVG III LIBERALITAS AVG IIII LIBERALITAS AVGVST III LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI II LIBERTAS AVG LIBERTAS AVGVSTI MARS VICTOR NOBILITAS PAX AVGVSTI PIETAS AVG PM TR P COS II PP PM TR P COS PP PM TR P II COS II PP PM TR P III COS III PP PM TR P IIII COS III PM TR P IIII COS III PP PM TR P V COS IIII PP PONT MAX TR P II COS II PONTIF MAX TR P PONTIF MAX TR P II COS II PONTIF MAX TR P II COS II PP PONTIF MAX TR P III COS III PP 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) PROVID DEORVM RECTOR ORBIS SACER DEO SOLI ELAGABAL SACERD DEI SOLIS ELAGAB SALVS ANTONINI AVG SALVS AVGVSTI SANCT DEO SOLI SECVRITAS PERPETVA SECVRITAS SAECVLI SOLI PROPVGNATOR SPEI PERPETVAE SPES BONA SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG TEMPORVM FEL TEMPORVM FELICITAS TR P II PP COS II TR POT II COS II PP TRIB P COS II PP TRIB P II COS II PP VENVS CAELESTIS VENVS GENETRIX VICTOR ANTONINI AVG VICTOR ANTONINVS AVG VICTORIA ANTONINI AVG VICTORIA AVG VIRTVS AVGVSTOR VOTA PVBLICA No legend

214
Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) Abundantia standing left, pouring out cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and rudder on globe Elagabalus advancing right, holding spear; one soldier to right, holding standard and another to left, also holding a standard Elagabalus riding horse left, holding spear Elagabalus riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter. Elagabalus riding horse right, raising hand. Elagabalus riding quadriga left, being crowned by Victory Elagabalus riding quadriga left, holding branch and scepter Elagabalus riding quadriga right, holding scepter with eagle atop Elagabalus seated left, holding globe and scepter Elagabalus seated left, holding scepter, Liberalitas standing to left, holding coin counter and cornucopia, citizen on steps to lower left Elagabalus standing left, holding globe and spear. Elagabalus standing left, holding patera and club Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia, staff on either side (one with wreath atop, the other with pileus) Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia, staff to right Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia, two staffs to right (one with wreath atop, the other with pileus) Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding palm Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding palm; bull lying by altar Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing over altar; horn to left Elagabalus standing right, sacrificing over altar and holding palm Elephant standing right, star above. Fecunditas seated left, holding branch and scepter; child to either side. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding patera and caduceus Fides seated left, holding eagle and standard; standard to left Fides standing left, holding vexillum and trophy Fides standing right, holding grain ears and fruit basket. Fides standing, facing, two standards on either side, holding one of them in each hand. Fortuna seated left, holding patera and cornucopia; wheel under chair Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia; wheel under chair Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Galley sailing right Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears. Hilaritas standing left, holding patera and palm, child on either side. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter; eagle to lower left Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left, two standards to right. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left, standard to right. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder on globe. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and resting arm on cornucopia on vase Libertas seated left, holding pileus and scepter Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Mars advancing left, holding branch and trophy. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Monetae (3) holding scale and cornucopiae, coins by feet. Nobilitas standing, holding spear and Victory Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Providentia standing left with legs crossed and leaning on column, holding wand over globe and cornucopia Providentia standing left, globe to lower left Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Quadriga riding left, carrying stone of Elagabalus with eagle atop; star above Quadriga riding right, carrying stone of Elagabalus with eagle atop; four parasols behind. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter; shield below Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding rudder Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding rudder on globe. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake Securitas seated right, resting head on hand and holding scepter. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol advancing right, holding thunderbolt and raising hand. Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol standing, facing, holding whip Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (2), vexillum on either side. Standards (3), center standard with eagle atop Standards (3), center standard with eagle atop; shields on ground. Stone of Elagabalus with eagle and stars. Venus seated left, holding apple and scepter Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath. Victory standing left, holding opened wreath Victory standing left, holding opened wreath; shield on either side by feet

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Roma

215
AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) B03, O07, R13, T55 B03, O08, R67, T56 Exe: ELAGABAL B04, O07, R52, T09 * above B04, O08, R67, T56 Exe: ELAGABAL B04, O10, R22, T27 B04, O10, R59, T57 B04, O10, R82, T73

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 61, BMC 198, C 16 RIC IVii 35, BMC 183, C 171 RIC IVii 143, BMC 273, C 265 RIC IVii 69, BMC 10, C 34 RIC IVii 26, BMC 90 RIC IVii 154, BMC 39, C 288

AR Antoninianus
8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) B09, O06, R31, T38 B09, O06, R35, T40 B09, O06, R51, T32 B09, O06, R51, T52 B09, O06, R61, T52 B09, O06, R75, T25 B09, O09, R45, T47 B09, O09, R50, T57 B09, O09, R65, T60 B09, O09, R82, T73 B09, O10, R22, T27 B09, O10, R45. T47 B09, O10, R50, T57 B09, O10, R51, T57 B09, O10, R65, T60 B09, O10, R82, T73 B10, O09, R65, T60 RIC IVii 90f, C 66 RIC IVii 94f RIC IVii 18f, C 149 RIC IVii 22f, C 146 RIC IVii 129f, C 112 RIC IVii 149f, C 280 RIC IVii 120f, C 111 RIC IVii 2f RIC IVii 137f, C 260 RIC IVii 152f, C 294 RIC IVii 67f, S 7847, C 31 RIC IVii 122f, S 7491, C 112 RIC IVii 1f, C 126 RIC IVii 12f, C 139 RIC IVii 138f, C 254 RIC IVii 155f, C 291 RIC IVii 137e, C 260

AR Denarius
25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) B02, O04, R29, T36 B02, O07, R53, T54 * in left field B04, O02, R58, T46 B04, O04, R12, T57 B04, O04, R15, T02 B04, O04, R67, T56 Exe: ELAGABAL B04, O04, R74, T26 Rev. legend as TEMPORVM . FEL .. B04, O04, R74, T26 Rev. legend as TEMPORVM FEL .. B04, O04, R85, T72 B04, O04, R87, T19 B04, O05, R11, T67 Exe: MILIT B04, O05, R21, T34 Exe: TEMP B04, O06, R10, T35 B04, O06, R16, T02 B04, O06, R67, T56 B04, O06, R71, T66 B04, O06, R81, T71 B04, O06, R85, T72 B04, O06, R87, T19 B04, O07, R01, T01 * in left field B04, O07, R53, T76 * in right field B04, O07, R55, T19 * in left field B06, O04, R29, T36 B06, O06, R09, T03 B06, O06, R23, T28 B06, O06, R31, T39 B06, O06, R35, T40 B06, O06, R38, T42 B06, O06, R44, T43 B06, O06, R61, T52 B06, O06, R66, T59 B06, O06, R75, T25 B06, O07, R13, T62 * in left field B06, O07, R23, T69 B06, O07, R27, T33 B06, O07, R28, T33 B06, O07, R38, T41 B06, O07, R39, T41 * in left field B06, O07, R40, T41 * in left field B06, O07, R43, T45 B06, O07, R47, T50 B06, O07, R51, T32 B06, O07, R51, T50 B06, O07, R51, T52 B06, O07, R51, T57 B06, O07, R51, T64 B06, O07, R52, T37 B06, O07, R52, T62 * in left field B06, O07, R53, T62 * in left field B06, O07, R64, T22 B06, O07, R69, T61 B06, O07, R85, T75 * in right field RIC IVii 190a, C 55 RIC IVii 42, S 7534, C 189 RIC IVii 165 RIC IVii 166d, C 21 RIC IVii 195d, C 268 RIC IVii 201d, C 279 RIC IVii 201d, C 279 RIC IVii 202d, C 306 RIC IVii 187d, C 15 RIC IVii 188d, S 7510, C 27 RIC IVii 186d RIC IVii 168d, C 23 RIC IVii 144 RIC IVii 199d, S 7547, C 273 RIC IVii 162, S 7555, C 304 RIC IVii 203d RIC IVii 56d, S 7501, C 1 RIC IVii 45d, C 195 RIC IVii 52d, S 7538, C 213 RIC IVii 190b, S 7517 RIC IVii 59b, C 13 RIC IVii 73b, S 7512, C 38 RIC IVii 91b RIC IVii 95b, S 7520 RIC IVii 102b, C 79 RIC IVii 115b, S 7525 RIC IVii 128, C 242 RIC IVii 141, S 7544, C 264 RIC IVii 150b, S 7551, C 282 RIC IVii 63b, C 19 RIC IVii 78b, S 7514, C 44 RIC IVii 82b, C 48 RIC IVii 83b, S 7516 RIC IVii 100 RIC IVii 103, S 7522, C 86 RIC IVii 104, C 88 RIC IVii 107b, S 7523, C 92 RIC IVii 125, S 7527 RIC IVii 19b, S 7529 RIC IVii 21b, C 143 RIC IVii 23b, C 144 RIC IVii 16b, C 142 RIC IVii 17b, C 134 RIC IVii 27b, S 7532 RIC IVii 28b, C 153 RIC IVii 40b, C 184 RIC IVii 131, S 7542 RIC IVii 145, S 7546 RIC IVii 161b, S 7554, C 300

216
77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) B06, O09, R22, T27 B06, O09, R45, T47 B06, O09, R65, T60 B06, O09, R82, T73 B06, O10, R22, T27 B06, O10, R45, T47 B06, O10, R50, T57 B06, O10, R51, T57 B06, O10, R57, T57 B06, O10, R65, T60 B06, O10, R82, T73 B07, O07, R30, T20 * in left field B07, O07, R53, T19 * in left field B07, O07, R73, T19 RIC IVii 68b, C 30 RIC IVii 121b, C 109 RIC IVii 139, C 261 RIC IVii 153b, C 293 RIC IVii 71b, S 7511, C 32 RIC IVii 123b, S 7526 RIC IVii 3b, S 7528, C 127 RIC IVii 13b, C 136 RIC IVii 8b RIC IVii 140, S 7543, C 256 RIC IVii 156b, C 289a RIC IVii 88, S 7518, C 62 RIC IVii 46d, S 7536, C 196 RIC IVii 146b, S 7549, C 276

AE Sestertius
91) 92) 93) 94) 95) B02, O12, R44, T45 B04, O12, R22, T27 Exe: SC B04, O12, R51, T12 Exe: LIBERAL AVG / SC B04, O12, R84, T73 B06, O12, R52, T09 Exe: SC

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 358, C 103 RIC IVii 345, C 35 RIC IVii 290, C 76 RIC IVii 377 RIC IVii 311, C 176

AE Dupondius
96) 97) B09, O03, R86, T57 Exe: SC B09, O12, R84, T73 Curtis Clay collection RIC IVii 301, C 159

AE As
98) 99) B04, O12, R47, T50 B04, O12, R52, T11 Exe: SC RIC IVii 306, C 169

Elagabalus Busts

Elagabalus Types

217
Elagabalus Types (continued)

218

Julia Maesa
? - d.223
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Diademed, draped bust left Diademed, draped bust right Diademed, draped bust right on crescent Draped bust right Veiled bust right

Grandmother of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander.

This domineering lady made sure that her puppet grandson would feature her prominently among the currency of the day. It is easy and cheap to locate a coin of hers even if one those of Elagabalus himself are much more common. This is now the age of silver. Bronze has become too expensive for its own good. The silver coins being made at the mint are in actuality by now less than 50% pure. This means it only takes about a gram and a half of silver to make a typical Denarius. Compared to the ten grams it takes to make an As or upwards of 20 to make a Sestertius it makes little economical sense to make much effort in producing those lesser valued coins. So it’s rather rare to see those old-fashioned bronzes by the third century and in the case with Julia Maesa they will be much, much rarer than her Denarii. These can be found for around $50 or less for the average to above-average quality coin. More expensive will be the still-exotic and recently introduced Antoninianus which looks to all the world like a slightly heftier Denarius but with the empress’s bust resting on a crescent. This convention serves as an easy visual distinction between the two denominations. At the same time it symbolizes her association with the Moon in contrast to the emperor whose radiate crown symbolizes the Sun.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) DIVA MAESA AVG DIVA MAESA AVGVSTA IVLIA MAESA AVG IVLIA MAESA AVGVSTA

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) AEQVITAS PVBLICA CONSECRATIO FECVNDITAS FECVNDITAS AVG FECVNDITAS AVGVSTAE FELICITAS PVBLICA FORTVNAE REDVCI IVNO IVNO CONSERVATRIX IVNO REG IVNO REGI IVNO REGINA LAETITIA PVBL PAX ETERNA PIETAS AVG PVDICITIA SAECVLI FELICITAS TEMPORVM FEL VENVS VICTRIX VESTA VIRTVS AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Fecunditas seated left, holding flower and scepter; child on either side. Fecunditas standing left, holding cornucopia; child on either side. Fecunditas standing left, raising hand over child and holding cornucopia. Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus Funeral pyre Julia Maesa, holding scepter, riding eagle right, upwards. Julia Maesa, holding scepter, riding peacock right, upwards. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder on globe. Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia; coins piled by feet. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar and holding incense box. Pietas standing left, raising hands over altar. Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter Pudicitia seated left, raising hand and holding scepter Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear with shield.

Mint:
1) 2) Antioch Roma

AU Aureus
1) B4, O3, R08, T10, M1

Reference(s)
RIC 255 (IVii, Elagabalus)

219
AR Antoninianus
2) B3, O3, R15, T14

Reference(s)
RIC 264 (IVii, Elagabalus)

AR Denarius
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) B4, O3, R04, T03 B4, O3, R04, T01 B4, O3, R08, T09 B2, O3, R08, T10 B2, O3, R10, T10 B4, O3, R13, T11 B4, O3, R15, T14 B4, O3, R15, T15 B4, O3, R16, T16 B4, O3, R17, T05 * in right field B4, O3, R17, T05 * in left field RIC 249 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 8 RIC 254 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7750 RIC 256 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 21 RIC 261 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 26 RIC 263 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 29 RIC 266 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7755, C 34a RIC 268 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7756, C 36 RIC 271 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7757, C 45 RIC 272 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7757, C 45

A coin exists with corrupted obverse legend “IVLIA MAMIAS AVG” as No. 5 above; the engraver mistakenly using part of Soaemias’s name.

AR Denarius (Posthumous)
15) B4, O1, R02, T08 RIC 378 (IVii, Severus Alexander), C 3

AE Sestertius
16) B2, O4, R15, T14 RIC 414 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 31

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
17) B5, O2, R02, T06 Exe: SC RIC 712 (IVii, Severus Alexander)

AE As
18) 19) B2, O4, R15, T14

Same error as noted in No. 14 above but with diademed, draped bust right

RIC 416 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 32

Julia Maesa Busts

Julia Maesa Types

220

Julia Soaemias
? - 222
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Diademed, draped bust left Diademed, draped bust right Draped bust right Draped bust right on crescent

Mother of Elagabalus.

Elagabalus sets a record for most women relatives honored on Roman coins with no less than five empresses, four of them Julias. Among these, Julia Soaemias comes in second after Julia Maesa among the most commonly found of these ladies. However, to say “common” is relative though. th Less than 1/10 of 1 percent of Roman coins bear her name and portrait but that’s not enough to make her coins particularly difficult to find nor expensive. A decent Denarius should cost around $75 or less on Ebay and a little more from a “brick and mortar” dealer.

Obverses:
1) 2) IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVGVSTA

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) ANNONA AVG IVNO REGINA MATER DEVM PVDICITIA SAECVLI FELICITAS VENVS CAELESTIS VESTA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Cybele seated left, holding branch and resting arm on drum; lion on either side. Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus. Juno standing right, holding scepter and Palladium. Pudicitia seated left, touching head and holding scepter. Venus seated left, holding apple and scepter; child to left. Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter. Vesta seated left, holding simpulum and scepter. Vesta standing left, holding Palladium and spear.

Mint:
1) Roma

AR Denarius
1) 2) 3) 4) B3, O1, R6, T6 B3, O1, R6, T7 * in left field B3, O1, R6, T7 * in right field B3, O2, R2, T4

Reference(s)
RIC 243 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7720, C 14 RIC 241 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7719, C 8 RIC 241 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7719, C 8 RIC 237 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7718, C 3

AR Quinarius
5) B3, O1, R6, T7 * in right field RIC 242 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 10

AE Sestertius
6) B2, O1, R6, T6 Exe: SC RIC 406 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 18

Julia Soaemias Busts

Julia Soaemias Types

221

Julia Paula
? -?
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Diademed, draped bust right Draped bust left (braided hair) Draped bust right (braided hair) Draped bust right (combed hair)

First wife of Elagabalus.

Obverses:
1) 2) IVLIA PAVLA AVG IVLIA PAVLA AVGVSTA

Her coins are not especially hard to find but they don’t appear everywhere either (as is the case with her husband). A low grade Denarius can often be found for as little as $20 or $30 but are more typically priced in the $100-$250 region. Still, of Elagabalus’s three wives, Julia Paula’s coins are the most common and are available in all grades. This makes it easier for many collectors to use lesser coins as “stepping stones” to higher grade coins by way of trading up. Bronze and gold coins are practically unknown in the marketplace.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) AEQVITAS PVBLICA CONCORDIA CONCORDIA AETERNA CONCORDIA AVGG FELICIT TEMPOR FORTVN FELIC FORTVNA FELIC IVNO CONSERVATRIX IVSTITIA PIETAS PIETAS AVG PVDICITIA PVDICITIA AVG VENVS GENETRIX VENVS VICTRIX VESTA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Concordia seated left, holding patera Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Fortuna seated left, holding globe and cornucopia Julia Paula standing left on right, shaking hands with Elagabalus to left. Julia Paula standing left on right, shaking hands with Elagabalus to left; Concordia standing in between. Juno standing left, holding patera over peacock and scepter. Justitia seated left, raising hand and holding scepter. Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia; coins piled by their feet. Pietas standing left, raising hand and holding incense box. Pietas standing left, raising hands over altar. Venus seated left, holding globe and scepter

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Roma

AR Denarius
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) B3, O1, R02, T01 * in left field B3, O1, R02, T06 B3, O1, R04, T03 B3, O1, R14, T13 B4, O1, R02, T01 * in left field B4, O1, R14, T13

Reference(s)
RIC 211 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7655, C 6 RIC 214 (IVii, Elagabalus) RIC 216 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 16a RIC 222 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7658, C 21 RIC 211 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7655, C 6 RIC 222 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7658, C 21

AR Quinarius
7) B1, O1, R02, T01 RIC 213 (IVii, Elagabalus)

AE Sestertius
8) B4, O1, R02, T03 Exe: SC * in left field RIC 381 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 8

222
AE As
9) B3, O1, R03, T07 Exe: SC

Reference(s)
RIC 387 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 15

Julia Paula Busts

Julia Paula Types

223

Aquilia Severa
?

Aquilia was Elagabalus's second wife, having married her in the summer of 220. He divorced her shortly afterwards and immediately married Annia Faustina only to divorce her, too, just a few weeks later. He finally remarried Aquilia and stayed married to her until he was murdered a couple of years later but she never bore him children. Aquilia’s coins are quite a bit less common than Julia Paula’s; perhaps only half or a third as many are to be found. It is therefore rare to see one on sale for less than $100 even in marginal condition. Typically, a Denarius will cost around $200-$400.

Busts:
1) 2) Diademed, draped bust right Draped bust right

Obverse:
1) IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) AEQVITAS PVBLICA CONCORDIA LAETITIA VENVS CAELESTIS VENVS FELIX VESTA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Aquilia Severa standing right on left, shaking hands with Elagabalus to right Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding two cornucopiae Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder on globe. Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia. Venus seated left, holding apple and scepter Vesta standing left, holding branch and scepter.

Mint:
1) Roma

AR Denarius
1) 2) 3) 4) B2, O1, R2, T1 * in center field B2, O1, R2, T1 * in left field B2, O1, R2, T2 * in left field B2, O1, R2, T2 * in right field

Reference(s)
RIC 228 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 6 RIC 228 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 6 RIC 225 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 2 RIC 226 (IVii, Elagabalus), S 7679, C 2

AE Sestertius
5) B1, O1, R2, T1 RIC 390 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 4

AE As
6) B1, O1, R2, T1 * in left field RIC 394 (IVii, Elagabalus), C 7

Aquilia Severa Busts

Aquilia Severa Types

224

Annia Faustina
? -?
own, sent her into obscurity, if not a worse fate. Bust:
1) Diademed, draped bust right

Third wife of Elagabalus and great-granddaughter of Marcus Aurelius. Her brief marriage to Elagabalus accounts for the extreme rarity of coin bearing her name. It is unclear when she died and under what circumstances as the divorce, although no fault of her If Julia Paulas and Aquilia Severas are hard to find then you might as well give up all hope on an Annia Faustina. This is one of those truly impossible empresses to acquire… at least insofar as getting a Rome-made coin of hers. Things improve a bit if you’re willing to “settle” for a provincial with her name in Greek. These are still difficult to locate and the few that are out there nearly always in very poor shape but at least it provides a reasonable shot at getting one of her coins. The Sestertius pictured below, the only coin of hers to have sold at auction within recent memory, realized just shy of $10,000 in an auction held by the German auction house Numismatik Lanz in 2000.

Obverse:
1) ANNIA FAVSTINA AVGVSTA

Reverse:
1) CONCORDIA

Type:
1)

Annia Faustina standing right on left, shaking hands with Elagabalus to right

Mint:
1) Roma

AE Sestertius
1) B1, O1, R1, T1 Exe: SC

Reference(s)
RIC 399 (IVii, Elagabalus)

225
Severus Alexander was a beloved cousin of Elagabalus and who was named Caesar while Elagabalus was still emperor. As his popularity grew, Elagabalus recognized in him the growing menace of a future rival and sought to oust him. But this only served to infuriate the army which Augustus 222-235 by now had taken the young Caesar under its wings. Rather than let Elagabalus depose Alexander by civil or violent means they instead mutinied and murdered the emperor clearing the way for Alexander's accession. Alexander went on to rule for thirteen years of relative peace. Not since the time of Marcus Aurelius did Romans enjoy a monarch whose ambitions were for their welfare and the pursuit of the arts. His one singular weakness, which eventually proved to be fatal, was his absolute reverence for his untactful mother. Like no other woman until then, Julia Mamaea styled herself an empress in every sense of the word and the unapologetic exercise of her rule and the incessant meddling in the affairs of state was a constant embarrassment and irritation to the prevailing sensibilities of the army, the Senate and the rest of the Roman citizenry. Hushed whispers grew over time to outspoken protestations to, eventually, open mutiny. The mild-mannered Alexander was either unable or unwilling to rectify the situation by removing his mother from the political limelight and, thus, both were corralled in a mutiny and massacred.

Severus Alexander

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Bare headed, draped bust right Laureate head/bust right Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right of Severus Alexander facing Julia Mamaea, diademed draped bust left Laureate, draped bust left Radiate head right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Severus Alexander is another prominent emperor of the third century and his coins are downright plentiful. As in Denarii… other denominations exist but are far less common. Production of the Antoninianus is mysteriously suspended during his entire reign and will not be reintroduced until the reign of Gordian III who, in turn, will see to it intentionally or otherwise that the Denarius is phased out for good. The bronzes continue their slide into obscurity but may still be found on occasion. The average Denarius will cost around $30. Common but high-grade specimens will rarely cost over $100.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) DIVO ALEXANDRO IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG IVLIA MAMAEA AVG IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAN AVG IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG IMP C M SEV ALEXAND AVG IMP CAE MAR AV SEV ALX IMP CAES M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG IMP MAR COS AVR SEV AL AV IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG IVLIA MAMAEA AVG IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG IVLIA MAMAEA AVG MAT AVG IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG IVLIA MAMAEA AVG M AVR ALEXANDER CAES

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) ABVNDANTIA AVG ADLOCVTIO AVGVSTI ADLOCVTIO AVGVSTI COS III PP AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGVSTI AEQVITAS PVBLICA AETERNITATIBVS ANNONA AVG ANNONA AVGVSTI CONCORD AVGVSTORVM CONCORDIA CONSECRATIO DIANA LVCIFERA FECVND AVGVSTAE FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS PERPETVA AVG FELICITAS TEMPORVM FIDES EXERCIT FIDES EXERCITVS FIDES MILITVM FORTVNAE FELICI FORTVNAE REDVCI INDVLGENTIA AVG IOVI CONSERVATORI 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) IOVI PROPVGNATORI IOVI STATORI IOVI VLTORI IOVI VLTORI PM TR P III COS PP IVCVNDITATI AVG IVLIA MAMAEA AVG IVSTITIA AVGVSTI LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERALITAS AVG II LIBERALITAS AVG III LIBERALITAS AVG IIII LIBERALITAS AVG V LIBERALITAS AVGG LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI II LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI III LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI IIII LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI V LIBERITAS AVG LIBERTAS AVG MAISI AVG MARS PROPVG MARS VICTOR MARS VLTOR 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) MARTI PACIFERO MARTI VICTORI MON RESTITVTA MONETA AVG MONETA AVGVSTI NOBILITAS PAX AETERNA AVG PAX AETERNAE AVG PAX AVG PAX AVGVSTI PERPETVITATI AVG PIETAS AVG PIETAS MILITVM PM TR P COS PM TR P COS II PP PM TR P COS PP PM TR P II COS PP PM TR P II COS II PP PM TR P II COS PP PM TR P III COS PP PM TR P IIII COS PP PM TR P V COS II PP PM TR P V COS PP II PM TR P VI COS II PP

226
73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) PM TR P VII COS II PP PM TR P VII COS III PP PM TR P VIII COS III PP PM TR P VIIII PM TR P VIIII COS III PP PM TR P VIIII OS II PP PM TR P X COS III PP PM TR P XI COS III PP PM TR P XII COS III PP PM TR P XIII COS III PP PM TR P XIIII COS III PP PONT M II COS PP PONTIF MAX TR P II COS II PP PONTIF MAX TR P II COS III PP PONTIF MAX TR P II COS PP PONTIF MAX TR P III COS PP PONTIF MAX TR P IIII COS PP 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) PONTIF MAX TR P VII COS II PP PONTIF MAX TR P X COS III PONTIFEX COS POTESTAS PERPETV PRINC IVVENTVTIS PROFECTIO AVG PROFECTIO AVGVSTI PROVAD DEORVM PROVID DEORVM PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA DEORVM PVDICITIA RESTITVT MON RESTITVTOR MON ROMAE AETERNAE SACERDOS VRBIS SALVS AVGVSTI 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) SALVS PSVLAS SALVS PVBLICA SECVLI FELICITAS SECVRITAS PERPETVA SPES PVBLICA TEMPORVM FELICITAS VENVS CAELISTIS VENVS VICTRIX VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGVSTI VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGVSTI No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) Abundantia standing left, pouring out cornucopia Abundantia standing right, pouring out cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Altar Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and anchor Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia Annona standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding grain ears and cornucopia. Annona standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding rudder on globe and modius. Baths and ancillary buildings Colisseum; bird’s eye view with arena visible (two gladiators within), three citizens to side and partial view of another building. Diana advancing left, holding torch. Diana standing left, holding torch. Eagle standing left Felicitas seated left, holding Palladium and scepter Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding patera over modius with grain ears and caduceus. Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus. Fides seated left, holding standard and cornucopia. Fides seated left, holding standard in each hand. Fides seated left, holding standard; another standard to right Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand Fides standing left, holding vexillum and standard. Fides standing right, holding standard and vexillum. Fides standing right, holding standard in each hand Fortuna seated left, holding cornucopia Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and scepter Jucunditas seated right, holding globe and scepter. Julia Mamaea diademed, draped bust right Julia Mamaea draped bust right Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt and eagle Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding branch and spear Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; Severus Alexander to lower left. Jupiter standing right, aiming thunderbolt Jupiter standing right, aiming thunderbolt and holding eagle Jupiter standing, facing, holding scepter and thunderbolt Justitia seated left, holding patera and scepter. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Mars advancing left, holding branch and resting hand on shield Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mars standing left, holding branch and spear Mars standing left, holding standard with shield and spear. Mars standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Mars standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield Mars standing right, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia; coins piled by their feet. Nymphaeum fountain façade Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Perpetuitas standing left, leaning on column, holding globe and scepter. Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar and holding incense box Pietas standing, facing, holding standard; another standard behind. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, leaning on column, holding globe and scepter Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear; shield to side. Sacrificial implements: lituus, simpulum, cruet, etc. (variously arranged)

227
68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand; altar to left Severus Alexander advancing right, holding spear and club Severus Alexander advancing right, holding spear and club; shield by feet. Severus Alexander advancing right, holding spear and globe. Severus Alexander advancing right, holding spear and trophy Severus Alexander riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Severus Alexander riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear; Victory to left, holding wreath and palm, two soldiers to right. Severus Alexander riding horse right, following Victory, holding wreath and palm. Severus Alexander riding horse right, holding spear Severus Alexander riding horse right, holding spear; Victory to right, holding wreath and palm Severus Alexander riding horse right, holding spear; Victory to right, holding wreath and palm and soldier to left, holding spear Severus Alexander riding horse right, spearing seated captive; Victory to right, soldier to left. Severus Alexander riding quadriga left, holding branch and scepter Severus Alexander riding quadriga right, holding branch and scepter with eagle atop Severus Alexander standing left, raising hand and holding scepter Severus Alexander standing left, sacrificing over altar and surrounded by witnesses; temple in background. Severus Alexander sacrificing right over altar, being crowned by Mars, facing Fides, with two standards behind him. Severus Alexander sacrificing right over altar, being crowned by Virtus, facing Jupiter, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Severus Alexander seated left on platform; Liberalitas standing to left, holding coin counter and cornucopia and citizen to lower left Severus Alexander seated left on platform; lictor behind him, Liberalitas standing to left, holding coin counter and cornucopia and citizen to lower left Severus Alexander seated left on platform; two lictors to right and Liberalitas standing to left, holding coin counter and cornucopia and citizen to lower left Severus Alexander seated left, holding globe and scroll, being crowned by Victory, facing Felicitas and attendant. Severus Alexander seated left, holding Victory and scepter, being crowned by Victory to right and facing Virtus to left, holding shield reading VOT / XC and parazonium Severus Alexander standing left, sacrificing over altar Severus Alexander standing left, holding branch and scepter; altar to left. Severus Alexander standing left, holding globe and spear Severus Alexander standing left, holding wand and scepter; two standards to right. Severus Alexander standing left, stepping on helmet, holding globe and spear Severus Alexander standing right, holding spear and globe Severus Alexander standing right, holding wand and scepter; two standards to right. Severus Alexander standing right, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter, being crowned by Mars to left and facing Jupiter to right, holding thunderbolt and scepter; two standards to right in background Severus Alexander standing, facing, holding branch and scepter Severus Alexander to left, facing Jupiter, reaching for him and holding thunderbolt and scepter. Severus Alexander to right, holding spear and receiving Victory from Spes; two soldiers behind. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol standing right, raising hand and holding globe. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt Temple with (6) columns, Jupiter seated within Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding shield and palm; seated captive by feet. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, touching trophy and holding palm; seated captive by trophy. Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield reading VOT / X Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield reading VOT / X on palm Virtus seated left, holding branch and scepter Virtus standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield Virtus standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding spear and parazonium Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing right, stepping on helmet, holding scepter and parazonium. Wreath, SPQR ANN N F F OPTIMO PRINCIPI PIO within Wreath, VOTIS / VICEN / NALI / BVS within Wreath, VOTIS VICENNALIBVS COS III PP within

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) B02, O10, R024, T038 B02, O10, R064, T049 B04, O02, R036, T043 B04, O05, R038, T043 B04, O05, R049, T050 B04, O05, R064, T037 B04, O05, R070, T056 B04, O05, R070, T088 Exe: LIB AVG III B05, O05, R069, T003 B05, O05, R069, T095

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 199b, BMC 688 RIC IVii 103, BMC 620 RIC IVii 242, C 141 RIC IVii 149, BMC 1, C 1 RIC IVii 159, C 62 RIC IVii 4, BMC 12, C 203 RIC IVii 58, C 298 RIC IVii 63, BMC 393, C 311 RIC IVii 43, BMC 177, C 268

AU Quinarius
11) B02, O02, R099, T006

228
AR Medallion
12) B06, O03, R006, T055 Twelve Denarii weight

Reference(s)

AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
13) 14) B08, O01, R012, T004 B08, O01, R012, T013 RIC 98 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 598 RIC 97 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 599

AR Denarius
15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) B01, O15, R023, T108 B01, O15, R060, T067 B02, O02, R079, T052 B02, O02, R099, T005 B02, O02, R099, T005 B02, O02, R099, T006 B02, O05, R027, T035 B02, O05, R073, T053 B02, O10, R001, T002 B02, O10, R008, T005 B02, O10, R008, T008 B02, O10, R020, T019 B02, O10, R022, T028 B02, O10, R024, T038 B02, O10, R026, T041 B02, O10, R035, T043 B02, O10, R059, T065 B02, O10, R073, T049 B02, O10, R075, T045 B02, O10, R075, T047 B02, O10, R075, T053 B02, O10, R077, T098 B02, O10, R077, T106 B02, O10, R077, T107 B02, O10, R079, T052 B02, O10, R115, T113 B02, O10, R116, T115 B02, O10, R117, T049 B02, O10, R117, T097 B02, O10, R117, T117 B02, O10, R117, T118 B04, O02, R025, T039 B04, O02, R025, T040 B04, O02, R048, T048 B04, O02, R079, T105 B04, O02, R080, T104 B04, O02, R080, T105 B04, O02, R111, T108 B04, O02, R119, T123 B04, O02, R182, T104 B04, O05, R032, T047 B04, O05, R033, T043 B04, O05, R049, T050 B04, O05, R055, T059 B04, O05, R085, T066 B04, O05, R098, T063 B04, O05, R108, T068 B04, O10, R115, T111 B05, O02, R048, T048 B05, O02, R080, T104 B05, O02, R081, T104 B05, O05, R004, T003 * in left field B05, O05, R004, T003 B05, O05, R008, T006 B05, O05, R020, T021 B05, O05, R024, T037 B05, O05, R035, T043 B05, O05, R044, T044 B05, O05, R057, T057 B05, O05, R059, T065 B05, O05, R060, T061 B05, O05, R064, T037 B05, O05, R064, T050 B05, O05, R064, T068 B05, O05, R065, T028 * in left field B05, O05, R067, T037 B05, O05, R067, T050 B05, O05, R067, T059 B05, O05, R067, T068 B05, O05, R068, T037 B05, O05, R068, T050 B05, O05, R068, T049 B05, O05, R068, T059 B05, O05, R068, T068 B05, O05, R068, T095 RIC IVii 2 RIC IVii 3, C 198 RIC IVii 108, C 409 RIC IVii 250a, C 501 RIC IVii 252a, C 508 RIC IVii 250b, S 7922, C 501b RIC IVii 74, C 336 RIC IVii 83a, C 337 RIC IVii 124, S 7855, C 452 RIC IVii 188, C 29 RIC IVii 190a, C 32 RIC IVii 193, S 7863 RIC IVii 196, C 63 RIC IVii 198, C 71 RIC IVii 202, C 92 RIC IVii 205, S 7878, C 133 RIC IVii 208, S 7888 RIC IVii 85, S 7906, C 351 RIC IVii 95, C 371 RIC IVii 92, C 365 RIC IVii 91, C 364 RIC IVii 105, S 7911, C 401 RIC IVii 101b, S 7910, C 388a RIC IVii 101a, C 388 RIC IVii 107, C 410 RIC IVii 212a, S 7928, C 556 RIC IVii 218a RIC IVii 224, S 7933, C 584 RIC IVii 226, C 586 RIC IVii 221, C 580 RIC IVii 220, C 579 RIC IVii 235, S 7870, C 76 RIC IVii 238, S 7871, C 83 RIC IVii 246d, C 161a RIC IVii 109, C 411 RIC IVii 112c RIC IVii 112d, S 7914 RIC IVii 254d, C 546 RIC IVii 261 RIC IVii 123, C 448 RIC IVii 281, S 7875 RIC IVii 148, C 108a RIC IVii 160, X 173a RIC IVii 165, S 7886, C 183 RIC IVii 271, C 470 RIC IVii 294, C 495 RIC IVii 178, C 532 RIC IVii 301, S 7929, C 561 RIC IVii 239, S 7871, C 84 RIC IVii 114c, C 434 RIC IVii 120, C 440 RIC IVii 274, S 7856, C 11 RIC IVii 127, C 91 RIC IVii 133, S 7857, C 23 RIC IVii 139c, S 7864, C 52 RIC IVii 141, C 70 RIC IVii 154c, S 7877 RIC IVii 156, S 7881 RIC IVii 168, S 7887 RIC IVii 169, C 192 RIC IVii 170, S 7889, C 196 RIC IVii 5, S 7891, C 204 RIC IVii 7, C 207 RIC IVii 14c, C 218 RIC IVii 268 RIC IVii 19, C 229 RIC IVii 23, S 7895, C 231 RIC IVii 27, S 7896, C 236 RIC IVii 32, C 239 RIC IVii 35, C 249 RIC IVii 37, C 251 RIC IVii 45, S 7898 RIC IVii 40, C 254 RIC IVii 42, C 255 RIC IVii 44c, C 256

229
90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) B05, O05, R069, T093 B05, O05, R070, T049 B05, O05, R070, T082 B05, O05, R070, T093 B05, O05, R072, T003 B05, O05, R072, T006 B05, O05, R072, T049 B05, O05, R072, T057 B05, O05, R072, T093 B05, O05, R073, T093 B05, O05, R099, T063 B05, O05, R106, T069 B05, O05, R115, T110 B05, O05, R115, T111 * in right field B05, O05, R117, T120 B05, O10, R062, T050 * in left field B05, O10, R062, T050 B05, O10, R108, T068 RIC IVii 50, C 276 RIC IVii 53, C 281 RIC IVii 56a, C 294 RIC IVii 55, S 7899, C 289 RIC IVii 64, S 7902, C 312 RIC IVii 65, C 318 RIC IVii 61, C 305 RIC IVii 67, C 319 RIC IVii 70, C 325 RIC IVii 81, C 357 RIC IVii 174, C 512 RIC IVii 176, S 7924, C 528 RIC IVii 180a, S 7931, C 564 RIC IVii 300, C 559 RIC IVii 182c, S 7934, C 576 RIC IVii 262, C 201 RIC IVii 262, C 201 RIC IVii 298, C 535

AE Medallion
108) B02, O13, R070, T092 Exe: COS III P 109) B06, O14, R020, T100

Reference(s)
BMC 734

AE Sestertius
110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) B02, O02, R081, T104 B02, O02, R099, T006 B02, O02, R118, T116 B02, O10, R075, T083 B02, O13, R009, T005 B02, O13, R077, T106 B02, O13, R077, T107 B02, O13, R079, T106 B02, O13, R096, T079 B04, O02, R081, T104 B04, O02, R111, T108 B04, O08, R087, T070 Exe: SC B05, O02, R080, T104 B05, O02, R082, T104 B05, O08, R005, T003 B05, O08, R058, T057 B05, O08, R072, T057 B05, O08, R072, T093 RIC IVii 537, C 443 RIC IVii 642, C 503 RIC IVii 616, C 567 RIC IVii 498 RIC IVii 549, C 36 RIC IVii 500, C 390 RIC IVii 503, C 393 RIC IVii 511 RIC IVii 596, C 492 RIC IVii 535, C 441 RIC IVii 648, C 549 RIC IVii 407, C 463 RIC IVii 525 RIC IVii 538, C 449 RIC IVii 547, C 20 RIC IVii 592, S 7984, C 189 RIC IVii 465, C 320 RIC IVii 468, C 326

AE Dupondius
128) B08, O13, R075, T083 Exe: SC 129) B08, O13, R103, T084 130) B09, O13, R038, T043 RIC IVii 497 RIC IVii 601, C 517 RIC IVii 565, C 112

AE As
131) B02, O13, R077, T097 132) B05, O13, R088, T063 RIC IVii 509 RIC IVii 416, C 472

Severus Alexander Busts

230
Severus Alexander Types

231
Severus Alexander Types (continued)

232

Julia Mamaea
c.190 - 235
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Diademed, draped bust left Diademed, draped bust right Diademed, draped bust right, holding cornucopia and torch; peacock wings to left Draped bust right

Mother of Severus Alexander. Mamaea was made Augusta by Severus shortly after his accession and she shared his fatal fate on the night of the coup started by Maximinus. In fact, it was her constant meddling in the political affairs of the day and her intractable influence over Alexander that was one of the primary reasons the soldiers revolted against them both.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) IVLIA MAMAEA AVG IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA IVLIA MAMIAS AVG IVLIA MAMMAEA AVG

Being a mama’s boy much the same way his cousin Elagabalus was a grandma’s boy means Ms. Mamaea will be prominently featured in the money minted during his reign. And sure enough, her coins today are hardly any scarcer than those of Severus Alexander. Even big copper, by now a seriously outmoded form of coin, has a brief resurgence and a Sestertius, Dupondius or As of hers may be available from time to time. As discussed under the section for Severus Alexander the Antoninianus has been temporarily shelved and this goes for her as well. The coppers, regardless of their resurgence, are still only bit players in the economy as are the way-rare gold issues. So this is all to say that better than 9 out of 10 coins of Mamaea to be found will be the venerable Denarius. And one can find a good Denarius of hers for $50 or less, even a gem of a coin can be had for not much more than a hundred dollars.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) ABVNDANTIA AVG AEQVITAS AVG ANNONA AVG CONCOBDIA CONCORDIA CONCORDIA AVGG FECVND AVGVSTAE FECVNDITAS AVGVSTAE FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS EXERCI FELICITAS PERPETVA FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS TEM FELICITAS TEMP FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA REDVX IVNO IVNO AVGVSTAE IVNO CONSERVATRIX LIBERALITAS AVG IIII LIBERTAS AVG LIBERTAS AVGVSTI MATER AVG ET CASTRORVM PAX AETERNA AVG PIETAS AVGVSTAE PM TR P VI COS II PP PONTIF TR P III PVDICITIA SAECVLI FELICITAS SALVS AVGVST VENERI FELICI VENVS FELIX VENVS GENETRIX VENVS VICTRIX VESTA VICTOR AVG VICTORIA AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Annona standing left, holding cornucopia and grain ears. Annona standing, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia Concordia seated left, holding two cornucopiae Concordia standing left, holding two cornucopiae Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding two cornucopiae Fecunditas seated left, raising hand; child to left Fecunditas standing left, raising hand and holding cornucopia; child to left Felicitas seated left; two attendants standing to left and one standing to right, holding caduceus Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopia; eagle to left and standard to right. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, holding patera and caduceus; altar to left Felicitas standing left, holding patera and scepter; woman standing to left, holding scepter and another standing to right, holding cornucopia Felicitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding caduceus. Fortuna standing left, holding scale and cornucopia

233
17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) Julia Mamaea seated left, holding cornucopia; Pietas standing to left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box and two standards to right Julia Mamaea seated left, holding patera and scepter; woman standing to left, holding scepter and Felicitas standing to right, holding caduceus. Julia Mamaea seated left, holding scepter; two women standing to left, one holding globe and Felicitas standing to right, holding caduceus. Julia Mamaea seated left, two standards to left and attendant to right Juno seated left, holding flower and torch Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Monetae (3) standing, holding scale and cornucopia Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Pietas standing left by lit altar, raising hand and holding incense box. Pudicitia seated left, holding hand to lips with right hand and scepter with left Venus seated left, holding Cupid and scepter Venus standing left, holding helmet and scepter; Cupid to left Venus standing left, holding helmet and scepter; shield to left Venus standing left, holding scepter and Cupid Venus standing right, holding scepter and Cupid Venus standing, facing, holding scepter and Cupid Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter Vesta standing left, holding Palladium and scepter Vesta standing left, holding patera and scepter Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Roma

AU Aureus
1) B4, O1, R19, T23

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 342, C 36

AR Denarius
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) B2, O1, R07, T07 B2, O1, R07, T08 B2, O1, R12, T10 B2, O1, R12, T15 B2, O1, R18, T21 B2, O1, R31, T35 B2, O1, R33, T31 B2, O1, R34, T32 B2, O1, R35, T30 B2, O1, R35, T37 B2, O1, R35, T38 B4, O1, R19, T23 RIC 332 (IVii, S. Alexander), S 8208, C 6 RIC 331 (IVii, S. Alexander), S 8207, C 5 RIC 338 (IVii, S. Alexander), S 8210, C 24 RIC 335 (IVii, S. Alexander), S 8209, C 17 RIC 341 (IVii, S. Alexander), S 8211, C 32 RIC 351 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 60 RIC 355 (IVii, S. Alexander), S 8215, C 72 RIC 358 (IVii, S. Alexander), S 8216, C 76 RIC 364 (IVii, S. Alexander) RIC 360 (IVii, S. Alexander), S 8217, C 81 RIC 362 (IVii, S. Alexander), S 8218, C 85 RIC 343 (IVii, S. Alexander), S 8212, C 35

AE Medallion
14) B3, O2, R11, T09

AE Sestertius
15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) B2, O2, R08, T08 B2, O2, R09, T12 B2, O2, R12, T10 Exe: SC B2, O2, R12, T15 B2, O2, R31, T34 B2, O2, R32, T30 Exe: SC B2, O2, R34, T32 B2, O2, R35, T37 RIC 668 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 8 RIC 670 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 10 RIC 679 (IVii, S. Alexander) RIC 676 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 21 RIC 694 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 62 RIC 701 (IVii, S. Alexander) RIC 705 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 78 RIC 708 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 83

AE Dupondius
23) 24) B2, O2, R14, T12 B2, O2, R35, T37 RIC 682 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 29 RIC 709 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 84

AE As
25) B2, O2, R08, T08 RIC 669 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 9

234
Julia Mamaea Busts

Julia Mamaea Types

Orbiana
?
Busts:
1) 2) Diademed, draped bust right Draped bust right

Wife of Severus Alexander. Orbiana was exiled to Africa not long after having wed Alexander because of the jealousy of his mother, Julia Mamaea. The emperor did not dare to object to his mother's orders and this unhappy event was forever remembered by the Romans who hated her as well as his own cowardice in not confronting her.

Obverse:
1) SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG

While not terribly difficult to find, coins of Orbiana are never cheap. Expect to pay at least a hundred dollars and up for a mediocre sample. A high grade Denarius will inevitably cost several hundred as will good bronzes. While there are relatively many types noted for this ephemeral empress, only those of a seated Concordia are common. All others are very rare.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) CONCORDIA AVGG CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM CONCORDIA AVGVSTIRVM MINERVA VICTRIX PROPAGA IMPERI PVDICITIA SAECVLI FELICITAS VENVS GENETRIX

235
Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, holding two cornucopiae. Fecunditas seated left, holding hand of child to left. Fecunditas standing left, raising hand and holding cornucopia; child to left. Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed. Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus Juno seated left, holding flower and torch. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left. Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia; coins piled by feet. Orbiana standing left on right, facing Severus Alexander, shaking hands. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Pudicitia seated left, touching head and holding scepter. Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter; Cupid to left. Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter Vesta standing left, holding patera and scepter.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) B1 O1 R1 T01

Reference(s)
RIC 321 (IVii, Severus Alexander)

AR Denarius
2) B1 O1 R1 T01 RIC 319 (IVii, Severus Alexander)

AR Quinarius
3) B1 O1 R1 T01 RIC 320 (IVii, Severus Alexander)

AE Sestertius
4) 5) B1 O1 R2 T01 B1 O1 R2 T12 RIC 655 (IVii, Severus Alexander) RIC 657 (IVii, Severus Alexander)

Orbiana Bust

Orbiana Types

236
Maximinus rose to power via the army where he served as legion commander during a turbulent period of battles against the Germanic tribes. The soldiers under his command, displeased with the wishy-washy way of their current emperor (Severus Alexander), voted with their swords and proclaimed Augustus 235-238 Maximinus emperor. Although he scored a number of successes against the barbarians his dealings in civilian matters were another story entirely. He terrorized the Senate and raised taxes drastically. His tyranical ways, which included a seething contempt for aristocracy, the arts and religion, soon became known throughout the empire. In desperation, the Senate brought the Balbinus-Pupienus duo to a joint emperorship while Maximinus was still approaching Rome. Pupienus's army was smaller than Maximinus's but they followed a scorched-earth policy in calculated retreats and guerilla strikes. This so wore down Maximinus's soldiers that they got fed up and killed him just three years into his reign.

Maximinus I

The reign of Maximinus also signals the first time during the imperial period that a man of barbarian birth assumed the throne (Caracalla's edict of extending Roman citizenship to the provincials made him, technically, a Roman). Of him it was said that he was taller than eight feet and could eat thirty to fourt pounds of meat and eight gallons of wine daily. Notwithstanding this likely exaggeration it still should give one pause as to his physical attributions. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate, draped bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM

For the period, the coins of Maximinus are somewhat scarcer than those of his immediate predecessor (Severus Alexander) and those of his successor (Gordian III). But this was at a time when the mints were very active so his coins are nonetheless readily available. As with Severus Alexander, the Antoninianus continues to be suspended from production while the Denarius now looks very much like it; that is, struck on rather thin but broad flans with shallower relief. These Denarii will typically cost around $50 and up depending on concition and, to a lesser extent, the rarity of the reverse type. Actually, the greater part of the Denarii in circulation among dealers and collectors today is of relatively high grade with many of them being fully “mint state”.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGVSTI FELICITAS PVBLICA FIDES MILITVM INDVLGENTIA AVG LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI MARTI PACIFERO PAX AVGG PAX AVGVSTI PM TR P COS PP PM TR P II COS PP PM TR P III COS PP PM TR P IIII COS PP PM TR P PP PM TR P VI COS II PP PM TR P VIII COS III PP PROVIDENTIA AVG SALVS AVGVSTI SPES PVBLICA VICT AETERN VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM VICTORIA GERM VICTORIA GERMANICA No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand. Indulgentia seated left, raising hand and holding scepter. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Mars standing left, stepping on helmet, holding branch and scepter. Maximinus and Maximus standing, facing each other, together holding Victory; soldier standing on either of their sides and two seated captives in center. Maximinus riding quadriga left, holding branch and scepter, being crowned by Victory. Maximinus seated left on platform accompanied by Liberalitas, holding scale and cornucopia. Maximinus seated left on platform accompanied by Liberalitas, holding scale and cornucopia; citizen on steps to lower left. Maximinus standing left, raising hand and holding spear; standard on either side Maximinus standing left, raising hand and holding spear; two standards on either side Exe: SC. Maximinus standing left, raising hand and holding spear; two standards to left and one to right.

237
14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) Maximinus standing left, raising hand, being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia; coins piled by feet. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Providentia standing left, holing wand over globe and cornucopia. Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar. Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to left. Wreath, VOTIS / DECENNA / LIBVS within.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus
1) B2, O1, R19, T18

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 14, BMC 20, C 83

AR Denarius
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) B1, O1, R04, T02 B1, O1, R10, T16 B1, O1, R12, T11 B1, O1, R12, T11 B1, O1, R15, T11 B1, O1, R17, T05 B1, O1, R18, T17 B1, O1, R19, T18 B1, O1, R22, T22 B1, O2, R04, T02 B1, O2, R10, T16 B1, O2, R13, T11 B1, O2, R18, T17 B1, O2, R24, T23 RIC IVii 7a, C 7 RIC IVii 12, C 31 RIC IVii 3, C 55 RIC IVii 4, C 56 RIC IVii 1, C 46 RIC IVii 100 RIC IVii 13, C 77 RIC IVii 14, C 85 RIC IVii 16, C 99 RIC IVii 18a, C 9 RIC IVii 19, C 37 RIC IVii 5, C 65 RIC IVii 20, C 75 RIC IVii 23, C 105

AE Sestertius
16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) B1, O1, R04, T02 B1, O1, R10, T16 B1, O1, R12, T13 B1, O1, R18, T17 B1, O1, R19, T18 Exe: SC B1, O1, R22, T22 B1, O2, R04, T02 B1, O2, R10, T16 B1, O2, R14, T13 B1, O2, R19, T18 B1, O2, R25, T14 Exe: SC B1, O2, R25, T23 Exe: SC RIC IVii 43, C 10 RIC IVii 58, C 34 RIC IVii 33, C 58 RIC IVii 61, C 80 RIC IVii 64, C 88 RIC IVii 67, C 100 RIC IVii 78, C 13 RIC IVii 81, C 38 RIC IVii 40, C 71 RIC IVii 85, C 92 RIC IVii 93 RIC IVii 90, C 109

AE Dupondius
28) 29) B4, O1, R10, T16 B4, O1, R13, T13 RIC IVii 59, C 36 RIC IVii 38, C 69

Maximinus I Busts

238
Maximinus I Types

Paulina
? – d.235
Bust:
1) Veiled, draped bust right

Wife of Maximinus and likely mother of Maximus. She died shortly after Maximinus became emperor.

Obverse:
1) DIVA PAVLINA

The coins of Paulina, all posthumous issues, are pretty rare and not always available from even wellstocked coin dealers. When they come to market they’re aggressively sought after and this, naturally, drives up the price. An Antoninianus, the typical offering, will normally cost upwards of $500. However, the good news is that the better portion of these Antoniniani survive in very nice condition; some are even honest-togoodness mint state though it hardly needs to be mentioned that those will fetch top dollar. From time to time a few As-sized bronze coins may be found as well.

Reverse:
1) CONSECRATIO

Types:
1) 2) 3) Diana riding biga right, holding torch Paulina riding peacock right, towards heaven Peacock standing, facing, tail spread.

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Aureus (Posthumous)
1) B1, O1, R1, T2

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 2

239
AR Denarius (Posthumous)
2) 3) B1, O1, R1, T2 B1, O1, R1, T3

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 2, C 1 RIC IVii 1, C 1

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
4) B1, O1, R1, T2 RIC IVii 3, C 3

Paulina Bust

Paulina Types

Maximus
Caesar 235-238
Bust:
1) Bare headed, draped bust right

Young son of Maximinus who was proclaimed Caesar at the same time his father was hailed as Augustus immediately after the murders of Severus Alexander and his mother. Both were killed in a mutiny prior to a battle with the forces of Pupienus.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) C IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES MAXIMVS CAES GERM MAXIMVS CAESAR GERM

To find any Roman personage of the third century whose coins are more readily available in bronze denominations rather than silver is a bit anachronistic for the period. Yet that is what we have here with this little-known Caesar. These bronzes come in two predominant sizes but weights vary and there are no radiate portraits so we’ll assume the Dupondius was not part of the lineup. Either one should cost in the low hundreds for a relatively collectible specimen. The Denarius is much rarer than a three-year reign during this period might suggest. They go for $500-$1,000 a piece.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) PIETAS AVG PM TR P III COS PP PRINC IVVENTVTIS PRINCIPI IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS SALVS AVGVSTI

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) Maximus standing left, holding globe and spear. Maximus standing left, holding wand and spear; two standards to right. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar.

Mint:
1) Roma

AR Denarius
1) 2) B1, O2, R1, T3 B1, O3, R3, T2

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 1, C 1 RIC IVii 3, C 10

AE Sestertius
3) 4) 5) 6) B1, O1, R1, T3 Exe: SC B1, O3, R1, T3 Exe: SC B1, O3, R5, T2 B1, O3, R5, T3 RIC IVii 6, C 5 RIC IVii 11, C 7 RIC IVii 13, C 14 RIC IVii 9, C 14

240
AE As
7) 8) B1, O3, R1, T3 Exe: SC B1, O3, R5, T2

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 7, C 8 RIC IVii 14, C 15

Maximus Bust

Maximus Types

Gordian came from an influential Roman family and had served in several high-ranking posts. He was appointed Governor of Carthage and some years into his duties a serious tax revolt erupted because of the drastic taxing Maximinus was imposing to fund his war machine. The elderly Gordian saw that the revolt Augustus 238 would culminate in his own death unless he took action. In a lifesaving marketing move he came across as the friend of the people and equally disgusted with the situation and was named emperor. The Roman Senate went along with this since they much preferred him to Maximinus.

Gordian I

Although he made preparations to go to Rome, Gordian and his son (who he made co-Augustus) were unable to overcome the obstacle that was the neighboring Governor of Numidia, Capellianus, a long-time rival of Gordian. Because Capellianus was in command of the only legion in Africa he remained loyal to Maximinus if only to spite his nemesis. He sent the legion against the Gordians whose army consisted of nothing but undisciplined militia men and, as expected, were crushed almost immediately. With all hope lost he hung himself at the age of 87. Bust:
1) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Obverse:
1) IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG

For having been in power for less than two months it is to be expected that coins of Gordian senior and junior would be very hard to come by. And certainly, they are much more difficult to locate than the fairly rare duo of emperors that was to follow them, Pupienus and Balbinus, who ruled for not much more than that. The good news is that for the most part the coins that have come to market in recent years tend to be higher grade material. The bad news is the price, which can invariably be expected to reach at least a thousand dollars per piece and often quite a bit more than that.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) PM TR P COS PP PROVIDENTIA AVGG ROMAE AETERNAE SECVRITAS AVGG VIRTVS AVGG VIRT EXERCIT

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Gordian I standing left, holding branch and scepter. Gordian I standing left, sacrificing over altar. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Providentia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Securitas seated left, holding scepter. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, holding branch and spear Virtus standing left, holding Victory and spear.

Mint:
1) Roma

241
AR Denarius
1) 2) 3) B1, O1, R1, T1 B1, O1, R3, T5 B1, O1, R4, T6

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 1 RIC IVii 4, C 8 RIC IVii 5

AR Sestertius
4) 5) 6) 7) B1, O1, R1, T1 B1, O1, R2, T4 B1, O1, R4, T6 B1, O1, R7, T7 RIC IVii 7, C 3 RIC IVii 9, C 6 RIC IVii 11, C 11 RIC IVii 12, C 14

Gordian I Bust

Gordian I Types

242

Gordian II
Augustus 238
Bust:
1) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Gordian was the son of the father of the same name. He led a hopelessly outclassed militia army against a Roman legion headed by Capellianus and died in battle.

Obverses:
1) 2) CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG

There isn’t really much to say regarding Gordian II that hasn’t already been said for Gordian I. Both had exactly the same amount of minting time – which was about three months – and number of coins struck in their name. Because both father and son used the same legends they can only be differentiated by the style of the portrait. The easiest way to tell who is who is by observing the hairline features. Gordian I is shown bald forward of the top of his laurel wreath while the younger Gordian retains a full head of hair.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) PM TR P COS PP PROVIDENTIA AVGG ROMAE AETERNAE SECVRITAS AVGG VICTORIA AVGG VIRTVS AVGG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Gordian I standing left, holding branch and scepter Providentia standing left, with legs crossed and leaning on column, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear Securitas seated left, holding scepter Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear.

Mint:
1) Roma

AR Denarius
1) 2) 3) B1, O2, R1, T1 B1, O2, R3, T3 B1, O2, R4, T4

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 1 RIC IVii 4, C 8 RIC IVii 5

AE Sestertius
4) 5) 6) 7) B1, O2, R1, T1 B1, O2, R2, T2 B1, O2, R4, T4 Exe: SC B1, O2, R5, T5 RIC IVii 7, C 3 RIC IVii 9, C 6 RIC IVii 11, C 11 RIC IVii 12, C 14

Gordian II Bust

Gordian II Types

243
Balbinus was one of the two nominees to the transfer of power following the disappointing crushing of the revolt led by Gordian I and II. As they were both chosen by the Senate to protect their own interests, both the Praetorian Guard as well as the public in general found the decision intolerable. Instead, they had wanted Augustus 238 for a successor of pedigree. Understanding that gaining the support of the civilians and army was essential, they then found the teenager grandson of Gordian I and named him Caesar. Balbinus for his part had a deep mistrust for Pupienus (who felt likewise about Balbinus) and the two never got along despite public appearances to the contrary. The Praetorian Guard got whipped up into an unrelated frenzy but vented on the hapless two because they were such easy targets. Both were thus killed on the same day after a reign of only about three months.

Balbinus

Busts:
1) 2) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG

Despite being fairly scarce, most of the silver coins of this emperor appear on the market very well preserved. Bronzes are available too but are in the usual states of preservation for these types of coins. The Denarii and Antoniniani are available with roughly equal frequency and the denomination itself is not usually a factor in the price. The going rate for one of these being in the midhundreds a piece.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) CONCORDIA AVGG FELICITAS AVGVSTORVM FELICITAS TEMPORV AVGG FIDES MVTVA AVGG IOVI CONSERVATORI LIBERALITAS AVGVSTORVM PAX PVBLICA PIETAS MVTVA AVGG PM TR P COS II PP PROVIDENTIA DEORVM VICTORIA AVGG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Balbinus, Pupienus and Gordian III seated left on platform, accompanied by soldier and Liberalitas, holding coin counter and cornucopia; citizen to lower right. Balbinus standing left, holding branch and parazonium. Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter. Hands, in handshake. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Victory standing, facing, holding wreath and palm. Wreath, VOTIS DECENNALIBVS within.

Mint:
1) Roma

AR Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) 4) B2, O2, R01, T05 B2, O2, R04, T05 B2, O2, R07, T08 B2, O2, R08, T05

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 10, C 3 RIC IVii 11 RIC IVii 12, C 17

AR Denarius
5) 6) 7) 8) 9) B1, O1, R01, T03 B1, O1, R05, T06 B1, O1, R09, T02 B1, O1, R10, T09 B1, O1, R11, T10 RIC IVii 1 RIC IVii 2, C 8 RIC IVii 5, C 20 RIC IVii 7, C 23 RIC IVii 8, C 27

244
AE Sestertius
10) 11) 12) 13) B1, O2, R06, T07 B1, O2, R09, T02 B1, O2, R10, T09 B1, O2, R11, T10

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 15, C 11 RIC IVii 16, C 21 RIC IVii 19, C 24 RIC IVii 25, C 29

AE Dupondius
14) B2, O2, R05, T06 RIC IVii 13, C 9

AE As
15) B1, O2, R01, T03 Exe: SC RIC IVii 23, C 5

Balbinus Busts

Balbinus Types

245
One of the joint emperors along with Balbinus, Pupienus's short career as emperor began when the rebellion of the Gordiani in Northern Africa failed. The Senate fearful of the oncoming army of Maximinus hastily hailed both as the new Augusti. While Balbinus was left in charge of consolidating Augustus 238 power in Rome, Pupienus led an army to meet Maximinus. Following good advice from his generals, Maximinus fell into a trap and his angry soldiers murdered him and pledged allegiance to the army of Pupienus. On his return, however, Pupienus was not received as a hero but rather as a puppet of the Senate. Add to this a deep mistrust of and by Balbinus that was evident to the Praetorian Guard and the whole issue was put to rest when the latter massacred both of them on the same day.

Pupienus

Busts:
1) 2) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) IMP C M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG IMP CAES M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) AMOR MVTVVS AVGG CARITAS MVTVA AVGG CONCORDIA AVGG IOVI CONSERVATORI LIBERALITAS AVGVSTORVM PATRES SENATVS PAX PVBLICA PM TR P COS II PP PROVIDENTIA DEORVM VICTORIA AVGG No legend

When it comes to coins, Pupienus is often mentioned in the same breath as Balbinus. That’s because the two shared the limelight for an equally short period of time. Still for as short as those days were they sure kept the mint in Rome working hard. Hundreds, or perhaps thousands, of coins of the two survive to this day and many of those are fully mint state or nearly so. But don’t let that fool you. Although not especially hard to find, a coin of either of these two will still cost hundreds of dollars each.

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter Hands, in handshake Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia Pupienus standing left, holding branch and parazonium Pupienus, Balbinus and Gordian III seated left on platform, accompanied by Liberalitas, holding coin counter and cornucopia; citizen on steps to lower left Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing, facing, holding wreath and palm. Wreath, VOTIS / DECENNA / LIBVS within.

Mint:
1) Roma

AR Denarius
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) B1, O1, R03, T01 B1, O1, R07, T06 B1, O1, R08, T08 B1, O2, R05, T05 B1, O2, R08, T02

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 1, C 6 RIC IVii 4, C 22 RIC IVii 5, C 29 RIC IVii 3 RIC IVii 6, C 26

AR Antoninianus
6) 7) 8) 9) 10) B2, O2, R01, T03 B2, O2, R06, T03 B2, O3, R02, T03 B2, O3, R03, T03 B2, O3, R06, T03 RIC IVii 9a, C 1 RIC IVii 11a, C 19 RIC IVii 10b, C 3 C5 RIC IVii 11b, C 21

246
AE Sestertius
11) 12) 13) 14) B1, O2, R05, T05 B1, O2, R07, T07 Exe: SC B1, O2, R09, T07 B1, O2, R10, T11

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 14, C 15 RIC IVii 22a, C 23 RIC IVii 17, C 34 RIC IVii 23a, C 38

AE Dupondius
15) 16) B2, O2, R11, T11 B2, O2, R12, T12 RIC IVii 24, C 39 RIC IVii 19

Pupienus Busts

Pupienus Types

247
When the revolt of Gordian I & II in Northern Africa failed the Senate appointed Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. However, this choice proved to be so unpopular that the Senate sought and found the grandson of Gordian I and named him Caesar so as to give an air of a dynastic lineage. Balbinus and Augustus 238-244 Pupienus were murdered soon after leaving the teenage Gordian I as sole emperor. Gordian III then spent the next several years in relative obscurity participating in various wars. He was killed by agents of his Praetorian Prefect, Philip, who had ambitions to become emperor himself.

Gordian III

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Bare-headed, draped bust right Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear over left shoulder Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding Victory and scepter. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) IMP C M ANT GORDIANVS AVG IMP CAES GORDIANVS PIVS AVG IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS PIVS AVG IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FELIX AVG M ANT GORDIANVS CAES

Of all the ancient Roman coins, the silver Antoniniani of Gordian III are the cheapest and easiest to find. In fact, they are so cheap that even the collector on a limited budget need not settle for lower grade specimens. Several different types may be found in a condition similar to what they looked like shortly after being minted nearly 1,800 years ago for $20 or $30 and often less than that on the Internet. Gordian III was also the last emperor who struck the Denarius which had been until then one of the longest lived fixtures in the then-known world economies. The cheaper to make but twice as nominally valuable Antoninianus spelled doom for the venerable Denarius. It also started the quick downfall of the economy of the Roman empire. Within another 20 years silver practically vanished from circulation to be replaced with intrinsically worthless money. Happily, the last of the Denarii (a handful were made by later emperors on special occasions) are also inexpensive even in pristine condition. Ironically, the large bronze coins of the previous century become increasingly scarce and would be largely elminated within the next decade or so.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) ABVNDANTIA AVG ADLOCVTIO AVGVSTI ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGG AEQVITAS AVGVSTI AETERNITAS AVGVSTI AETERNITATI AVG ANNONA AVGG APOL CONSERVAT CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGG CONCORDIA MILIT DIANA LVCIFERA FELICIT TEMP FELICIT TEMPOR FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS TEMPORVM FIDES EXERCITVS FIDES MILIT AG FIDES MILITVM FORT REDVX FORTVNA AVG FORTVNA REDVX IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI STATORI IOVIS STATOR LAETIT FVNDAT LAETITIA AVG N LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERALITAS AVG II LIBERALITAS AVG III LIBERALITAS AVG IIII LIBERALITAS AVGG III LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI II LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI III LIBERALITAS AVGVSTORVM LIBERTAS AVGG MARS PROPVG MARS PROPVGNAT MARTEM POPVGNATOREM MARTI PACIFERO MVNIFICENTIA GORDIANI AVG ORIENS AVG PAX AETERNA PAX AVGSTI

47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67)

PAX AVGVS PAX AVGVSTI PIETAS AVGG PIETAS AVGVSTI PM TR I P CON PP PM TR P II COS PM TR P II COS PP PM TR P III COS II PP PM TR P III COS PP PM TR P III COS PP PM TR P IIII COS II PP PM TR P IIII COS PP PM TR P V COS II PP PM TR P V N COS III PP PM TR P VI COS II PP PM TR P VII COS II PP POMAE AETERNAE PONTIFEX MAX TR P III PONTIFEX MAX TR P IIII PRINCIPI IVVENT PROVID AVG

248
68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) PROVIDENT AVG PROVIDENTI AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG PVDICITIA AVG RESTITVTOR ORBIS ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVLARES AVGG SAECVLI FELICITAS SALVS AVG SALVS AVGVSTI SECVRIT PERP SECVRIT PERPET SECVRIT PERPETVA SECVRITAS AVG 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) SECVRITAS PERPETVA SECVRITAS PVBLICA SPES PVPLICA TRAIECTVS AVG VENVS VICTRIX VICTOR AETER VICTORIA AETER VICTORIA AETERNA VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGVSTI VICTORIA GORDIANI AVG VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGVSTI VIRTVTI AVGVSTI

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) Abundantia standing right, pouring out cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Apollo seated left, holding branch and resting hand on lyre. Colosseum with bull and elephant wrestling inside; Colossus of Nero and Meta Sudans on either side. Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, holding globe and scepter. Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Diana standing right, holding torch with both hands. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, leaning on column, holding caduceus. Fides seated left, holding standard and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding standard and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding standard. Fides standing left, holding standard and scepter. Fides standing, facing, holding standard in each hand. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair. Galley sailing right. Gordian III and Tranquillina seated left, raising hands. Gordian III riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter; Victory to left, holding wreath and palm. Gordian III riding horse left, raising hand Gordian III riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Gordian III riding horse right, raising hand Gordian III riding horse right, raising hand and holding scepter Gordian III riding horse right, spearing enemy. Gordian III riding horse right. Gordian III riding oncoming quadriga; two soldiers in front, on left and right, leading the horses by bridle. Gordian III riding quadriga left, holding branch and scepter, being crowned by Victory; two soldiers leading the horses. Gordian III riding quadriga left, holding patera. Gordian III riding quadriga right, holding scepter with eagle atop. Gordian III seated left on platform, accompanied by two lictors; citizen on steps to lower left. Gordian III seated left, being crowned by Victory to right, facing Pax standing to left, holding branch; two standards in background. Gordian III seated left, being crowned by Victory to right, facing Virtus to left, holding shield and branch with two standards in background. Gordian III seated left, being crowned by Victory to right, facing Pax standing to left, holding branch Gordian III standing left on right, receiving globe from Sol to left and being crowned by Virtus to right; two standards in center background, two captives seated below and soldier on left, holding spear and vexillum. Gordian III standing left on right, sacrificing over altar, Nike standing behind crowning him; Sol riding oncoming quadriga in center with Tigris and Euphrates laying to center left. Gordian III standing left, holding globe and scepter. Gordian III standing left, holding hand of kneeling woman. Gordian III standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Gordian III standing right on platform, facing three soldiers; horse and standards in background. Gordian III standing right, holding spear and globe. Hercules standing right, holding club and bow. Hercules standing right, resting hand on hip and holding club with lion skin. Jupiter seated left, holding globe; eagle to left. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; Gordian III to lower left. Jupiter standing, facing, holding scepter and thunderbolt. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and two cornucopiae. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter. Lion advancing right Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield. Mars standing, facing, holding spear and shield Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia; coin piles by feet. Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Pietas standing, facing, raising hands. Providentia standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, raising hand over globe and holding scepter

249
69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) Providentia standing, facing, holding globe and scepter. Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand. Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand; altar to left. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter. Serapis standing left, raising hand and holding scepter Sol standing, facing, holding globe and whip. Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Venus standing left, holding helmet and cradling scepter; shield to right. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, resting hand on shield and holding palm; seated captive to lower left. Virtus standing, facing, holding branch and spear; shield to left. Virtus standing, facing, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Wreath, VOTIS DECENNALIBVS within

Mints:
1) Antioch 2) Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) B6 O3 R03 T27 B6 O3 R30 T53 B6 O5 R08 T79 B6 O5 R14 T11 B6 O5 R95 T46

Reference(s)
Curtis Clay collection RIC IViii 42, C 129 RIC IViii 97, C 37 RIC IViii 121, C 39 RIC IViii 108, C 401

AR Antoninianus
6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) B7 O5 R21 T18 B7 O5 R24 T19 B7 O5 R42 T57 B7 O5 R44 T79 B7 O5 R48 T61 B7 O5 R59 T45 B7 O5 R75 T44 B8 O2 R04 T02 B8 O2 R11 T07 B8 O2 R31 T54 B8 O2 R53 T42 B8 O2 R73 T71 B8 O2 R93 T86 B8 O3 R04 T02 B8 O3 R11 T06 B8 O3 R11 T07 B8 O3 R11 T10 B8 O3 R20 T17 B8 O3 R21 T15 B8 O3 R21 T17 B8 O3 R25 T50 B8 O3 R31 T54 B8 O3 R31 T55 B8 O3 R48 T63 B8 O3 R51 T42 B8 O3 R51 T77 B8 O3 R52 T33 B8 O3 R53 T17 B8 O3 R53 T32 B8 O3 R53 T42 B8 O3 R53 T47 B8 O3 R53 T50 B8 O3 R53 T63 B8 O3 R53 T69 B8 O3 R53 T70 B8 O3 R53 T82 B8 O3 R53 T86 B8 O3 R62 T58 B8 O3 R70 T69 B8 O3 R73 T71 B8 O3 R90 T83 B8 O3 R93 T86 B8 O5 R04 T02 B8 O5 R08 T79 B8 O5 R11 T07 B8 O5 R13 T07 B8 O5 R15 T12 B8 O5 R16 T12 B8 O5 R18 T12 B8 O5 R21 T19 B8 O5 R23 T21 B8 O5 R25 T52 RIC IViii 209, C 92 RIC IViii 210, C 98 RIC IViii 212, C 162 RIC IViii 213, C 167 RIC IViii 214e, C 179 RIC IViii 206e, C 264 RIC IViii 216, C 319 RIC IViii 51, C 22 RIC IViii 52, C 53 RIC IViii 53, C 133 RIC IViii 54, C 212 RIC IViii 55, C 313 RIC IViii 56, C 386 RIC IViii 34, C 17 RIC IViii 180, C 52 RIC IViii 35, C 50 RIC IViii 178a, C 58 RIC IViii 183a, C 90 RIC IViii 1, C 86 RIC IViii 2, C 105 RIC IViii 36, C 130 RIC IViii 187a, C 126 RIC IViii 3, C 173 RIC IViii 169, C 187 Curtis Clay collection Curtis Clay Collection RIC IViii 15, C 205 RIC IViii 37, C 210 RIC IViii 27, C 190 RIC IViii 16, C 189 RIC IViii 17, C 203 RIC IViii 18, C 196 RIC IViii 172, C 196 RIC IViii 19, C 199 RIC IViii 20, C 194 RIC IViii 167a, C 280 RIC IViii 4, C 302 RIC IViii 38, C 312 RIC IViii 5, C 357 RIC IViii 6, C 381 RIC IViii 63, C 25 RIC IViii 83, C 41 RIC IViii 64, C 52 RIC IViii 65, C 62 RIC IViii 140, C 71 RIC IViii 141, C 72 RIC IViii 142, C 81 RIC IViii 143, C 97 RIC IViii 144, C 98 RIC IViii 84, C 109

250
58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) B8 O5 R26 T52 B8 O5 R28 T53 B8 O5 R31 T54 B8 O5 R38 T59 B8 O5 R39 T59 B8 O5 R40 T59 B8 O5 R47 T62 B8 O5 R51 T43 B8 O5 R53 T45 B8 O5 R54 T04 B8 O5 R56 T04 B8 O5 R58 T04 B8 O5 R58 T45 B8 O5 R60 T04 B8 O5 R60 T45 B8 O5 R66 T68 B8 O5 R67 T68 B8 O5 R69 T68 B8 O5 R72 T72 B8 O5 R77 T77 B8 O5 R78 T77 B8 O5 R81 T77 B8 O5 R86 T85 B8 O5 R87 T85 B8 O5 R88 T85 B8 O5 R92 T86 B8 O5 R94 T47 RIC IViii 85, C 115 RIC IViii 86, C 121 RIC IViii 67, C 142 RIC IViii 145, C 155 RIC IViii 146, C 156 RIC IViii 147, C 160 RIC IViii 214b, C 179 RIC IViii 68, C 216 RIC IViii 91, C 242 RIC IViii 87, C 237 RIC IViii 88, C 250 RIC IViii 89, C 262 RIC IViii 93, C 266 RIC IViii 90, C 272 RIC IViii 94, C 276 RIC IViii 148, C 296 RIC IViii 149, C 298 RIC IViii 150, C 299 RIC IViii 70, C 314 RIC IViii 151, C 327 RIC IViii 152, C 328 RIC IViii 153, C 336 RIC IViii 154, C 348 RIC IViii 155, C 349 RIC IViii 156, C 353 RIC IViii 71, C 388 RIC IViii 95, C 404

AR Denarius
85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) B1 O7 R48 T73 B6 O5 R08 T80 B6 O5 R14 T11 B6 O5 R26 T52 B6 O5 R28 T53 B6 O5 R49 T65 B6 O5 R53 T04 B6 O5 R53 T45 B6 O5 R54 T25 B6 O5 R76 T74 B6 O5 R82 T75 B6 O5 R85 T82 B6 O5 R94 T47

Reference(s)
RIC IVii 1, C 182 RIC IViii 111, C 39 RIC IViii 127, C 69 RIC IViii 112, C 113 RIC IViii 113, C 120 RIC IViii 129, C 186 RIC IViii 114, C 238 RIC IViii 115, C 243 RIC IViii 81, C 234 RIC IViii 129a, C 325 RIC IViii 130, C 340 RIC IViii 131, C 347 RIC IViii 116, C 403

AR Quinarius
98) B6 O5 R13 T07 RIC IViii 75, C 63

AE Medallion
99) 100) 101) 102) B2 O6 R44 T40 B2 O6 R93 T31 B3 O6 R64 T31 B4 O6 R42 T05

AE Sestertius
103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) B6 O3 R20 T17 B6 O3 R30 T55 B6 O3 R89 T83 B6 O5 R04 T02 B6 O5 R08 T81 B6 O5 R23 T21 B6 O5 R26 T51 B6 O5 R28 T53 B6 O5 R41 T58 B6 O5 R51 T43 B6 O5 R58 T45 B6 O5 R59 T04 B6 O5 R78 T76 B6 O5 R81 T74 B6 O5 R87 T85 B6 O5 R88 T85 B6 O5 R91 T23 Exe: SC B6 O6 R08 T80 B6 O7 R49 T72 Exe: SC RIC IViii 254, C 89 RIC IViii 269a, C 136 RIC IViii 258a, C 538 RIC IViii 286a, C 26 RIC IViii 297a, C 43 RIC IViii 331a, C 99 RIC IViii 298a, C 111 RIC IViii 300a, C 122 RIC IViii 333, C 161 RIC IViii 291, C 217 RIC IViii 307a, C 267 RIC IViii 303a, C 262 RIC IViii 335a, C 329 RIC IViii 311a, C 333 RIC IViii 337a, C 351 RIC IViii 338a, C 354 RIC IVii 325, C 377 RIC IViii 297 anecdotal RIC IVii 3, C 183

AE As
122) 123) 124) 125) 126) B6 O3 R04 T02 B6 O3 R53 T71 Exe: SC B6 O5 R64 T32 B6 O5 R93 T36 B6 O6 R78 T77 RIC IViii 267b, C 89 RIC IViii 264b, C 208 RIC IViii 321a, C 289 RIC IViii 326 RIC IViii 335c

251
Gordian III Busts

Gordian III Types

252
Gordian III Types (continued)

253

Tranquillina
?-?
Busts:
1) 2) 3) Diademed, draped bust left Diademed, draped bust right Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Wife of Gordian III.

While Greek bronzes honoring Gordian’s wife abound, Rome is much less effusive in recognizing the empress. Those coins that have come to light and offered for sale are outrageously expensive. In the lot listings of recent numismatic auction catalogs only two have sold; a Denarius for $5,000 and an Antoninianus for $10,000.

Obverse:
1) SABINIA TRANQVILLINA AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) CONCORDIA AVGG CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM FELICITAS TEMPORVM

Types:
1) 2) 3) Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopiae Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Tranquillina standing right on left, shaking hands with Gordian III to right

Mint:
1) Roma

AR Antoninianus
1) B3 O1 R1 T3

Reference(s)
RIC 250 (IViii, Gordian III)

AR Denarius
2) B2 O1 R1 T1 RIC 252 (IViii, Gordian III)

Tranquillina Busts

Tranquillina Types

254
Gordian III was a fairly popular ruler when Philip, a Romanized Arabian, was selected as Praetorian Prefect. This was a highly influential post and one of Philip's duties under Gordian was the control of military supply logistics. Because he was ambitious and longed to be emperor himself he manipulated Augustus 244-249 and purposefully mismanaged the soldiers' food supply in hopes of pinning the blame on the emperor. This worked quite well and the hungry soldiers mutinied and killed Gordian. Before the treasonous conspiracy could be investigated, Philip finished the game plan by proclaiming himself emperor and the Senate went along.

Philip I

Philip turned out to be a successful leader on the battlefield. He negotiated a peace treaty with the Persians and headed back to Rome. When new revolts sprouted along the Danube, he sent off Trajan Decius to take care of them. This was poor judgment on his part because Decius would wind up doing such a good job that his soldiers arbitrarily promoted him to Augustus. Philip mustered an army to take on Decius but was beaten and killed in the battle. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Philip I is another very common emperor. The bulk of his coins are represented in the Antoniniani of which there are many reverse types. Larger bronzes are also relatively common but choice specimens are very rare. Philip is also the last emperor to mint the legendary Denarius. The denomination had been run out of the economy slowly over the past couple of decades and essentially stopped under Gordian III. For old times’ sakes Philip made a few more which today are extreme rarities, probably even rarer than his Aurei but no less expensive. But for “the people’s coins” you will find that a well preserved Antoninianus can usually be found for less than fifty dollars. For what it’s worth, a look on Ebay on any given day is bound to show over 100 coins of Philip I on auction.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM IMP C M IVL PHILIPPVS PF AVG PM IMP CAES M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG IMP IVL PHILIPPVS PIVS FEL AVG PM IMP IVL PHILIPPVS PIVS FELIX AVG PM IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG IMP PHILIPPVS AVG M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG M IVL PHILIPPVS N C

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) ADLOCVTIO AVGVSTORVM ADVENTVS AVGG AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGG AEQVITAS AVGVSTI AEQVITAS PVBLICA AETERNIT IMPERI AETERNITAS AVGG AETERNITATI AVGG ANNONA AVGG CONCORDIA AVGG COS II PP DE PIA MATRE PIVS FILIVS FELICIT TEMPOR FELICITAS TEMP FID EXERCIT FIDES EXERCITVS FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA REDVX IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG IMP PHILIPPVS AVG IOVI STATORI LAET FVNDATA LAETIT FVNDAT LAETITIA AVG N LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERALITAS AVG II LIBERALITAS AVG III LIBERALITAS AVGG II MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG MILIARIVM SAECVLVM NOBILITAS AVGG PACE FVNDATA PAX AETERN PAX AETERNA PAX AVG PAX AVGVSTI PAX FVNDATA PIETAS AVGG

41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69)

PM TR P COS PP PM TR P II COS PP PM TR P III COS II PP PM TR P III COS PP PM TR P IIII COS II PP PM TR P IIII COS PP PM TR P V COS II PP PM TR P V COS III PP PM TR P VI COS PP PONTIFEX MAX TR P V COS III PP PROVIDENT AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG ROMAE AETERNAE SACVLVM NOVVM SAECVLARES AVGG SALVS AVG SALVS AVGG SECVRIT ORBIS SECVRITAS ORBIS SPES FELICTATIS ORBIS SPES PVBLICA TRANQVILLITAS AVGG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGG VICTORIA CARPICA VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGG VIRTVS EXERCITVS No legend

255
Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over galley prow and cornucopia. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Antelope advancing left. Antelope advancing right Apollo seated left, holding branch and resting arm on lyre. Cippus reading COS / III Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia seated left, holding scale and cornucopia. Concordia seated left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter. Deer advancing left. Deer advancing right. Elephant (with rider) advancing left Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand. Fides standing left, holding scepter and standard. Fides standing left, holding vexillum and standard. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair. Goat advancing left. Hippopotamus standing right Jupiter standing, facing, holding scepter and thunderbolt Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder Laetitia standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding patera and rudder Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Lion advancing left Lion advancing right Mars standing left, holding branch and resting hand on shield. Minerva standing left, stepping on helmet, holding branch Nobilitas standing left, holding scepter and globe. Nobilitas standing right, holding scepter and globe Otacilia Severa diademed, draped bust right on crescent. Otacilia Severa diademed, draped bust right. Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Philip I advancing left, among three soldiers; two standards in background. Philip I and Philip II each riding a horse right, raising hand and one holding a spear. Philip I and Philip II riding oncoming quadriga; one holding branch and being crowned by Victory and the other raising hand; soldier on each side. Philip I and Philip II seated left on platform accompanied by Liberalitas, holding coin counter and cornucopia; citizen on steps to lower left. Philip I riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Philip I seated left, holding globe and scepter. Philip I standing left, sacrificing over altar. Philip I standing left, raising hand and holding scepter; three soldiers standing by and two standards in background. Philip II laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, facing Otacilia Severa diademed, draped bust left. Philip II laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter; altar to left. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding rudder. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe. Spes advancing left, holding spear and raising skirt. Standards (4) Temple with (6) columns; Roma standing within. Temple with (8) columns, Roma standing within. Tranquillitas standing left, holding Capricornus and scepter. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Virtus seated left, holding branch and spear. Virtus standing left, stepping on helmet, holding branch and spear. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus Wolf standing right, right, suckling Romulus and Remus Wreath, FELI / CITAS / IMPP within. Wreath, VOTIS DECENNALIBVS within.

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Asia, locality uncertain 3) 4) Roma Viminacium

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) B1, O6, R10, T03 B1, O6, R18, T17 B1, O6, R54, T46 B1, O7, R34, T01 B1, O7, R56, T07

Reference(s)
RIC IViii 28a, C 23 RIC IViii 32a, C 56 RIC IViii 44a, C 168 RIC IViii 24a, C 191

256
AU Quinarius
6) B1, O6, R18, T17

Reference(s)
RIC IViii 32a, C 56

AR Antoninianus
7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) B2, O6, R02, T41 B2, O6, R11, T08 B2, O6, R46, T15 B3, O6, R53, T47 B4, O2, R39, T36 B4, O2, R60, T54 B4, O2, R68, T64 B4, O6, R02, T41 B4, O6, R03, T01 B4, O6, R04, T01 B4, O6, R10, T02 B4, O6, R10, T03 B4, O6, R15, T15 B4, O6, R18, T16 B4, O6, R18, T17 B4, O6, R19, T16 B4, O6, R24, T24 B4, O6, R28, T26 B4, O6, R28, T26 B4, O6, R35, T35 B4, O6, R35, T36 B4, O6, R42, T42 B4, O6, R44, T15 B4, O6, R45, T15 B4, O6, R46, T15 B4, O6, R49, T15 B4, O6, R49, T27 B4, O6, R53, T47 B4, O6, R53, T48 B4, O6, R56, T49 B4, O6, R58, T51 B4, O6, R60, T54 B4, O6, R62, T59 B4, O6, R62, T60 B4, O6, R62, T61 B4, O6, R66, T62 B4, O6, R66, T63 B4, O6, R68, T64 B4, O7, R04, T01 B4, O7, R08, T14 B4, O7, R10, T03 B4, O7, R17, T18 B4, O7, R17, T54 B4, O7, R17, T54 B4, O7, R20, T18 B4, O7, R33, T32 B4, O7, R32, T32 ¿ in left field B4, O7, R45, T15 B4, O7, R47, T29 A in left field B4, O7, R53, T48 B4, O7, R54, T56 B4, O7, R54, T56 B4, O7, R55, T04 Exe: UI B4, O7, R55, T07 B4, O7, R55, T12 Exe: III B4, O7, R55, T13 Exe: U B4, O7, R55, T28 Exe: I B4, O7, R55, T65 Exe: II B4, O7, R62, T58 B in left field B4, O7, R67, T38 B4, O7, R69, T67 RIC IViii 81, C 4 RIC IViii 83 RIC IViii 76, C 135 RIC IViii 85, C 167 RIC IViii 69, C 113 RIC IViii 70, C 221 RIC IViii 71, C 243 RIC IViii 26b, C 3 RIC IViii 27b, C 9 RIC IViii 29, C 32 RIC IViii 28c, C 25 RIC IViii 31, C 43 RIC IViii 32b, C 55 RIC IViii 33b, C 54 RIC IViii 34b, C 58 RIC IViii 35b, C 72 RIC IViii 38b, C 87 RIC IViii 38b, C 87 RIC IViii 41, C 102 RIC IViii 40b, C 103 RIC IViii 2b RIC IViii 3, C 124 RIC IViii 4, C 136 RIC IViii 75a, C 130 RIC IViii 78, C 155 RIC IViii 44b, C 169 RIC IViii 45, C 170 RIC IViii 47b, C 205 RIC IViii 48b, C 215 RIC IViii 73, C 220 RIC IViii 50, C 231 RIC IViii 49b, C 227 RIC IViii 51, C 235 RIC IViii 53, C 240 RIC IViii 52, C 239 RIC IViii 74, C 245 RIC IViii 57, C 12 RIC IViii 58, C 17 RIC IViii 59, C 33 RIC IViii 61, C 49 RIC IViii 62, C 50 RIC IViii 84a RIC IViii 63b, C 65 RIC IViii 8, C 98 RIC IViii 8, C 98 RIC IViii 5, C 137 RIC IViii 7, C 145 RIC IViii 65, C 171 RIC IViii 25b, C 198 RIC IViii 86b RIC IViii 21, C 189 RIC IViii 24c, C 193 RIC IViii 17, C 186 RIC IViii 19, C 182 RIC IViii 12 RIC IViii 15, C 178 RIC IViii 9, C 223 RIC IViii 10, C 241 RIC IViii 60, C 39

AR Denarius
68) 69) B1, O6, R28, T26 B1, O6, R40, T45 C5

AE Medallion
70) B1, O3, R41, T44 Gnecchi 4, C 115

AE Sestertius
71) 72) 73) 74) 75) B1, O6, R04, T01 B1, O6, R08, T14 Exe: SC B1, O6, R10, T03 B1, O6, R15, T15 B1, O6, R17, T55 Exe: SC RIC IViii 166a, C 10 RIC IViii 167a, C 18 RIC IViii 168a, C 26 RIC IViii 169a, C 44 RIC IViii 171a, C 51

257
76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) B1, O6, R19, T16 B1, O6, R20, T19 Exe: SC B1, O6, R24, T25 B1, O6, R28, T26 B1, O6, R39, T36 B1, O6, R42, T42 Exe: SC B1, O6, R44, T15 B1, O6, R54, T57 Exe: SC B1, O6, R55, T04 Exe: SC B1, O6, R55, T05 Exe: SC B1, O6, R55, T28 Exe: SC B1, O6, R55, T65 Exe: SC B1, O6, R58, T51 Exe: SC B1, O7, R45, T15 B1, O7, R48, T42 Exe: SC RIC IViii 172a, C 59 RIC IViii 174a, C 67 RIC IViii 176a, C 76 RIC IViii 180a, C 88 RIC IViii 184a, C 105 RIC IViii 148a, C 121 RIC IViii 149a, C 123 RIC IViii 164, C 201 RIC IViii 161, C 190 RIC IViii 160a, C 183 RIC IViii 158, C 176 RIC IViii 159, C 248 RIC IViii 190, C 216 RIC IViii 150c, C 140 RIC IViii 154a, C 151

AE Dupondius
91) 92) B4, O6, R19, T16 B4, O6, R33, T32

Reference(s)
RIC IViii 172c, C 61 RIC IViii 155, C 99

AE As
93) 94) 95) 96) B1, O6, R19, T16 B1, O6, R28, T26 B1, O6, R55, T05 Exe: SC B1, O6, R55, T07 RIC IViii 172b, C 60 RIC IViii 180b, C 89 RIC IViii 160b,C 184 RIC IViii 162b, C 196

Philip I Busts

Philip I Types

258
Philip I Types (continued)

259

Otacilia Severa
?-?
Busts:
1) 2) 3) Diademed, draped bust left Diademed, draped bust right Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Wife of Philip I.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) M OTACIL SEVERA AVG MARC OTACIL SEVERA AVG MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG OTACIL SEVERA AVG

While not much can be said about Otacilia the person, her coins sure are plentiful enough. This being the age of the cheap silver coins you can find her Antoniniani in any ancient coin dealer’s inventory or in online auctions. These typically go from $20-$50 for problem-free coins of little or no wear. Bronzes turn up regularly with the Sestertius probably being the most commonly available denomination. Asides from weighing considerably less than the Sestertii of a century before, they are still substantial coins.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) AEQVITAS AVG AETERNITATI AVG ANNONA AVG CONCORDIA AVGG CONCORDIA AVGVSTI FECVNDITAS TEMPORVM IVNO CONSERVAT IVNO CONSERVATRIX IVNO LVCINA MILIARVM SAECVLVM PAX AVGG PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVG N PIETAS AVGG PIETAS AVGVSTAE PM TR P IIII COS II PP PVDICITIA AVG ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVLARES AVGG SAECVLVM NOVVM SALVS AVG SECVRIT ORBIS

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Antelope advancing left. Cippus Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia seated left, sacrificing over altar and holding two cornucopiae. Fecunditas seated left, holding globe and scepter; child to left, another in background Fecunditas seated left, holding grain ears and cornucopia; child to left, another in background. Hippopotamus standing right Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Otacilia Severa standing right on left, shaking hands with Philip I to right, holding scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Philip I laureate bust right facing Philip II bare head left Philip I standing left, sacrificing over altar. Pietas standing left, raising hand and holding incense box. Pietas standing left, raising hand and holding incense box; child to left. Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar and holding incense box. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter. Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter; child to left. Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter; two children to left and Felicitas to right, holding caduceus and cornucopia Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter; altar to left. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter. Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand. Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe. Temple with (6) columns, Roma within.

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Roma

260
AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) B2, O1, R04, T06 B2, O3, R12, T17 B2, O3, R17, T20

Reference(s)
RIC 125a (IViii, Philip 1), C 2 RIC 122a (IViii, Philip I), C 36 RIC 123a (IViii, Philip I), C 51

AR Antoninianus
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) B3, O1, R04, T06 B3, O1, R04, T07 B3, O1, R07, T11 B3, O1, R08, T11 B3, O1, R16, T15 B3, O3, R05, T12 B3, O3, R12, T17 B3, O3, R14, T19 B3, O3, R17, T20 B3, O4, R14, T19 B3, O4, R15, T16 B3, O4, R19, T10 Exe: IIII RIC 125c (IViii, Philip I), C 4 RIC 126 (IViii, Philip I), C 17 RIC 127 (IViii, Philip I), C 20 RIC 128 (IViii, Philip I), C 21 RIC 122b (IViii, Philip I), C 37 RIC 121 (IViii, Philip I), C 34 RIC 123c (IViii, Philip I), C 53 RIC 115 (IViii, Philip I), C 39 RIC 130 (IViii, Philip I), C 43 RIC 116b (IViii, Philip I), C 64

AR Denarius
16) B2, O3, R17, T20 RIC 123b (IViii, Philip I), C 52

AE Medallion
17) B1, O3, R17, T22

AE Sestertius
18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) B2, O3, R04, T05 Exe: SC B2, O3, R04, T06 Exe: SC B2, O3, R14, T19 B2, O3, R17, T20 Exe: SC B2, O3, R19, T10 Exe: SC B2, O4, R04. T06 Exe: SC RIC 204 (IViii, Philip I), C 15 RIC 203a (IViii, Philip I), C 10 RIC 208a (IViii, Philip I), C 46 RIC 209a (IViii, Philip I), C 55 RIC 200a (IViii, Philip I), C 65 RIC 203e (IViii, Philip I), C 10

AE Dupondius
24) 25) 26) 27) 28) B2, O3, R04, T06 Exe: SC B2, O3, R17, T21 Exe: SC B2, O3, R19, T04 B2, O4, R19, T04 B3, O4, R19, T04

AE As
29) 30) B2, O3, R04, T06 Exe: SC B2, O3, R15, T16 RIC 203a (IViii, Philip I), C 10 RIC 208b (IViii, Philip I), C 47

261
Otacilia Severa Busts

Otacilia Severa Types

Philip II was the son of Philip who named him co-Augustus just before he set out to fight the army of Trajan Decius. Philip was only about 10 years old and when news reached Rome of Decius's victory the boy could do little to stem the growing momentum against his father's killer. Briefly, he remained sole Augustus 247-249 emperor but the troops in Rome were no match for the approaching army of Decius, especially considering that Philip's own captured troops were now fighting alongside him. As expected, rather than fight a losing battle, the Praetorian Guard just murdered the boy and avoided the confrontation.

Philip II

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Bare-headed, draped bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

The coinage series for Philip junior closely mimics that of senior in quantity and substance so that the two are equally abundant despite his father’s two-year-plus headstart.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES M IVL PHILIPPVS NOBIL CAES IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG IMP PHILIPPVS AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGG AETERNIT IMPERI AETERNITAS AVGG ANNONA AVGG AVG PATRI AVG MATRI CONCORDIA AVGG CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM FELICIT IMPP FIDES EXERCITVS 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI CONSERVATORI LIBERALITAS AVG IIII LIBERALITAS AVGG II LIBERALITAS AVGG III MILIARIVM SAECVLVM PAX AETERNA PIETAS AVGVSTOR PIETAS AVGVSTORVM PM TR P IIII COS II PP 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) PM TR P IIII COS PP PM TR P VI COS PP PRINCIPI IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVLARES AVGG SAECVLVM NOVVM SPES PVBLICA VIRTVS AVGG No legend

262
Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia Cippus, COS / II within Cippus, COS / III within Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Elephant with rider advancing left Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Goat advancing left Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Lion (radiate) advancing left Lion (radiate) advancing left with thunderbolt in jaws. Lion (radiate) advancing right Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Monetae (3) standing left, holding scale and cornucopiae Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Philip I and Philip II seated left; emperor on left raising hand and the one on right holding scepter Philip I and Philip II seated left, facing citizen Philip I laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right facing Otacilia Severa diademed, draped bust left. Philip II standing left, holding globe and spear. Philip II standing left, holding globe and spear; seated captive to left. Philip II standing left, holding globe and standard. Philip II standing left, holding globe and standard; seated captive to left. Philip II standing left, holding standard and spear. Philip II standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Philip II standing right, holding spear and globe. Philip II standing right, holding spear and globe; Philip I standing to left. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (4) Temple with (6) columns, Roma within Wreath, FELICITAS IMPP within Wreath, VOTIS DECENNALIBVS within.

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) B1, O1, R23, T19 B1, O1, R23, T25 B2, O4, R26, T03

Reference(s)
RIC 218a (IViii, Philip I), C 46 RIC 216a (IViii, Philip I), C 52 RIC 225 (IViii, Philip I), C 77

AR Antoninianus
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) B3, O3, R25, T28 B4, O3, R20, T07 B5, O1, R11, T09 B5, O1, R23, T19 B5, O1, R23, T20 B5, O1, R23, T25 B5, O1, R26, T08 B5, O3, R01, T01 B5, O3, R02, T01 B5, O3, R03, T29 B5, O3, R04, T06 B5, O3, R07, T05 B5, O3, R17, T15 B5, O3, R20, T07 B5, O3, R21, T07 B5, O3, R22, T07 B5, O3, R22, T11 B5, O3, R22, T24 B5, O3, R26, T04 B5, O3, R27, T32 B5, O4, R15, T16 B5, O4, R17, T15 RIC 243 (IViii, Philip I) RIC 213 (IViii, Philip I), C 13 RIC 218d (IViii, Philip I), C 48 RIC 219 (IViii, Philip I), C 57 RIC 216c (IViii, Philip I), C 54 RIC 224 (IViii, Philip I), C 72 RIC 240a (IViii, Philip I) RIC 226 (IViii, Philip I), C 6 RIC 246a (IViii, Philip I), C 5 RIC 241 (IViii, Philip I) RIC 227 (IViii, Philip I) RIC 233 (IViii, Philip I), C 34 RIC 232 (IViii, Philip I) RIC 235 (IViii, Philip I) RIC 236 (IViii, Philip I) RIC 244 (IViii, Philip I), C 8 RIC 230 (IViii, Philip I), C 17 RIC 231c (IViii, Philip I), C 23

AR Denarius
26) B1, O1, R23, T25 RIC 216b (IViii, Philip I), C 53

AE Sestertius
27) 28) 29) B1, O1, R23, T19 B1, O1, R23, T25 B2, O3, R17, T15 RIC 256a (IViii, Philip I), C 49 RIC 255a (IViii, Philip I), C 55 RIC 268c (IViii, Philip I), C 25

263
30) B2, O3, R26, T08 RIC 264a (IViii, Philip I), C 73

AE As
31) B1, O1, R24, T23

Reference(s)
RIC 258a (IViii, Philip I), C 62

Philip II Busts

Philip II Types

264

Pacatian
Augustus c.248-249
Busts:
1) Radiate, draped bust right

A very obscure emperor, Pacatian was raised by his troops as emperor in Moesia (modern-day Bulgaria) then killed by them soon after. Due to his obscurity, the coins of Pacatian command hefty auction prices.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) IMP TI CL MAR PACATIANVS AVG IMP TI CL MAR PACATIANVS FP A IMP TI CL MAR PACATIANVS PF AV IMP TI CL MAR PACATIANVS PF AVG IMP TI CL MAR PACATIANVS PF IN IMP TI CL MAR PACATIANVS PT AVG

Coins of Pacatian are so rare that there is little point in attempting to set market values for them. It basically comes down to bidding wars among a few wealthy collectors when one comes up for sale. All of the coins are comprised of silver Antoniniani of erratic quality both in terms of original design and execution as well as preservation. The better coins have gone for between $5,000-$10,000 but, again, the “going rate” is more often than not set by the whim of the buyers and sellers without much regard to past sales. In an interesting side note, we can date the coins of this usurper to the year 249 thanks to a reverse th he used celebrating the 1,000 year of Rome’s founding placing his brief rule during that of Trajan Decius.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) CONCORDIA MILITVM FELICITAS PVBL FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA REDVX PAX AETERNA ROMAE AETER AN MILL ET PRIMO VICTORIA AVGG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.

Mint:
1) Viminacium

AR Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) B1, O1, R4, T4 B1, O2, R5, T5 B1, O4, R1, T1 B1, O4, R5, T5 B1, O5, R6, T6 B1, O6, R4, T4

Reference(s)
RIC IViii 4 RIC IViii 1b, C 1 RIC IViii 5, C 6 RIC IViii 6

Pacatian Bust

Pacatian Types

265

Jotapian
Augustus c.248

This ruler was one of the usurpers who gave Philip ulcers. Raised by his soldiers as emperor, he had under his control the entire region of Syria and made his capital Antioch. For unknown reasons, however, those same soldiers killed him some time afterward before Rome could settle the issue militarily.

Busts:
1) 2) Laureate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) IM C M F R IOTAPIANVS AV IMP C M F R V IOTAPIANVS IMP M F R IOTAPIANVS IMP M F R IOTAPIANVS A IMP M F R V IOTAPIANVS IMP M F R V IOTAPIANVS AV

The handful of coins left today of this fleeting emperor survive in ineffably horrid condition. And we can only blame the ravages of time so much. They were probably little better the day they were made in some military workshop; cobbled together with whatever scrap silver was handy by soldiers consigned to new, artistic duties previously unfamiliar to them. Ah, but for the handful that are left there sure are a lot of hands that wish to get one of these pieces. Unless you can swing, say, $10,000 on a coin you’re not even in the running for one of these “beauties”.

Reverse:
1) VICTORIA AVG

Types:
1) 2) Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm

Mint:
1) Emesa?

AR Antoninianus
1) 2) B2, O1, R1, T1 B2, O2, R1, T1

Reference(s)
RIC IViii 2c, C 2

AR Denarius
3) B1, O5, R1, T1

Jotapian Busts

Jotapian Type

266

Trajan Decius
Augustus 249-251
Verona ending with Philip's defeat.

Decius was a leading commander in the employ of the emperor Philip I. When several revolts broke out in different quarters of the empire Decius was selected to push back the Goths. Dutifully, he went on his way and did so effective a job of handling the invaders that the soldiers hailed him as their emperor on the spot. Philip was none too amused at this and gathered his army to meet the new usurper. A major battle was fought at their meeting point in

On arrival to Rome he was well received by the people and the Senate. However, he hardly earned any brownie points when he became a rather energetic persecutor of Christians. Before long he was engaged in another bout of incursions from the Goths. This time luck was not on his side and a tactical error on his part led to the early death of his son and co-Augustus Herennius Etruscus. Trying to marshall the spirits of his men he is recorded as brushing off the loss with "The death of one soldier but hardly bothers me". Despite this bit of battlefield hubris his own death was to come moments later. Speculation of contemporary biographers look suspiciously on Trebonianus Gallus, who became emperor immediately afterwards. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Despite a relatively short two year reign, Trajan Decius is not a hard emperor to find on coins. His Antoniniani are plentiful and rarely go for more than $40 or so for a nicely preserved sample. Perhaps the most interesting event of numismatic interest during his rule is the striking of a special series commemorating eleven of the most important and fondly remembered emperors up to that point. These emperors, all solemnly deified, span the range from Augustus through Severus Alexander and include, curiously, the hated tyrant Commodus. Regardless, the series is historically important not only because we get to see who contemporary Romans considered as their own best leaders but also because they were issued in th celebration of the 1,000 year of Rome’s founding in 249.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) IMP C DECIVS AVG IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DEVIS AVG IMP CAE TRA DEC AVG IMP CAE TRA DECIVS AVG IMP CAES C MESS Q DECIO TRAI AVG IMP CAES C MESS TRAI Q DECIO AVG IMP TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) ABVNDANTIA AVG ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGG CONCORDIA AVGG DACIA DACIA FELIX EXERCITVS INLVRICVS FECVNDITAS AVG FELICITAS SAECVLI GEN ILLVRICI GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI GENIVS EXERCITVS ILLVRICIANI HERENNIA ETRVSCILLA AVG LIBERALITAS AVG 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) LIBERTAS AVG PANNONIAE PAX AETERN PAX AETERNA PAX AVGVSTI PIETAS AVGG PRINCIPI IVVENT ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVLARES AVGG SECVRITAS AVG VBERITAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA GERMANICA VIRTVS AVG No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Abundantia standing right, pouring out cornucopia. Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Dacia standing left, holding staff with ass’s head atop. Dacia standing left, holding standard. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; standard to right. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Goat standing left. Herennia Etruscilla diademed, draped bust right on crescent facing Herennius Etruscus over Hostilian radiate draped busts left. Herennia Etruscilla diademed, draped bust right on crescent. Herennius Etruscus bare headed, draped bust right facing Hostilian bare headed, draped bust left. Herennius Etruscus radiate, draped bust right facing Hostilian radiate, draped bust left. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Pannonia standing, facing, raising hand and holding standard Pannoniae (2) standing either side of a standard. Pannoniae (2) standing facing, each raising a hand; Pannonia on left has standard behind her, one on right is holding a standard.

267
19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) Pannoniae (2) standing, facing, each holding a standard. Pannoniae (2) standing, shaking hands; standard behind them. Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter. Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Securitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Trajan Decius riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter. Trajan Decius seated left on platform accompanied by lictor and Liberalitas, facing citizen on steps to lower left. Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Virtus seated left on cuirass, holding branch and spear. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Wreath, VOTIS DECENNALIBVS within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Antioch Mediolanum Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) B1, O2, R01, T01 B1, O2, R12, T08 B1, O2, R17, T18 B1, O2, R26, T28 B2, O2, R02, T26 B2, O2, R06, T03

Reference(s)
RIC IViii 10a, C 1 RIC IViii 16a, C 48 RIC IViii 21, C 85 RIC IViii 28, C 104 RIC IViii 11, C 3

AR Antoninianus
7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) B5, O2, R01, T01 B5, O2, R02, T26 B5, O2, R04, T02 B5, O2, R06, T03 B5, O2, R06, T04 B5, O2, R12, T08 B5, O2, R13, T08 B5, O2, R17, T18 B5, O2, R17, T19 B5, O2, R17, T20 B5, O2, R26, T28 B5, O2, R27, T29 B5, O3, R11, T07 B5, O3, R17, T20 B5, O7, R02, T26 B5, O7, R11, T07 B5, O7, R13, T08 B5, O7, R27, T29 RIC IViii 10b, C 2 RIC IViii 11b, C 4 RIC IViii 45c, C 9b RIC IViii 12b, C 16 RIC IViii 13, C 27 RIC IViii 16c, C 49 RIC IViii 18, C 64 RIC IViii 21b, C 86 RIC IViii 26, C 81 RIC IViii 28b, C 105 RIC IViii 29c RIC IViii 38a corrected, C 43 RIC IViii 41a, C 82 RIC IViii 1, C 6 RIC IViii 9, C 45 RIC IViii 4, C 63 RIC IViii 7c, C 111

AR Antoninianus Commemorative Series (listed separately under featured emperor) AE Double Sestertius
25) 26) 27) B4, O2, R10, T05 B5, O2, R10, T05 B5, O2, R27, T29 RIC IViii 115a, C 39 RIC IViii 115c, C 40

AE Sestertius
28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) B1, O2, R06, T03 B1, O2, R07, T04 B1, O2, R11, T07 B1, O2, R11, T08 B1, O2, R15, T27 B1, O2, R17, T18 B1, O2, R27, T29 RIC IViii 112a, C 18 RIC IViii 114b, C 35 RIC IViii 116a, C 47 RIC IViii 119a, C 66 RIC IViii 121 RIC IViii 124a, C 87 RIC IViii 126d, C 117

AE Dupondius
35) 36) B4, O2, R12, T08 B4, O2, R15, T15 RIC IViii 117d, C 55 RIC IViii 120c, C 72

AE As
37) B1, O2, R15, T15 RIC IViii 120a, C 71

268
Trajan Decius Busts

Trajan Decius Types

269

Herennia Etruscilla
?-?
Busts:
1) 2) Diademed, draped bust right Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Wife of Trajan Decius.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) HER ETRVSC AVG HER ETRVSCILLA AVG HER ETVSCILLA AVG HERENNIA ETRVSCILLA AVG

Etruscilla is one of the easier empresses to find thanks to the copius amount of coins produced during the reign of her husband. The Antoninianus is again the primary denomination but the bronzes are found with some frequency too. Although the listings here show a rather lengthy roster of reverse types were used those featuring the goddess Pudicitia are far and away the most commonly found. The typical Antoninianus should run about $40.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) ABVNDANTIA AVG ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGG CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGG FECVNDITAS AVG FECVNDITAS AVGG IVNO REGINA PVDICITIA AVG PVDICITIA AVGG PVDICITIA AVGVSTA ROMAE AETERNAE AVG SAECVLVM NOVVM VBERITAS AVG VERITAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA GERMANICA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Abundantia standing left, pouring out cornucopia from each hand Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia Fecunditas standing left, holding hand over child and cornucopia Juno standing left, holding patera over peacock and scepter Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter; Salus to left, holding and feeding snake and Felicitas to right, leaning on column, holding caduceus. Pudicitia standing left, pulling veil and holding scepter Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear Temple with (6) columns, statue within Trajan Decius riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Antioch Mediolanum Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) B1, O2, R10, T06 B1, O2, R10, T08

Reference(s)
RIC 59a (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 18 RIC 58a (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 16

AR Antoninianus
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) B2, O2, R02, T11 Obv. Exe: .. B2, O2, R03, T02 Obv. Exe: .... B2, O2, R07, T04 B2, O2, R09, T05 B2, O2, R10, T06 B2, O2, R10, T08 RIC 62 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 2 RIC 63d (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 3 RIC 55b (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 8 RIC 57 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 14 RIC 59b (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 19 RIC 58b (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 17

270
AE Double Sestertius
9) B2, O4, R10, T06 Exe: SC RIC 136a (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 21

AE Sestertius
10) B1, O4, R10, T06 Exe: SC RIC 136b (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 22

AE Dupondius
11) B2, O4, R10, T06 Exe: SC RIC 136d (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 24

AE As
12) B1, O4, R07, T04 RIC 135b (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 13

Herennia Etruscilla Busts

Herennia Etruscilla Types

271

Herennius Etruscus
Augustus 251
Busts:
1) 2) 3) Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Taking the male form of his mother's name, Etruscus was the son of Trajan Decius. Together with his father and younger brother Hostilian, the three were briefly coemperors before he was killed in a battle with the Goths in Moesia (present Bulgaria) along with Decius himself.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) HEREN ETRV MES Q V DECIVS CAESAR HEREN TRV MES Q V DECIVS CAESAR IMP C Q HER ETR MES DECIO AVG IMP C Q HER ETR MES DECIVS AVG Q HER ETR MES DECIVS AVG Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C Q HERINNIVS ETR MES DECIVS NOB C

During this period of many short-term emperors one would expect that many of them would be hopelessly rare today. All other things being equal that would be a fine assumption. But the fact is that it was a time when the mints were making coins in record numbers. On a rarity scale for these years he is somewhat scarcer than Volusian and Trebonianus Gallus but considerably less so than a Hostilian or Aemilian. The main bulk of the coins available, to no one’s surprise, will be the Antoninianus a sample of which one can buy off Ebay in relatively nice condition for between $50-$100. Among these the most common will be those with the various sacrificial devices used in the religious rituals of the day. This is the predominant type used for Princes of the third century who were being groomed for the imperial position. Coins of Herennius Etruscus as Augustus, which he appears to have been only for a few weeks, are very rare.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) AEQVITAS AVG CONCORDIA AVGG GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI MAR PROP MARS PROPVG MARTI PROPVGNATORI PANNONIAE PIETAS AVGG PIETAS AVGVSTORVM PRINC IVVENT PRINC IVVENTVTIS PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS PVDICITIA AVG SAECVLARES AVGG SPES PVBLICA VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA GERMANICA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Apollo seated left, holding branch. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; standard to right. Goat advancing left Hands, in handshake Herennius Etruscus riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Herennius Etruscus standing left, holding standard and spear Herennius Etruscus standing left, holding wand and spear Herennius Etruscus standing left, sacrificing over altar Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus Pannonia standing, facing, holding helmet and standard. Pietas standing left, raising hands over altar. Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple with (6) columns, statue within Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm Wreath, VOTIS DECENNALIBVS within

Mints:
1) 2) Mediolanum Roma

AU Aureus
1) B1, O6, R12, T08

Reference(s)
RIC 147a (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 25

272
AR Antoninianus
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) B3, O3, R08, T11 B3, O3, R17, T20 B3, O6, R02, T05 B3, O6, R08, T11 B3, O6, R09, T15 B3, O6, R12, T02 B3, O6, R12, T08 B3, O6, R15, T16

Reference(s)
RIC 151a (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 13a RIC 154 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 41 RIC 138 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 4 RIC 142b (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 11 RIC 143 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 14 RIC 146 (IViii, Trajan Decius) RIC 147c (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 26 RIC 149 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 39

AR Quinarius
10) B1, O6, R12, T08 RIC 147b (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 27

AE Sestertius
11) 12) 13) B1, O6, R09, T15 Exe: SC B1, O6, R10, T02 B1, O6, R12, T08 RIC 168a (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 15 RIC 171a (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 28

AE As
14) B1, O6, R08, T11 RIC 167b (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 13

Herennius Etruscus Busts

Herennius Etruscus Types

273

Hostilian
Augustus 250-251

Hostilian was the son of Trajan Decius and brother of Herennius Etruscus. He was made Augustus along with his father and brother shortly before heading out to meet a barbarian army. Both Decius and Etruscus died in battle leaving him as sole emperor, briefly, before one of Decius's generals, Trebonianus Gallus, was also elevated to the throne by the surviving soldiers. Hostilian died soon after of the plague at a young age.

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Bare head right Bare-headed, draped bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) C OVAL OSTIL MES COVINTVS AVG C OVAL OSTIL MES COVINTVS CAESAR C OVAL OSTIL MES COVINVS CAESAR C OVL OSTIL MES COVINTVS CAESAR C VAL HOS MES QVINTVS N C C VAL HOST M QVINT CAES C VAL HOST MES QVINTVS CAESAR C VAL HOSTIL MES QVINTVS CAESAR C VALENS HOS MES QVINTVS N C C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C C VALENS HOTIL MES QVINTVS N C C VALE QVT M OSTILIAN N C IMP CAE C VAL HOS MES QVINTVS AVG IMP CAES C VAL HOST MES Q AVG IMP CAES C VAL HOSTIL MES QVINT AVG

This is a tough emperor to find for your collection. He is well represented among the silver Antoniniani, the bronzes which are for the most part euphemistically called “Sestertii” but are often fairly lightweight (and often misshapen) and, yes, even the mighty gold Aureus can be found if you can withstand the sticker shock. A nice Antoninianus will cost around $150 give or take fifty dollars or so depending on who’s selling it and, of course, the condition of the coin. A premium is often added for coins bearing a legend denoting him as Augustus rather than Caesar and mint state coins will also command significantly higher prices. Also to consider are the various bronze coins struck in Greece during his reign, the so-called provincial issues. While these are not catalogued here, having Greek inscriptions and meant for trade within the Greek-speaking regions of the empire, they are abundantly available and considerably cheaper than the imperial issues.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG CONCORDIA AVGG IVNONI MARTIALI MAR PROP MARS PROPVG MARTI PROPVGNATORI PANNONIAE PIETAS AVGG PIETAS AVGVST PIETAS AVGVSTORVM PM TR P II COS V PRINC IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS PROVIDENTIA AVG PVDICITIA AVG QVINTO FELIX

18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27)

ROM AETERNAE AVG ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVLVM NOVVM SALVS AVGVS SECVRITAS AVGG SPES PVBLICA VBERITAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA GERMANICA No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Apollo seated left, holding branch and leaning on lyre Hands, in handshake Hostilian riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Hostilian standing left, holding standard and spear. Hostilian standing left, holding wand and spear. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus Pannonia standing right, holding helmet and standard Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter. Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear; shield to side. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter Securitas standing, facing, leaning on column and with legs crossed, resting head on hand. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple with (2) columns, Juno seated within Temple with (6) columns, Roma standing within Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm

274
23) Wreath, VOTIS DECENNALIBVS within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Antioch Mediolanum? Roma

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) B2, O10, R14, T05 B2, O10, R14, T06 B4, O12, R15, T12

Reference(s)
RIC 181b (IViii, Trajan Decius),C 33 RIC 183b (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 37

AR Antoninianus
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) B5, O01, R02, T01 Obv. Exe: IIV B5, O01, R20, T19 B5, O01, R24, T20 B5, O01, R25, T22 B5, O02, R02, T01 Obv: Exe: IIV B5, O02, R20, T19 Obv. Exe: IIV B5, O02, R25, T21 B5, O05, R06, T07 B5, O10, R07, T07 B5, O10, R14, T05 B5, O13, R04, T16 C 3b RIC 205 (IViii, Trajan Decius) RIC 207 (IViii, Trajan Decius) RIC 209d (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 67 RIC 194a (IViii, Trajan Decius) RIC 199a (IViii, Trajan Decius),C 54 RIC 201 (IViii, Trajan Decius),C 65 RIC 176a (IViii, Trajan Decius),C 12 RIC 177b (IViii, Trajan Decius),C 15 RIC 181d (IViii, Trajan Decius),C 33 RIC 191a (IViii, Trajan Decius),C 59

AE Sestertius
15) 16) 17) 18) 19) B2, O10, R14, T02 Exe: SC B2, O10, R14, T02 Exe: SC B2, O10, R14, T05 B2, O10, R22, T16 B2, O10, R27, T23 Exe: SC RIC 215 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 31 RIC 216a (IViii, Trajan Decius),C 33 RIC 225 (IViii, Trajan Decius),C 60 RIC 226 (IViii, Trajan Decius), C 71

AE As
20) B2, O10, R14, T02 Exe: SC RIC 215b (IViii, Trajan Decius),C 32

Hostilian Busts

Hostilian Types

275
Gallus rose through the ranks in the army and received a high enough stature that when Trajan Decius died in battle the army chose him to be the next emperor. His popularity with the army and public waned inexorably ever more for the rest of his reign. His first mistake, and Augustus 251-253 not one which he could have easily done much about, was to settle the same war that killed Decius by buying off the enemy. For right or wrong this was viewed as an act of cowardice bordering on treason. Then came a plague that decimated the population and even claimed Hostilian who was co-Augustus with Gallus. As both disease and the withering attacks of the barbarians eroded support for the emperor he had to face yet another blow. Aemilian rose to challenge for the purple following a series of successful battles with the barbarians that gave him and his army the confidence to attempt to overthrow the troubled ruler. Gallus went through the motions and approached to confront Aemilian in battle but his commanders had had enough and killed him along with his son Volusian just before the engagement.

Trebonianus Gallus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Trebonianus Gallus laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right facing Volusian laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) GALLVS PIVS AVG IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS PF AVG IMP C GALLVS AVG IMP CAE C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG IMP CAES C VIBIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) ADVENTVS AVG ADVENTVS AVGG AEQVITAS AVGG AETERNITAS AVGG ANNONA AVGG APOLL SALVTARI APOLLO SALVTARI CONCORDIA AVGG FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS AVGG FELICITAS PVBL FELICITAS PVBLICA IVNO MARTIALIS IVNONI MARTIALI LIBERALITAS AVGG LIBERALITAS AVGG III LIBERTAS AVGG LIBERTAS PVBLICA MARTEM PROPVGNATOREM MARTI PACIFERO MONETA AVGG PAX AETERNA PAX AVGG PAX AVGVS PIETAS AVGG PM TR P IIII COS II PM TR P IIII COS II PP PONTIF MAX TR P II COS II PRIN IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA AVGG PVDICITIA AVG ROMAE AETERNAE AVG ROMAE AETERNAE G AVG

Despite a rather brief two-year reign, Trebonianus Gallus has plenty of coins left over. You can find his Antoniniani easily on the Internet and often for very little money. However, by now the Ants are heavily debased and the cheap metal alloys from which they were struck fared poorly after going into circulation and fared even worse once buried. Therefore, a gem Antoninianus will cost considerably more than your average condition coin. Still, $100 would buy a very nice coin indeed. Finding them is more of the real problem. Bronzes of assorted sizes also frequent the online auctions and these, too, often range from the eyesore to the barely collectible.

36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44)

SAECVLLVM NOVVM SAECVLVM NOVVM SALVS AVGG SALVS AVGVS SECVRITAS AVGG VBERITAS AVG VICTORIA AVGG VIRTVS AVGG No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Aeternitas standing left, holding phoenix on globe and raising skirt Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia Annona standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding rudder and grain ears Apollo seated left, holding branch Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on rock Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, holding patera and two cornucopiae.

276
9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) Felicitas seated left, holding grain ears and scepter. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing, facing, leaning on column, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing, facing, leaning on column, holding caduceus and scepter. Juno seated left, holding grain ears and globe Juno seated left, holding grain ears and scepter Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter. Libertas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding pileus and scepter Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield Monetae (3) standing left, holding scale and cornucopia; piles of coins by feet. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Pietas standing left, raising hands over altar Pietas standing, facing, raising hands Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter Pudicitia seated left, raising hand and holding scepter Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake Securitas standing right, leaning on column and with legs crossed, resting head on hand. Temple with (2) columns, Juno seated within, peacock by feet Temple with (4) columns, Juno seated within, peacock by feet Temple with (6) columns, Roma within Trebonianus Gallus and Volusian each riding horse right, led by Victory and soldier; soldier, standards in background. Trebonianus Gallus and Volusian riding oncoming quadriga, being crowned by Victory between them, one soldier to left, two more to right Trebonianus Gallus riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter Trebonianus Gallus standing left, holding branch and scepter Trebonianus Gallus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Uberitas standing left, leaning on column, holding purse and scepter. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Wreath, VOTIS / DECENNA / LIBVS within

Mints:
1) Antioch 2) Mediolanum 3) Roma

AU Binio
1) 2) B2, O4, R08, T08 B2, O4, R38, T29

Reference(s)
RIC Iviii 6, C 28 RIC Iviii 13, C 113

AU Aureus
3) B1, O4, R17, T16 RIC Iviii 9, C 62

AR Antoninianus
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) B2, O2, R01, T36 B2, O2, R03, T01 B2, O2, R09, T10 B2, O2, R11, T09 B2, O2, R11, T10 B2, O2, R13, T14 B2, O2, R18, T16 B2, O2, R19, T19 B2, O2, R20, T18 B2, O2, R22, T21 B2, O2, R24, T21 B2, O2, R25, T22 B2, O2, R34, T27 Exe: .... B2, O2, R35, T27 Exe: VII B2, O2, R36, T33 Exe: .. B2, O2, R36, T33 B2, O2, R41, T39 B2, O4, R04, T02 B2, O4, R05, T04 B2, O4, R06, T06 B2, O4, R12, T10 B2, O4, R17, T15 * in right field B2, O4, R17, T17 B2, O4, R18, T16 B2, O4, R23, T21 B2, O4, R25, T23 * in right field B2, O4, R42, T43 RIC IViii 79, C 1 RIC IViii 80, C 6 RIC IViii 82, C 34 RIC IViii 83, C 47 RIC IViii 70, C 68 RIC IViii 84, C 70 RIC IViii 85, C 72 RIC IViii 71, C 76 RIC IViii 86, C 80 RIC IViii 72, C 88 RIC IViii 89, C 107 William Roth collection RIC IViii 91, C 111 RIC IViii 90, C 110 RIC IViii 92, C 125 RIC IViii 30, C 13 RIC IViii 31, C 17 RIC IViii 32, C 20 RIC IViii 33, C 37 RIC IViii 38, C 63 RIC IViii 39, C 67 RIC IViii 50, C 69 RIC IViii 42, C 84 RIC IViii 48a, C 128

277
AE Sestertius
31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) B1, O5, R04, T02 B1, O5, R14, T13 Exe: SC B1, O5, R14, T31 B1, O5, R17, T16 B1, O5, R25, T22 B1, O5, R27, T38 B1, O5, R38, T29 B1, O5, R43, T45 B1, O5, R44, T47 Exe: SC

Reference(s)
RIC IViii 102 RIC IViii 109 RIC IViii 110a RIC IViii 114a, C 64 RIC IViii 117 RIC Iviii 100 RIC IViii 121a RIC IViii 126, C 134 RIC IViii 127, C 137

Trebonianus Gallus Busts

Trebonianus Gallus Types

278

Volusian
Augustus 253
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Bare-headed, draped bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Volusian was in his early twenties when Trebonianus Gallus, his father, became emperor. Shortly thereafter Volusian was made emperor as well. Before he could make much of a mark on history he as well as his Dad were killed by his own soldiers just prior to the battle against the forces of Aemilian.

Even though Volusian was emperor for less than a year enough coins were put into circulation that today finding one of them is not very difficult. Most available pieces will be the Antonianus which has by now become the de facto unit of commerce. Old fashioned bronzes like the As and the Sestertius continue to be produced on a smaller scale and have suffered a gradual attrition but they are available these days although they are much scarcer than the Ants.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) C VIBIO VOLVSIANO CAES IM C AF GAL VEND VOLVSIANO AVG IM C AF GAL VEND VOLVSINO AVG IM C V AF G M VEND VOLVSIANO AVG IM C V AF GAL VEND VOLVSIANO AVG IMP C C VIB VOLVSIANVS AVG IMP C V AF GAL VEND VOLVSIANO AVG IMP C V AF GAL VEND VOLVSIANVS AVG IMP C VOLVSIANO AVG IMP C VOLVSIANVS AVG IMP CAE C VIB VOLVSIANO AVG VOLVSIANVS PIVS AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGG AEQVTAS AVG AETERNITAS AVGG APOLL SALVTARI CONCOR MIL CONCORDIA AVGG FELIC PVBL FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS PVBL FELICITAS PVBLICA IOVI CONSERVAT IVNO MARTIALIS IVNONI MARTIALI LIBERALITAS AVGG LIBERTAS AVGG LIBERTAS PVBLICA MARTEM PROPVGNATOREM MARTI PACIFERO MONETA AVGG PAX AETERNA PAX AVG 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) PAX AVGG PAX AVGVS PIETAS AVGG PM TR P IIII COS II PM TR P IIII COS II PP PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS PROVIDENTIA AVGG PVDICITIA AVG PVDICITIA AVGG ROMAE AETERNAE ROMAE AETERNAE AVG SAECVLVM NOVVM SALVS AVGG SALVS AVGVS SECVRITAS AVG SECVRITAS AVGG VBERITAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGG VIRTVS AVGG No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aeternitas standing left, holding Phoenix on globe and raising skirt. Apollo standing left, holding branch and resting hand on lyre Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, leaning on column, holding caduceus and scepter Juno seated left, holding grain ears and globe. Juno seated left, holding grain ears and scepter Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter. Libertas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding pileus and scepter. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia; coins piled by feet. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding branch and scepter. Pietas standing left, raising hands over altar. Pietas standing left, raising hands. Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter. Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter. Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear.

279
23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) Salus standing right, feeding snake on altar. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas standing right, leaning on column and with legs crossed, resting head on hand. Temple with (2) columns; Juno seated within, peacock by feet. Temple with (2) columns; Juno seated within. Temple with (4) columns; Juno seated within, peacock by feet. Temple with (6) columns, Roma within. Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Volusian riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Volusian standing left, holding branch and scepter. Volusian standing left, holding scepter and spear. Volusian standing left, holding standard and spear. Volusian standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Wreath, VOTIS DECENNALIBVS within.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Antioch Mediolanum Roma

AU Binio
1) 2) B3, O11, R08, T05 B3, O11, R26, T18

Reference(s)
RIC 143 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 19 RIC 151 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 82

AU Aureus
3) B2, O11, R05, T02 RIC 154 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 10

AR Antoninianus
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) B3, O05, R40, T30 B3, O06, R11, T06 B3, O06, R20, T13 B3, O06, R33, T22 B3, O06, R35, T29 B3, O06, R43, T34 B3, O11, R03, T01 B3, O11, R08, T04 * in right field B3, O11, R08, T04 B3, O11, R08, T05 B3, O11, R15, T08 B3, O11, R15, T26 B3, O11, R15, T28 B3, O11, R24, T16 * in right field B3, O11, R24, T16 B3, O11, R26, T18 B3, O11, R27, T39 B3, O11, R36, T24 RIC 237 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus) RIC 205 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 32 RIC 220 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus) RIC 221 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus) RIC 236 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus) RIC 206 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 133 RIC 166 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 8 RIC 169 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 25 RIC 168 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 25 RIC 167 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 20 RIC 177 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 39 RIC 172 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 43 RIC 175 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus) RIC 180 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus) RIC 179 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 70 RIC 182 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus) RIC 141 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 95 RIC 184 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 118

AE Sestertius
22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) B2, O11, R06, T03 B2, O11, R08, T04 B2, O11, R08, T05 B2, O11, R15, T08 B2, O11, R15, T27 B2, O11, R16, T10 B2, O11, R24, T16 B2, O11, R44, T40 Exe: SC RIC 253a (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 15 RIC 250a (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 26 RIC 249a (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 21 RIC 252a (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 41 RIC 253a (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 46 RIC 254a (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 50 RIC 256a (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus) RIC 264 (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus)

AE As
30) 31) 32) 33) B2, O11, R08, T04 Exe: SC B2, O11, R12, T07 B2, O11, R15, T08 Exe: SC B2, O11, R15, T27 RIC 250b (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 27 RIC 251b (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus), C 36 RIC 253b (IViii, Trebonianus Gallus)

280
Volusian Busts

Volusian Types

281
Those who live by the sword die by the sword. This old cliché could well have been phrased after the life and death of Aemilian. When Trebonianus Gallus's hold on power had weakened after a series of setbacks, the troops of Aemilian who were battling barbarians along the Danube declared him Augustus and he Augustus 253 seized the opportunity to depose Gallus. The plan worked just as expected and Aemilian subsequently enjoyed a brief reign. Valerian, one of the generals commissioned under Gallus, heard of the news and refused to accept the new emperor. Finding it favorable among his own troops, he was promptly declared emperor himself and headed to Rome to avenge the death of his old boss. Aemilian for his part answered the challenge and went with his army to confront Valerian. When it became evident that Valerian's forces were larger, however, his soldiers killed him rather than risk their own lives.

Aemilian

Busts:
1) 2) 3) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) IMP AEMILIANVS PF AVG IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG IMP CAES AEMILIANVS PF AVG IMP M AEMIL AEMILIANVS PF AVG

With only three months on the job Aemilian is definitely one of the more obscure emperors of the period. His coins are not excruciatingly difficult to find but they don’t turn up everywhere either. And even the low grade specimens can still be expected to cost at least a hundred dollars so long as they can be positively identified. A nice Antoninianus will cost in the neighborhood of $200$300 with truly choice specimens being so rare that there can be no dependable estimates.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) AETERNITAS AVGG APOL CONSERVAT APOLL SALVTARI CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGG DIANAE VICTRI ERCVL VICTORI IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI CONSERVATORI MARTI PACIF MARTI PROPVGNAT MARTI PROPVGT PACI AVG PAXS AVG PM TR P I PP

16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21)

PM TR P IIII COS II PP PM TR POT ROMA AETERN ROMAE AETERN ROMAE AETERNAE SALVS AVG

22) 23) 24) 25) 26)

SALVS AVGVSTI SPES PVBLICA VICTORIA AVG VIRTVS AVG No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) Aemilian standing left, holding branch and scepter. Aemilian standing left, holding patera and spear. Aemilian standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Aemilian standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter; standard to left Aeternitas standing, facing, holding phoenix on globe and raising skirt. Apollo standing left, holding branch and resting hand on lyre on rock Diana standing left, holding arrow and bow Hands, in handshake Hercules standing left, resting hand on club and holding bow with lion skin Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding bow with lion skin Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; Aemilian to lower left. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding branch and cradling scepter. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box Roma standing left, holding phoenix on globe and spear; shield to side Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar. Spes advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, wheel by feet. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Virtus standing left, stepping on helmet, holding branch and spear Wreath, VOTIS / DECEN / NALIBVS within

Mint:
1) Roma

282
AR Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) B2, O3, R08, T11 B2, O3, R10, T12 B2, O3, R15, T04 B2, O3, R23, T20 B2, O3, R24, T21 B2, O3, R25, T24 B3, O2, R02, T06 B3, O2, R06, T07 B3, O2, R07, T10 B3, O2, R10, T12 B3, O2, R12, T13 B3, O2, R13, T16 B3, O2, R19, T18 B3, O2, R23, T20 B3, O2, R24, T21 B3, O2, R26, T25 B3, O3, R07, T10

Reference(s)
RIC IViii 14, C 17 RIC IViii 15, C 23 RIC IViii 16, C 33 RIC IViii 20, C 48 RIC IViii 21, C 52 RIC IViii 22, C 59 RIC IViii 1, C 2 RIC IViii 2b, C 10 RIC IViii 3b, C 13 RIC IViii 5b, C 22 RIC IViii 6, C 25 RIC IViii 8, C 26 RIC IViii 9, C 41 RIC IViii 10, C 47 RIC IViii 11, C 53 RIC IViii 13, C 64

AE Sestertius
18) 19) 20) 21) 22) B1, O2, R26, T25 Exe: SC B1, O3, R01, T05 B1, O3, R02, T06 B1, O3, R25, T24 B1, O3, R26, T25 Exe: SC RIC IViii 42a, C 65 RIC IViii 55, C 1 RIC IViii 43, C 3 RIC IViii 53, C 62 RIC IViii 54, C 67

AE As
23) B2, O1, R23, T20 RIC IViii 51b, C 50

Aemilian Busts

Aemilian Types

283

Cornelia Supera
?-?
Bust:
1) Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Based on the extant numismatic evidence, Cornelia was most likely the wife of Aemilian. However, it's impossible to tell for sure as there is no surviving historical reference about her.

Obverses:
1) 2) C CORNEL SVPERA AVG COR SVPERA AVG

Over the last few years a half dozen or so Ants of Cornelia have shown up on the market typically realizing about $5,000 a piece so certainly this isn’t the type of coin you just bump into all the time. Provincials are cheaper but no less rare and, being made of delicate copper-based alloys, usually in very poor states of preservation.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) CONCORDIA AVGG IVNONI AVG VESTA

Types:
1) 2) 3) Cornelia Supera and Aemilian standing, shaking hands Juno seated left, holding flower and baby Vesta standing left, holding patera and scepter

Mint:
1) Roma

AU Antoninianus
1) 2) B1, O1, R3, T3 B1, O2, R2, T2

Reference(s)
RIC 30 (IViii, Aemilian). C 5 RIC 31 (IViii, Aemilian), C 3

Cornelia Supera Bust

Cornelia Supera Types

284

Silbannacus
Augustus 253

Legendary for the extreme rarity of his coins, Silbannacus is known to history thanks to the very fact that a coin was found with his name on it. No written record of his accession, background or fate is recorded anywhere. It is suspected he was a military leader along the Rhine who opportunistically usurped the throne with the aid of his soldiers during the reign of Philip I, a time of unprecedented civil strife in the empire.

Bust:
1) Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Obverse:
1) IMP MAR SILBANNACVS AVG

Long the Holy Grail of Roman coin collectors, Silbannacus now has two coins known to the numismatic world which puts him int the same league as Domitian II and Saturninus both of whom also have two each. The one pictured below is from a cast taken from the specimen in the British Museum in London.

Reverse:
1) 2) MARTI PROPVGT VICTORIA AVG

Type:
1) 2) Mars standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear Mercury standing left, holding Victory and caduceus

Mint:
1) Gaul, uncertain locality

AR Antoninianus
1) B1, O1, R2, T2

Reference(s)
RIC 1

285
A minor player in a tempestuous period involving a large-scale civil war, Uranius Antoninus hailed from Syria where he appropriated the throne and title of emperor. History leaves no record of rise nor fall of this usurper and all that is known for certain is that his days Augustus c.253-254 in power were short-lived. It is speculated that the nature of his usurpation may have had more to do with his Persian enemy, King Shapur, than to defiance against Rome.

Uranius Antoninus

Busts:
1) 2) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) L IVL AVR SVL ANTONINVS L IVL AVR SVLP ANTONINVS L IVL AVR SVLP VRA ANTONINVS

Due to the nature of his rise to power and the short amount of time he lasted on the throne it’s a foregone conclusion that the coins of this usurper would be rare. This rarity however is compounded by the fact that he issued only gold and silver coinage in the imperial style and with Latin inscriptions. The copper coinage made for general circulation were featured Greek legends and retained the “look and feel” of the provincial coinage for this region. For some reason the silver Denarii are just as rare as the Aureus. And this is to say that both are supremely rare nowadays. Still, they do turn up every couple of years or so listed in the most exclusive of numismatic auctions. In fact, all of the known Aureii have come from a single hoard of gold coins found in Syria. During the last three years two or three of these have sold for an average of $16,000 each minus the considerable auction house fees.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) CONSERVATOR AVG FECVNDITAS AVG FORTVNA REDVX FORTVNA PEDVX MINERVA VICTRIX PM TR P XVIIII COS IIII PP SAECVLARES AVGG SOL ELAGABALVS VICTORIA AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Altar with parasols to either side; stone of Sol with eagle atop to left Cippus reading COS I Fecunditas standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel below Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Lion advancing right Minerva standing left, holding spear and shield Quadriga riding left carrying stone of Sol, parasol on either side Stone of Sol; parasol on either side Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm

Mint:
1) Emesa

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) B1, O2, R2, T05 B2, O2, R2, T05 B2, O2, R4, T04

Reference(s)
RIC IViii 3a RIC IViii 3, C 3 RIC IViii 4

AR Denarius
4) B2, O3, R2, T05

Uranius Antoninus Busts

Uranius Antoninus Types

286
Valerian was proclaimed Augustus by his own troops following the death of Trebonianus Gallus. He was another one of the emperors whose legacy was that of fighting war after war during his reign. He was the first emperor who realized that the Empire was getting just too big and unwieldy to manage and granted co-emperor status to Augustus 253-260 his son Gallienus so that he could focus wholeheartedly to the business of putting out the fires. More sensationally, he stands alone in the roster of Roman Emperors for having been kidnapped by a foreigner, in this case the Persian king Shapur. To add insult to injury, it was reported that after killing him he was stuffed and turned into a footstool!

Valerian I

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right of Valerian I facing Gallienus laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped bust right Laureate, draped bust right of Valerian I facing Gallienus laureate, draped bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Valerian, along with his family, are the last to make Antoniniani that can be called silver. By the mid-250’s there was so little silver in these pieces that they started falling apart soon after leaving the mint. Even those minted early in his reign were so debased that the coins were very delicate. Once they were lost in the ground they tended to lose much of the base metal making up the bulk of the coin leaving behind a spongy-looking mess. Look for these on Ebay and coin dealer’s “junk bins”. The very earliest Ants, those from 253-255, can sometimes be found in “nice metal” and tend to be prized as portrait coins in collector sets. By now true bronze coins are rare. The emperors were using that copper to make Antoniniani and, in effect, it was wasteful to make coins that were essentially just as expensive to make, if not more, but had a lower face value. Strangely, the Dupondius is the bigger casualty as it just simply vanishes. Bona fide coppers are struck with laureate portraits in roughly lighter and heavier versions which we take to mean they were nominally equivalent to the Sestertius and As, respectively. Another bizarre practice begins to emerge in that these coins along with having wildly fluctuating weights are also often found today misshapen and often of a “squarish” appearance. It’s unclear whether they were struck this way or it was just practice to chop off coin sides to make small small change.
36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) IOVI CONSERVA IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI STATORI IVNO REGINA LAETITIA AVGG LIBERALITAS AVG I LIBERALITAS AVG III LIBERALITAS AVGG LIBERALITAS AVGG II LIBERALITAS AVGG III LIBERALITAS AVGVSTORVM LIBERTAS AVGG MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIFERO MONETA AVGG ORIENS AVGG PACATORI ORBIS PAX AVGG PAX AVGVSTI PIETAS AVGG PIETATI AVGG PM TR P II COS II PP PM TR P II COS PP PM TR P III COS II PP PM TR P III COS III PM TR P III COS III PP PM TR P IIII COS II PP PM TR P V COS II PP PM TR P V COS III PP PM TR P V COS IIII PP PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA AVGG RELIGIO AVGG RESTITVT GENER HVMANI

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM FELICIBVS AVGG IMP C LIC VALERIANO AVG IMP C P LIC VALERIANO AVG IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P AVG IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG IMP C VALERIANVS PF AVG IMP CAES P LIC VALERIANVS AVG IMP P LIC VALERIANO AVG IMP VALERIANVS P AVG IMP VALERIANVS PF AVG IMP VALERIANVS PIVS AVG IMP VALERIANVS PIVS FEL AVG PIETAS AVGVSTORVM VALERIANVS PF AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) ADLOCVTIO AVGVSTORVM AEQVITAS AVGG AETERNIT AVGG AETERNITAS AVGG AETERNITATI AVGG ANNONA AVGG APOLINI CONSERVA APOLINI CONSERVAT APOLINI PROPVG APOLINI PROPVGN APOLL SALVTARI APOLLINI CONSERVA BONAE FORTVNAE BONVS EVENT AVG CONCOR EXERC CONCOR LEGG CONCOR MIL CONCORDIA AVGG CONCORDIA EXERCIT CONCORDIA EXERCITI CONCORDIAE AVGG CONSACRATIO CONSERVAT AVGG CONSERVT AVGG DEO VOLKANO DIANA LVCIFERA FELICIT AVGVSTORVM FELICITAS AVGG FELICITAS EXERCITI FELICITAS SAECVLI FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA REDVX GALLIENVS CVM EXERCSVO GERMANICVS MAX TER IOVI CONSERV

287
71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) RESTITVT ORIENTIS RESTITVTI GENER HVMANI RESTITVTOR ORBIS RESTITVTORI ORBIS ROMAE AETERNAE ROMAE AETERNE SAECVLI FELICITAS SALVS AVG SALVS AVGG SALVS PVBLICA SECVLI FELICITAS SECVRIT PERP SECVRITAS AVGG SPES PVBLICA VENVS VICTRIX VESTA VICT AVGG 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) VICT PART VICT PARTICA VICTOR AETER VICTORIA AETER VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGG VICTORIA EXERCIT VICTORIA GERM VICTORIA GERMANICA VICTORIA PARTHICA VICTORIAE VICTORIAE AVGG VICTORIAE AVGG IT GERM VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGG VOTA ORBIS No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on rock Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on rock, next to Luna (Diana), also standing left, with bow and arrow. Apollo standing right, aiming with bow and arrow. Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Concordia standing, facing, holding standard in each hand. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand. Fides standing, facing, holding vexillum and scepter. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Jupiter seated left, holding patera and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing on cippus reading IOVI VICTORI, holding Victory and scepter. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Laetitia standing right, holding wreath and anchor. Legend QVATERNIO Liberalitas seated left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Luna (Diana) advancing right, holding torch. Luna (Diana) standing left, pulling arrow from quiver and holding bow. Luna (Diana) standing right, holding torch. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus. Monetae (3) standing left, holding scale and cornucopia; piles of coins by their feet. Pax standing, facing, holding branch and scepter Pietas standing left, leaning on column, holding scepter. Sacrificial implements: lituus, cruet, simpulum, etc. (variously arranged) Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Roma helmeted bust right Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter Saturn standing right, holding scepter. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter. Securitas standing left, leaning on column, resting head on hand. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding globe Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple with (4) columns, Vulcan within, holding hammer over anvil and tongs. Trophy, seated captive on either side. Valerian I advancing right, raising hand and holding globe. Valerian I and Gallienus seated left on platform with two lictors, Liberalitas to left, holding coin counter and cornucopia and citizen on steps to lower left Valerian I and Gallienus seated left, lictor between and behind them. Valerian I and Gallienus standing right on platform, attended by lictor, addressing several soldiers. Valerian I and Gallienus standing, facing each other, two shields and two spears between them. Valerian I and Gallienus standing, facing each other; emperor on left holding scepter and globe and one on right holding Victory and spear. Valerian I and Gallienus standing, sacrificing over altar in between. Valerian I riding biga right, being crowned by Victory. Valerian I riding eagle right, flying towards heaven. Valerian I riding horse left, led by Victory and followed by soldier Valerian I seated left, holding globe and scepter. Valerian I seated left, holding patera and scepter; eagle to left. Valerian I standing left on right, holding spear, holding hand of kneeling Orbis to left Valerian I standing left on right, holding spear, receiving wreath from Oriens to left, holding scepter. Valerian I standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Valerian I standing left, resting hand on shield. Valerian I standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Valerian I standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter with eagle atop.

288
67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear Venus standing left, raising hand and holding palm; shield to side. Vesta standing left, holding patera and scepter. Victories (2) standing, facing each other, holding together shield reading SC on palm tree. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, stepping on captive, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory riding biga right. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to left. Victory standing left, holding wreath and resting hand on shield Victory standing left, resting hand on shield and holding palm. Victory standing left, resting hand on shield and holding palm; seated captive by feet. Virtus standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield. Virtus standing left, holding Victory. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Wreath, VOTIS DECENNALIBVS within

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Lugdunum 3) 4) Mediolanum Roma 5) 6) Samosata Viminacium

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) B1, O16, R025, T47 B2, O07, R028, T09 B2, O07, R052, T45 B2, O07, R093, T75

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 1 RIC Vi 34, C 52 RIC Vi 46, C 133

AR Medallion
5) B1, O07, R051, T32

AR Antoninianus
6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) B6, O05, R103, T70 B8, O01, R056, T55 B8, O05, R005, T40 B8, O05, R009, T04 B8, O05, R028, T09 B8, O05, R030, T25 B8, O05, R031, T11 B8, O05, R041, T19 B8, O05, R053, T16 B8, O05, R057, T34 B8, O05, R066, T53 B8, O05, R070, T48 B8, O05, R071, T62 B8, O05, R074, T60 B8, O05, R079, T39 B8, O05, R092, T75 B8, O05, R093, T75 B8, O05, R102, T54 B8, O05, R102, T65 B8, O05, R102, T82 B8, O05, R103, T70 B8, O06, R102, T80 B8, O07, R006, T01 B8, O07, R023, T03 B8, O07, R028, T09 B8, O07, R041, T19 B8, O07, R043, T23 B8, O07, R069, T26 Q in right field B8, O07, R071, T62 B8, O07, R073, T61 B8, O07, R085, T67 B8, O07, R093, T75 B8, O07, R093, T78 B8, O07, R102, T54 B8, O07, R102, T82 B8, O16, R051, T43 B9, O06, R016, T05 B9, O06, R031, T12 B9, O06, R054, T33 B9, O06, R084, T46 B9, O10, R031, T12 RIC Vi 296, C 281 RIC Vi 285, C 152 RIC Vi 67 RIC Vi 74, C 25 RIC Vi 86, C 55 RIC Vi 213, C 61 RIC Vi 89, C 65 RIC Vi 41, C 100 RIC Vi 218, C 145 RIC Vi 219, C 155 RIC Vi 277, C 169 RIC Vi 220, C 179 RIC Vi 287, C 189 RIC Vi 119, C 180 RIC Vi 121 RIC Vi 125, C 230 RIC Vi 124 RIC Vi 292 RIC Vi 140, C 254 RIC Vi 133, C 263 RIC Vi 295, C 279 RIC Vi 268, C 272 RIC Vi 69, C 13 RIC Vi 85, C 50 RIC Vi 87, C 53 RIC Vi 216 RIC Vi 44, C 118 RIC Vi 115, C 177 RIC Vi 286, C 188 RIC Vi 50 RIC Vi 222, C 212 RIC Vi 261, C 223 RIC Vi 128, C 224 RIC Vi 293, C 276 RIC Vi 227 RIC Vi 12, C 143a RIC Vi 236, C 44 RIC Vi 241, C 71 RIC Vi 245, C 147 RIC Vi 257, C 205 RIC Vi 240, C 74

AE Sestertius
47) B1, O06, R092, T75

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 178, C 233

289
48) 49) 50) 51) 52) B1, O07, R092, T75 B2, O05, R092, T75 B2, O05, R102, T82 B2, O05, R104, T83 B2, O07, R044, T23 RIC Vi 202, C 227 RIC Vi 177, C 234 RIC Vi 182, C 219 RIC Vi 184, C 283 RIC Vi 165, C 121

AE As
53) 54) 55) B2, O06, R016, T07 B2, O07, R007, T02 B2, O07, R038, T17 RIC Vi 190, C 23 RIC Vi 195

Valerian I Busts

Valerian I Types

290
Valerian I Types (continued)

Mariniana
?-?
Busts:
1) 2) 3) Veiled, diademed, draped bust right on crescent Veiled, draped bust right Veiled, draped bust right on crescent

Wife of Valerian. All coins in her name were minted posthumously.

Mariniana falls into the category of coins where if you have the money you can always locate one or two but it may take a bit of luck and patience to find one you are pleased with. Her Ants were minted during that difficult time when the coins had so little silver in them, less than 20%, that the coin looks “silvery” only if the right set of conditions presented itself at the time of loss. Otherwise, they can look awful with porosity being the main problem. As the bulk of the coin corroded away a spongy, silver-rich core remained. Interestingly, there are also many bronzes which are loosely categorized under the old denominations of Sestertius, Dupondius and As depending on their weights. However, there are no hard and fast rules because there appears to have been no specific coin weight range in mind by this time in Roman history. And at this point these coins probably traded hands at the marketplace by weight so that half a pound of copper coins was needed to buy X amount of Y. One such bronze coin if well preserved will surely cost a few hundred dollars at a minimum. The Ants, too, will cost two or three hundred dollars a piece if in good shape.

Obverse:
1) DIVAE MARINIANAE

Reverse:
1) CONSECRATIO

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Mariniana flying peacock left, upwards Mariniana flying peacock right, upwards Peacock advancing right Peacock standing, facing

Mint:
1) Roma

291
AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
1) 2) 3) 4) B1, O1, R1, T4 B1, O1, R1, T5 B3, O1, R1, T2 B3, O1, R1, T3

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 5, C 11 RIC Vi 3, C 2 RIC Vi 6, C 14 RIC Vi 6, C 16

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
5) B2, O1, R1, T5 RIC Vi 9, C 7

AE Dupondius (Posthumous)
6) B2, O1, R1, T5 RIC Vi 11, C 8

AE As (Posthumous)
7) B2, O1, R1, T5 Exe: ` RIC Vi 11

Mariniana Busts

Mariniana Types

292
Son of Gallienus (or possibly Valerian). This young boy was left in the care of Ingenuus, a trusted general under the employ of Gallienus. Valerian died under mysterious circumstances not too long after and Ingenuus rebelled. The easiest conclusion to make is that Ingenuus Caesar c.273-274 murdered him to pursue his imperatorial career. However, it is just as likely that Valerian died of natural causes and that Ingenuus, afraid of being blamed, took the drastic step of usurping the throne as a precautionary step.

Valerian II

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Bare head right Bare headed bust right Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped bust right Radiate head right Radiate, draped bust right

While not rare, Valerian II is an obscure Caesar whose coins for the most part survive in deplorable condition. This keeps prices down but also keeps interest down in his series as well. While the young Valerian was alive a modest run of coins was issued in his name and after dying a somewhat longer series of posthumous coins of the deified prince was put into circulation. Most of these coins, no big surprise, were of the severely debased silver Antoniniani type. Finding one that has survived in mint state condition is likely a pipe dream but reasonably appealing coins can be bought for under $100 largely thanks to slipping “under the radar” of many collectors.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) C P L VALERIANVS CAES COR LIC VALERIANVS CAES COR VALERIANVS CAESAR DIVO CAES VALERIANO DIVO CAESAR VALERIANO DIVO CAESARI VALERIANO DIVO VALERIANO CAES LIC VALERIANVS CAES P C L VALERIANVS CAES P C L VALERIANVS N C P C L VALERIANVS NOB C P C L VALERIANVS NOB CAES P LIC COR VALERIANVS CAES P LIC VALERIANVS CAES VALERIANVS CAES VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) CONSACRATIO CONSECRATIO DEO VOLKANO FIDES MILITVM IOVI CRESCENTI LIBERALITAS AVGG MONETA AVGG 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) ORIENS PIETAS AGG PIETAS AVGG PIETAS AVGVSTORVM PM TR P V COS IIII PP PRINC IVVENTVTIS PRINCIPI IVVENT 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS RESTITVTOR GALLIARVM SPES PVBLICA VICTORIA GERMAN VICTORIA PART

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) Altar Eagle standing left. Eagle standing right Eagle, standard on either side. Funeral pyre Gallienus seated left, holding globe and scepter Jupiter riding goat left Jupiter riding goat right. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Monetae (3) standing left, each holding scale and cornucopia Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged). Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (3) Temple with (4) columns, Vulcan within, holding hammer and tongs with anvil to lower left. Valerian II riding eagle right, upwards Valerian II standing left, crowning trophy and holding spear with shield. Valerian II standing left, holding globe and spear. Valerian II standing left, holding hand of kneeling Gallia to left and scepter. Valerian II standing left, holding standard and scepter. Valerian II standing left, holding standard and spear. Valerian II standing left, holding wand and scepter Valerian II standing left, holding wand and spear; two standards to right. Valerian II standing left on right, holding spear, receiving wreath from Victory to left, holding palm

Mints:
1) 2) Antioch Lugdunum 3) Roma

293
AU Aureus
1) B3, O12, R15, T18

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 11

AR Antoninianus
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) B6, O12, R10, T11 B6, O13, R10, T11 B6, O13, R15, T21 B6, O13, R18, T23 B6, O13, R19, T23 B6, O14, R05, T08 B6, O15, R05, T08 B6, O15, R10, T11 B6, O16, R04, T13 B6, O16, R13, T16 RIC Vi 20, C 50 RIC Vi 19 RIC Vi 53 RIC Vi 54 RIC Vi 13 RIC Vi 3, C 26 RIC Vi 4, C 52 RIC Vi 46, C 24 RIC Vi 49, C 67

AR Antoninianus (Posthumous)
12) 13) 14) B5, O04, R02, T03 Exe: S B6, O04, R02, T01 B6, O07, R01, T15 RIC Vi 24a, C 13 RIC Vi 9

AR Quinarius
15) B3, O12, R15, T19 RIC Vi 30, C 80

AE Sestertius (Posthumous)
16) B3, O04, R02, T05 Exe: SC RIC Vi 35, C 17

Valerian II Busts

Valerian II Types

294
The son of Valerian, Gallienus became emperor when his father was taken prisoner by a Persian King. His greatest contribution to military history was the first commissioning of a cavalry-only unit which could be dispatched anywhere within the empire within short order. He was also successful in repelling wave after wave of Augustus 260-268 barbarian invaders as well as finally defeating Postumus after a prolonged period which saw the two in battlefields three times. Gallienus met a bloody end himself during the siege of another usurper, Aureolus, at the hands of his own soldiers.

Gallienus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Helmeted head right Helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Helmeted, cuirassed bust right Helmeted, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate bust left, wearing imperial mantle Laureate bust right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate torso right Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, cuirassed torso left Laureate, cuirassed torso left, holding spear and shield. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Laureate, draped torso right, holding caduceus Radiate bust left, holding trophy and shield Radiate head left Radiate head right Radiate torso left, holding scepter Radiate torso right Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Radiate, cuirassed bust left, raising hand Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear over shoulder Radiate, cuirassed torso left, holding spear and shield Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust left Radiate, draped bust left, holding club Radiate, draped bust right Radiate, draped torso left Reed-crowned head left

Sometime during the reign of Gallienus, in an imperceptibly gradual process perhaps, Roman coins stopped being issued with anything resembling quality control. More regrettably, the use of currency as an art venue gave way to its most utilitarian uses. There was now less care in the execution and craftsmanship of the dies, less variety of types and a generalized who-cares-what-they-look-like attitude that was pervasive from one corner of the empire to the next. Even the mighty Aureus had to suffer the indignity of wild swings in weights. Even the up-untilthen sacrosanct purity of the gold itself dipped. But while the most drastic changes appear to have happened during the tenure of Gallienus there were still, thankfully, many exceptions to the rule. The Antoninianus was still being made in reasonably good metal during his first couple of years on the throne and one may actually find one today in good shape at a not-exorbitant cost. Just be aware that for every one of those there will be a cartful of deplorable coins available which, it must be remembered, were already unrecognizable before leaving the mint.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) DIVO CAES GALLIENO DIVO CAES Q GALLIENO GALLIENAE AVGVSTAE GALLIENO PF AVG GALLIENVM AVG PR GALLIENVM AVG SENATVS GALLIENVM PR GALLIENVM PRINC PR GALLIENVS AVG GALLIENVS AVG GERM GALLIENVS AVG GERM GALLIENVS AVG GERM V GALLIENVS P AVG GALLIENVS PF AVG GALLIENVS PF AVG GERM GALLIENVS PIVS F AVG GALLIENVS PIVS FEL AVG GERM IMP C P GALLIENVS PF AVG IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS PF AVG 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) IMP C P LICIN GALLIENVS AVG IMP CAES GALLIENVS AVG IMP GALLIENVS AVG IMP GALLIENVS AVG COS II IMP GALLIENVS AVG COS V IMP GALLIENVS AVG GER IMP GALLIENVS AVG GERM IMP GALLIENVS F AVG IMP GALLIENVS P AVG IMP GALLIENVS P AVG GERM IMP GALLIENVS PF AVG IMP GALLIENVS PF AVG GERM IMP GALLIENVS PF AVG GM IMP GALLIENVS PIVS AVG IMP GALLIENVS PIVS F AVG IMP GALLIENVS PIVS FEL AVG IMP GALLIENVS PIVS FEL AVG GERM IMP GALLIENVS PIVS FELIX AVG IMP LIC GALLIENVS AVG IMP P LIC GALLIENVS AVG

295
Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) ABVNDANTIA AVG ADLOCVTIO AVGG ADLOCVTIO AVGVSTI ADVENTVS AVG ADVENTVS AVGG AEQVIT AVG AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS PVBLICA AEQVTAS AVG AET AVG AETERNITAS AVG AETERNITAS AVGG AETERNITATI AVG AETERNITATI AVGG ALACRITATI ALACRITATI AVG ANNONA AVG APOLINI CONS AVG APOLINI CONSERVA APOLINI PROPVG APOLL CONSERVAT APOLLI PAL APOLLINI CON AVG APOLLINI CONS AVG APOLLINI CONSERVA APOLLINI PAL APOLLO CONSER APOLLO CONSERV APOLLO CONSERVA APOLLO COS AVG BON EVEN AVG BON EVENT AVG BONAE FORTVNAE BONVS EVENTVS AVG CHORS TERTIA PRAETORIA CLEMENTIA TEMP COH H PRAET VI P VI F COH H PRAET VII P VI F COH H PRAET VII P VII F CONCOR AVG CONCOR EQVIT CONCORD PRET MILIT CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGG CONCORDIA EXERC CONCORDIA EXERCIT CONCORDIA MILIT CONCORDIAE AVGG CONSECRATIO CONSERVAT AVG CONSERVAT PIETAT CONSERVATOR AVG CONSERVATOR EXERC COS IIII PP DEO AVGVSTO DEO MARTI DEO VOLCANO DIANA FELIX DIANA LVCIFERA DIANAE CONS AVG DONA AVG FECVNDITAS AVG FELICI AET FELICI AVG FELICIT AVG FELICIT DEORVM FELICIT PVBL FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS SAECVLI FELICITATI AVGVSTI FID MILIT FID MILITVM FID PRAET FIDEI LEG FIDEI PRAET FIDEI PRAET VOTA X FIDES AVG FIDES EXERC VIII FIDES EXERCITVS FIDES LEG FIDES MIL FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM FORT REDVX FORTVNA AVG FORTVNA RED 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) FORTVNA REDVX FORTVNAE REDVCI GALLIENVS AVG GENIO AVG GENIV AVG GENIVS AVG GENIVS EXE GERMAN MAX TR P GERMANCVS MAX V GERMANICVS MAX TER GERMANICVS MAX V GERMANICVS MAXIMVS HERCVLI CONS AVG HERCVLO CONS AVG IANO PATRI INDVLG AVG INDVLGENT AVG INDVLGENTIA AVG INVICTO AVG INVICTVS INVICTVS AVG IO CANTAB IOVI CONS AVG IOVI CONSERVA IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI CRESCENTI IOVI PATRI IOVI PROPVG IOVI PROPVGNAT IOVI PROPVGNATOR IOVI STATORI IOVI VICTORI IOVI VLTORI IOVIS STATOR IOVIS STATORI IVNO CONSERVAT IVNO REGINA IVNONI CONS AVG LAETIA AVGG LAETIT TEMP LAETITIA AVG LAETITIA AVGG LEG I ADI V P V F LEG I ADI VI P VI E LEG I ADI VI P VI F LEG I ADI VII P VII F LEG I AVG VI P VI F LEG I ITAL VI P VI F LEG I ITAL VII P VII F LEG I MIN VI P VI F LEG I MIN VII P VII F LEG II AD VII P VII F LEG II ADI VI P VI F LEG II CL ADI VI P VI F LEG II ITAL VI P VI F LEG II ITAL VII P VII F LEG II PART V P V F LEG II PART VI P VI F LEG II PART VII P VII F LEG III ITAL VI P VI F LEG III ITAL VII P VII F LEG IIII FL VI P VI F LEG IIII FL VII P VII F LEG IIXX VI P VI F LEG IIXX VII P VII F LEG V MAC VI P VI F LEG V MAC VII P VIII F LEG VI CL VI P VI F LEG VI MAC VII P VII F LEG VII CL VI P VI F LEG VII CLA VI P VI F LEG VII CLA VII P VII F LEG VIII AVG V P V F LEG VIII AVG VI P VI F LEG VIII AVG VII P VII F LEG VIIII AVG VI P VI F LEG VIIII VI P VI F LEG X GEM VI P VI F LEG X GEM VII P VII F LEG XI CL VI P VI F LEG XIII GEM VI P VI F LEG XIIII GEM VI P VI F LEG XX VI P VI F LEG XXI GEM VI P VI F LEG XXII VI P VI F 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) 218) 219) 220) 221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) 231) 232) 233) 234) 235) 236) 237) 238) 239) 240) 241) 242) 243) 244) 245) 246) 247) 248) 249) 250) 251) 252) 253) 254) 255) 256) 257) 258) LEG XXX VLP VI P VI F LEG XXX VLP VII P VII F LIB AVG LIBERAL AVG LIBERALIT AVG LIBERALITAS AVG II LIBERALITAS AVG III LIBERALITAS AVGG LIBERO P CONS AVG LIBERT AVG LIBERTAS AVG LIBERTAS AVGG LVNA LVCIF LVNA LVCIFERA MARS RED AVG MARS VICTOR MARS VLTOR MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIFE MARTI PACIFER MARTI PACIFERO MARTI PROPVGN MARTI PROPVGNAT MARTI PROPVGNATORI MARTI VICTORI AVG MERCVRIO CONS AVG MINERVA AVG MONETA AVG MONETA AVGG NEPTVNO CONS AVG OB CONSERVAT SALVT OB CONSERVATIONEM PATRIAE OB CONSERVATIONEM SALVTIS OB LIBERTAT REC OB LIBERTATEM RECEPTAM OB REDDIT LIBERT ORIENS AVG ORIENS AVGG PACATORI ORBIS PAX AETERNA PAX AETERNA AVG PAX AVG PAX AVGG PAX AVGVSTI PAX FVNDATA PAX PVBLICA PERPETVITATI AVG PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVGG PIETATI AVGG PM TR P COS II PM TR P II COS PM TR P II COS II PP PM TR P II COS PP PM TR P III COS PM TR P III COS III PP PM TR P IIII COS II PM TR P IIII COS III PP PM TR P IMP VI COS V PP PM TR P V COS III PM TR P V COS III PP PM TR P V COS IIII PP PM TR P VII COS PM TR P VII COS III PP PM TR P VII COS IIII PM TR P VII COS IIII PP PM TR P VII COS PP PM TR P VIIII COS IIII PP PM TR P X COS IIII PM TR P X COS IIII PP PM TR P XII PM TR P XII COS V PP PM TR P XIII PM TR P XV COS VII PM TR P XV PP PM TR P XVI PM TR P XVI COS VII PM TR P XVII PRINC IVVENT PRINCIP IVVENTVT PROVI AVG PROVID AVG PROVIDENTI AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA AVGG PVDICITIA

296
259) 260) 261) 262) 263) 264) 265) 266) 267) 268) 269) 270) 271) 272) 273) 274) 275) 276) 277) 278) 279) 280) 281) 282) 283) 284) 285) 286) 287) 288) 289) 290) RESTIT GALLIAR RESTITVT GALLIAR RESTITVT GENER HVMANI RESTITVT ORIENTIS RESTITVTOR GALLIAR RESTITVTOR GALLIARVM RESTITVTOR ORBIS ROMAE AETERNAE SPQR SAECVLARES AVG SALVS AVG SALVS AVGG SALVS AVGVSTI SALVS ITAL SALVS PVBLICA SECVLI FELICITAS SECVR TEMPO SECVRIT AVG SECVRIT ORBIS SECVRIT PERP SECVRIT PERPET SECVRIT PVBL SECVRITAS AVG SECVRITAS AVGG SECVRITAS ORBIS SECVRITAS PVB SECVRITAS PVBL SECVRT AVG SISCIA AVG SOLI COMTI AVG SOLI CONS AVG SOLI INVICTO 291) 292) 293) 294) 295) 296) 297) 298) 299) 300) 301) 302) 303) 304) 305) 306) 307) 308) 309) 310) 311) 312) 313) 314) 315) 316) 317) 318) 319) 320) 321) 322) SPES PVB SPES PVBLICA TR P XII C VI PP TRIB POT COS II TRIB POT COS PP TRIB POT VIII COS III VBERITAS AVG VBERTAS AVG VBIQVE PAX VENERI VICTRICI VENERI VICTRIX VENVS AVG VENVS FELIX VENVS VICTRIX VESTA VESTA FELIX VIC GAL AVG VICT AET AVG VICT GAL AVG VICT GAL AVG III VICT GALL AVG VICT GALLIENI AVG VICT GER II VICT GERMANICA VICTORIA AET VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVG II VICTORIA AVG III VICTORIA AVG VI VICTORIA AVG VII VICTORIA AVG VIII VICTORIA AVG VIIII 323) 324) 325) 326) 327) 328) 329) 330) 331) 332) 333) 334) 335) 336) 337) 338) 339) 340) 341) 342) 343) 344) 345) 346) VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVGG VICTORIA AVGVSTI VICTORIA GERM VICTORIA GERMANICA VICTORIA PART VICTORIAE AVG VICTORIAE AVG GERMANICA VICTORIAE AVGG VICTORIAE AVGG IT GERM VIRT GALLIENI AVG VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGG VIRTVS AVGVSTI VIRTVS AVGVSTORVM VIRTVS FALERI VIRTVS GALLIENI AVG VIRTVS GALLIENI AVGVSTI VIRTVTI AVG VIRTVTIS AVGVSTI VOTA DECENNALIA VOTA ORBIS VOTA VICENNALIA No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) Abundantia standing left, holding grain ears over modius and anchor Abundantia standing right, pouring out cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Aesculapius standing, facing, holding staff with snake coiled around it. Aeternitas standing right, holding scepter Altar Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Annona standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Annona standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter and grain ears over modius. Antelope advancing left Antelope advancing right Apollo standing left, aiming with bow and arrow. Apollo standing left, holding branch Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on rock. Apollo standing left, holding branch and resting arm on altar Apollo standing left, holding globe and scepter. Apollo standing left, touching head and holding lyre. Augustus laureate head right Augustus laureate, cuirassed bust right Boar advancing right Bull standing right Capricornus advancing right Centaur advancing left, aiming with bow and arrow Centaur advancing right, aiming with bow and arrow Centaur advancing right, holding club. Centaur standing left, holding globe and club Centaur standing left, holding globe and trophy Centaur standing left, holding globe. Centaur standing right, holding club Clementia standing left, leaning on column, holding scepter. Concordia standing left, holding patera and (1) cornucopia Concordia standing left, holding patera and (2) cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, holding patera and rudder on globe. Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand. Deer standing left Deer standing right Diana (Luna) standing right, holding torch with both hands. Diana advancing right, holding torch. Diana advancing right, pulling arrow and holding bow; dog to right Diana standing left, aiming with bow and arrow Diana standing right, holding spear and bow; dog to right Eagle Eagle perched on globe, standard on either side Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing left, holding globe and caduceus. Felicitas standing left, holding globe and scepter Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopia Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and scepter. Fides standing left, holding standard and scepter Fides standing left, holding standard and scepter; another standard to right Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia.

297
53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding wreath and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Galley sailing left Gallienus advancing left, holding standard in each hand Gallienus advancing right, raising hand and holding globe Gallienus advancing right, stepping on captive, holding spear and shield. Gallienus and Valerian I seated left; lictor standing to right Gallienus and Valerian I standing, facing each other, resting hand on shield; two spears behind each. Gallienus and Valerian I standing, facing each other, sacrificing over altar Gallienus and Valerian I standing, facing each other; emperor on left holding a spear and globe and one on right a Victory and scepter Gallienus riding horse left, holding spear. Gallienus riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter. Gallienus riding horse left, Victory to right and soldier to left Gallienus riding horse right over two enemies; soldier to left Gallienus riding horse right, spearing enemy. Gallienus riding horse right, spearing lion. Gallienus riding quadriga left, being crowned by Victory. Gallienus riding quadriga left, holding scepter. Gallienus seated left on right, receiving branch from soldier to left and being crowned by Victory to right Gallienus seated left, holding globe and scepter. Gallienus standing left on left, holding globe and scepter, being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm Gallienus standing left on right, holding globe and scepter, facing Victory to left, holding wreath and palm. Gallienus standing left on right, holding scepter and hand of kneeling Orbis to left Gallienus standing left on right, holding scepter and hand of kneeling Gallia to left Gallienus standing left on right, holding scepter and hand of kneeling person to left Gallienus standing left on right, holding scepter, receiving wreath from Oriens to left Gallienus standing left on right, holding scepter, receiving wreath from Victory to left Gallienus standing left on right, holding scepter, shaking hands with Sol to left, holding wreath Gallienus standing left, holding globe and scepter. Gallienus standing left, holding spear and trophy Gallienus standing left, holding spear in each hand; standard to right. Gallienus standing left, sacrificing over altar Gallienus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Gallienus standing left, stepping on helmet, holding globe and scepter. Gallienus standing right on left, holding scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter Gallienus standing right on left, holding scepter, receiving wreath from Jupiter to right, holding scepter Gallienus standing right on left, receiving Victory from Roma seated to right, holding spear with shield Gallienus standing right, holding globe and scepter Gallienus standing right, holding globe and spear; captive on either side. Gallienus standing right, holding spear and standard. Gallienus standing right, stepping on captive, holding spear and shield. Gallienus standing, facing, holding spear; two standards on either side. Gallienus standing, holding parazonium and spear; river god on either side. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; standard to right Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia Goat advancing left Goat advancing right Goat suckling baby Jupiter Gryphon advancing left Gryphon advancing right Gryphon seated left Gryphon seated right Hands, in handshake. Hercules standing left, holding branch and club with lion skin. Hercules standing left, resting hand on club and holding apple Hercules standing right, holding branch and club Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding apples with lion skin Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding bow with lion skin. Hercules standing right, resting hand on hip and holding club with lion skin Hippocamp advancing right Indulgentia seated left, holding branch and scepter. Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and scepter Indulgentia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over wheel and cornucopia Janus standing, holding patera and scepter Juno standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left. Jupiter (as child) riding goat left Jupiter (as child) riding goat right Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter seated left, holding patera and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing left on cippus reading IMP C E S, holding Victory and scepter Jupiter standing left, holding globe and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; effigy of Gallienus to lower left. Jupiter standing right, aiming thunderbolt and holding scepter Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Libertas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding pileus and scepter Lion advancing left Lion advancing left with bull’s head in mouth Lion advancing right

298
142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) 202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) 210) 211) 212) 213) 214) 215) 216) 217) 218) 219) 220) 221) 222) 223) 224) 225) 226) 227) 228) 229) 230) Lion advancing right, eagle on back. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield Mars advancing right, holding branch and shield. Mars advancing right, holding globe and spear. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars helmeted head left Mars standing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear. Mars standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Mars standing right, holding shield and spearing enemy. Mars standing right, holding spear and trophy. Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus; dog by feet. Minerva seated left, holding Victory and spear. Minerva standing left, holding Victory and resting hand on shield. Minerva standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield Monetae (3) each holding a scale and cornucopia; piles of coins by their feet. Moose advancing right Neptune standing left, stepping on galley prow and holding trident Panther advancing left Panther advancing right Pax advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pegasus rearing left Pegasus rearing right Pietas seated left, holding scepter; child on either side. Pietas standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia; wheel by feet. Pietas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over wheel. Pietas standing left, leaning on column, holding scepter. Pietas standing left, raising hands over altar. Providentia standing left, holding wand and cornucopia Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter Providentia standing left, leaning on column, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Pudicitia standing left, pulling veil and holding scepter. Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar Salus standing left, leaning on column, pouring out patera Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Saturn standing right, holding scepter. Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, touching head Serapis standing left, holding scepter Serapis standing left, raising hand and holding spear; rabbit by feet. Siscia seated left; swimming nymph below Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol riding quadriga left Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (3) Stork standing right Temple with (4) columns; Mars standing within, holding shield and spear Trophies (3) Trophy; seated captive on either side Uberitas standing left, holding grapes and cornucopia Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear with shield Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear with shield; seated captive to left Vesta seated left, holding simpulum and scepter. Vesta seated left, holding wreath and scepter. Vesta standing left, holding simpulum and scepter. Victories (2) standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading SC on palm Victories (2) standing, facing each other, together holding Victory on globe Victories (3) standing left Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath; shield on either side Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, placing garland over shield on cippus Victory advancing left, stepping on captive, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, stepping on captive, holding wreath and trophy. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and trophy. Victory riding biga left Victory riding biga right, holding whip Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to left. Victory standing left, resting hand on shield and holding palm. Victory standing on globe, holding wreath and palm; seated captive on either side Victory standing right on shield, holding palm. Victory standing right, holding shield on palm tree Victory standing right, holding shield on palm tree reading III Victory standing right, holding wreath and palm; eagle to right. Victory standing right, holding wreath and palm; lion to right. Victory standing, facing, holding opened wreath with both hands; shield on either side. Virtus standing left, holding globe and spear. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear

299
231) 232) 233) 234) 235) 236) 237) 238) 239) 240) 241) 242) 243) 244) 245) 246) Virtus standing left, stepping on helmet, holding branch and spear. Virtus standing right, holding spear and globe Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield Virtus standing right, holding spear and shield Wolf standing right, suckling Romulus and Remus Wreath, COHORT PRAET PRINCIPI SVO within Wreath, FIDEI EQVITVM within Wreath, FIDES MILITVM within Wreath, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI within Wreath, VOT within Wreath, VOT / X / ET / XX within Wreath, VOTIS / DECENNA / LIB within Wreath, VOTIS / DECENNA / LIBVS within Wreath, VOTIS within Wreath, VOTIS X ET XX within Wreath, VOTIS X within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Asia, locality uncertain Balkans, locality uncertain Lugdunum 4) 5) 6) Mediolanum Roma Siscia

AU Medallion
1) 2) B03, O23, R083, T051, M5 B40, O37, R042, T109, M5

Reference(s)
Four Aurei weight Eight Aurei weight
RIC 10 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 230

AU Binio
3) 4) 5) B40, O14, R316, T076, M5 B31, O09, R318, T213, M5 T in left field B23, O09, R346, T242, M4 RIC 81 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1112 RIC 84 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1116 RIC 96 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1353

AU Aureus
6) 7) 8) B40, O14, R299, T219, M5 B18, O19, R184, T137, M5 B14, O20, R025, T014, M5 RIC 72 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1018

AU Quinarius
9) 10) 11) B10, O09, R209, T194, M5 B10, O09, R297, T201, M5 B14, O20, R334, T230, M5 C 696 RIC 120 (Vi, Sole Reign) C 1217

AR Medallion
12) B18, O19, R201, T119, M5

Billon Antoninianus
13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) B06, O09, R147, T198, M4 B06, O09, R193, T143, M4 B22, O09, R140, T168, M4 B22, O09, R188, T146, M2 Exe: ¬ B22, O09, R245, T140, M2 Exe: CVI PP over ± B23, O09, R001, T002, M5 B in left field B23, O09, R006, T003, M5 B23, O09, R011, T194, M5 G in left field B23, O09, R017, T007, M6 B23, O09, R018, T024, M5 Exe: H B23, O09, R018, T024, M5 Exe: Z B23, O09, R027, T013, M5 B23, O09, R027, T014, M5 B23, O09, R051, T080, M5 B23, O09, R058, T041, M4 B23, O09, R060, T010, M5 Exe: X B23, O09, R060, T010, M5 Exe: XII B23, O09, R060, T036, M5 Exe: E B23, O09, R060, T160, M4 B23, O09, R065, T047, M5 B23, O09, R083, T049, M5 N in right field B23, O09, R087, T055, M6 ¿ in right field B23, O09, R099, T020, M5 Exe: E B23, O09, R103, T119, M5 XI in right field B23, O09, R109, T103, M5 Exe: ¿ B23, O09, R110, T131, M5 N in left field B23, O09, R111, T131, M5 N in left field B23, O09, R116, T126, M5 XI in left field RIC 339 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 492 RIC 492 (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 324 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 649 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 607a RIC 602 (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 157k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 5 RIC 159k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 25 RIC 160k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 38 RIC 557k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 56 RIC 164k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 73 RIC 163k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 72 RIC 168k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 169k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 171A (Vi, Sole Reign), C 144 RIC 473k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 173 RIC 179k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 160 RIC 181k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 165 RIC 187k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 181 RIC 192k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 246 RIC 572k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 265 RIC 202k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 317 RIC 206k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 331 RIC 207k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 345 RIC 208k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 354 RIC 210k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 361 RIC 214k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 382

300
41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) B23, O09, R120, T134, M5 ¿ in left field B23, O09, R125, T102, M5 Exe: J B23, O09, R128, T135, M5 B23, O09, R175, T136, M5 ¿ in left field B23, O09, R181, T162, M5 Exe: B B23, O09, R182, T137, M5 S in right field B23, O09, R183, T137, M5 XI in right field B23, O09, R193, T149, M5 H in left field B23, O09, R202, T116, M5 Exe: N B23, O09, R209, T192, M5 Z in left field B23, O09, R214, T166, M4 B23, O09, R214, T166, M6 S in left field, I in right B23, O09, R214, T166, M6 B23, O09, R218, T166, M5 Exe: V B23, O09, R220, T173, M4 B23, O09, R253, T175, M5 B23, O09, R253, T175, M6 II in right field B23, O09, R269, T181, M6 I in right field B23, O09, R269, T182, M5 P in left field B23, O09, R269, T184, M5 XII in right field B23, O09, R275, T186, M4 Exe: MS B23, O09, R277, T186, M5 Exe: VI B23, O09, R279, T187, M5 H in right field B23, O09, R289, T021, M5 Exe: XI B23, O09, R289, T168, M5 B23, O09, R292, T195, M6 B23, O09, R297, T201, M6 E in right field B23, O09, R304, T204, M5 B23, O09, R315, T219, M5 Z in left field B23, O09, R334, T230, M2 B23, O09, R336, T231, M5 X in left field B23, O09, R336, T232, M5 X in left field B23, O23, R018, T105, M5 Exe: J B23, O23, R060, T036, M5 Exe: E B23, O23, R082, T049, M4 Exe: MD B23, O23, R092, T100, M5 VI in left field B23, O23, R212, T166, M5 J in left field B23, O23, R254, T176, M4 Exe: MD B23, O23, R269, T004, M4 Exe: P B28, O09, R137, T157, M5 B29, O12, R263, T079, M3 B29, O14, R097, T201, M3 B31, O09, R006, T003, M6 VI in right field B31, O09, R007, T003, M2 * in left field B31, O09, R017, T007, M6 I in right field B31, O09, R037, T141, M4 B31, O09, R052, T004, M2 B31, O09, R067, T044, M5 Exe: T B31, O09, R077, T154, M2 Exe: PXV B31, O09, R103, T118, M5 Exe: P B31, O09, R109, T102, M5 Exe: ¿ B31, O09, R111, T129, M2 Exe: PXV B31, O09, R112, T129, M5 B31, O09, R120, T134, M5 ¿ in left field B31, O09, R132, T022, M4 B31, O09, R135, T020, M4 B31, O09, R140, T168, M4 B31, O09, R145, T025, M4 B31, O09, R145, T029, M4 B31, O09, R161, T021, M4 B31, O09, R185, T037, M2 Exe: PXV B31, O09, R193, T149, M4 B31, O09, R198, T116, M5 Exe: N B31, O09, R254, T175, M5 X in right field B31, O09, R268, T036, M2 Exe: ¬ B31, O09, R269, T015, M2 Exe: PXV B31, O09, R269, T181, M6 B31, O09, R269, T182, M5 Exe: PXV B31, O09, R276, T188, M5 B31, O09, R279, T187, M5 H in right field B31, O09, R287, T190, M6 B31, O09, R297, T201, M6 B31, O09, R300, T203, M2 B31, O09, R316, T211, M5 B31, O09, R318, T212, M5 T in left field B31, O09, R321, T212, M4 B31, O09, R328, T219, M5 S in left field B31, O09, R334, T113, M2 Exe: VIIC. B31, O09, R334, T150, M5 P in right field B31, O09, R334, T234, M2 B31, O14, R007, T003, M2 B31, O14, R007, T003, M2 * in left field B31, O14, R013, T193, M2 * in left field B31, O14, R056, T199, M3 B31, O14, R097, T201, M3 B31, O14, R118, T130, M2 B31, O14, R244, T189, M2 B31, O14, R266, T179, M2 RIC 221k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 224k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 491 RIC 226k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 426 RIC 227k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 562 RIC 230k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 588 RIC 232k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 593 RIC 233k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 596 RIC 236k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 617a RIC 244k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 669 RIC 249k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 699 RIC 499k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 739 RIC 575k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 729 RIC 575k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 727 RIC 260k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 773 RIC 507k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 267k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 854 RIC 580k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 872 RIC 581k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 275k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 935 RIC 274Ak (Vi, Sole Reign), C 932 RIC 513k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 278k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 280k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 961 RIC 285k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 983 RIC 283k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 979 RIC 584k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 996 C 1008 RIC 289k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1024 RIC 297f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1072 RIC 668k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1237 RIC 330k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 166k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 177k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 154 RIC 481 (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 198k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 300 RIC 252k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 716 RIC 509k (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 511Bk (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 332 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 462 RIC 18 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 308 RIC 553f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 20 RIC 557f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 55 RIC 370f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 105 RIC 632f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 192f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 193 RIC 607f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 205f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 327 RIC 207f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 341 RIC 608f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 376 RIC 221f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 402 RIC 315f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 447 RIC 320f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 455 RIC 324f (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 336f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 483 RIC 336k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 483 RIC 353f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 522 RIC 609f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 600 RIC 492f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 613 RIC 242k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 631 RIC 267f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 855 C 925b RIC 610f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 581f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 934 RIC 277k (Vi, Sole Reign), C 951 RIC 280f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 582f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 976 RIC 585f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1009 RIC 660f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1020 RIC 298f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1079 RIC 305f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1119 RIC 527f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1135 RIC 309f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1190 RIC 623a (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1250 RIC 321f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 669c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1246a RIC 626f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 28 RIC 629f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 10 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 149a RIC 18f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 308 RIC 644f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 396 RIC 600 (Vi, Sole Reign), C 839 RIC 654f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 920

301
129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) 166) 167) 168) 169) 170) 171) 172) 173) 174) 175) 176) 177) 178) 179) 180) 181) 182) 183) 184) 185) 186) 187) 188) 189) 190) 191) 192) 193) 194) 195) 196) 197) 198) 199) 200) 201) B31, O14, R314, T215, M3 B31, O14, R314, T222, M3 B31, O14, R334, T230, M2 * in left field B31, O14, R335, T095, M3 B31, O14, R336, T114, M2 Exe: * B31, O19, R046, T032, M5 B31, O20, R110, T131, M5 B31, O20, R180, T136, M5 B31, O20, R324, T175, M5 B31, O23, R058, T039, M4 B31, O23, R269, T184, M5 B31, O23, R323, T212, M4 B31, O23, R328, T077, M1 B31, O29, R119, T129, M3 B31, O29, R215, T166, M4 B31, O29, R254, T174, M4 * in right field B31, O29, R292, T196, M5 B31, O32, R335, T147, M5 B32, O09, R132, T022, M4 B35, O09, R001, T002, M5 D in left field B35, O09, R006, T003, M5 B35, O09, R007, T003, M2 * in left field B35, O09, R013, T193, M6 * in left field B35, O09, R037, T141, M4 B35, O09, R087, T055, M5 ¿ in right field B35, O09, R092, T101, M2 Exe: ± B35, O09, R199, T158, M2 Exe: ¬ B35, O09, R217, T200, M2 Exe: ¬ B35, O09, R220, T088, M2 Exe: VIIC B35, O09, R266, T179, M2 Exe: * B35, O09, R290, T193, M2 B35, O09, R290, T194, M2 B35, O09, R300, T203, M2 B35, O09, R316, T212, M2 * in left field B35, O09, R334, T232, M2 Exe: ¬ B35, O09, R336, T114, M2 * in right field B35, O09, R341, T200, M2 Exe: SPQR B35, O09, R346, T243, M5 B35, O19, R044, T109, M5 B35, O19, R087, T154, M2 B35, O19, R087, T154, M5 B35, O19, R211, T127, M4 B35, O19, R222, T172, M2 B35, O19, R261, T060, M2 B35, O19, R335, T231, M5 B35, O19, R344, T209, M1 B35, O20, R112, T091, M1 = in upper center rev. field B35, O20, R209, T083, M1 = in upper center rev. field B35, O20, R221, T064, M1 B35, O20, R323, T082, M1 > in upper center rev. field B35, O20, R335, T065, M1 B36, O09, R269, T183, M2 B37, O09, R186, T037, M2 B38, O09, R007, T003, M2 * in left field B38, O09, R007, T003, M2 Exe: . B38, O09, R011, T005, M2 Exe: PXV B38, O09, R011, T235, M2 Exe: ¬ B38, O09, R013, T193, M2 * in left field B38, O09, R118, T130, M2 * in right field B38, O09, R118, T130, M2 Exe: * B38, O09, R128, T135, M2 Exe: VIIC B38, O09, R214, T166, M6 B38, O09, R245, T140, M2 Exe: CVIPP B38, O09, R247, T161, M2 Exe: VIIC. B38, O09, R256, T154, M2 B38, O09, R290, T193, M2 Exe: PXV B38, O09, R334, T230, M2 * in left field B38, O09, R334, T233, M1 B38, O19, R069, T038, M2 B38, O20, R209, T081, M5 B38, O20, R221, T064, M1 B38, O20, R262, T081, M1 Exe: .. B38, O23, R292, T195, M6 258-259 258-259 RIC 45 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1048 RIC 49 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1062 RIC 667f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1235 RIC 58 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1309 RIC 672f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1321 RIC 132f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 131a RIC 143f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 363 RIC 148f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 571 RIC 158f (Vi, Sole Reign), C 889 RIC 380f (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 274f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 405f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1148 RIC 453 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 21f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 398 RIC 392f (Vi, Joint Reign), C 752 RIC 403 (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 315 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 159c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 20 RIC 627c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 24 RIC 555c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 51 RIC 638c (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 651c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 632 RIC 652c (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 618f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 655c (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 658c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 987 RIC 660c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1021e RIC 663c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1094 RIC 670c (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 673c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1320 RIC 675c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1331 RIC 92 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1337 RIC 131c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 125 RIC 292c (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 75 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 294c (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 295c (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 296c (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 181c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1288 RIC 459c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1335 RIC 440c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 378 RIC 445c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 705 RIC 446c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 793 RIC 450c (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1109 RIC 456 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1310 RIC 646f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 627a (Vi, Sole Reign), C 25 RIC 606a (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 628f (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 630a (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 645a (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 616a (Vi, Sole Reign), C 425 RIC 575c (Vi, Sole Reign), C 728 RIC 603a (Vi, Sole Reign), C 849 C 875 RIC 611a (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 668a (Vi, Sole Reign), C 1237 RIC 612a (Vi, Sole Reign) RIC 291a (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 446a (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 448a (Vi, Joint Reign), C 902 C 995

AE Sestertius
202) 203) 204) 205) 206) 207) 208) 209) B14, O20, R046, T031, M5 B14, O20, R068, T047, M5 B14, O20, R324, T221, M5 B14, O23, R214, T165, M5 B14, O31, R318, T212, M5 B14, O32, R040, T194, M5 B14, O32, R326, T220, M5 B18, O20, R335, T230, M5

Reference(s)
RIC 209 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 211 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 203 RIC 242 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 391 (Vi, Joint Reign) RIC 273 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 712 RIC 284 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1168 RIC 248 (Vi, Joint Reign), C 1295

302
Gallienus Busts

Gllienus Types

303
Gallienus Types (continued)

304
Gallienus Types (continued)

305

Salonina
? – d.268
Busts:
1) 2) Diademed, draped bust right Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Wife of Gallienus, murdered alongside her husband during the siege of Mediolanum. Salonina was said to be if not an outright Christian at least sympathetic to their fledgling sect.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) COR SALONINA AVG COR SALONINA PF AVG CORN SALONINA AVG CORNEL SALONINA AVG CORNELIA SALONINA AVG CORNELIA SALONINA AVGVSTA SALONINA AVG

Locating a coin of Salonina is cheap and easy. In fact, of all the empresses her coins are the most plentiful. By and large the available ones fall under the category of rather poorly preserved Antoniniani but coins made with just enough silver to retain a silvery look are found with regularity. These go anywhere from a few dollars each to over $100 for a very nice sample.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) ABVNDANTIA AVG AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS PVBLICA AVG IN PACE AVGVSTA IN PACE CERERI AVG CERES SEGESTAE CONCOR AVG CONCORD AET CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGG DEAE SEGETIAE DIANA LVCIFERA DIANAE CONS AVG FECVNDITAS AVG FELICIT PVBL FELICITAS AVGG FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS SAECVLI FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA AVG FORTVNA RED FORTVNA REDVX INDVLGENT AVG 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) IVNO AVG IVNO CONSERVAT IVNO REGINA IVNO VICTRIX IVNONI CONS AVG IVNONI REGINAE LAETITIA AVG LIBERAL AVG LVNA LVCIF MINERVA AVG MONETA AVGG ORIENS AVGG PAX AVG PAX PVBLICA PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVGG PIETAS AVGVST PROVI AVG PROVID AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG PVDICITA AVG PVDICITIA PVDICITIAE AVGVSTAE RESTITVTOR ORBIS 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) ROMAE AETERNAE SALVS AVG SECVRIT ORBIS SECVRIT PERPET SECVRIT PVBL VBERITAS AVG VBERTAS AVG VENEREM GENETRICEM VENERI GENETRICI VENERI GENETRIX VENVS AVG VENVS FELIX VENVS GENETRIX VENVS VICT VENVS VICTRIX VESTA VESTA AETERNA VESTA FELIX VICTORIA AET VINO REGINA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) Abundantia standing left, pouring out cornucopia. Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch. Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae. Deer advancing left Diana standing left, holding torch in both hands. Fecunditas standing left, raising hand and holding baby; child to left. Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Gallienus standing right on left, receiving Victory from Roma seated to right Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and scepter. Juno seated left, holding flower and baby Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock left. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia; coins piled by feet. Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Peacock standing, facing, spread-tailed Pietas seated left, holding scepter; three children to left Pietas seated left, holding scepter; two children to left, one under chair Pietas standing left, raising hand and holding incense box Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia.

306
29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) Pudicitia seated left, holding scepter and pulling veil; Salus standing to left, holding and feeding snake and Felicitas to right, leaning on column and with legs crossed Pudicitia seated left, pulling veil and holding scepter. Pudicitia standing left, pulling veil and holding scepter. Salonina and Gallienus standing, facing each other, shaking hands. Salonina draped bust right, facing Gallienus laureate, cuirassed bust left. Salonina seated left, holding branch and scepter Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake Securitas seated left, holding scepter and touching head. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and wish legs crossed, holding scepter. Sol standing left, holding globe Temple with (4) columns, Segetia standing within, raising hands Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Venus seated left, holding scepter. Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter; Cupid to left. Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear with shield Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear; shield to left. Venus standing left, leaning on column, holding helmet and palm. Venus standing left, leaning on column. Vesta seated left, holding patera and scepter Vesta seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Vesta standing left, holding patera and scepter Vesta standing left, holding Victory and scepter Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Lugdunum Mediolanum Roma Asia, uncertain locality

AR Quinarius
1) B1, O7, R27, T16, M2

Reference(s)
RIC 40 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)), C 61

AE Medallion
2) B1, O5, R03, T19, M5 RIC 17 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)), C 61

Billon Antoninianus
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) B2, O1, R29, T06 Exe: J B2, O3, R04, T34 Exe: MS B2, O3, R08, T05 B2, O3, R10, T32 B2, O3, R11, T32 B2, O3, R39, T25 B2, O7, R02, T02 Exe: ©/VIIC. B2, O7, R06, T03 Exe: ± B2, O7, R06, T03 B2, O7, R10, T04 Exe: II B2, O7, R11, T04 B2, O7, R12, T39 B2, O7, R15, T08 B2, O7, R25, T15 Exe: MS B2, O7, R26, T17 N in right field B2, O7, R27, T16 B2, O7, R27, T17 * in left field B2, O7, R27, T17 B2, O7, R28, T16 B2, O7, R39, T25 D in left field, II in right B2, O7, R39, T25 Exe: P B2, O7, R39, T26 B2, O7, R40, T23 B2, O7, R46, T30 Exe: VI B2, O7, R46, T31 B2, O7, R49, T13 B2, O7, R50, T35 B2, O7, R50, T35 Exe: VIIC. B2, O7, R59, T44 Exe: PXV B2, O7, R61, T42 B2, O7, R63, T45 B2, O7, R64, T48 Exe: Q B2, O7, R64, T49 B2, O7, R64, T50 B2, O7, R68, T17 * in left field RIC 16 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 70 RIC 57 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 18 RIC 71 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 24 RIC 63 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 31 RIC 21 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 78 RIC 90 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 22 RIC 72 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 28 RIC 5 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)) RIC 5a (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 39 RIC 62 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 55 RIC 11 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 56 RIC 13 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 60 RIC 12 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 67 RIC 92 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 67 RIC 31 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)), C 68 RIC 78 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)) RIC 22 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)) RIC 79 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)) RIC 35 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)), C 84 RIC 25 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 94 RIC 24 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)) RIC 67 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)) RIC 88 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)) RIC 86 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 113 RIC 30 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)) RIC 31 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 129 RIC 32 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 143 RIC 68 (Gallienus (Sole Reign)), C 139 Ed Flinn collection

AE Sestertius
38) 39) B2, O5, R27, T16 B2, O5, R40, T24 Exe: SC RIC 46 (Gallienus (Joint Reign)), C 62

307
Salonina Busts

Salonina Types

308
Saloninus was the son of Gallienus and became Caesar upon the death of his brother Valerian II. He led his armies on a mission to quell barbarian revolts in Germany but Postumus, his leading general, revolted and had himself declared Augustus. Saloninus, still only Caesar, fled with a group of Augustus 260 loyalist troops but were soon surrounded by Postumus. The soldiers dug into their quarters and raised Saloninus to the rank of emperor but the siege wore them down and Postumus finally captured and executed him.

Saloninus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right Bare headed, draped bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate head right Radiate, draped bust right

Due to a brief reign as Caesar, and an even briefer one as Augustus, a coin of Saloninus is rather difficult to come by. Low grade Antoniniani are pretty cheap when available but anything else is both expensive and rare. Especially rare are the few remaining coins of Saloninus as emperor.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) IMP SALON VALERIANVS AVG LIC COR SAL VALERIANVS N CAES P COR SAL VALERIANO CES P COR SAL VALERIANVS CAES SAL VALERIANVS C SAL VALERIANVS CS SAL VALERIANVS NOB CAES SALON VALERIANVS CAES SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) ADVENTVS AVGG CONSACRATIO DEO MARTI DIINVTRITORES FELICITAS AVGG 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) MONETA AVGG ORIENS AVGG PAX AVGG PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVGG 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) PRINC IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS RELIGIO AVGG SPES PVBLICA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) Diana standing left, holding bow Eagle Monetae (3) standing left, each holding a scale and cornucopia Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Saloninus riding horse right, holding spear Saloninus standing left, holding globe and scepter; seated captive to left Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and spear; standard to right. Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and spear; trophy with shields at base to left. Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and spear; trophy with shields at base to right. Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and spear; trophy with two captives at base to left Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and spear; two standards to right. Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and trophy Saloninus standing left, holding standard and scepter Saloninus standing left, stepping on captive, holding standard and spear. Saloninus standing right on left, holding spear, receiving flower from Spes to right, raising skirt Saloninus standing right on left, receiving Victory from Jupiter to right, holding scepter Sol standing left, holding whip. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple with (4) columns, Mars within

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Antioch Colonia Agrippinensis Lugdunum Roma

AU Aureus
1) B2, O8, R15, T16

Reference(s)

AE Antoninianus
2) 3) B5, O1, R15, T19 B5, O2, R11, T05 RIC Vi 14, C 94 RIC Vi 26, C 49

309
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) B5, O2, R11, T07 P in right field B5, O4, R04, T17 B5, O6, R11, T07 B5, O8, R09, T05 B5, O9, R15, T16 = above B5, O9, R15, T16 RIC Vi 28, C 63 RIC Vi 35, C 21 RIC Vi 10, C 61 RIC Vi 9, C 41 RIC Vi 36, C 95 RIC Vi 36, C 95

AE As
10) B2, O4, R13, T07

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 34, C 90

Saloninus Busts

Saloninus Types

310

Regalianus
Augustus c.260

Regalianus was a usurper under the reign of Gallienus shortly after the capture of Valerian. His soldiers revolted against the tyrannical nature of Gallienus and his oppression in the region. Regalianus lasted for a short time before he fell to either an undocumented battle with Gallienus or at the hands of his own supporters. All of his coins are exceedingly rare and often overstruck over older Denarii of previous emperors. Regalianus. For collectors of Roman coins the name is enough to make their mouth water. They are probably the most wretched looking things in the entire corpus of Roman imperial coinage and quite probably an embarrassment to the emperor whose access to skilled metalsmiths and celators was evidently nonexistent. But with ancient coins at least, price and desirability are inversely proportional to historical popularity and since Regalianus scores as one of the most obscure characters his few remaining coins receive top bids on the rare occasions they’re offered for sale.

Bust:
1) Radiate head right

Obverses:
1) IMP C P C REGALINAVS AVG (and many other variants)

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) AEQVITAS AVG CONCORDIA AVGG FIDES MILITVM IOVI CONSERVATORI(?) LIBERALITAS AVGG(?) ORIENS AVG ORIENS AVGG PROVIDENTIA AVGG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand. Regalianus and Dryantilla standing, facing each other; altar in between Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Liberalitas standing left, holding pileus and scepter Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding whip Providentia standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia.

Mint:
1) Carnuntum

AR Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) B1, O1, R1, T1 B1, O1, R7, T6 B1, O1, R8, T7

Reference(s)
M&M Auction 92 Lot #233 RIC Vi 7, C 4 RIC Vi 8, C 5

Regalianus Bust

Regalianus Types

311

Dryantilla
? - 261?
intended types. Bust:
1) Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Wife of Regalianus. Together with the coins of her obscure husband, these are among the greatest rarities in the Roman Imperial series. Typically these coins are so crude in manufacture that deciphering the legends involves guesswork. The catalog below shows what are believed to be the major

Obverse:
1) SVLP DRYANTILLA AVG

Competing in the “so ugly they’re cute” coin sweepstakes, Dryantilla puts in a strong bid. History does not mention whether she herself was homely or not but her coins sure don’t make a strong case for beauty. But this is all academic, of course, considering there are probably less than a dozen coins of her left. And most of these are in museums. Pinning down a “market value” for such epic rarities is just a tad pointless. It really depends on how much the seller wants and how eager the buyer is. And it’s a seller’s market. The coin below, struck over a Lucius Verus Denarius, sold at auction in 2000 for over $12,000. Reference(s)
RIC 2, C 1

Reverses:
1) 2) AEQVITAS AVGG IVNO REDINE

Types:
1) 2) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter.

Mint:
1) Carnuntum

AE Antoninianus
1) B1, O1, R2, T2

312
Postumus remained Gallienus's nemesis for most of his reign and, with the aid of the traitor Aureolus, his eventual killer. Postumus came on the scene following a dispute with Saloninus over the distribution of captured war loot. Because Postumus was in command of the military, Saloninus had little Augustus 260-269 to defend him except for his title and official recognition. Postumus had himself named emperor and captured and executed Saloninus sealing his fate with the rest of the empire. However, the rest of the empire could do little at the moment. Gallienus was embroiled with battling several usurpers out east and could not avenge his brother's death. Neither could Rome do anything about it. And so for the time being Postumus held the western half of the empire as de facto ruler.

Postumus

When Gallienus finally returned from the east he would find Postumus entrenched in Gaul and having snatched Britain and Spain away from the empire as well. Because his power had grown during Gallienus's absence, he had had time to consolidate his leadership and posed a bigger threat. However, for one reason or another, Postumus never made preparations to attack Rome or mount an offensive against Gallienus and contented himself with this secessionist state. But he knew Gallienus was mulling over his options all the meanwhile and had on his agenda the recapturing of the lost lands. Gallienus mounted several expeditions to depose Postumus but all failed. Still, Gallienus would most likely have ultimately been the ultimate victor had Postumus not gained the aid of one of Gallienus's trusted men, Aureolus, who engineered a successful conspiracy ending with the murder of Gallienus. Postumus would meet a deadly fate himself the following year following a revolt from within instigated by one of his own earlier leading generals, Laelianus, in a move very reminiscent of his own rise to power. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) Bare head facing Bare headed cuirassed bust facing Helmeted, cuirassed bust left Helmeted, cuirassed bust right Helmeted, draped bust left Helmeted, draped bust right Laureate bust left of Postumus over Hercules bare headed bust left Laureate bust left of Postumus over Hercules laureate bust left Laureate bust right of Postumus over Hercules laureate bust right Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate head right left of Postumus over Hercules laureate bust left Laureate head right right of Postumus over Hercules laureate bust right Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust left, raising hand Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust left, raising hand Laureate, draped bust left, raising hand and holding shield Laureate, draped bust right Radiate bust left, holding club and lion skin Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding club Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right Radiate, helmeted bust right Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right

Postumus kicks off the Gallic empire with well-made, high-grade coins and by the time of his fall both have suffered considerably in tandem with the coinage elsewhere in the Roman world. While the Aureus and its multiples will be priced into the stratosphere, the ordinary Antoninianus is easily available and affordable. Expect, however, to find these to be fairly lousy in quality overall. Although there are better grade coins, and even mint state gem ones, these are more often available only through established numismatic firms and at substantially higher cost. Early in his reign Postumus even reintroduces big copper with the double Sestertius. These coins look similar to the old fashioned Dupondius with its radiate crown but at a weight more comparable to that of the once mighty Sestertius. Coins attributed to the Mediolanum (now Milan) mint were issued by an associate usurper named Aureolus. Postumus’s portraits, as well as those of his Gallic successors, give him an appearance reminiscent of Santa Clause.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) IMP C LAT POSTVMVS PF AVG IMP C M CAS LAT POSTVMVS AV IMP C M CAS LAT POSTVMVS AVG IMP C M CAS LAT POTVMVS IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS AV IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS AVG IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P AVG IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P I AVG IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS PF AVG IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS PIVS F AVG IMP C POSTVMVS IMP C POSTVMVS AVG IMP C POSTVMVS P AV IMP C POSTVMVS P I AVG IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG COS III IMP C POSTVMVS PIVS F AVG IMP C POSTVMVS PIVS FEL AVG

313
19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) IMP POSTVMVS AVG IMP POSTVMVS PF AVG IMP POSTVMVS PIVS AVG IMP POSTVMVS PIVS F AVG M CAS LAT POSTVMVS PF AVG POSTVMVS AVG POSTVMVS PF AVG POSTVMVS PF AVG COS POSTVMVS PF AVGVSTVS T P POSTVMVS PIVS AVG POSTVMVS PIVS FEL AVG POSTVMVS PIVS FELIX AVG VIRTVS POSTVMI AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG AETERNITAS AVG ANNONA AVG CASTOR CCAA COS IIII CLARITAS AVG COL CL AGRIP COS IIII COMITI AVG CONCORD EQVIT CONCORD EQVITVM CONCORDIA EQVIT CONSERVATORES AVG CONSERVATORI AVG COS III COS IIII COS V DIANAE LVCIFERAE DIANAE LVCIFERE DIANAE REDVCI EXERCITVS AVG FELICITA FELICITAS FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS TEMP FIDES AEQVIT FIDES EQVIT FIDES EQVITVM FIDES EXERC FIDES EXERCITAS FIDES EXERCITI FIDES EXERCITVS FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA AVG FORTVNA RAEDVX FORTVNA REDVX GERMANICVS MAX V HER DEVS ONIENS HERC DEVS ONIENSI HERC PACIFER HERC PACIFERO HERCVLI ARCADIO HERCVLI ARGIVO HERCVLI AVG HERCVLI CRETENCI HERCVLI CRETENSI HERCVLI DEVS ONIENSI HERCVLI ERVMANTINO HERCVLI GADITANO HERCVLI IMMORTALI HERCVLI INVICTO HERCVLI LIBVCO HERCVLI MAGVSANO HERCVLI NEMAEO 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) HERCVLI PISAEO HERCVLI ROM HERCVLI ROMA HERCVLI ROMANO HERCVLI ROMANO AVG HERCVLI THRACIO HILARITAS AVG I O M SPONSORI SAECVLI IM C POSTVMVS PF AVG IMP X COS V INDVLG PIA POSTVMI AVG INVICTO AVG IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI PROPVGNAT IOVI PROPVGNATORI IOVI STATORI IOVI VICTORI LAETI LAETITIA LAETITIA AVG LIBERALITAS LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERTAS AVG MARS VICTOR MERCVRIO FELICI MERCVRIO PACIFERO MINER FAVTR MINERVA AVG MONET AVG MONETA AVG MONITA AVG NEPT COMITI NEPTVNO REDVCI ORIENS ORIENS AVG PACATOR ORBIS PAX AVG PAX AVGVSTI PAX EQVITVM PIETAS AVG PM G M T P COS III PP PM T P COS PM T P COS IIII PP PM TR P COS I PP PM TR P COS II PP PM TR P COS III PP PM TR P COS IIII PP PM TR P COS PP PM TR P COS V PM TR P III COS III PP PM TR P IIII COS III PP PM TR P IMP V COS III PP PM TR P VI COS III PP PM TR P VII COS III PP 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 154) 155) 156) 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) 162) 163) 164) 165) PM TR P VIIII COS IIII PP PM TR P X COS V PP POSTVMVS AVG POSTVMVS AVGVSTVS POSTVMVS PF AVG PROFECTIO AVGVSTI PROVID DEOR COS III PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA DEOR QVINQVENNALES AVG QVINQVENNALES POSTVMI AVG REST GALLIARVM REST ORBIS RESTIT GALLIAR RESTIT GALLIARVM RESTIT ORBIS RESTITOR GALLIAE RESTITOR GALLIAR RESTITVTOR GALLIAR RESTITVTOR GALLIARVM RESTITVTOR ORBIS ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVLI FELICITAS SAECVLI FRVGIFERO SAECVLO FRVGIFERO SAECVLVM AVGG SALVS AVG SALVS EXERCITI SALVS POSTVMI AVG SALVS PROVINCIARVM SARAPIDI COMITI AVG SERAPI COMITI AVG SERAPI COMITI AVG SPEI PERPETVAE TR P X COS V PP TRIB POT X COS V VBERITAS AVG VBERTAS AVG VICT COMES AVG VICT GERM PM TR P V COS III PP VICT GERM TR P V COS III PP VICT GERMANICA VICTORI AVG VICTORIA VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA GERMANICA VICTORIAE AVG VIRTVS AEQVIT VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS EQVIT VIRTVS EXERCITVS VIRTVS POSTVMI AVG VIRTVTI AVG VIRTVTI AVGVSTI VOT PVBL

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aesculapius standing, facing, holding staff with snake coiled around it Aesculapius standing, facing, holding staff with snake coiled around it; globe to lower right. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Busts (3), radiate; center one facing, other two facing towards center. Caduceus, winged. Castor riding horse right. Castor standing left, holding spear; horse to side. Club; bow to left and quiver to right Diana advancing right, holding bow; deer to right. Diana advancing right, holding torch with both hands.

314
12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) Diana advancing right, holding torch with both hands; dog to right. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fides seated left, holding patera and standard. Fides standing, facing, holding standard in each hand. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding patera and rudder on globe. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Galley sailing left Galley sailing right Hercules advancing left, holding pickax; jug by feet. Hercules advancing right, dragging Cerberus and holding club. Hercules advancing right, holding the boar of Erymanthos; jar by feet. Hercules laureate bust left. Hercules laureate head right Hercules standing in garden of Hesperides: apple tree and three nymphs. Hercules standing left, clubbing hydra of Lerna. Hercules standing left, holding branch and club with lion skin. Hercules standing left, wrestling lion of Nemea. Hercules standing left, wrestling Queen Hippolyte. Hercules standing right, fighting the three-bodied Geryon. Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding apples. Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding bow with lion skin. Hercules standing right, resting hand on hip and holding wand. Hercules standing right, wrestling bull of Crete. Hercules standing right, wrestling deer of Ceryneia. Hercules standing right, wrestling the horses of Diomedes. Hercules standing, facing, holding bow and lion skin, driving the birds of Stymphalos. Hercules torso left, holding club. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia; child on either side. Jupiter advancing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt and eagle. Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt and raising hand. Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt and raising hand; seven stars in field, eagle between feet. Jupiter advancing right, holding thunderbolt and eagle. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing, facing, aiming thunderbolt and holding shield. Jupiter standing, facing, holding scepter and thunderbolt Laureate head right of Victorinus over Hercules laureate bust right. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia Lion advancing right. Lion, radiate, advancing left, thunderbolt in mouth Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Mars standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Mercury standing, facing, holding purse and caduceus. Minerva advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Minerva standing left, holding branch and spear. Minerva standing left, raising hand and holding shield. Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident; galley prow to left. Neptune standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding dolphin and trident Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pietas standing, facing, holding baby in either arm; child to either side. Pietas standing, facing, raising hands. Postumus advancing left, stepping on captive, holding spear and shield. Postumus advancing right, stepping on captive, holding spear and shield. Postumus bare head right. Postumus bare headed, cuirassed bust facing. Postumus cuirassed torso left, holding spear over shoulder. Postumus helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield. Postumus helmeted, cuirassed bust right over Victory, holding wreath and palm. Postumus helmeted, cuirassed bust right. Postumus laureate bust right facing Hercules bust left. Postumus laureate bust right over Jupiter, holding thunderbolt. Postumus laureate bust right over Virtus helmeted bust right Postumus radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding scepter over shoulder. Postumus riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Postumus riding horse left, soldiers (3) to left Postumus riding horse left, soldiers (4) to left Postumus riding horse right, holding spear, following Victory, holding wreath and trophy. Postumus riding oncoming quadriga, holding branch, accompanied by Victory, holding palm; soldier on either side of horses. Postumus riding quadriga left, holding branch. Postumus seated left on platform, attended by lictor and Liberalitas, holding coin counter and cornucopia; citizen on steps to lower left. Postumus seated left, holding globe and scepter. Postumus seated left, raising hand; kneeling citizen to left Postumus standing left on right, holding spear and holding hand of kneeling Gallia to left, holding branch. Postumus standing left on right, holding spear and holding hand of kneeling Gallia to left, holding cornucopia. Postumus standing left on right, sacrificing over altar and holding spear, facing Jupiter standing to left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Postumus standing left on right, stepping on captive, holding spear and holding hands of kneeling Gallia to left, holding cornucopia. Postumus standing left, holding globe and spear, being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm. Postumus standing left, holding globe and spear. Postumus standing left, holding spear and crowning trophy; captive seated either side of trophy. Postumus standing left, holding spear and wreath, being crowned by Hercules, holding club with lion skin. Postumus standing left, sacrificing over altar among witnesses. Postumus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Postumus standing left, sacrificing over altar; Mercury to left, holding purse and caduceus.

315
101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) Postumus standing right on left, holding scepter and holding hand of kneeling Orbis to left, holding cornucopia. Postumus standing right on left, holding scepter, shaking hands with Roma seated to right; shield to side. Postumus standing right, holding spear and crowning trophy; captive seated either side of trophy. Postumus standing right, holding spear and globe. Postumus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, raising hand towards flaming globe. Rhine lying left, resting hand on boat prow and cradling anchor. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding rudder. Salus standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding and feeding snake. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Salus standing to left, holding and feeding snake, facing Aesculapius to right, holding staff with snake coiled around it. Serapis standing left, raising hand and holding scepter. Serapis standing left, raising hand and holding scepter; galley prow to left. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol radiate, draped bust right. Sol, radiate bust right over Luna with crescent behind neck. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Standards (4) Temple with (4) columns, Hercules standing within, resting hand on club and holding lion skin. Triumphal arch, trophy with captive on either side above. Trophy; seated captive on either side. Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Victories (2) standing, facing each other, together holding shield on palm; seated captive on either side. Victory advancing left, holding branch and spear. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to left. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and spear. Victory advancing left, stepping on captive, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory bust right, holding wreath and palm over Felicitas, holding branch. Victory draped torso right, holding wreath and palm over Felicitas bust right, holding branch. Victory draped torso right, writing VOT / XX on shield. Victory riding biga left, holding whip. Victory riding biga right, holding whip. Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and trophy, captive on either side. Victory standing right on shield, holding wreath and palm; captive on either side. Victory standing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading X Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading VOT X Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading VO / XX Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading V X Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading Q Virtus advancing right, holding spear and shield. Virtus standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Weapons in a pile.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Colonia Agrippinensis Lugdunum Mediolanum

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) B03, O24, R151, T090 B09, O30, R146, T086 B11, O15, R154, T137 Exe: AVG B11, O28, R019, T012 B11, O28, R066, T089 B11, O28, R165, T085

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 15 RIC Vii 42 RIC Vii 276, C 145

AR Antoninianus
7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) B21, O24, R072, T049 B21, O24, R111, T009 B24, O15, R016, T140 B24, O15, R017, T140 B24, O15, R018, T011 B24, O15, R024, T013 B24, O15, R033, T121 B24, O15, R040, T121 B24, O15, R042, T028 B24, O15, R049, T033 B24, O15, R072, T049 B24, O15, R072, T049 B24, O15, R073, T048 B24, O15, R075, T020 Exe: AVG B24, O15, R081, T058 B24, O15, R086, T062 B24, O15, R086, T062 RIC Vii 310, C 160 RIC Vii 292, C 282 RIC Vii 287c, C 31 RIC Vii 288c, C 32a RIC Vii 299c, C 33 RIC Vii 58c RIC Vii 66c RIC Vii 67c RIC Vii 64c, C 91a RIC Vii 278c, C 158 RIC Vii 309c, C 159a RIC Vii 311c, C 161a RIC Vii 73c, C 167 RIC Vii 313c, C 192 RIC Vii 315c, C 199a RIC Vii 75c, C 199

316
24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) B24, O15, R089, T063 B24, O15, R091, T117 B24, O15, R092, T118 B24, O15, R093, T065 B24, O15, R093, T066 B24, O15, R093, T066 B24, O15, R095, T066 Exe: T B24, O15, R096, T067 B24, O15, R102, T091 B24, O15, R108, T055 B24, O15, R111, T009 B24, O15, R112, T143 B24, O15, R118, T106 B24, O15, R118, T106 B24, O15, R133, T098 B24, O15, R135, T006 B24, O15, R137, T003 B24, O15, R138, T003 B24, O15, R139, T113 B24, O15, R140, T109 B24, O15, R142, T115 B24, O15, R148, T125 B24, O15, R153, T128 B24, O15, R159, T148 B24, O15, R163, T034 B24, O19, R010, T017 Exe: S B24, O19, R028, T014 RIC Vii 76c, C 205 RIC Vii 316c, C 213c RIC Vii 317c, C 214 RIC Vii 219c, C 226 RIC Vii 219c, C 225 RIC Vii 318c, C 215 RIC Vii 381, C 228a RIC Vii 320, C 230a RIC Vii 54c, C 243 RIC Vii 57c, C 73a RIC Vii 291c, C 281 RIC Vii 295c, C 285 RIC Vii 221c, C 295a RIC Vii 323c, C 295a RIC Vii 83c, C 331 RIC Vii 326c, C 336 RIC Vii 327c, C 348 RIC Vii 328c, C 350 RIC Vii 87c RIC Vii 329c, C 360a RIC Vii 330c, C 365 RIC Vii 234c, C 386 RIC Vii 93c, C 419a RIC Vii 333, C 19b RIC Vii 373c, C 19a

AR Denarius
51) B30, O12, R005, T007

Reference(s)

AE Double Sestertius
52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) B24, O09, R034, T015 B24, O09, R040, T122 B24, O09, R042, T028 B24, O09, R075, T020 Exe: AVG B24, O09, R101, T091 B24, O09, R102, T095 S G across fields B24, O09, R155, T131 B24, O09, R159, T148 S in right field RIC Vii 123c RIC Vii 134, C 99 RIC Vii 135, C 106 RIC Vii 143c, C 179 RIC Vii 106c RIC Vii 169c, C 379 RIC Vii 179c, C 422

AE Sestertius
60) 61) B17, O17, R076, T020 Exe: SC B17, O17, R155, T128 RIC Vii 172, C 387

AE Dupondius
62) 63) B24, O09, R038, T124 B24, O15, R101, T095 RIC Vii 198, C 86 RIC Vii 188, C 252

AE As
64) B17, O15, R155, T126 RIC Vii 167

317
Postumus Busts

Postumus Types

318
Postumus Types (Continued)

319

Laelianus
Augustus 269
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Laureate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Laelianus was a usurper against Postumus, himself another usurper, who was unable to rout the incumbent when their forces met in battle. Laelianus thus had a tenure lasting from near the beginning of the year 269 through no later than that summer. Because of this short time there was little time for him to make much of a mark on history. His coins, however, are much sought after for their rarity. Take any ten or twenty thousand Roman coins at random and it wouldn’t be surprising if not a single one of them would be a Laelianus. He is even rare within the subset of Roman coins that includes only the rebel emperors based in Gaul. Hoards that contain thousands of coins from this period and region may list only a handful of Laeliani. With only the scantiest availability and many collectors interested in these emperors it’s a foregone conclusion that when they do become available for sale they are anything but cheap. Antoniniani have been spotted in the $1,000-$2,000 range but availability is severely limited.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) IMP C LAELIANVS PF AVG IMP C VLP COR LAELIANVS IMP C VLP CORN LAELIANVS IMP LAELIANVS PF AVG LAELIANVS AV

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) PAX AVG TEMPORVM FELICITAS VICTORIA AVG VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS MILITVM

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Hispania lying left, holding branch and resting arm on rabbit Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm branch Virtus holding standard and spear

Mint:
1) Colonia Agrippinensis

AU Aureus
1) B1, O1, R2, T1

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 1, C 2

AE Antoninianus
2) B2, O1, R3, T4 RIC Vii 9, C 4

Laelianus Busts

Laelianus Types

320
There's next to nothing to be said for Marius because his reign was so short. The historian Eutropius writing about a hundred years after his death records his reign as lasting all of three days. Aurelius Victor, another historian contemporary to Eutropius, has him murdered the following day. This is of Augustus 269 course hyperbole as evidenced in the fact that relatively many coins of him survive. The man was a blacksmith and how he made the jump from that lowly career to becoming an emperor, however short his tenure, should be worth its own "Movie of the Week" award. He succeeded Laelianus, another short-lived emperor, when the undisciplined troops under his command were told to hold their positions following an initially successful attack on barbarian-controlled Mainz. The soldiers wanted to recover war loot and wouldn't be held back by Laelianus so they murdered him and named the head rabble-rouser, Marius, as their next emperor.

Marius

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) IMP C M AVR MARIVS AVG IMP C M AVR MARIVS PF AVG IMP C MARIVS PF AVG

Difficult to find, expensive to purchase and usually unappealing to behold, the coins of Marius are eagerly sought after the world over. Being issued under what probably were emergency conditions it’s understandable that quality control during their striking was not the highest of priorities. Those Antoniniani that are left in the marketplace usually cost around $200 and up for a lousy wreck. A well-preserved coin can easily cost three times that much. More importantly, the problem transcends one of mere affordability. Locating a Marius is a hit-and-miss kind of thing with the various dealers in ancient coins. It might well be that if you’re after one your best bet is to have a dealer seek one on your behalf and then get back to you when it becomes available. Even glitzy auction catalogues list them on rather rare occasions.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) AEQVITAS AVG CONCORD MILIT CONCORDIA MILIT CONCORDIA MILITVM CONCORDIAE MILITVM FELICITAS AVG FIDES MILITVM SAEC FELICITAS SAECVLI FELICITAS TEMPORVM FELICITAS VICTORIA AVG VIRTVS AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding two standards Hands, in handshake Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, holding palm and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear.

Mint:
1) Colonia Agrippinensis

AU Aureus
1) B1, O2, R04, T4

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 1, C 3

AE Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) B3, O1, R11, T6 B4, O1, R11, T5 B4, O1, R11, T6 B4, O1, R12, T7 B4, O3, R04, T4 B4, O3, R08, T2 RIC Vii 17, C 19 RIC Vii 18 RIC Vii 17, C 19 RIC Vii 19, C 22 RIC Vii 7, C 4 RIC Vii 10, C 13

321
Marius Busts

Marius Types

Victorinus was a high-ranking commander during the secessionist regime of Postumus. After the brief accessions of Laelianus and Marius he himself was elevated as Augustus by the troops. While Victorinus was initially successful in bringing order after the chaotically implosive reigns of his two predecessors, the separate Augustus 269-271 empire's days were quickly waning. Spain withdrew its recognition of Victorinus and transferred its loyalty back to the forces of Claudius II and Rome. Then Victorinus himself died at the hands of one among his military staff, a certain Attianus, reputedly because he had seduced his wife. The fledgling empire would linger on for three more years under Tetricus and his son before being reabsorbed back into the greater empire.

Victorinus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) Helmeted, cuirassed bust left Laureate bust left of Victorinus over indeterminate bust left, draped Laureate bust left of Victorinus over Sol, radiate Laureate bust right Laureate bust right of Victorinus over Mars, laureate Laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, cuirassed torso right, holding spear and shield Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left Laureate, draped bust left Laureate, draped bust right of Victorinus over Laureate, draped bust of Mars Radiate bust right Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust left Radiate, draped bust left, holding spear and shield Radiate, draped bust right

Overall the coins of the Gallic emperors share several loose traits. First of all there is the style that is at once distinctive from the rest of the Roman empire but very similar from ruler to ruler. Then there is the fact that the mints were decentralized and apparently largely unregulated so that the quality of craftsmanship both on the dies used as well as the flans on which they were struck vary from the supremely artistic to the unskilled. In fact, it isn’t often easy to distinguish between official issues and the so-called barbarous imitative coins made by and for Romanized Celts. For Victorinus proper we may say that his coins are slightly scarcer than those of Tetricus who succeeds him and quite a bit less than those of Postumus, the last stable emperor. However, the collector in search of his coins will find that this relative scarcity is not enough to generally make a difference in price. A bigger test of patience will be locating coins that are well enough preserved to be collectable in the first place. For a filler-grade coin one need only look to the dregs available on Ebay with his name on it. Some of these coins go unsold at opening bids of $1.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) DIVO VICTORINO PIO IMP C M PIAVVONIVS VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP C PI VICTORINVS AVG IMP C PI VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP C PIA VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP C PIAV VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP C PIAVVONI VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP C VICTORINVS AVG IMP C VICTORINVS P AVG IMP C VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP CAES VICTORINVS PF AVG

322
12) 13) 14) 15) IMP PI VICTORINVS AVG IMP PIAV VICTORINVS AVG IMP PIAVVONIVS VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP VICTORINVS AVG 16) 17) 18) 19) IMP VICTORINVS PF AVG IMP VICTORINVS PIVS AVG VICTORINVS AVG VICTORINVS PF AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) ADIVTRIX AVG ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG COMES AVG CONCORD EQVIT CONSACRATIO CONSECRATIO COS II DEFENSOR ORBIS FELICITAS AVG FIDES MILITVM FORT REDVX FORTVNA AVG INDVLGENTIA AVG INVICTVS INVICTVS AVG IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI STATORI LAETITIA AVG LEG II AVGVSTA P F LEG II TRAIANA P F LEG III GALLICA LEG IIII FLAVIA P F LEG PRIMA MINERVINA P F LEG V MACIDONICA P F LEG X FRETENSIS P F LEG X GEMINA P F LEG XIII GEMINA LEG XIII GEMINA P F 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) LEG XX VAL VICTRIX P F LEG XXII P F LEG XXII PRIMIGENIE LEG XXX VLP VICT P F LEG XXX VLPIA PIA F MARS VICTOR MONIT AVG ORIENS AVG PAX AVG PIETAS AVG PM TR P II COS II PP PM TR P III COS II PP PM TR P III COS III PP PROVID AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG ROMAE AETERNAE SAECVLI FELICITAC SAECVLI FELICITAS SALVS AVG SECVRITAS AVGG SPES PVBLICA TEMPOR FELICIT VBERTAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA V C S AVG VIRTVS AVG VOTA AVGVSTI

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) Abundantia standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding baby on lap; rudder to left. Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Boar standing left Bull advancing right. Concordia standing left, holding patera and rudder. Eagle perched on column with wreath in beak. Eagle perched on globe, with wreath in beak; capricornus to left. Eagle perched on globe, with wreath in beak; standard to either side. Eagle perched on globe. Felicitas standing left, holding branch and scepter. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae. Hercules advancing left, holding club. Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and holding bow with lion skin Hercules standing, facing, resting hand on hip and holding club with lion skin; capricornus to left. Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt; capricornus to left. Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt; captive by feet. Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Lion advancing left Lions (2) facing each other, Minerva helmeted bust right above and in between. Luna bust right, holding bow and pulling arrow from quiver Luna standing left, resting hand on deer and holding scepter. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars helmeted bust right Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding incense box. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Roma helmeted, draped bust right over Luna, holding bow Roma helmeted, draped bust right. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas seated left, holding scepter. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol diademed, bust right facing Luna diademed bust left, holding bow. Sol radiate bust right Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Ubertas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Victorinus riding horse left over enemy. Victorinus riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. Victorinus standing left, holding globe and spear. Victorinus standing left, sacrificing over altar. Victorinus to left, holding hand of kneeling Indulgentia to right, holding cornucopia.

323
48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) Victorinus to left, receiving globe from Roma seated to left; soldier in background. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory sacrificing over altar and holding trophy. Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and cornucopia. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath; ram to right. Victory torso right, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Colonia Agrippinensis Gaul, uncertain localities Treveri

AU Aureus
1) B04, O11, R04, T54

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 94, C 16

AE Antoninianus
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) B16, O10, R39, T29 B17, O10, R39, T29 B17, O10, R44, T32 B17, O10, R48, T36 B17, O10, R48, T36 B18, O06, R04, T50 B18, O06, R11, T12 B18, O06, R38, T28 B18, O10, R15, T38 * in left field B18, O10, R38, T28 V in left field, * in right field B18, O10, R48, T35 B18, O10, R50, T41 B18, O10, R55, T58 RIC Vii 57, C 90 RIC Vii 61 RIC Vii 122, C 112 RIC Vii 67 RIC Vii 107 RIC Vii 109, C 36 RIC Vii 117, C 83 RIC Vii 114, C 49 RIC Vii 118, C 79 RIC Vii 71 RIC Vii 73, C 120 RIC Vii 78, C 131

Victorinus Busts

Victorinus Types

324
Only very recently has the identity of this extremely obscure emperor been confirmed. In the year 1900 a coin bearing the legend IMP C DOMITIANVS PF AVG was discovered in a rural area of France and given the unusual nature of the find quickly written off as a forgery. In February of 2004 the British Museum Augustus 271 announced that their own team had restored a coin among 5,000 others that had solidified together and been found recently as a single lump by a metal detectorist. The coin again bore the same legend and this time there was no denying that the emperor did in fact exist and that the earlier coin was genuine.

Domitian II

Straddling the short reign of Victorinus and that of Tetricus it now appears that in the wake of Victorinus's murder a power struggle emerged and Domitian, a general, was hailed emperor by his subordinates. Politically, however, Victoria (the mother of Victorinus) had much more influence and somehow managed to suppress Domitian's bid and place her son on the throne instead. In all, Domitian probably enjoyed his precious Augustus title for only a few days. Bust:
1) Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Obverse:
1) IMP C DOMITIANVS PF AVG

With there being all of two coins known for this emperor, both of them in museums, the acquisition of one of these for a collector is about as hopeless a pursuit as pining away for an undiscovered Van Gogh. Given that only one coin out of that mass of 5,000 was of this Domitian odds are that in the year 271 these coins were instant rarities. Therefored only other as-yet undiscovered large hoards provide any realistic hope of future discoveries.

Reverse:
1) CONCORDIA MILITVM

Type:
1) Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.

Mint:
1) Gaul (Colonia Agrippinensis?)

AE Antoninianus
1) B1, O1, R1, T1

Reference(s)

325
Tetricus was governor of Acquitaine in Gaul when Victorinus, the emperor of this secessionist region, was murdered. Victorinus' mother, who evidently had a certain degree of influence in the army, then appointed the Governor to emperor. The reign of Tetricus was potmarked by a string of battles against loyalist Augustus 271-274 Romans, other secessionist states, would-be crown usurpers and barbarians. It all finally ended when Tetricus arranged for surrender to the forces of Aurelian in exchange for his life. The plot was carried off and Aurelian subsequently pardoned him as well as appointed him to office either as governor of Lucania or as corrector of Italy. Contemporary historians relate how the two former adversaries retained a strong friendship.

Tetricus I

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Laureate bust right of Tetricus I, bareheaded bust left of Tetricus II Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust left holding scepter over shoulder and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

As a whole, the coins of Tetricus I (and his son too) are easily available and cheap. The problem is that finding coins of either of these guys in desirable condition can be a challenge. By the closing years of the Gallic empire the coins were produced with wild carelessness and of very low grade metal. The dies, particularly obverse dies, were typically used until they were worn smooth or broke apart under ceaseless hammering. This left mint state coins nearly unrecognizable even back then. Add in over a dozen centuries of weathering and it’s understandable that nice coins are hard to come by. To complicate matters, many of the coins for this reign were minted in territories nominally under Tetricus’s control but more or less autonomous. The people who lived in these areas struck their own coins imitating the “official” Tetricus issues as best they could. These barbarous coins, as they’re now termed, range in style and workmanship from the good to the abominable and, unfortunately, often blend elements of the official coinage so close that telling the two apart is an academic exercise of little consequence.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) IMP C C P ESV TETRICVS AVG IMP C C P ESVVIVS TETRICVS AVG IMP C P ESV TETRICVS AVG IMP C P ESVVIVS TETRICVS AVG IMP C TETRICVS IMP C TETRICVS AVG IMP C TETRICVS P AVG IMP C TETRICVS PF AV IMP C TETRICVS PF AVG IMP C TETRICVS PIVS AVG IMP TETRICI AVGG IMP TETRICVS IMP TETRICVS AVG IMP TETRICVS P AVG IMP TETRICVS PF AVG IMP TETRICVS PIVS AVG IMPP TETRICI AVGG No Legend

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) ABVNDANTIA ABVNDANTIA AVG ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG AEQVITAS AVGG V AETERNIT AVG AETERNITAS AVGG CARITAS AVGG COMES AVG COMIT AVG CONCORD CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGG CONSACRATIO CONSECR CONSECRA CONSECRATIO CONSERVAT AVG COS III FECVNDITAS FELICIT AVG FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS PVBLICA FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA AVG FORTVNA REDVX HILARITAS HILARITAS AVG HILARITAS AVGG IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG IMP C VICTORINVS PF AVG INVICTVS

34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59)

IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI STATORI IOVI VICTORI LAETITIA AVG LAETITIA AVG N LAETITIA AVGG LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERALITAS AVGG MARS VICTOR MONETA AVG NEPTVNO CONS AVG NOBILITAS AVGG ORIENS AVG ORIENS AVGG P I TETRICVS C PA PVBLIC PAX AETERNA PAX AVG PAX AVGG PIETAS AVG PIETAS AVGG PIETAS AVGVSTO PM TR P COS III PP PM TR P COS PP PM TR P I COS PP PM TR P II COS PP

326
60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) PM TR P III COS II PP PM TR P III COS PP PRINC IVVENT PRO AVG PROVID AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG ROMAE AETERNAE SAEC FELICITAS SAECVLI FELICITAS SALVS AVG SALVS AVGG SPES AVG SPES AVGG SPES PVBLICA 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) TVTELA VBERITAS AVGG VBERTAS AVG VICTORIA VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA AVG I VICTORIA AVG IIII VICTORIA AVGG VICTORIA GERM VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGG VIRTVTI AVGVSTI VOTA PVBLICA

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) Abundantia standing left, holding grain ears and cornucopia Abundantia standing left, pouring cornucopia Abundantia standing right, pouring cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopiae Aeternitas standing left, holding phoenix on globe and holding robe Altar Altar, Concordia standing by holding patera and cornucopia Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Eagle Felicitas sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus Felicitas standing left with crossed legs, leaning on column and holding caduceus Felicitas standing left, holding patera and cornucopia Felicitas standing, facing, holding caduceus and cornucopia Feunditas standing left, holding two babies and two babies by feet Fides standing left, holding standard and scepter Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand Fortuna seated left on wheel, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia Hercules standing right, leaning on club; lion skin lying on rock. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia, child on either side. Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia, two children on either side. Hilaritas standing left, holding wreath and leaning on scepter. Hippocamp advancing right. Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and spear Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter, Tetricus to lower left. Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter Laetitia standing left, holding patera and rudder, child on right. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor Laetitia standing left, pouring cornucopia into vase Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia Liberalitas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mars standing left, holding branch and spear Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopiae Nobilitas standing right, hold spear and globe. Galley prow by feet. Pax standing left, holding anchor and feeding serpent on altar Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding broken bow and cornucopiae Pax standing left, holding palm and cornucopiae Pax standing left, holding patera and scepter, facing snake. Pax standing left, holding scale and two cornucopiae Pax standing left, holding wreath and rudder Pietas standing left, holding branch and cornucopiae Pietas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding box Providentia standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae Providentia standing left, holding wand and cornucopiae, globe by feet. Providentia standing left, holding wand and cornucopiae. Roma seated left by shield, holding Victory and spear. Sacrificial implements: aspergillum, simpulum, cruet, lituus (variously arranged) Sacrificial implements: cruet Sacrificial implements: cruet with a lituus on either side Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding rudder. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter. Salus standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Salus standing left, holding wreath and anchor; altar by feet. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding globe. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol standing right Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt Spes standing left, holding flower and palm Spes standing left, holding patera and scepter Tetricus I and Tetricus II, facing each other, jointly holding Victory on globe Tetricus I handing over globe to Tetricus II, both holding scepter, altar in between. Tetricus I riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter Tetricus I sacrificing over altar, standing next to Tetricus II, holding globe and being crowned by Victory. Tetricus I seated left, holding branch and scepter Tetricus I seated left, holding globe and scepter Tetricus I standing left, holding globe and parazonium; seated captive to left. Tetricus I standing left, holding globe and scepter

327
71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) Tetricus I standing left, holding wand and scepter Tetricus I standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Tetricus I standing right, holding spear and globe Tetricus I standing right, stepping on globe, holding spear and parazonium. Tutela standing left, holding patera and spear Uberitas standing left, holding grapes and cornucopiae Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and trophy Victory advancing right, trampling enemy, holding wreath and trophy Victory crowning globe held by Tetricus, captive by feet Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, in front of altar, holding wreath and palm Victory standing right, holding trophy Virtus seated left, holding branch and spear. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Virtus standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Colonia Agrippinensis Gaul Treveri

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) B4, O16, R83, T69 B5, O13, R83, T69 B6, O09, R60, T74 B6, O09, R83, T84

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 41, C 205 RIC Vii 7, C 130 RIC Vii 21, C 202

AE Antoninianus
5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) B7, O09, R29, T20 B7, O09, R78, T77 B7, O13, R24, T16 B7, O15, R29, T20 B7, O15, R39, T29 B7, O15, R49, T38 B7, O15, R70, T53 B8, O06, R22, T12 B8, O06, R24, T16 B8, O09, R09, T81 B8, O09, R51, T36 B8, O09, R70, T53 B8, O09, R70, T53 B8, O09, R73, T60 B8, O09, R84, T85 B8, O15, R09, T77 RIC Vii 79 RIC Vii 141 RIC Vii 71, C 43 RIC Vii 80 RIC Vii 88 RIC Vii 127f, C 152 RIC Vii 69 RIC Vii 56, C 17 RIC Vii 100, C 95 RIC Vii 126c, C 154 RIC Vii 128 RIC Vii 136 RIC Vii 148 RIC Vii 57

Tetricus I Busts

328
Tetricus I Types

Tetricus II
Caesar c.273-274
bearing a legend ending in AVG. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Bareheaded, draped bust right Bare-headed, draped bust right, wearing imperial mantle Radiate head right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust left Radiate, draped bust right

Son of Tetricus I. He shared in the pardon of his father and is said to have later been given the position of Senator in which he served with distinction. He may also have been promoted to the rank of co-augustus shortly before the two capitulated to Aurelian. The evidence rests on a coin or two featuring his portrait (distinguished by the lack of beard as opposed to his father’s portrait)

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) C P E TETRICVS CAES C P E TETRICVS CES C P ES TETRICVS CAES C P ESV TETRICVS CAES C P ESV TETRICVS CAES C P TETRICVS CAE C P TETRICVS CAE CES C P TETRICVS CAES CES C PI ES TETRICVS CAE C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES C PIV TETRICVS A C PIV TETRICVS P AVG C PV TETRICVS CAES C PV ESV TETRICVS CAES PIV ESV TETRICVS AVGG PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES

What goes for Tetricus I goes for II as well. The interesting point to ponder is whether he made it to emperor or stayed Caesar until his father’s abdication. One could make an argument that the title was conferred shortly before based on the few coins of his with AVGs in their legends. Or perhaps this was all due to the general apathy towards the dies in their preparation. Either way, historians of the day say nothing of the subject and consider it enough to state that they both surrendered to Aurelian. Just about the only coins for Tetricus (either Tetricus) will be the Antoninianus. Initially, under Caracalla and until around the early 250’s, these coins were silver coins about twice the size of the old Denarius. But by the time the Tetricus pair are making them they have shrunk to the size of a Denarius, often smaller and thinner, and made of a metal that quickly turned black or dark brown. For this reason it will be nearly impossible to find a Tetricus that still looks white and “new”. Even more challenging will be to find one whose both sides retain sharp details. Typically, the reverse die was used til worn nearly flat. So forgetting about those nonexistent gem coins one is left more often than not with a thin, black, ratty coin with a worn reverse. Price for these, thankfully, should be only a few dollars.

329
Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) AEQVITAS AVG COM IMP AVG COMES AVG COMES AVGG COMOLVTETIO CONSECRATIO FELICITAS AVG FIDES MILITVM HERC COMITI HILARI AVGG HILARITAS AVGG HILARITAS AVGG INVICTVS IOVI STATORI LAETITIA AVG LAETITIA AVG N 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) LAETITIA AVGG LAETITIA AVGVSTI LATITIA AVG MARS VICTOR MONETA NOBILITAS AVGG ORIENS AVG PAX AVG PAX AVGG PIETAS AVGG PIETAS AVGVS PIETAS AVGVSTO PIETAS AVGVSTOR PIETAS AVSTO PRINC IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS PROVID AVG 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA AVGG SALVS AVG SALVS AVGG SOLI CONSER SPEI PERPETVAE SPES AVGG SPES PVBLICA VBERITAS AVG VBERTAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VIRTVS AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Altar Centaur holding bow Eagle Felicitas standing left, child on either side. Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia; child to either side of her. Hilaritas standing left, holding wreath and anchor Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Minerva sacrificing over altar and holding spear Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Nobilitas standing, holding scepter and globe Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding palm and cornucopia Pax standing left, holding scepter Pax standing, holding two standards Sacrificial implements: lituus, cruet, simpulum, etc. (variously arranged) Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter Providentia standing left, holding wand and cornucopia Salus standing left, feeding snake in altar and holding rudder. Salus standing left, holding and feeding snake Salus standing left, holding branch and anchor Salus standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding anchor Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Temple, Hercules within Tetricus II standing left, holding branch and scepter Tetricus II standing left, holding patera and scepter Tetricus II standing left, holding standard in each hand Tetricus II standing left, holding wand and standard Tetricus II standing right, holding spear and globe Uberitas holding grapes and cornucopia Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm Virtus standing, holding spear and resting hand on shield.

Mints:
1) 2) Gaul, various localities Treveri

AE Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) B5, O10, R40, T28 B6, O01, R26, T19 B6, O01, R28, T19 B6, O10, R24, T20 B6, O10, R30, T30 B6, O10, R40, T28 B6, O10, R41, T28 B6, O14, R40, T28

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 255, C 48 RIC Vii 259, C 60 RIC Vii 260, C 62 RIC Vii 270, C 88 RIC Vii 272, C 97

330
Tetricus II Busts

Tetricus II Types

Quietus
Augustus 261
before he, too, was located and executed. Busts:
1) 2) 3) Laureate bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Quietus ascended the throne at the same time as his brother Macrianus following the capture of Valerian, the former emperor. However, after Macrianus and his army were unable to defeat the forces of Gallienus he saw his support base dissipate and he fled his post. The troops of Gallienus were able to track him down and execute him soon after thus ending his brief reign. Quietus survived him scarcely any more time

Obverse:
1) IMP C FVL QVIETVS PF AVG

Quietus appears with modest frequency among the offerings of ancient coin dealers. With the exception of some extreme rarities the coins will all be relatively poor condition Antoniniani. Because they were minted exclusively in the Middle East these coins often sport attractive “sandy patinas” that enhance the contrast of the details. Condition being the key in determining value, one of these Ants will go anywhere from about $100 to over $300.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) AEQVITAS AVGG AEQVTAS AVG AEQVTAS AVGG APOLINI CONSERVA APOLLINI CONSERVA FORT REDVX INDVLGENTIAE AVG INDVLGNTIAE AVG IOVI CONSERVATORI MARTI PROPVGNATORI PIETAS AVG ROMAE AETERNAE SOL INVICTO SPES PVBLICA VICTORIA AVGG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre Fortuna seated left on wheel, holding rudder and cornucopia Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and scepter Jupiter seated left, holding patera and scepter; eagle to left by feet. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield. Pietas standing left, holding purse and caduceus Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear; eagle to left

331
9) 10) 11) 12) Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm

Mint:
1) Antioch

AU Aureus
1) B1, O1, R15, T11

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 1

AE Antoninianus
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) B3, O1, R03, T01 * in left field B3, O1, R04, T02 * in left field B3, O1, R07, T04 * in left field B3, O1, R09, T05 B3, O1, R12, T08 Exe: •• and * in left field B3, O1, R13, T09 * in left field B3, O1, R14, T10 * in left field RIC Vii 2, C 1 RIC Vii 3 RIC Vii 5 RIC Vii 6, C 8 RIC Vii 9, C 11b RIC Vii 10, C 12a RIC Vii 11, C 14a

AE As
9) B1, O1, R03, T01 * in left field RIC Vii 13, C 2

Quietus Busts

Quietus Types

332
The story of Macrianus is intimately connected with that of his brother Quietus. The two were sons of Macrianus Sr. who was one of Valerian's highest-ranked generals. After Valerian was kidnapped by a Persian king whom he was seeing on business of discussing war settlements the elder Macrianus chased the Augustus 261 Persians away and the soldiers offered him the post of Augustus. He, in turn, declined and bestowed the titles jointly upon Macrianus Jr. and Quietus. It was decided that Macrianus would now lead an expedition to depose Gallienus back in Rome while Quietus would stay in the east to secure the region against any Persian reprisals. Macrianus's army suffered a defeat and the troops loyal to Gallienus gave chase to a fleeing Quietus who was eventually captured and executed. All coins from eastern mints, imperial issues only from Antioch.

Macrianus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Obverse:
1) IMP C FVL MACRIANVS PF AVG

For being an usurper and having a coin-striking season lasting perhaps less than a full year, the coins of Macrianus are relatively easy to find. That is, so long as your expectation stretches no farther than a so-so condition Antoninianus of very low grade silver. With that one caveat, you may expect to pay about $100 for the average coin with premium coins doubling or tripling that amount.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) AEQVITAS AVGG AEQVTAS AVGG APOLINI CONSERVA CONSERVATRICI AVG FORT REDVX INDVLGENTIAE AVG IOVI CONSERVATORI MARTI PROPVGNATORI ROMAE AETERNAE SOL INVICTO SPES PVBLICA VICTORIA AVGG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Apollo standing left, holding branch and resting hand on lyre. Diana standing right, holding bow; deer to side. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair. Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and scepter. Jupiter seated left, holding patera and scepter; eagle to left. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm.

Mint:
1) Antioch

AE Aureus
1) B1, O1, R09, T09

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 2, C10

AE Antoninianus
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) B4, O1, R02, T01 * in left field B4, O1, R02, T01 B4, O1, R03, T02 B4, O1, R06, T06 * in left field B4, O1, R07, T07 * in left field B4, O1, R08, T08 B4, O1, R09, T09 * in left field RIC Vii 5, C1 RIC Vii 5, C1 RIC Vii 6, C 2 RIC Vii 8, C 6 RIC Vii 9, C 8 RIC Vii 10, C 9 RIC Vii 11, C 11

333
9) 10) 11) 12) B4, O1, R09, T09 B4, O1, R10, T10 B4, O1, R10, T10 * in left field B4, O1, R11, T11 RIC Vii 11, C 11 RIC Vii 12, C 12 RIC Vii 12, C 12 RIC Vii 13, C 13

Macrianus Busts

Macrianus Types

334

Claudius II
Augustus 268-270
promptly executed.

Claudius was apparently one of the principal conspirators who instigated a lethal mutiny against Gallienus during his siege against the usurper Aureolus. His claim that Gallienus designated him his heir in his deathbed and absent any credible witnesses led many to doubt the story. Regardless, Claudius rose to power and quelled any discontent over Gallienus's fate by giving each soldier the princely sum of 20 Aurei and locating Aureolus who was

The controversial accession besides, Claudius proved a remarkably able battlefield commander and he earned the nickname Gothicus following the devastating blow he dealt to the Goths; accounts of which had the battle ending with some 50,000 barbarians of this tribe being killed. Before he had much time to secure more honorary titles for himself, however, he contracted plague and died in Sirmium two years later. The Senate dutifully praised and deified him afterwards as one of the greatest emperors ever. Contemporary historians linked his family to that of Constantine and evidently his memory was still popular enough half a century later that Constantine would be able to exploit the public relations value of this link through a series of coins minted honoring his alleged dead ancestor. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) Helmeted, cuirassed bust left Laureate head left Laureate head right Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate bust left Radiate bust left, holding globe and scepter Radiate bust left, holding scepter Radiate head left Radiate head right Radiate torso left, holding globe and scepter Radiate torso left, holding spear and shield Radiate torso right, holding spear Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, raising hand and holding globe Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust left Radiate, draped bust left, holding shield Radiate, draped bust left, holding spear Radiate, draped bust right Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Veiled, laureate head right

Claudius takes over during turbulent years. Coins are being made by the millions but quality control has sunk to its lowest level yet ensuring that these coins deteriorated soon after entering circulation. And what does this leave for those that have had to endure another 1,600 years? While the gold coinage escapes the poor quality control issues there are so few of them that the point is moot for the vast majority of collectors. This leaves only the sorry Antoninianus as representative of this emperor. The Ants had been suffering a steady decline in their fineness ever since their inception under Caracalla a half century before. By the 250’s there was so little silver in them that they no longer looked “silvery” or did so only briefly before corrosion and wear revealed them for being the essentially copper coins that they really were. Under the reign of Gallienus, or perhaps that of Claudius II, a new process of silver washing was developed to at least keep the appearance that these were silver coins still worth, in theory, two Denarii. This coating measured a meager few thousandths of an inch and wore or flaked off quickly on the high points of the coin. Only a brand new coin buried in a protective container could survive to this day with this silvering intact. And while they’re available today they are rare and expensive. The process of silvering the Ants lasted until Diocletian’s reform a few years later. During this period, and certainly including Claudius, Ants will be readily available with partial silvering but unless a substantial amount survives they carry no premium over an otherwise patinated coin. Low grade coins may be found among “uncleaned” coins or dealer’s “junk bins” for a few dollars each. Nicer specimens quickly escalate in price.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) CLAVDIVS AVG CLAVDIVS PF AVG CLAVDIVS PIVS AVG INV DIVO CLAVDIO DIVO CLAVDIO GOTHICO DIVO CLAVDIO OPT IMP DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO IMP DIVVS CLAVDIVS OPT IMP IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG IMP C CLAVDIVS PF AVG IMP C M AVR CLAVDIVS AVG IMP C M AVR CLAVDIVS PF AVG IMP C M AVREL CLAVDIVS PF AVG IMP C V CLAVDIVS AVG IMP CLAVDIVS AVG IMP CLAVDIVS CAES AVG IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) ABVNDANTIA AVG ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG AETER AVG AETERNIT AVG AETERNITAS AVG ANNONA AVG APOLLI CONS APOLLINI CONS APOLLINI P CONS

335
11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) CERES AVG CONCO EXERC CONCOR AVG CONCOR EXER CONCOR EXERC CONCOR EXERCI CONCORD EXER CONCORD LEGI CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA EXERCITVS CONSACRATIO CONSAECRATIO CONSECR AVG CONSECRATIO CONSER AVG CONSERVAT AVG CONSERVAT PIETAT CONSERVATORES AVG COS III DACIA FELIX DEO CABIRO DIANA LVCIF DIANAE CONS AVG DIANAE VICTR FECVND AVG FECVNDITAS AVG FELIC AVG FELIC TEMPO FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS SAECVL FID MILITVM FIDES AVG FIDES EXERCI FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA RED FORTVNA REDVX FORTVNAE RED FORTVNAE REDVCI GENIVS AVG GENIVS EXERCI GENIVS POPVLI 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) HILARITAS AVGG INVICTVS AVG IOVI CONSERV AVG IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI FVLGERAT IOVI STATORI IOVI VICTORI IVNO REGINA IVVENTAS AVG IVVENTVS AVG LAETITIA AVG LAETITIA AVG N LIBERAL AVG LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERITAS AVG LIBERO CONS AVG LIBERT AVG LIBERTAS AVG MARS VICTOR MARS VLTOR MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIFERO MARTI VICTORI MEMORIAE AETERNAE MINERVA AVG MONETA AVG NEPTVN AVG NEPTVS AVG ORIENS AVG PAX AET PAX AETERNA PAX AVG PAX AVGVSTI PAX EXERC PIETAS PIETAS AVG PM TR P II COS PP PM TR P O PP PROVENTI AVG PROVI AVG PROVID AVG PROVIDEN AVG 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) PROVIDENT AVG PROVIDENTIA AVG REGI ARTIS REQVIES OPT MER REQVIES OPTIMOR MERIT REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM ROMAE AETERNAE SALVS AVG SALVS AVGG SECVRIT AVG SECVRITAS PERPETVA SOL AVG SOLI CONS AVG SPES AVG SPES PVBLIC SPES PVBLICA TEMPORVM FELI TEMPORVM FELIC VBERITAS AVG VBERTAS AVG VENVS AVG VICTOR GERMAN VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA GERMAN VICTORIA GERMANIC VICTORIA GM VICTORIAE GOTHIC VIRT AVG VIRTVS AVG VIRTVSS AVG VIRTVS AVGVSTI VIRTVS CLAVDI AVG VIRTVTI AVGVSTI VOTA ORBIS No legend

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) Abundantia standing right, pouring out cornucopia Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aesculapius standing left, holding scepter with snake coiled around it. Altar Altar, lit. Annona standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding grain ears and cornucopia. Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on rock. Cabirus standing right, holding hammer and nails Ceres standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Claudius II advancing left, holding scepter and globe. Claudius II advancing right, holding scepter and globe. Claudius II riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter. Claudius II riding horse right, spearing barbarians Claudius II seated left, holding scepter Claudius II standing left, holding branch and scepter. Claudius II standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter. Claudius II standing to left, holding scepter, facing Fortuna to right, holding rudder and cornucopia. Claudius II standing to right, holding scepter and hand of kneeling Pietas. Concordia standing left, holding standard and cornucopia. Concordia standing, facing, holding standard in each hand. Concordiae (2) facing each other, each holding a torch and grain ears. Dacia standing left, holding staff with donkey head atop Deer advancing right. Diana standing right, holding torch Diana standing right, pulling arrow from quiver and holding bow; deer to right. Diana standing right on left, pulling arrow from quiver and holding bow, facing Apollo to right, holding branch and resting hand on lyre. Eagle standing left Fecunditas standing left, touching child on head and holding cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter Fides standing left, holding standard and scepter Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand Fides standing left, holding vexillum and scepter Fides standing right, holding standard in each hand. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia Fortuna standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia Funeral pyre Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Hercules standing, facing, resting hand on club and holding apple. Hercules standing right, resting hand on hip and holding club with lion skin.

336
43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) Hilaritas standing, holding palm and cornucopia; another cornucopia to right Isis standing left, holding sistrum and basket. Isis standing right on left, holding sistrum and basket, facing Serapis to right, holding scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to lower left. Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter; Claudius II to lower right, holding scepter. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and cornucopia. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia. Lion advancing right Mars advancing right, holding branch and spear Mars advancing right, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear. Mars standing left, holding branch. Mars standing left, holding parazonium and spear. Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus. Monetae (3) standing, facing, each holding a scale and cornucopia. Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident. Panther advancing left Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing right, holding branch and scepter. Pegasus advancing right Pietas standing left, holding patera and spear. Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter; shield to side. Roma seated left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter. Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake Salus standing to left, holding and feeding snake, facing Aesculapius to right, holding staff with snake coiled around it. Saturn standing left, holding scepter and scythe. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding caduceus. Serapis standing left, raising hand and holding scepter Serapis standing right on left, holding scepter, facing Isis to right, holding sistrum and basket Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe. Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol standing right, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing right on left, raising hand and holding whip, facing Luna (Diana) to right, holding torch Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt Spes standing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Table with vase atop Temple; Roma within, holding Victory and spear. Trophy; seated captive on either side. Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Venus standing left, holding helmet and cradling spear; shield to right Victories (2) standing, facing each other, holding together shield on palm reading SC. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm Victory standing left, resting hand on shield and holding palm; two captives to left. Virtus advancing right, holding spear and trophy Virtus standing left, holding branch and spear; shield to left Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield Vulcan standing right on left, holding hammer and nails, facing Minerva to right, resting hand on shield and holding spear. Vulcan standing right, holding hammer and tongs Wolf standing right, suckling Romulus and Remus

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Antioch Cyzicus Mediolanum 4) 5) 6) Roma Siscia Thessalonica

AU Medallion
1) B13, O04, R020, T020

Reference(s)
8 Aurei weight

AU Aureus
2) B16, O02, R123, T106

337
AE Antoninianus
3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) B09, O10, R003, T002 B09, O10, R025, T088 B09, O10, R102, T007 B09, O10, R102, T026 B09, O10, R102, T044 B09, O10, R106, T089 B10, O16, R039, T029 B10, O16, R043, T032 B10, O16, R045, T033 ` in right field B10, O16, R047, T036 - in right field B10, O16, R050, T040 ` in right field B10, O16, R089, T011 D in right field B10, O16, R113, T099 ` in right field B10, O17, R003, T002 B10, O17, R040, T029 B10, O17, R117, T102 B10, O18, R093, T077 Exe: ` B10, O18, R110, T095 Exe: ` B15, O10, R002, T012 B15, O10, R003, T002 B15, O10, R007, T006 B15, O10, R039, T029 B15, O10, R043, T032 B15, O10, R059, T050 B15, O10, R066, T055 B15, O10, R095, T078 B15, O10, R102, T081 B15, O10, R110, T094 B15, O10, R117, T104 B15, O12, R115, T100 Exe: SPQR B15, O12, R121, T098 Exe: SPQR B15, O16, R005, T090 B15, O16, R007, T006 B15, O16, R063, T054 ` in right field B15, O16, R069, T056 X in right field B15, O16, R108, T095 ` in left field B15, O16, R113, T099 B15, O16, R114, T099 B15, O16, R117, T104 B15, O18, R048, T035 Exe: ` B16, O12, R127, T042 B17, O10, R003, T002 Exe: • B17, O10, R084, T072 B17, O10, R095, T078 B17, O10, R097, T111 B17, O10, R102, T081 B17, O13, R102, T044 B17, O16, R003, T002 B17, O18, R045, T031 B17, O18, R047, T035 B17, O18, R081, T091 B17, O18, R121, T098 B17, O18, R121, T098 Exe: SPQR B17, O18, R123, T108 B21, O10, R003, T002 Exe: H B21, O10, R025, T087 Exe: ` B21, O10, R034, T025 B21, O10, R039, T029 B21, O10, R042, T065 B21, O10, R051, T039 B21, O10, R058, T049 B21, O10, R059, T050 B21, O10, R060, T047 Exe: • B21, O10, R060, T047 Exe: ` B21, O10, R062, T041 Exe: ` B21, O10, R072, T060 B21, O10, R079, T067 Exe: ` B21, O10, R102, T007 Exe: • B21, O10, R110, T095 B21, O10, R123, T107 B21, O10, R123, T109 Exe: ` B21, O12, R064, T053 M C across fields B21, O12, R083, T072 Exe: SPQR B21, O12, R129, T112 Exe: SPQR B21, O13, R123, T107 B21, O16, R046, T035 B21, O16, R094, T077 ` in right field B21, O17, R046, T035 ` in right field B21, O18, R038, T030 Exe: ` B21, O18, R044, T032 Exe: ` B21, O18, R081, T092 Exe: ` B21, O18, R084, T069 Exe: ` B21, O18, R117, T103 Exe: ` B21, O18, R123, T106 Exe: `

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 197l, C 8 RIC Vi 219l, C 260 RIC Vi 217l RIC Vi 221l RIC Vi 33 RIC Vi 41k RIC Vi 46k, C 109 RIC Vi 12k, C 216 RIC Vi 193k, C 286 RIC Vi 179k RIC Vi 163k RIC Vi 168k, C 227 RIC Vi 13f, C 4 RIC Vi 14f, C 7 RIC Vi 18f, C 21 RIC Vi 34f, C 84 RIC Vi 54f, C 129 RIC Vi 57f, C 144 RIC Vi 91f, C 230 RIC Vi 98f RIC Vi 102f RIC Vi 104f, C 293 Obv Exe: •• RIC Vi 16f, C 16 RIC Vi 19f, C 22 RIC Vi 181f, C 139 RIC Vi 63f, C 152 RIC Vi 191f RIC Vi 193f RIC Vi 103f RIC Vi 151f C 198 RIC Vi 91c RIC Vi 215a, C 239 Zachary Beasley collection RIC Vi 15c, C 10 C 93 C 204 Obv Exe: •• Obv Exe: •• RIC Vi 197a, C 6 RIC Vi 201a, C 58 RIC Vi 205a, C 67 RIC Vi 32a RIC Vi 207a RIC Vi 48a, C 114 RIC Vi 52a RIC Vi 53a RIC Vi 212, C 235 RIC Vi 213a, C 137 RIC Vi 66a RIC Vi 214a, C 183 RIC Vi 216a RIC Vi 102a, C 281 RIC Vi 109a RIC Vi 225a, C 317 RIC Vi 235a, C 142 RIC Vi 237a, C 195 RIC Vi 40a RIC Vi 145a, C 74 RIC Vi 149, C 88 RIC Vi 153a, C 185 RIC Vi 157a, C 202 RIC Vi 171a, C 302 RIC Vi 172a, C 315

Obv Exe: •••

338
AE Antoninianus (Posthumous)
87) 88) 89) 90) B10, O04, R021, T005 B10, O04, R024, T005 B10, O04, R024, T027 B21, O04, R024, T005 Obv Exe: •

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 261k RIC Vi 266k RIC Vi 261a

AE Medallion
91) B05, O11, R078, T066 C 181

AE3 (Posthumous)
92) 93) B23, O08, R100, T014 Exe: •TS•`• B23, O08, R100, T014 Exe: SIS RIC 26 (VII, Thessalonica) RIC 43 (VII, Siscia)

Claudius II Busts

Claudius II Types

339
Claudius II Types (continued)

340

Quintillus
Augustus 270
been emperor for only a few weeks. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Quintillus came to power after the death of his brother Claudius II. Although loved by the Senate, Quintillus had no strong ties with the army and when Aurelian claimed that Claudius had meant for him to be the next successor what little loyalty Quintillus had evaporated. With Aurelian's forces coming nearer, Quintillus had no muscle to contest the usurper and committed suicide before testing Aurelian's mercy. He had

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) IMP AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG IMP C L QVINTILLVS AVG IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS PF AVG IMP C M AVR QVINTILLVS AVG IMP C M AVREL QVINTILLVS AVG IMP C M CL QVINTILLVS AVG IMP CAES M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG IMP QVINTILLVS IMP QVINTILLVS AVG IMP QVINTILLVS PF AVG QVINTILLVS AVG

Well, he might have been emperor for only a few weeks but the mints sure were busy spitting out coins for him the whole while. And while they may not be very common nowadays, they’re not very expensive either. That probably has something to do with the fact that very few survive in top condition. Most will be Antoniniani that have seen better days… most, actually, have seen much better days. And these low grade Ants can be picked up on the internet for a few dollars each. Nicer ones tend to go for around fifty dollars and rarely go for above $100. But that, again, is because the grades are usually so disappointing. A mint state coin, if there is such a thing, would easily be worth several hundred dollars.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) AEQVITAS AVG AETERNIT AVG APOLLINI AVG APOLLINI CONS APOLLINI CONSERVATORI CONC EXERC CONCO EXER CONCO EXERC CONCOR EXER CONCORD EXER CONCORD EXERC CONCORDIA AVG CONSECRATIO DIANA LVCIF FELICITAS AVG FIDES EXER FIDES EXERCIT FIDES MILIT 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA REDVX FORTVNAE RED GENIVS AVG INVICTVS IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI VICTORI LAETITIA AVG LIBERALITAS AVG LIBERITAS AVG LIBERTAS AVG MARS VLTOR MARTI PAC MARTI PACAT MARTI PACI MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIL PANNONIA 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) PAX AVGVSTI PIETAS AVG PM TR P COS PP PROVI AVG PROVID AVG PROVIDENT AVG SAECVLI FELICITAS SECVRIT AVG TEMPOR FELI TEMPORVM FEL TEMPORVM FELI VBERITAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIAE GOTHIC VIRTVS AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia Altar Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on rock. Concordia standing left, holding standard and cornucopia. Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand. Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding two cornucopiae. Diana advancing right, holding torch with both hands. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding standard and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding vexillum and spear. Fides standing, facing, holding standard in each hand. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and wreath. Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle by feet Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; Quintillus to lower left. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor on globe. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and cornucopia. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia. Mars advancing left, holding branch and shield. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield.

341
24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) Mars advancing right, holding branch and spear. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear. Pannonia standing left, holding branch and standard. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) Providentia standing left, holding grain ears and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Providentia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding wand over globe and scepter. Quintillus standing, facing, holding spear and globe Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Trophy, seated captive on either side. Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, holding branch and spear. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear.

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) Cyzicus Mediolanum Roma Siscia

AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) B1, O05, R10, T04 Exe: T B1, O03, R31, T26 Exe: P B1, O05, R17, T11

Reference(s)

AE Antoninianus
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) B3, O03, R47, T08 B3, O05, R48, T39 ` in right field B4, O11, R20, T08 B4, O11, R20, T08 B4, O11, R24, T15 B4, O11, R24, T15 B5, O03, R02, T37 B5, O03, R04, T03 H in right field B5, O03, R12, T06 Exe: Δ B5, O03, R19, T10 E in right field B5, O03, R26, T18 Exe: XII B5, O03, R34, T23 X in left field B5, O03, R37, T28 B5, O03, R41, T31 Exe: T B5, O03, R42, T31 B5, O03, R44, T35 XI in right field B5, O03, R49, T41 Γ in right field B5, O03, R51, T43 B in right field B5, O10, R14, T07 Exe: ` B5, O10, R18, T11 Exe: S B5, O10, R21, T12 B5, O10, R31, T26 B5, O11, R19, T10 C 68 RIC Vi 78f RIC Vi 83c RIC Vi 83c RIC Vi 84c, C 36 RIC Vi 84c, C 36 RIC Vi 7, C 2 RIC Vi 9 RIC Vi 13a RIC Vi 18, C 28 RIC Vi 22a RIC Vi 24a, C 49 RIC Vi 26 RIC Vi 29, C 61 RIC Vi 31, C 63 RIC Vi 33, C 70 RIC Vi 35, C 73 RIC Vi 52a, C 25 RIC Vi 54, C 33 RIC Vi 58a, C 47 RIC Vi 82, C 27

342
Quintillus Busts

Quintillus Types

343
Aurelian was an upwardly-mobile soldier who was eventually appointed commander of the cavalry by Claudius II. With the aid of a sympathetic army he revolted against the accession of Quintillus and a civil war was avoided when the latter committed suicide following the growing popularity of his rival. Aurelian was then Augustus 270 -275 hailed as emperor by the Senate and the rest of the legions alike. His first mission was to strengthen the army by the introduction of the strictest reforms and discipline as well as quelling the various uprisings that had broken out over the last two decades. He thus spent the next five years until cut down by his own Praetorian Guard at the height of his glory. It seems Aurelian's personal secretary, after being reprimanded by the emperor for attempted extortion, felt an execution would follow. To guard against this possibility, he concocted a story about Aurelian intending to execute his personal guard and then rushed to share with them this manufactured evidence. Naturally, afraid for their lives, they entered the emperor's quarters and effected a preemptive strike. Somehow or other it was soon afterward found out that the formerly beloved emperor had no such motives and his secretary himself was swiftly executed for treason. When news reached Rome of what had happened Aurelian's wife seems to have actually been left nominally in power while a new emperor was selected, a period that may have lasted several months. Although history is a little hazy in this matter, it would mark the first and only time a Roman empress explicitly ruled the empire.

Aurelian

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder. Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate bust facing away, looking left, holding spear and shield Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle and holding spear and shield Radiate head right Radiate, bust right, wearing imperial mantle and holding scepter Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding shield. Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear over shoulder Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed torso left, holding Victory on globe. Radiate, draped bust left. Radiate, draped bust right

Aurelian leaves a very strong numismatic legacy for his five years as emperor of the Romans. His coins, 99% or more of which are Antoniniani, are ubiquitous in the inventory of any dealer who carries ancient Roman coins. Oodles, yes oodles, of these Ants are available on Ebay and other internet outlets. They turn up regularly even on the dirt-on late Roman bronze coins the sort that are sold in bulk at a dollar or two each. Aurelian is also the first emperor to really use the cuirassed bust as a predominant type on his coins. On some of the coins the cuirass shares almost as much real estate as his head and, on rare instances, featuring elaborate designs within the cuirass itself. In his portraits, his head often looks shrunken on top of an impossibly elongated neck. The effect makes for curious collectibles. And speaking of collectibles, fully silvered “gem” Ants can be found for less than $100 with some difficulty but more typically for a little more than that.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) AVRELIANVS AVG AVRELIANVS AVG CONS AVRELIANVS P AVG IMP AVRELIANVS AVG IMP AVRELIANVS INVICT AVG IMP AVRELIANVS INVICTVS AVG IMP AVRELIANVS P AVG IMP AVRELIANVS PF AVG IMP AVRELIANVS PIVS AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS INVICTVS AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS INVICTVS P AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS P AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS PF AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS PIVS FEL AVG IMP C D AVRELIANVS AVG IMP C DOM AVRELIANVS AVG IMP C L D AVRELIANVS AVG IMP C L D AVRELIANVS PF AVG IMP C L DOM AVRELIANVS AVG IMP C L DOM AVRELIANVS P AVG IMP C L DOM AVRELIANVS PF AVG IMP CAES L DOM AVRELIANVS AVG IMP DEO ET DOMINO NATO AVRELIANO AVG SOL DOM IMP ROM SOL DOM IMP ROMANI SOL DOMINVS IMPERI ROMAN

344
Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) ADVENTVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG AETERNIT AVG AETERNITAS AVG ANNONA AVG APOL CONS AVG APOLLINI CONS AVRELIANVS AVG CONS CONC EXER CONCO EXER CONCOR AVG CONCORD LEGI CONCORD MILIT CONCORDI LEGI CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGVSTOR CONCORDIA LEGI CONCORDIA MILI CONCORDIA MILIT CONCORDIA MILITVM CONS PRINC AVG CONSECRATIO CONSERVAT AVG CONSERVATOR AVG DACIA FELIX FELIC SAECV FELIC SAECVLI FELICIT TEMP FELICITAS SAECVLI FIDES EXERCITI FIDES MILI FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM FIDIS MILITVM FORTVNA REDVX GENIVS EXERCI GENIVS EXERCITI GENIVS ILLV GENIVS ILLVR IOVI CONSER 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) IOVI CONSERV IOVI CONSERVATORI IOVI STATORI IOVI VICTORI IVCTORIA AVG LAETITIA AVG LIBERALIT AVG LIBERITAS AVG LIBERT AVG LIBERTAS AVG MARS INVICTVS MART PACI MARTI INVICTO MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIFERO MINERVA AVG ORIEN AVG ORIENS AVG PACATOR ORBIS PACATOR ORIENTIS PANNONIAE PAX AETERNA PAX AVGVSTI PIETAS AVG PM TB P V II COS II PP PM TR P COS PM TR P COS PP PM TR P I PP PM TR P PP COS PM TR P VI COS II PP PM TR P VII COS II PP PM TR PP PROVIDEN AVG PROVIDEN DEOR PROVIDENT AVG RESTIT SAECVLI RESTITV ORIENT RESTITVT ORBIS RESTITVT ORIENT RESTITVT ORIENTIS 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) RESTITVT SAECVLI RESTITVTOR EXERCITI RESTITVTOR ORBIS RESTITVTOR ORIENT RESTITVTOR ORIENTIS RESTITVTORI GENTIS RESTITVTORI ORIENTIS ROMA AET ROMA AETER ROMAE AETER ROMAE AETERNAE ROMAE AETERNE SAECVLI FELICITAS SECVRIT AVG SEVERINA AVG SOLI CONSERVATORI SOLI INVICTO VBERITAS AVG VENVS FELIX VICTOR LEG VICTORIA AET VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA GERM VICTORIA GOTHIC VICTORIA PARTICA VICTORIAE GOTHIC VIRT MILITVM VIRTVS AEQVIT VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGVSTI VIRTVS EQVIT VIRTVS ILLVRICI VIRTVS MILITVM

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) Aequitas standing right, holding scale and cornucopia. Aesculapius standing, facing, holding staff with snake coiled around it. Annona standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia. Apollo seated left, holding branch and resting arm on lyre placed on rock. Apollo standing left, holding branch and resting arm on lyre placed on rock. Apollo standing left, leaning on column, touching head and holding branch. Apollo standing left, leaning on altar, touching head and holding branch Aurelian advancing left, raising hand and holding scepter. Aurelian riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear Aurelian riding horse left; seated captive to left. Aurelian riding horse right over two barbarians. Aurelian standing left on right, holding globe and scepter, facing soldier to left, holding Victory and spear. Aurelian standing left on right, holding hand of kneeling Asia Aurelian standing left on right, holding scepter and holding hand of kneeling Oriens to left. Aurelian standing left on right, holding scepter, being crowned by Orbis to left. Aurelian standing left on right, holding scepter, being crowned by Orbis to left; citizen kneeling in between. Aurelian standing left on right, holding scepter, being crowned by Oriens to left. Aurelian standing left on right, holding scepter, being crowned by Victory to left. Aurelian standing left on right, holding scepter, receiving globe from soldier to left, holding spear. Aurelian standing left on right, holding Victory and spear, facing soldier to left, holding spear and globe. Aurelian standing left on right, shaking hands with Severina to left; Sol’s radiate bust above and between them. Aurelian standing left, holding globe and scepter; Victory to right, crowning him. Aurelian standing left, holding globe and spear. Aurelian standing left, holding globe and spear; standard on either side. Aurelian standing left, holding scepter and crowning trophy; seated captive on either side of trophy. Aurelian standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter Aurelian standing right on left, holding globe, facing Sol to right, stepping on captive, holding whip. Aurelian standing right on left, holding scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter. Aurelian standing right on left, holding scepter, sacrificing over altar, facing Pietas to right, also sacrificing over altar Aurelian standing right on left, holding scepter, shaking hands with Concordia to right. Aurelian standing right on left, receiving globe from Concordia to right. Aurelian standing right on left, receiving globe from Sol to right, holding whip. Aurelian standing right on left, receiving globe from Sol to right, holding whip; captive on either side of Sol. Aurelian standing right on left, receiving Victory from Roma seated to right, holding spear. Aurelian standing right, holding spear and parazonium. Aurelian standing right, holding spear and globe. Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. Concordia seated left, holding standard in each hand. Concordia seated left, patera and two cornucopiae. Concordia standing left, holding standard and cornucopia Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand.

345
42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia Concordia standing left, two standards on either side Concordiae (2) each holding a standard and together holding a third standard in between. Dacia standing left, holding staff with donkey head atop Eagle Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Fides standing left, holding spear and standard. Fides standing left, holding standard and scepter. Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand Fides standing to left, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; standard to right. Hercules advancing left, holding bow and club. Hercules standing right, with hand on hip and holding club with lion skin. Hercules standing, facing, holding bow and club. Hercules to right, stepping on captive, hand on club and receiving globe from Sol to right, holding whip. Jupiter standing left, holding Victory and scepter, eagle to left. Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Laetitia standing right, holding patera and cornucopia. Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia. Lion advancing left with thunderbolt in mouth Lion advancing right Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy; seated captive to right. Mars standing left, holding branch and scepter. Mars standing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars standing right on left, holding spear, receiving globe from Sol to right, holding whip. Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus. Minerva advancing left, holding branch and shield. Minerva standing, facing, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident. Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding purse and cornucopia; globe by feet. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter. Providentia to left, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol to right, holding globe. Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. Securitas standing left, leaning on column, raising hand and holding scepter. Severina draped bust right Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip Sol advancing left, stepping on captive, raising hand and holding globe. Sol advancing left, stepping on captive, raising hand and holding globe; seated captive to right. Sol advancing left, stepping on captive, raising hand and holding whip; seated captive to right. Sol advancing right, holding trophy and globe Sol advancing right, stepping on captive, holding branch and bow. Sol riding quadriga left, holding globe Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe; seated captive to left. Sol standing right, raising hand and holding globe; captive by feet. Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe; seated captive on either side. Trophy; seated captive on either side. Uberitas standing left, holding grapes and cornucopia Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear with shield. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to left. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Virtus advancing left, holding spear and shield; captive by feet. Virtus standing left, holding branch and spear with shield Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Cyzicus Lugdunum Mediolanum Roma Serdica Siscia Tripolis

346
AU Aureus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) B02, O10, R045, T106 B04, O10, R085, T099 B04, O22, R106, T072 B05, O10, R018, T038 B05, O15, R055, T073 B05, O22, R109, T072

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 374 RIC Vi 182 RIC Vi 166, C 41 RIC Vi 15, C 269

AE Antoninianus
7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) B03, O04, R042, T028 Exe: *` B07, O04, R020, T030 Exe: `* B09, O04, R037, T057 B09, O04, R040, T028 Exe: S B09, O04, R042, T028 Exe: SERD B09, O04, R043, T063 Exe: `/SERD B11, O10, R097, T097 * in left field B11, O10, R097, T097 Exe: KA B11, O22, R035, T054 Exe: ` B13, O01, R040, T028 Exe: P B13, O01, R058, T097 Exe: P B13, O01, R058, T097 Exe: VI B13, O01, R058, T100 Exe: S B13, O01, R078, T015 Exe: */KAB B13, O04, R015, T039 B13, O04, R019, T028 Exe: *C* B13, O04, R019, T030 Exe: Γ B13, O04, R020, T030 Exe: S B13, O04, R020, T030 Exe: *T B13, O04, R033, T028 Exe: C* B13, O04, R035, T054 Exe: T B13, O04, R035, T054 Exe: *P B13, O04, R039, T057 Exe: */Q B13, O04, R039, T057 B13, O04, R040, T028 Exe: B B13, O04, R040, T028 Exe: P B13, O04, R040, T028 Exe: *Q B13, O04, R040, T028 Exe: *S B13, O04, R051, T075 B13, O04, R058, T090 Exe: VI B13, O04, R058, T091 Exe: */ PXXI B13, O04, R058, T091 Exe: ?XX•I B13, O04, R058, T091 Exe: `/XXI* B13, O04, R058, T091 Exe: P B13, O04, R058, T091 Exe: XXIP B13, O04, R058, T091 Exe: ΔXXI B13, O04, R058, T091 B13, O04, R058, T092 Exe: B/XXIR B13, O04, R058, T092 Exe: S B13, O04, R058, T092 Exe: Γ/XXIR B13, O04, R058, T096 B13, O04, R058, T097 Exe: P B13, O04, R058, T100 Exe: S B13, O04, R058, T100 Exe: XXI¿ B13, O04, R058, T100 Exe: ΔXXIR B13, O04, R063, T080 * in left field and officina in right field B13, O04, R064, T029 Exe: T B13, O04, R078, T015 Exe: */KA•Γ• B13, O04, R078, T015 Exe: ? B13, O04, R082, T020 Exe: B/XXI B13, O04, R083, T015 Exe: A/XXI B13, O04, R090, T034 Exe: Q B13, O04, R093, T036 B13, O04, R097, T091 Exe: XXI•T• B13, O04, R101, T107 B13, O04, R102, T104 * in left field andS in right field B13, O04, R103, T104 B13, O04, R107, T020 Exe: T B16, O04, R113, T020 Exe: T B13, O04, R113, T020 Exe: Γ B13, O07, R078, T015 Exe: */KA•B• B13, O08, R040, T028 Exe: ` B13, O10, R018, T044 Exe: ` B13, O10, R020, T030 Exe: *` B13, O10, R020, T030 Exe: Q* B13, O10, R020, T030 Exe: S/XXI` B13, O10, R020, T030 Exe: VII B13, O10, R020, T030 Exe: XXIQ B13, O10, R023, T090 Exe: E B13, O10, R040, T028 Exe: P B13, O10, R058, T091 Exe: QM B13, O10, R058, T091 Exe: T B13, O10, R058, T091 Exe: TXXT B13, O10, R058, T092 Exe: XXIT B13, O10, R058, T097 Exe: XXI

RIC Vi 345k C 113 RIC Vi 390, C 233 RIC Vi 390, C 233 RIC Vi 261f RIC Vi 248f, C 142 RIC Vi 248f, C 142 RIC Vi 135f, C 132 RIC Vi 290f RIC Vi 213f, C 32 RIC Vi 342f, C 23 RIC Vi 343f, C 26 RIC Vi 120f, C 61 RIC Vi 216f, C 61 RIC Vi 344f, C 92 RIC Vi 128f, C 95 RIC Vi 171f, C 94 RIC Vi 223f, C 103 RIC Vi 48f, C 105 RIC Vi 48f, C 105 RIC Vi 225f, C 108 RIC Vi 225f, C 108 RIC Vi 357f, C 123 RIC Vi 247f, C 140 RIC Vi 62f, C 154 RIC Vi 62f, C 154 RIC Vi 62f, C 154 RIC Vi 251f, C 146 RIC Vi 279f, C 145 RIC Vi 62f, C 154 RIC Vi 364f, C 154 RIC Vi 64f, C 159 RIC Vi 137f, C 154 RIC Vi 64f, C 159 RIC Vi 136f RIC Vi 134f, C 140 RIC Vi 249f, C 144 RIC Vi 63f, C 154 RIC Vi 63f, C 154 RIC Vi 232f, C 169 RIC V 138f, C 170 RIC Vi 289f, C 193 RIC Vi 53f, C 192 RIC Vi 366f RIC Vi 369f, C 209 RIC Vi 142f, C 220 RIC Vi 352f, C 223 RIC Vi 308f, C 236 RIC Vi 237f, C 248 RIC Vi 355f, C 259 RIC Vi 56f, C 261 C 286 RIC Vi 408f, C 285 RIC Vi 298f, C 197 RIC Vi 244f, C 60 RIC Vi 215f, C 60 RIC Vi 244f, C 60 RIC Vi 59f, C 60 RIC Vi 244f, C 60 RIC Vi 384f, C 68 RIC Vi 259 RIC Vi 150f, C 153 RIC Vi 61f, C 153 RIC Vi 151f, C 153 RIC Vi 255f, C 158

347
82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) B13, O10, R058, T097 B13, O10, R074, T052 Exe: KAΔ B13, O10, R074, T052 Exe: SXXT B13, O10, R078, T015 Exe: B B13, O10, R078, T015 Exe: */KA B13, O10, R078, T015 Exe: */KA•B• B13, O10, R078, T015 Exe: Z/XXI B13, O10, R083, T015 Exe: *B B13, O10, R083, T015 Exe: `C B13, O10, R083, T020 Exe: `C B13, O10, R097, T091 Exe: `XXT B13, O10, R097, T097 Exe: */KA B13, O11, R078, T015 Exe: */KA•`• B13, O14, R078, T015 Exe: */KA•`• B13, O21, R078, T015 Exe: */KA` B13, O22, R097, T092 Exe: XXI•`• B13, O24, R078, T015 Exe: */KA•`• B14, O04, R078, T015 Exe: ` B15, O16, R033, T050 B16, O04, R019, T030 Exe: ` B16, O04, R040, T028 Exe: ` B16, O04, R042, T028 Exe: *` B16, O04, R086, T017 Exe: ` B16, O04, R113, T012 Exe: *` B16, O10, R018, T041 ` in right field B16, O10, R102, T108 Exe: SERD B16, O16, R043, T063 B16, O17, R028, T048 B16, O20, R035, T055 B17, O04, R020, T030 Exe: *` B19, O04, R056, T077 B19, O04, R068, T069 Exe: COS B19, O04, R084, T017 Exe: *` B19, O04, R109, T020 Exe: ` B19, O04, R109, T111 B19, O10, R058, T097 Exe: XXI B19, O17, R035, T055 RIC Vi 360f, C 151 RIC Vi 284f, C 183 RIC Vi 152f, C 183 RIC Vi 347f, C 210 RIC Vi 389f C 194 RIC Vi 386f RIC Vi 349f RIC Vi 368f, C 210 RIC Vi 367f, C 207 RIC Vi 154f, C 234 RIC Vi 390f, C 232 RIC Vi 301f RIC Vi 295f, C 196 RIC Vi 292f RIC Vi 311f RIC Vi 328c, C 88 RIC Vi 343c, C 26 RIC Vi 129c, C 105 RIC Vi 227c, C 113 RIC Vi 242c, C 286 RIC Vi 192c RIC Vi 327c, C 77 RIC Vi 29c, C 97 RIC Vi 218 RIC Vi 334a RIC Vi 234a, C 201 RIC Vi 149a, C 276 RIC Vi 341a RIC Vi 360a, C 151 RIC Vi 331a, C 98

AE Denarius
119) B04, O04, R102, T107 Exe: ` 120) B04, O10, R085, T099

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 73, C 275

AE Sestertius
121) B04, O04, R102, T105 Exe: ` RIC Vi 1, C 1

AE As
122) B04, O04, R015, T021 Exe: ` 123) B05, O04, R015, T021 RIC Vi 80

348
Aurelian Busts

Aurelian Types

349
Aurelian Types (continued)

350

Severina
?-?

Severina was the wife of Aurelian and made Augusta in or around the year 274. When her husband was killed in battle it's believed that she ruled, if only nominally, during the interregnal period before Tacitus was nominated the next emperor.

Busts:
1) 2) Diademed, draped bust right Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Perhaps less than 5% of the coins made during Aurelian’s reign were earmarked to bear her name and portrait. Still, because of the sheer numbers struck that still leaves lots of her coins available today. Not surprising by now, the coinage is almost entirely made up of the silvered Antoninianus with very few Aurei or proper AE denominations. There is, curiously, a “Denarius” which is so identified based on the lack of the crescent on the Ant and the slightly smaller coin size. While not very rare they are considerably less frequently available and are worth a premium. Why Aurelian made some of these “symbolic” Denarii is unclear since it must have been clearly known at the time there was next to no difference in terms of intrinsic value between the two denominations. The typically preserved Severina will cost around $20 with well-silvered specimens costing up to ten times that much.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) SEVERINA AVG SEVERINA AVGVSTA SEVERINA PF AVG SEVERINAE AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) CONCORD MILIT CONCORDIA AVG CONCORDIA AVGG CONCORDIAE MILITVM IVNO REGINA LAETITIA AVG PROVIDEN DEOR PROVIDENTIA DEORVM VENVS FELIX

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand Fides standing to left, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter. Juno standing left, holding patera over peacock and scepter. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor Severina standing right on left, shaking hands with Aurelian standing to right Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter

Mints:
1) 2) 3) Antioch Cyzicus Lugdunum 4) 5) 6) Roma Serdica Siscia 7) Ticinum

AE Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) B2, O1, R3, T7, M4 Exe: `XXIR B2, O1, R3, T7, M5 Exe: */KA•` B2, O1, R3, T7, M5 Exe: */KA•`• B2, O1, R4, T2, M2 Exe: XXI B2, O1, R4, T2, M4 Exe: `/XXIR B2, O1, R4, T2, M4 Exe: R/`/XXI B2, O1, R4, T2, M7 Exe: `XXT B2, O1, R7, T3, M7 Exe: `XXT B2, O1, R7, T3, M7 Exe: YXXT B2, O1, R7, T3, M7 Exe: ©XXT B2, O3, R2, T7, M1 Exe: `/XXI B2, O4, R4, T2, M6 Exe: `/XXI B2, O4, R4, T2, M6 Exe: `XXI

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 3, C 2 RIC Vi 16, C 2 RIC Vi 16, C 2 RIC Vi 18, C 7 RIC Vi 4, C 4 RIC Vi 4, C 4 RIC Vi 8, C 7 RIC Vi 9, C 12 RIC Vi 9, C 12 RIC Vi 9, C 12 RIC Vi 19, C 1 RIC Vi 13, C 8 RIC Vi 13, C 8

AE Denarius
14) 15) B1, O1, R9, T8, M4 Officina in right field B1, O1, R9, T8, M4 Exe: ` RIC Vi 6, C 14 RIC Vi 6, C 14

AE As
16) B1, O1, R5, T5, M4 Exe: ` RIC Vi 7, C 9

351
Severina Busts

Severina Types

The story of Zenobia is a fascinating account of rebellion. Her husband, an Egyptian general named Odenathus, distinguished himself by recruiting an army, without consent nor funds from Rome. He then set out to meet the plundering army of Shapur, the King of Persia ?-? who had just defeated the army of Valerian and taken him hostage. With an intense hatred towards Shapur his small army attacked as best it could the victorious and far larger army of the Persian king. He managed to recover part of the looted treasures of various sacked cities as well as captives and, apparently, cut short their rampage. For his valor the Senate and people of Rome pressed Gallienus to recognize his patriotism. The emperor granted him no less than with the position of Augustus of the East. Together with Zenobia the two turned out to rule wisely and were beloved in the various eastern provinces.

Zenobia

But one of the sons of Odenathus held imperial ambitions and managed to kill his father as well as a half-brother while the two were being entertained at a banquet. Zenobia, rather than simply mourn her husband's death, immediately sent for the errant son's arrest and had him executed. She thus continued to rule with the assumed title of Augusta, a title, of course, not granted her by Gallienus nor the Senate. As soon as Aurelian, who was by now emperor, heard of this usurpation he set out with a large army to depose her. Personally leading her own army the two of them met in battle and, despite her initial courage, was eventually defeated by the superior skills of Aurelian. She was forced to flee back to her palace in Palmyra. Aurelian then gave chase and besieged the city and again she fled but this time was apprehended and brought alive to Aurelian. The emperor spared her life but saw fit to raze Palmyra to the ground because its inhabitants refused to recognize him. Several months later Aurelian paraded her through the streets of Rome bound in golden chains (along with Tetricus) and was subsequently pardoned and given an estate outside of Rome. She, and her son Vabalathus, went on to live in peace and become part of the Roman nobility. Bust:
1) Diademed, draped bust right on crescent

Obverse:
1) S ZENOBIA AVG

Given that this was an age when millions of Antoniniani were being made every year a collector might be forgiven for expecting a coin of hers to be easily available. They’re not. In fact, they’re nearly impossible to find. A handful have gone to private auction and reached several thousand dollars each.

Reverse:
1) IVNO REGINA

352
Types:
1) 2) Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock to left Pietas seated left, holding hand of child and scepter.

Mint:
1) Palmyra

AE Antoninianus
1) B1, O1, R1, T1 * in left field

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 2

As the power of the kingdom of Palmyra rose, the ruins of which are in what is now Syria, Vabalathus appropriated for himself the title of Augustus. Behind him his mother Zenobia was the mastermind of a series of battles won against various Roman detachments sent to depose this usurper. Aurelian finally took Augustus 271-272 command of the situation and feigned a truce while launching a concerted attack against Egypt which was under Palmyra's control. When Egypt fell Palmyra lost its valuable trade routes and it was then a simple matter to regain control of the Syrian province. Both Vabalathus and Zenobia were captured and taken back to Rome but it's not recorded whether they were executed.

Vabalathus

Bust:
1) a) Radiate, draped bust right Aurelian radiate, cuirassed bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) IM C VHABALATHVS AVG IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG

Technically speaking, the one readily available coin of Vabalathus is properly attributed to Aurelian. It features Vabalathus on one side and Aurelian on the other. The problem is that in this case if we go by the legends Aurelian is shown as Augustus while Vabalathus is a mere associate ruler. Furthermore, the coin’s denomination, an Antoninianus, is represented by the ruler wearing a radiate crown symbolically equating him with the sun god Sol. Vabalathus gets lesser billing with a laurel wreath. Still, it is featured here rather than on the chapter on Aurelian because the few other coins available of Vabalathus, those with his own radiate portrait and legend ending in “AVG” made during his brief rebel rule, are so rare that their acquisition would be out of the reach of most collectors. This being said, the Ants featuring both emperors are somewhat common and may be found on the internet for around $100 and often less if poorly preserved.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) AEQVITAS AVG AETERNITAS AVG IOVI STATORI IVENVS AVG IVVENTVS AVG VABALATHVS VCR IM D R VENVS AVG VICTORIA AVG VIRTVS AVG

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Hercules standing, facing, resting hand on club and holding apples. Sol standing right, raising hand and holding globe. Vabalathus laureate bust right Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear with shield.

353
6) 7) 8) Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield.

Mint:
1) Antioch

AE Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) B1, O1, R4, T2 * in left field B1, O1, R9, T8 * in right field Ba, O2, R6, T4 Exe: `

Reference(s)
RIC Vii 4, C 3 RIC Vii (Aurelian) 381, C 1

Vabalathus Busts

Vabalathus Types

354
After the assassination of Aurelian who had left no heir, the Praetorian Guard took the unusual step of asking the Senate to nominate their next leader. Several months passed without an Augustus and then they chose fellow Senator Tacitus who was advanced in age. He died soon after before making many Augustus 275-276 headlines for himself. However, in his brief tenure he set in motion important events that were to follow for the next couple of years. First, he named his half-brother Florian Praetorian Prefect and next-in-line to Tacitus. He was then sent off to fight barbarian invaders. Secondly, he appointed another relative, Maximinus, to the post of Governor in Syria. Maximinus proved to be wildly unpopular and was murdered. There are two theories on as to what happened next. The first holds that those who murdered Maximinus arranged for Tacitus's own murder for fear of retaliation and the second, more plausible, that he simply died of old age.

Tacitus

Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, cuirassed torso left, holding spear and shield Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle and holding scepter with eagle on top Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle and holding scepter with eagle on top and mappa Radiate head right Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear over left shoulder Radiate, draped bust right

Despite the brief rule, Tacitus’ coins are readily available in all grades. That is, so long as you don’t expect anything more than Antoniniani. Coinage in other metals and denominations are considerably more difficult to find. But the Ants are common enough and even turn up in bulk lots of “uncleaned” lots with some regularity. A cheap coin of this emperor, with at least readable legend, may cost less than $10 and while fully silvered gems are not exactly a dime a dozen a choice example may run $100$200. The generally easy availability of coins of this emperor are due solely to the hyperactive mints during his reign which placed millions of Antoniniani in circulation during the mid to late 200’s. Tacitus’ coins are straddled by the even more prolific coins of Aurelian preceding him and Probus succeeding.

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) IMP C CL TACITVS AVG IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG IMP C M CL TACITVS INVICT AVG IMP C M CL TACITVS P AVG IMP C M CL TACITVS PF AVG IMP C M CL TACITVS PF AVG VIRTVS IMP C M CLA TACITVS AVG IMP C M CLA TACITVS P AVG IMP C M TACITVS INVICTVS PF AVG IMP C TACITVS INVICTVS AVG IMP C TACITVS PF INVICTVS AVG IMP C TACTIVS AVG IMP CL TACITVS AVG IMP CL TACITVS PF AVG IMP TACITVS INVICTVS AVG M CL TACITVS P AVG M CL TACITVS PF AVG

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) AEQVITAS AVG AETERNITAS AVG ANNONA AVG ANNONA AVGVSTI CLEMENTIA TEMP CONCORD MILIT CONCORDIA MILITVM CONSERVAT MILIT CONSERVATOR AVG CONSERVATOR MILITVM FELIC TEM FELIC TEMP FELICIT TEM FELICIT TEMP FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS PVBLICA FELICITAS SAECVLI FELICITAS TEMP FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM IOVI STATORI LAETITIA AVG LAETITIA FVND LAETITIAE FVND LETITIA TEMP LIBERTAS AVG MARS PACIF 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) MARS VICTOR MARS VLTOR MARTI PACIF PAX AETERNA PAX AVG PAX AVGVSTI PAX PERPETVA PAX PVBLICA PM T B P VI COS II PP PM TR P CONSVL PM TR POT COS DES II PROVID AVG PROVID DEOR PROVIDD AVG PROVIDE AVG PROVIDEN AVG PROVIDEN DEOR PROVIDENT AVG PROVIDENT DEOR PROVIDENTIA AVG PROVIDENTIA DEORVM RESTITVTOR ORBIS ROMAE AETER ROMAE AETERNAE SALS PVBLI SALVS AVG SALVS PVBLI

355
55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) SALVS PVBLICA SECVRIT PVBLICA SECVRIT PERP SECVRITAS PR SPES AVG SPES PVBLICA TEMPORVM FELICITAS TRANQVILLITAS AVG VBERITAS AVG 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) VBERTAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA GOTHICA COS II VICTORIA GOTTHI VICTORIA PERPETVA AVG VICTORIA PONTICA AVG VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS MILITVM VOTIS X ET X

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia Clementia standing left, with legs crossed and leaning on column, holding scepter. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus Felicitas standing left, with legs crossed and leaning on column, holding caduceus. Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand Fides standing left, holding scepter and standard Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor on globe. Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear. Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy; seated captive to right. Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, leaning on column, holding branch and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding grain ears and cornucopia Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing right on left, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe. Providentia standing right on left, holding standard, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe. Roma seated left, holding globe and scepter. Roma seated left, holding Victory on globe and scepter. Roma seated left, holding Victory on globe and spear. Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas standing left, with legs crossed and leaning on column, holding scepter Securitas standing left, with legs crossed and leaning on column, touching head. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Tacitus riding horse right, holding spear. Tacitus seated left on globe being crowned by Victory, holding shield. Tacitus seated left, holding globe and spear. Tacitus standing left on right, being crowned by Mars, facing Victory to left, seated right, holding shield reading VOTIS XX Tacitus standing left on right, holding scepter, receiving globe from Clementia to left, holding scepter. Tacitus standing left on right, holding spear, receiving wreath from Victory to left, holding palm. Tacitus standing right on left, holding spear and receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter. Tacitus standing right on left, holding standard and receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter. Tacitus standing right on left, shaking hands with Concordia to right. Tranquilitas standing left, holding dolphin and scepter. Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath; shield on either side. Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm; seated captive to right. Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. Virtus standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield. Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Antioch Gaul Roma Serdica Siscia Ticinum

AU Binio
1) 2) 3) B10 O02 R51 T28 B10 O02 R71 T34 B11 O02 R51 T27

Reference(s)

AU Aureus
4) B4 O02 R36 T16

356
5) 6) 7) 8) B4 O02 R51 T27 B4 O02 R51 T28 B4 O04 R51 T27 B5 O02 R32 T19 RIC 75 C 112

AE Antoninianus
9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) B08 O02 R05 T03 Exe: `/XXI B08 O02 R23 T11 Exe: XXI` B09 O05 R70 T49 B10 O02 R01 T01 Exe: `/XXI B10 O02 R06 T44 Exe: ` B10 O02 R22 T12 Exe: ` B10 O02 R30 T14 Exe: ` B10 O02 R33 T20 Exe: P B10 O02 R42 T23 Exe: ` B10 O02 R54 T32 Exe: ` B10 O04 R48 T24 Exe: ` B10 O07 R01 T01 Exe: ` B12 O01 R70 T49 B12 O02 R01 T01 Exe: `/XXI B12 O02 R01 T01 Exe: XXI/` B12 O02 R04 T02 Exe: ` B12 O02 R05 T03 Exe: XXI B12 O02 R05 T03 Exe: XXI` B12 O02 R05 T14 Exe: /KA B12 O02 R05 T14 Exe: ` B12 O02 R05 T40 Exe: ` B12 O02 R05 T40 Exe: `/XXI B12 O02 R08 T42 Exe: `/KA B12 O02 R10 T41 Exe: ` B12 O02 R14 T05 Exe: ` B12 O02 R15 T04 Exe: ` B12 O02 R23 T11 Exe: XXI` B12 O02 R33 T20 Exe: P B12 O02 R44 T25 Exe: /KA` B12 O02 R44 T25 Exe: KA` B12 O02 R47 T24 Exe: XXI` B12 O02 R48 T24 Exe: ` B12 O02 R53 T29 Exe: ` B12 O02 R53 T31 Exe: XXI` B12 O02 R57 T34 Exe: ` B12 O02 R60 T41 Exe: `/KA B12 O02 R67 T49 Exe: ` B12 O04 R44 T25 Exe: KA` B12 O05 R06 T44 Exe: XXI` B12 O05 R17 T05 Exe: C in left field,  in right B12 O05 R33 T19 Exe: /III B12 O05 R61 T04 Exe: /I B12 O07 R04 T02 Exe: ` B12 O05 R61 T04 Exe: Δ in left field,  in right B12 O14 R31 T19 Exe: B in right field, in right B12 O05 R44 T25 Exe: /KA` B12 O07 R17 T06 Exe: ` B12 O07 R22 T12 Exe: ` B12 O07 R33 T20 Exe: ` B12 O13 R28 T18 B in right field, in right B12 O13 R35 T21 B12 O13 R55 T31 C in left field,  in right B12 O13 R61 T04 A in right field B12 O13 R61 T04 Δ in left field, A in right B14 O02 R20 T08 Exe: BA B14 O02 R20 T08 Exe: XXI` B14 O02 R60 T41 Exe: ` B14 O13 R20 T07 Exe: BA

Reference(s)
RIC 89k RIC 67, C 171 RIC 180f RIC 130f, C 24 RIC 145f, C 60 RIC 150f RIC 152f, C 90 RIC 160f, C 126 RIC 153f, C 105 RIC 82c, C 8 RIC 82c, C 8 RIC 124c, C 13 RIC 84c, C 16 RIC 84c, C 16 RIC 214c, C 20 RIC 206c, C15 RIC 126c, C 19 RIC 193c, C 25 RIC 134c RIC 140c RIC 136c RIC 89c, C 52 RIC 150c, C 72 RIC 195c RIC 195c RIC 92c, C 100 RIC 155c RIC 93c, C 123 RIC 163c, C 121 RIC 207c, C 140 RIC 172c, C 157 C 21 RIC 21 RIC 43c, C 77 RIC 63 RIC 125c, C 14 RIC 63 RIC 34 RIC 138c RIC 151c, C 75 RIC 30c RIC 44c RIC 58c RIC 65c RIC 25a, C 46 RIC 87a, C 45 RIC 167a RIC 27a

Tacitus Busts

357
Tacitus Types

358

Florian
Augustus 276
Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Florian was the half-brother of Tacitus who became ever-so-briefly the sole Senate-ratified emperor. While Tacitus was still alive, he sent Florian with a large army off to confront Probus, self-proclaimed emperor. Probus outsmarted Florian on the battlefield and emerged triumphant. Together with Florian's former army, Probus then resumed his march towards Rome.

Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Obverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) IMP ANNIVS FLORIANVS AVG IMP C AN FLORIANVS AVG IMP C FLORIANVS AVG IMP C FLORIANVS PIVS FELIX AVG IMP C M AN FLORIANVS AVG IMP C M AN FLORIANVS P AVG IMP C M AN FLORIANVS PF AVG IMP C M AN FLORIANVS PIVS F AVG IMP C M ANN FLORIANVS AVG IMP C M ANN FLORIANVS P AVG IMP C M ANNIVS FLORIANVS AVG IMP CM AN FLORIANVS P AVG IMP FLORIANVS AVG IMP M AN FLORIANVS AVG IMP M ANN FLORIANVS P AVG IMP M ANNIVS FLORIANVS AVG VIRTVS FLORIANI AVG

Sandwiched between the coin-filled reigns of Aurelian and Probus are the short reigns of Tacitus and Florian. Although Florian was emperor only briefly, a couple of months maybe, that was still enough time to get the various mints to pump out literally millions of coins to pay the loyalist armies. And it’s a numbers game, of course. The more that were made back then the more that can be expected to have survived to this day. And collectors will be pleased to find that Florian Antoniniani are routinely available for only a few dollars. Condition of these coins is usually somewhere between deplorable to good enough. However, fully-silvered Ants do exist and are not outrageously expensive (when available). Expect these to cost anywhere from $100-$300.

Reverses:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) AEQVITAS AVG AETERNITAS AVG CLEMENTIA TEMP CLEMENTIA TEMPORVM CONCORD MILIT CONCORDIA EXERCI CONCORDIA MILITVM CONSERVATOR AVG FELICIT TEMP FELICITAS AVG FELICITAS SEACVLI FIDES MILIT FIDES MILITVM FORTVNA REDVC FORTVNA REDVX INDVLGENTIA AVG IOVI CONSERVAT IOVI STATORI IOVI VICTORI LAETITIA FVND MARTI PACIF MARTI PACIFERO MARTI VICTORI MONETA AVG PACATOR ORBIS PAX AETERNA 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) PAX AVGVSTI PERPETVIT AVG PERPETVITA AVG PERPETVITATE AVG PRINCIPI IVVENT PRINCIPI IVVENTVT PROVIDE AVG PROVIDEN AVG PROVIDEN DEOR PROVIDENTIA AVG REDITVS AVG ROMAE AETERNAE SALVS AVG SALVS PVBLI SECVRITAS AVG SECVRITAS SAECVLI TEMPORVM FELICITAS VBERTAS AVG VICTORIA AVG VICTORIA PERPET VICTORIA PERPETVA VICTORIAE AVGVSTI VIRTVS AVG VIRTVS AVGG VIRTVS AVGVSTI

Types:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. Aeternitas standing left, holding globe and rudder. Aeternitas standing left, holding globe and scepter. Clementia standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter. Concordia standing left, holding standard in each hand. Felicitas standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding caduceus. Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopia Fides standing left, holding scepter and standard Fides standing, facing, holding a standard in each hand. Florian advancing right, stepping on captive, holding spear and shield. Florian riding horse right, spearing enemy. Florian standing left, holding globe and scepter. Florian standing right, holding spear and globe.

359
14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) Florian standing to left, holding scepter, receiving globe from Roma seated to right, holding cornucopia. Florian standing to left, holding scepter, receiving globe from Roma seated to right, holding spear; shield to side. Florian standing to left, shaking hands with Concordia to right. Florian standing to right, holding scepter, receiving wreath from Victory to left, holding palm. Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter Jupiter standing left, holding Victory and scepter; eagle to left. Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter. Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy; seated captive to right. Monetae (3) standing left, holding scale and cornucopia; piles of coins by their feet. Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia. Providentia standing left, leaning on column, holding wand over globe and scepter. Providentia standing to left, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe. Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter; shield to side. Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding scepter Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand. Securitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding scepter Securitas standing left, leaning on column, holding globe and scepter. Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. Sol riding quadriga left, raising hand and holding whip. Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Spes standing left, holding flower and raising skirt. Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia. Victories (2) standing, holding together shield reading VOT / X Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield on palm reading XXX

Mints:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Cyzicus Lugdunum Roma Serdica Siscia Ticinum

AU Aureus
1) B1, O17, R51, T26

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 24, C 106

AE Medallion
1) B2, O09, R24, T27 Gnecchi 2

AE Antoninianus
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) B4, O04, R35, T33 Exe: */` B4, O05, R06, T05 Exe: VITI B4, O05, R35, T32 */` B4, O06, R11, T06 Exe: ` B4, O06, R33, T30 Exe: III B5, O11, R35, T33 Exe: */KA•`• B6, O02, R17, T19 Exe: TTI B6, O03, R01, T01 Exe: XXI` B6, O03, R12, T09 Exe: XXI` B6, O03, R20, T23 Exe: XXI` B6, O03, R36, T31 Exe: XXI` B6, O03, R49, T13 Exe: XXI` B6, O04, R35, T33 Exe: */` B6, O04, R35, T33 Exe: */KAB B6, O05, R31, T12 Exe: `TI B6, O05, R36, T31 Exe: III B6, O05, R36, T31 Exe: XXI` B6, O05, R51, T10 Exe: IIII B6, O06, R10, T06 B6, O07, R25, T40 Exe: III B6, O09, R51, T25 B6, O06, R42, T37 Exe: XXI` B6, O11, R13, T09 Exe: */KA` B6, O13, R07, T17 Exe: ` B6, O16, R30, T39 B7, O03, R39, T35 Exe: XXI` RIC Vi 112f, C 72 C 13 RIC Vi 62f, C 22 RIC Vi 82f, C 64 RIC Vi 71c, C 32 RIC Vi 25c, C 1 RIC Vi 30c, C 25 RIC Vi 33c, C 39 RIC 37c RIC Vi 47c, C 97 RIC Vi 112c, C 72 C 61 RIC Vi 10c RIC Vi 37c RIC Vi 16c RIC Vi 61c RIC Vi 7c, C 47 Tom Mullally collection RIC Vi 116c, C 1552 RIC Vi 77c RIC Vi 40a, C 83

360
AE As
27) B2, O09, R41, T37

Reference(s)
RIC Vi 53, C 85

Florian Busts

Florian Types

361
Coming from a military background under Valerian, Probus ascended the throne as usurper against Florian, under pretext that he appropriated the imperial title without the Senate's consent. Florian advanced against Probus and on first appearance it looked like his own army would be no match Augustus 276-282 against Florian's so he gambled that by artificially prolonging a direct confrontation between the two he could frustrate the enemy. The tactic paid off and within days Florian was killed by his own troops and the two armies joined as one to march into Rome.

Probus

Probus then spent the next two years quelling numerous border wars and domestic rebellions. He was highly successful in these regards and, having few wars left to fight retired to Rome. His glory days came to an end partly due to his own military successes. Without battles to fight, the army felt increasingly alienated by Probus who was now spearheading several civic projects meant to strengthen the empire. Malcontents in the army noted cynically that they were soldiers, not peasants. His life thus came to a violent end during a minor moment of strife initiated by some soldiers who had been ordered to clear a swamp. These drew their swords and gave fatal chase to the emperor. Carus, the Praetorian Prefect, may or may not have incited the mutiny but either way Probus's assassins named him emperor only to hear their death sentence as their reward. Busts:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) Helmeted, cuirassed bust left of Probus, holding spear and shield, over radiate bust of Sol Helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Helmeted, cuirassed bust right Helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust left holding Victory and shield; spear over right shoulder Helmeted, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Helmeted, radiate bust facing away, head looking left, holding spear and shield Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust right, raising hand and holding Victory on globe Helmeted, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield Laureate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with eagle atop Laureate, bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust left Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Laureate, cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right of Probus, holding spear and shield, over Sol radiate bust right. Laureate, draped bust right Radiate bust left, holding spear and shield Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with eagle atop Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with Victory atop Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding Victory on globe Radiate bust right, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with eagle atop Radiate, cuirassed bust left Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield reading VOTIS / X ET XX Radiate, cuirassed bust right Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding globe Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding scepter Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear over shoulder Radiate, cuirassed torso left, holding spear Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right Radiate, draped bust right

Grab a handful of Antoniniani at random and chances are several of them will be of Probus. Along with Aurelian, Probus is king of this silverwashed coin that succeeded the Denarius as the mainstay of the Roman economy. And there were literally millions of these made during the six years he was emperor. Plenty of time to amass a myriad different reverse types and try on the latest military gear that his mint artists could fit on his head and shoulders. Most of these Ants, of course, have not come down through the ages in very good shape. They turn up frequently, for instance, among uncleaned coins sold in bulk and with nary a trace of silvering or, for that matter, anything else left but a faint part of the PROBVS on the legend. But, on the other hand, there are many that were lost or buried shortly after coming from the mint and given just the right conditions remain with their full coat of silvering intact or nearly so. These beauties, needless to say, will cost significantly more than their more corroded brethren. An ordinary Probus of an ordinary