PresentedChawla A. Wines Priya by ~ Lisa Ahsan Kamwani Mariyam abbasi


former employee. Generally the misconduct is a violation of law. especially a business or government agency. unethical or harmful practices in the workplace to parties who might take action A whistleblower is an employee.Definition of Whistle-Blowing Whistle blowing can be defined as “an attempt by an employee or former employee of an organization to disclose what he or she believes to be wrongdoings in or by the organization” Another definition of whistle blowing is “the disclosure of illegal. regulation and/or a direct threat to public interest. health/safety violations. and corruption . or member of an organization. such as fraud. rule. who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action.

External WhistleBlowing  When and individual advocates beliefs or revelations outside the organization. .Types of Whistle-Blowing Internal WhistleBlowing  When an individual advocates beliefs or revelations within the organization.

Personal WhistleBlowing  It is personal if harm is reportedly done only to the whistle blower. Impersonal WhistleBlowing  It is impersonal if harm observed is done to another party. .

Types of whistle blowers • Current whistleblower: someone who blow the whistle on a present employer/employers • Alumni whistleblower: someone who blow the whistle on a former employer/employers • Open whistleblower: reveals her or his identity and/or makes no attempt to hide this. • Anonymous whistleblower: acts specifically to keeps her or his identity a secret .

incentives etc • leads to benefits of the company e.Advantages of whistle blowing • • • • Public Safety Moral Responsibility End of unethical business practices Rewarding the whistleblower for complaining like bonuses.g. . the wrong usage of resources by corrupted person is minimized and now these resources can be used in productive manner. promotions.

Disadvantages of whistle blowing • • • • Retaliation Conflicts of Interest Effecting the environment Even the claims of whistle blowers are not always genuine and sometimes a person may be doing it for their selfish reasons • Costly .

“Silkwood” • ‘Mark Whiteacre’ .Whistleblowers: Examples • The insider’ • Karen Silkwood.

Wigand was fired. a producer for 60 Minutes who worked closely with journalist ‘Wallace’. though Wigand was still bound by a confidentiality agreement not to discuss his employment with the company. CBS pulled his interview from at the last minute after B&W threatened a multi-billion dollar lawsuit. New York Times publishes the interview and criticises B&W in running a low level smear campaign against a true person. On the other hand. New York Post and Wall Street Journal gets information about previous events of the wigand’s life and they start an investigation against him. Unable to see an honest man being held due to the fault of his corporation. Wigand came into contact with Lowell Bergman . The film illustrates how tobacco manufacturers are exploiting the consumers by not letting them know what happens next after smoking.THE INSIDER: • The Insider (1999) is a true story based on an Ex-tobacco executive who planned to whistle blow against his company Brown & Williamson. Not long after he was fired by Brown and Williamson. Bergman leaks the news to the press.after the testimony of the Wigand in the court. B&W starts a smear campaign to disgrace the Wigand. Despite Wigand's willingness to talk. • . Bergman arranged for Wigand to be interviewed by Wallace for a 60 Minutes expose on the cigarette industry.

Chemical.‘KAREN SILKWOOD’ • Karen Silkwood was a chemical technician at the Kerr-McGee's plutonium fuels production plant in Crescent. . Police found her car run off the road and Silkwood dead inside. Silkwood decided to show her evidence to The New York Times. Despite the company’s assurances. Oklahoma. The case remains controversial and Kerr-McGee has always denied any wrong doing Karen Silkwood died on November 13. Silkwood tested positive for massive plutonium exposure. investigators found that several surfaces in her house had been contaminated with plutonium. hoping that Kerr-McGee would make their workplace safer. while Silkwood assumed the company was giving her contaminated testing equipment. Frustrated and afraid for her and her family’s health. The circumstances of her death have been the subject of great speculation. Kerr-McGee claimed she was deliberately exposing herself to create sympathy. She never arrived. There were no documents to be found. Unable to determine where she had been exposed. Silkwood found what she believed were major violations of health and safety regulations. She left a union meeting with binders and documents to meet the reporters. She reported her concerns to The Atomic Energy Commission. 1974 in a fatal one-car crash. Since then. and even a major motion picture • • • . Almost immediately after she went to AEC. her story has achieved worldwide fame as the subject of many books. and Atomic Workers' Union in the early ’70s & was in charge of investigating the health and safety concerns of workers at the plant. and a member of the Oil. magazine and newspaper articles.

Mark Whitacre was on top of the world. His evidence led to hundreds of millions of dollars in fines to the companies involved. An executive at food industry giant Archers Daniel Midland. Whitacre would still probably be remembered as a great whistleblower. Along with several major Agribusiness companies from around the world. ADM artificially set the world price for these additives and committed one of the biggest corporate crimes in American history . For the next three years. he was president of their Bio products Division which oversaw the use of food additives. Whitacre went to the FBI with details of the plan. He was rich. If that had been the end of it. Whitacre was also busy embezzling $9 million dollars from the company at the time. Under pressure from his wife.MARK WHITEACRE • In 1992. Whitacre went undercover for the FBI and secretly recorded hundreds of meetings all over the world to expose the plot. happily married. and a rising star at his company. But things changed dramatically that year when he became involved in an international scheme to fix the price of additives such as lysine and citric acid. but he went one step further. • . Unfortunately. so he ended up in jail himself.

• Incarceration . restitution. health. and positive reputations. productivity.Effects of WhistleBlowing • Forced to leave organization/demoti on • Credibility ruined • Family. and/or life in jeopardy • Outrage and divisiveness of people directly or indirectly involved • Physical or psychological isolation • Organization experiences loss of money.

The tender documents floated by TCP in 2011 for the import of 350. by selling huge quantities of steel at low prices. gave undue favours to Al Abbas Group of Companies. Malik riaz planted interview with Mehar Bukhari and Mubashir Lukman • • • • • .000 metric tons sugar are "tailor-made" to suit a particular Dubaibased refinery. USAID stop funding the to Rafi Peer theatre on tips of corruption.EXAMPLES IN PAKISTAN • Ministry of Water and Power paid Rs225 for a bulb available in the open market for Rs140. causing a loss of about Rs3 billion. Procurement of GRP pipe for Port Qasim Authority by Frontier Works Organisation at a higher rate from Iran than the price quoted by a Saudi company in its tender documents. owned by Riaz Laljee. Moeen Aftab Sheikh.

Laws regarding whistle blowing in Pakistan • In Pakistan there are no laws to protect civil servants or private sector employee according to Global Integrity Report. .

Research Findings on Organizational and Personal Variables that lead to Whistle blowing • Variables that are positively related to whistle blowing • Informal Company Policies • Formal Company Policies • Supervisor Support • Highly competent and respected employee .

• ‘ Voice and Exit are the two main options for dissatisfied organization members and that those who exercise the choice are more loyal than to one who decide to exit. .Issue Relating to Whistle blowing • If you blow the whistle then you are not loyal to your organization or employer.’ – Albert O Hirschman.

Ethical Perspective  Deontological ethics • Deontological ethics is basically a duty based ethics which says that you should fulfill your moral obligations whether it lead to pleasure or pain. From Kantian approach you should blow the whistle if company is involve in immoral practices.  Utilitarian • Greatest good for greatest number. • Example: Karen Silkwood • From Kantian approach you should blow the whistle if company is involve in immoral practices. • Example : Karen Silkwood .

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