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kq;k;aj nqIqjd jHdmD;sfha oDYHudkh ms<sn`o Wmydih: pema,skaf.

a City Lights ;%mgh


ms<sn`o idlPdjla
ixCIsma;h
nqIqjd ix{d wjldYhl pema,ska k ;%mglrejd iq`M ix{djla ksIamdokh l< o
th iu`. Tyq wkkH fkdu ;=, ks-nqIqjd foaYmd,ksl ix{djla f,i kQ;k
jHdmD;sfha wkfmaCIs; tfy;a ;dlsl m%;sM,hka ms<sn`oj w:l;kh l< yels
jkafka flfia o hkak;a mqoa., inkao;d wjldYhl y`kd .ekSu u jer y`kd
.ekSula jkafka flfia o hkak;a pd,s pema,ska f.a City Lights (1931) ;%mgh
Tiafia idlPd lsu fuu ,smsh u`.ska W;aidy flf'

wm cSj;a jk hq.h mYapd;a kq;k f,dalh f,i idudkHfhka yeoskajqj o ^,sfhd;d 1991& th
we;a; jYfhka kq;k f,dalfhau tla;rd wdldrhl os.=jla f,i o yeoskah yelsh ^.skaia"
1991" 70&' kq;k f,dalh ldl ma,jfhka miqj meKs m%nqoaO;ajfha (Enlightenment)
m%;sM,hls'

m%nqoaO;ajh ksia ka;kfha ksoyi fmroe lr .;a jHdmdrhla jq w;r

f,dalfha .uka u." ka;kh" m%cd;%dka;%jdoh" whs;sjdisl" oHdj iy f,!lsl;ajh u;


mok lr.kska wka ljrodlj;a w;aoel fkd;snQ ;rf /l,a fjkila ksidf.a jk
f,dalhg /f.k taug m%nqoaO;ajh jHdmD;sh ksfhdackh l, iqfYaIS ka;lhska" oHd{hska
yd foaYmd,l l%shdldka yg yels h' fujla mgka ksid im%odfha" woHdf yd wkaO
Yajdifha ne j,ska ksoyia jQ w;r we;s jQ foaYmd,k wr., yryd jevji jy,a ne
j,ska ksoyia ugo"

iajdk ka;kh yryd mqoa.,;ajh (individualism) fukau ;u

iajPkao;djh (free will) yd f;dard .ekSf ksoyi ;=,ska ;u ;fha w:h yd jkdl
fukau hq;=lu yd idudh iduqysl;ajh u;= fkdj ;dCIKsl mhdihka yryd we;s jQ
w;sla; m%d.aOkh yd ksoyi ;=,ska rikaoh jeks w;sYh mqoa., uq, ldrKd mok lrf.k
kj ksfila mYapd;a-mqnqoaO kq;k f,dalhg fYaI h' f kj pdrYS,S inqoal ksid hkq
kq;k;ajfha Wreuhla f,i h.ka ynudia ^2001& w:l;kh lrhs'
ksia uqla;sh" ksoyi yd m%.;sh wruqKq lr .;a m%nqoaO;ajh jvd YsIa g imkak" iodpdrj;a
fukau Wiia ka;kh yd udkh;ajh ms<sn`o l;sldj yryd ksIamdokh l< ksia iudch
m%nqoaO;ajhg miq .; jqKq jir ;=ka ydr ishhl b;sydih ;=, udkj b;sydihg w;a lr ka
m%.;sh yd Wiia jk ;;ajh tfiau ;sh kq;k b;sydih idCIs ork m%.;sfha m%;sreoaO
m%mxphka ljf o@

w;s oejeka; kdYhla w;a lr ka f,dal ix.%du folla" f,ap

jd.sl ixydr .Kkdjla" iS;, hqoaOhl wys u;lh" kHIal yd iuq,>d;k ridhksl
w ksIamdokh " o;djh" wiudk;ajh" jix.;" ;%ia;jdoh fukau uq,Odl ;%ia;h" fnod
fjka ls" iQrdlEu yd mir kdYh hkqfjka b;d .a.eiafik w;sYhska kdYld
1

b;sydihl fYaI m;%h kq;k b;sydifha inqoal ksidf.a ka;kfha yd l%shdf jHuh
kgnqka f,i ,sh we;' ta wkqj m%nqoaO kq;ka;jh iska wkqolakd jHdmD;sh fukau tys
ufyaIal fmdfrdka f,i wNsfIal l, m%.;sh oe ixYhg Ndckh jk nj *ekala*
.=rel,fha m%Odk ka;lhska fom,la jk ;shfvd wefvdfkda iy uelaia fydalhsu
ksCIKh lrhs'
zka;kfha jOkh f,i b;du mq`M,a w:hlska f;are .kakd jQ m%nqoaO;ajh
ieugu ksid fhka ksoyia lr .ekSug;a" Tyq iajd;ajh ;=, msysgqu;a wruqK q
lr .kakd ,o kuq;a tu m%nqoaO;ajh iEugu iuia; f,dalh kdYld;ajfha
ch.%yKfhka taldf,dal lrh'Z (wefvdfkda iy fydalhsu 2002" msgqj 01&
WodyrK f,i fu;r hqKq ffjoH oHdjla ksIamdokh l, kq;k f,dalh ;=, fu;r
Yd, jYfhka jix.; f,v frda.j,ska ksiqka hhkafka flfia oehs Tjqka m%Yak lrhs'
kq;k;ajfha m%Odku ksIamdok fudv,h jk ,snr,a Okjdoh f,dal f.daa,fha ztlu
ixjOk ud,shZ f,i W;alIhg k.oa th iska fl;r .eUqre wiudk;djhla"
widOdrKhla yd n,y;ald ks-m%cd;%ka;%jdohla o" wjudkqIsl;ajhla o ck; lr ;sh
YsIag imkak kq;k ksid ms<sn`o rEmh fld;r kHdhslj wjq,a iy.; jkafka o hkak
ms<sn`o Yd, l;sldjla isjk ishjfia w. Nd.fha u;= Ks'

flfia jqj o yqol,dj wm

bfha m%dN+;j we;s la .ek,s" b,a,S yd widOdrKhka iska fmkajkq ,nkafka f


mj;akd OkjdoS l%uh lsisjla l< fkdyels tla uq,sl ysrulg (fundamental deadlock)
,laj we;s njh'
;;ajh fufia jqjo m%nqoaO kq;k;ajh yryd b;du woa;Sh m%.;sYS,S ;;ajhka f,i
m%cd;%ka;%jdoh"

ixialD;sl

fjkial"

f,!lsl;ajh

fukau

fpl

fya;=j

ksia

YsIagdpdrhg fYaI lsu kq;k ksidf.a Wreuhla f,i w:l;kh lrk h.ka ynudia
^2002"

msgqj

2&

inqoal;ajh

jk

f,dalfha

iEu

wxYhlgu

.uka

lsu

yryd

wld;ajhlg bv jr u msgqoelsh hq;= ldrKhla f,i o olajd is'


z18 jk ishjfia m%nqoaO;aj odYkslhkaf.a uey;afuka Tjqkaf.au wNHka;r ;lh
yryd f.dvke`.Sug W;aidy lrk ,o Ih uq,sl oHdj, Yah iodpdrh yd kS;sh
iy iajdk l,dj iska kq;k jHdmD;sh iuka; jk ,'

tfukau" f iEu

wxYhlau ;;aNd YlH;djhka (cognitive potential) tys f,!lsl wdlD;sfhkau uqod


yeug;a fuu jHdmD;sh woyia lrk ,'

idudkH ;fha fmdaIKh ke;fyd;a

idudkH iudc ;fha inqoal ix; nj fjkqfjka f fYaI{ ixialD;sfhys


talrdYS u m%fhdackhg .ekSu m%nqoaO;aj odYkslhskaf.a wNsm%dh hZ' ^ynudia(
2001" msgqj 9&

ksia uqla;sh wruqKq lr .;a ;jrg;a fkd-wjika m%nqoaO kq;k;aj jHdmD;sh mKdufha
tys m%:u wjh f,i znqIqjd fmd wjldYhZ (bourgeois public sphere) ykd .kakd
ynudia ^1991& ta hgf;a oy wgjk ishjfia we;s jQ idys;H ixio" foaYmd,k
ckudOHfoh" foaYmd,k l;sld iudc yryd we;s jQ ,snr,a yd m%cd;%dka;%jd fmd
wjldYh kq;k;ajfha uq,a wjia:df ksidf.a fmd {dKh jOkh i`oyd Yd,
ldhhla l< nj y`kd .kS' kuq;a fuu m%.;sYS,S;ajh ;=,u we;s m%;sfYdaOkd;aul ,CIK
o ^WodyrK f,i inqoal fya;=j yrydu mek k.sk wld;ajh& ynudia ksCIKh lrhs'
iudch ms<sfj, lsu i`oyd jk kq;k;ajfha ;lh we;e g wldjd md,khka olajd
;dlslj mKduh u fndfyda nqoau;=kaf.a wjOdkhg ,la jQ lreKla h' ^fnia iy
fl,ak( 1991" msgqj 241& inqoal;aj fya;=j yryd wld;ajh idudkHlrKh lsu"
Okjdofha uey;au iu`. we;s jQ ;r`.h" idudkH jk f,dalh mdfNda.sllrKh"
wYaYS,;ajh yd ji`.h /`.;a ysia jdKsc ix{d" jd.sl flakaSh;ajh" kdisjdoh yd ;%ia;h"
wj-udkqIsl;ajh" N+.; foaYmdkh" wiudk;djh" f,dal hqO kdYh yryd kq;k nqIqjd
jHdmD;sh foi ixYhjdj fukau Wmydid;aulj ne,Sug f ish,a, lgqlj w;a isjk
ishjfia kq;k ksid fm<U h'

pd,s pema,ska iskudlrejl= f,i ikaoN.; jkafka

isjk ishjfia fuu ft;sydisl ksfIfha jk w;r tu w:fhka pema,ska f,dalhg /f.k
tkafka iskyj fkdj fokdj wu;l lsf kskaokhls (anesthetic)'
pema,skaf.a iskud ;h ms<sn`o fndfyda f,aLk we;s neka ta ms<sn`oj fuys idlcd
fkdlrk uq;a Tyq whs;sjk fft;sydisl ikaoNh uid ne,Su ,smsfha wka;.;h yd
nef`ok neka ta ms<sn`oj wm b;du ieflka i`oyka lruq'

by; oela jQ m Tyq

iskudlrKhg mefKkafka b;du kdYld laIs;suh f,dal hqO w;aoelSula mKduh u;a
iu`.hs'

f jkg inqoal kq;k jHdmD;sfha ksfYaOkd;aul m%;sM,hka ms<sn`oj

ixYhjdj;a (skeptic) kdia;slj;a (nihilsitic) ne,Sug ksid fm<U ;snq wjia:djls' 1875
miqj mgka .eKqkq wjh zmYapd;a kqk; hq.hZ hkqfjka y`kajk fgdfhka k
b;sydi{hd th kq;k hq.fhka Lkavkh jQ Yd, ksYaYo;djhl .sKq" iudc >Gk yd
ma,j fukau hqoaO j,ska jHjia:dms; wrdcl iuhla f,i y`kajkafka tneks ^fnia iy
fl,ak" 1991 msgqj 6&' th merKs iudc ia:djr;ajh" inqoal;ajh yd m%.;sh lrd Ydk;
jQ uOHu mx;sl nqIqjd hq.fhka fjkiaug mgka .eKqkq wjhls' pema,ska iskudj wdrN
jkafka fuu wrdcl fukau ixl%uKSh hq.fha h' Tyqf.a iskud h kq;k;ajfhka mYapd;a
kq;k hq.hg iudch wj;SK jk ixl%dka;sl hq.h;a" m<uq yd fojk f,dal hqoaO kdYh
yryd;a" iudch kej; ixOdkh lsu fjkqfjka taldm;s;ajhka lrd ck;dj .uka
lsf fft;sydisl fudfyd;;a" Okjdofha wnqoh;a"

jf l,amSh foaYmd,k Odrdf

wd.uKh;a hk ish,a, yryd .uka lrkakd jQ iqfYaIS ;;ajhls' tla w;lska Tyq kq;k
uOHu mx;sl nqIqjd jHdmD;sfha oDYHudkh yd wka;.;h ydiHhg ,la lrk w;f kq;k
iudc ixialD;sl jHqyfha oDYHudkh ^ne ne,aug fmfkk foh& jHdc-oDIahla f,i

(misconception) jHqy.; lrhs'

fuu lreKq fol meye,s lsu i`oyd pema,skaf.a City

Lights ;%mgh fuu huk ;=, wod, lr .ksuq'


City Lights ;%mgh wdrN jkafka pema,ska iduh yd fi!Nd.Hh ms<sn`o uq;sh jD; lrk
wjia:df tu ;srh wefrk gu idufha ms<srej ;=, bnd.df;a hk wirKfhla f,i ksod
isks'

tla w;lska iduh i`oyd idod we;s ms<srej ke;fyd;a tu ixl,amh ;=, we;s

jHdch ^f,dalh ;=, oyia .Kka ms<srE idod we;s jqj o ienE iduhla lsis kl fuu ,snr,a
Okjd iudcfha ksrej;a ;r`.h ;=, ksidg w;aoelsh fkdyels h'& tla;rd wldrhlg
ydiHhg ,la lrhs'

ish,af,dau nqIqjd we`ka yd ,sg we` j,ska ieriS uy;a

W;alIj;a whqka" w,xldr jpk j,ska idu l;sldj f.dv kxjd uy by,ska jD; lrk
fuu ms<srej ;=, u pema,ska ksod iska tu l;sldf we;s w,xldrl j,g hka we;s
i;Hh ke;fyd;a nqIqjd idu l;sldf ohf,la;slh biau;= lsug m%h;ak orhs' jerye,s
we` j,ska wmsisj wms<sfj,j ;ek ;ek hkafkla f.a (tramp) p;hg mK fok pema,ska
mYapd;a hqO kdYh yryd ukqIH YsIagdpdrfha l" l`," mam;alu yd wirKNdjh ms<sn`o
oe W;am%dihla krUkakd ;=, we;s lrhs' ke;ak OfkaYajrh iskau ;u meje;au i`oyd
h;a lrk ,o hqoaOfha u.sgg fkdfmkajk hgm;a lr we;s h;d:jd ienE m%;sM,h ksnqIqjd wdldrhlska biau;= lrhs' udOH u.ska oejeka; uhsl%f*daka Tiafia f.dv k`.k jer
ix{dj tla;rd whqrlska nqIqjd frda" /l,a foaYmd,k mKsvhla olajd m%;s -ix{d.;
lrhs' fuys we;s m%Odku foaYmd,kh fuhhs' m%Odk l;sldfjka m,jdyer we;s hgm;a lr
we;s foh wkfmaCIs; f,i wmg uqK .iaijhs'
f ms,sn`oj woyia olajk iaf,fjdhs cela ;u The Perverts Guide to Cinema
fYaIdx.fhka lshkafka pema,ska wmf.a oDYHudkh m%;s-Ydk; .; lrk njhs' wm oelSug
leu;s foh fjkqjg wkfmaCIs; fohla wmg oelSug i,iajhs'

ke;ak iudkHfhka wm

n,dfmdfrd;a;=j jk iskyj yd fkdaoh fjkqjg wm wfmaCId fkdlrk" wmf.a fkdaoh


;ckhg ,la lrk foaYmd,khla ta ;=,ska biau;= lsug W;aidy lrhs' wm oelSug leu;s
foh fjkqjg wm wu;l lsug leu;s foh h:la (real) f,i wmg uqK .iajhs' tla w;lska
idufha ms<srej f.dvk`.k g znqIqjd idu jHdmD;shZ ;=,ska ckkh lr we;s o;djh"
wirK nj yd yqol,dj" wyslsu jeks fndfyda foa pema,ska ta ms<srej ;=,u je;s iska
n,d isk wmg isys .kajhs' pema,ska tu ms<srefjka uE;aug lrk W;aidyh ;=,skau Tyq
jvjvd;a wmg ^fukau ms<srej foi n,d isk fm%aCIlhskaj & oDYHudk f' h;d:h hgm;a
lsug wm W;aidy lrk iEu glu wmg uqK .efikafka h;d:hu jk nj pema,ska
isysm;a lrhs' Bg;a wu;rj Tyq idu ms<srefu we;s lvqf weKS t,a,S isk whqre isysm;a
lrKqfha OfkaYajr ,dN WmrsulrK jHdmD;sfha weKS we;s ksOkhska yd Tjqkaf.a f,a"
oyh yd l`Mh'
bka miq ;%mgh ;=, we;s ish nqIqjd iNdIK" ms<s.ekS yd wfkla wjia:d ;=, ta
;=,g ldr rEmS f,i tl;=jk pema,ska tu jHdmD;sh wjq,a lrhs'

kuq;a ms<sfj, wjq,a


4

lrka ;Dma;su;a jk m;fhla jkq fjkqjg u;=msg oDYHudkh ;=, muKla mj;ajd f.k
hk uOHu mx;sl ksiaidr;ajh yd Y=kH nj foaYmd,kslj biau;= lsug j.n,d .kS'
Tyqf.a i,a,sldr ;=rd urKfhka frd .; yelsjkafka o pema,s ka k ksOkhdghs' tu
;=rd nqIqjd uOH mx;slfhla jqj o Tyqf.a wdvnrldr mx;shg Tyq frd .; fkdyels f'
wfkla w;g Tyq ;=re jkafka u;a wjia: df muKs'

nqIqjd iudpdr (manners) ke;s

pema,ska f.or fiajlhska iska t<jd .kS' wka wjia:dj, tu mx;sfha iqmqre yq wdvnrh
;=, ksu.ak jk Tyqf.a w{dKh ;=, we;s ienE yqol,dj biau;= jkafka u;a jQ g muKs'
tu mx;sh iskau ;u ksIamdok l%shdj,sh yryd f.dvk`.d we;s mqoa., inkaO;dj,
iajrEmh yd mrdfrdamKh pema,ska b;d Y+r f,i ksrEmKh lrhs' tu yqol,dj fld;r o
h;a th ord .; fkdyelsj ish ydks lr .ekSu olajd jQ .eUqre yd ixlSK ;;ajhla f,i
ish ldrrEmS ikaoNh ;=,u pema,ska ksrEmKh lrhs' pema,ska ksfhdackh lrk mx;sh u;=
fkdj OfkaYajr uOHu mx;sfha wnqoh o Tyq ;%mghg /f.k tkaa jvd mq`M,a foaYmd,k
ikaoNhla biau;= lsug ;r iqCIu f'
;%mgfha wfkla jeo.;a ,CIKh k ne ne,aug fmfkk foh ke;ak bkaSh
ixfokh inkaO m%;HCIh iu`. pema,ska wkkH fkduhs' pema,ska hehs fmfkk foh
ke;ak pema,ska f,i wm oelSug leu;s foh wm olskjd hehs is;k gu zta foh fkdjk
fohZ (what it is not) njg pema,ska m;auhs' by; oelajQ The Perverts Guide to Cinema ys
woyia olajk cela i`oyka lrkafka
zksiqkag Tyq fkdfmfkk neka Tyqg wjYH jkafka ksiqkag Tyqj fmkaug
ie,eiaughs'

Tyqj wfkla wh fkdokakd neka Tyqj oek .ekSug (known)

ie,eug Tyqg wjYH f' kuq;a wfkl=ka Tyqj olsk g Tyq oDYHudk fkd mj;S'
ke;fyd;a Tyqj oDYHudk jkg" Tyq ks -oDYHudk f' Tyq fkdjk foh iu`. Tyq
wkkH fZ hkqfjks'
tys pema,skag isjkafka w;s Yd, nqIqjd udOH ix{d j,ska km;d wmf.a jk f,dalh
,s.kakd wjldYhl tu ix{d wNsnjd ;udj ^mS; mx;sfha jk wr.,h" n,dfmdfrd;a;="
wirKNdjh yd mrdfrdamKh& wmg fmkSug ie,eiauhs' tu ksid Tyq iq`M wdldrhlska
;udj wfkla ix{dj,ska fjkaj fmkaug i,ijhs' ^yhg fj<`o NdKav lsKu
S g ;r`.hg
ksIamdokh lrk fj<`o oeka fuks'

fuu oeka wfkla oekafuka fjkiaug yd

zfjkiaZ ix{djla yryd wmg tajd < .ekSug fm<Uug m%h;ak orhs&'

kuq;a f

fmkajk iq`M ix{dj we;a; jYfhka i;H iskyjla fkdjk neka ^ienE i;=g yd m%yIh
u;ska kef.k iskyjla fkdjk ksid& pema,ska ta iu`. wkkHu m%;slafIam lrhss ^tk
ix{dj ks-nqIqjdlrKh lrhs&' fuys we;a; jYfhka i;=g hkq mS; mx;s ch.%yKhlska
;u wdl whs;Ska" ksIamdok n,f. j, ienE whs;sh kd .ekSu yryd mrdfrdamKh
ch.%yKh lsfuka we;sjk i;=ghs' wfkla w;g kq;k jHdmD;sfha ohf,la;slh ;=, we;s
kdYh ;=, j;a jk wmg isky h fkdyels neka o th iskyjla jkafka ke;'
5

th fkdjk foh
What it is not

ne,Q ne,aug fmfkk foh


What it is

fmfkk
iq`M
rEmh

ienE$
i;Hh

wkkH
fkdu
ks-nqIqjd
lrKh

m%;HCIh
Perception

ksm%;HCIh

kej; wd.ukh

x ^ixcdkk m%;HCIh&

~x ^ks-m%;HCIh&

pema,ska wm oelSug i,iajk foh iy Tyq we;a; jYfhka ord isk ke;fyd;a ksfhdackh
lrk foh w;r foda,kh fjhs'
wdldrhlsks'

Tyq ;%mgh ;=, mj;skafka f fol w;r ixl%uKSh

kuq;a fmfkk fohg Tfnka we;s i;H Tyq ieugu fmkakq lrhs' Tyq

fmdfydif;la hehs u,a l=Kk hqj;sh is;k g Tyq mam;a wirKfhls' Tyq fi!NHd.fha
ms<srefjka uE;aug W;aidy lrk iEu glu ;j ;j;a W;am%difhka Tyq jvjvd;a
oHdudk f' fmkSu ,nd ;u jxYj;a fmdfydi;a l=urd tkf;la n,d isk wehg wirK
pema,ska uqK .efia' ;j;a fmdfydif;la f,i iNdIKhg ;u ;=rd iu`. hk pema,ska
;u ldrrEmS;ajh u`.ska ;ud tu mx;shg whs;s ke;s nj fmkajhs'

wkaO ia;%Shg Wmldr

lrkq jia kej;;a Tyq i,a,sldr mx;sh yd iqixjd f' kuq;a kej; ;u mx;s uQ,hka lrd
tk pema,skag ;u wdorh uqK.efia'
pema,skaf.a ienE oCI;djh yd ixlSK;ajh k Tyq tlgu fmkS iska fmkS fkdisuhs'
WodyrK f,i kj;d we;s ld w;ka .uka lsug yok pema,ska kdis yuqod fin,d oel
kj;d we;s ld r:fha tla mfilska ke`. wfkla miska nei hhs' tfia nei hk g ld
r:fha msgqmi fodr jik Yofhka ml fldf u,a l=Kk wkaO hqj;sh Tyqj
fmdfydif;la f,i jer y`kd.ekSula lrhs (misconception)' mam;a pema,ska weh .ek
wkqlmdfjka wehg Wo lrk w;r weh ;u fmkSu ,nd .kS' wehg fmkSu ,enqK miq u,a
Yd,djla lr f.k hk w;r ;udg Wo l, zfmdfydi;a jxYj;a l=udrhdZ tkf;la weh
n,d is' kuq;a f jkg pema,ska ;ud l< fidrlug ovqju ,nka isrNdrfhah' tjeks
jxYj;a ;reKhska fudag r:fhka tk g ta whg /jf'

wjidkfha tla kla wehg

yuqjkafka ienE mam;a pema,skah' w;a iamYfhka ienEj ^we;a; pema,ska& uqK .efik tu
fudfyd; Nhdkl ksfIhla nj cela i`oyka lrhs'
zwmf.a mqjdhkfha (predicament) rEmlh fuh f'

wm iEu gu wdorh lrk

wjia:dj," wfkld we;a; jYfhka ljqreka jkafka o hkak ms<s fkd.ksuq'

ta
6

fjkqjg wmf.a *ekagisfha fldkafoais yd tl`.jk ;;ajhka u; isg wfkld y`kd


.;suq' kuq;a wm lrkafka jer y`kd .ekSuls' tg wdorh jer .sh fudfydf;au
wm b;d blaukska m%pKav;ajh fj; .uka lruq'Z ^cela 2006)
wmf.a *ekagisfha fldkafoais u; isg wmf.a wdYdj wfkld lrd m%lafIamKh lsu ;=, fuu
jeru is f'

kuq;a i;H uqK .efik fudfyd; hkq tu m%lafIamKh jer hehs wm

y`kd .kakd ^wm is;+ flkd f fkdf hehs wm idudkHfhka lshk& CIs;suh fudfyd;hs'
kuq;a u,a l=Kk hqj;sh ienE pema,ska ljqrekao hkak uy;a jEhfuka y`kd .kakd ;ek
;%mgh wjika jqj o wjidkfhka miqj;a ix.S;h ;su ;=, cela fmkajd fokafka fuu
y`kd .ekSu ;ju;a wjika ke;s njhs'

whdf,a hkafkl=f.a p;h ksrEmKh lrka

pema,ska wm yuqf fmkS iskafka ,cd ke;sjh' uu ,cd fkdfj' uu udju Tn fj;
f.k t'

Tn ud y`kd .kakd fudfyd; Nhdkl jk neka ud h fj'

Tyq u,a

l=Kk ia;%Shf.ka bj;aj hEug W;aidy lrkafka fuu h ksidh' nqIqjd ix{d f,dalhl
ksu.ak h nqx .ika isk wmg Tyq wm ljqreoehs oelSug omKhla imhhs'

wmf.a

*ekagis m%NkaOh ;=,u we;s i;H yryd uqK .efik wm wm ljqoehs y`kd .kakd fudfyd;
Nhdkl nj o Tyq lshd is'

cela mjik wdldrhg pema,ska ixlSK ksiqkag;a jvd

ixlSrK jkafka tneks'


mYS,k .%ka:
Adorno, T. and Horkiemir, M. (2002). The Dialectic of Enlightenment. Stanford Univesity
Press, USA.
Best, S. and Keller, D. (1991). Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations. The Macmillan
Press Ltd, Hampshire.
Gidden, Anthony (1991). Modernity and Self-identity. Self and Society in the Late Modern
Age. Polity, Cambridge.
Habermas, J. (1991). The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a
Category of Bourgeois Society. MIT Press, Cambridge.
Harbermas, J. (1981). Modernity- An Unfinished Project. MIT Press, USA.
Lytard, J.F. (1984). The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. University of
Minnesota Press, USA.
Zizek, Slavoj (2006). The Perverts Guide to Cinema. P Guide Ltd, USA.

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