Chapter 14

Click to edit Master subtitle style Gerunds and Infinitives

Part 1

12/3/12

Content
Introduction to Gerunds Using gerunds as the objects of prepositions Common preposition combinations followed

by gerunds.
Common verbs followed by gerunds Go + gerund Special expressions followed by –ing Common verbs followed by infinitives Common verbs followed by either infinitives or

gerunds

12/3/12

Gerunds: Introduction Box 14-1 (page 297)
Gerund
 Is the –ing form of a verb used as a noun  It is used in the same ways as a noun, as a

subject or as an object
Playing tennis is fun. (What is the subject?

What is the main verb?) Object? Main verb?)

We enjoy playing tennis. (What is the subject? He’s excited about playing tennis. (What is the

preposition? Object of the preposition?)
Compare
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 Sue is in charge of organizing the meeting. vacation.Using gerunds as the object of prepositions Box 14-2 (page 298) A gerund is frequently used as the object of a preposition. but finally decided we should go.* 12/3/12 .  I’m interested in learning more about your  We talked about going to Canada for our work.  I look forward to going home next month.  I’m used to sleeping with the window open.  We talked about not going to the meeting.

1. my suitcases.  I’m accustomed ________ (have) __________ a big breakfast.  Thank you ______ (help) ________ me carrying 12/3/12  I apologized to Yoko _____ (make) ______ her .  I have no excuse _______ (be) _________ late.  You are capable _______ (do) _________ better work. page 298) Complete these sentences with an appropriate preposition and verb form.Practice (Ex.  The rain prevented us ______ (complete) _________ the work.

Common Preposition Combinations followed by Gerunds Box 14-3 (page 299) Be excited About doing it Be worried Complain Dream Talk Think Apologize Blame (someone) Forgive (someone) Have an excuse Have a reason Be responsible About/of doing it For doing it 12/3/12 .

Common Preposition Combinations followed by Gerunds Box 14-3 (page 299) Keep (someone) From doing it Prevent (someone) Prohibit (someone) Stop (someone) Believe Be interested Participate Succeed Insist In doing it On doing it 12/3/12 .

Be accused Be capable For the purpose Be guilty Instead Take advantage Take care Be tired Be accustomed In addition Be committed Be devoted Look forward Object Of doing it To doing it 12/3/12 .

Homework Exercise 2 (page 300) Exercise 4 (page 301) Just write the answers on your paper to turn 12/3/12 in .

 Incorrect: I enjoy to play tennis.14-4 Common Verbs Followed by Gerunds (page 302)  Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs.  I enjoy playing tennis. Some phrasal verbs (like(get up) are Enjoy Quit mean the Consider Appreciate Finish give followed by up) gerunds.  Phrasal verbs:  Joe quit smoking  Joe gave up smoking  Both sentences (give Avoidsame. (put off) through) Stop Get through Delay Put off Mention Keep on  Other VerbsDiscuss Postpone Mind + Gerunds Keep (keep suggest on) Give up 12/3/12 .  Enjoy is followed by the a gerund (playing).  Enjoy is not followed by an infinitive.

Practice Create a sentence from the given words:  Enjoy + watching TV  Mind + Open the window  Quit + Eat desserts  Give up + Eat desserts  Keep + work  Keep on + work  Think about + get a job  Avoid +answer my question 12/3/12 .

recreational activities.14-5 Go + Gerund (page 303) Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions to express. Go birdwatching Go shopping Go camping Go fishing Go sailing Go Go boating skinnydipping Go hunting Go sightseeing Go hiking Go sledding Go jogging Go bowling Go skating Go running Go snorkeling Go mountain climbing Go kayaking Go swimming Go canoeing Go skiing Go window shopping Go Go dancing skateboarding 12/3/12 . Did you go shopping? We went fishing yesterday. for the most part.

 Finish + study  Go + dance  Keep + work  Go + bowl  Think about + wear  Enjoy + play  Talk about + go+ swim  Stop + fight  Avoid + go + shop 12/3/12 .Practice Create sentences from the given words.

 Have a hard time/difficult time + -ing I had a had time finding his house. I had a difficult time finding his house.14-6 Special Expressions Followed -ing forms follow certain special expressions by –ing (page 304)  Have fun/a good time + -ing We had fun playing volleyball We had a good time playing volleyball  Have trouble/difficulty + -ing I had trouble finding his house.  Spend + expressions of time or12/3/12 money + -ing . I had difficulty finding his house.

Practice Create sentences from the given verb combinations  Have trouble + remember  Stand (place) + wait  Have a hard time + learn  Sit (place) + think  Have a good time + play  Lie (place) + dream  Have difficulty + pronounce  Have fun + sing and dance 12/3/12 .

Homework Exercise 6 (page 303) write just the answers on your paper quiz grade Exercise 7 (page 304) this will count for a 12/3/12 .

gerunds Box 14-4 gave us common verbs followed by Go + gerund Special expressions followed by -ing 12/3/12 .Gerund Review Used gerunds as objects of prepositions Box 14-3 gave us common preposition combinations followed by gerunds.

to go Verb + Infinitive  I hope to see you again soon.  He promised to be here by ten.Common Verbs followed by Infinitives (box 14-7. to be. Some verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive Verb + (pro)noun + infinitive  Mr. page 307) Infinitive  To + the simple form of a verb To see. 12/3/12 . Lee told me to be here at ten o’clock.

Group A: Verb + Infinitive Hope to (do Promise to Seem to something) Expect to Plan to Intend to Decide to Agree to Offer to Refuse to Appear to Would like to Pretend to Want to Ask to Need to 12/3/12 .

Chapter 15 Click to edit Master subtitle style Gerunds and Infinitives part 2 12/3/12 .

”  Helen borrowed my dictionary to look up the The teacher opened the window for letting some fresh air in the room. 12/3/12 I traveled to Japan for to visit my sister. I came to this school for learn English.  I cam to this school to learn English.Correct the Errors Helen borrowed my dictionary for to look up the spelling of “occurred.  The teacher opened the window to let some fresh air in the room.” spelling of “occurred. .Review.

 He came here to study English To express purpose. not for.  Incorrect: He came here for study English. It answers the question “Why?”.  He came here in order to study English.  Incorrect: He came here for to study English. use (in order) to.  Incorrect: He came here for studying English. In order is often omitted.15-1 Infinitive of Purpose: In order to In order to is used to express purpose. 12/3/12 . with a verb.

Practice-Make up completions Tom went to Chicago for…. I went to the market for…. 12/3/12 .  Tom went to Chicago for some pizza.  I went to the market for some fresh vegetables. I went to the doctor to…  I went to the doctor to have a check-up.. Mary went to the market to…  Mary went to the market to buy some fresh fruit.

these adjectives describe a person (or persons). not a thing.  Many of these adjectives describe a person’s 12/3/12 . I was surprised to see Tim at the meeting.  In general. feelings or attitudes.15-2 Adjectives Followed by Infintives We were sorry to hear the bad news.  Certain adjectives can be immediately followed by infinitives.

He needs money desperately. Enough’s enough! I’m….  I’m fortunate to have a good family. but he’s reluctant 12/3/12 . but he’s….  He needs money desperately.. Some children grow up in unhappy homes. Ivan’s run out of money again. but he doesn’t want anyone to know his situation. My family. has always been loving and support. however. to ask. I’m….  I’m determined to relax for the rest of the day.Practice.Complete the sentences using the expressions listed in chart 15-2 and your own words I’ve worked hard all day long.

15-3 Using Infinitives with TOO and ENOUGH Compare:  The box is too heavy for Bob to lift. but Bob can lift it.  The box is very heavy. Enough follows an adjective  I am strong enough to lift that box. Too heavy = it is impossible for Bob to lift that box. I can lift it. but difficult for bob to lift that box. 12/3/12 Usually enough precedes a noun . Very heavy = It is possible. the use of too implies a negative result.  In the speaker’s mind.

Practice . but an adult Is it very difficult or too difficult to learn English? What did you have enough time to do before class today? 12/3/12 .Discussion Questions My friend’s daughter is 18 months old. Is she too young or very young? old enough to do? What is a child too young to do.

Quiz Sue Team  Write sentences using the following adjectives followed by infinitives. to Ashamed to DeterminedCertain to 12/3/12 to . Glad to (do Sorry to Ready to it) Careful to Surprised Happy to to Sad to Prepared hesitant to Team Good Cake to  Write sentences using the following adjectives Delighted Relieved to Lucky to followed by infinitives.

page 327 Ex. 7. 4. 3. page 328 Ex.Homework Ex. page 330 12/3/12 .

 The event expressed by a past infinitive or past gerund happened before the time of the main verb. 12/3/12 Passive Gerund: being + past participle . Passive Infinitive: to be + past participle  I didn’t expect to be invited to his party. Past Gerund: having + past participle  I appreciate having had the opportunity to meet then king.15-4 Passive and Past Forms of Infinitives and Gerunds Past Infinitive: to have + past participle  The rain seems to have stopped.

12/3/12 . I expected (invite) __________ to the party. but I wasn’t.  I don’t enjoy being teased by other people I’m angry at him for (give. paycheck.Supply an appropriate form for each verb (passive __________ by other and past forms) I don’t enjoy (tease) people.Practice.  I’m angry at him for not giving me my  I’m angry at home for not having given me my paycheck. not) __________ me my paycheck.

The house needs to be painted. The house needs painting. In this case.  Usually the situations involve fixing or improving something. 12/3/12 . I need  Usually an infinitive follows need. the gerund carries a passive meaning.  In certain circumstances.15-5 Using Gerunds or Passive Infinitives Following Need to borrow some money. a gerund may follow need.

We need (clean) ___________ it up before the company arrives. It needs (iron) _________. cleaning  To clean My shirt is wrinkled. What a mess! This room needs (clean) ___________ up. changing. It needs (change) ________.  To be ironed.  To be changed. 12/3/12 . ironing.Practice The baby’s diaper is wet.  To be cleaned.

. Lee complained about our coming to class A possessive adjective (our) is used to modify a gerund.15-6 Using a Possessive to Modify a Gerund Formal English  We came to class late. class late. Lee complained about Mary’s coming to 12/3/12 A possessive noun (Mary’s) is used.  Mr. late.  Mary came to class late. Mr.  Mr. Lee complained about that fact. Lee complained about that fact. Mr.

Combine with a gerund phrase You took the time to help us.Practice.  We greatly appreciate your/you taking the time We talked about him behind his back.  The boy resented our/us talking about him behind his back. We greatly appreciate that. to help us. 12/3/12 . The boy resented that fact.

page 334 12/3/12 . page 333 Ex 12. page 332 Ex 10.Homework Ex 9.

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