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and assessment will occur during the first period functional reading class. The classroom is room 007 of Central High School located in the basement. The smart board will be used to present the vocabulary words and the student will need a notecard and a pen to write the definition and uses of the words. There will be four other students in the classroom at this time receiving the same instruction. The cooperating teacher, Tara Miller, will also be in the room at the time. Research Articles: (articles attached to end of instructional program) In Using Constant Time Delay To Teach Word Definitions, Schuster, Stevens, and Doak discuss the implications of teaching word definitions to three students with mild learning disabilities. During the eight to nine instructional sessions, students were taught ten words’ definitions. They were taught using first a zero second time delay and then a five second time delay. During this time, students were to verbally say the word’s definition within five seconds of the instructor’s verbal cue in order to make a correct mark. During baseline, students answered the vocabulary questions on 0% of opportunities. After the constant time delay sessions, two of the students gave 100% of the word’s definitions correctly while the other gave the word’s definition correctly for 93% of the words. Not only did the students increase their vocabulary acquisition, they were tested for maintenance after 6, 10, and 14 weeks and all received marks that met criterion. This study shows that time delay is an extremely effective method for teaching vocabulary words. Students will be more likely to remember the words immediately after instruction as well as up to 14 weeks later. This maintenance period is especially important to consider for my students because the words they are learning are ones that they will be using throughout the rest of their lives. Since many students with learning disabilities become frustrated with learning vocabulary independently or through context, the direct instruction of the functional vocabulary units will be beneficial to my students. In Vocabulary Instruction for Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Two Instructional Models, authors Fore III, Boon, and Lowrie discuss the importance of linking vocabulary words to its characteristics as well as its uses. This builds a concept map in the student’s mind that will help them know the word’s actual meaning, rather than just its definition. The investigated study compared the definition and the concept model of vocabulary acquisition. The same six students were given instruction on words in two ways: the definition method where the students looked up the word’s definition in the dictionary and wrote the provided definition, and the concept method where the teacher provided the student with the vocabulary word’s definition, characteristics, examples and non-examples. The students answered a higher percentage of vocabulary words correctly with the concept model. Using this information, I will be sure to give examples and definitions of the vocabulary unit words so that my students can incorporate the words into their daily lives. Relating the information back to previous situations will help the students bet-
ter remember the word as well as understand its whole meaning. Also, by giving examples on how the students can use the vocabulary words after graduation, they will have a stronger background on the word and its context. Skill Sequence: See attached skill sequence. Program Objective: When given 10 vocabulary words on the functional vocabulary assessment, D will be able to convey understanding of all 10 words scoring him a 10/10, showing 100% understanding, on the assessment. Criterion will be met when he scores a 10/10 on 5 consecutive vocabulary units. Generalization: The words and their definitions will first be given to the students. From there, the students will learn to generalize the words through activities such as using the word in a sentence or giving an example that demonstrates the use of the word. Other games such as crossword puzzles and bingo will allow the students to use the words in various activities. This generalization through various mediums is called training sufficient exemplars. It is best to use this because words are rarely defined alone in conversations. Students need to know how to use the words in their natural contexts. Rationale: Since D is currently interested in getting a job, he will need to know vocabulary that can help him on the job, as well as help him build a resume that uses words to describe himself. The first unit’s words are helpful for him to assess how he is responsible, honest, etc. and convey that to an interviewer. Other functional units such as ones on computer related words (ie: Microsoft word, hard drive, flash drive, etc.) and ones on resume headings will help with job related experiences and acquisition. This is so beneficial for a senior who is about to graduate and enter the work force. Assessment Procedures: Pass out the written assessments to the students. Instruct each student to answer the questions on the paper. (varied written assessments will be used: matching, writing a sentence, giving an example, identifying the picture, etc.) 3. If a student needs clarification of the directions or of a particular answer, give clarification but no indication to the answer. 4. Have students turn in their assessments when they are finished. 5. Give specific verbal praise such as, “Thank you for your cooperation, D”. 6. Mark a “+” for each word the student accurately answered. 1. 2. Assessment Schedule: After 5 days of instruction, the student will be given an assessment on all 10 of the vocabulary words. Based on the student’s performance on this first assessment, he will be reinforced throughout the next five days on the words he did not know. He will also receive instruction on the words he did know in order to ensure maintenance of the vocabulary words. Then after 10 days of instruction, he will be assessed on the entire 10 vocabulary words before the beginning of the next unit of 10 words. Instructional Procedures: Time delay will be used during the 10 day instructional period. During zero second delay:
Present all 10 words to the students using 0 second time delay. Say the word and its definition and uses or show the picture that represents the word. Ask, “What is a computer monitor?” Students are supposed to model m previous definition of, “It is the computer screen.” [Underlined words are examples and will be changed with each vocabulary word.] 2. Record a “+” if the student is able to answer the question correctly and then provide specific verbal praise. 3. Use zero second delay for 2 instructional days then move to 4 second delay. 1. During 4 and 8 second delay: After asking the student what a vocabulary word means (verbal cue), wait 4 or 8 seconds, depending on the cycle, for the student to answer. 2. If the student responds correctly during the allotted amount of time, record a “+” on the data sheet. Provide specific verbal praise such as, “Great job D! You defined ____ correctly!” Then continue with the rest of the 10 vocabulary words. If the student did not respond correctly within the allotted time, record a “- “on the data sheet. Correct the error by giving the appropriate definition. Provide specific verbal praise for the effort. “D, the answer was incorrect, but your hard work is appreciated!” Then continue with the rest of the 10 vocabulary words. 3. Repeat steps 1-2 for each of the 10 vocabulary words. 4. Use 4 second delay for 4 days of instruction, then move to 8 second delay for the final 4 days of instruction before the final assessment. 1. Reinforcement: Direct praise will be given for each correct demonstration of the understanding of the vocabulary word. This may be given in verbal praise or a high five paired with a smile. Since there are new words during each unit, he will be praised for each correct word. There will be no fading of this praise. Maintenance: Maintenance is embedded in the words themselves. The functional words are used throughout D’s day so he will have the opportunity to practice them throughout his daily routine. The words will also be assessed twice to assess for maintenance of understanding as well. Longer term maintenance will be assessed informally throughout the instructional program. I will ask D the meanings of prior units’ words and he will be asked to respond verbally. • • • • Games to be Used During Instruction: word bingo crossword puzzle smartboard games who has the word that means ___ on index cards Data Recording Table: Unit #__Words 1 Record + or -
Unit #__Words 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Words With A “+”
Record + or -
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