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MAKALAH LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY

DISUSUN OLEH NAME : CLASS : B A A A A

: NIM :

1. I KOMANG BAGUS 2. KADIR 3. MEXI DARWIN 4. IRDA 5. HARMAH

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ENGLISH TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY UNIVERSITAS TOMAKAKA OF MAMUJU IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2012/2013

PREFACE Assalamualaikum. Wr. Wb. All praise be to Allah SWT who has been giving us the mercy and blessing, so we always in Allah guidance. Shalawat with salam we send to our big prophet Muhammad SAW and his relatives, with says Allah humma salliala saiyidina Muhammad waala saiyida Muhammad, so we can do our duties and responsibilities well. After making a great effort, the writers finally completed this research paper with title Language and Society . However, we realize that there are still many shortcomings in this paper. Therefore w enthusiastically welcome the objective criticism and constructive suggestion for the improvement of this paper. Finally, the writers hope that this paper will be useful not only for the writers but also for the readers.

Mamuju, 17 November 2012

Writers

TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND B. THEOLOGICAL PROBLEM CHAPTER II EXPLANATION A. WHAT IS LANGUAGE ? B. WHAT IS CULTURE ? C. HOW IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE ? CHAPTER III CLOSING A. B. CONCLUSION SUGGESTION REFERENCES

Language and society Language is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, and a language is any example of such a system of complex communication. According Keraf in Smarapradhipa (2005:1), providing two language understanding. The first notion of language as stated means of communication between members of the public in the form of a symbol of the sound produced by means of said human. Second, language is a communication system that uses symbols vocal (speech sound) which are arbitrary. According to Owen in Syarif Hidayatullah, 2009, language can be defined as a socially shared combinations of those symbol and rule governed combinations of those symbols Another case in Stiawan according to Owen (2006:1), describes the language definition language can be defined as a socially shared Those combinations of symbols and rule governed Those combinations of symbols (language can be defined as a socially acceptable code or conventional system for delivering concepts through the use of symbols and combinations of the desired symbols are governed by the provisions). The opinions above are similar to what was expressed by Tarin (1989:4), he gives two definitions of the language. First, language is a system that systematically, perhaps also for generative systems. Second, language is a set of symbols as you like it or arbitrary symbols. According to Santoso (1990:1), language is a series of sound produced by said means of a conscious human being. Another definition, language is a form and not a state (language may be the form and not matter) or something that sounds arbitrary symbol system, or also a system of many systems, a system of an order or an order in the systemthe system. The expression proposed by Mackey (1986:12). According Wibowo (2001:3), language is a system of symbols that are meaningful and articulate sound (generated by said tool) which are arbitrary and conventional, which is used as a means of communicating by a group of human beings to give birth to feelings and thoughts.

Almost similar to the opinion Wibowo, Walija (1996:4), disclose the definition language of communication is the most complete and effective way to convey ideas, messages, intentions, feelings and opinions to others. Other opinions about the definition of language expressed by Shamsuddin (1986:2), he gave two language understanding. First, language is a tool used to shape the mind and feelings, desires and deeds, a tool used to influence and be influenced. Second, language is a clear sign of a good personality or bad, a clear sign of the family and the nation, a clear sign from the mind of humanity. While Pengabean (1981:5), argues that language is a system of express and report what happens on the nervous system. Recent opinion of this short paper about the language expressed by Soejono (1983:01), language is a means of spiritual communication is very important in life together. As with the Wikipedia, which is almost the same on the definition of language that has been presented to the experts. And the following languages definition according to Wikipedia. 1. a system to represent objects, actions, ideas and circumstances. 2. an apparatus which is used to convey their real concept into the minds of others 3. a unified system of meaning 4. a code that is used by a linguistic expert to distinguish between form and meaning. 5. deliver a speech grammar that have been established (eg, words, sentences, and others.) 6. a speech system that will be understood by the linguistic community.... A society, or a human society, is a group of people related to each other through persistent relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or virtual territory, subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY What features of society affect language? How do they do so? Any important aspect of social structure and function is likely to have a distinctive linguistic counterpart. People belong to different social classes, perform different social rles, and carry on different occupations ( 1995; David Crystal: CEEL; p.3 ) Language performance (and competence) is likely to be affected by any or all of these: Aspects of social organization

Gender Peer group Health or disability/body image Occupation (trades, law, politics, news media, journalism, broadcasting)

Social class Age Ethnic group (may be link to regional variation)

Sexuality

Social context - factors which may influence use or response

Beliefs and attitudes (science, religion, morality) Notions of propriety Political Correctness

Education of speaker/writer and audience Social situation (work vs. leisure; degree of [in]formality) Intention or purpose Stereotyping

Fashions in language use

Note that:

Most (or all) of these affect real individuals in complex (multiple) ways. The complex effect of these things is itself subject to change. Restricted uses may become mainstream or standard (and vice versa).

The process is reciprocal: language use is both cause and effect of things in society.

We need examples from each of these categories (of which most can be further subdivided). show reason. The connection between language and society is tightly anchored. The relationship of the two is deeply rooted. Language performs various functions in the society and the society does the same way. If one will not exist, the other one will be affected. Language is the primary tool for communication purposes, for establishing peace and order in our society, for showing authority and power, and for attaining goals and objectives. But, it can also destruct the society if it will use inappropriately. It must follow the conformity governing the society to avoid conflict s and to meet the boundary of individual differences. Society however controls our language by giving us preferences as what are acceptable and not, because each one of us has our own perception or point of view. A group of people may accept our language, but for others, it could be kind of offence or insult. We must know how, when and where to say it and for what purpose. Social changes produce changes in language. This affects values in ways that have not been accurately understood. Language incorporates social values. However, social values are only the same as linguistic values when the society is a stable and unchanging one. Once society starts changing, then language change produces special effects. Some models to explain how language interacts with society: Features of society affecting language use and response may be (more or less):

We

also

need

theoretical

models

or

explanations

of

these

examples.Explanations must refer to evidence (language data) from texts; they must also

Static: e.g. ethnicity, gender, class background Changing: e.g. education, age, social environment, attitudes and fashions Situational/contextual: e.g. immediate social situation (workplace, home, recreation, peer group, perceived formality of situation)

Language features which may be affected by social categories or contexts:


Variety used Purposes

Meanings (denotation and connotation) Language change Notion of propriety/social acceptability (PC and non-PC forms)

Prescriptivism - notion of "correct" spoken, written and grammatical forms

Structural features of language necessary for modelling sociolinguistics: Lexis Semantics Etymology (related semantics) Pragmatics to (influence choice of lang) Style politics, (figures of speech) on Phonology

(special lexicons (special or register) Morphology (derivational) meanings)

Grammar/syntax Discourse structure Rhetoric (in special forms - (law, liturgy, trials)

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