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FLUOR DANI EL
WIND LOAD CALCULATION AS PER CANADIAN CODE
fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
PURPOSE
This practice provides recommended procedures for calculation of wind forces on
various types of equipment, supporting structures & buildings as per the Canadian
codes. This practice does not address tornadoes.
This practice is intended to be used in conjunction with NBCC and is not an
independent document. This document mostly deals with the types of structures,
commonly encountered in petrochemical facilities. The principles underlaid in the
ASCE Task Committee on Wind Loads for Petrochemical Facilities are included in
this practice.
This practice is a companion to Structural Engineering practice 000 215 1215 Wind
Load Calculation.
SCOPE
This practice includes the following topics:
 SCOPE
 APPLICATION
 DEFINITIONS
 GENERAL DISCUSSION
 VERTICAL VESSELS
 HORIZONTAL VESSELS
 ENCLOSED STRUCTURES
 OPEN EQUIPMENT STRUCTURES
 LOAD COMBINATIONS
 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
 REFERENCES
APPLICATION
The details, principles and methods contained in this practice will be used for the
calculation of wind loads as per Canadian codes. Whenever client or local
jurisdiction requirements differ or are incomplete, this practice shall be used as much
as feasible and the more conservative shall be adopted. This practice requires the use
of general procedures detailed in NBCC – part 4 (1995) Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures and Commentary ‘B’wind loads.
DEFINITIONS
Reference Wind Speed (V ) : Reference wind speed is a measure of the hourly
mean wind speed taken at sites (usually airports) chosen in most cases to be
representative of a height of 10 m in an open exposure. This is determined by
extreme value analysis of meteorological observations of hourly mean wind speeds.
Flexible Buildings & Other Structures : A structure is considered as slender and
flexible when the ratio of height to least horizontal dimension exceeds 5 or the
fundamental natural frequency is less than 1 H
Z
.
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WIND LOAD CALCULATION AS PER CANADIAN CODE
fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
GENERAL DISCUSSION
National Building Code of Canada
NBCC forms the basis of this practice with due reference to ASCE Task Committee
parameters for wind loads on petrochemical facilities and Structural Engineering
practice 000 215 1215 Wind Load Calculation.
Reference Wind Pressure
The Reference Wind Pressure (q) is directly available from NBCC, Appendix “ C ”
for many Canadian locations. The values of q are tabulated for three different levels
of probability being exceeded per year. (1 in 10, 1 in 30 & 1 in 100).
q =
2
V C
The factor C depends on atmospheric pressure and air temperature. For Canadian
conditions C = 50 X 10
6
for V in km/hr.
Wind pressure ‘p’ is calculated from the formula
p = q.C
e
.C
g
.C
p
where p is the specified external pressure acting statically and in a direction normal
to the surface
q = reference wind pressure ( KPa )
C
e
= exposure factor depending on height for different categories of
exposure
C
g
= Gust Effect Factor
C
p
= external pressure coefficient averaged over the area of the
surface considered
Exposure Factor C
e
The exposure factor ‘C
e’ reflects
changes in wind speed with height and effect of terrain
category classified as A, B & C.
For the windward face C
e
corresponds to that for the height ‘Z’ and therefore
increases with height. For the leeward face C
e is
evaluated at half the height ‘H’ of the
building.
Exposure Category
Exposure A: Open level terrain with only scattered buildings, trees or other
obstructions, open water or shorelines thereof. This is the exposure on which the
reference wind speeds are based.
C
e
= (Z /10)
0.28
C
e
>1.0
Where Z = height above ground in meters.
Exposure B: Suburban & Urban areas , wooded terrain or centers of large towns.
C
e
= 0.5 (Z /12.7)
0.50
C
e
>0.50
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WIND LOAD CALCULATION AS PER CANADIAN CODE
fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
Exposure C: Centers of large cities with heavy concentrations of tall buildings. At
least 50% of the buildings should exceed 4 storeys.
C
e
= 0.4 (Z /30)
0.72
C
e
>0.40
Speed up Over Hills & Escarpments
Buildings on a hill ( with a maximum slope > 1 in 10 ) particularly near a crest may
be subject to significantly higher wind speeds than buildings on level ground. The
exposure factor shall be multiplied by a ‘speed up factor’ as given in table B1 of
NBCC commentary ’ B’ – Wind Loads.
Gust Effect Factor C
g
Gust effect do not consider effects of across wind response, vortex shedding,
instability due to galloping or flutter or dynamic torsional effects.
Gust factor ‘C
g
’ is defined as the ratio of the maximum effect of the loading to the
mean effect of the loading.
This factor accounts for the dynamics of wind fluctuations and the load amplification
introduced by the building dynamics.
The total response may be considered as a superposition of a background component
with out any structural dynamic magnification and a resonant component due to
excitation close to the natural frequency of the structure.
A general expression for the peak loading effect (Wp) is given by
o µ
p p
g W + =
And the expression for C
g
, which is the ratio of peak loading to the mean loading, can
be identified as: 
) / ( 1 µ o
p g
g C + =
Where = µ the mean loading effect
= o the root mean square loading effect
=
p
g statistical peak factor for the loading effect
For majority of the structures the resonant component is small and the dynamic factor
can be simplified by considering the background component only.
Simple Procedure:
The form of the fluctuating wind loading effect ( o ) varies with the excitation –
whether due to gusts, wake pressures or motion induced forces. For a large class of
smaller structures only the added loading due to gusts must be dealt with and
simplified methods are adequate.
For small structures and components having relatively high rigidity, a simplified set
of dynamic gust factors is given in commentary ‘B’ of NBCC.
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WIND LOAD CALCULATION AS PER CANADIAN CODE
fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
C
g
=
2.5 for cladding elements and small structural components
= 2 for structural systems including anchorages to foundations.
Where combined gust factor & pressure coefficients ( C
p
C
g
) are given in the figures
& tables of the Commentary ‘B’ of NBCC, it is not required to determine gust factors
separately.
Detailed Procedure:
For structures that are tall, slender, lightweight, flexible or lightly damped, the
‘Resonant’ component of the total response may be dominant and hence the value of
Cg is obtained by the detailed procedure.
The value of µ o / is expressed as:
) ( /

µ o
sF
B
C
k
eH
+ =
k = a factor related to the surface roughness coeff. of terrain
= 0.08 For exposure A
= 0.10 For exposure B
= 0.14 For exposure C
C
eH
= Exposure factor ( Ce ) at the top of the building of
height ‘H’
B = Background turbulence factor as obtained from Fig. B
3 of Commentary ‘B’ as a function of W/H where
W= Width of windward face of the building
H = Height of the windward face of the building
s = Size reduction factor as obtained from Fig. B4 of
Commentary ‘B’ as a function of W/H and the Reduced
frequency
H
V H /
0
q where
0
q = Natural frequency of vibration (Hz)
H
V = Mean wind speed at top of structure (H) in ‘m/s’
=
H e
C V
F = Gust energy ratio at the natural frequency of the
Structure, as obtained from Fig. B5 of Commentary ‘B’
as a function of wave No. (
H
V /
0
q )
 = Critical damping ratio
= 0.01 for Steel framed building
= 0.02 for concrete framed building
= 0.0016 to 0.008 for closed circular unlined welded steel
stacks
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WIND LOAD CALCULATION AS PER CANADIAN CODE
fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
= 0.0048 to 0.0095 for lined welded steel stacks
= 0.0095 to 0.019 for unlined reinforced concrete Stacks
Note:
(i) The lower values of  are appropriate for foundations on rock
or piles. Average values are appropriate for foundations on
compacted soils. Higher values are appropriate for vessels
supported by elevated structures or soft soils
(ii) It is also recommended that the User checks the value of
 adopted by the Mechanical Engineer and the relevant
mechanical software for the design of the vertical vessel
The Peak factor (
p
g ) is obtained from Fig. B6 of Commentary ‘B’ as a function
of u .
u =
B sF
sF

q
+
0
Where u = average fluctuation rate
Pressure Coefficient
Pressure coefficients are usually determined from wind tunnel experiments. They are
nondimensional ratios of wind induced pressures on a building to the dynamic
pressure of the wind speed at reference height.
Whenever the sign of plus or minus is specified, check both positive and negative
values to obtain controlling loads. Sign convention is as follows:
 + (Plus sign) means positive pressure acting toward the surface.
  (Minus sign) means negative pressure acting away from the surface.
Figures B7 to B27 of NBCC commentary ‘B’ on wind loads covers information on
external and internal pressure coefficient required for the design of cladding and the
structures as a whole for a variety of building geometry. Fig B14 gives pressure
coefficients for flat roofed buildings greater in height than in width. In Figure B7 to
B13, peak pressure coefficients have been determined directly from wind tunnel test
and composite values of (C
p
. C
g
.) are obtained incorporating the aerodynamic shape
factors.
VERTICAL VESSEL
Vertical vessels must be designed for alongwind response caused by straight wind
(drag forces). Flexible vessels must also consider acrosswind response caused by
vortex shedding (lift forces). The design procedure herein is also appropriate for
determining design wind forces on stacks and chimneys. A vertical vessel (or a stack
or chimney) will behave like a cantilever beam.
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FLUOR DANI EL
WIND LOAD CALCULATION AS PER CANADIAN CODE
fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
General Procedure
For rounded structures, the pressure varies with the wind velocity depending on the
Reynolds number (Re) expressed by the equation:
R
e
=
6
10 7 . 2 d × ×
e
qC
Where d = Diameter of sphere / cylinder in (m).
The roughness of rounded structure is of importance. Common welllaid brickwork
without parging can be considered as having a “moderately smooth” surface.
Surfaces with ribs projecting more than 2% of dia. are considered “very rough”.
As per fig B18 of NBCC1995 commentary ‘B’ on Wind Loads, for a vertical vessel
Total Force F = q.C
e
.C
g
.C
f
.A
Where A = D. h ( where h = height above the ground )
F = Design wind force
C
g
= Gust effect factor
C
f
= Force coefficient from fig. B18 of Commentary ‘B’
D = Basic vessel diameter, equal to vessel internal
diameter plus 2 times the wall thickness plus 2 times the
insulation thickness ( m ).
Wind on Appurtenance
The general procedure for vertical vessel requires modification to account for vessel
appurtenances such as ladders, piping & platforms.
As per the ASCE Task Committee on Wind loads for Petrochemical Facilities:
(i) To account for wind on ladders and piping, the C
f
factor as determined in general
procedure is increased by WIF (Wind Increase Factor)
C
fm
= C
f
(WIF)
The following values of WIF may be used. (Reference Structural Engineering
practice 000.215.1215 Wind Load Calculation)
D (inches) WIF
24 to 30 1.5
36 to 48 1.4
54 to 72 1.3
78 and greater 1.2
(ii) For Wind on platforms:
F = A C C C q
f g e
C
f
= 2.0
C
g
= 2.5 ( as per NBCC Simple Procedure)
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WIND LOAD CALCULATION AS PER CANADIAN CODE
fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
A = Projected area of supporting steel
In absence of information, the criteria to estimate the number and size of platform as
given in Structural Engineering practice 000.215.1215 Wind Load Calculation may
be adopted.
(iii) For Wind on handrails:
F = A C C C q
f g e
C
f
= 2.0
C
g
= 2.5 ( as per NBCC Simple Procedure)
A = Projected area (generally a value of 0.80 sq.ft./ft may be adopted)
Across Wind Response – Vortex Shedding
When the wind blows across a slender, prismatic, cylindrical body vortices are shed
alternatively from one side and then the other, giving rise to fluctuating force acting
at right angles to the wind direction along the length of the body.
The wind speed (V
H
) at the top of the structure when the frequency of vortex
shedding equals the natural frequency ‘q ’ of structure:
D q
S
1
V
H
=
Where q = Natural frequency of the structure (Hz)
The natural frequency can be calculated by ‘WINPLUS’ or refer Structural
Engineering practice 000.215.1215 Wind Load Calculation section on ‘Fundamental
Frequency’
V
H
= Mean wind speed at the top of structure (H) when the frequency of
vortex shedding equals the natural frequency ‘q ’ of the structure
(resonance condition)
D = Basic vessel diameter
S = Strouhal number
As per NBCC Commentary ‘B’, value of V
H
can be approximated by:
(i) /s) (m 0.5 D
2 2
s q D 6 V
H
q =
(For
5
10 2× <
e
R and
6
1
= S )
(ii) /s) (m 0.75 D / m 0.5
2 2 2
< <q s
D
s) / 1.5(m
D 3 V
2
H
+ = q
For ) 10 5 . 2 10 2 (
5 5
× s < ×
e
R
(iii) /s) (m 0.75 D
2 2
> q D 5 V
H
q =
For (
5
10 5 . 2 × >
e
R and
5
1
= S )
Practice 000 215 XXXX
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FLUOR DANI EL
WIND LOAD CALCULATION AS PER CANADIAN CODE
fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
Across Wind Response Evaluation Consideration
The evaluation of a vessel for across wind response is not clearly addressed in the
NBCC. The following criteria have been picked from various references.
(i) As per Structural Engineering practice 000 215 1215 Wind Load
Calculation, Across Wind Response is not a concern if
( ) 3 . 1 V V
H H e
C >
(Also refer Attachment 07 of Structural Engineering practice 000 215 1215
Wind Load Calculation)
This is close to the criteria adopted by Mechanical for Design of Vertical
Vessels. As per the Mechanical Criteria, Across Wind Response is not a
concern if
( ) 25 . 1 V V
H H e
C >
(ii) As per ASTM STS12000 Clause 5.22(3), Across Wind Response can be
ignored if
( ) 2 . 1 V V
H H e
C >
(iii) There is also a strong opinion that the design procedure outlined in (i) and
(ii) above is appropriate for determining design wind forces on stacks and
chimneys. For structures like the vertical vessels as typical to the refinery
and petrochemical facility, Across Wind Response is not a concern if
H e
C V V
H
>
(iv) As per another school of thought, vertical vessels, as typical to the refinery
and petrochemical facility, generally have access platforms and other
appurtenances attached on the outside. These act as strakes and dampners,
which prevent the formation of vortices and hence Across Wind Response is
not a concern at all.
Where
H e
C V = Hourly mean wind speed at the top of the structure being designed.
It is recommended that the criteria outlined in (iii) above be followed.
It is also recommended that the User checks the criteria adopted by the Mechanical
Engineer and the relevant mechanical software for the design of the vertical vessel. It
may not be appropriate to design the vessel foundation for a force greater than (or
less than) the force for which the vessel and its anchorage are designed by the
mechanical group.
In any case, the criteria adopted for Across Wind Response Evaluation consideration
should be acceptable to the Client.
Vortex Shedding Force
For a cylindrical structure, the dynamic effect of vortex shedding force can be
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FLUOR DANI EL
WIND LOAD CALCULATION AS PER CANADIAN CODE
fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
approximated by an equivalent static force per unit length (F
L
), acting over the top
1/3 of the structure.
D q
M
D
C
H
2
2
1
L
C
F
µ
 ì ÷
=
 = Critical damping ratio
ì = Aspect ratio H/D
H
q = Velocity pressure corresponding to V
H
where V
H
is in m/s (resonance
condition)
2
60 . 0
H
V ~ (Pa)
M = Average mass per unit length over top 1/3 of structure (kg/m)
µ = Density of air
3
/ 2 . 1 m kg ~
1
C = 3 for 16 > ì
= ì
4
3
for 16 < ì
2
C = 0.60
In addition:
(i) If V
H
is low (V
H
< 10m/s) and 12 > ì (very slender structure), vortex
induced motion is significantly increased.
In such a case adopt C
1
= 6
C
2
= 1.2
(ii) For tapered structures with a diameter variation exceeding 10% over the top
third, adopt C
1
= 3
C
2
= 0.6
And no increase in these coefficients is required for low value of V
H
(iii) If
M
D
C
2
2
µ
 < then large amplitude motion upto one diameter may result.
Adopt appropriate remedial measures.
Design Wind Force
The wind loads shall be estimated for both the Along Wind Response as well as the
Across Wind Response. There are no clear guidelines in the NBCC to suggest
whether the Along Wind and the Across Wind loads shall be considered separately or
shall be considered as a combined action.
The following have been picked from various references.
(i) ASME STS12000 Clause 5.2.2(a) point (1) under the heading ‘Wind
Responses – Vortex Shedding’ states
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WIND LOAD CALCULATION AS PER CANADIAN CODE
fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
“ The vortex shedding loads need not be combined with along wind loads.”
Along wind and Across wind moment and shear shall be taken separately.
Adopt more critical of Along or Across Wind Response loads.
(ii) Texts available suggest that the Along wind and Across wind loads shall be
taken separately and as a combined action.
As a practice, the Across wind loads have been combined with the Along
wind loads at wind speed V
H.
(where V
H.
is the Mean wind speed at the top
of structure (H) when the frequency of vortex shedding equals the natural
frequency ‘q ’ of the structure).
The Resultant load is expressed by the SRSS of the Across Wind loads and
the Along Wind loads at V
H.
. The more critical of the Along Wind load and
the Resultant load is considered as the Design load.
In absence of more definite information, it is recommended to follow (ii) above. It is
also recommended that the User checks the criteria adopted by the Mechanical
Engineer and the relevant mechanical software for the design of the vertical vessel
In any case, the criteria adopted should be acceptable to the Client
HORIZONTAL VESSEL
General Procedure
For horizontal vessels, no check for dynamic properties is required.
As per the ASCE Task Committee on Wind loads for Petrochemical Facilities,
Projected diameter of the vessel is equal to the outer diameter of vessel plus 1.5 ft
(0.46 m) to account for ladders, nozzles and pipes of diameter 8 inches (including
insulation) or smaller.
F = A C C C q
f g e
Note: It is assumed that all forces are applied on Centerline.
For horizontal vessel and structures having high rigidity, as per the simple procedure
adopt:
2.0 C
g
=
Transverse wind:
For wind perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vessel use coefficient for walls
above ground as per figure B17 of Commentary ‘B’.
Multiply the C
f
factor from figure B17 by 0.70 to account for the cylindrical shape
of vessel. Generally for
10 =
h
l
and
o
40 = 
C
f
= 1.6 x 0.70 = 1.12, may be adopted ( all values are from Table B17)
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WIND LOAD CALCULATION AS PER CANADIAN CODE
fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
Longitudinal wind:
For wind in the longitudinal direction adopt C
f
from figure B17
On the conservative side, the end of the vessel is considered flat. For determining the
force coefficient C
f
the vessel and the pier are considered together and the force
coefficient for walls on ground is adopted.
Generally for
1 =
h
l
and
o
50 = 
C
f
= 1.5, may be adopted (all values are from Table B17)
Appurtenances :
(i) For wind on Pipes larger than 8” refer figure B22 of Commentary ‘B’
(ii) For wind on Piers, C
f
= 1.5
(iii) For wind on Platforms, follow the procedure as outlined under ‘Vertical Vessel’
(iv) For Ladders (if required to be considered separate)
As per the ASCE Task Committee on wind loads for Petrochemical Facilities
2.0 C
f
=
0.1524 A = sq. m /m, i.e. 0.50 sq.ft./ft. (for ladder without cage)
0.2286 A = sq. m /m, i.e. 0.75 sq.ft./ft. (for ladder with cage)
ENCLOSED STRUCTURES
The general procedure for enclosed structure requires C
g
to be calculated as per the
detailed procedure if the fundamental frequency (first mode) of vibration of the
structure is less than 1 Hz or if the height to width ratio exceeds 5.
While calculating C
g
, the value of the critical damping ratio (  ) should be selected
as appropriate for the structural system.
The pressure coefficient can be obtained from Fig. B14 of NBCC Commentary ‘B’.
The net specified pressure due to wind on part or all of a surface of a building shall
be the algebraic difference of the external pressure (p = qC
e
C
g
C
p
)and the specified
internal pressure or suction ( pi = qC
e
C
g
C
pi
)
where C
p
=
external pressure coefficient
C
pi
=
internal pressure coefficient
p
i
= specified internal pressure acting statically and in a direction
normal to the surface as a pressure or suction
OPEN EQUIPMENT STRUCTURES
It is not conservative to assume that an upper bound to wind force on an open
structure is given by the force on that structure as if it were enclosed. ASCE Task
Committee on Wind loads for Petrochemical Facilities comments that model test of
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fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
open buildings have demonstrated that wind force on an open structure can exceed
wind force on that structure when subsequently enclosed.
Open equipment structures support equipment and piping within an open structural
frame, generally unenclosed by siding or other shielding appurtenances. Open
equipment structures include:
 Open Equipment Structures
 Pipe racks or cable tray racks
 Framed or trussed towers
 Structural frames supporting appurtenances
The main wind force resisting system includes, wind forces acting on the structural
frame and the appurtenances such as ladders, handrails etc.
f g e
C C C q p =
The wind forces on vessels, piping and cable trays located on or attached to the
structure shall be calculated separately and added to the wind forces acting on the
main wind force resisting system.
Adopt the applicable value of C
g
as per simple or detailed procedure conforming to
NBCC Commentary ‘B’.
Wind Loads with no shielding
Wind loads force coefficient for design of individual components, cladding and
appurtenance (excluding vessels, piping and cable trays) shall be calculated as per
figure B23 of NBCC Commentary B.
The force coefficient is applicable for structural members of infinite lengths and this
is multiplied by the reduction factor ‘k’, for finite length of members. (If member
projects from large plate or walls, the reduction factor ‘k’ should be calculated for
slenderness based on twice the actual length.)
Wind load is calculated on the Effective solid area exposed to the wind. (Elements
such as cladding, bracing, ladders, stairs and handrails can be considered as part of
the solid area.)
ASCE Task Committee on Wind Loads for Petrochemical Facilities –
Recommended guidelines
For the main force resisting system The ASCE Task Committee on Wind Loads for
Petrochemical Facilities suggests value of C
f
to be used for piperack and other
similar structures based on no shielding (except as defined for piping and cable tray).
For all structural members C
f
= 1.8 or alternately C
f
= 2.0 below the first level and C
f
= 1.6 for members above the first level.
Loads on Frame and Shielding
In addition to the use of figure B23 of NBCC Commentary B as explained above
(Wind load with no shielding), for framing members that are located behind each
other in the direction of the wind, the shielding effect may be taken into account. The
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fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
windward member and the unshielded part of the leeward member should be
designed for the full pressure (q). The shielded part of the leeward member should be
designed for the reduced pressure (q
x
) as per figure B25 of Commentary B.
The solidity ratio
A
A
s
= c
Where A = Gross area (envelope area) of the frame.
A
s
= Effective Solid area (Elements such as cladding, bracing, ladders,
stairs and handrails can be considered as part of the solid area.)
The effective solid area of a frame is defined as the solid area of each element in the
plane of the frame projected normal to the nominal wind direction. (As per the ASCE
Task Committee on Wind Loads for Petrochemical Facilities, the presence of
flooring or decking does not cause an increase of solid area beyond the inclusion of
the thickness of the deck.)
ASCE Task Committee on Wind Loads for Petrochemical Facilities –
Recommended guidelines
Refer Attachment 01. The structure is idealized as two sets of orthogonal frames. The
maximum wind load on each set of frame is calculated independently.
The force coefficient is defined for wind forces obtained normal to the frames,
irrespective of the actual wind direction. It accounts for entire structure in the
direction of wind. The value obtained for each axes of the structure is the maximum
force coefficient for the component of force acting normal to the frames for all
horizontal wind angles.
The force coefficient C
Dg
was developed from wind tunnel test for use on the gross
area of the structure. These are converted to force coefficient applied to the solid area
as per the equation.
c
Dg
f
C
C =
Where C
Dg
= Force coefficient for a set of frames.
c = Solidity ratio,
A
A
s
= c
A
s
= Effective solid area of the windward frame (Elements such as
cladding, bracing, ladders, stairs and handrails can be considered
as part of the solid area.)
A = Gross area (envelope area) of the windward frame.
The force coefficient (C
Dg
) depends on
(i) Frame spacing ratio S
F
/B, where ‘S
F
‘ is measured center to center and ‘B’ is
measured from outside edge to outside edge.
(ii) N = Number of framing lines normal to the nominal wind direction.
C
Dg
is obtained from graph between ‘c’ and N for various values of S
F
/B. Refer
Attachment 03.
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fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
The force coefficient C
Dg
were developed for structure with a vertical aspect ratio
(Height/Width, perpendicular to the wind flow direction) = 4.
The coefficient C
Dg
from the graphs will be slightly conservative for relatively
shorter structures and slightly nonconservative for relatively taller structures.
The force coefficient C
Dg
is applicable for frames of typical sharp edged steel shapes
such as wide flanged shapes, channels and angles.
The graphs are available for S
F
/ B varying from 0.10 to 0.50 and c varying from
0.10 to 0.35. (Linear interpolation may be used for values of S
F
/B not given in the
graphs.)
For the range of values falling outside the graphs, the force coefficient
f
C can be
obtained directly from the following equations. (Reference Structural Engineering
practice 000 215 1215 Wind Load Calculation)
For N = 2 to 4 C
f
= 1.8 + 1.4 N  (1.0 + 1.2 N) c
0.45
q
0.06
For N = 5 to 7 C
f
= 3.0 + 1.2 N  (1.2 + 1.2 N) c
0.45
q
0.02 (N1)
Where q = S
F
/ B.
(i) Expressions above are based on data for 0.10 s c s 0.50 from ASCE
Wind Load on Petrochemical Facilities and for S
F
/ B = 1.0 with N = 2
from ASCE 795.
(ii) They also agree well with test data reported by Whitbread for parallel
trusses normal to wind. His data are for 2 s N s 5 and
0.5 s S
F
/ B s4.0.
(iii) For smaller solidity ratios, neglect shielding and use C
f
= 2.0 for each
member in each frame. For larger solidity ratios, use these expressions
with caution
Area of Frames
For structures with frames of equal solidity, the effective solid area should be taken
as the solid area of windward frame.
Where the solid area of windward frame exceeds the solid area of the other frames,
A
s
= Solid area of windward frame.
If the solid area of windward frame is less than the solid area of the other frames,
A
s
= Average of the solid area of all the frames.
Pipe Racks and Cable Tray Racks
Pipe racks or cable tray racks are specialized open equipment structures whose
principal function is to support horizontal runs of piping, cable trays, or both.
Calculate wind forces on the structure as described above  wind forces on piping
and trays are calculated separately.
If the rack is significantly longer than its width, only wind force in the transverse
direction of the rack need be considered. Wind load in the longitudinal direction may
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not be critical. For short racks with small pipe anchor loads, effects of longitudinal
wind force shall be evaluated.
Pipes
The ASCE Task Committee on Wind Loads for Petrochemical Facilities recommends
that, for piperack and other similar structures, the tributary area for piping should be
based on the diameter of the largest pipe, plus 10% of the width of the piperack. This
sum is multiplied by the length of pipes (bent spacing) to determine the tributary
area.
The force coefficient C
f
= 0.70 should be used as a minimum. The force coefficient
can also be obtained from figure B22 of NBCC Commentary B.
The value of C
g
= 2.0 can be adopted as per the simple procedure.
Cable Trays
The ASCE Task Committee on Wind Loads for Petrochemical Facilities recommends
that the tributary area for Cable trays should be based on the height of the largest
tray, plus 10% of the width of the piperack. This sum is multiplied by the length of
the tray (bent spacing) to determine the tributary area.
For cable trays the Force coefficient C
f
= 2.0 should be used. The force coefficient
can also be obtained from figure B17 of NBCC Commentary B for · ÷ =10
L
h
(or applicable) for walls above ground.
Use C
g
= 2.0 as per the simple procedure.
Note:
The above is applicable for the cable tray configuration as shown in Figure 1 of
Attachment 02. For configurations shown in Figures 2 and 3 of the same attachment,
estimation of the tributary area by the above approach will yield very conservative
values.
Based on common practice, for configurations as shown in Figures 2 and 3 of
Attachment 02, the following is recommended.
(i) The top cable tray layer shall be considered separate and as defined for
Figure 1 above.
(ii) The remaining portion of the cable tray rack shall be considered as a frame,
with or without the shielding effect. If shielding is considered, the frame
spacing shall be W/2 and W for Figure 2 and 3 respectively.
Shielding of equipment
For wind load on equipment inside structures, follow the recommendation of ASCE
‘Wind Load on Petrochemical Facilities’ as detailed in practice 000.215.1215 Wind
Load Calculation
LOAD COMBINATIONS
Use load combinations from NBCC  1995 and Structural Engineering Specification
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fp  000 215 1215  Wind Load Calculation as per Canadian Code Structural Engineering
000.215.00910, Structural Engineering Criteria, unless applicable local codes or
Client requires otherwise.
Enclosed Structures
For wind loads on enclosed structures, use full and partial loading as described in
NBCC  1995
Open Equipment Structures
For wind loads on open equipment structures, follow the recommendation of ASCE
‘Wind Load on Petrochemical Facilities’ as detailed in practice 000.215.1215 Wind
Load Calculation.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
Drift Control
PIP STC 01015 addresses allowable drift limits for structures in petrochemical
facilities, and provides for the following limits:
 For pipe racks Height / 150
 For process structures, preengineered metal buildings, and personnel access
platforms Height / 200
 For structures with bridge cranes The smaller of 2 inches or Height / 200
 For occupied buildings which may be damaged by excessive drift Height / 400
Also refer Appendix I of CAN/CSAS16.194.
Overturning Stability
Follow 000.215.1215 Wind Load Calculation.
Shielding
No reduction in wind loads shall be made for the shielding effects of vessels or
structures adjacent to the one being designed. NBCC  1995 does not permit
consideration of possible shielding of one building or structure by another unless
verified by tests.
REFERENCES
ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers). Wind Loads on Petrochemical
Facilities. New York, 1997.
ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) STS12000. Steel Stacks.
PIP (Process Industry Practices) STC 01015. Structural Design Criteria. Austin,
TX, 1998.
NBCC (National Building Code of Canada) Commentary B Wind Loads
Structural Engineering Practice 000 215 1215 Wind Load Calculation.
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ATTACHMENTS
Attachment 01: XXXXX03
Typical Arrangement of Frames for calculation of force coefficient, as per ASCE
Task Committee on Wind Load for Petrochemical Facilities, considering shielding.
Attachment 02: XXXXX03
Arrangement of Cable Trays
Attachment 03: XXXXX03
Force Coefficient Graphs for a set of Frames with shielding effect – as per ASCE.
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Typical Arrangement of Frames for Calculation of Force Coefficient, as Per ASCE Task
Committee on Wind Load for Petrochemical Facilities, Considering Shielding
S
F
B
S
F
S
F
Number of Frames, N
Plan View of Framing
Nominal Wind
Direction
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Arrangement of Cable Trays
FIGURE 1:
FIGURE 2:
FIGURE 3:
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
W (Width of Piperack)
W (Width of Piperack)
h
t
Consider separate
Consider separate
W (Width of Piperack)
h
t
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