Kijitabu changu cha COP

Waliojumuika

My Little COP Pocket Book

Cover design by: Designers: Chief Editor: Editors: Translation:

Charles Kyeti Vise Gilbert Chin Yenaye Rene Mkerka Kennedy Liti Mbeva Reuben Mako mere Kenny Wahome Ntiokam Divine

Shukrani Kitabu hiki kimeelezea kwa undani taarifa zipatikanazo kwenye wavuti maalumu (http://www.unfccc.int) ya UNFCCC na kimekusudia kuwa mwongozo rahisi wa usomaji kuhusu shughuli za UNFCCC COP. Kitabu hiki hakiuzwi; tafadhali sambaza kwa wingi zaidi, hasa kwa wale watakaopenda kufahamu kuhusiana na shughuli za UNFCCC COP. Kitabu hiki ni matokeo ya jitihada ya vijana wenye kujitoa, na ni muhtasari wa mabango ya Blogi ambayo kwa mara ya kwanza ilionekana kwenye http://kenyanclimateyouth.blogspot.com!

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Yaliyomo:
Part 1: Introduction and history of climate change negotiations...............................................................................6 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................7 Inspiration for this series......................................................................................................................................7 Brief history of climate change negotiations...........................................................................................................7 The Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee.......................................................................................................7 Part 2: Battle Lines Are Drawn.............................................................................................................................8 The Heart of UNFCCC.........................................................................................................................................9 Enter the Rock Star: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).................................................................9 The North – South Divide............................................................................................................... ....................9 Issues! Issues! Issues!.......................................................................................................................................10 Common but Differentiated Responsibilities.........................................................................................................10 Annex Parties................................................................................................................................................... 10 Part 3: The Good, The Bad and The Kyoto Protocol...............................................................................................11 Birth of Kyoto Protocol.......................................................................................................................................12 Climate Change Convention vis-a-vis The Kyoto Protocol.......................................................................................12 Principle underpinning the Kyoto Protocol...........................................................................................................12 Gases covered under the Kyoto Protocol..............................................................................................................13 The Good..........................................................................................................................................................13 The Bad...........................................................................................................................................................13 Part 4: Under the Hood of The Kyoto Protocol......................................................................................................14 In a nutshell.....................................................................................................................................................15 a. Emissions Trading......................................................................................................................................15 How it works.....................................................................................................................................................16 Other trading units used....................................................................................................................................16 Tracking, Checks and Balances..........................................................................................................................17 Success Story....................................................................................................................................................17 b. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)............................................................................................................17 Origins.............................................................................................................................................................17
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Management of CDM.........................................................................................................................................18 A simple example..............................................................................................................................................18 c. Joint Implementation (JI)...............................................................................................................................18 Example project................................................................................................................................................18 Operation of JI..................................................................................................................................................18 Guidelines........................................................................................................................................................19 Eligibility requirements for Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms.........................................................................................19 Part 5: Examining the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism...........................................................................................20 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................21 Brief overview of the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism.............................................................................................21 Role of the COP in the UNFCCC financial mechanism...........................................................................................21 Current Funds...................................................................................................................................................22 Brief history of the GEF......................................................................................................................................22 Linkage between UNFCCC and GEF.....................................................................................................................23 Main objectives of the GEF.................................................................................................................................23 Onset of problems.............................................................................................................................................23 Changes in context............................................................................................................................................24 Efforts to strengthen the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism.......................................................................................24 • Establishment of level of ambition..............................................................................................................24 • Standing Committee..................................................................................................................................25 • Long-term Finance.....................................................................................................................................25 Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................................25 Part 6: Where is the Money?..............................................................................................................................26 1. Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF)..........................................................................................................27 2. Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF).......................................................................................................27 3. Adaptation Fund........................................................................................................................................28 4. Green Climate Fund (GCF)..........................................................................................................................28 Tasks of the GCF Board:.....................................................................................................................................29 Conclusion........................................................................................................................................................29 Page 4
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Part 7: Structure of the COP..............................................................................................................................30 1. Structure of COP...................................................................................................................................... 31 a. Subsidiary Body for Scientific Technological Advice (SBSTA).........................................................................31 b. Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI).................................................................................................. 31 2. COP Timeline............................................................................................................................................32 COP 1: Establishing the Basics...........................................................................................................................33 COP 2: Geneva Declaration................................................................................................................................33 COP 3: Kyoto Protocol.......................................................................................................................................33 COP 4: Plan of Action.......................................................................................................................................33 COP 5:Finalizing the Kyoto Protocol....................................................................................................................33 COP 6: Kyoto Protocol Operation Rulebook..........................................................................................................33 COP 7: Marrakech Accords.................................................................................................................................34 COP 8: New Delhi Work Program........................................................................................................................34 COP 9: Adaptation Fund....................................................................................................................................34 COP 10: Post-Kyoto Mechanisms........................................................................................................................34 COP 11: Montreal Action Plan............................................................................................................................34 COP 12: Nairobi Conference...............................................................................................................................34 COP 13: Bali Action Plan...................................................................................................................................34 COP 14: Poznan Climate Change Conference.......................................................................................................35 COP 15: Copenhagen Accord............................................................................................................................. 35 COP 16: Cancun Agreements.............................................................................................................................35 COP 17: Durban Platform..................................................................................................................................35 COP 18:.......................................................................................................................................................... 35 Conclusion........................................................................................................................................................35 Final Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................36

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Sura 1: Usulisuli na Historia ya Mazungumzo yahusuyo Mabadiliko ya Hali ya Tabia ya nchi.

Tumesikia kuhusu mabadiliko ya hali ya tabia ya nchi Na Yale yote yanayohusiana na mabadiliko hayo. Harakati dhidi ya hali ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi yamekuwa ni mambo yenye kujadiliwa kwa muda sasa. Lakini pia, mambo haya yaweza kuwa makubwa zaidi katika nyakati tulizonazo na imekuwa ni sababu iliyopelekea kwa mara ya kwanza kulifikiria kwa kina jambo hili. Mkutano wa 18 wa Vyama (18th Conference of the Parties) utajiri hivi karibuni ambapo mambo kadha wa kadha yatazungumziwa.
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Chachu ya Mfululizo huu Katika kutazama mambo yanayohusiana na makubaliano ya mabadiliko ya ya tabia ya nchi, tumegundua kwamba mengi ya mambo hayo yameandikwa kwa ajili ya wataalamu na kuyafanya kutoeleweka vizuri kwa wale watakaopenda kujifunza njia mbalimbali za mazungumzo ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. Kwa hiyo, tumechukua jukumu la kuandaa mfululizo uitwao “Peeling Back the COP” wenye madhumuni kuchambua njia za makubaliano ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi kwenye makala fupi, na zenye mvuto. Historia Fupi ya Mazungumzo juu ya Mabadiliko ya Hali ya Tabia ya Nchi Je! Njia za makubaliano ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi zilianza vipi? Ki ukweli, ulikuwa ni muono wa masomo, majadiiliano na mambo yaliyopita ambayo yalitokea miaka kadhaa iliyopita, na ilipofika 1990 mabadiliko makubwa yalionekana katika namna ambayo mambo haya yalivyokuwa yakifahamika.Katika mkutano wa Baraza kuu la Umoja wa mataifa la mwaka 1990, kulikuwa na makubaliano mengi yaliyofikiwa katika mlengo wa kuandaa chombo rasmi kitakacho zungumzia mambo yahusianayo na mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. Chombo hicho kilijulikana kwa jina la “Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee” (INC) Kamati ya Makubaliano ya Umoja wa Serikali Kamati hii ilitumia miezi kumi na mitano na hatimaye kuibusha mambo kadhaa yaliyoelezea namna ya kukabiliana na tabia ya mabadiliko ya hali nchi, pia ulitajwa kuwa “Mkakati wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi” (Climate change Convention). Mkakati huo uliwasilishwa kwenye Mkutano wa Umoja wa Mataifa wa Mazingira na Maendeleo (UN CED) kwa kusainiwa, huu ulikuwa ni Mkutano mkubwa wa Ulimwengu.

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Sura 2: Mwanzo wa Mazungumzo

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Hiki ni kipengele kifupi, kama kilivyoainishwa na mada husika! Katika sura iliyopita imeelezea kuundwa kwa Taswira ya Mkakati juu ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi (UNFCCC). Na katika sehemu ya pili ya muendelezo huu tutajadili Mkakati wa Mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi. Kitovu cha UNFCCC Mkakati wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi ni kitovu cha Taswira ya Mkakati wa mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi na kila kitu chochote kihusianacho. Inavutia ni jinsi gani Mkakati huu ulianzishwa. Kwa kuanzia, utakuwa umewahi kusikia juu ya Mkutano Mkubwa wa Vienna wenye madhumuni ya kulinda Tabaka Hewa (Ozone Layer) wa 1985 na pia mkutano wa “Stellar Montreal Protocol” juu ya vitu visababishavyo uharibifu wa Tabaka Anga hewa, uliofanyika 1987. Mikutano hii miwili ilijadili Green House Gases (GHGs) ambazo zimekuwa zikiharibu anga hewa, ingawaje kwa mujibu wa shahidi za kitaalamu kulikuwa pia na gesi nyingine zaidi zilizokuwa zikifanya athari zaidi katika mazingira hata kudhibitiwa.Lakini pia kulikuwa na uhitaji wa kupata muendelezo wa shahidi za kitaalamu ambazo zitapelekea uundwaji wa sera zenye kupunguza gesi hizo. Enter the Rock Star: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) IPCC ni chombo maalumu kilichopelekea sayansi ya tabia ya nchi kwenye sayansi rahisi yenye kueleweka. Chombo hiki kilishinda zawadi ya Nobeli (Nobel Prize) hapo awali katika kuzungumzia gesi zilizobaki, Shirika la Uanajimu Duniani (World Meteorological Organization) na Programu ya Mazingira ya Ummoja wa Mataifa, ziliunda IPCC mwaka 1988. Kazi yao kuu ilikuwa ni kutoa mpya za tafiti za kisayansi na pia kuijulisha sera kwa kuzingatia namna ya kutokomeza athari za mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. Mgawanyiko wa Kaskazini-Kusini Tafiti zilizofanywa na IPCC zilionesha kwamba kitu Fulani kilihitajika kufanyika ili kutokomeza athari zilitazwo na mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi, taarifa hiyo hatimaye ilipelekea mgawanyiko wa mataifa kuwa “Kaskazini” ama “Kusini.” Lakini haikuhusiana na sehemu za kijiografia ila ilihusu Mataifa yaliyoendelea “Kaskazini” na yanayoendelea “Kusini” mgawanyiko huu ulishuhudiwa katika Mkutano wa Pili wa Dunia wa Tabia ya nchi, Geneva (2nd World Climate Conference)
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Issues! Issues! Issues! Ni kama mahusiano ya kibinadamu, kulikuwa na mambo yaliyohusishwa katika “mgawanyiko” wa mataifa. Nchi za “Kusini” walilalamikia nchi za “Kaskazini” kwa kuhusika na uchafuzi wa mazingira kwa utoaji wa gesi kijani tangu Mapinduzi ya Viwanda. Hii ilimaanisha nini? Ilimaanisha kuwa nchi za “Kaskazini” lazima wachukue hatua madhubuti katika kutokomeza gesi hizo..Na kwa kuongezea, nchi zinazoendelea zisaidie harakati na mikakati hiyo ya kutokomeza athari hizo. Ajabu! Hii ilikuwa ni jambo kubwa na zito hata kupelekea “uhasama” (storm in a tea cup) Common but Differentiated Responsibilities Kulikuwa na hisia nyingi kwamba hatua zinahitajika kuchukuliwa ili kudhibiti mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi, na kulikuwa na ridhaa za pamoja na nchi zinazoendelea walishirikishwa katika harakati hizo. Hatua hii madhubuti ilibaini kuwa nchi zote zilikumbwa na matatizo sawa ingawaje yalitofautiana kwa mbali. Jambo lililofuata lilikuwa ni kugawanya mataifa hayo katika nafasi mbalimbali: (Annex I, non-annex I, and Annex II Parties) Annex Parties Ili kugawanya majukumu kwa mataifa katika kuelezea mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi kwa kupunguza Gesi Ukijani (GHG’s), Mfumo wa Mgawanyo uliundwa. Makundi mawili yaliundwa (Annex I na non-annex I). Annex I ilijumuisha nchi zilizoendelea ambazo zilichangia kwa kiasi kikubwa utoaji wa gesi ukijani tangu mapinduzi ya viwanda na Non-annex I ni mjumuisho wan chi zinzoendelea. Tutazungumzia kwa undani zaidi juu ya mataifa ya Annex I na non-annex I hivi punde!

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Sura 3: Mazuri, Mabaya na Mkakati wa Kyoto

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Ndio! Sasa tupo Sura ya 3 ya mfululizo wa “Peeling Back the COP” Kama ilivyoahidiwa kwenye Sura iliyotangulia, tutajadili kwa protokoli zilizofanikisha madhumuni ya kupunguza utolewaji wa gesi ukijani (Kyoto Protocol) .katika sehemu hii itajumuisha sura kadhaa.Haya yalikuwa ni mataifa yaliyosifika kwa utoaji wa gesi ukijani mpaka leo. Kuzaliwa kwa Itifaki ya Kyoto Kyoto Protokoli ulifanyika mwaka 1995 baada ya Muungano wa Warusi kuudhihinisha, na kukubaliwa katika Mkutano wa 3 wa Vyama (3rd Conference of Parties) mwaka 1997 kule Kyoto, Japan. Kipindi cha kwanza cha makubaliano ya Mkutano huu ulikuwa 2008 – 2012. Climate Change Convention vis-a-vis The Kyoto Protocol “Oh! Subiri kidogo, nachanganyikiwa! Je! Ipi ni tofauti kati ya Mkutano wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi (Climate Change Convention) na Kyoto Protocol (KP)?” Vizuri, usipoteze matumaini; uhusiano kati ya mikutano hiyo miwili ni rahisi mno. CCC ulidhamiria kwa kushinikiza mataifa kupunguza utolewaji wa gesi ukijani (GHG’s) wakati KP uliwajumuisha kwa pamoja mataifa kutambua jitihada ili kutokomeza utolewaji wa gesi hizo. Ni rahisi kama hivyo! Principle underpinning the Kyoto Protocol Mlengo madhubuti unaopatikana kwenye mkutano wa Kyoto Protocol ni mlengo wa “Usawa lakini wenye majukumu tofauti” Kwa mfano, fikiria kuhusu Pizza, lakini wakati huu kiwe kitu kisichokuwa na ladha. Hakika, watu wengi wataepuka ulaji wa pizza hiyo, na kama itawalazimu kula itawabidi kujaribu kula kipande kidogo – Asili ya mwanadamu! Sasa, tufikirie Pizza isiyo ladha inawakilisha wajibu wa kupunguza utoaji wa gesi kijani. Kwa maana, wote tumechangia utolewaji wa gesi hizo, lakini tutapewa kipande cha Pizza kisicho ladha ambacho chafanana na jitihada zetu za kupunguza utolewaji wa gesi kijani. Hivyo, wote tumechangia utolewaji wa gesi hizo, lakini wale ambao wamechangia zaidi watahitajika kuchukua majukumu makubwa zaidi ya kupunguza utolewaji wa gesi hizo.
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Gesi zinazotambulika ya Itifaki ya Kyoto Kyoto Protocol inajumuisha gesi ukiijani sita, zijulikanazo kama; carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons na sulphur hexafluoride. Mazuri Idadi kadhaa ya mataifa imeupitisha na kuukubali Mkutano wa Kyoto Protocol na wanawachukulia ni kama “Watu/Jamaa Bora” Mabaya USA, Australia na Uchina, miongoni mwa mataifa mengineyo, ni baadhi ya wachafuzi wakubwa wa utoaji wa gesi ukijani, pia bado wamekuwa wakijifanya ni mstari wa mbele katika kuhimiza msimamo wa Kyoto Protocol. Waweza kutazama orodha kamili ya mataifa yaliyoukubali na kuhidhinisha mkutano wa Kyoto Protocol na pia wale walioukataa, hapa.

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Sura 4: Under the Hood of The Kyoto Protocol

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Katika sura iliyopita, tumeona kulikuwa na siasa nyingi zilizohusiana na Kyoto Protocol Lakini pia, utaweza kushangazwa nini hasa huunda Protocol? Vizuri, Sura hii itakupatia muono wa haraka kuhusu Kyoto Protocol. Kwa Uhalisia, hii huweza kuwa mlolongo wa kama miguu 10,000 kutoka juu mpaka chini, lakini tutajaribu kadiri tuwezavyo kukujulisha mambo kwa ufupi wenye kueleweka; usijali! Lakini pia, itakulazimu kuchukua hatua ya kujisomea zaidi ili kupata uelewa thabiti juu ya mjadala huu. Kwa Muhtasari Kwa ufupi, vipengele kazi vya Kyoto Protocol hujulikana kama “Shughuli za Kyoto Protocol” Hizi ni vipengele kazi ambavyo huunda Kyoto Protocol, na vyenyewe ni; 1) Biashara Utoaji 2) Shughuli za usafishaji maendeleo (CDM) 3) Utekelezaji wa Pamoja (JI) Kwanza tuelewe malengo ya kila shughuli kabla ya ufafanuaji wa kina: i) Kushawishi maendeleo endelevu kupitia uhamishaji wa teknolojia na uwekezaji ii) Kusaidia mataifa kufikia makubaliano ya Kyoto iii) Kushawishi sekta binafsi na mataifa endelevu kuchangia katika mapambano ya otolewaji wa gesi za ukaa zitokazo majumbani. a. Biashara ya Utoaji Hii ni shughuli ya awali tutakayoitazama na kama jina liashiriavyo, ni muundo husaidiao mbadilishano wa sehemu za carboni. Mataifa Annex B ambayo yamejizatiti chini ya Kyoto Protocol, hutumia mfumo huu. Nchi hizi mara nyingi huwa na malengo ya kupunguza gesi ukaa aidha kwa kudhibiti ama kupunguza. Na malengo hayo hujulikana kama “assigned amount units” (AAUs)

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Inafanyaje Kazi Kwa kawaida, ungeweza kukisia sawa; huu utaratibu ni Soko, ambapo kuna ununuaji na uuzwaji wa bidhaa (carbon units) Soko hili mara nyingi hujulikana kama “Soko la Kaboni”, ikiwa kabonidayoksaidi (carbon dioxide) ni kanuni gesi ukaa za majumbani (GHG) Hivyo, taifa limekuwa na kiwango cha kiasi cha gesi ukaa watakazo zitoa angani.Kwa hiyo, kuna nchi zitakazotoa gesi nyingi zaidi na zile ambazo zitazingatia upunguzwaji wa utoaji gesi ukaa Nini hasa kitatokea kwa nchi zitakazo toa gesi ukaa kwa wingi? Nchi hizi mara kwa mara zitawaelekea mataifa ambayo yatakuwa hayajatoa gesi ukaa kwa wingi na kununua akiba ya uniti za kaboni, na hii ndiyo huitwa mabadilishano utoaji.

Vipimo vingine vya biashara vitumikavyo. Kuna mabadilishano mengine mengi, mbali na AAUs, ambayo hutumika katika soko la kaboni. Nayo ni: i)Utoaji Uniti (RMU): imejikita katika matumizi ya ardhi, mabadilisho ya matumizi ya ardhi na shughuli za misitu(LULUCF) mfano: upandaji miti. ii)Upunguzwaji utoaji uniti (ERU): huundwa na miradi ya utekelezaji wa pamoja iii)Upunguzwaji utoaji uliothibitishwa (CER): huundwa na miradi ya CDM Kwa kila uniti ni sawa na tani moja ya CO2

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Tracking, Checks and Balances Na kwa mifumo mengine, utaratibu huu lazima ufuatiliwe na kwa uangalizi wa makini. • Mfumo wa usajili chini ya Kyoto Protocol hutumika kufuatilia uhamishwaji na upatikanaji wa utoaji upunguzwaji uniti. • Log ya kimataifa ya usafirishwaji uhakiki usafirishwaji wa utoaji upunguzwaji unit kati ya mataifa ni salama.

• Ili kuepuka “ongezeko zaidi la ununuzi unit”, kila taifa linahitajika kushikilia kiwango cha upunguzwaji utoaji wa gesi ukaa na pia kisishuke chini ya asilimia tisini (90%) ya kiwango kilichokubaliwa.

Historia ya Mafanikio Vizuri, utaratibu huu huonekana wa kuvutia sana, na umekuwa simulizi ya stellar iliyofanikiwa: Mfumo wa Umoja wa Biashara wa Ulaya (European Union Trading Scheme). Ni mfumo mkubwa sana katika ufanyaji kazi. b. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Ni lazima utakuwa umesikia kuhusiana na utaratibu huu, na inavutia sana. Imeelezwa katika makala ya 12 ya Kyoto Protocol. Inaruhusu nchi za annex B kutekeleza miradi ya upunguzwaji wa utoaji wa gesi ukaa. Kwa hivyo ni nyenzo madhubuti iliyo bora. Chimbuko Utaratibu huu ulianza mwaka 2006 na zaidi ya miradi 1,650 ilisajiliwa. Hii ilitegemewa kutokea kwa punguzo la tani billion 2.9 za CO2 katika mlengo wa kwanza ndani ya kipindi cha (2008 – 2012)

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Usimamizi wa CDM

Bodi kuu ya CDM husimamia CDM, na hujibu maswali yote kwa nchi zilizokubali Kyoto Protocol.
Mfano rahisi

KenGen (Kampuni ya uzalishaji Umeme Kenya) imekuwa na miradi sita ambayo ipo chini ya CDM, ambayo hushughulika zaidi na nguvu za miamba.Miongoni mwa miradi hiyo ni: Mradi wa Eburru Geothermal na Olkaria, pia Mradi wa Upanuzi wa Miamba Moto (Geothermal)
c. Utekelezaji wa Pamoja (JI)

Utekelezaji huu umeelezewa katika makala ya sita ya Kyoto Protocol, na inaruhusu taifa la annex B kujifunza Upunguzaji wa utoaji gesi ukaa (ERU) toka Mradi wa upunguzaji wa utoaji au mradi wa utokomezaji wa utoaji katika taifa la annex B. Nchi inayoendesha mradi mara nyingi hupata faida kutoka uwekezaji wan je na usafirishwaji wa teknolojia.
Mfano wa mradi.

Kwa mfano, taifa tajiri laweza tekeleza miradi yenye kujizalishia nguvu, kama (e.g geothermal power plant) katika mataifa ya EIT (Economy in Transition) kama Ukraine kwa kubadilisha matumizi ya nguvu za makaa yam awe.
Operation of JI

Kuna mikabala miwili ya utekelezwaji wa miradi ya JI • Track 1 Procedure Hutokea pindi upande mwezeshaji anapokidhi matakwa ya kusafirisha na kupata unit za upunguzaji wa utoaji unit (ERU), na kuweza kupelekea kwa makubaliano kati ya pande husika.

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Track 2 Procedure

Huwa pindi upande wa uwezeshaji tu unapokidhi sehemu ya mahitaji lengwa. Hii pia ina maana uthibitisho wa taratibu na utunzwaji wa ERUs husimamiwa na Kamati shirikishi ya Usimamizi wa Utekelezaji (JISC).Kamati hii huweza kubaini na kutambua upande unaojitegemea kama umekidhi mahitaji. Ingawaje, ni muhimu kuzingatia kuwa upande unakidhi mkabala wa 1 waweza pia kukidhi utaratibu wa mkabala wa 2.
Miongozo

Miradi ya JI imekuwa na sheria na taratibu ambazo ni lazima kufuatwa, na ni kama zifuatazo: I) Mradi wa JI ni lazima utoe mchango wa upunguzwaji wa utoaji gesi ukaa II) Upande wa uwezeshaji ni lazima uhakiki mradi wa JI III) Washiriki lazima wathibitishwe kushiriki na upande unaoshiriki kutekeleza mradi. IV) Mradi ulioanza mwaka 2000 ni halali kama Miradi ya JI na kama itaweza kukidhi mahitaji kadhaa. v)ERUs utashughulikiwa tu katika kipindi cha wawali baada ya mwanzoni mwa mwaka 2008
Eligibility requirements for Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms

Ili Upande wa 1 kukubalika kuchukua nafasi katika shughuli hizi, hupaswa kukidhi mahitaji yafuatayo: I) Lazima watambue Kyoto Protocol

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Sura 5: Examining the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism

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Utangulizi UNFCCC ni mojawapo ya mambo yanayopiganiwa dhidi ya hali ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi, na kwa kutazama kazi zake hupelekea mambo kadhaa ambayo yamekuwa ni vyanzo vya mafarakano miongoni mwa mataifa. Hili ni suala ya kisiasa na baada ya majadiliano mengi, imefikiriwa huenda ikapelekea mambo yatakayopigania mabadiliko hayo mbali na tofauti za kisiasa. Brief overview of the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism Tunahakika mtakuwa mmesikia umaarufu wa ripoti ya Brundland ya mwaka 1987. Ripoti hii hujulikana zaidi kama “Our common Future” na ni maarufu kwa kuuletea ulimwengu habari za maendeleo endelevu. Ingawaje, ni vyema kutambua kwamba kulikuwa na mambo yenye kuvutia yaliyojadiliwa kwenye ripoti hiyo; na moja kati ya linalohusiana katika ripoti hiyo ni “kutambua rasilimali fedha muhimu ili kupambana na changamoto za kimazingira” Role of the COP in the UNFCCC financial mechanism Ni muhimu kutambua wajibu wa Mkutano wa Mataifa (Conference of Parties) katika juhudi za UNFCCC ili kuepuka mwingiliano wakati wa utekelezaji. COP ni chombo kinachosimamia Mkutano wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi kwa kujikita katika Sera, Vipaumbele vya Programu na maeneo muhimu ya utekelezaji wa kifedha.

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Mifuko ya Fedha ya Sasa Nyenzo za Mazingira Ulimwenguni (GEF) ina jukumu la kusimamia mifuko na fedha na mikakati yake ndani ya UNFCCC. Kuna mifuko maalumu ya fedha ifuatayo: i) Mfuko maalumu wa fedha kwa ajili ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi – husimamiwa na GEF ii) Mifuko ya fedha kwa ajili ya nchi masikini – husimamiwa na GEF iii) Mfuko wa fedha wa kijani– hudondokea ndani ya mkutano wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. iv) Mfuko wa Mabadiliko – upo chini ya Kyoto Protocol Katika sura hii, zaidi tutajikita katika kazi kuu za Nyenzo ya mazingira Ulimwenguni (GEF) wakati mfuko wa fedha chini ya UNFCCC utajadiliwa katika sura itakayofuata. Historia Fupi ya GEF NI muhimu kutambua kuwa shughuli za kifedha za UNFCCC hutoa fedha kwa madhumuni Fulani. Kuanzishwa kwa GEF kulikuwa ni sehemu iliyosababishwa na Taasisi ya rasilimali Duniani (World Resources Institute) somo ambalo lilipelekea mapendekezo manne juu ya kuanzishwa kwa Mfuko wa kimataifa wa Mazingira Duniani. GEF ikawa chombo muhimu cha UNFCCC mwaka 1990, ambapo kilijaribiwa kwa mara ya kwanza. Mwaka 1992, kikawa ni chenye kujitegemea kwa shughuli zote ndani ya UNFCCC na Convectional for Biological Diversity (CBD)

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Mwingiliano ulipo kati ya UNFCCC na GEF Tangu GEF ilipokuwa ni chombo muhimu cha UNFCCC na CBD, kulikuwa na uhitaji wa kuanzishwa kwa umoja halali kati ya UNFCCC na GEF. Muungano huu ulipelekea kuundwa tena kwa GEF na kuwa: i) A trustee – mkutano wa washiriki ambao utakuwa ukikutana kila baada ya miaka 3 ii) Baraza iii) Sekretarieti iv) Mawakala wa Utekelezaji v) Mkutano wa Wanasayansi na Wataalamu Washauri ((STAP) Malengo Makuu ya GEF Madhumuni makuu ya GEF yalikuwa ni kutoa fedha kwa nchi zilizovutiwa kuanzisha miradi au kupendekeza viashiria vya mazingira katika mmiradi iliyopo. Maeneo makuu ya GEF yalikuwa: i) Kupungua kwa tabaka anga hewa ii) Utolewaji wa gesi ukaa majumbani iii) Aina za viumbe hai na mazingira yao iv) Uchafuzi wa mikondo ya maji ya kimataifa. Onset of problems Kutokea mwanzoni kabisa, GEF ilikumbwa na majanga kadha wa kadha, hasa mengi ya hayo majanga yalipelekea kudorora kwa GEF. Moja kati ya majanga hayo ilikuwa ni kuingia kwa Resource Allocation Framework, ambayo iliathiri na kuidunisha GEF. Kabla ya hayo kutukia, nchi masikini walikuwa wakiomba Green Fund, na hatimaye walichokuja kutambua ni kwamba GEF ilikuwa ni kwa ajili ya nchi tajiri tu. Pia ushiriki na uwazi wa GEF uliibua maswali mengi kwani nchi tajiri zilizokuwa zikiwekeza katika GEF, zilikuwa na mamlaka makubwa ukitofautisha na mataifa mengine hasa yale masikini. T

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angu Benki ya Dunia na Shirika la kimaendeleo la Umoja wa Mataifa (UNDP) kuchukua nafasi ya kuendesha mfuko huo,kulikuwa na makisio kuwa hizi taasisi mbili hazikuwa na uwezo wa kutosha ili kusimamia na kuzungumzia masuala mazito ya kimazingira. Changes in context Kwa sababu tunazungumzia masuala yahusuyo fedha, ni muhimu kukumbuka kwamba mtazamo wa kiuchumi ulimwenguni kwa sasa na katika miaka ya 80’s na 90’s ni tofauti sana. Matokeo ya mabadiliko ya kiuchumi ulimwenguni ya miaka kadhaa iliyopita bado yameendelea kuathiri na kuzorotesha mfuko wa fedha ndani ya shughuli za UNFCCC. Pia, kuna njia nyingi zaidi ambazo fedha zimekuwa zikitumika katika kuwakilisha matatizo ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi, mfano ni kama “Clean Development Mechanism”, “Innovative green energy” na “carbon-friendly technologies” Mengi ya mikabala hii ni ya kibiashara. Efforts to strengthen the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism • Establishment of level of ambition GEF ilidumisha na kujilinda kutoka pande zote, na jitihadi za kuundwa upya kulipelekea mabadiliko machache. Bali Action Plan, kwa mfano, ulianzishwa hatua ya juu, na pia hatua za rasilimali, kwa ajili ya kuwezesha shughuli za mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi katika nchi masikini.

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• Standing Committee Katika COP 16, wadau waliamua kuanzisha kamati maalum ili kusaidia COP katika kufanya kazi zake kwa kutegemea jitihadi za mfuko wa fedha wa mikutano. • Long-term Finance Katika COP 17 (Durban Platform), wadau wake pia waliamua kuanzisha mfuko wa Ulimwengu wa tabia ya nchi kama chombo cha utekelezaji wa shughuli za mikutano, hii ilikuwa sawa na makala ya II ya mkutano. COP 18 (Doha, Qatar), utazingatia kuhitimisha makubaliano kati ya COP na GCF. Mhimizo mkubwa utakuwa ni katika kuhakikisha uwajibikaji. Hitimisho Hivyo, ni rahisi kuona kuwa GEF haikuimarishwa, na milango kwa ajili ya kupata fedha za utekelezaji, inafungwa. Katika ukurasa utakaofuata, tutajadili na kuchambua mfuko maalumu tulioutaja awali kwa kina na pia muonekano ujao wa UNFCCC. Tuonane tena!

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Sura 6: Pesa iko wapi?

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Katika sura iliyopita, tumejadili jinsi ambavyo Global Environmental Facillity inavyofanya kazi. (GEF). Katika sura hii, tutatazama Mfuko maalaumu wa fedha ambao ulikuwa umeanzishwa ili kuwakilisha matokeo ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. Mifuko ambayo itajadiliwa ni kama ifuatavyo: i) ii) iii) iv) Mfuko maalumu wa fedha kwa ajili ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi – husimamiwa na GEF Mifuko ya fedha kwa ajili ya nchi masikini – husimamiwa na GEF Mfuko wa fedha wa kijani– hudondokea ndani ya mkutano wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. Mfuko wa Mabadiliko – upo chini ya Kyoto Protocol

1. Mfuko maalumu wa Fedha wa Mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi (SCCF) Climate Change Convention ulipelekea kuanzishwa kwa SCCF mwaka 2001, na kazi yake kuu ilikuwa ni kuwezesha miradi inayohusiana na “Adaptation” “Industry Agriculture” “ Forestry” “Waste management” “Technology transfer” na “Capacity building” “Energy” “Economic diversification” na “Transport” Haya yalikuwa ni majukumu makubwa na GEF ilipewa jukumu la kuendesha mfuko huu. Kwa kuanzia, Baraza la GEF lilianzisha taarifa ya programu iliyosimamia shughuli za kifedha chini ya SCCF.Katika COP17 katika nchi ya Durban ,South Africa, GEF ilipewa jukumu la kubaini mawazo fedha za ziada ndani ya SCCF na pia kuongeza uelewa wa uhitaji kwa nchi wadhamini kuwezesha kwa kutoa rasilimali za kutosha kuufanya mfuko uwe bora na hasa katika kusaidia miradi inayofanyika ndani ya nchi wanachama. 2. Mfuko wa Fedha wa Nchi masikini (LDCF) Mfuko huu pia umesimamiwa na GEF, na mamlaka yaligawiwa ndani ya COP7. Madhumuni makubwa ya mfuko huu yalikuwa ni kusaidia nchi masikini kutekeleza miradi yao ya National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA). Hivyo, katika COP11, wadau walikubaliana juu ya mgawano ambao utabaini gharama zote na uwezeshwaji wa mfuko huo. Katika COP17, GEF ilielekezwa kuandaa msingi wa mradi na pia jinsi gani wadau wataweza kuandaa maombi ya
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3. Adaptation Fund Mfuko huu ulianzishwa kuwezesha miradi ya nchi masikini ambazo ni wadau wa Kyoto Protocol, na ambao pia ni wahanga wakuu wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) bado inaendelea kuwezesha mfuko huu,na vyanzo vingine. Adaptation Fund Board (AFB) husimamia na kuendeleza mfuko huu. AFB hukutana walau mara mbili kila mwaka na ina wanachama 16. Benki ya Dunia ni sehemu ya Mfuko huu, lakini ni katika madhumuni Fulani. Pande husika zilialika GEF ili kutoa huduma ya sekretarieti kwenye Bodi ya Mfuko huu, lakini pia katika malengo maalumu. Mwaka 2011, mapitio juu mipangilio hiyo ilianza, na hatimaye AFD iliwasilisha kwenye COP17. Bodi ya ziada ya Utekelezaji (SBI) hutoa ushauri kwenye COP juu ya masuala yote yahusuyo; hivyo SBI ilipewa jukumu la kuja na maamuzi ambayo yatawasilishwa kwenye COP18 tayari kwa kupitishwa. . 4. Mfuko wa mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi ya Ukijani (GCF) Mfuko huu ulianzishwa wakati wa COP16, cancun, mexico kama chombo cha utekelezaji wa shughuli za kifedha. Mfuko wa Bodi ya tabia ya nchi ulimwenguni ulichaguliwa kuendesha Mfuko huu. Madhumuni ya GCF yalikuwa ni kusaidia miradi, programu, sera na shughuli nyingine za nchi wadau. Benki ya Dunia ilichaguliwa pia kama sehemu ya Global Climate Fund, ingawaje mpangilio huo ulikuwa na madhumuni ya kupitia miaka mitatu ya utekelezaji wa Mfuko wa Kijani wa Tabia ya nchi (Green Climate Fund) GCF ilianzishwa wakati wa COP16 kule Cancun, Mexico, kama chombo cha kushughulikia masuala ya kifedha. Bodi ya Mfuko wa Fedha wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi Ulimwenguni ulichaguliwa kusimamia na kuendesha mfuko huo.Dhumuni kubwa la kuanzisha ilikuwa ni kusaidia baadhi ya Miradi, Programu, Sera, pamoja na shughuli nyingine za upande wa nchi wadau masikini.

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Benki ya Dunia pia iliteuliwa kama mshirika mmojawapo wa Mfuko wa Fedha wa mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi. Mpangilio huu ijapokuwa ulijikita katika kupitia ndani ya miaka mitatu mara baada ya utekelezaji wa Kamati ya mpito ya tabia ya nchi ukijani (Green Climate Transitional Committee (TC), ambao pia uliundwa ili wakati wa COP16 na kupewa jukumu la kubuni Mfuko wa Fedha wa Tabia ya nchi Ukijani (GCF). Uanachama wa Kamati hii umetoka kwa wanachama 40 (15 kutoka nchi Tajiri na 25 nchi Masikini).Wakati wa COP17 kule Durban, South Afrika, TC ilikuja na chombo maalumu cha kusimamia GCF; na pia baadae COP iliiga vivyo hivyo.Sekretarieti ya UNFCCC na Sekretarieti ya GEF kwa pamoja walitakiwa kuunda sekretarieti hadi sekretarieti ya kujitegemea ya GCF itakapokuwa imeundwa. COP18 ya Doha, Qatar, mpangilio baina ya COP na GCF utakuwa umehitimishwa kwa hiyo kuna uwazi mkubwa na uwajibikaji kwenye shughuli za GCF; pia COP ilipewa jukumu la kutoa muongozo kwenye Bodi ya GCF. Nchi mwenyeji wa GCF ataamua kwenye COP18 na hata pia Wanachama wa Bodi ya GCF Majukumu ya Bodi ya GCF: • Kuchambua na kupitia majukumu ya GCF • Kuchagua washirika wa GCF kwa kutumia njia ya wazi na ushindani • Kutoa ripoti za kila mwaka kwa COP Hitimisho Huu ndio mwisho wa sura hii, ingawaje umebebwa na kusheheni maelezo ya kina. Lakini pia umeweza kuelewa ni namna gani mifuko hii hufanya kazi na ni jnsi gani huendeshwa. Sura ijayo itakupeleka kwa mgawanyo wa COP kwa hiyo utakuwa na uelewa mpana na wa kutosha wa kazi zake za ndani.

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Sura 7: Muundo wa COP

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Hatimaye. Tumefikia sehemu muhimu, na sura hii itapelekea mwisho wa mfululizo wa Peeling Back the COP ambao umekuwa ukifafanua kinaganaga shughuli za UNFCCC na utendaji kazi wake. Sura hii itajumuisha mada ndogo ndogo mbili: i) Muundo wa COP (Conference of Parties) ii) The timeline of the UNFCCC COP Mpangilio wa COP Hakuna shaka kuwa COP limekuwa ni neno linalozungumziwa tu kwenye mikutano ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi, na hakuna chochote ambacho hakitambuliki. COP ni chombo cha hatua ya juu ya maamuzi ambacho hukutana kila mwaka na mwaka huu kufanyika Doha, Qatar na kufanya kuwa Mkutano wa kumi na nane . Malengo Makuu Malengo makuu ya COP ni kupitia utekelezaji wa maazimio ya mikutano. Devolution COP imegawanyika katika vyombo viwili vidogo, na ni vitovu vya COP. Kuna vyombo viwili vya kudumu ndani ya COP, ambavyo ni Subsidiary Body for Scientific Technological Advice (SBSTA) na Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) a. Subsidiary Body for Scientific Technological Advice (SBSTA) Madhumuni makubwa ya SBSTA ni kuipa COP ushauri juu ya teknolojia ya utaalamu na mbinu mbadala. Hii ufafanua:

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i) Kushawishi maendeleo na usafirishwaji wa teknolojia rafiki ya mazingira. ii) Kusimamia kazi maalumu ili kuboresha taratibu za kuandaa National communications and emission inventories. SBSTA ni muungano kati ya wataalamu wa vyombo vya utafiti kama IPCCC na COP, ambao mara nyingi hujikita katika masuala yahusuyo sera. b. Bodi ya Ziada ya Utekelezaji (SBI) Chombo hiki hutoa ushauri kwa COP kuhusu mambo yote yanayohusiana na utekelezwaji wa mikutano. Na zaidi hutafiti mwendelezo kupitia National Communication na Emission Inventories. SBI pia husaidia masuala ya kiuchumi ambayo mara zote huelekezewa kwenye nchi ambazo ni non-annex I na pia hutoa ushauri juu ya Bajeti na masuala ya kiutawala. Ni muhimu kukumbuka kuwa kuna maeneo ambayo SBSTA na SBI huingilana kiutawala, na hii hujumuisha: i) Kujenga Uwezo ii) Mataifa yaliyo katika hatari ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi na mbinu mbadala. iii) Kyoto Protocol 2. COP Timeline Safari ya kuelekea COP 18 na hatua za mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi kwa ujumla yamekuwa ni marefu, na yamejaribu kufuatilia mizizi yake katika Mkutano wa Mazingira na Maendeleo wa Umoja wa Mataifa uliofanyika Mei, 1992 kule Rio de Janeiro Brazil. Makubaliano ya mkutano yalitekelezwa mnamo 1994 na kuliundwa COP chombo ambacho ni hatua ya juu ya mchakato wa maamuzi.

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COP 1: Kuanzisha Misingi Mkutano wa kwanza wa COP (COP1 ) ulifanyika mwaka 1995 kule Berlin, na ulidhamiria kuelezea iwezo wa nchi wanachama katika kutekeleza Bodi ya Wanasayansi wa Wataalamu wa Teknolojia ya Ushauri (SBSTA) na Bodi ya Ziada ya Utekelezaji (SBI). Mamlaka ya Berlin yalikuwa ni matokeo ya mkutano huu, na majukumu yake makuu ya kuandaa mpangilio wa Protokoli au chombo halali cha kuunganisha na kupelekea nchi kuainisha mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. COP 2: Maazimio ya Geneva COP 2 ulifanyika Geneva katika mwaka 1996 na ulilenga kufuatilia uhitaji wa kupelekea mazungumzo ya jinsi ya kuendeleza Makubaliano ya Mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi. COP 3: Kyoto Protocol COP 3 ulifanyika kule Kyoto katika mwaka 1997 ambako Kyoto Protokoli uliundwa. Protokoli kilikuwa ni chombo cha jitihada ya kutokomeza utoaji wa gesi ukaa za majumbani, na kilikuja na mikakati kama Biashara ya Utoaji, Mkakati wa maendeleo ya Usafi (CDM) na Utekelezaji wa Pamoja. COP 4: Mkakati wa Vitendo COP 4 ulifanyika kule Buenos Aires, Argentina mwaka 1998 na madhumuni ya kuongeza utekelezaji wa Kyoto Protokoli kwa kupitia Mkakati Kazi wa Miaka miwili. COP 5:Kuhitimisha Kyoto Protocol COP 5 ulifanyika Bonn, Germany mwaka 1999, na iliweka ratiba ya kumaliza kazi juu ya Kyoto Protokoli. COP 6: Kyoto Protocol Operation Rulebook Awamu ya kwanza ya COP 6 ilifanyika, The Hague. Baadae Netherlands katika mwaka 2000. Awamu ya Pili ya COP 6 ilifanyika Bonn, Germany na ulilenga shughuli madhubuti, Carbon sinks, Makubaliano na kuwezesha jitihada za Mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi.
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COP 7: Marrakech Accords COP 7 ulifanyika Marrakech, Morocco katika mwaka 2001 na ulihitimisha juu ya Mpango Kazi wa Buenos Aires na uhalalishaji wa Kyoto Protokoli. Makubaliano pia yaliiga Marrakech Accords. COP 8: Programu Kazi ya New Delhi COP 8 ulifanyika New Delhi mwaka 2002, na ulifuata Maazimio ya Delhi Ministerial na Programu Kazi ya New Delhi. COP 9: Adaptation Fund COP 9 ulifanyika Milan, na Italia katika mwaka 2003 na uliiga miongoni mwa Adapation Fund ili kusaidia nchi masikini katika kuiga mipango mipya ya kutokomeza mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. COP 10: Post-Kyoto Mechanisms COP 10 ulifanyika Buenos Aires, Argentina mwaka 2004, na ulidhamiria katika kusherehesha harakati za kupunguza mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi na kuiga mikakati ya Usafi na bila kusahau Mkakati wa badae wa Kyoto. COP 11: Mpango Kazi wa Montreal Katika mwaka 2005, COP 11 ulifanyika kule Montreal Canada. Pia ulipelekea mkutano wa kwanza kabisa wa nchi (MOP-1) kwenye Kyoto Protokoli.Mkutano ulizaa Mpango Kazi wa Montreal. COP 12: Mkutano wa Nairobi COP 12 ulifanyika Nairobi mwaka 2006, ambako Mpango wa Miaka Mitano uliundwa. COP 13: Mpango Kazi wa Bali. Mwaka 2007 ulifanya COP 13 kule Bali, Indonesia ambako Mpangilio wa Badae wa mwaka 2012 pamoja na Mpango Kazi wa Bali kwa pamoja viliundwa.

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COP 14: Mkutano wa Mabadiliko ya Tabia ya Nchi wa Poznan. Ndani ya mwaka 2008, COP 14 ulifanyika kule Poznan. Katika mkutano, washiriki walipendekeza mfumo wa kuwezesha nchi masikini katika kutokomeza mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. COP 15: Copenhagen Accord Ulifanyika Copenhagen Denmark mwaka 2009, ukiwa na madhumuni ya kuanzisha Makubaliano ya Mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi Ulimwenguni kupelekea kufanikiwa kwa Kyoto Protokoli. Ingawaje haya yote hayakutambulika. COP 16: Makubaliano ya Cancun. Katika mwaka 2010, COP 16 ulifanyika Cancun Mexico. Yaliyojiri katika Mkutano huu yalikuwa ni kuanzishwa kwa Mfuko wa Kijani wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. COP 17: Durban Platform COP 17 ulifanyika Durban kule Afrika ya Kusini. Hapa, chombo cha kuendesha na kusimamia Mfuko wa Kijani wa Mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi ulianzishwa. COP 18 Kati ya Novemba 26 na Desemba 7, 2012, COP 18 utafanyika Doha, Qatar na utatafuta kuundwa tena kwa makubaliano juu ya Kyoto Protocol Between November 26 and December 7, 2012, COP 18 will happen in Doha, Qatar, and it will seek to renew commitments on the Kyoto Protocol. Tamati Tunatumai umefurahia mfululizo huu juu ya “Peel Back the COP” na kwa hilo pia umejifunza mengi; kwa wale ambao ni wataalamu wa mambo haya, ni matumaini yetu kuwa umeweza kujikumbusha. Hitimisho Kuu Ni matumaini yetu kuwa umefurahia katika kupitia kitabu hiki, na pia kuweza kujifunza mambo mapya au zaidi;
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Timu ya Waandaji Wafuatao ni watu maalumu waliohakikisha Mradi huu unatokea: 1. Kennedy Liti Mbeva – African Youth Initiative on Climate Change – Kenya 2. Reuben Makomere – African Youth Initiative on Climate Change – Kenya 3. Charles Kyeti – African Youth Initiative on Climate Change – Kenya. 4. Kenny Wahome – African Youth Initiative on Climate Change - Kenya 5. Ntiokam Divine – Children of the Earth and UN CSD Education Caucus Youth Leader.

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Rejea 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Climate Action”Emission Trading System (EU ETS)” http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ets/ index_en.htm ECBI Policy Brief: The Field Mechanism of the UNFCCC: A Brief History. http:// www.oxfordclimatepolicy.org/publications/documents/ecbiBrief-FMHistory.pdf Finance Portal for Climate Change “Resource Allocation Framework 4”http://www3.unfccc.int/pls/ /f?p=116:42:2011527075018979 Global Environment Facility “Investing in Our Planet” http://www.thegef.org/gef/ Greenhouse Policy Coalition “Overview of Kyoto Protocol” http://www.gpcnz.co.nz/Site/ The_Kyoto_Protocol_/Overview.aspx Kyoto Protocol on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1998) http:// unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf Official website of the Conference of Parties 3 (COP 3) http://unfccc.int/cop3/ Professor Laurence Boisson de Chazournes, “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change” Audiovisual Library of International Law http://untreaty.un.org/cod/avl/ha/ccc/ccc.html Report of The World Commission on Environment and Development; Our Common Future (1987) http://conspect.nl/pdf/Our_Common_Future-Brundtland_Report_1987.pdf Steve Zwick, “Voluntary Carbon Markets funnelled $42 Million into clean cookstoves: Report” Ecosystems Marketplace http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/pages/dynamic/article.page.php? page_id=9069&section=news_articles&eod=1&gclid=CIj0rPPk6bICFYZ2cAodpEY AkA United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) http://unfccc.int/files/ essential_background/background_publications_htmlpdf/application/pdf/conveng.pdf United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) “A Brief History of UNFCCC” http://unfccc.int/cop7/issues/briefhistory.html
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13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Adaptation Fund” http://unfccc.int/ coopera tion_and_support/financial_mechanism/adaptation_fund/items/3659.php United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Background on the United Nations Frame work Convention on Climate Change: The International Response to Climate Change” http:// unfccc.int/ essential_background/items/6031.php United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Clean Development Mechanism” http:// unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/mechanisms/clean_development_mechanism/items/2718.php United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Conference of Parties” http://unfccc.int/ bodies/body/6383.php United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Convention Bodies” http://unfccc.int/ essen tial_background/convention/convention_bodies/items/2629.php United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Emissions Trading” http://unfccc.int/ kyoto_ protocol/mechanisms/emissions_trading/items/2731.php United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Green Climate Fund” http://unfccc.int/ coop eration_and_support/financial_mechanism/green_climate_fund/items/5869.php United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Joint Implementation” http://unfccc.int/ kyoto_protocol/mechanisms/joint_implementation/items/1674.php United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Kyoto Protocol” http://unfccc.int/ kyoto_pro tocol/items/2830.php United Nations Franework Convention on Climate Change “Least Developed Countries Fund” http:// unfccc.int/cooperation_support/least_developed_countries_portal/ldc_fund/items/4723.php United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,”Report on the Conference of Parties on its Thirteenth Session, held in Bali from 3 to 15 December 2007 ” http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/ 2007/ cop13/eng/06a01.pdf

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24. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ”Status of Ratification of Kyoto Protocol” http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/status_of_ratification/items/2613.php 25. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “The Mechanisms Under the Kyoto Protocol; Emissions Trading; The Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation” http:// unfccc.int/ kyoto_protocol/mechanisms/items/1673.php 26. United Nations Franework Convention on Climate Change “The Special Climate Change Fund” http://un fccc.int/cooperation_and_support/financial_mechanism/special_climate_change_fund/items/ 3657.php 27. World Meteorological Organizatiom “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ” http:// www.wmo.int/pages/themes/climate/international_unfccc.php

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My Little COP Pocket Book

ADAM ANTHONY ABRAHAM I am a sophomore-year student of Faculty of Social Science. Economics is my major, in which planning and development studies help me develop strategic thinking. I am a friendly young person with excellent communication skills and various hobbies. Playing basketball brings me energy as well as excitement. Reading makes me knowledgeable and thoughtful. Founded an initiative which was based on educating students in secondary schools about environmental conservation, Students Green Journey Climate Change Initiative. Listed a semi finalist for by Anzisha Award Prize and received the Jane Goodall Institute Global Leadership Award for Roots and Shoots Youth Leadership. Experienced in planning, community empowerment, Strategic Planning, Organizational Management, Public Speaking, Negotiation skills, Facilitation, Resource mobilization and fundraising, Lobbying and Advocacy, Events Planning and Management, Interpersonal and communication skills, Report writing, Project Planning and Management, Project Monitoring and Evaluation and Leadership where I have had had both practical training and experience.

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c Kennedy Liti Mbeva

My Little COP Pocket Book

JAMES JOHN

JAMES JOHN is young energetic Tanzanian aged 24, but currently as a final year student pursuing Bachelor Degree of Arts in Project Planning Management and Community Development from University of Dodoma. While at school, He did extracurricular training on the issues related to environment, empowerment, leadership, gender, capacity building and social capital where he had acquired both theory and Practical experiences. James is passionate about ethical leadership and indeed he likes drawing. Drawing to him is something crucial that he believed helps some more people interested in helping preserve our natural surroundings and think about how the consequences of their actions will impact the environment. For instance; James depicted an image represented government and global businesses idle held over the world. In the background he drew the reds, oranges and yellows represented the fossil fuel power plants and warming of the planet while those that could act use the umbrella to shelter behind. The umbrella pictures the world being turned inside out and upside down by the wind. Also he has been organizing different events and supervising different environmental and other social projects of which in return he has been able to build a good relation among staff members and ordinary members as well as the relationship between organization and community at large. James has also been involved by participating in voluntary activities in cleaning the environment from wastes, plant some trees in his College agricultural section where until he founded a platform that connected his fellow student to discuss and act positively to their environment. Currently, James is volunteering at Youth of United Nations Association of Tanzania as the Regional Coordinator in which he is tasked to supervise several UN Clubs for Secondary and a number of Chapters in Higher Learning in his region, Dodoma and making sure they are all connected to the Vision and Mission of the Organization at large! Page
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c Kennedy Liti Mbeva

Unity

Strength

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