M.

Vable

Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM

Introduction to Finite Element Method
There are two version of FEM 1. Flexibility Method or Force Method: 2. Stiffness Method or Displacement Method. • The set of equations in the stiffness method are the equilibrium equations relating displacements of points. • Rayleigh-Ritz is an approximate method based on energy principle by which we can obtain equilibrium equations in matrix form. The learning objectives in this chapter is: 1. Understand Rayleigh-Ritz method and its application to axial members, torsion of circular shafts, and symmetric bending of beams. 2. Understand the perspective, the key issues, the terminology, and steps used in solving problems by finite element method.

8-1

M. Vable

Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM

Rayleigh Ritz
• Rayleigh Ritz method is an approximate method of finding displacements that is based on the theorem of minimum potential energy. • The method is restricted to conservative systems that may be linear or non-linear. Potential energy function (Ω): Ω = U – W U is the strain energy W is the work potential of a force. Internal virtual work: δW int = δU External virtual work: δW ext = δW Virtual work principle: δW int – δW ext = δU – δW = δΩ = 0 • The zero virtual variation in the potential energy function occurs where the slope of the potential energy function with respect to the parameters defining the potential function is zero. • The parameters defining the potential function are the generalized displacements. The zero slope condition can occur where the potential function is: maximumUnstable equilibrium saddle pointNeutral equilibrium minimumStable equilibrium

8-2

M. Vable

Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM

Minimum Potential Energy
The theorem of minimum potential energy can be stated as: Of all the kinematically admissible displacement functions the actual displacement function is the one that minimizes the potential energy function at stable equilibrium. Corollary • The better approximation of displacement function is the one that yields a lower potential energy. • The greater the degrees of freedom, lower will be the potential energy for a given set of kinematically admissible functions. Procedure Let the displacement u(x) be represented by a series of kinematically admissible functions fi(x), i.e.,
n

u(x) =

∑ Ci fi ( x )
i=1

Substitute in Potential Energy: Ω = Ω ( C 1, C 2, C 3 ……C n ) Minimize Potential energy: ∂Ω = 0 ∂ Ci i = 1, n

Set of n-algebraic equations in the unknown Ci.

8-3

M.EA ⎝ d x⎠ 2 n Displacement Approximation: u ( x ) = n ∑ Ci fi ( x ) i=1 du = dx ∑ Cj d x ∑ df j j=1 n n ⎛ df j⎞ ⎛ df k⎞ 1 du ⎞ ⎛ du ⎞ 1 Cj ⎟ ⎜ U a = -. • K jk = K kj Stiffness Matrix is symmetric 8-4 .EA ⎜ Ck ⎟ ⎝ d x⎠ ⎝ d x⎠ ⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 2 dx dx ⎟ ⎝j = 1 ⎠ ⎝k = 1 ⎠ n n ⎛ df j⎞ ⎛ df k⎞ 1 Cj Ck ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ U a = -.EA 2 ⎝ d x⎠ ⎝ d x ⎠ j=1 k=1 ∑ ∑ ∑ Axial strain energy L n n 1 U A = ∫ U a dx = -2 0 L ∑ ∑ j=1 k=1 ⎛ df j⎞ ⎛ df k⎞ C j C k ∫ EA ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎝ d x⎠ ⎝ d x ⎠ 0 L ⎛ df j⎞ ⎛ df k⎞ Define: K jk = ∫ EA ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ dx ----Stiffness matrix ⎝ d x⎠ ⎝ d x ⎠ 0 • EA can be function of x. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Rayleigh Ritz for Axial Members Axial strain energy density: 2 1 ⎛ du⎞ U a = -.EA ⎛ = -.

n n WA = L ∑ Cj ∫ px ( x )fj ( x ) j=1 0 m dx + ∑ ∑ Fq Cj fj ( xq ) q = 1j = 1 Define: R j = ∫ px ( x )fj ( x ) 0 dx + ∑ q=1 n F q f j ( x q ) ---Load Vector WA = Axial potential energy function: n ∑ Cj Rj j=1 n n 1 Ω A = U A – W A = -2 ∑ ∑ j=1 k=1 C j C k K jk – ∑ Cj Rj j=1 8-5 .M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM n n 1 Axial Strain Energy: U A = -2 Work potential ∑ ∑ j=1 k=1 C j C k K jk px(x) axial distributed force Fq concentrated axial forces applied at m xq points The work potential of these forces can be written as: L m WA = ∫ px ( x )u ( x ) dx + ∑ 0 q=1 m L Fq u ( xq ) Substituting the displacement approximation.

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Axial potential energy function: n n n 1 Ω A = U A – W A = -2 ∑ ∑ j=1 k=1 C j C k K jk – ∑ Cj Rj j=1 Minimize the potential energy function: n n ∂Ω A ∂ Ci ∂C j = 0 i = 1.∑ C k K ik + ∑ C j K ji⎟ – R i = 0 i = 1.∑ C j ⎜ ∑ K jk C k⎟ – ∑ C j R j ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝k = 1 ⎠ j=1 j=1 n n n 1 Ω A = -2 ∑ j=1 Cj Rj – ∑ j=1 1 C j R j = – ⎛ --⎞ ⎝ 2⎠ ∑ Cj Rj j=1 8-6 . n ⎟ 2⎜ ⎝k = 1 ⎠ j=1 ⎛ n ⎞ 1⎜ -.∑ C j ( K ij + K ji )⎟ – R i = 0 i = 1. n 1 -2 ∑ ∑ j=1 k=1 ∂C j C + Cj K – ∂ Ci k ∂ C i jk i = j i≠j ∂C k n j=1 ∑ ∂ Ci Rj = 0 Note: ∂C j ⎧1 = ⎨ ∂ Ci ⎩0 n ⎛ n ⎞ 1⎜ -.M. n ⎟ 2⎜ ⎝j = 1 ⎠ Using symmetry of stiffness matrix: K ji = K ij n ∑ Kij Cj j=1 = Ri i = 1. n or [ K ] { C } = { R } At Equilibrium only n n ⎛ n ⎞ 1 Ω A = -.

M. lower is the potential energy (more negative). higher is the strain energy stored in the structure.= – ( Ω A ) = -2 2 n ∑ Cj Rj j=1 at equilibrium • More the degree of freedom. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Strain energy at equilibrium WA 1 U A = -------. 8-7 . • With greater degree of freedom the structure becomes less stiff and hence can store more energy. • In FEM mesh refinement schemes try to get a more uniform distribution of strain energy across the structure.

EI zz ⎜ ⎟ 2⎠ 2 ⎝dx n 2 2 Displacement Approximation:v ( x ) = ∑ Ci fi ( x ) i=1 Work Potential: py(x) Fq Mq distributed load concentrated transverse forces applied at m1 xq points concentrated transverse forces applied at m2 xq points L m1 m2 WA = ∫ py ( x )φ ( x ) dx + ∑ 0 L q=1 Fq v ( xq ) + ∑ q=1 Mq dv (x ) dx q ⎛d f ⎞ ⎛d f ⎞ j⎟ ⎜ k⎟ dx Stiffness Matrix: K jk = ∫ ( EI zz ) ⎜ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝dx ⎠ ⎝dx ⎠ 0 Load Vector: L m1 m1 2 2 Rj = ∫ py ( x )fj ( x ) 0 dx + ∑ q=1 Fq fj ( xq ) + ∑ q=1 Mq df j dx ( xq ) 8-8 .M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Symmetric Bending of Beams ⎛d v ⎞ 1 Bending strain energy density:U b = -.

6 determine one and two parameter Rayleigh-Ritz displacement solution using the approximation for the bending displacement given below. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM 8. P8. n y w kips / in x L in Fig.6 B L in C v(x) = ∑ Ci sin -------2L i=1 iπx A 8-9 .6 For the beam shown in Fig. P8.M. Calculate the potential energy function for the one and two parameters.

• This perspective of reducing the complexity of analysis of large structures to analysis of simple individual members (elements) is what makes the finite element method such a versatile and popular analysis tool in structural (and engineering application) analysis. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Finite Element Method (FEM) In Rayleigh-Ritz the kinematically admissible function is over the entire structure. Definition 4 The process of creating a mesh (discrete entities) is called discretization. Definition 1 Nodes are points on the structure at which displacements and rotations are to be found or prescribed. loads. Definition 5 Interpolation function is a kinematically admissible displacement function defined on an element that can be used for interpolating displacement values between the nodes. n is the number of elements (structural members). Potential energy is a scaler quantity and can be written as: n δΩ = ∑ i=1 δΩ (i) where. and material properties representing the actual structure is called a model. Definition 6 The mesh. Definition 2 Element is a small domain on which we can solve the boundary value problem in terms of the displacements and forces of the nodes on the element.M. Definition 3 The discrete representation of the structure geometry by elements and nodes is called a mesh. In FEM the kinematically admissible function is piecewise continuous over small (finite) domains called the ‘elements’. 8-10 . Definition 7 Element stiffness matrix relate the displacements to the forces at the element nodes. Definition 8 Global stiffness matrix is an assembly of element stiffness matrix that relates the displacements of the nodes on the mesh to applied external forces. boundary conditions.

⎟ + u 2 ⎜ ---------------. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Lagrange polynomials • Polynomial functions that yield function value at finite number of points.⎟ x 1 – x 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ L 2 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.M.⎟ ⎝ x 1 – x 2⎠ ⎝ x 2 – x 1⎠ ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ Define: L1 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ x 2 – x 1⎠ ⎝ 2 u ( x ) = u1 L1 ( x ) + u2 L2 ( x ) = ∑ ui Li ( x ) i=1 1 L1(x) L2(x) 1 x x 8-11 . Linear Approximation: u ( x ) = C 1 + C 2 x x x1 Node 1 u1 x2 Node 2 u2 Conditions: u ( x 1 ) = u 1 u ( x2 ) = u2 ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ u ( x ) = u 1 ⎜ ---------------.

⎟ ⎜ ---------------.⎟ x 3 – x 1⎠ ⎝ x 3 – x 2⎠ ⎝ 8-12 .⎟ ⎜ ---------------.⎟ x 1 – x 2⎠ ⎝ x 1 – x 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ ⎛ x – x3 ⎞ L 2 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Quadratic displacement function: u ( x ) = C 1 + C 2 x + C 3 x x x1 Node 1 2 u1 Node 2 u2 Node 3 u3 x2 x3 n Alternative Approach: u ( x ) = n ∑ ui Li ( x ) [ i=1 u ( xj ) = ∑ i=1 ui Li ( xj ) = uj ⎧1 Li ( xj ) = ⎨ ⎩0 i = j i≠j L1 ( x ) = a1 ( x – x2 ) ( x – x3 ) L2 ( x ) = a2 ( x – x3 ) ( x – x1 ) L3 ( x ) = a3 ( x – x1 ) ( x – x2 ) ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ ⎛ x – x3 ⎞ L 1 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ ⎜ ---------------.⎟ x 2 – x 1⎠ ⎝ x 2 – x 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ L 3 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.

M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Node 1 1 Node 2 Node 3 L1(x) L2(x) L3(x) 1 1 x x x n nth order polynomial:L i ( x ) = ∏ j = 1 i≠j ( x – xj ) ------------------( xi – xj ) i = 1. 8-13 . • The continuity of the derivative of the function cannot be ensured at the element end irrespective of the order of polynomials when Lagrange polynomials are used for representing the function. ( n + 1 ) u1 1 element 1 u2 2 element 2 u3 3 u1 1 2 u2 element 1 u3 3 u4 element 2 u5 4 5 • Lagrange polynomials ensure that the function these are used to represent will be continuous at the element ends.

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Axial elements Notation: superscript to designate quantities at element level and no superscript at the global level. actual structure.M. ( n – 1 ) 8-14 . u 3 refers to displacement of node 3 on the u3 (1) (2) = ∑ i=1 (e) ui Li ( x ) n ( e ) dL i ui dx n ( e ) dL i (e) (e) du Axial strains: ε xx = dx (e) = ∑ i=1 Axial Stress: σ xx = E (e) (e) (e) ε xx = E ∑ i=1 ui dx n Internal axial force: N (e) (e) (e) (e) (e) = A σ xx = E A ∑ ( e ) dL i ui dx i=1 (e) In Equations for Rayleigh-Ritz substitute:C i = u i and f i ( x ) = L i ( x ) L (e) ( e ) ( e ) ⎛ dL j⎞ ⎛ dL k⎞ Element stiffness matrix: K jk = E A ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ dx dx ⎠ ⎝dx ⎠ ⎝ 0 ∫ Element load vector: Rj (e) L = ∫ px ( x )Lj ( x ) dx + F1 Lj ( x1 ) + Fn Lj ( xn ) 0 R1 (e) (e) (e) For p x = 0 = F1 (e) Rn (e) = Fn (e) Rj (e) = 0 j = 2. Displacements: u (e) n and u 3 l refer to displacement of node 3 for element 1 and 2.

e.e.. p x = 0 Use two quadratic axial elements x A 1 2 P/2 B 3 4 C 5 P/2 1 2 Element 1 3 1 2 Element 2 3 Virtual variation in potential energy in an element: δΩ (m) n = ∑ ∂Ω (m) i=1 n n (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) δΩ = δu i ( K ij u j – R i ) i=1 j=1 ∂ ui (m) δu i (m) ∑ ∑ δΩ (1) ⎧ δu ( 1 ) ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ δu ( 1 ) ⎬ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ δu ( 1 ) ⎪ ⎩ 3 ⎭ T ⎛ (1) (1) (1) ⎜ K 11 K 12 K 13 ⎜ ⎜ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) K( 1 ) ⎜ 21 22 23 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) ⎝ K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎧ u( 1 ) ⎫ (1) ⎞ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎧ F 1 ⎫⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪ (1) ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ u 2 ⎬ – ⎨ 0 ⎬⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ( 1 ) ⎪⎟ ⎪ u ( 1 ) ⎪ ⎩ F 3 ⎭⎟ ⎠ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 8-15 .M. (e) Assembly of global matrix and global load vector • The governing criteria is that the displacement function at the node where two elements meet must be continuous i. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM • Fj (e) is positive in the positive direction u j . be the same.. Assume there is no distributed force i.

M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM δΩ (2) ⎧ δu ( 2 ) ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ δu ( 2 ) ⎬ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ δu ( 2 ) ⎪ ⎩ 3 ⎭ T ⎛ (2) (2) (2) ⎜ K 11 K 12 K 13 ⎜ ⎜ K( 2 ) K( 2 ) K( 2 ) ⎜ 21 22 23 ⎜ (2) (2) (2) ⎝ K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎧ u( 2 ) ⎫ (2) ⎞ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎧ F 1 ⎫⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪ (2) ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ u 2 ⎬ – ⎨ 0 ⎬⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ( 2 ) ⎪⎟ ⎪ u ( 2 ) ⎪ ⎩ F 3 ⎭⎟ ⎠ ⎩ 3 ⎭ x A 1 2 P/2 B 3 4 C 5 P/2 1 2 Element 1 3 1 2 Element 2 3 u1 u1 (1) (2) = u1 = u3 ⎧ δu ( 1 ) ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ δu ( 1 ) ⎬ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ δu ( 1 ) ⎪ ⎩ 3 ⎭ δu 1 δu 2 δu 3 δu 4 δu 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ T T u2 u2 (1) (2) = u2 = u4 u3 u3 (1) (2) = u3 = u5 δΩ (1) ⎛ (1) (1) (1) ⎜ K 11 K 12 K 13 ⎜ ⎜ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) K( 1 ) ⎜ 21 22 23 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) ⎝ K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎧ u( 1 ) ⎫ (1) ⎞ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎧ F 1 ⎫⎟ ⎪ (1) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎨ u 2 ⎬ – ⎨ 0 ⎬⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ( 1 ) ⎪⎟ ⎪ u ( 1 ) ⎪ ⎩ F 3 ⎭⎟ ⎠ ⎩ 3 ⎭ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎪ F( 1 ) ⎪ ⎪ 1 u2 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ u3 ⎬ – ⎨ F( 1 ) ⎪ ⎪ 3 u4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ u5 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫⎞ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎬⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎭⎠ δΩ (1) ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎛ ⎜ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) K( 1 ) ⎜ 11 12 13 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) ⎜ K 21 K 22 K 23 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) ⎜ K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎜ 0 0 ⎜ 0 ⎜ 0 0 0 ⎝ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8-16 .

M. x A 1 2 Incorporating the external concentrated forces P/2 B 3 4 C 5 P/2 1 2 Element 1 3 1 2 Element 2 3 The force F 3 The force F 1 (1) (2) is in the direction of u 3 is in the direction of u 1 (1) (2) 8-17 . Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM δΩ (2) ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ δu 1 δu 2 δu 3 δu 4 δu 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ T ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 0 0 0 0 0 0 (2) (2) (2) 0 0 (2) (2) (2) 0 0 (2) (2) (2) 0 0 K 11 K 12 K 13 0 0 K 21 K 22 K 23 0 0 K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ (2) u3 ⎬ – ⎨ F1 ⎪ ⎪ u4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ (2) u5 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫⎞ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎬⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎭⎠ Total potential energy δΩ = δΩ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ δΩ = ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ T (1) + δΩ (2) δu 1 δu 2 δu 3 δu 4 δu 5 (1) ⎛ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) K 13 0 0 ⎜ 11 12 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) K 23 0 0 ⎜ K 21 K 22 ⎜ ⎜ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) ( K( 1 ) + K( 2 ) ) K( 2 ) K( 2 ) 33 11 12 13 ⎜ 31 32 (2) (2) (2) ⎜ 0 K 21 K 22 K 23 ⎜ 0 ⎜ (2) (2) (2) 0 K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎝ 0 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ (1) u1 ⎪ ⎪ F1 ⎪ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ u3 ⎬ – ⎨ F( 1 ) + F( 2 ) 1 ⎪ ⎪ 3 u4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ (2) u5 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫⎞ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎬⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎭⎠ • The element stiffness matrix and element load components that add corresponds to the degree of freedom associated with the shared node of the elements.

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM The applied force is in the direction of u 3 .M. u1 = 0 δu 1 = 0 u5 = 0 δu 5 = 0 ⎧ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ δu 2 ⎪ δΩ = ⎨ δu 3 ⎪ ⎪ δu 4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ T (1) ⎛ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) K 13 0 0 ⎜ 11 12 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) K 23 0 0 ⎜ K 21 K 22 ⎜ ⎜ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) ( K( 1 ) + K( 2 ) ) K( 2 ) K( 2 ) 33 11 12 13 ⎜ 31 32 (2) (2) (2) ⎜ 0 K 21 K 22 K 23 ⎜ 0 ⎜ (2) (2) (2) 0 K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎝ 0 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎞ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R A ⎫⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪ ⎪ u 2 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ u 3 ⎬ – ⎨ P ⎬⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ u 4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ 0 ⎭ ⎩ R C ⎭⎟ ⎠ or T⎛ ⎞ (1) ⎧ ⎫ ⎜ K( 1 ) ⎟ K 23 0 ⎧ u ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ δu 2 ⎪ ⎜ 22 ⎪ 2 ⎪ 0 ⎫⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ δΩ = ⎨ δu ⎬ ⎜ K ( 1 ) ( K ( 1 ) + K ( 2 ) ) K ( 2 ) ⎨ u ⎬ – ⎨ P ⎬⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎪ ⎜ 32 33 11 12 ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎜ ⎪ δu ⎪ ⎜ (2) ( 2 ) ⎪ u 4 ⎪ ⎩ 0 ⎭⎟ 4 ⎭ K 21 K 22 ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ ⎝ 0 ⎠ By principle of minimum potential energy: δΩ = 0 8-18 . F1 (1) = RA δu 1 δu 2 δu 3 δu 4 δu 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ T F3 + F1 (1) (2) = P F3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (2) = RC ⎞ ⎫⎟ R A ⎪⎟ 0 ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ P ⎬⎟ ⎪⎟ 0 ⎪⎟ R C ⎪⎟ ⎭⎟ ⎠ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ δΩ = ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (1) ⎛ (1) (1) K 13 0 0 ⎜ K 11 K 12 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) K 23 0 0 ⎜ K 21 K 22 ⎜ ⎜ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) ( K( 1 ) + K( 2 ) ) K( 2 ) K( 2 ) 33 11 12 13 ⎜ 31 32 (2) (2) (2) ⎜ 0 K 21 K 22 K 23 ⎜ 0 ⎜ (2) (2) (2) 0 K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎝ 0 ⎫ u1 ⎪ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ u3 ⎬ – ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ u4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ u5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Incorporating the boundary conditions on displacements • The stiffness matrix in is singular. which reflects the fact that the two element structure can move as a rigid body.

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM K 22 (1) (1) K 23 (1) (1) (2) 0 (2) (2) K 32 K 33 + K 11 K 12 0 K 21 (2) K 22 (1) ⎧ ⎫ u2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ u3 ⎬ = ⎨ P ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎪ u4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ (1) (2) (2) Reaction Forces: R A = K 12 u 2 + K 13 u 3 R C = K 31 u 3 + K 32 u 4 8-19 .M.

hpr-method (e) (e) 8-20 . ( n – 1 ) (e) (e) (e) 1 (e) (e) U A = -. The r-method of mesh refinement relocates the position of a node. The p-method of mesh refinement increases the order of polynomial in an element.( u n – u 1 )N 2 2 Mesh Refinement • Elements with high strain energy identify the region of the body where mesh should be refined. Combinations: hr-method.( u n N n – u 1 N 1 ) = -.( u 1 F 1 + u n F n ) 2 u1 F1 (e) (e) un Fn (e) (e) u1 N1 (e) (e) un Nn (e) (e) F1 (e) = –N1 (e) Fn (e) = Nn (e) (e) For p x = 0 N1 = Nn = N (e) (e) (e) (e) (e) 1 (e) (e) 1 (e) U A = -. The h-method of mesh refinement reduces the size of element.M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Element strain energy In Rayleigh-Ritz method we showed that the strain energy is half the work potential of the forces at equilibrium. (e) 1 U A = -2 For p x = 0 R1 (e) n ∑ j=1 = Fn uj Rj Rj (e) (e) = F1 (e) Rn (e) (e) (e) = 0 j = 2. hp-method.

M. • For n nodes on the element the matrix [T] would be n x 2n size. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Coordinate transformation yG (1) v G1 θ (1) v G3 (1) u G2 (1) u1 xG (1) u G3 (1) u3 (1) v G2 (1) u G1 (1) u2 The displacement vector in global orientation: D 1 The unit vector: e L = cos θi + sin θj Axial displacement: u 1 (1) (e) (e) (e) = u G1 i + v G1 j (e) (e) (e) = D 1 • e L = u G1 cos θ + v G1 sin θ (e) (e) ⎧ u G1 ⎫ ⎧ u G1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ v G1 ⎪ ⎪ v G1 ⎪ (e) ⎧u ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ u( e ) ⎪ ⎪ u( e ) ⎪ cos θ sin θ 0 0 0 0 ⎪ G2 ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ G2 ⎪ ⎨ u2 ⎬ = 0 0 cos θ sin θ 0 0 ⎨ (e) ⎬ = [T]⎨ (e) ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪v ⎪ 0 0 0 0 cos θ sin θ ⎪ v G2 ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ G2 ⎪ u3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ u G3 ⎪ ⎪ u G3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎩ v G3 ⎭ ⎩ v G3 ⎭ • The [T] matrix in the above equation is 3 x 6 matrix relating the local and the global coordinate system. 8-21 .

M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Transformation equation in matrix form: { u Potential energy in matrix form: δΩ δΩ (e) (e) (e) ⎧ (e) ⎫ } = [ T ] ⎨ uG ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ = { δu (e) T } ([K T (e) ]{u (e) } – {R (e) } ) or ⎧ (e) ⎫ ⎧ (e) ⎫ T⎛ (e) (e) ⎞ = ⎨ δu G ⎬ [ T ] ⎜ [ K ] [ T ] ⎨ u G ⎬ – { R }⎟ or ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ (e) ⎫ ⎛ ⎧ (e) ⎫ T (e) T (e) ⎞ = ⎨ δu G ⎬ ⎜ [ T ] [ K ] [ T ] ⎨ u G ⎬ – [ T ] { R }⎟ or ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ (e) T (e) T δΩ (e) Define: [ KG ] = [ T ] [ K δΩ (e) ][T] T ⎧ (e) ⎫ T (e) ⎨ RG ⎬ = [ T ] { R } ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ ( e ) ⎫ ⎛ ( e ) ⎧ ( e ) ⎫ ⎧ ( e ) ⎫⎞ = ⎨ δu G ⎬ ⎜ [ K G ] ⎨ u G ⎬ – ⎨ R G ⎬⎟ ⎩ ⎭ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭⎠ Linear and quadratic axial elements We assume the following: ---the distributed load px is evaluated at the mid point of the element and has a uniform value po ---the cross-sectional area (A) is evaluated at the mid point of the element. 8-22 . ---the modulus of elasticity (E) is constant over the element.

– 8 16 – 8 3L 1 –8 7 δΩ (e) ⎧ u( e ) ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (e) { u } = ⎨ u( e ) ⎬ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎩ u3 ⎭ [K (e) ⎧ F( e ) ⎫ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ po L ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ { R } = --------.1 – 1 L –1 1 (e) (e) Quadratic: u ( x ) = u 1 L 1 ( x ) + u 2 L2 ( x ) + u3 L3 ( x ) ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ ⎛ x – x3 ⎞ L 1 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ x 2 – x 1⎠ ⎝ ⎧ u( e ) ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ (e) {u } = ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ u( e ) ⎪ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎧ (e) ⎫ po L ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ F1 ⎪ (e) { R } = --------.⎨ ⎬ + ⎨ 2 ⎩1 ⎭ ⎪ (e) ⎬ F ⎪ ⎩ 2 ⎭ (e) (e) (e) (e) [K (e) EA ] = ------.⎟ x 1 – x 2⎠ ⎝ x 1 – x 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ ⎛ x – x3 ⎞ L 2 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ ⎜ ---------------.⎟ x 1 – x 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ L 2 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ ⎜ ---------------. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Linear: u (e) ( x ) = u 1 L 1 ( x ) + u 2 L2 ( x ) ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ L 1 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ ⎜ ---------------.⎟ x 2 – x 1⎠ ⎝ x 2 – x 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ L 3 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.M.⎟ ⎝ x 3 – x 1⎠ ⎝ x 3 – x 2⎠ 7 –8 1 EA ] = ------.⎨ 4 ⎬ + ⎨ 0 ⎬ 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎪ F( e ) ⎪ ⎩ 3 ⎭ } ([K (e) = { δu (e) T ]{u (e) } – {R (e) }) 8-23 .

stress. Transform from local orientation to global orientation. strain energy.M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Steps in FEM procedure 1. 4. Incorporate the external loads 5. Obtain element stiffness and element load vector. Incorporate the boundary conditions. internal forces. 9. 3. 7. 8. and repeat the above steps. 8-24 . Refine mesh if necessary. Solve the algebraic equations for nodal displacements. 2. Assemble the global stiffness matrix and load vector. Interpret and check the results. 6. Obtain reaction force.

8.8 A rectangular tapered aluminum bar (Eal = 10. P8. ν = 0. displacement at point C and the strain energy in each element using the following FEM model: one linear element in AB and one quadratic element in BC.Find the stress at point B.04x .000 ksi. 1 in 4 in A 10 in B x h(x) C P = 10 kips 50 in Fig.M. The depth of the tapered section varies as: h ( x ) = 4 – 0.25) is shown in Figure 8.8 8-25 . Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM 8.

P8. Bar AP and BP have lengths of LAP= 200 mm and LBP= 250 mm respectively. B 110o A P F Fig. Determine the displacement of the roller and the reaction force on the roller using linear elements to represent each bar.10 A force F= 20 kN is applied to the roller that slides inside a slot as shown in Fig. Both bars have an area of cross-section of A = 100 mm2 and a Modulus of Elasticity E = 200 GPa.M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM 8.10 8-26 .10. P8.

Deflection Approximation: v ( x ) = C 1 + C 2 x + C 3 x + C 4 x v ( x1 ) = v1 Conditions: v ( x2 ) = v2 (e) (e) (e) (e) dv ( x1 ) = θ1 dx (e) dv ( x2 ) = θ2 dx (e) (e) (e) 2 3 v ( x ) = f 1 ( x )v 1 + f 2 ( x )θ 1 + f 3 ( x )v 2 + f 4 ( x )θ 2 x – x1 2 x – x1 3 ⎛ --------------⎞ + 2 ⎛ --------------⎞ f1 ( x ) = 1 – 3 ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ x – x1 x – x1 3 x – x1 2 ⎛ --------------⎞ – 2 ⎛ --------------⎞ + ⎛ --------------⎞ f2 ( x ) = L ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ x – x1 2 x – x1 3 ⎛ --------------⎞ – 2 ⎛ --------------⎞ f3 ( x ) = 3 ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ x – x1 2 x – x1 3 ⎛ --------------⎞ + ⎛ --------------⎞ f4 ( x ) = L – ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ 8-27 .M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Symmetric beam elements • In beam bending problems deflection v and its derivative dv dx must be continuous at all points on the beam including the element ends. • Lagrange polynomials cannot be used for representing v because it would result in slope being discontinuous at the element end irrespective of the order of polynomial.

M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Conditions on interpolating functions v ( x 1 ) = v 1 = f 1 ( x 1 )v 1 + f 2 ( x 1 )θ 1 + f 3 ( x 1 )v 2 + f 4 ( x 1 )θ 2 f1 ( x1 ) = 1 f2 ( x1 ) = 0 f3 ( x1 ) = 0 f4 ( x1 ) = 0 (e) (e) (e) (e) (e) df 1 ( e ) df 2 ( e ) df 3 ( e ) df 4 (e) dv ( x1 ) = ( x 1 )v 1 + ( x 1 )θ 1 + ( x 1 )v 2 + ( x 1 )θ 2 dx dx dx dx dx = θ1 df 1 dx . (e) ( x1 ) = 0 df 2 dx ( x1 ) = 1 df 3 dx ( x1 ) = 0 df 3 dx ( x1 ) = 0 Hermite Polynomials for Beam Bending Node 1 1 Node 2 Node 1 Node 2 1 zero slope x f3(x) zero slope f1(x) f2(x) x 1 x zero slope f4(x) zero slope 1 x 8-28 .

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Element Stiffness Matrix: From Rayleigh-Ritz the stiffness matrix is: ⎛d f ⎞ ⎛d f ⎞ j⎟ ⎜ k⎟ dx K jk = ∫ ( EI zz ) ⎜ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝dx ⎠ ⎝dx ⎠ 0 L 2 2 Assume: • the area moment of inertia (I) is evaluated for the cross-section at the mid point of the element. • the modulus of elasticity (E) is constant over the element.M. (e) Rj = ∫ py ( x )fj ( x ) dx + F1 fj ( x1 ) + F2 fj ( x2 ) + M1 0 (e) (e) ( e ) df j dx ( x1 ) + M2 ( e ) df j dx ( x2 ) 8-29 . ⎧ (e) ⎫ ⎪ v1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪θ ⎪ 1 ⎪ (e) {v } = ⎨ ⎬ (e) ⎪ ⎪v ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ θ2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Element Load Vector From Rayleigh-Ritz the load vector is: L m1 m1 6 [K (e) 3L 2 –6 3L 2 2EI ] = -------3 L 3L 2L – 3 L L –6 –3 L 6 –3 L 3L L 2 – 3 L 2L 2 Rj = • ∫ py ( x )fj ( x ) 0 L dx + ∑ q=1 Fq fj ( xq ) + ∑ q=1 Mq df j dx ( xq ) Assume point forces and moments can only be applied at element end nodes.

nodal forces and moments. ⎧ (e) ⎫ ⎪ F1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧6 ⎫ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p0 L ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪ M1 ⎪ (e) { R } = --------. slopes. (e) θ1 (e) v1 (e) (e) F1 v2 (e) (e) θ2 M1 (e) M2 (e) F2 δΩ B (e) = { δv (e) T } ([K (e) ]{v (e) } – {R (e) }) 8-30 .⎨ ⎬ + ⎨ 12 ⎪ 6 ⎪ ⎪ ( e ) ⎬ F2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ –L ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ M2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Positive directions for displacements.M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM • the distributed load py is evaluated at the mid point of the element and has a uniform value po.

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM 8.23 8-31 . determine (a) the slope at B and C (b) reaction force and moment at A. P8.M. P8. w A x L B C 2L Fig.23.23 Using a single beam element for AB and a single beam element for BC in Fig.