# M.

Vable

Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM

Introduction to Finite Element Method
There are two version of FEM 1. Flexibility Method or Force Method: 2. Stiffness Method or Displacement Method. • The set of equations in the stiffness method are the equilibrium equations relating displacements of points. • Rayleigh-Ritz is an approximate method based on energy principle by which we can obtain equilibrium equations in matrix form. The learning objectives in this chapter is: 1. Understand Rayleigh-Ritz method and its application to axial members, torsion of circular shafts, and symmetric bending of beams. 2. Understand the perspective, the key issues, the terminology, and steps used in solving problems by finite element method.

8-1

M. Vable

Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM

Rayleigh Ritz
• Rayleigh Ritz method is an approximate method of finding displacements that is based on the theorem of minimum potential energy. • The method is restricted to conservative systems that may be linear or non-linear. Potential energy function (Ω): Ω = U – W U is the strain energy W is the work potential of a force. Internal virtual work: δW int = δU External virtual work: δW ext = δW Virtual work principle: δW int – δW ext = δU – δW = δΩ = 0 • The zero virtual variation in the potential energy function occurs where the slope of the potential energy function with respect to the parameters defining the potential function is zero. • The parameters defining the potential function are the generalized displacements. The zero slope condition can occur where the potential function is: maximumUnstable equilibrium saddle pointNeutral equilibrium minimumStable equilibrium

8-2

M. Vable

Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM

Minimum Potential Energy
The theorem of minimum potential energy can be stated as: Of all the kinematically admissible displacement functions the actual displacement function is the one that minimizes the potential energy function at stable equilibrium. Corollary • The better approximation of displacement function is the one that yields a lower potential energy. • The greater the degrees of freedom, lower will be the potential energy for a given set of kinematically admissible functions. Procedure Let the displacement u(x) be represented by a series of kinematically admissible functions fi(x), i.e.,
n

u(x) =

∑ Ci fi ( x )
i=1

Substitute in Potential Energy: Ω = Ω ( C 1, C 2, C 3 ……C n ) Minimize Potential energy: ∂Ω = 0 ∂ Ci i = 1, n

Set of n-algebraic equations in the unknown Ci.

8-3

EA 2 ⎝ d x⎠ ⎝ d x ⎠ j=1 k=1 ∑ ∑ ∑ Axial strain energy L n n 1 U A = ∫ U a dx = -2 0 L ∑ ∑ j=1 k=1 ⎛ df j⎞ ⎛ df k⎞ C j C k ∫ EA ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎝ d x⎠ ⎝ d x ⎠ 0 L ⎛ df j⎞ ⎛ df k⎞ Define: K jk = ∫ EA ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ dx ----Stiffness matrix ⎝ d x⎠ ⎝ d x ⎠ 0 • EA can be function of x. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Rayleigh Ritz for Axial Members Axial strain energy density: 2 1 ⎛ du⎞ U a = -.M. • K jk = K kj Stiffness Matrix is symmetric 8-4 .EA ⎜ Ck ⎟ ⎝ d x⎠ ⎝ d x⎠ ⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 2 dx dx ⎟ ⎝j = 1 ⎠ ⎝k = 1 ⎠ n n ⎛ df j⎞ ⎛ df k⎞ 1 Cj Ck ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ U a = -.EA ⎛ = -.EA ⎝ d x⎠ 2 n Displacement Approximation: u ( x ) = n ∑ Ci fi ( x ) i=1 du = dx ∑ Cj d x ∑ df j j=1 n n ⎛ df j⎞ ⎛ df k⎞ 1 du ⎞ ⎛ du ⎞ 1 Cj ⎟ ⎜ U a = -.

n n WA = L ∑ Cj ∫ px ( x )fj ( x ) j=1 0 m dx + ∑ ∑ Fq Cj fj ( xq ) q = 1j = 1 Define: R j = ∫ px ( x )fj ( x ) 0 dx + ∑ q=1 n F q f j ( x q ) ---Load Vector WA = Axial potential energy function: n ∑ Cj Rj j=1 n n 1 Ω A = U A – W A = -2 ∑ ∑ j=1 k=1 C j C k K jk – ∑ Cj Rj j=1 8-5 .M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM n n 1 Axial Strain Energy: U A = -2 Work potential ∑ ∑ j=1 k=1 C j C k K jk px(x) axial distributed force Fq concentrated axial forces applied at m xq points The work potential of these forces can be written as: L m WA = ∫ px ( x )u ( x ) dx + ∑ 0 q=1 m L Fq u ( xq ) Substituting the displacement approximation.

∑ C j ( K ij + K ji )⎟ – R i = 0 i = 1.∑ C j ⎜ ∑ K jk C k⎟ – ∑ C j R j ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝k = 1 ⎠ j=1 j=1 n n n 1 Ω A = -2 ∑ j=1 Cj Rj – ∑ j=1 1 C j R j = – ⎛ --⎞ ⎝ 2⎠ ∑ Cj Rj j=1 8-6 .∑ C k K ik + ∑ C j K ji⎟ – R i = 0 i = 1. n ⎟ 2⎜ ⎝k = 1 ⎠ j=1 ⎛ n ⎞ 1⎜ -.M. n 1 -2 ∑ ∑ j=1 k=1 ∂C j C + Cj K – ∂ Ci k ∂ C i jk i = j i≠j ∂C k n j=1 ∑ ∂ Ci Rj = 0 Note: ∂C j ⎧1 = ⎨ ∂ Ci ⎩0 n ⎛ n ⎞ 1⎜ -. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Axial potential energy function: n n n 1 Ω A = U A – W A = -2 ∑ ∑ j=1 k=1 C j C k K jk – ∑ Cj Rj j=1 Minimize the potential energy function: n n ∂Ω A ∂ Ci ∂C j = 0 i = 1. n ⎟ 2⎜ ⎝j = 1 ⎠ Using symmetry of stiffness matrix: K ji = K ij n ∑ Kij Cj j=1 = Ri i = 1. n or [ K ] { C } = { R } At Equilibrium only n n ⎛ n ⎞ 1 Ω A = -.

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Strain energy at equilibrium WA 1 U A = -------.M. • In FEM mesh refinement schemes try to get a more uniform distribution of strain energy across the structure. lower is the potential energy (more negative). 8-7 .= – ( Ω A ) = -2 2 n ∑ Cj Rj j=1 at equilibrium • More the degree of freedom. higher is the strain energy stored in the structure. • With greater degree of freedom the structure becomes less stiff and hence can store more energy.

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Symmetric Bending of Beams ⎛d v ⎞ 1 Bending strain energy density:U b = -.EI zz ⎜ ⎟ 2⎠ 2 ⎝dx n 2 2 Displacement Approximation:v ( x ) = ∑ Ci fi ( x ) i=1 Work Potential: py(x) Fq Mq distributed load concentrated transverse forces applied at m1 xq points concentrated transverse forces applied at m2 xq points L m1 m2 WA = ∫ py ( x )φ ( x ) dx + ∑ 0 L q=1 Fq v ( xq ) + ∑ q=1 Mq dv (x ) dx q ⎛d f ⎞ ⎛d f ⎞ j⎟ ⎜ k⎟ dx Stiffness Matrix: K jk = ∫ ( EI zz ) ⎜ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝dx ⎠ ⎝dx ⎠ 0 Load Vector: L m1 m1 2 2 Rj = ∫ py ( x )fj ( x ) 0 dx + ∑ q=1 Fq fj ( xq ) + ∑ q=1 Mq df j dx ( xq ) 8-8 .M.

6 B L in C v(x) = ∑ Ci sin -------2L i=1 iπx A 8-9 .6 determine one and two parameter Rayleigh-Ritz displacement solution using the approximation for the bending displacement given below. P8. n y w kips / in x L in Fig. Calculate the potential energy function for the one and two parameters.6 For the beam shown in Fig. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM 8. P8.M.

Potential energy is a scaler quantity and can be written as: n δΩ = ∑ i=1 δΩ (i) where. • This perspective of reducing the complexity of analysis of large structures to analysis of simple individual members (elements) is what makes the finite element method such a versatile and popular analysis tool in structural (and engineering application) analysis. Definition 3 The discrete representation of the structure geometry by elements and nodes is called a mesh. Definition 2 Element is a small domain on which we can solve the boundary value problem in terms of the displacements and forces of the nodes on the element. Definition 8 Global stiffness matrix is an assembly of element stiffness matrix that relates the displacements of the nodes on the mesh to applied external forces. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Finite Element Method (FEM) In Rayleigh-Ritz the kinematically admissible function is over the entire structure. Definition 7 Element stiffness matrix relate the displacements to the forces at the element nodes. and material properties representing the actual structure is called a model. loads. boundary conditions.M. 8-10 . Definition 6 The mesh. Definition 1 Nodes are points on the structure at which displacements and rotations are to be found or prescribed. Definition 4 The process of creating a mesh (discrete entities) is called discretization. Definition 5 Interpolation function is a kinematically admissible displacement function defined on an element that can be used for interpolating displacement values between the nodes. n is the number of elements (structural members). In FEM the kinematically admissible function is piecewise continuous over small (finite) domains called the ‘elements’.

⎟ x 2 – x 1⎠ ⎝ 2 u ( x ) = u1 L1 ( x ) + u2 L2 ( x ) = ∑ ui Li ( x ) i=1 1 L1(x) L2(x) 1 x x 8-11 . Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Lagrange polynomials • Polynomial functions that yield function value at finite number of points.M.⎟ + u 2 ⎜ ---------------. Linear Approximation: u ( x ) = C 1 + C 2 x x x1 Node 1 u1 x2 Node 2 u2 Conditions: u ( x 1 ) = u 1 u ( x2 ) = u2 ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ u ( x ) = u 1 ⎜ ---------------.⎟ ⎝ x 1 – x 2⎠ ⎝ x 2 – x 1⎠ ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ Define: L1 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ x 1 – x 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ L 2 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.

⎟ x 1 – x 2⎠ ⎝ x 1 – x 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ ⎛ x – x3 ⎞ L 2 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ x 3 – x 1⎠ ⎝ x 3 – x 2⎠ ⎝ 8-12 .⎟ ⎜ ---------------. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Quadratic displacement function: u ( x ) = C 1 + C 2 x + C 3 x x x1 Node 1 2 u1 Node 2 u2 Node 3 u3 x2 x3 n Alternative Approach: u ( x ) = n ∑ ui Li ( x ) [ i=1 u ( xj ) = ∑ i=1 ui Li ( xj ) = uj ⎧1 Li ( xj ) = ⎨ ⎩0 i = j i≠j L1 ( x ) = a1 ( x – x2 ) ( x – x3 ) L2 ( x ) = a2 ( x – x3 ) ( x – x1 ) L3 ( x ) = a3 ( x – x1 ) ( x – x2 ) ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ ⎛ x – x3 ⎞ L 1 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ x 2 – x 1⎠ ⎝ x 2 – x 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ L 3 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.M.⎟ ⎜ ---------------.⎟ ⎜ ---------------.

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Node 1 1 Node 2 Node 3 L1(x) L2(x) L3(x) 1 1 x x x n nth order polynomial:L i ( x ) = ∏ j = 1 i≠j ( x – xj ) ------------------( xi – xj ) i = 1. ( n + 1 ) u1 1 element 1 u2 2 element 2 u3 3 u1 1 2 u2 element 1 u3 3 u4 element 2 u5 4 5 • Lagrange polynomials ensure that the function these are used to represent will be continuous at the element ends.M. 8-13 . • The continuity of the derivative of the function cannot be ensured at the element end irrespective of the order of polynomials when Lagrange polynomials are used for representing the function.

( n – 1 ) 8-14 . Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Axial elements Notation: superscript to designate quantities at element level and no superscript at the global level. Displacements: u (e) n and u 3 l refer to displacement of node 3 for element 1 and 2.M. actual structure. u 3 refers to displacement of node 3 on the u3 (1) (2) = ∑ i=1 (e) ui Li ( x ) n ( e ) dL i ui dx n ( e ) dL i (e) (e) du Axial strains: ε xx = dx (e) = ∑ i=1 Axial Stress: σ xx = E (e) (e) (e) ε xx = E ∑ i=1 ui dx n Internal axial force: N (e) (e) (e) (e) (e) = A σ xx = E A ∑ ( e ) dL i ui dx i=1 (e) In Equations for Rayleigh-Ritz substitute:C i = u i and f i ( x ) = L i ( x ) L (e) ( e ) ( e ) ⎛ dL j⎞ ⎛ dL k⎞ Element stiffness matrix: K jk = E A ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ dx dx ⎠ ⎝dx ⎠ ⎝ 0 ∫ Element load vector: Rj (e) L = ∫ px ( x )Lj ( x ) dx + F1 Lj ( x1 ) + Fn Lj ( xn ) 0 R1 (e) (e) (e) For p x = 0 = F1 (e) Rn (e) = Fn (e) Rj (e) = 0 j = 2.

. p x = 0 Use two quadratic axial elements x A 1 2 P/2 B 3 4 C 5 P/2 1 2 Element 1 3 1 2 Element 2 3 Virtual variation in potential energy in an element: δΩ (m) n = ∑ ∂Ω (m) i=1 n n (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) δΩ = δu i ( K ij u j – R i ) i=1 j=1 ∂ ui (m) δu i (m) ∑ ∑ δΩ (1) ⎧ δu ( 1 ) ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ δu ( 1 ) ⎬ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ δu ( 1 ) ⎪ ⎩ 3 ⎭ T ⎛ (1) (1) (1) ⎜ K 11 K 12 K 13 ⎜ ⎜ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) K( 1 ) ⎜ 21 22 23 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) ⎝ K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎧ u( 1 ) ⎫ (1) ⎞ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎧ F 1 ⎫⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪ (1) ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ u 2 ⎬ – ⎨ 0 ⎬⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ( 1 ) ⎪⎟ ⎪ u ( 1 ) ⎪ ⎩ F 3 ⎭⎟ ⎠ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 8-15 .M..e. (e) Assembly of global matrix and global load vector • The governing criteria is that the displacement function at the node where two elements meet must be continuous i.e. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM • Fj (e) is positive in the positive direction u j . be the same. Assume there is no distributed force i.

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM δΩ (2) ⎧ δu ( 2 ) ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ δu ( 2 ) ⎬ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ δu ( 2 ) ⎪ ⎩ 3 ⎭ T ⎛ (2) (2) (2) ⎜ K 11 K 12 K 13 ⎜ ⎜ K( 2 ) K( 2 ) K( 2 ) ⎜ 21 22 23 ⎜ (2) (2) (2) ⎝ K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎧ u( 2 ) ⎫ (2) ⎞ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎧ F 1 ⎫⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪ (2) ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ u 2 ⎬ – ⎨ 0 ⎬⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ( 2 ) ⎪⎟ ⎪ u ( 2 ) ⎪ ⎩ F 3 ⎭⎟ ⎠ ⎩ 3 ⎭ x A 1 2 P/2 B 3 4 C 5 P/2 1 2 Element 1 3 1 2 Element 2 3 u1 u1 (1) (2) = u1 = u3 ⎧ δu ( 1 ) ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ δu ( 1 ) ⎬ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ δu ( 1 ) ⎪ ⎩ 3 ⎭ δu 1 δu 2 δu 3 δu 4 δu 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ T T u2 u2 (1) (2) = u2 = u4 u3 u3 (1) (2) = u3 = u5 δΩ (1) ⎛ (1) (1) (1) ⎜ K 11 K 12 K 13 ⎜ ⎜ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) K( 1 ) ⎜ 21 22 23 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) ⎝ K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎧ u( 1 ) ⎫ (1) ⎞ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎧ F 1 ⎫⎟ ⎪ (1) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎨ u 2 ⎬ – ⎨ 0 ⎬⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ( 1 ) ⎪⎟ ⎪ u ( 1 ) ⎪ ⎩ F 3 ⎭⎟ ⎠ ⎩ 3 ⎭ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎪ F( 1 ) ⎪ ⎪ 1 u2 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ u3 ⎬ – ⎨ F( 1 ) ⎪ ⎪ 3 u4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ u5 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫⎞ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎬⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎭⎠ δΩ (1) ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎛ ⎜ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) K( 1 ) ⎜ 11 12 13 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) ⎜ K 21 K 22 K 23 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) ⎜ K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎜ 0 0 ⎜ 0 ⎜ 0 0 0 ⎝ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8-16 .M.

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM δΩ (2) ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ δu 1 δu 2 δu 3 δu 4 δu 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ T ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 0 0 0 0 0 0 (2) (2) (2) 0 0 (2) (2) (2) 0 0 (2) (2) (2) 0 0 K 11 K 12 K 13 0 0 K 21 K 22 K 23 0 0 K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ (2) u3 ⎬ – ⎨ F1 ⎪ ⎪ u4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ (2) u5 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫⎞ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎬⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎭⎠ Total potential energy δΩ = δΩ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ δΩ = ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ T (1) + δΩ (2) δu 1 δu 2 δu 3 δu 4 δu 5 (1) ⎛ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) K 13 0 0 ⎜ 11 12 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) K 23 0 0 ⎜ K 21 K 22 ⎜ ⎜ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) ( K( 1 ) + K( 2 ) ) K( 2 ) K( 2 ) 33 11 12 13 ⎜ 31 32 (2) (2) (2) ⎜ 0 K 21 K 22 K 23 ⎜ 0 ⎜ (2) (2) (2) 0 K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎝ 0 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ (1) u1 ⎪ ⎪ F1 ⎪ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ u3 ⎬ – ⎨ F( 1 ) + F( 2 ) 1 ⎪ ⎪ 3 u4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ (2) u5 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫⎞ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎬⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎭⎠ • The element stiffness matrix and element load components that add corresponds to the degree of freedom associated with the shared node of the elements.M. x A 1 2 Incorporating the external concentrated forces P/2 B 3 4 C 5 P/2 1 2 Element 1 3 1 2 Element 2 3 The force F 3 The force F 1 (1) (2) is in the direction of u 3 is in the direction of u 1 (1) (2) 8-17 .

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM The applied force is in the direction of u 3 .M. F1 (1) = RA δu 1 δu 2 δu 3 δu 4 δu 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ T F3 + F1 (1) (2) = P F3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (2) = RC ⎞ ⎫⎟ R A ⎪⎟ 0 ⎪⎟ ⎪⎟ P ⎬⎟ ⎪⎟ 0 ⎪⎟ R C ⎪⎟ ⎭⎟ ⎠ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ δΩ = ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (1) ⎛ (1) (1) K 13 0 0 ⎜ K 11 K 12 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) K 23 0 0 ⎜ K 21 K 22 ⎜ ⎜ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) ( K( 1 ) + K( 2 ) ) K( 2 ) K( 2 ) 33 11 12 13 ⎜ 31 32 (2) (2) (2) ⎜ 0 K 21 K 22 K 23 ⎜ 0 ⎜ (2) (2) (2) 0 K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎝ 0 ⎫ u1 ⎪ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ u3 ⎬ – ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ u4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ u5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Incorporating the boundary conditions on displacements • The stiffness matrix in is singular. which reflects the fact that the two element structure can move as a rigid body. u1 = 0 δu 1 = 0 u5 = 0 δu 5 = 0 ⎧ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ δu 2 ⎪ δΩ = ⎨ δu 3 ⎪ ⎪ δu 4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ T (1) ⎛ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) K 13 0 0 ⎜ 11 12 ⎜ (1) (1) (1) K 23 0 0 ⎜ K 21 K 22 ⎜ ⎜ K( 1 ) K( 1 ) ( K( 1 ) + K( 2 ) ) K( 2 ) K( 2 ) 33 11 12 13 ⎜ 31 32 (2) (2) (2) ⎜ 0 K 21 K 22 K 23 ⎜ 0 ⎜ (2) (2) (2) 0 K 31 K 32 K 33 ⎝ 0 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎞ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R A ⎫⎟ ⎪⎟ ⎪ ⎪ u 2 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ u 3 ⎬ – ⎨ P ⎬⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ u 4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ 0 ⎭ ⎩ R C ⎭⎟ ⎠ or T⎛ ⎞ (1) ⎧ ⎫ ⎜ K( 1 ) ⎟ K 23 0 ⎧ u ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ δu 2 ⎪ ⎜ 22 ⎪ 2 ⎪ 0 ⎫⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ δΩ = ⎨ δu ⎬ ⎜ K ( 1 ) ( K ( 1 ) + K ( 2 ) ) K ( 2 ) ⎨ u ⎬ – ⎨ P ⎬⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎪ ⎜ 32 33 11 12 ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎜ ⎪ δu ⎪ ⎜ (2) ( 2 ) ⎪ u 4 ⎪ ⎩ 0 ⎭⎟ 4 ⎭ K 21 K 22 ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ ⎝ 0 ⎠ By principle of minimum potential energy: δΩ = 0 8-18 .

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM K 22 (1) (1) K 23 (1) (1) (2) 0 (2) (2) K 32 K 33 + K 11 K 12 0 K 21 (2) K 22 (1) ⎧ ⎫ u2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ u3 ⎬ = ⎨ P ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎪ u4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ (1) (2) (2) Reaction Forces: R A = K 12 u 2 + K 13 u 3 R C = K 31 u 3 + K 32 u 4 8-19 .M.

hpr-method (e) (e) 8-20 .( u 1 F 1 + u n F n ) 2 u1 F1 (e) (e) un Fn (e) (e) u1 N1 (e) (e) un Nn (e) (e) F1 (e) = –N1 (e) Fn (e) = Nn (e) (e) For p x = 0 N1 = Nn = N (e) (e) (e) (e) (e) 1 (e) (e) 1 (e) U A = -.M. The h-method of mesh refinement reduces the size of element. (e) 1 U A = -2 For p x = 0 R1 (e) n ∑ j=1 = Fn uj Rj Rj (e) (e) = F1 (e) Rn (e) (e) (e) = 0 j = 2. hp-method. The p-method of mesh refinement increases the order of polynomial in an element. Combinations: hr-method.( u n – u 1 )N 2 2 Mesh Refinement • Elements with high strain energy identify the region of the body where mesh should be refined. The r-method of mesh refinement relocates the position of a node. ( n – 1 ) (e) (e) (e) 1 (e) (e) U A = -. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Element strain energy In Rayleigh-Ritz method we showed that the strain energy is half the work potential of the forces at equilibrium.( u n N n – u 1 N 1 ) = -.

• For n nodes on the element the matrix [T] would be n x 2n size. 8-21 .M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Coordinate transformation yG (1) v G1 θ (1) v G3 (1) u G2 (1) u1 xG (1) u G3 (1) u3 (1) v G2 (1) u G1 (1) u2 The displacement vector in global orientation: D 1 The unit vector: e L = cos θi + sin θj Axial displacement: u 1 (1) (e) (e) (e) = u G1 i + v G1 j (e) (e) (e) = D 1 • e L = u G1 cos θ + v G1 sin θ (e) (e) ⎧ u G1 ⎫ ⎧ u G1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ v G1 ⎪ ⎪ v G1 ⎪ (e) ⎧u ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ u( e ) ⎪ ⎪ u( e ) ⎪ cos θ sin θ 0 0 0 0 ⎪ G2 ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ G2 ⎪ ⎨ u2 ⎬ = 0 0 cos θ sin θ 0 0 ⎨ (e) ⎬ = [T]⎨ (e) ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪v ⎪ 0 0 0 0 cos θ sin θ ⎪ v G2 ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ G2 ⎪ u3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ u G3 ⎪ ⎪ u G3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎩ v G3 ⎭ ⎩ v G3 ⎭ • The [T] matrix in the above equation is 3 x 6 matrix relating the local and the global coordinate system.

M. ---the modulus of elasticity (E) is constant over the element. 8-22 . Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Transformation equation in matrix form: { u Potential energy in matrix form: δΩ δΩ (e) (e) (e) ⎧ (e) ⎫ } = [ T ] ⎨ uG ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ = { δu (e) T } ([K T (e) ]{u (e) } – {R (e) } ) or ⎧ (e) ⎫ ⎧ (e) ⎫ T⎛ (e) (e) ⎞ = ⎨ δu G ⎬ [ T ] ⎜ [ K ] [ T ] ⎨ u G ⎬ – { R }⎟ or ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ (e) ⎫ ⎛ ⎧ (e) ⎫ T (e) T (e) ⎞ = ⎨ δu G ⎬ ⎜ [ T ] [ K ] [ T ] ⎨ u G ⎬ – [ T ] { R }⎟ or ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ (e) T (e) T δΩ (e) Define: [ KG ] = [ T ] [ K δΩ (e) ][T] T ⎧ (e) ⎫ T (e) ⎨ RG ⎬ = [ T ] { R } ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ ( e ) ⎫ ⎛ ( e ) ⎧ ( e ) ⎫ ⎧ ( e ) ⎫⎞ = ⎨ δu G ⎬ ⎜ [ K G ] ⎨ u G ⎬ – ⎨ R G ⎬⎟ ⎩ ⎭ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭⎠ Linear and quadratic axial elements We assume the following: ---the distributed load px is evaluated at the mid point of the element and has a uniform value po ---the cross-sectional area (A) is evaluated at the mid point of the element.

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Linear: u (e) ( x ) = u 1 L 1 ( x ) + u 2 L2 ( x ) ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ L 1 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ x 2 – x 1⎠ ⎝ ⎧ u( e ) ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ (e) {u } = ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ u( e ) ⎪ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎧ (e) ⎫ po L ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ F1 ⎪ (e) { R } = --------.⎟ ⎝ x 3 – x 1⎠ ⎝ x 3 – x 2⎠ 7 –8 1 EA ] = ------.⎟ x 2 – x 1⎠ ⎝ x 2 – x 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ L 3 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ ⎜ ---------------.– 8 16 – 8 3L 1 –8 7 δΩ (e) ⎧ u( e ) ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (e) { u } = ⎨ u( e ) ⎬ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎩ u3 ⎭ [K (e) ⎧ F( e ) ⎫ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ po L ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ { R } = --------.M.⎟ x 1 – x 2⎠ ⎝ x 1 – x 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ ⎛ x – x3 ⎞ L 2 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ x 1 – x 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ x – x1 ⎞ L 2 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ ⎜ ---------------.1 – 1 L –1 1 (e) (e) Quadratic: u ( x ) = u 1 L 1 ( x ) + u 2 L2 ( x ) + u3 L3 ( x ) ⎛ x – x2 ⎞ ⎛ x – x3 ⎞ L 1 ( x ) = ⎜ ---------------.⎟ ⎜ ---------------.⎨ ⎬ + ⎨ 2 ⎩1 ⎭ ⎪ (e) ⎬ F ⎪ ⎩ 2 ⎭ (e) (e) (e) (e) [K (e) EA ] = ------.⎨ 4 ⎬ + ⎨ 0 ⎬ 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎪ F( e ) ⎪ ⎩ 3 ⎭ } ([K (e) = { δu (e) T ]{u (e) } – {R (e) }) 8-23 .

4. 7. Obtain element stiffness and element load vector. Incorporate the external loads 5. 2. 8-24 . Obtain reaction force. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Steps in FEM procedure 1. Incorporate the boundary conditions. 9. 8. Refine mesh if necessary. and repeat the above steps. 3. strain energy. Assemble the global stiffness matrix and load vector. Transform from local orientation to global orientation. Interpret and check the results. internal forces. 6. Solve the algebraic equations for nodal displacements. stress.M.

000 ksi.M.8 8-25 . ν = 0. displacement at point C and the strain energy in each element using the following FEM model: one linear element in AB and one quadratic element in BC. P8.04x .Find the stress at point B. 1 in 4 in A 10 in B x h(x) C P = 10 kips 50 in Fig.8 A rectangular tapered aluminum bar (Eal = 10.8. The depth of the tapered section varies as: h ( x ) = 4 – 0.25) is shown in Figure 8. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM 8.

M. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM 8. B 110o A P F Fig.10. Determine the displacement of the roller and the reaction force on the roller using linear elements to represent each bar. Both bars have an area of cross-section of A = 100 mm2 and a Modulus of Elasticity E = 200 GPa.10 A force F= 20 kN is applied to the roller that slides inside a slot as shown in Fig. P8. P8. Bar AP and BP have lengths of LAP= 200 mm and LBP= 250 mm respectively.10 8-26 .

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Symmetric beam elements • In beam bending problems deflection v and its derivative dv dx must be continuous at all points on the beam including the element ends. Deflection Approximation: v ( x ) = C 1 + C 2 x + C 3 x + C 4 x v ( x1 ) = v1 Conditions: v ( x2 ) = v2 (e) (e) (e) (e) dv ( x1 ) = θ1 dx (e) dv ( x2 ) = θ2 dx (e) (e) (e) 2 3 v ( x ) = f 1 ( x )v 1 + f 2 ( x )θ 1 + f 3 ( x )v 2 + f 4 ( x )θ 2 x – x1 2 x – x1 3 ⎛ --------------⎞ + 2 ⎛ --------------⎞ f1 ( x ) = 1 – 3 ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ x – x1 x – x1 3 x – x1 2 ⎛ --------------⎞ – 2 ⎛ --------------⎞ + ⎛ --------------⎞ f2 ( x ) = L ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ x – x1 2 x – x1 3 ⎛ --------------⎞ – 2 ⎛ --------------⎞ f3 ( x ) = 3 ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ x – x1 2 x – x1 3 ⎛ --------------⎞ + ⎛ --------------⎞ f4 ( x ) = L – ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ 8-27 . • Lagrange polynomials cannot be used for representing v because it would result in slope being discontinuous at the element end irrespective of the order of polynomial.M.

Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Conditions on interpolating functions v ( x 1 ) = v 1 = f 1 ( x 1 )v 1 + f 2 ( x 1 )θ 1 + f 3 ( x 1 )v 2 + f 4 ( x 1 )θ 2 f1 ( x1 ) = 1 f2 ( x1 ) = 0 f3 ( x1 ) = 0 f4 ( x1 ) = 0 (e) (e) (e) (e) (e) df 1 ( e ) df 2 ( e ) df 3 ( e ) df 4 (e) dv ( x1 ) = ( x 1 )v 1 + ( x 1 )θ 1 + ( x 1 )v 2 + ( x 1 )θ 2 dx dx dx dx dx = θ1 df 1 dx . (e) ( x1 ) = 0 df 2 dx ( x1 ) = 1 df 3 dx ( x1 ) = 0 df 3 dx ( x1 ) = 0 Hermite Polynomials for Beam Bending Node 1 1 Node 2 Node 1 Node 2 1 zero slope x f3(x) zero slope f1(x) f2(x) x 1 x zero slope f4(x) zero slope 1 x 8-28 .M.

M. ⎧ (e) ⎫ ⎪ v1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪θ ⎪ 1 ⎪ (e) {v } = ⎨ ⎬ (e) ⎪ ⎪v ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ θ2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Element Load Vector From Rayleigh-Ritz the load vector is: L m1 m1 6 [K (e) 3L 2 –6 3L 2 2EI ] = -------3 L 3L 2L – 3 L L –6 –3 L 6 –3 L 3L L 2 – 3 L 2L 2 Rj = • ∫ py ( x )fj ( x ) 0 L dx + ∑ q=1 Fq fj ( xq ) + ∑ q=1 Mq df j dx ( xq ) Assume point forces and moments can only be applied at element end nodes. (e) Rj = ∫ py ( x )fj ( x ) dx + F1 fj ( x1 ) + F2 fj ( x2 ) + M1 0 (e) (e) ( e ) df j dx ( x1 ) + M2 ( e ) df j dx ( x2 ) 8-29 . • the modulus of elasticity (E) is constant over the element. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM Element Stiffness Matrix: From Rayleigh-Ritz the stiffness matrix is: ⎛d f ⎞ ⎛d f ⎞ j⎟ ⎜ k⎟ dx K jk = ∫ ( EI zz ) ⎜ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝dx ⎠ ⎝dx ⎠ 0 L 2 2 Assume: • the area moment of inertia (I) is evaluated for the cross-section at the mid point of the element.

(e) θ1 (e) v1 (e) (e) F1 v2 (e) (e) θ2 M1 (e) M2 (e) F2 δΩ B (e) = { δv (e) T } ([K (e) ]{v (e) } – {R (e) }) 8-30 . Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM • the distributed load py is evaluated at the mid point of the element and has a uniform value po. ⎧ (e) ⎫ ⎪ F1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧6 ⎫ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p0 L ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪ M1 ⎪ (e) { R } = --------. nodal forces and moments. slopes.⎨ ⎬ + ⎨ 12 ⎪ 6 ⎪ ⎪ ( e ) ⎬ F2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ –L ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ M2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Positive directions for displacements.M.

w A x L B C 2L Fig.23 8-31 .23. P8. P8. Vable Notes for finite element method: Intro to FEM 8.23 Using a single beam element for AB and a single beam element for BC in Fig.M. determine (a) the slope at B and C (b) reaction force and moment at A.

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