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Topic: Drug Abuse Drug abuse has been escalating rapidly among teenagers in recent years. This has cause non-governmental organization to join the fight to stop this type of abuse. It is estimated more than three thousand teenagers in Guyana have turned to substance abuse, mainly alcohol and marijuana. The Salvation Army, the Transitional House and University of Guyana are helping to curb this problem. The Salvation Army has been helping persons with other forms of problems since it opened in Guyana during 1895. However, their Drug Rehabilitation Programme took effect in 1966. According to Captain Matignol Saint-Lot, who manages the program, he noticed that, the program which treats about 60 persons annually, they have seen more than 60 per cent recovery rate. Patients go through counseling, therapy segments and anger and stress management. They are required to stay at the institution for the first six months of the recovery programme, but still attend counseling and treatment sessions after they leave. With this figure, I believe that it is a programme that works for persons who want to make that change in their lives. It is good that they keep patients there for that period because if they are allowed outside there is no guarantee that they will return. A relative of mine escaped after the first 3 months and never went back. Another non-profit organization that is helping to fight drug abuse is the Transitional House which opened on February 2, 2008, in New Amsterdam, Berbice, by Eskar Adams, who was once an addict himself.
Unlike the Salvation Army, patients are required to stay at the institution for the first 30 days, and it is also able to house women and children. Patients are assigned chores, yard work, gardening, and then exposed to educational programs. Their approach is different because they offer online meetings to allow patients to interact with persons from other countries and not being limited to what is happening in Guyana only. Assistance for the Transitional House comes from Social Work students at the University of Guyana Berbice Campus (UGBC) and Prison Officers, all of whom volunteer their time to give care and counseling to addicts.
The University of Guyana is also helping to fight drug abuse by using a different approach. It is seeking to incorporate issues of Drug Demand Reduction into its Curriculum. In August 2012, a workshop was held to identify drug related topics for integration into the curricula of undergraduate programmes. I agree with this approach because more persons will be exposed to drug related issues affecting us and will be more informed of the causes and effect. It can be conclude that there are different organizations that are willing to help fight drug abuse problems by using different approach without the need of making a profit. I think that our government needs to input more funds into these organizations especially small ones like the Transitional house, so as to help them grow and help the other persons they cannot immediately accommodate.
References: http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2012/03/18/helping-others-after-hitting-%E2%80%98rockbottom%E2%80%99%E2%80%A6-eskar-adams-is-a-special-person/ http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2008/11/10/the-salvation-army-rehab-centre/ http://www.salvos.com/sawl/Caribbean_Territory_825_010109.html http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2012/08/22/ug-curriculum-to-incorporate-drug-demandreduction/
Domestic Abuse: Domestic Abuse has Detrimental effects on women. Domestic abuse has been described as one of the most widespread human rights abuses and public health problems in the world today (Velzeboer, & Novick, 2000). Domestic abuse affects women more than men, since women are abused more than men. While it is documented that incidence of domestic abuse in general is on the rise the world over in developed and developing countries, one example of this statistical data shows that there has been a high increase in the percentage of domestic abuse in the United States of America and that that rate is expected to continually rise “…found that between 3.2% and 4.1% of women had been the victims of severe Domestic Abuse in the past year; ...”i. Another article states that one in four women and one in six men will be victims of domestic abuse in their lifetime with women at greater risk of repeat victimisation and serious injury. A third article also states that out of the eighty nine percent of those suffering with domestic abuse, four or more incidents are women, in addition, one incident of Domestic Abuse is reported to the police every minute and on average, two women a week are killed by a current or former male partner and Domestic Abuse accounts for sixteen(16) percent of all violent crime.ii A fourth article states that “Estimates state that between 18 and 30% of women experience domestic abuse during their lifetime (Department of Health, 2002), with this figure rising to 50% to 60% for mental health service users (Kelly, 1996; DoH, 2002). There is a wealth of evidence that indicates that the consequences of domestic abuse are often devastating and long-term,
affecting women's physical health (Robinson, 2003) and mental well-being (Humphries & Thiara, 2003).iii” The risk factors of Domestic Abuse are many, but the effects of domestic abuse on women are life changing and serious. Domestic Abuse affects women physically; “At least 42% of women and 20% of men sustain minor injuries such as scratches, bruises and swelling. More severe injury may occur if the abuse is frequent and harsh. Some of the most common injuries are Bruises, Lesions and cuts, Pelvic pain, Headaches, Back pain, broken bones, Gynecological injuries, Pregnancy complications, Sexually transmitted diseases, Gastrointestinal disorders, Heart or circulatory conditions.”iv Domestic abuse also affects women psychologically such effects of domestic abuse on women are; “Depression, Loss of hope in the future, Suicidal behavior, Anxiety, Low self-esteem, Inability to trust, Fear of intimacy, Sleep disturbances, Inability to concentrate, Flashbacks.v” It also has negative social effects on women, it can restrict the victim’s ability to escape the domestic abuse, which can result in Controlled access to services meant to help the victim, strained relationships with authority figures such as health care providers and employers and Isolation from family, friends and other supportive individuals. Domestic abuse can also lead to homelessness, “…Domestic Abuse is "the single most quoted reason for becoming homeless”. “This study found that 40% of all homeless women stated Domestic Abuse as contributor to their homelessness (Cramer and Carter, 2002).” vi Domestic Abuse can also lead to Unemployment; "Domestic Abuse has a detrimental impact on employment. Among employed women, who suffered Domestic Abuse in the last year, 21 per cent took time off work and two per cent lost their jobs". (Findings from self-completion module of the 2001 British Crime survey, Walby & Allen, 2004)vii. Domestic Abuse can also lead to Homicides; about 46% of all female homicide victims compared with 5% of male homicide victims, were killed by current or former partners in 2001/02. In total, there were about 116 women who were killed by current or former partners in 2001/02, and the figures have been similar in subsequent years. This equates to an average of over 2 women each week who are killed by a current or former partner (Flood-Page et al, 2003). Women are at greatest risk of homicide at the point of separation or after leaving a violent partner (Lees, 2000)viii
Is it fair for women to endure domestic abuse and the detrimental effects that it has on them? Is it fair for women to constantly live in fear for their lives? I am sure that your answer will be a resounding NO! So then why should we allow women to be abused? Women are one of the the reasons we are in this world. We are supposed to protect women they are our wives, sisters, daughters, granddaughters, mothers and so much more to us! In conclusion, The effects of Domestic Abuse on women’s health, well being and life are devastating, numerous and unfathomable, but we have the power to stop the cycle of Domestic Abuse on women by getting them the appropriate care they need, counseling and enforcing the law that deals with Domestic Abuse on women.
Meredith AW, Abbott D, Adams S. Family violence: Its relation to marital and parental satisfaction and family strengths. Journal of Family Violence. 1986;1:299-305. http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Prevalence%20of%20Domestic%20Violence %20in%20the%20US.pdf CrimeReduction.gov.uk (2005), Domestic Abuse http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/domesticviolence51.htm, April 11, 2005. Emma Crawford, Helen Liebling-Kalifani and Vicki Hill Women’s Understanding of the Effects of Domestic Abuse: The Impact on Their Identity, Sense of Self and Resilience. A Grounded Theory Approach: Journal of International Women’s Studies Vol. 11 #2 November 2009 November 23, 2012. http://www.bridgew.edu/soas/jiws/Nov09v2/HelenCrawford.pdf Cathy Meyer, About.com Guide http://divorcesupport.about.com/od/abusiverelationships/p/effects_abuse.htm Cathy Meyer, About.com Guide http://divorcesupport.about.com/od/abusiverelationships/p/effects_abuse.htm Women's Aid Federation of England What are the effects of domestic abuse on women? Accessed November 23, 2012 http://www.womensaid.org.uk/domestic-violence-articles.asp?section=00010001002200410001&itemid=1274 Women's Aid Federation of England, What are the effects of domestic abuse on women? Accessed November 23, 2012 http://www.womensaid.org.uk/domestic-violence-articles.asp?section=00010001002200410001&itemid=1274
Women's Aid Federation of England, What are the effects of domestic abuse on women? Accessed November 23, 2012 http://www.womensaid.org.uk/domestic-violence-articles.asp?section=00010001002200410001&itemid=1274
1. Meredith AW, Abbott D, Adams S. Family violence: Its relation to marital and parental satisfaction and family strengths. Journal of Family Violence. 1986;1:299-305. http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Prevalence%20of%20Domestic %20Violence%20in%20the%20US.pdf 2. CrimeReduction.gov.uk (2005), Domestic Abuse http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/domesticviolence51.htm, April 11, 2005. 3. Emma Crawford, Helen Liebling-Kalifani and Vicki Hill Women’s Understanding of the Effects of Domestic Abuse: The Impact on Their Identity, Sense of Self and Resilience. A Grounded Theory Approach: Journal of International Women’s Studies Vol. 11 #2 November 2009 November 23, 2012. http://www.bridgew.edu/soas/jiws/Nov09v2/HelenCrawford.pdf
4. Cathy Meyer, About.com Guide http://divorcesupport.about.com/od/abusiverelationships/p/effects_abuse.htm 5. Cathy Meyer, About.com Guide http://divorcesupport.about.com/od/abusiverelationships/p/effects_abuse.htm 6. Women's Aid Federation of England What are the effects of domestic abuse on women? Accessed November 23, 2012 http://www.womensaid.org.uk/domestic-violence-articles.asp?section=00010001002200410001&itemid=1274 7. Women's Aid Federation of England, What are the effects of domestic abuse on women? Accessed November 23, 2012 http://www.womensaid.org.uk/domestic-violence-articles.asp?section=00010001002200410001&itemid=1274 8. Women's Aid Federation of England, What are the effects of domestic abuse on women? Accessed November 23, 2012 http://www.womensaid.org.uk/domestic-violence-articles.asp?section=00010001002200410001&itemid=1274
Over the years emotional abuse has grown dramatically, it attacks an individual’s self-esteem and leaves no visible marks yet it hampers mental health. Emotional abuse is the acts, systematic, patterned and chronic abuse that is used by perpetrator to lower a person self esteem, self-worth, power and trust in one’s own perceptions and self-concept. Most times it leaves the person feeling unloved or unworthy of affection or any relations. This type of abuse is least understood out of the other types of abuse. Emotional abuse comes in different ways, therefore having different outcomes, most of which would be rejection, isolation, terrorization and corruption. A person lacking the ability to bond displays rejection and corruption. Many persons are told they are unwanted and are blamed for the problems of others. The distinguishing signs of an emotionally abused person are talking negatively about themselves, feeling shy and being passive around others. Emotionally abuse attacks persons that are greatly demanding and who usually suffer from compulsions, phobias, obsessions as well as sleeping and speech disorders. Majority of this abuse go unreported due to the fact that people experiencing emotional abuse are unaware of the signs. Constantly we experience emotional abuse without unrecognizing until it’s beyond control. Since individuals use methods such as fear and humiliation to inflict emotional abuse, these are the most known signs. Other names for emotional abuse are covert abuse, psychological maltreatment, coercive abuse, and ambient abuse. Emotional abuse can happen in a number of places, including work places, school, even between adults in the home. Emotional abuse happens when yelling and anger go too far or when persons constantly criticize, threaten, or dismiss each other until their self-esteem and feelings of self-worth are damaged. Emotional abuse may be the most damaging compared to other forms of abuse. Statistically, persons abused mentally over a period of years are more likely to develop depression. They are also likely to become timid and/or aggressive later in life. For example, doing something the right way but being chastised harshly about it. Then, to have it done the way in which indicated and yet having being told that it was still wrong. To conclude, even though emotional abuse is invisible to the eyes, it’s the most rapidly progressing form of abuse in many places such as offices, schools, even between families. The major signs of this type of abuse that people overlook are mostly phobias, low self esteem, obsessions, speech and sleep disorders. It takes a toll on one’s health and mental status. Even though emotional abuse plays a big part in society it is the least acknowledged and even less treatable type of abuse due to the fact it is unrecognizable yet wide spread.
These references are all accessed on the 26th of November. Cawson, P. et al (2000) Child maltreatment in the United Kingdom: a study of the prevalence of child abuse and neglect . London: NSPCC. Tomison, A. M. and Tucci, J. (1997) Emotional abuse: the hidden form of maltreatment. Issues in Child Abuse Prevention, 8(Spring). Cawson, P. (2001) Emotional maltreatment: towards a better understanding and response. Young Minds Magazine, 52(May/June): 20-22. Crittenden, P. M. (1999) Child neglect: causes and contributors. In: H. Dubowitz (ed) Neglected children: research, practice and policy. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage. p.47-68. Department of Health, Home Office, and Department for Education and Employment (1999) Working together to safeguard children: a guide to interagency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children.London: The Stationery Office. Garbarino, J. (1978) The elusive "crime" of emotional abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 2: 89-99. Geffner, R. and Rossman, B. B. R. (1998) Emotional abuse: an emerging field of research and intervention. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 1(1): 1-5. Glaser, D. (1993) Emotional abuse. Bailliere's Clinical Paediatrics, 1(1): 251-267.
SEXUAL ABUSE Sexual abuse also called sexual assault is any form of sexual activity that is not agreed upon, it includes the unwanted touching, or vaginal, anal or oral penetration where the perpetrator uses force, making threats or taking advantage of the victim who is not able to give consent. Men are the least affected victims of sexual abuse, but in most cases they are the perpetrators of this form of abuse. Statistics have shown that about three percent of males have experience sexual abuse or an attempt of sexual abuse in their life time, in compare to women who statistics shows that about one out of every six women are victims of sexual abuse or an attempt of it each year. Though may people may not speak of it, sexual
abuse is one of the leading cases of abuse and it affects both males and females in homes, society, and workplaces. Sexual abuse in home often occurs with children of both genders, where the perpetrators are usually parents, family members, guardians, caregivers, and may even be a friend of the family. When sexual abuse occurs in the home it affects all members where the others may feel that they should have seen the signs and could have done something to help, research have shown that ninety three percent of sexual abuse that occurs in the home takes place with children under the age of eighteen. These children who are sexually abused commonly suffer from depression, eating disorders, drug addictions and a few who cannot handle the stress of being sexually abused commit suicide. Sexual abuse in society happens mostly towards women and young females between the ages of sixteen and thirty five people who they know and most times by complete strangers as a result survey shows that about five percent of women who are sexually abuse become pregnant. These victims who were abused suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, drug abuse, suicidal tendency, insecurity, lack of self-esteem and withdrawal psychologist now has developed methods to help these victims cope with what has happened to them. Sexual abuse or sexual harassment in the workplace is the unwanted touching, gestures or behaviors, it affects the victim’s psychologically where they may develop a lack self-esteem and self-security, and sexual abuse in work place may lead to an abuse of power by the perpetrator and blackmail, if reported can put the victim’s employment in jeopardy. When a victim is sexually abused in the work place it affects both themselves and the organization, changes can be seen in both the victim and the perpetrators behaviors; the victim may not be able to fully concentrate on their task at hand causing workplace deterioration, the working relationship between the perpetrator and the victim would become strained or non-existent and finally the victim may choose to leave the workplace completely. In conclusion, sexual abuse affects each individual differently and they also develop different coping mechanisms some of which is not healthy for them. But psychologist have found that introducing these victims to therapy helps them to come to grips with what have happen to them and to understand that they no longer have to be a victim and they could live healthy lives. References: http://www.rainn.org/get-information/statistics/sexual-assault-victims,
Bureau of Statistics, 2 April 2010 http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=1133 29
November 2012. Child Welfare Information Gateway, 29 November 2012 http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/statistics/stat_sexAbuse.cfm
Thesis statement: in today’s society children are being abuse in many different ways such as psychologically, verbally and neglect. Child abuse is the mistreatment of a child by an adult. Child abuse is morally wrong in any society; hence it is also considered a criminal offence in Guyana under the Criminal Law Act Chapter 8:01. Child being abused by parents, guardian, relative, caregiver or any adult for that matter may result in psychological, physical, verbally, sexual harm to a child. In today’s society children experience abuse in various forms and these are unacceptable. Firstly, psychological abuse is the mental and emotional abuse of a child. Children who are often suffering from this abuse are less able to develop and maintain emotional and social relationships of a normal life. For example making fun of a child, this can affect a child in any many ways. The child may become depressed or no longer find interest in things that usually interest him or her. The child may not function properly in school. The child may also be depressed most of the time. Secondly, verbal abuse is the use of indent or negative statements being used by an adult to a child. Verbal abuse can be screaming, shouting at a child, cursing or insulting that child. It is very embarrassing for a child to be abused in public. For instance, I saw a teenage boy whose parents kept cursing and yelling at him, out of anger and embarrassment he ran away from home. This can also lead to emotional abuse as well.
Lastly, to neglect a child is depriving from materials or services need such as providing food, clothing, shelter etc. some parents do not verbally communicate with their child and that child may not be comfortable talking to the parent or asking for advice. Parents should listen to their children in every way possible. For example, if your child is being abused sexually and you are ignoring that child when they attempt to tell you what is happening, will you not listen to your child? Or try to help or show some support? In conclusion, we should stop abusing children psychologically, verbally and by neglect. We should listen to our children when they are trying to converse with us and correct them in a mannerly way because they are the future of tomorrow. Let us all stop child abuse in our community, society, country and the world at large. Every child regardless of gender, ethnicity or religion has rights to be respected in other humane way. The world is cognizant of child abuse and not only in Guyana but globally should adhere to the rights of the child convention and join The United Nation Children’s Fund (UNICEF).
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/child_neglect http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/verbal_abuse_(disambigious) www.behaviouralinstitute.org www.childwelfare.gov www.teach-through-love.com United Nation Children’s Fun- Brickdam Georgetown
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