Preface

This 'English Speaking & Grammar' book of Cromosys Language Research and Education
Center is designed to teach you English from very basic to the advanced level. The lessons
and study materials uniquely designed, which you will not find in any other books, are to
guide you to be fluent following correct usage of grammar. Having done the research over
English in twelve years, I am confident to assure you that it has everything that you need to
get a good command over English. Its step-by-step explanation to tense, modals,
advanced modals, voice and preposition with rules and alerts guarantee your success. You
will feel that this is the only book you were always in the need of.
The communication in any language without following the rules degrades the standard and
corrupts the meaning. As the world is changing day by day, English is incorporating in all
the sectors of human life around the globe. Every day, the use of English is increasing and
a person with good knowledge of it is able to get a good job. And so, the call centers and
print and visual media have great demand of those who are good in this language. The
modern ventures of newspapers, magazines, and movies have contributed a lot to make
English strong, sense-touching, smooth and beautiful. As English has advanced a lot in last
twenty-five years, the universal standard of it has adopted many new sentence structures
and grammar patterns, which are never taught to the students in academic schools. And
that is why English remains difficult to many people.
Considering that point, I prepared this magnificently powerful quality guide to help you gain
the improvement on Spoken English. Around eight years ago I went to the USA where I got
a chance to get an exclusive training of this language. I have been communicating with
English-speaking people around the world while managing a team in several call centers,
and in part time, I have been teaching this language globally with high exposure. So being
able to understand linguistic science, I promise that the knowledge that you are going to
get from this book will definitely sharpen your ability so that you can make your way of
success without any hindrance.
Cromosys, our language research and education center, saving human efforts from being
wasted, is to make you as good as native English speaker. This path-breaking pioneer
training institute for English Speaking, Mass Communication, Foreign Languages,
Computer Training, and Academic Tuition, is committed to enlightening human mind with
educational endeavors, and we are doing the same for last successful fifteen years. We not
only hope but believe that your success is in your hand now, and this book will take you
miles ahead in your expectation. We always respect the views and comments of readers,
so for any communication with regards to assistance, enquiry or collaboration, we are
always there at your reach as it helps us improve our ability.
Niranjan Jha
Founder: Cromosys Corporation
Web: www.cromosys.in
facebook.com/cromosys
Contact no. +91-9561450045
Email address: cromosys@yahoo.com
My other books-
English Word Power | Voice Accent and Pronunciation | Dynamic Grammar of English |
Teach Yourself Spanish | Teach Yourself French
MODALS
Can
·ir·ii·÷ ¬¬ni r, ¬¬n| r, ¬¬n r
Rule : Sub + can + v1 + obj
Affirmative
- ¤r ¬i- ¬º ¬¬ni r¸| I can do this work.
~i¤ ¬¬¬ l-¬ ¬¬n r| You can meet him.
r- ·ri ¤r¤ ¬¬n r| We can reach there.
·r ¤¤ «i¬ ¬¬n| r| She can speak French.
Negative
·r -n -·· ·r| ¬º ¬¬ni r| He can not help me.
«·¤ ·ri ·r| ¬i ¬¬n r| The Children can not go there.
~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in ·r| ¬º ¬¬n r| You can not talk to him.
r- ¬¬ ·iiªii ·r| · ¬¬n r| We can not cheat him.
Interrogative
·¤i ·r ¤¤ l¬ªi ¬¬n| r` Can she write a letter?
·¤i ~i¤ ;·¬·i¬i ¬ ¬·i« ·r|· ¬¬n r` Can you not answer these questions?
r- ¬¬¬ ¬¬ l-¬ ¬¬n r` How can we meet him?
n- ¤¤ ·¤i ·r| «i¬ ¬¬n ri` Why can you not speak French?
Exercise
~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ¬º ¬¬n r| ·r ~i¤¬i ·i- ¬¬n| r| ·¤i ~i¤ -n ¬s «ni ¬¬n r` ·r ¬«
¬s ¬-n ¬¬ni r| l”i·i¬ n-r ¬·i¬ ¤¸s ¬¬n r| ¬l·ni l·ln· ¬ ·¤i ·r| l-¬ ¬¬n| r`
~i¤ -n ª¤¤ ¬« · ¬¬n r`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise
- ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º ¬¬ni r¸| ¤l¬¬ ¬¬ lnº¤niº ·¤i ·r| ¬º ¬¬n| r` ·¤i ·r ¤ri ~i ¬¬ni
r` ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ¤r ¬·i¬ ¤¸s ¬¬n r| n- ¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ¬º ¬¬n ri| l·ln· ¤¤ ·r| «i¬ ¬¬ni
r| ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤ri ¬« «¬i ¬¬n r` r- ¤ri ¬¬ -rº ¬¬n r` ·¤i - ¤r ·i·| «¤ ¬¬ni r¸`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Hint- v1 = go, v2 = went, v3 = gone, v4 = going, v5 = goes
2
Could
·ir·ii·÷ ¬¬i, ¬¬|, ¬¬, ¬¬i ·ii, ¬¬| ·i|, ¬¬ ·i
Rule : Sub + could + v1 + obj
Affirmative
r- ·ri ¬-¤ ¤º ¤r¤ ¬¬| We could reach there on time.
·r -º ¬i·i ¤¤ «i¬ ¬¬|| She could speak French with me.
- ¤r ¬i- -|¬ nºr ¬º ¬¬i | I could do this work properly.
·r -n ¤¬ ¬ -·· ¬º ¬¬|| She could help me with money.
Negative
«·¤ ·ri ·r| ¬i ¬¬| The Children could not go there.
~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in ·r| ¬º ¬¬| You could not talk to him.
·r r- ·iiªii ·r| · ¬¬i | He could not cheat us.
~i¤ ;· ¬·i¬i ¬ ¬·i« ·r| · ¬¬| You could not answer these questions.
Interrogative
·¤i ·r n-r -·· ¬º ¬¬|` Could she help you?
·¤i ~i¤ l¬ni« ·r| ªiº|· ¬¬` Could you not buy the book?
·r -n¬ ·¤i ·r| l-¬ ¬¬i` Why could he not meet me?
~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º ¬¬` How could you do this work?
Exercise
- ¬¬ ª¤¤ ·r| · ¬¬i| ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ¬i; ¬·i¬ ¤¸s ¬¬` «·¤ ri¬| ·¤i ·r| ªi¬ ¬¬` - ¤r
¬¬- ¬¬ ·r| · ¬¬i| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ¬« l-¬ ¬¬` ·r -n ·iiªii ·r| · ¬¬|| n-riºi ·ii; ·iº ¬«
¤r¤ ¬¬i` - l·ln· ¬ «in ·r| ¬º ¬¬i| n- ~-lº¬i ·¤i ·r| ¬i ¬¬` ·¤i «·¤ -¬¸¬ ·r| ¤r¤
¬¬`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise
n- ¤¤ ·r| ¬|ªi ¬¬n ri| n- ¤¤ ·r| ¬|ªi ¬¬| ·r -n ·r| ·i¸¬ ¬¬n| r| ·r -n ·r| ·i¸¬
¬¬|| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ¬ri l-¬ ¬¬n r` ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ¬ri l-¬ ¬¬` r- ·ri ·r| -rº ¬¬n r| r- ·ri
·r| -rº ¬¬| ·r ¤r ¬i- ·r| ¬º ¬¬ni r| ·r ¤r ¬i- ·r| ¬º ¬¬i| ~i¤ ¤¤ ·¤i ·r| l¬ªi
¬¬n r` ~i¤ ¤¤ ·¤i ·r| l¬ªi ¬¬`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
3
Should
·ir·ii·÷ ·i ¤ilr¤, ·| ¤ilr¤, · ¤ilr¤
Rule : Sub + should + v1 + obj
Affirmative
r- ·ri ¬-¤ ¤º ¤r¤·i ¤ilr¤| We should reach there on time.
¬¬ -º ¬i·i ¤¤ «i¬·| ¤ilr¤| He should speak French with me.
-n ¤r ¬i- ~i¬ ¬º·i ¤ilr¤| I should do this work today.
¬¬ ¤¬ ¬ -º| -·· ¬º·| ¤ilr¤| He should help me with money.
Negative
«·¤i ¬i ·ri ·r| ¬i·i ¤ilr¤| The children should not go there.
~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ «in ·r| ¬º·| ¤ilr¤| You should not talk to him.
r- ¤r l¬ni« ·r| ªiº|··| ¤ilr¤| We should not buy this book.
¬·r ¤r ¬i- ·r| ¬º·i ¤ilr¤| They should not do this work.
Interrogative
·¤i «·¤i ¬i ¤¤ ¬|ªi·| ¤ilr¤` Should the children learn French?
r- ¬¬¬ ¬¬ l-¬·i ¤ilr¤` How should we meet him?
¬¬ ¤r l¤~- ·¤i ·r| ·ªi·| ¤ilr¤` Why should he not see this film?
-n ~« ¬ri ¬i·i ¤ilr¤` Where should I go now?
Exercise
~i¤¬i ¬¬ ¤«i·i ¤ilr¤| ·¤i -n ¬¬¬ l-¬·i ¤ilr¤` r- ;· ¬·i¬i ¬ ¬·i« ·r| ·· ¤ilr¤|
l”i·i¬ ¬i ¬¬ ·r| ·i-·i ¤ilr¤| n-r ¤r ¬i- ~i¬ ¬º·i ¤ilr¤| r- ~« ·¤i ¬º·i ¤ilr¤`
·¤i -n ¤r ·i·| «¤·| ¤ilr¤` r- ¬¬¬ ¬ri l-¬·i ¤ilr¤` -n ¤r ¬¬- ·r| ªiº|··| ¤ilr¤|
¬ini ¬i ~« ·iº ¬i·i ¤ilr¤| «·¤i ¬i ¤ri ·r| -rº·i ¤ilr¤|
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise
¬¬ ¬i¤| ·r| ¤|·| ¤ilr¤| ·r ¬i¤| ·r| ¤| ¬¬ni r| ·r ¬i¤| ·r| ¤| ¬¬i| r- ¤r ¬i- ·¤i
·r| ¬º·i ¤ilr¤` r- ¤r ¬i- ·¤i ·r| ¬º ¬¬n r` r- ¤r ¬i- ·¤i ·r| ¬º ¬¬` ·¤i ¬¬
¤l¬¬ ¬i ¬s ·r| «ni·i ¤ilr¤` ·r n-r ·iiªii ·r| · ¬¬|| ºl· ·iº ¬« ¤r¤ ¬¬i` r- l·ln·
¬ «in ·r| ¬º ¬¬| ~i¤ ~-lº¬i ·¤i ·r| ¬i ¬¬` ·¤i ¬ini ¬i ~« ·iº ¬i·i ¤ilr¤`

For word meaning see last page of the book.
4
Would
·ir·ii·÷ ni rini, n| rin|, n rin
Rule : Sub + would + v1 + obj
Affirmative
~i¤ ¬¬¬ l-¬n rin| You would meet him.
·r ¬i¤| ¤|ni rini| He would drink coffee.
«·¤ ºi¬ -¬¸¬ ¬in rin| The children would go to school daily.
¬l·ni l·ln· ¬i ¬i·n| rin|| Kavita would know Nitin.
Negative
·r n-r ·¤iº ·r| ¬ºn| rin|| She would not love you.
~i¤ ¬¬ ¤¬· ·r| ¬ºn rin| You would not like her.
n-riºi ·ii; ··i; ·r| ¬ni rini| Your brother would not take medicine.
· n-r -·· ·r| ¬ºn rin| They would not help you.
Interrogative
·¤i ·r ”iºi« ¤|ni rini` Would he drink wine?
·¤i «·¤ ¬l·ni ¤«n rin` Would the children read poems?
·r ºi¬ ¬ri ¬in| rin|` Where would she go daily?
~-lº¬· ¤¤ ·¤i ·r| «i¬n rin` Why would Americans not speak French?
Exercise
·r ¬-·| - ºrni rini| n- ¬¬¬i ·i- ¬i·n rin| ¬l·ni l·ln· ¬ «in ·r| ¬ºn| rin|| l”i·i¬
n-r -|¬ nºr ·r| ¤«in rin| ·¤i ·r l¤~- ·ªin| rin|` ·r ~i--l¬¤i ¬¬ ¬ini rini` ¤ri
¬i· ºrni rini` r- ¤r ¬i- ¬º·i ¤ilr¤| -n ¤r ·i·| ·r| «¤·| ¤ilr¤| r- ¬¬¬ ¬ri l-¬·i
¤ilr¤` «·¤i ¬i ¤ri ·¤i -rº·i ¤ilr¤`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise
~i¤ ¤i¤ ·r| ¤|n rin| ~i¤ ¤i¤ ·r| ¤| ¬¬n r| ~i¤ ¤i¤ ·r| ¤| ¬¬| ~i¤¬i ¤i¤ ·r| ¤|·|
¤ilr¤| ·r n-¬ «in ·r| ¬º ¬¬n| r| ·r n-¬ «in ·r| ¬º ¬¬|| ·r n-¬ «in ·r| ¬ºn|
rin|| ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤¬· ¬ºn rin| ·r ¬i¤| ·r| ¤|ni rini| ¬¬ ¬i¤| ·r| ¤|·| ¤ilr¤| ·r ¬i¤|
·r| ¤| ¬¬ni r| ·r ¬i¤| ·r| ¤| ¬¬i| r- ¤r ¬i- ·¤i ·r| ¬º·i ¤ilr¤` r- ¤r ¬i- ·¤i
·r| ¬º ¬¬n r` r- ¤r ¬i- ·¤i ·r| ¬º ¬¬` -i ¬¬ ¬s ·r| «ni ¬¬i| r- ¬¬¬ ¬ri
l-¬·i ¤ilr¤` -n ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º·i ¤ilr¤` ·r ¤ri ·r| -rº ¬¬n| r|
For word meaning see last page of the book.
5
Have to
·ir·ii·÷ ·i r, ·| r, · r, ¤·ni r, ¤·n| r, ¤·n r
Rule : Sub + have to / has to + v1 + obj
Note- I, we, you, they, plural noun = have to
he, she, it, name, singular noun = has to
Affirmative
n-r ¤i¤ ¤|·| r / n-r ¤i¤ ¤|·| ¤·n| r| You have to drink tea.
¬¬ l¬¬- ªi¬·i r| He has to play cricket.
-n ¬¬¬ «in ¬º·| r| I have to talk to him.
r- ¬¬¬ ~i¬ l-¬·i r| We have to meet him today.
Negative
r- ¤r ¬i- ·r| ¬º·i r| We have not to do this work.
l”i·i¬ ¬i ¤¤ ·r| ¤«i·| r| The teacher has not to teach French.
«·¤i ¬i ~i¬ -¬¸¬ ·r| ¬i·i r| The children have not to go to school today.
~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ «in ·r| ¬º·| r| You have not to talk to him.
Interrogative
·¤i ¬¬ -n¬ «in ¬º·| r` Has he to talk to me?
·¤i ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ ·r| l-¬·i r` Have you not to meet him?
r- ·ri ¬« ¤r¤·i r` When have we to reach there?
«·¤i ¬i ¤¤ ·¤i ¬|ªi·| r` Why have the children to learn French?
Exercise
·¤i n-r ¤r l¤~- ·ªi·| r` ¬¬ -n¬ ·¤i ¤¸s·i r` r- ¤ri ·¤i -rº·i r` ·¤i «·¤i ¬i ¤¤ ·r|
¬|ªi·| r` ¬¬ ~-lº¬i - ·¤i ·r| ºr·i r` n-riº ·ii; ¬i ”ii·| ¬« ¬º·| r` ¬·r ¤r ”irº ~i¬
si··i r| - ¬¬ ª¤¤ ·r| · ¬¬i| ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ¬i; ¬·i¬ ¤¸s ¬¬` «·¤ ri¬| ·¤i ·r| ªi¬
¬¬` - ¤r ¬¬- ¬¬ · ¬¬ni r¸| ·r ~i¤¬i ·i- ¬i·n| rin||
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise
n-r ¤¤ «i¬·| r| n- ¤¤ «i¬n rin| n-r ¤¤ «i¬·| ¤ilr¤| n- ¤¤ «i¬ ¬¬| n- ¤¤ «i¬ ¬¬n
ri| ~i¤¬i ¤i¤ ·r| ¤|·| r| ~i¤ ¤i¤ ·r| ¤|n rin| ~i¤ ¤i¤ ·r| ¤| ¬¬n r| ~i¤ ¤i¤ ·r| ¤|
¬¬| ~i¤¬i ¤i¤ ·r| ¤|·| ¤ilr¤| ¬¬ n-¬ «in ·r| ¬º·| r| ·r n-¬ «in ·r| ¬º ¬¬n| r| ·r
n-¬ «in ·r| ¬º ¬¬|| ·r n-¬ «in ·r| ¬ºn| rin|| ¬¬ n-¬ «in ·r| ¬º·| ¤ilr¤|

For word meaning see last page of the book.
6
Had to
·ir·ii·÷ ·i ·ii, ·| ·i|, · ·i, ¤·ni ·ii, ¤·n| ·i|, ¤·n ·i, ¤·i, ¤·|, ¤·
Rule : Sub + had to + v1 + obj
Affirmative
r- ¬i¤| ¤|·| ·i||
r- ¬i¤| ¤|·| ¤·n| ·i||
r- ¬i¤| ¤|·| ¤·|| We had to drink coffee.
¬¬ ~i¬ ¤ri ~i·i ·ii| He had to come here today.
-n ¤r ¬i- ¤¸ºi ¬º·i ·ii| I had to complete this work.
r- ¬¬¬ ~i¬ l-¬·i ·ii| We had to meet him today.
Negative
¬¬ -¬¸¬ ·r| ¬i·i ·ii| He had not to go to school.
r- ¬¬¬ «in ·r| ¬º·| ·i|| We had not to talk to him.
¬·r ¤r ·i·| ·r| ªiº|··| ·i|| They had not to buy this watch.
l”i·i¬ ¬i ¤¤ ·r| ¤«i·| ·i|| The teacher had not to teach French.
Interrogative
·¤i ~i¤¬i -n¬ ¬¬ l-¬·i ·ii` Had you to meet me yesterday?
r- ·ri ¬¬ ¤r¤·i ·ii` How had we to reach there?
n-r ¬¬¬ ¬« ”ii·| ¬º·| ·i|` When had you to marry him?
¬¬ -n¬ «in ·¤i ¬º·| ·i|` Why had he to talk to me?
Exercise
-n ¬¬¬ ¤¬ ¬·i¬ ¤¸s·i ·ii| ¬¬ ~·i| ¤ri ~i·i ·ii| -n ·i·-º «··i ·ii| r- ;· ¬·i¬i ¬i ¬·i«
··i ·ii| ·¤i ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ ¬i·i ¬i¤| ¤|·| ·i|` ¤l¬¬ ¬i ¬¬ lnº¤niº ·¤i ¬º·i ·ii` ·¤i -n
¬¬¬| -·· ¬º·| ·i|` ·¤i ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ «in ¬º·| ·i|` r- ¤r l¬ni« ¤«·| ·i|| ¬¬ ¤ri ¬« ¤r¤·i
·ii`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise
¬¬ ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º·i ·ii` ¬¬ ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º·i r` ·r ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬ºni rini` ¬¬ ¤r ¬i-
¬¬ ¬º·i ¤ilr¤` ·r ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º ¬¬i` ·r ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º ¬¬ni r` ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ l-¬·i
·ii| ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ l-¬·i r| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ l-¬n rin| ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ l-¬·i ¤ilr¤| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ l-¬ ¬¬|
~i¤ ¬¬¬ l-¬ ¬¬n r| n- ¬¬¬i l·¬ ¬|n ¬¬n ri|
For word meaning see last page of the book.
7
Used to
·ir·ii·÷ ~i ¬ºni ·ii, ~i ¬ºn| ·i|, ~i ¬ºn ·i
Rule : Sub + used to + v1 + obj
Affirmative
r- ¬¬¬ «in l¬¤i ¬ºn ·i| We used to talk to him.
·r ¤¤ l¬ªii ¬ºn| ·i|| She used to write letters.
- ~-lº¬i ¬i¤i ¬ºni ·ii| I used to go to America.
n- ¬¬¬ l-¬i ¬ºn ·i| You used to meet him.
Negative
They used not to speak English.
n- ¬¬¬ ·r| l-¬i ¬ºn ·i| You used not to meet him.
Interrogative
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise

For word meaning see last page of the book.
·r ¬i¤| ·r| ¤|¤i ¬ºn| ·i|| She used not to drink coffee.
«·¤ ¤-«i¬ ·r| ªi¬i ¬ºn ·i| The children used not to play football.
· ;nl¬”i ·r| «i¬i ¬ºn ·i|
·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬¬ l-¬i ¬ºn ·i` Used you to meet him?
·r ¤¤ ¬¬ ¬|ªii ¬ºn| ·i|` How used she to learn French?
~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ·¤i ·r| l¬¤i ¬ºn ·i` Why used you not to help him?
l·ln· ¬ri ¬i¤i ¬ºni ·ii` Where Nitin used to go?
Alert
·r ªi¬i ¬ºni ·ii| He used to play.
¬¬ ªi¬·i ·ii| He had to play
¬¬ ªi¬·i ¤·i| He had to play.
·r ªi¬ni rini| He would play.
r- ¬¬ ª¤¤ l·¤i ¬ºn ·i| n- ¬¬ ·¤i ·i-i ¬ºn ·i` ·r -n¬ ºi¬ l-¬i ¬ºn| ·i|| ~i¤ ·ri ¬¬
ºri ¬ºn ·i` ¬l·ni l·ln· ¬i ¬¬ir l·¤i ¬ºn| ·i|| - ¬¬ ºi¬ -¬¸¬ ·i¬i ¬ºni ·ii| ;ºi¬ ¬·n ¬
·¤i ¬·i ¬ºni ·ii` ·¤i «·¤ ºi¬ -¬¸¬ ¬i¤i ¬ºn ·i` ~i¤ l”i·i¬ ¬ «in ·¤i ·r| l¬¤i ¬ºn ·i`
·¤i ·r ;nl¬”i «i¬i ¬ºni ·ii`·¤i ¬¬ ;nl¬”i «i¬·| ·i|`·¤i ¬¬ ;nl¬”i «i¬·| r`·¤i ·r ;nl¬”i
«i¬ni rini`·¤i ¬¬ ;nl¬”i «i¬·| ¤ilr¤`·¤i ·r ;nl¬”i «i¬ ¬¬i`·¤i ·r ;nl¬”i «i¬ ¬¬ni
r`·r «º ¬i- l¬¤i ¬ºni ·ii| - ¬¬ ª¤¤ ·r| · ¬¬i| ¬¬ -n¬ «in ·r| ¬º·| ·i|| ·r -n¬ ·¤i
l-¬i ¬ºn| ·i|` r- ~« ·¤i ¬º·i r`
8
Need to
·ir·ii·÷ ¬ªºn r, ~i·”¤·ni r
Rule : Sub + need to + v1 + obj
Affirmative
-n ¤r ¬i- ~i¬ ¬º· ¬| ¬ªºn r| I need to do this work today.
r- ~i¤¬ «in ¬º· ¬| ¬ªºn r| We need to talk to you.
¬¬ ~·i| ¤ri ~i· ¬| ¬ªºn r| He need to come here now.
Negative
r- ¤r ¬i- ¬º· ¬| ¬ªºn ·r| r| We need not to do this work.
¬¬ ;nl¬”i ¬|ªi· ¬| ¬ªºn ·r| r| He need not to learn English.
«·¤i ¬i ¤r l¤~- ·ªi·¬| ¬ªºn ·r| r| The children need not to see this
film.
Interrogative
·¤i ~i¤¬i ··i; ¬· ¬| ¬ªºn r` Do you need to take medicine?
·¤i ¬¬ ¤r ¬i- ¬º· ¬| ¬ªºn r` Does he need to do this work?
r- ·ri ¬« ¤r¤· ¬| ¬ªºn r` When do we need to reach there?
Exercise
¬¬ ¤¤ ¬|ªi· ¬| ¬ªºn r| -n ¬¬¬i ·i- ¤s·i ·ii| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ~i¬ ·¤i ·r| l-¬ ¬¬` r- ·ri
¬« ¤r¤·i ¤ilr¤` ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ·r| ¬ºn rin| ¤l¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¤r ¬·i¬ ¤¸s ¬¬n| r| ·iiºn ¬i ;¬
-¤ ¬ l¬¤ ·¤i ¬º·i ¤ilr¤` ·r ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º ¬¬i` ·r ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º ¬¬ni r` ~i¤¬i
¬¬¬ l-¬·i ·ii| ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ l-¬·i r|
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise
¬¬ ¤r ¬i- ~i¬ ·¤i ¬º·i ·ii` ·r ~i¤¬ ¬·i¬i ¬i ¬·i« ·r| ·n| rin|| ¬l·ni l·ln· ¬ ·¤i
¤¸si ¬ºn| ·i|` «·¤i ¬i l¬¬- ·r| ªi¬·i r| ¬¬ ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º·i r` - ¬¬¬ ·r| l-¬ ¬¬i|
n- ¬¬¬i l·¬ ¬¬ ¬|n ¬¬n ri` ·¤i ~i¤¬i ni¤¬ «··i r` n-r ¤r ¬i- ~i¬ ¬º·i ¤ilr¤| r-
~« ·¤i ¬º·i ¤ilr¤` ·¤i -n ¤r ·i·| «¤·| ¤ilr¤`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Alert
-n ¤r ¬i- ¬º· ¬| ¬ªºn r| I need to do this work.
-n ¤r ¬i- ¬º·i r| I have to do this work.
-n ¤r ¬i- ¬º· i ¤ilr¤| I should do this work.
9
Must
·ir·ii·÷ ~·”¤, ¬ªº
Rule : Sub + must + v1 + obj
Affirmative
¬¬ ¤r ¬i- ~·”¤ ¬º·i ¤ilr¤| He must do this work.
r- ¬¬¬ ~·”¤ l-¬·i ¤ilr¤| We must meet him.
¬ini¬i ~¤· ·”i¬ ¤- ~·”¤ ¬º·i ¤ilr¤| The people must love their country.
Negative
n-r ·i-·| ~·”¤ ·r| ri·i ¤ilr¤| You must not be proud.
~·”¤ ·r| ~i·i ¤ilr¤| The student must not come here.
Interrogative
~·”¤ «i¬·| ¤ilr¤` Must he speak English?
~·”¤ ¬i··i ¤ilr¤` Must I know about him?
~·”¤ ¬-i· ¤ilr¤
¬-i· ¤ilr¤
¬-i· r
Exercise
~·”¤ l-¬·i ¤ilr¤| ~·”¤ ·r| ¬º·| ¤ilr¤| ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤¤ ·¤i
·r| ¤«i ¬¬` ·¤i n-riºi ·ii; ~-lº¬i - ºr ¬¬ni r` - ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º ¬¬ni r¸` ·r n¸- ·r|
«i¬ ¬¬|| r- ¬·¬ ·¤i ¤¸s·i ¤ilr¤` ºl· l¤~- ·r| ·ªi ¬¬i| ¬l·ni n|n ·r| ni ¬¬|| ~i¤¬i
·ii; ¬¬ ¬i·ni rini| «·¤ ·r ¬¬ ¬i¤i ¬ºn ·i`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise
~·”¤ ¬·i ¤ilr¤` ·¤i ¬º·| ¤ilr¤` ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤¤ ·¤i ·r| ¤«i
¬¬` ·¤i n-riºi ·ii; ¤ri ·¤i ·r| ºr ¬¬ni r` - ¬¬ ¬¬ «¬i ¬¬ni r¸`

For word meaning see last page of the book.
si¤ ¬i ¤ri
~i¤¬i ¬¬ -i¤ ~·”¤ ·r| ¬º·i ¤ilr¤| You must not forgive him.
·¤i ¬¬ ;nl¬”i
·¤i -n ¬¬¬ «iº -
·¤i nº|«i ¬i ¬·| -r·n ~·”¤ ¬º·| ¤ilr¤` Must the poor work hard?
Alert
n-r ¤¬ | You must earn money.
n-r ¤¬ | You should earn money.
n-r ¤¬ | You have to earn money.
¬¬ ·i-ni ¬ r- nº|«i ¬ ·¤ºn
¤l¬¬ ·ri ¬-¤ ¤º ·r| ¤r¤ ¬¬|| ~i¤¬i -i¤| -in·| ¤ilr¤| n- ¬¬¬ “ii·| ·r| ¬º ¬¬n ri|
~i¤ ·ri ¬« ¤r¤ ¬¬n r` ·r -n ¬s ·¤i ·r| «ni ¬¬|` n-r ¬¬¬i ·r| ·i¸¬·i ¤ilr¤| ·¤i n-r
¬¬¬ ª¤¤ r- nº|«i ¬ ·¤ºn
10
May
·ir·ii·÷ ¬¬ni r, (¬·ii··i)
Rule : Sub + may + v1 + obj
Affirmative
~i¬ «ilº”i ri ¬¬n| r| It may rain today.
· ¤ri ¤r¤ ¬¬n r| They may reach here.
;¬ ¬nr ~in ¬n ¬¬n| r| This place may catch fire.
Negative
·r «irº ·r| ¬i ¬¬n| r| She may not go out.
~il¤¬º s--| ·r| ¬ ¬¬n r| The officers may not take leaves.
¤r ·i·| ·r| ¤¬ ¬¬n| r| This watch may not work.
Interrogative
·¤i ¬in -n¬ ¤r ¬·i¬ ¤¸s ¬¬n r`May the people ask me this question?
~i¬ «ilº”i ·¤i ·r| ri ¬¬n| r` Why may it not rain today?
n-r ~i¬ ·º| ·¤i ri ¬¬n| r` Why may you get late today?
Exercise
·r ~i¤¬i ¬¤ «ni ¬¬n| r| l·ln· ¬l·ni ¬ n¸- «i¬ ¬¬ni r| ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ ¬s ¤¸s·i ¤ilr¤| n-
·ri ¬-¤ ¤º ¤r¤n rin| ·r -n ·¤i ·r| ¬-n ¬¬|` ¬¬ ~« ¬« ¬s ·i¸¬ ¬i·i ¤ilr¤| ¤l¬¬ ¬¬
lnº¤niº ·r| ¬º ¬¬|| r- ~« ¬ri ¬i·i ¤ilr¤` ·¤i ¬¬ -n¬ «in ¬º·| r` ·r ~i¤¬i ·i- ·r|
¬i·n| rin||
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise
n- ¬i¤| ¤| ¬¬n ri n- ¬i¤| ¤| ¬¬| n-r ¬i¤| ¤|·i ¤ilr¤| n- ¬i¤| ¤|n rin| n-r
¬i¤| ¤|·| r| n-r ¬i¤| ¤|·| ·i|| n- ¬i¤| ¤|¤i ¬ºn ·i| n-r ¬i¤| ~·”¤ ¤|·| ¤ilr¤|

For word meaning see last page of the book.
Alert
·r ¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ¬º ¬¬n| r| (¬·ii··i) She may pass the exam.
“ii¤· ·r ¤º|·ii ¤i¬¬º ¬¬n|r| («rn ¬- ¬·ii··i) She might pass the exam.
·r ¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ¬º ¬¬n| r| (·i-ni) She can pass the exam.
(·i-ni)|
¬l·ni ¬i
n-¬ ¬« l-¬·i r` «·¤ ·ri ·¤¸ ·r| ¬i ¬¬n r` -n ¬¬ -·· ¬º·| ¤ilr¤| ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ ·r|
¤«i¤i ¬ºn ·i` ·r ~« ·¤i ¬º ¬¬ni r`
11
TENSE
Present Indefinite
·ir·ii·÷ ni r, n| r, n r, ni r¸
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + v1/v5 + obj
Note: I, we, you, they, plural noun = v1
He, she, it, name, singular noun = v5
- l¬¬- ªi¬ni r¸| I play cricket.
·r l¬¬- ªi¬ni r| He plays cricket.
r- -¬¸¬ ¬in r| We go to school.
¬l·ni n|n nin| r| Kavita sings songs.
Negative
Rule : Sub + do/does + not + v1 + obj
n- -¬¸¬ ·r| ¬in ri| You do not go to school.
She does not go to school.
Interrogative
Rule : Do/does + sub + v1 + obj
Do they speak English?
Double Interrogative
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Note :- the l¬¬| l·l”¤n ·-n ¬ l¬¤, ¬¬ the book = ¬i; l·l”¤n l¬ni«;
a l¬¬| ~l·l”¤n ·-n ¬ l¬¤, ¬¬ a book = ¬i; l¬ni«;

·r -¬¸¬ ·r| ¬in| r|
- ¬iº ·r| ¤¬ini r¸| I do not drive a car.
r- l¤~- ·r| ·ªin r| We do not see films.
·¤i · ;nl¬”i «i¬n r`
·¤i n- -¬¸¬ ¬in ri` Do you go to school?
·¤i ¬l·ni n|n nin| r` Does Kavita sing songs?
·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤¬· ·r| ¬ºn r` Do you not like him?
~i¤ ;nl¬”i ¬¬ ¬|ªin r` How do you learn English?
·r ri¬| ¬« ªi¬n| r` When does she play hockey?
n- ·ri ·¤i ¬ºn ri` What do you do there?
· ¬ri ºrn r` Where do they live?
~i¤ ¤¤ ·¤i «i¬n r` Why do you speak French?
¤ri l¬¬- ¬i· ªi¬ni r` Who plays cricket here?
¤r ¬i- ¬i· ¬ºni r` Who does this work?
- ¤¤ l¬ªini r¸| ~i¤ ¬¬ ·r| ¬i·n r| ·¤i ·r ¤ri ~in| r` ·¤i n- ·ri ·r| ¬in ri` ~i¤ ¬¬¬
«in ·¤i ¬ºn r` ¬l·ni n-¬ ¬« l-¬n| r` «·¤ ·ri ¬¬ ¬in r` - ¬¬ -·· ¬ºni r¸| ·¤i ~i¤
¬¬ ·r| ¤«in r` ·r ¤ri ·¤i ¬ºni r` n- ¬¬¬i ·i- ¬¬ ¬i·n ri` ~i¤ ;nl¬”i ·¤i ·r| «i¬n
r` ·r n-¬ ¬ri l-¬n| r` ·r -n ·¤i «¬ini r`
12
13
Present Continuous
·ir·ii·÷ ºri r, ºr| r, ºr r, ºri r¸
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + is/am/are + v4 + obj
Note: I = am
We, you, they, plural noun = are
He, she, it, name, singular noun = is
·r
r- ·ri ¬i ºr r| We are going there.
- I am playing cricket.
Negative
Rule : Sub + is/am/are + not + v4 + obj
· l¤~- ·r| ·ªi ºr r| They are not seeing a film.
The teacher is not teaching French.
Interrogative
Rule : Is/am/are + sub + v4 + obj
Are you calling him?
Double Interrogative
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.

¤¤ l¬ªi ºr| r| She is writing a letter.
l¬¬- ªi¬ ºri r¸|
l”i·i¬ ¤¤ ·r| ¤«i ºr r|
·r ¤ri ·r| ~i ºri r| He is not coming here.
·¤i n- ¬¬ «¬i ºr ri`
·¤i · ;nl¬”i «i¬ ºr r` Are they speaking English?
n- ·ri ¬¬ ¬i ºr ri` How are you going there?
n- ·ri ·¤i ¬º ºr ri` What are you doing there?
· ¬ri ºr ºr r` Where are they living?
~i¤ ¤¤ ·¤i «i¬ ºr r` Why are you speaking French?
¤ri l¬¬- ¬i· ªi¬ ºri r` Who is playing cricket here?
¤r ¬i- ¬i· ¬º ºri r` Who is doing this work?
·r ¤i¤ ¤|n| r| ·r ¤i¤ ¤| ºr| r| ~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ·¤i ¬ºn r` ~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ·¤i ¬º ºr r` ·r -n
·¤i «¬ini r` ·r -n ·¤i «¬i ºri r` ·¤i n- ·ri ·r| ¬in ri` ·¤i n- ·ri ·r| ¬i ºr ri` ~i¤
¬¬¬ «in ·¤i ¬ºn r` ~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in ·¤i ¬º ºr r` ·r n-¬ ·¤i ¤¸sn| r` ·r n-¬ ·¤i ¤¸s ºr|
r`
14
Present Perfect
·ir·ii·÷ ¤¬i r, ¤¬| r, ¤¬ r, l¬¤i r,
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + have/has + v3 + obj
Note: I, we, you, they, plural noun = have
He, she, it, name, singular noun = has
r- ¬¬ ª¤¤ · ¤¬ r| We have given him money.
·r l¬ni« ªiº|· ¤¬i r| He has bought a book.
·iiºn -¤ ¬|n ¤¬i r| India has won the match.
·r She has written a letter.
Interrogative
Rule : Have/has + Sub + v3 + obj
Have they seen the film?
Double Interrogative
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.


¤¤ l¬ªi ¤¬| r|
·¤i · l¤~- ·ªi ¤¬ r`
·¤i l”i·i¬ ¤¤ ¤«i ¤¬ r` Has the teacher taught French?
·¤i ·r ¤ri ~i ¤¬| r` Has she come here?
·¤i ¬l·ni n|n ni ¤¬| r` Has Kavita sung a song?
·r ¬ri ¤r¤ ¤¬i r` Where has he reached?
~i¤ ¬¬ ·¤i «ni ¤¬ r` What have you told him?
n- ¬¬ ¬ri ·i¬ ¤¬ ri` Where have you sent him?
«·¤ -¬¸¬ ¬i ¤¬ r| ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in ¬º ¤¬ r` ·¤i ¬l·ni n-¬ l-¬ ¤¬| r` ¤l¬¬ ¬¬
lnº¤niº ¬º ¤¬| r| ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¤¬ r` ·¤i ·r ~i¤¬ «in ¬º ¤¬| r` ·¤i n- ·ri ¤r¤
¤¬ ri` r- ¬¬¬ «in ¬º ¤¬ r| ·¤i ·r n-¬ ¬·i¬ ¤¸s ¤¬| r` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ l¬ni« · ¤¬ r`
·r l¬¬- ªi¬ni r| ·r l¬¬- ªi¬ ºri r| ·r l¬¬- ªi¬ ¤¬i r| ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in ¬ºn r`
·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in ¬º ºr r` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in ¬º ¤¬ r` ·r ¤ri ·r| ~ini r| ·¤i ·r ¤i¤
·r| ¤| ºr| r` ~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ¬« ¬º ºr r` n- ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬i·n ri` ·¤i ·r l¬¬- ªi¬ ¤¬| r` ·¤i
·r -n «¬i ºri r` ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ·¤i ¤¸s ºr r` · ~-lº¬i ·¤i ·r| ¬in r`
15
Present Perfect Continuous
·ir·ii·÷ ni ~i ºri r, n| ~i ºr| r, n ~i ºr r
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + have/has + been + v4 + obj
Note: since = (l·l”¤n ¬-¤) ¬
since Monday = ¬i-·iº ¬, since 1947 = 1947 ¬
for = (~l·l”¤n ¬-¤) ¬
for two hours = ·i ·i- ¬, for three years = n|· ¬i¬i ¬
·r ¤¬ ·i- ¬
· ·¬ l-·- ¬ l¤~- ·ªin ~i ºr r|
They have been seeing a film for ten minutes.
- ¬¬¬ ¬i-·iº ¬ l-¬ni ~i ºri r¸|
I have been meeting him since Monday.
· ·i l·· ¬ -¤ ªi¬n ~i ºr r|
They have been playing a match for two days.
Interrogative
Rule : Have/has + sub + been + v4 + obj
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.

¤¤ l¬ªin| ~i ºr| r|
She has been writing a letter for an hour
·¤i l”i·i¬ ·¬ l-·- ¬ ¤¤ ¤«in ~i ºr r`
Has the teacher been teaching French for ten minutes?
·¤i ·r n-¬ ·i-i ¬ «in ¬ºn| ~i ºr| r`
Has she been talking to you for hours?
·¤i ~i¤ ¬«r ¬ ¬i¤| ¤|n ~i ºr r`
Have you been drinking coffee since morning?
r- ~i·i ·i- ¬ ¬ri ¬in ¬i ºr r`
Where have we been going for half an hour?
·¤i ~i¤ ¤¤ ¤«in r` ·¤i ~i¤ ¤¤ ¤«i ºr r` ·¤i ~i¤ ¤¤ ¤«i ¤¬ r` ·¤i ~i¤ ¤¤ ¤«in ~i ºr
r` - ·¬ l-·- ¬ ¤¤ l¬ªini ~i ºri r¸| - ¤¤ l¬ªi ¤¬i r¸| - ¤¤ l¬ªi ºri r¸| - ¤¤ l¬ªini r¸|
·¤i ~i¤ l¬ni« ªiº|·n r` ·¤i ~i¤ l¬ni« ªiº|· ºr r` ·¤i ~i¤ l¬ni« ªiº|· ¤¬ r` ·¤i ~i¤
l¬ni« ªiº|·n ~i ºr r`
16
Past Indefinite
·ir·ii·÷ ~i, ;, ¤, ni ·ii, n| ·i|, n ·i
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + v2 + obj
¬¬· l¤~- ·ªi| / ·r l¤~- ·ªini ·ii | He saw a film.
-· ¬¬ «¬i¤i| I called him.
r- ·ri n¤| We went there.
¬¬· -n -·· ¬|| He helped me.
Negative
Rule : Sub + did + not + v1 + obj
~i¤· ¬¬ ·r| ¤«i¤i| You did not teach him.
The police did not arrest him.
Interrogative
Rule : Did + sub + v1 + obj
Did Kavita sing a song?
Double Interrogative
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.


For word meaning see last page of the book.
¤l¬¬ · ¬¬ lnº¤niº ·r| l¬¤i|
n- -¬¸¬ ·r| n¤| You did not go to school.
-· ¬iº ·r| ¤¬i;| I did not drive the car.
·¤i ¬l·ni · n|n ni¤i`
·¤i l·ln· · ri¬| ªi¬i` Did Nitin play hockey?
·¤i ¬¬· ~i¤¬i «i¬iº - ·ªii` Did he see you in the market?
·¤i ~i¤· ¬·¬ «in ·r| ¬|` Did you not talk to them?
~i¤· ;nl¬”i ¬¬ ¬|ªi|` How did you learn English?
¬¬· ri¬| ¬« ªi¬i` When did he play hockey?
n-· ·ri ·¤i l¬¤i` What did you do there?
· ¬ri ºrn ·i` Where did they live?
~i¤ ¤¤ ·¤i ·r| «i¬n ·i` Why did you not speak French?
¤ri l¬¬- l¬¬· ªi¬i` Who played cricket here?
-· ¤¤ l¬ªii| ·r ¤ri ·r| ~i¤|| ·¤i n- ·ri ·r| n¤` ~i¤· ¬¬¬ «in ·¤i ·r| ¬|` ¬l·ni -n¬
·r| l-¬|| «·¤ ·ri ¬¬ n¤` - ¬¬ ·r| ¬i·ni ·ii| ~i¤ ;nl¬”i «i¬n r| ~i¤ ;nl¬”i «i¬ ºr r|
~i¤ ;nl¬”i «i¬ ¤¬ r| ~i¤· ;nl¬”i «i¬||
~i¤ ¬¬¬ ·¤i ¤¸sn r` ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ·¤i ¤¸s ºr r` ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ·¤i ¤¸s ¤¬ r` ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ·¤i ¤¸sn
~i ºr r` ~i¤· ¬¬¬ ·¤i ¤¸si` ¬¬· ~i¤¬i ·¤i ¬ri` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬¬i ·i- ¬i·n r` - ¬¬ ª¤¤
· ºri r¸| ·iiºn · ¤r -¤ ·r| ¬|ni| ¤l¬¬ ¤iº ¬i ¤|- ºr| r| ·¤i ~i¤· ¬¬¬ “ii·| ¬|` ¬¬· -º
¬·i¬ ¬i ¬·i« ·r| l·¤i| n- ¬¬¬i ·i- ¬¬ ¬i·n ·i` ·r n-¬ ¬ri l-¬|` r-· ¬¬¬ ¬i; ¬·i¬
·r| ¤¸si|
17
Past Continuous
·ir·ii·÷ ºri ·ii, ºr| ·i|, ºr ·i
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + was/were + v4 + obj
Note: I,he, she, it, name, singular noun = was
We, you, they, plural noun = were


Negative
Rule : Sub + was/were + not + v4 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Was/were +sub + v4 + obj
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise

For word meaning see last page of the book.
r- ·ri ¬i ºr ·i| We were going there.
·r ¤¤ l¬ªi ºr| ·i|| She was writing a letter.
l”i·i¬ ¤¤ ¤«i ºr ·i| The teacher was teaching French.
·r ¤ri ·r| ~i ºri ·ii| He was not coming here.
- ¬¬ ·r| «¬i ºri ·ii| I was not calling him.
· l¤~- ·r| ·ªi ºr ·i| They were not seeing the film.
·¤i · ;nl¬”i «i¬ ºr ·i` Were they speaking English?
·¤i l·ln· ¬i¤| ¤| ºri ·ii` Was Nitin drinking coffee?
~i¤ ¬¬ ¬ri ¬i ºr ·i` Where were you going yesterday?
~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in ¬º ºr ·i| ~i¤· ¬¬¬ «in ¬|| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ·i ·i- ¬ «in ¬ºn ~i ºr ·i| ~i¤ ¬¬¬
«in ¬º ¤¬ r| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in ¬º ºr r| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in ¬ºn r| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in ¬º ¬¬n r| ~i¤
¬¬¬ «in ¬º ¬¬| ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ «in ¬º·| ¤ilr¤| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in ¬ºn rin| ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ «in
¬º·| r| ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ «in ¬º·| ·i|| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ «in l¬¤i ¬ºn ·i|
r- ¬¬¬ ·r| l-¬` ·¤i ·r ~i¤¬i ¬s ¤¸s ºr| ·i|` r- ·ri ·¤i ·r| ¬i ºr r` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬¬i ·i-
¬i·n ·i` l”i·i¬ ;nl¬”i ¤«i ¤¬ r| - ¬¬ ·iiªii ·r| · ºri r¸| ·r n-r ·¤iº ·¤i ·r| ¬ºn| r`
«·¤i · n|n ¬« ni¤i` ·¤i ¤l¬¬ ¤iº ¬i ¤|- ºr| ·i|` ·r ¤ri ¬¬ ~i ºr| ·i|`
18
Past Perfect
·ir·ii·÷ ¤¬i ·ii, ¤¬| ·i|, ¤¬ ·i, l¬¤i ·ii, n¤i ·ii
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + had + v3 + obj
Negative
Rule : Sub + had + not + v3 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Had + sub + v3 + obj
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise


For word meaning see last page of the book.
Note :- English - Past Perfect negative sentence ¬i ¤¤in rini r ¬«l¬ lr··| - ·r||
·r l¬ni« ªiº|· ¤¬i ·ii| He had bought the book.
r- ¬¬ ª¤¤ · ¤¬ ·i| We had given him money.
·iiºn -¤ ¬|n ¤¬i ·ii| India had won the match.
r- ¬¬¬ l-¬ ¤¬ ·i| We had met him.
·r -n ª¤¤ ·r| · ¤¬i ·ii| He had not given me money.
~i¤ l¬ni« ·r| ªiº|· ¤¬ ·i| You had not bought the book.
l”i·i¬ ¤¤ ·r| ¤«i ¤¬ ·i| The teacher had not taught French.
· l¤~- ·r| ·ªi ¤¬ ·i| They had not seen the film.
·¤i ·r n|n ni ¤¬| ·i|` Had she sung the song?
·¤i n- ¤¤ l¬ªi ¤¬ ·i` Had you written the letter?
·¤i «·¤ ri¬| ªi¬ ¤¬ ·i` Had the children played hockey?
·¤i ·r ¤ri ~i ¤¬| ·i|` Had she come here?
·¤i ~i¤ ¬·r -¬¸¬ ·i¬ ¤¬ ·i` Had you sent them to school?
·¤i ·r l¤~- ·ªini r` ·¤i ·r l¤~- ·ªi ºri r` ·¤i ·r l¤~- ·ªi ¤¬i r` ·¤i ·r ¬«r ¬ l¤~-
·ªini ~i ºri r` ·¤i ¬¬· l¤~- ·ªi|` ·¤i ·r l¤~- ·ªi ºri ·ii` ·¤i ·r l¤~- ·ªi ¤¬i ·ii`
- ¬¬ -·· ¬º ¤¬i ·ii| r- ·iº ¤r¤ ¤¬ ·i| ¬¬· n-r ·¤i ·i-i` ·r ni¬· - ·¤i ·i· ºri r`
·¤i n- ¬¬¬ ª¤¤ ¬n ri` n-· ·ri ·¤i ¬·i` ~i¤ ¬¬ ni¬| ·¤i · ºr ·i` r-· ¬¬ ¬s ·r|
«ni¤i| - ¬« ¬s ¬-n ¤¬i ·ii|
19
Past Perfect Continuous
·ir·ii·÷ ni ~i ºri ·ii, n| ~i ºr| ·i|, n ~i ºr ·i
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + had been + v4 + obj


The teacher had been teaching French for ten minutes.
Interrogative
Rule : Had + sub + been + v4 + obj
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise

For word meaning see last page of the book.
·r ¤¬ ·i- ¬ ¤¤ l¬ªin| ~i ºr| ·i||
She had been writing a letter for an hour.
· ·¬ l-·- ¬ l¤~- ·ªin ~i ºr ·i|
They had been seeing a film for ten minutes.
- ¬¬¬ ¬i-·iº ¬ l-¬ni ~i ºri ·ii|
I had been meeting him since Monday.
· ·i l··i ¬ -¤ ªi¬n ~i ºr ·i|
They had been playing the match for two days.
l”i·i¬ ·¬ l-·- ¬ ¤¤ ¤«in ~i ºr ·i|
·¤i ·r n-¬ ·i-i ¬ «in ¬ºn| ~i ºr| ·i|`
Had she been talking to you for hours?
·¤i ~i¤ ¬«r ¬ ¬i¤| ¤|n ~i ºr ·i`
Had you been drinking coffee since morning?
·¤i · ·¬ l-·- ¬ ¤¤ l¬ªin ~i ºr ·i`
Had they been writing a letter for ten minutes?
·¤i ~i¤ ·i ¬i¬ ¬ ;nl¬”i ¬|ªin ~i ºr ·i`
Had you been learning English for two years?
·¤i ·r ·i-i ¬ n-riº ¬·i¬ ¬i ¬·i« ·n| ~i ºr| ·i|`
Had she been answering your questions for hours?
·r ·i ¬i¬i ¬ ~i¤¬i -·· ¬ºni ~i ºri ·ii| ·r ~i¤¬i -·· ¬º ¤¬i ·ii| ·r ~i¤¬i -·· ¬º ºri
·ii| ¬¬· ~i¤¬| -·· ¬|| ·r ·i ¬i¬i ¬ ~i¤¬i -·· ¬ºni ~i ºri r| ·r ~i¤¬i -·· ¬º ¤¬i
r| ·r ~i¤¬i -·· ¬º ºri r| ·r ~i¤¬i -·· ¬ºni r| n- ¤¤ ·¤i l¬ªi ºr ri` ·¤i ¬l·ni n-¬
·r| l-¬n| r` ·r ¤r ¬i- ·¤i ¬º ºri ·ii` l”i·i¬ n-¬ ·¤i ¤¸s ºr ·i`
·¤i n- ¬i·n ri ·r n-¬ ·¤i l-¬n| ~i ºr| ·i|` ¬¬· ·¤i ·ªii ¬« ·r «i¬iº n¤i| ·¤i ~i¤ ·ªi
ºr r «·¤ ·¬i¬ - ·¤i ¬º ºr r` ~i¤ ¤« ºr ·i ¬l¬· ·r ªi¬ ºri ·ii| -· ~i¤¬ ¬·i¬ ¤¸si
¬l¬· ~i¤· ¬·i« ·r| l·¤i| n- ·¤i ¬º ºr ri ~nº ·r ¬iº ¤¬i ºr| r` -· ¬¬ ª¤¤ l·¤ ¬l¬·
¬¬· l¬ni« ·r| ªiº|·|| ·r ·¤i ¬ºn| r ¬« ·r ¤i¬ - ºrn| r` ¤l¬¬ ¬¬ ¤|- ºr| r ~iº ·r ºi
ºri r| ·in·i· ¬¬ -·· ¬ºni r ¬i (who) ·¸¬ºi ¬i -·· ¬ºn r|
20
Future Indefinite
·ir·ii·÷ ni, n, n|
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + will + v1 + obj
Negative
Rule : Sub + will + not + v1 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Will + sub + v1 + obj
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise


For word meaning see last page of the book.
Note- ~i¬¬¬ shall ¬i ¤¤in ·r| rini r|
- ¬¬ ª¤¤ ·¸ni| I will give him money.
·r l¬ni« ªiº|·ni| He will buy a book.
n- ¬¬¬ ~i¬ l-¬in| You will meet him today.
·r n-¬ “ii·| ¬ºn|| She will marry you.
r- ¬¬ ·r| ¤«i¤n| We will not teach him.
·r n-¬ «in ·r| ¬ºn|| She will not talk to you.
«·¤ l¬¬- ·r| ªi¬n| The children will not play cricket.
r- ¤i¬ ·r| ¬i¤n| We will not go to France.
·¤i ·iiºn ¤r -¤ ¬|nni` Will India win this match?
·¤i ¤l¬¬ ¬¬ lnº¤niº ·r| ¬ºn|` Will the police not arrest him?
l·ln· ¬i¤| ¬« ¤|¤ni` When will Nitin drink coffee?
~i¤ ¬¬ ¬ri ¬i¤n` Where will you go tomorrow?
·¤i ~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ¬ºn r` ·¤i ~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ¬º ºr r` ·¤i ~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ¬º ¤¬ r` ·¤i ~i¤ ¤r
¬i- ¬ºn ~i ºr r` ·¤i ~i¤· ¤r ¬i- l¬¤i` ·¤i ~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ¬º ºr ·i` ·¤i ~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ¬º
¤¬ ·i` ·¤i ~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ¬ºn ~i ºr ·i` ·¤i ~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ¬ºn`
- ¬¬¬ ¤r ¬·i¬ ¤¸s¸ni ~nº ·r -n¬ l-¬ni r| ~i¤ ¬¬ ·¤i «ni¤n ¬« ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ª¤¤ ¬n` -
·r| ¬i·ni r¸ ·r ¬¬ ·¤i ¬ºni| ·r -n ¤¬· ¬ºn| r ¬l¬· - ¬¬ ¤¬· ·r| ¬ºni r¸| ¬¬· ¤¤
¬|ªii ¬« ·r ¤i¬ - ºrni ·ii| ~i¤ ¬¬ ¬¬ «ni¤n l¬ ~i¤ ¬¬ ·¤iº ¬ºn r` ·¤i n-· ¬¬¬ ¤¸si
¬¬· -n ª¤¤ ·¤i l·¤`
21
Future Continuous
·ir·ii·÷ ni ºrni, n| ºrn|, n ºrn
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + will be + v4 + obj
Negative
Rule : Sub + will + not + be + v4 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Will + sub + be + v4 + obj
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise

For word meaning see last page of the book.
·r ¬i¤| ¤|ni ºrni| He will be drinking coffee.
n- ¬iº ¤¬in ºrin| You will be driving the car.
«·¤ n|n nin ºrn| The children will be singing songs.
r- l¤~- ·ªin ºrn| We will be seeing films.
«·¤ n|n ·r| nin ºrn| The children will not be singing songs.
l·ln· ¬i¤| ·r| ¤|ni ºrni| Nitin will not be drinking coffee.
r- l¤~- ·r| ·ªin ºrn| We will not be seeing films.
·r ¬iº ·r| ¤¬in| ºrn|| She will not be driving the car.
·¤i ·iiºn -¤ ªi¬ni ºrni` Will India be playing match?
·¤i ¤l¬¬ ¤iº ¬i ¤|-n| ºrn|` Will the police be beating the thief?
·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«in ºrn` Will you be teaching him?
·¤i r- rº -r|· ¤i¬ ¬in ºrn` Will we be going to France every month?
r- ¤r ¬i- ·¤i ·r| ¬ºn ºrn` Why will we not be doing this work?
l”i·i¬ ¬¬ ¤«in r| l”i·i¬ ¬¬ ¤«i ºr r| l”i·i¬ ¬¬ ¤«i ¤¬ r| l”i·i¬ ¬¬ ¤«in ~i ºr r|
l”i·i¬ · ¬¬ ¤«i¤i| l”i·i¬ ¬¬ ¤«i ºr ·i| l”i·i¬ ¬¬ ¤«i ¤¬ ·i| l”i·i¬ ¬¬ ¤«in ~i ºr ·i|
l”i·i¬ ¬¬ ¤«i¤n| l”i·i¬ ¬¬ ¤«in ºrn|
¬¬· ~i¤ ¤º ·iºi¬i l¬¤i ¬l¬· ~i¤· ¬¬ ·ii¬i l·¤i| - ¬i·ni r¸ ~i¤ -n¬ ·¤i ¤irn r| n-
¬¬¬ “ii·| ·¤i ·r| ¬ºn ri ~nº n- ¬¬ ·¤iº ¬ºn ri` ·r -n ·r| «ni¤ni ·r ¬ri ºrni r| ·r
¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ¬¬ ¬ºni ~nº ~i¤ ¬¬ ·r| ¤«in r` ·¤i ¬¬· n-r «ni¤i -· ¬¬ ·¤i l·¤i`
22
Future Perfect
·ir·ii·÷ ¤¬ni, ¤¬n|, ¤¬n
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + will have + v3 + obj
Negative
Rule : Sub + will + not + have + v3 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Will + sub + have + v3 + obj
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
·r l¬ni« ªiº|· ¤¬ni| He will have bought the books.
r- -¤ ¬|n ¤¬n| We will have won the match.
l”i·i¬ ¤¤ ¤«i ¤¬n| The teacher will have taught French.
·r n-¬ l-¬ ¤¬n|| She will have met you.
r- ¬¬ ª¤¤ ·r| · ¤¬n| We will not have given him money.
·r n-¬ ·r| l-¬ ¤¬n|| She will not have met you.
¬l·ni n|n ·r| ni ¤¬n|| Kavita will not have sung the song.
l·ln· ri¬| ·r| ªi¬ ¤¬ni| Nitin will not have played hockey.
·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¤¬n` Will you have taught him?
·¤i «·¤ ri¬| ªi¬ ¤¬n` Will the children have played hockey?
·¤i ¤l¬¬ ¬¬ lnº¤niº ¬º¤¬n|` Will the police have arrested him?
·¤i r- ¤r l¤~- ·ªi ¤¬n` Will we have seen this film?
~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¤¬ r| ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¤¬ ·i| ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¤¬n| ·¤i ·r ~i¤¬ l-¬ ¤¬| r` ·¤i ·r
~i¤¬ l-¬ ¤¬| ·i|` ·¤i ·r ~i¤¬ l-¬ ¤¬n|` - ¬¬¬ ¬·i¬ ¬i ¬·i« · ¤¬i r¸| - ¬¬¬ ¬·i¬
¬i ¬·i« · ¤¬i ·ii| - ¬¬¬ ¬·i¬ ¬i ¬·i« · ¤¬¸ni|
·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ¬ºn r` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ¬º ºr r` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ¬º ¤¬ r` ·¤i ~i¤·
¬¬ -·· ¬|` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ¬º ºr ·i` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ¬º ¤¬ ·i` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ -··
¬ºn` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ¬ºn ºrn` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ¬º ¤¬n` ·r -n ·¤i ·r| «nin| r l¬ ·r
-n ¤¬· ¬ºn| r` -· ¤¤ l¬ªii ¬l¬· ¬¬· ·r| ¤«i| - ¬¬ ·i-ni r¸ l¤º ·i| ·r «º ¬i- ¬ºni
r| ·r ¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ¬¬ ¬ºn| ~nº ·r r-”ii ªi¬n| ºrn|` l·ln· ¬i·ni r ¬l·ni ¬¬ l¬n·i ·¤iº
¬ºn| r| n- ·¤i ¬º ºr ·i ¬« ·r ¬iº ¤¬i ºr| ·i|` - ¬¬ ª¤¤ ·ni r¸ ¬l¬· ·r l¬ni« ·r|
ªiº|ni r|
23
Future Perfect Continuous
·ir·ii·÷ ni ~i ºri rini, n| ~i ºr| rin|, n ~i ºr rin
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + will have + been + v4 + obj
Note :- ¬ = from
Interrogative
Rule : Will + sub + have been + v4 + obj
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise

For word meaning see last page of the book.
· ·i l··i ¬ -¤ ªi¬n ~i ºr rin|
They will have been playing the match from two days.
l”i·i¬ ·¬ l-·- ¬ ¤¤ ¤«in ~i ºr rin|
The teacher will have been teaching French from ten minutes.
·r ¤¬ ·i- ¬ ¤¤ l¬ªin| ~i ºr| rin||
She will have been writing a letter from ten minutes.
«·¤ ·¬ l-·- ¬ l¤~- ¬ ·ªin ~i ºr rin|
The children will have been seeing the film from ten minutes.
·r ¬i-·iº ¬ n-¬ l-¬n| ~i ºr| rin||
She will have been meeting you from Monday.
·¤i ·r ·i-i ¬ n-¬ «in ¬ºn| ~i ºr| rin|`
Will she have been talking to you from hours?
·¤i ~i¤ ¬«r ¬ ¬i¤| ¤|n ~i ºr rin`
Will you have been drinking coffee from morning?
·¤i · ¤i¤ l-·- ¬ ¤r ¬i- ¤r ¬i- ¬ºn ~i ºr rin`
Will they have been doing this work from five minutes?
·¤i ·r ~n¬ ¬i¬ ¬ ri¬| ªi¬ni ~i ºri rini`
Will he have been playing hockey from next year?
·¤i l”i·i¬ ¬¬ -n¬·iº ¬ ¤«in ~i ºr rin`
Will the teacher have been teaching him from Tuesday?
-· ¤r l¬ni« ·r| ªiº|·|| ~i¤· ¬¬¬ «in ·¤i ·r| ¬|` ·¤i ·r n-¬ ºi¬ l-¬ni r` ·¤i «·¤ ~i¬
¤-«i¬ ªi¬n` r- ~-lº¬i - ·¤i ·r| ºrn` ·r ¤ri ¬« ~in| r` ·¤i «·¤ ¤r l¤~- ·ªi ¤¬ r`
-· ·r| ·ªii ¬¬· ·ri ·¤i l¬¤i| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ·¤i ¤¸sn r ¬« ~i¤ ¬¬¬ l-¬n r` ¤l¬¬ · n-r
lnº¤niº ·¤i l¬¤i ~nº n- ¬¬¬ ·r| ¬·` ~i¤ ;nl¬”i «i¬n r ¬l¬· ~i¤¬i «i¬ ¤¤ «i¬ni r|
n-· ¬¬ ¬i·i l¬ ¬¬· n-r ·ii¬i l·¤i` ·¤i n- ¬· ºr ri ¬i - n-r «ni ºri r¸` (¬i=what) -
·ªi ºri r¸ n- ¬¬¬ ¬i·i ¬ri ¬i ºr ri|
24
Exercise
~i¤ n|n nin r| ~i¤ n|n ni ºr r| ~i¤ n|n ni ¤¬ r| ~i¤· n|n ni¤i| ~i¤ n|n ni ºr ·i| ~i¤
n|n ni ¤¬ ·i| ~i¤ n|n ni¤n| ~i¤ n|n nin ºrn| ~i¤ n|n ni ¤¬n| - ¬¬¬ «in ¬ºni r¸| -
¬¬¬ «in ¬º ºri r¸| - ¬¬¬ «in ¬º ¤¬i r¸| -· ¬¬¬ «in ¬|| - ¬¬¬ «in ¬º ºri ·ii| - ¬¬¬
«in ¬º ¤¬i ·ii| - ¬¬¬ «in ¬ªni| - ¬¬¬ «in ¬ºni ºr¸ni| - ¬¬¬ «in ¬º ¤¬¸ni|

For word meaning see last page of the book.
Exercise
translate into Hindi
She does not go to school.
Did Kavita sing the song? We have
given him money. He has bought a book. India has won the match.
She has written a letter.

Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
~i¤ ¤¤
·¤i «i¬ ºr r` ¤ri l¬¬- ¬i· ªi¬ ºri r` ¤r ¬i- ¬i· ¬º ºri r` ·¤i ·r n|n ni ¤¬|
·i|` ·¤i n- ¤¤ l¬ªi ¤¬ ·i` ·¤i «·¤ ri¬| ªi¬ ¤¬ ·i` ·¤i ·r ¤ri ~i ¤¬| ·i|` ·¤i ~i¤
¬·r -¬¸¬ ·i¬ ¤¬ ·i` n- ·ri ·¤i ¬º ºr ri` ¤r ¬i- ¬i· ¬º ºri ·ii`
We will not give him money. She will not have met you.
You will meet him today. Did Nitin play hockey?
He will buy a
book. Did he see you in the market? We do not see films. She
will marry you. Did you not talk to him? Will you have taught him? I do not drive a
car. Will the police have arrested him? Why are you speaking French? Who is playing
cricket here? Had she come here? Had you sent them to school? What are you doing
there? I will give him money.
r- ¬¬¬ l-¬ ¤¬ r| r- ¬¬¬ l-¬ ¤¬ ·i| r- ¬¬¬ l-¬ ¤¬n| ~i¤ ·¤i ¬ºn r` ~i¤· ·¤i
l¬¤i` ~i¤ ·¤i ¬ºn` ·r ·¤i ªi¬ ºr| r` ·r ·¤i ªi¬ ºr| ·i|` ·r ·¤i ªi¬n| ºrn|` ~i¤ ¤¤ ·¤i
«i¬ ºr r` ·¤i ·r n|n ni ¤¬| ·i|` ·¤i n- ¤¤ l¬ªi ¤¬ ·i` ·¤i «·¤ ri¬| ªi¬ ¤¬ ·i` ·¤i ·r
¤ri ~i ¤¬| ·i|` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬·r -¬¸¬ ·i¬ ¤¬ ·i` n- ·ri ·¤i ¬º ºr ri` ·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ¬ºn
r` ·r -n ¤¬· ¬ºn| r| -· ¤¤ l¬ªii| ¬¬· ·r| ¤«i| ·r ¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ¬¬ ¬ºn|` ¬l·ni ¬¬ ·¤iº
·r| ¬ºn| r| - ¬¬ ª¤¤ ·ni r¸|
25

ADVANCED MODALS
Will have to
·ir·ii·÷ ·i rini,·i ¤·ni
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + will have to + v1 + obj
Negative
Rule : Sub + will + not + have to + v1 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Will + sub + have to + v1 + obj
Alert:- ·¤i n- ¬i~in` Will you go?
·¤i n-r ¬i·i r` Have you to go?
·¤i n-r ¬i·i rini` Will you have to go?
·¤i n- ¬i ¤¬in` Will you have gone?
·¤i n- ¬i·i ¤irn ri` Do you want to go?
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
-n ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º·i rini,-n ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º·i ¤·ni
I will have to do this work tomorrow.
¬¬ ~i¬ ¤ri ~i·i rini|
He will have to come here today.
«·¤i ¬i ·¬i¬ - ¤¤ «i¬·| rin||
The children will have to speak French in class.
-n ¬¬¬i ª¤¤ ·r| ·· rin|
I will not have to give him money.
«·¤i ¬i ¤r ¬l·ni ¤i· ·r| ¬º·| rin||
The children will not have to memorize this poem.
r- ¬¬¬ ¬s ·r| ¤¸s·i rini|
We will not have to ask him anything.
·¤i ¬¬ -º ·ii; ¬ «in ¬º·| rin|`
Will he have to talk to my brother?
r- ;· ¬·i¬i ¬i ¬·i« ·¤i ··i rini`
Why will we have to answer these questions?
-n ;¬¬ l¬¤ ·¤i ¬º·i rini`
What will I have to do for this?
n-r ¤r l¬ni« ªiº|··| rin|| n-r ¤r l¬ni« ªiº|··| ·i|| n-r ¤r l¬ni« ªiº|··| r| n- ¤ l¬ni«
ªiº|·i ¬ºn ·i| n- ¤ l¬ni« ªiº|·n rin| n- ¤ l¬ni« ªiº|· ¬¬| n-r ¤ l¬ni« ªiº|··| ¤ilr¤|
·r -º ¬i·i ·r| ºr ¬¬i| r- ~·i| ·iº ·r| ¬i·i r| «·¤ ºi¬ -¬¸¬ ·¤i ·r| ¬i¤i ¬ºn ·i` ·¤i
~i¤¬i ¤r «in ¬¬ «ni·| ·i|` r- ¤r ¬i- ~i¬ ¤¸ºi ¬º·i rini| n-r ¬¬¬i ¬¤ «ni·i rini| ~i¤¬i
¤ri -rº·i rini|
Would have to
·ir·ii·÷ ·i ¤·ni rini
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + would have to + v1 + obj
Negative
Rule : Sub + would + not + have to + v1 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Would+ sub + have to + v1 + obj
Alert:- ·r ªi¬ni| He will play.
·r ªi¬ni rini| He would play.
¬¬ ªi¬·i rini| He will have to play.
¬¬ ªi¬·i ¤·ni rini| He would have to play.
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
¬¬ “iºi« ¤|·| ¤·n| rin||
He would have to drink wine.
n-r ¬¬¬ ¬i·i ºr·i ¤·ni rini|
You would have to live with him.
«·¤i ¬i ¬«r ¬~·| ¬-·i ¤·ni rini|
The children would have to get up early in the morning.
¬¬ l¬ni« ·r| ªiº|··| ¤·n| rin||
He would not have to buy books.
~i¤¬i ¬¬ ¬¬ir ·r| ··| ¤·n| rin||
You would not have to advise him.
l”i·i¬ ¬i ¬ril·¤i ·r| ¬·i·| ¤·n| rin||
The teacher would not have to narrate the stories.
·¤i ¬¬ ~¤· ·ii; ¬ ºi¬ l-¬·i ¤·ni rini`
Would he have to meet his brothers daily?
·¤i ¬·r -¤l·”i «i¬·i ¤·ni rini`
Would they have to speak Spanish?
·¤i ¬ini ¬i ·ri -sl¬¤i ªii·| ¤·n| rin|`
Would the people have to eat fish there?
¬¬ ¬i¤| ¤|·| ¤·n| rin|| ¬¬ ¬i¤| ¤|·| ¤·n|| ¬¬ ¬i¤| ¤|·| r| ¬¬ ¬i¤| ¤|·| ·i|| ·r ¬i¤|
¤|ni rini| ¬¬ ¬i¤| ¤|·| ¤ilr¤| ·r ¬i¤| ¤|¤i ¬ºni ·ii| ·r ¬i¤| ¤|ni r| ·r ¬i¤| ¤| ºri r|
·r ¬i¤| ¤| ¤¬i r| ¬¬· ¬i¤| ¤|| ·r ¬i¤| ¤| ºri ·ii| ·r ¬i¤| ¤| ¤¬i ·ii| ·r ¬i¤| ¤|¤ni|
·r ¬i¤| ¤|ni ºrni| ·r ¬i¤| ¤| ¤¬ni|
26
27
May have to
·ir·ii·÷ ·i ¤· ¬¬ni r
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + may have to + v1 + obj
Negative
Rule : Sub + may + not + have to + v1 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : May + sub + have to + v1 + obj
Alert:- ¬¬ ¬i·i ¤· ¬¬ni r| He may have to go.
·r ¬i ¬¬ni r| (¬·ii··i) He may go.
“ii¤· ·r ¬i ¬¬ni r| (¬- ¬·ii··i) He might go.
¬¬ ¬i·i ¤·ni r| He has to go.
“ii¤· ¬¬ ¬i·i ¤·¬¬ni r|(¬- ¬·ii··i) He might have to go.
Exercise
¤· ¬¬ni r| ¤·ni rini| ¤·ni|
For word meaning see last page of the book.
¬·r ¤r “irº si··i ¤· ¬¬ni r|
They may have to leave this city.
r- ¬¬¬i ¬s ª¤¤ ··i ¤· ¬¬ni r|
We may have to give him money.
~i¤¬i ·i·-º ¬ ¤i¬ ¬i·i ¤· ¬¬ni r|
You may have to go to the doctor.
¬¬ ¬iº ·r| ªiº|··| ¤· ¬¬n| r|
He may not have to buy a car.
~i¤¬i ¤r ¬i- ·r| ¬º·i ¤· ¬¬ni r|
You may not have to do this work.
r- ··i; ·r| ¬·| ¤· ¬¬n| r|
We may not have to take the medicine.
·¤i ~inl¬¤i ¬i ¤il¬-ni· ¬ «irº ¬i·i ¤· ¬¬ni r`
May the terrorists have to go out of Pakistan?
·¤i ¤l¬¬ ¬i ¬¬ lnº¤niº ¬º·i ¤· ¬¬ni r`
May the police have to arrest him?
·¤i ¬¬ ¤r ¬l·ni ¤i· ¬º·| ¤· ¬¬n| r`
May he have to memorize this poem?
¬¬ ¤ri -rº·i ¬¬ ¤ri -rº·i ¬¬ ¤ri -rº·i ¬¬ ¤ri -rº·i
r| ¬¬ ¤ri -rº·i ·ii| ·r ¤ri -rºni rini| ¬¬ ¤ri -rº·i ¤ilr¤| r- ¬ini ¬ «in ¬º·| ¤·
¬¬n| r| n-r ¬·| -r·n ¬º·| ¤· ¬¬n| r| ¬ini ¬i -¬|«n ¬i ¬i-·i ¬º·i ¤· ¬¬ni r| r-
¬¬¬i ·i- ¤¸s·i ¤· ¬¬ni r| ¬¬ -¤l·”i ¬|ªi·| rin|| «·¤ ~i¤¬ ·¤i ¤¸si ¬ºn ·i` r- ·ri ¬¬
¤r¤·i ·ii` “iil¬·| ¬i ºl· ¬ «iº - ·¤i ¬i··i r`
28
Having to
·ir·ii·÷ ·i ¤· ºri r
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + is/am/are + having to + v1 + obj
Negative
Rule : Sub + is/am/are + not + having to + v1 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Is/am/are + sub + having to + v1 + obj
Alert:- r- ¬|ªi·i ¤·ni r| We have to learn.
r- ¬|ªi·i ¤· ºri r| We are having to learn.
r- ¬|ªi·i ¤· ºri ·ii| We were having to learn.
r- ¬|ªi ºr r| We are learning.
r- ¬|ªin ~i ºr r| We have been learning.
r- ¬|ªi·i ¤· ¬¬ni r| We may have to learn.
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
¬¬ ¤¤ ¬|ªi·| ¤· ºr| r|
He is having to learn French.
-n ¤ri ºr·i ¤· ºri r|
I am having to live here.
r- ºin - ¤«i; ¬º·| ¤· ºr| r|
We are having to study in the night.
¬¬ ··i; ·r| ¬·| ¤· ºr| r|
He is not having to take medicine.
~i¤¬i ¤r ¬i- ·r| ¬º·i ¤· ºri r|
You are not having to do this work.
r- ¬·| -r·n ·r| ¬º·| ¤· ºr| r|
We are not having to do hard work.
·¤i ¬¬ ·ri -¤l·”i «i¬·| ¤· ºr| r`
Is she having to speak Spanish there?
n-riº ·ii; ¬i “iºi« ·¤i ¤|·| ¤· ºr| r`
Why is your brother having to drink wine?
n-r ~¬¬ ·¤i ºr·i ¤· ºri r`
Why are you having to live alone?
¬¬ ;nl¬”i «i¬·| ¤· ºr| r| ¬¬ ;nl¬”i «i¬·| ¤· ¬¬n| r| ¬¬ ;nl¬”i «i¬·| ¤·n| rin||
¬¬ ;nl¬”i «i¬·| ¤·n|| ¬¬ ;nl¬”i «i¬·| ¤·n| r| ¬¬ ;nl¬”i «i¬·| ¤·n| ·i|| ·r ;nl¬”i
«i¬ni rini| r- l¬ni« ·¤i ªiº|··| ¤· ºr| r` ~i¤¬i ¬¬ ª¤¤ ·¤i ·· ¤· ºr r` l··l”i¤i ¬i
·iiºn - lr··| «i¬·| ¤· ºr| r| ·¤i ~i¤¬i -n¬ ¬s ¤¸s·i ·ii` ¬in n-riº «iº - ·r| ¬i·n rin|
·iiºn ¬i ¤r -¤ ¬|n·i rini| ¬¬ -ºi ·i- ·¤i ¬i··i r` ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ “ii·| ¬« ¬º·| r`
29
Could have + v3
·ir·ii·÷ ¬¬ni ·ii, ¬¬n| ·i|, ¬¬n ·i
¬¬n:- “il·n ·i| ¬l¬· ¬i- ·r| l¬¤i n¤i
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + could have + v3 + obj
( )
( )
( )
Negative
Rule : Sub + could + not + have + v3 + obj
( )
( )
( )
Interrogative
Rule : Could + sub + have + v3 + obj
( )
( )
( )
Alert:- ~i¤ ;nl¬”i «i¬ ¬¬n r| You can speak English.
~i¤ ;nl¬”i «i¬ ¬¬| You could speak English.
~i¤ ;nl¬”i «i¬¬¬n ·i| ( ) You could have spoken English.
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
· ¤r -¤ ¬|n ¬¬n ·i| ¬|n ·r|
They could have won this match.
·r ¤ri ~i ¬¬ni ·ii| ~i¤i ·r|
He could have come here.
~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¬¬n ·i| ¤«i¤ ·r|
You could have taught him.
·r ¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ·r| ¬º ¬¬ni ·ii| ¬l¬· ¤i¬ l¬¤i
He could not have passed the exam.
r- ¬¬¬ ~i¬ ·r| l-¬ ¬¬n ·i| ¬l¬· l-¬
We could not have met him today.
- ¤r ¬i- ¤¸ºi ·r| ¬º ¬¬ni ·ii| ¬l¬· ¤¸ºi l¬¤i
I could not have completed this work.
·¤i ¤l¬¬ ¬¬ lnº¤niº ¬º ¬¬n| ·i|` ·r| l¬¤i
Could the police have arrested him?
·¤i r- ¬¬ ¤ri «¬i ¬¬n ·i` ·r| «¬i¤
Could we have called him here?
·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ¬·i¬ ¬i ¬·i« · ¬¬n ·i` ·r| l·¤
Could you have answered his question?
”il·n ·i|÷«i¬ ·r|
- ¤r ¬i- ¬º ¬¬ni r¸| - ¤r ¬i- ¬º ¬¬i| - ¤r ¬i- ¬º ¬¬ni ·ii| -n ¤r ¬i- ¬º·i ¤ilr¤|
-n ¤r ¬i- ¬º·i r| -n ¤r ¬i- ¬º·i ·ii| n- ¤r ¬i- ¬ºn rin| ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ¬º ¬¬n ·i|
r- ¬¬ ¬·· ·i¬ ¬¬n ·i| ·¤i ·r ~¤·i ·i- «·¬ ¬¬ni ·ii` ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ª¤¤ ¬ ¬¬n ·i| ¬in
~-|º ·¤i ·r| «· ¬¬` r- ¬¬¬ ~i¬ ·¤i l-¬·i r` ~i¤ ¬¬ ·i- ¬¬n ·i| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ «iº - ·¤i
¬i·n r` n- ·ri ·¤i ¬i ºr ri`
30
Sould have + v3
·ir·ii·÷ ·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii
¬¬n:- ¬n·¤ ·ii ¬l¬· ¬i- ·r| l¬¤i n¤i
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + should have + v3 + obj
( )
(n¤ )
( )
Negative
Rule : Sub + should + not + have + v3 + obj
( )
( )
( )
Interrogative
Rule : Should + sub + have + v3 + obj
( )
( )
( )
Alert:- ¬¬ ¬i·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| (¬n·¤ ·ii÷n¤i ·r ) He should have gone.
·r ¬i ¬¬ni ·ii| ( ÷n¤i ·r ) He could have gone.
¬¬ ¬i·i ¤ilr¤| He should go.
·r ¬i ¬¬ni r| He can go.
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ «in ¬º·| ¤ilr¤ ·i|| l¬¤ ·r|
You should have talked to him.
r- ·ri ¬i·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| ·r|
We should have gone there.
¬·r nº|«i ¬| -·· ¬º·| ¤ilr¤ ·i|| ¬| ·r|
They should have helped poor.
¬¬ “iºi« ·r| ¤|·| ¤ilr¤ ·i|| ¬l¬· ¤|¤i
He should not have drunk wine.
n-r ¤r ·i·| ·r| «¤·| ¤ilr¤ ·i|| ¬l¬· «¤|
You should not have sold this watch.
~i¤¬i ¬¬ ¬«¬s ·r| «ni·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| ¬l¬· «ni¤i
You should not have told him everything.
·¤i -n ¬¬ ¤º l·”·i¬ ¬º·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii` ·r| l¬¤i
Should I have believed him?
·¤i ¬ini ¬i ·ni~i ¬ ¬s ¬--|· ¬º·| ¤ilr¤ ·i|` ·r| ¬|
Should the people have expected anything from the politicians?
r- ·ri ¬« ¤r¤·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii` ·r| ¤r¤
When should we have reached there?
|
”il·n ·i| |
n-r ¬¬¬ l-¬·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| n- ¬¬¬ l-¬ ¬¬n ·i| n-r ¬¬¬ l-¬·i r| n-r ¬¬¬ l-¬·i ¤·
¬¬ni r| n-r ¬¬¬ l-¬·i ¤·ni| n-r ¬¬¬ l-¬·i ¤·ni rini| n- ¬¬¬ l-¬n rin| n- ¬¬¬
l-¬i ¬ºn ·i| n-r ;nl¬”i ¬|ªi·| ¤ilr¤ ·i|| ·r ~i¤¬i ª¤¤ · ¬¬ni ·ii| r- ¤r ¬i- ·r| ¬º·i
·ii| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ¬ri l-¬i ¬ºn ·i` ¬¬· -º ¬i·i ¤¬i ·¤i l¬¤i` n- ¬¬¬ ¬s ·¤i ·r| ¤¸sn ri`
~i¤ -n ¤r l¬ni« ¬« ·n` ¬in ~i¤¬ ¤r ¬·i¬ ·¤i ¤¸s ºr ·i`
31
Would have + v3
·ir·ii·÷ ¤¬i rini, l¬¤i rini, ~i rini
¬¬n:- ¬·ii··i ·i| ¬l¬· ¬i- ·r| l¬¤i n¤i
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + would have + v3 + obj
( )
( )
( )
Negative
Rule : Sub + would + not + have + v3 + obj
( )
( )
( )
Interrogative
Rule : Would + sub + have + v3 + obj
( )
( )
( )
Alert:- ·r ªi¬ ¬¬ni ·ii| ( ) He could have played.
¬¬ ªi¬·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| (¬n·¤ ) He should have played.
·r ªi¬ ¤¬i rini| (¬·ii··i ·i| ) He would have played.
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
·r ¤¤ l¬ªi ¤¬i rini| l¬ªii ·r|
He would have written a letter.
«·¤ ;nl¬”i ¬|ªi ¤¬ rin| ¬|ªi ·r|
The children would have learnt English.
r- ~¤·i ¬i- ¬º ¤¬ rin| l¬¤ ·r|
We would have done our work.
¬¬· ¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ·r| ¬| rin|| ¬l¬· ¤i¬ ¬|
She would not have passed the exam.
r- ¬¬ ª¤¤ ·r| l·¤ rin| ¬l¬· l·¤
We would not have given him money.
«·¤i · ~i¤¬ ¬i; ¬·i¬ ·r| ¤¸si rini| ¬l¬· ·i¸si
The children would not have asked you any question.
·¤i ·r n-r ¤r «in «ni ¤¬| rin|` ·r| «ni¤i
Would she have told you this matter?
·¤i ¤l¬¬ ~inl¬¤i ¬i -iº ¤¬| rin|` ·r| -iºi
Would the police have killed the terrorists?
·¤i ·r -n¬ “ii·| ¬º ¤¬| rin|` ·r| ¬|
Would she have married me?
”il·n ·i|÷ªi¬i ·r|
·ii÷ªi¬i ·r|
÷ªi¬i ·r|
·r n-¬ «in ¬º ¬¬n| ·i|| ¬¬ n-¬ «in ¬º·| ¤ilr¤ ·i|| ·r n-¬ «in ¬º ¤¬| rin|| ~i¤ ¤r
l¤~- ·r| ·ªi ¬¬n ·i| ~i¤¬i ¤r l¤~- ·r| ·ªi·| ¤ilr¤ ·i|| ~i¤ ¤r l¤~- ·r| ·ªi ¤¬ rin|
·¤i - ¬¬ -·· ¬º ¬¬ni ·ii` ·¤i -n ¬¬¬| -·· ¬º·| ¤ilr¤ ·i|` ·¤i - ¬¬¬| -·· ¬º ¤¬i
rini` · ¤r ¬i- ¬º ¬¬n r| ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ¬º ¬¬n ·i| r- ¬¬ ¬·· ·i¬ ¬¬n ·i| ~i¤ ¬¬¬
ª¤¤ ¬ ¬¬n ·i| ¬in ~-|º ·¤i ·r| «· ¬¬` r- ¬¬¬ ~i¬ ·¤i l-¬·i r` ~i¤ ¬¬ ·i- ¬¬n
·i| ·r -º «iº - ·¤i ¬i·n| r`
32
May have + v3
·ir·ii·÷ ¤¬i rini, l¬¤i rini
¬¬n:- ¬·ii··i r l¬ ¬i- ri n¤i r
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + may have + v3 + obj
( )
Negative
Rule : Sub + may + not + have + v3 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : May + sub + have + v3 + obj
Alert:- ( ) He could have written.
( ) He should have written.
( ) He would have written.
( ) He may have written.
( ) He might have written.
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
·r ¤¤ l¬ªi ¤¬| rin|,¬¬· ¤¤ l¬ªi l¬¤i rini| ”ii¤· l¬ªi l¬¤i r
She may have written a letter.
«·¤ l¤~- ·ªi ¤¬ rin|
The children may have seen the film.
¤l¬¬ ¬¬ lnº¤niº ¬º ¤¬| rin||
The police may have arrested him.
¬¬· ªii·i ·r| «·ii¤i rini|
He may not have cooked food.
¬¬· ¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ·r| ¬| rin||
He may not have passed the exam.
l”i·i¬ · ¬¬ ~i¬ ·r| ¤«i¤i rini|
The teacher may not have taught him today.
·¤i ¤l¬¬ ~in¬| ¬i -iº ¤¬| rin|`
May the police have killed the terrorist?
·¤i ·r ¬·· ¤r¤ ¤¬i rini`
May he have reached London.
·¤i ~-lº¬i ¤il¬-ni· ¬ ·i-n| ni· ¤¬i rini`
May America have broken friendship with Pakistan?
·r l¬ªi ¬¬ni ·ii “il·n ·i|÷l¬ªii ·r|
¬¬ l¬ªi·i ¤ilr¤·ii ¬n·¤ ·ii÷l¬ªii ·r|
·r l¬ªi ¤¬i rini ¬·ii··i ·i|÷l¬ªii ·r|
·r l¬ªi ¤¬i rini “ii¤· l¬ªi l¬¤i r
“ii¤· ·r l¬ªi¤¬i rini «rn ¬- ¬·ii··i
«·¤ -¬¸¬ ¬i ¤¬ rin| «·¤ -¬¸¬ ¬i ¤¬ rin| «·¤i ¬i -¬¸¬ ¬i·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| «·¤ -¬¸¬ ¬i ¬¬n
·i| «·¤i ¬i -¬¸¬ ¬i·i ¤· ¬¬ni r| «·¤i ¬i -¬¸¬ ¬i·i ¤·ni rini| «·¤i ¬i -¬¸¬ ¬i·i ¤·ni|
n-riº ·i-n ·iº ¤r¤ ¤¬ rin| ¬¬ -º «iº - ·¤i ¬i··i ·ii` ¬in ºi¬·|ln ¤¬· ·¤i ·r| ¬ºn r`
·r -ºi ¬i- ·r| ¬º ¬¬ni ·ii| r- ¬¬¬ ·¤i ¤¸s·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii` n- ·ri ¬; ·i-n «·i ¤¬ rin|
33
Must have + v3
·ir·ii·÷ ~·”¤...¤¬i r
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + must have + v3 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Must + sub + have + v3 + obj
Alert:- n- ¬i¤| ¤| ¤¬ ri You must have drunk coffee.
n- ¬i¤| ¤| ¤¬ ri You have drunk coffee.
n- ¬i¤| ¤| ¬¬n ·i You could have drunk coffee.
n-r ¬i¤| ¤|·| ¤ilr¤ ·i| You should have drunk coffee.
n- ¬i¤| ¤| ¤¬ rin You would have drunk coffee.
n- ¬i¤| ¤| ¤¬ rin You may have drunk coffee.
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
·r ~¤·i ¬i- ~·”¤ ¤¸ºi ¬º ¤¬i r|
He must have completed his work.
n- ¬¬¬ ~·”¤ l-¬ ¤¬ ri|
You must have met him.
· -ºi ·i- ~·”¤ ¬i· ¤¬ r|
They must have known my name.
«·¤ ·iº ~·”¤ ¤r¤ ¤¬ r|
The children must have reached home.
·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ ª¤¤ ~·”¤ · ¤¬ r`
Must you have given him money?
·¤i ·r ~i¤¬i ¤ni ~·”¤ ·i¸¬ ¤¬| r`
Must she have forgotten your address?
·¤i n- ¬¬¬ ¬·i¬ ¬i ¬·i« ~·”¤ · ¤¬ ri`
Must you have answered his question?
·¤i «·¤ ·iº ~·”¤ ¤r¤ ¤¬ r`
Must the children have reached home?
~·”¤
~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¬¬n ·i| ~i¤¬i ¬¬ ¤«i·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¤¬ rin| ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¤¬
rin| ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¤¬ r| ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¤¬ ·i| ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¤¬n| n-· ¬¬¬ ¬s ·¤i ·r|
¤¸si` ¬¬· -n n-riº ¬i·i ¬« ·ªii` n-r ¬¬¬i -i¤ ¬º ··i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| ¬ini ¬i ·ri ¬-¤ ¤º
¤r¤·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| ~i¤ ¬¬¬ l¬¤ ¬s ~·si ¬º ¬¬n ·i| ¬¬ ~i¬ ¬ri ¬i·i ·ii` ¬in nº|«i ¬|
-·· ·¤i ·r| ¬º ¬¬n r` ~i¤ -ºi ¤ni ¬¬¬ ¤¸s ¬¬n ·i| ¬¬ ~¤ºil·i¤i ¬i ¬i·i ·r| ··i
¤ilr¤ ·ii|
Have had to
·ir·ii·÷ ¬º·i r| r
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + have had to + v1 + obj
Negative
Rule : Sub + have + not + had to + v1 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Have + sub + had to + v1 + obj
Alert:- I have had to go -n ¬i·i r| r|
I have got to go -n ¬i·i r| r|
I must have to go -n ~·”¤ ¬i·i r|
I should have to go -n ¬i·i r| ¤ilr¤|
I have to go -n ¬i·i r|
I need to go -n ¬i· ¬| ¬ªºn r|
I must go -n ~·”¤ ¬i·i ¤ilr¤|
I am to go - ¬i· ¬i r¸|
I am about to go - ¬i· ·i¬i r¸|
I should go -n ¬i·i ¤ilr¤|
Exercise
¬¬ l¤~- ·ªi·| r| ¬¬ l¤~- ·ªi·| ·i|| ¬¬ l¤~- ·ªi·| rin|| ¬¬ l¤~- ·ªi·| ¤· ¬¬n| r|
·r l¤~- ·ªi ¬¬ni ·ii| ¬¬ l¤~- ·ªi·| ¤ilr¤ ·i|| ·r l¤~- ·ªi ¤¬i rini|
For word meaning see last page of the book.
-n ¤r ¬i- ¬º·i r| r|
I have had to do this work / I have got to do this work.
¬¬ ;nl¬”i ¬|ªi·| r| r|
He has had (got) to learn English.
~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ «in ¬º·| r| r|
You have had (got) to talk to him.
r- ·ri ~i¬ ¤r¤·i r| ·r| r|
We have not had (got) to reach there today.
¤l¬¬ ¬i ~in¬| ¬i -iº·i r| ·r| r|
The police has not had to kill the terrorist.
¬¬ ¬·· ¤r¤·i r| ·r| r|
He has not had to reach London.
·¤i n-r ¬-·¤¸-º ¬|ªi·i r| r`
Have you had to learn computer?
·¤i ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ «·¬i ¬·i r| r`
Have you had to take revenge on him?
·¤i ¬¬ ;¬ ¬i¬ “ii·| ¬º·| r| r`
Has he had to marry this year?
34
35
Had had to
·ir·ii·÷ ¬º·i r| ·ii
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + had had to + v1 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Had + sub + had to + v1 + obj
Alert:- She had had to play ¬¬ ªi¬·i r| ·ii|
She had got to play ¬¬ ªi¬·i r| ·ii|
She had to play ¬¬ ªi¬·i ·ii|
She had played ·r ªi¬ ¤¬| ·i||
She had been playing ·r ªi¬n| ~i ºr| ·i||
Exercise
r- ;nl¬”i ¬|ªi·| r| r- ;nl¬”i ¬|ªi·| ·i|| r- ;nl¬”i ¬|ªi·| rin|| r- ;nl¬”i ¬|ªi·| ¤·
¬¬n| r| r- ;nl¬”i ¬|ªi ¬¬n ·i| r- ;nl¬”i ¬|ªi·| ¤ilr¤ ·i|| r- ;nl¬”i ¬|ªi ¤¬ rin| ~i¤
-¬|«ni ¬i ¬i-·i ¬º ¬¬n ·i| ¬¬ -º «iº - l¬¬· «ni¤i` ~i¤ ¬¬ -¤l·”i ¬¬ ¤«in r` r-
¬¬ ~i¬ ¤ri ·r| «¬i¤n| ~i¤¬i ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬º·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| n- ¬¬¬ «iº - -n «ni ¬¬n
ri| r- ¬¬¬ ·¤i «in ¬º·| r`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
r- ~i¬ ·ri ¬i·i r| ·ii|
We had had to go there today / We had got to go there today.
-n ¤r ¬i- ¬º·i r| ·ii|
He had had to do this work.
¬¬ ;nl¬”i ¬|ªi·| r| ·i||
He had had to learn English.
~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ «in ¬º·| r| ·i||
You had had to talk to him.
·¤i n-r ¬-·¤¸-º ¬|ªi·i r| ·ii`
Had you had to learn computer?
·¤i ~i¤¬i ¬¬¬ «·¬i ¬·i r| ·ii`
Had you had to take revenge on him?
·¤i ¬¬ ;¬ ¬i¬ “ii·| ¬º·| r| ·i|`
Had he had to marry this year?
·¤i r- ¤r ¬·i¬ ¬¬¬ ¤¸s·i r| ·ii`
Had we had to ask him this question?
36
Could have had to
·ir·ii·÷ ·i ¤· ¬¬ni ·ii
¬¬n:- ¬i- -¬«¸º| - l¬¤i ¬i ¬¬ni ·ii÷¬l¬· ·r| l¬¤i n¤i
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + could have had to + v1 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Could + sub + have had to + v1 + obj
Alert:- ¬¬ ¤¤ ¬|ªi·|
¤¤ ¬|ªi·| r| ·i| She had had to learn French.
¬¬ ¤¤ ¬|ªi·| r| r She has had to learn French.
·r ¤¤ ¬|ªi ¬¬n| ·i| She could have learnt French.
¬¬ ¤¤ ¬|ªi·| ·i| She had to learn French.
Exercise
¬¬ ¤¤ l¬ªi·i ¤· ¬¬ni ·ii| r- ¤r ¬i- ¬º·i ¤· ¬¬ni ·ii| n-r ¤ri -rº·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| n-riºi
·ii; ¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ¤¬i rini| r- ~i¤¬ ¬s ·r| ¤¸s·i r| - ¬¬ ¬¬ ·i¸¬ ¬¬ni r¸` ·r -º «iº -
¬s ·r| ¬i¤n| r| n-· -º ·iº - ¬¬ ·¤i «¬i¤i` ¬in ¬¬ ni¬| ·¤i ·r| ·n|
For word meaning see last page of the book.
r- ·ri ¬i·i ¤· ¬¬ni ·ii|
We could have had to go there.
¬¬ ¤¤ ¬|ªi·| ¤· ¬¬n| ·i||
He could have had to learn French.
n-r ··i; ¬·| ¤· ¬¬n| ·i||
You could have had to take medicine.
«·¤i ¬i ¬l·ni l¬ªi·| ¤· ¬¬n| ·i|`
The children could have had to write poems?
·¤i r- ¬¬¬ «in ¬º·| ¤· ¬¬n| ·i|`
Could we have had to talk to him?
·¤i ¤l¬¬ ¬i ¬¬ lnº¤niº ¬º·i ¤· ¬¬ni ·ii`
Could the police have had to arrest him?
·¤i -n ;· ¬·i¬i ¬i ¬·i« ··i ¤· ¬¬ni ·ii`
Could I have had to answer these questions?
·¤i ¬·r ·i·-º ¬ ¤i¬ ¬i·i ¤· ¬¬ni ·ii`
Could they have had to go to the doctor?
¤· ¬¬n| ·i| She could have had to learn French.
¬¬
37
Would have had to
·ir·ii·÷ ·i ¤·i rini
¬¬n:- ¬i- -¬«¸º| - l¬¤i ¬ini÷¬l¬· ·r| l¬¤i n¤i
Affirmative
Rule : Sub + would have had to + v1 + obj
Interrogative
Rule : Would + sub + have had to + v1 + obj
Alert:- ¬¬ ¬i·i
Exercise
¬¬ -¤l·”i «i¬·i
For word meaning see last page of the book.
¬¬ ¬i¤| ¤|·| ¤·| rin||
He would have had to drink coffee.
~i¤¬i ¤r l¤~- ·ªi·| ¤·| rin||
You would have had to see this film.
r- ~-lº¬i ¬i·i ¤·i rini|
We would have had to go to America.
-n ¤r ¬-·¤¸-º -|¬ ¬º·i ¤·i rini|
I would have had to repair this computer.
·¤i ¬¬ ¤ri ~i·i ¤·i rini`
Would he have had to come here?
·¤i ¬ini ¬i ·ni~i ¬ l-¬·i ¤·i rini`
Would the people have had to meet the politicians?
·¤i r- ¤r ¬i- ~i¬ ¤¸ºi ¬º·i ¤·i rini`
Would we have had to complete this work today?
·¤i ¬·r ·i·-º ¬ ¤i¬ ¬i·i ¤·i rini`
Would they have had to go to the doctor?
¤·i rini He would have had to go.
¬¬ ¬i·i ¤· ¬¬ni ·ii He could have had to go.
·r ¬i ¤¬i rini He would have gone.
·r ¬i ¬¬ni ·ii He could have gone.
¤·ni rini| ~i¤ ¬¬ ·¤i ¤«i¤i ¬ºn ·i` r- ~i¬ ·ri ·¤i ¬i·i ·ii` ~i¤¬i ¤r
¬i- ¬¬ ¬º·i r` n-r ~¤·| n¬ln¤i ·r| ·i¸¬·| ¤ilr¤| ¬in ¬¬¬ «iº - ¬i· ¤¬ rin| -n ¬¬¬
¬s ·r| ¤¸s·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| r- ~i¬ ~il¤¬ ·r| ¬i·i rini| ~i¤ ¬¬ -ºi ¤ni · ¬¬n ·i| ¬¬· ¤r
¬·i¬ -n¬ ·¤i ¤¸si` ·¤i ·r n-r -·· ¬ºni r` ·¤i ~i¤· ¬¬¬ “ii·| ·r| ¬|` ¬l·ni -n¬ ·r|
l-¬n| r| r- ¬¬ ·ri ¤r¤ ¤¬n|
VOICE
Present Indefinite
Affirmative
Active Voice :- Sub + v1/v5 + obj
Passive Voice :- Obj + is/am/are + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive :- Obj + is/am/are + v3
Cricket is played here.
Negative
Active :- Sub + do/does + not + v1 + obj
Passive :- Obj + is/am/are + not + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive:- Obj + is/am/are + not + v3
Interrogative
Active :- Do/does + sub + v1 + obj
Passive :- Is/am/are + obj + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive:- Is/am/are + obj + v3
Exercise
·r ¤-«i¬ ªi¬ni r| ¤-«i¬ ¬¬¬ ,iºi ªi¬i ¬ini r| ¤-«i¬ ·iiºn - ªi¬i ¬ini r| n- ¬¬ ·¤i
·i-n ri` ¬¬ n-riº ,iºi ·¤i ·i-i ¬ini r` ¬¬ ·¤i ·i-i ¬ini r` ~i¤ ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ ¬ºn r` ¤r
¬i- ~i¤¬ ,iºi ¬¬ l¬¤i ¬ini r` ¤r ¬i- ¬¬ l¬¤i ¬ini r` l¬¬- ~-lº¬i - ·¤i ·r| ªi¬i
¬ini r` ·¤i ·r ~i¤¬i ¤¬· ¬ºn| r` · ~i¤¬ ¬« l-¬n r` ·r -n ·¤iº ·r| ¬ºn| r| -n ¬¬¬
,iºi ·¤iº ·r| l¬¤i ¬ini r| -n ·¤iº ·r| l¬¤i ¬ini r`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
n- l¬¬- ªi¬n ri|
You play cricket.
l¬¬- n-riº ,iºi ªi¬i ¬ini r|
Cricket is played by you.
l¬¬- ¤ri ªi¬i ¬ini r|
- ¬¬ ·r| ¤«ini r¸|
I do not teach him.
¬¬ -º ,iºi ·r| ¤«i¤i ¬ini r|
He is not taught by me.
¬¬ ;nl¬”i ·r| ¤«i¤| ¬in| r|
He is not taught English.
·¤i ·r l¤~- ·ªin| r`
Does she see films?
·¤i l¤~- ¬¬¬ ,iºi ·ªi| ¬in| r`
Are the films seen by her?
·¤i l¤~- ¤ri ·ªi| ¬in| r`
Are the films seen here?
38
39
Present Continuous
Affirmative
Active :- Sub + is/am/are + v4 + obj
Passive :- Obj + is/am/are + being + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive :- Obj + is/am/are + being + v3
English is being spoken in class.
·r -n ·r| «¬i ºr| r|
She is not calling me.
-n ¬¬¬ ,iºi ·r| «¬i¤i ¬i ºri r|
I am not being called by her.
-n ·ri ·r| «¬i¤i ¬i ºri r|
I am not being called there.
~i¤ ¬¬¬ ·¤i ¤¸s ºr r`
What are you asking him?
¬¬ ~i¤¬ ,iºi ·¤i ¤¸si ¬i ºri r`
What is he being asked by you?
¬¬ ·¤i ¤¸si ¬i ºri r`
What is he being asked?
Alert:- ·r ¤« ºri r| He is reading.
¬¬ ¤«i¤i ¬i ºri r| He is being taught.
·r ¤«ini r| He teaches.
¬¬ ¤«i¤i ¬ini r| He is taught.
Exercise
·¤i ·r l¤~- ·ªi ºr| r` ·¤i l¤~- ¬¬¬ ,iºi ·ªi| ¬i ºr| r` ·¤i l¤~- ·ri ·ªi| ¬i ºr| r`
·¤i ¤l¬¬ ¤iº ¬i ¤|- ºr| r` ·¤i ¤iº ¬i ¤l¬¬ ¬ ,iºi ¤|-i ¬i ºri r` ·¤i ¤iº ¬i ¤|-i ¬i ºri
r` ·r ª¤¤ ·r| ·ni r| ·r ª¤¤ ·r| · ºri r| ¬¬ ª¤¤ ·r| l·¤ ¬in r| ¬¬ ª¤¤ ·r| l·¤
¬i ºr r| n- ¤r ¬i- ¬« ¤¸ºi ¬ºn ri` ·r -¬|«n ¬i ¬i-·i ¬¬ ¬ºni r` ~i¤ r- ·iiªi ·¤i ·
ºr r` r- ~i¤¬ ,iºi ·iiªii ·¤i l·¤i ¬i ºri r` r- ·iiªii ·¤i l·¤i ¬i ºri r`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
«·¤ ;nl¬”i «i¬ ºr r|
The children are speaking English.
;nl¬”i «·¤i ,iºi «i¬| ¬i ºr| r|
English is being spoken by the children.
;nl¬”i ·¬i¬ - «i¬| ¬i ºr| r|
40
Present Perfect
Active :- Sub + have/has + v3 + obj
Passive :- Obj + has/have + been + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive:- Obj + has/have + been + v3
- ¤r ¬i- ·r| ¬º ¤¬i r¸|
I have not done this work.
¤r ¬i- -º ,iºi ·r| l¬¤i ¬i ¤¬i r|
This work has not been done by me.
¤r ¬i- ~·i| n¬ ·r| l¬¤i ¬i ¤¬i r|
This work has not been done till now.
·¤i ~i¤ ¬¬ ª¤¤ · ¤¬ r`
Have you given him money?
·¤i ¬¬ ~i¤¬ ,iºi ª¤¤ l·¤ ¬i ¤¬ r`
Has he been given money by you?
·¤i ¬¬ ª¤¤ l·¤ ¬i ¤¬ r`
Has he been given money?
Alert:- - ª¤¤ · ¤¬i r¸| I have given money.
-n ª¤¤ l·¤ ¬i ¤¬ r| I have been given money.
- ª¤¤ ·ni r¸| I give money.
-n ª¤¤ l·¤ ¬in r| I am given money.
- ª¤¤ · ºri r¸| I am giving money.
-n ª¤¤ l·¤ ¬i ºr r| I am being given money.
Exercise
·¤i ·r ª¤¤ ªi¤ ¬º ¤¬i r` ·¤i ª¤¤ ¬¬¬ ,iºi ªi¤ l¬¤ ¬i ¤¬ r` ·¤i ¬·i| ª¤¤ ªi¤ l¬¤
¬i ¤¬ r` ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ·¤i ·r| ¬ºn r` ¬¬ ~i¤¬ ,iºi -·· ·¤i ·r| ¬| ¬in| r` ¬¬ -··
·¤i ·r| ¬| ¬in| r` ·r ¤ri ·¤i ¬º ºri r` -n ¤r ¬·i¬ ·¤i ¤¸si ¬i ºri r` ~i¤ ¬¬ ¤ri ¬«
«¬i ºr r` ¬in ·ri ¬¬ ¤r¤ ºr r` ¬¬ ·¤i ·i-i ¬i ºri r` -n ¤r «in «ni¤| ¬i ¤¬| r|
For word meaning see last page of the book.
¤l¬¬ ¬¬ lnº¤niº ¬º ¤¬| r|
The police has arrested him.
¬¬ ¤l¬¬ ¬ ,iºi lnº¤niº l¬¤i ¬i ¤¬i r|
He has been arrested by the police.
¬¬ lnº¤niº l¬¤i ¬i ¤¬i r|
He has been arrested.
41
Past Indefinite
Affirmative
Active :- Sub + v2 + obj
Passive :- Obj + was/were + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive :- Obj + was/were + v3
-· ¬¬ ·r| ¤«i¤i|
I did not teach him.
¬¬ -º ,iºi ·r| ¤«i¤i n¤i|
He was not taught by me.
¬¬ ·r| ¤«i¤i n¤i|
He was not taught.
~i¤· ¤r ¬i- ·¤i ·r| l¬¤i`
Why did you not do this work?
¤r ¬i- ~i¤¬ ,iºi ·¤i ·r| l¬¤i n¤i`
Why was this work not done by you?
¤r ¬i- ~i¬ ·¤i ·r| l¬¤i n¤i`
Why was this work not done today?
Alert:- ¬¬· ·¤i «ni¤i` What did he tell?
¬¬ ·¤i «ni¤i n¤i` What was he told?
·¤i ¬¬· ¬s «ni¤i` Did he tell anything?
Exercise
~i¤· ¬¬¬ ·¤i ¤¸si` ¬¬ ~i¤¬ ,iºi ·¤i ¤¸si n¤i` ¬¬ ~i¬ ·¤i ¤¸si n¤i` ·r -n ¬-ni
¤¬| r| -n ¬¬¬ ,iºi ¬-ni¤i ¬i ¤¬i r| -n ¬-ni¤i ¬i ¤¬i r| n- ¬¬ ¤¬· ·¤i ·r|
¬ºn ri` ·¤i ¬¬· ¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ·r| ¬|` ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ¬« l-¬n r` ¤r ·i·| ·¤i ·r| «¤| n¤|`
“iºi« ;¬ ri-¬ - ·r| ¤| ¬in| r| ·r ~-lº¬i - ¬¬ ºrni r` ~i¤· ¬¬¬ “ii·| ·¤i ·r| ¬|`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
¬¬· l¬ni« ªiº|·||
He bought the book.
l¬ni« ¬¬¬ ,iºi ªiº|·| n¤||
The book was bought by him.
¤r l¬ni« ¬¬ ªiº|·| n¤||
This book was bought yesterday.
42
Past Continuous
Active :- Sub + was/were + v4 + obj
Passive :- Obj + was/were + being + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive:- Obj + was/were + being + v3
This
·r l¤~- ·r| ·ªi ºr| ·i||
She was not seeing a film.
l¤~- ¬¬¬ ,iºi ·r| ·ªi| ¬i ºr| ·i||
A film was not being seen by her.
¤r l¤~- ·r| ·ªi| ¬i ºr| ·i||
This film was not being seen.
~i¤ ·¤i ¬º ºr ·i`
What were you doing?
~i¤¬ ,iºi ·¤i l¬¤i ¬i ºri ·ii`
What was being done by you?
~« n¬ ·¤i l¬¤i ¬i ºri ·ii`
What was being done till now?
Alert:- ·r ·¤i «ni ºr| ·i|` What was she telling?
¬¬ ·¤i «ni¤i ¬i ºri ·ii` What was she being told?
¬¬· ·¤i «ni¤i` What did she tell?
¬¬ ·¤i «ni¤i n¤i` What was she told?
Exercise
·r ¤¤ «i¬ ºri ·ii| ¤¤ ¬¬¬ ,iºi «i¬| ¬i ºr| ·i|| ¤¤ ·¬i¬ - «i¬| ¬i ºr| ·i|| ·¤i ~i¤·
¬¬ ~¤·i ·i- «ni¤i` ¬in nº|«i ¬| -·· ·¤i ·r| ¬ºn r` ¤r -¤ ¬¬ ¬|ni n¤i` ¬¬ ·¤i
¤«i¤i ¬i ºri ·ii` -¤l·”i ·iiºn - ·r| «i¬| ¬in| r| ~i¤ ;nl¬”i ¬¬ ¬|ªi ºr r` ~i¤ ¬¬ -··
·¤i ·r| ¬º ºr ·i` ¬¬ ~i¤¬ ,iºi -·· ·¤i ·r| ¬| ¬i ºr| ·i|` ¬¬ -·· ·¤i ·r| ¬| ¬i ºr|
·i|` ·r ¤ri ·¤i ¬º ºri ·ii` ¤ri ¬¬¬ ,iºi ·¤i l¬¤i ¬i ºri ·ii` ¤ri ·¤i l¬¤i ¬i ºri ·ii`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
·r ¤¤ l¬ªi ºri ·ii|
He was writing a letter.
¤¤ ¬¬¬ ,iºi l¬ªii ¬i ºri ·ii|
A letter was being written by him.
¤r ¤¤ l¬ªii ¬i ºri ·ii|
letter was being written.
43
Past Perfect
Affirmative
Active :- Sub + had + v3 + obj
Passive :- Obj + had been + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive :- Obj + had been + v3
- ¬¬ ·r| ¤«i ¤¬i ·ii|
I had not taught him.
¬¬ -º ,iºi ·r| ¤«i¤i ¬i ¤¬i ·ii|
He had not been taught by me.
¬¬ ·r| ¤«i¤i ¬i ¤¬i ·ii|
He had not been taught.
·¤i ~i¤ ¬-·¤¸-º -|¬ ¬º ¤¬ ·i`
Had you repaired the computer?
·¤i ¬-·¤¸-º ~i¤¬ ,iºi -|¬ l¬¤i ¬i ¤¬i ·ii`
Had the computer been repaired by you?
·¤i ¤r ¬-·¤¸-º -|¬ l¬¤i ¬i ¤¬i ·ii`
Had this computer been repaired?
Alert:- - ¤«i ¤¬i ·ii| I had taught.
-n ¤«i¤i ¬i ¤¬i ·ii| I had been taught.
- ¤«ini ~i ºri ·ii| I had been teaching.
Exercise
·¤i ~i¤· ¤r ¬iº ¤¬i¤|` ·¤i ¤r ¬iº ~i¤¬ ,iºi ¤¬i¤| n¤|` ·¤i ¤r ¬iº ¤¬i¤| n¤|` ·iiºn
· ¤r -¤ ¬¬ ¬|ni` ¤r -¤ ·iiºn ¬ ,iºi ¬¬ ¬|ni n¤i` ¤r -¤ ¬¬ ¬|ni n¤i` ~i¤· ¬¬
¤ri ¬« «¬i¤i` ¬¬¬ ¬s ·¤i ·r| ¤¸si n¤i` ·¤i ¬¬ ~-lº¬i ·i¬i ¬i ¤¬i r` ~i¤ ¬¬ ·¤i
«ni ºr ·i` n-r ·¤i ¤«i¤i ¬ini r` ¤r ¬i- ¬« ¤¸ºi l¬¤i ¬i ºri r` n- ¬¬ ¤¬· ·¤i ·r|
¬ºn ri` ·¤i ¬¬· ¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ·r| ¬|` ~i¤ ¬¬¬ ¬« l-¬n r`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
«·¤ l¬ni« ªiº|· ¤¬ ·i|
The children had bought the books.
l¬ni« «·¤i ,iºi ªiº|·| ¬i ¤¬| ·i||
The books had been bought by the children.
¤ l¬ni« ªiº|·| ¬i ¤¬| ·i||
These books had been bought.
44
Future Indefinite
Active :- Sub + will + v1 + obj
Passive :- Obj + will be + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive:- Obj + will be + v3
- ¬¬ -i¤ ·r| ¬ªni|
I will not forgive her.
¬¬ -º ,iºi -i¤ ·r| l¬¤i ¬i¤ni|
She will not be forgiven by me.
¬¬ -i¤ ·r| l¬¤i ¬i¤ni|
She will not be forgiven.
~i¤ ¬¬ ·¤i ·i-n`
Why will you scold him?
¬¬ ~i¤¬ ,iºi ·¤i ·i-i ¬i¤ni`
Why will he be scolded by you?
¬¬ ·¤i ·i-i ¬i¤ni`
Why will he be scolded?
Alert:- - ·¤i ¤¸s¸ni` What will I ask?
-n¬ ·¤i ¤¸si ¬i¤ni` What will I be asked?
·¤i - ¬s ¤¸s¸ni` Will I ask anything?
Exercise
n- ¬¬ ¬¬ rºi~in` ¬¬ n-riº ,iºi ¬¬ rºi¤i ¬i¤ni` ¬¬ ¬¬ rºi¤i ¬i¤ni` ~i¤ ¬¬ ¬ri ·i¬
ºr r` ¬¬ ~i¤¬ ,iºi ¬ri ·i¬i ¬i ºri r` ¬¬ ¬ri ·i¬i ¬i ºri r` ·¤i ·r ¬¤ «nini r` n-
¬¬¬ ·¤ºn ·¤i ¬ºn ri` ¤r ¬--¤i ¬¬ ¬¬ni¤| ¬i¤n|` ¬¬¬i ;¬i¬ ¬¬ l¬¤i ¬i¤ni` ·¤i
¬¬ -i¤ ·r| l¬¤i n¤i` · “irº si· ¤¬ ·i| ·¤i ~i¤· ¬¬ ~¤·i ·i- «ni¤i` ¬in nº|«i ¬| -··
·¤i ·r| ¬ºn r` ¤r -¤ ¬¬ ¬|ni n¤i` ¬¬ ·¤i ¤«i¤i ¬i ºri ·ii` ~i¤ ¬¬ -·· ·¤i ·r| ¬º
ºr ·i` ¬¬ ~i¤¬ ,iºi -·· ·¤i ·r| ¬| ¬i ºr| ·i|` ¬¬ -·· ·¤i ·r| ¬| ¬i ºr| ·i|` ·r ¤ri ·¤i
¬º ºri ·ii`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
·r ·|·iº ºnni|
He will paint the walls.
·|·iº ¬¬¬ ,iºi ºn| ¬i¤n||
The walls will be painted by him.
¤ ·|·iº ~i¬ ºn| ¬i¤n||
These walls will be painted today.
45
Future Perfect
Affirmative
Active :- Sub + will have + v3 + obj
Passive :- Obj + will have been + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive :- Obj + will have been + v3
- ¬¬ ·r| ¤«i ¤¬¸ni|
I will not have taught him.
¬¬ -º ,iºi ·r| ¤«i¤i ¬i ¤¬ni|
He will not have been taught by me.
¬¬ ·r| ¤«i¤i ¬i ¤¬ni|
He will not have been taught.
Alert:-
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
·i·-º -º|¬ ¬i ;¬i¬ ¬º ¤¬n|
The doctor will have cured the patient.
-º|¬ ¬i ·i·-º ¬ ,iºi ;¬i¬ l¬¤i ¬i ¤¬ni|
The patient will have been cured by the doctor.
;¬ -º|¬ ¬i ;¬i¬ l¬¤i ¬i ¤¬ni|
This patient will have been cured.
·¤i n- ¤r ¬--¤i ¬¬ni ¤¬in`
Will you have solved this problem?
·¤i ¤r ¬--¤i n-riº ,iºi ¬¬ni¤| ¬i ¤¬n|`
Will this problem have been solved by you?
·¤i ¤r ¬--¤i ¬¬ n¬ ¬¬ni¤| ¬i ¤¬n|`
Will this problem have been solved till tomorrow?
·r ·iiªii ·ni| He will cheat.
¬¬ ·iiªii l·¤i ¬i¤ni| He will be cheated.
·r ·iiªii · ¤¬ni| He will have cheated.
¬¬ ·iiªii l·¤i ¬i ¤¬ni| He will have been cheated.
- ¬¬ ¬¬ ·i¸¬¸ni` ¬¬ -º ,iºi ¬¬ ·i¸¬i¤i ¬i¤ni` ¬¬ ¬¬ ·i¸¬i¤i ¬i¤ni` n- ¤r ¬i- ¬¬
¬ºin` ¤r ¬i- n-riº ,iºi ¬¬ l¬¤i ¬i¤ni` ¤r ¬i- ~i¬ ¬¬ l¬¤i ¬i¤ni` r- ¤r ¬i- ¬¬
¤¸ºi ¬ºn| ¬¬· -n¬ ¤r ¬·i¬ ·¤i ¤¸si` r- ª¤¤ ¬« l·¤ ¬i¤n` ~¤ºi·i| ¬ ·¤i ¤¸si ¬i
ºri r` ~i¤ ¬ini ¬ «in ·¤i ·r| ¬ºn r` ¤ ·|·iº ·¤i ºn| ¬i¤n|`
46
VOICE OF MODALS
Can/Could/Should/Would/May/Must
Active :- Sub + modal + v1 + obj
Passive :- Obj + modal + be + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive :- Obj + modal + be + v3
Continuous :- Sub + modal + be + v4 + obj
Exercise

For word meaning see last page of the book.
n-r ¤r ¬i- ¬º·i ¤ilr¤|
You should do this work.
¤r ¬i- n-riº ,iºi l¬¤i ¬i·i ¤ilr¤|
This work should be done by you.
¤r ¬i- ~i¬ l¬¤i ¬i·i ¤ilr¤|
This work should be done today.
n-r ¤r ¬i- ¬ºn ºr·i ¤ilr¤|
You should be doing this work.
l·ln· ¬¬ ·r| ¤«i ¬¬i|
Nitin could not teach him.
¬¬ l·ln· ¬ ,iºi ·r| ¤«i¤i ¬i ¬¬i|
He could not be taught by Nitin.
¬¬ ·r| ¤«i¤i ¬i ¬¬i|
He could not be taught.
l·ln· ¬¬ ·r| ¤«ini ºr ¬¬i|
Nitin could not be teaching him.
·¤i ·r “iºi« ¤|ni rini`
Would he drink wine?
·¤i “iºi« ¬¬¬ ,iºi ¤| ¬in| rin|`
Would wine be drunk by him?
·¤i “iºi« ·ri ¤| ¬in| rin|`
Would wine be drunk there?
·¤i ·r “iºi« ¤|ni ºrni rini`
Would he be drinking wine?
¬¬ lnº¤niº ¬¬ l¬¤i ¬i ¬¬ni r` ·¤i «·¤i ¬i l¬¬- ªi¬n ºr·i ¤ilr¤` n-r ;nl¬”i ·r|
¤«i¤| ¬in| rin|| ¬·r ¬¬ ºi¬i ¬i ¬¬ni r` ¬l·ni l·ln· ¬ «in ¬ºn| ºrn| rin|| ~i¤· ¤r
¬·i¬ ¬¬¬ ·¤i ·r| ¤¸si` ¤r ·i·| ¬¬ -|¬ ¬| ¬i¤n|` ~i¤ ~¤ºi·i| ¬ ·¤i ¬--|· ¬º ¬¬n
r` ¤r ºr-¤ ·r| ªii¬i ¬i ¬¬ni r` ¤ ¤· ·r| ¬i- ¬i· ¤ilr¤| n- ªi·¬i (yourself) ·ii¬i
·¤i · ºr ri`
47

Have to/Has to/Had to/Used to/Need to
Active :- Sub + modal + to + v1 + obj
Passive :- Obj + modal + to + be + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive :- Obj + modal + to + be + v3
Continuous :- Sub + modal + to + be + v4 + obj
Exercise
For word meaning see last page of the book.
r- ¬¬¬ ¬s ¤¸s·i r|
We have to ask him something.
¬¬ r-iº ,iºi ¬s ¤¸si ¬i·i r|
He has to be asked something by us.
¬¬ ~« ¬s ¤¸si ¬i·i r|
He has to be asked something.
r- ¬¬¬ ¬s ¤¸sn ºr·i r|
We have to be asking him something.
~i¤¬i ¤r ¬--¤i ¬¬ni·| ·i||
You had to solve this problem.
¤r ¬--¤i ~i¤¬ ,iºi ¬¬ni¤| ¬i·| ·i||
This problem had to be solved by you.
¤r ¬--¤i ¬¬ ¬¬ni¤| ¬i·| ·i||
This problem had to be solved yesterday.
~i¤¬i ¬--¤i~i ¬i ¬¬nin ºr·i ·ii|
You had to be solving the problems.
-n ~« ·¤i ¬º·i r`
What have I to do now?
~« -º ,iºi ·¤i l¬¤i ¬i·i r`
What has to be done by me now?
~« ·¤i l¬¤i ¬i·i r`
What has to be done now?
-n ·¤i ¬ºn ºr·i r`
What have I to be doing?
¬¬ ¤ri ¬¬ ¬i¤i ¬i·i r` ~i¤¬i ¤r ¬i- ¬ºn ºr·i r| r- ¬¬¬ «in ·r| ¬º·| ¤ilr¤|
¬¬ ¬-¬ilrn ¬¬ l¬¤i ¬i ¬¬ni r` n- ¬l·ni ¬ ·¤i l-¬i ¬ºn ·i` ~i¤· ¤r -¤ ·¤i ·r|
·ªii` ¬¬¬i ¬|·· ¬¬ «¤i¤i ¬i ¬¬ni r` r- ¬s ·r| ¤¸si ¬i¤ni| ~inl¬¤i ¬i ¬¬ -iºi
¬i ¬¬i` ¬¬ lnº¤niº ¬¬ l¬¤i ¬i ¬¬ni r` ·¤i «·¤i ¬i l¬¬- ªi¬n ºr·i ¤ilr¤` n-r
;nl¬”i ·r| ¤«i¤| ¬in| rin|| ¬·r ¬¬ ºi¬i ¬i ¬¬ni r` ¬l·ni l·ln· ¬ «in ¬ºn| ºrn|
rin|| ~i¤· ¤r ¬·i¬ ¬¬¬ ·¤i ·r| ¤¸si` ¤r ·i·| ¬¬ -|¬ ¬| ¬i¤n|`
48

Could have/Should have/Would have/May have/Must have
Active :- Sub + modal + have + v3 + obj
Passive :- Obj + modal + have + been + v3 + by + sub
Bare Passive :- Obj + modal + have + been + v3
Continuous :- Sub + modal + have + been + v4 + obj
Exercise

For word meaning see last page of the book.
~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«i ¬¬n ·i|
You could have taught him.
¬¬ ~i¤¬ ,iºi ¤«i¤i ¬i ¬¬ni ·ii|
He could have been taught by you.
¬¬ ;nl¬”i ¤«i¤| ¬i ¬¬n| ·i||
He could have been taught English.
~i¤ ¬¬ ¤«in ºr ¬¬n ·i|
You could have been teaching him.
r- ;¬ ¬·i¬ ¬i ¬·i« ··i ¤ilr¤ ·ii|
We should have answered this question.
;¬ ¬·i¬ ¬i ¬·i« r-iº ,iºi l·¤i ¬i·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii|
This question should have been answered by us.
;¬ ¬·i¬ ¬i ¬·i« l·¤i ¬i·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii|
This question should have been answered.
r- ;· ¬·i¬i ¬i ¬·i« ·n ºr·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii|
We should have been answering these questions.
·¤i «·¤ ¬i¤| ¤| ¤¬ rin`
Would the children have drunk coffee?
·¤i ¬i¤| «·¤i ,iºi ¤| ¬i ¤¬| rin|`
Would coffee have been drunk by the children?
·¤i ¬i¤| ri-¬ - ¤| ¬i ¤¬| rin|`
Would coffee have been drunk in the hotel?
·¤i «·¤ ¬i¤| ¤|n ºrn`
Would the children have been drinking coffee?
¬¬ ¤r “irº si· ··i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| r- ¬¬¬ ~i¬ l-¬ ¤¬ rin| n- ¤r ¬i-º| ¬|n ¬¬n ·i|
¬¬ -¬¸¬ ·i¬i ¬i·i ¤ilr¤ ·ii| r- ·ri ¬¬ ¤r¤·i r` ¤r ¬iº ¬« «¤| ¬i¤n|` r- ¤r ¬i-
¬¬ si· ¬¬n r` ~i¤· ¬¬ ~i¬ ·¤i ¤«i¤i` ¬¬ ~i¬ ·¤i ¤«i¤i n¤i` ~i¤ r- ¬ri ·i¬ ºr
r` r- ¬ri ·i¬i ¬i ºri r` n- ¤ ·il·¤i «¤ ¬¬n ·i| ¤ ·il·¤i «¤| ¬i ¬¬n| ·i|| ¬¬ ¤r
¬i- ¬ºn ºr·i r|
49
SMART VERBS
Start
·ir·ii·÷ ¬nni r
Rule : Sub + start + v4 + obj
n- ªi¬· ¬nn ri|
·¤i n- ªi¬· ¬nn ri` Do you start playing?
n- ·¤i ªi¬· ¬nn ri` Why do you start playing?
·r ·i·· ¬n|| She started running. / She began to run.
·¤i ·r ·i·· ¬n|| Did she start running?
·r ·¤i ·i·· ¬n|| Why did she start running?
l”i·i¬ ¤«i· ¬nn| The teacher will start teaching.
·¤i l”i·i¬ ¤«i· ¬nn` Will the teacher start teaching?
l”i·i¬ ·¤i ¤«i· ¬nn` Why will the teacher start teaching?
Alert :- n- ªi¬n ri| You play.
n- ªi¬· ¬nn ri| You start playing.
n- ªi¬· ¬n ri| You have started playing.
Continue
·ir·ii·÷ ºrn| r
Rule : Sub + continue + to + v1 + obj
·r ªi¬n| ºrn| r| She continues to play./She keeps on
playing.
·¤i ·r ªi¬n| ºrn| r` Does she continue to play?
·r ·¤i ªi¬n| ºrn| r` What does she continue to play?
l”i·i¬ ¤«in ºr| The teacher continued to teach.
·¤i l”i·i¬ ¤«in ºr` Did the teacher continue to teach
l”i·i¬ ·¤i ¤«in ºr` Why did the teacher continue to teach?
·r ·i·n| ºrn|| She will continue to run.
·¤i ·r ·i·n| ºrn|` Will she continue to run?
·r ·¤i ·i·n| ºrn|` Why will she continue to run?
Alert :- ·r ªi¬n| r| She plays.
·r ªi¬· ¬nn| r| She starts playing.
·r ªi¬n| ºrn| r| She continues to play.
·r ªi¬· ¬n| r| She has started playing.
·r ªi¬n| ºr| r| She has continued to play.
You start playing. / You begin to play.
50

Would
1. ni rini
·r ¤¤ ¬i·ni rini| He would know French.
2. ¬- ¬·ii··i
·r ¬¬ ¤ri ~i¤n|| (¬- ¬·ii··i) She would come here tomorrow.
3. ~i ¬ºni ·ii (¬·i|÷¬·i|)
l·ln· ¬l·ni ¬ l-¬i ¬ºni ·ii| Nitin would meet Kavita.
4. ~inr ¤i l····
·¤i ~i¤ -n ¬¬¬i ·i- «ni¤n` Would you tell me his name?
5. Narration - Indirect Speech - will ¬ «·¬ would ¬nni r
ºi- · ¬ri l¬ ·r ªi¬ni| Ram said that he would play.
6. ¬i”i!
¬i”i! ·r ¤ri rini| Would that he were here!
Alert :- ·r -¬¸¬ ¬i¤i ¬ºn| ·i|| She would (used to) go to school.
·r -¬¸¬ ¬i¤n|| She will go to school.
·r -¬¸¬ ¬in| rin|| She would go to school.
Exercise :-
Translate into Hindi
I would not tell him anything. She would not like your habits. Will he start doing
his work? Will the police continue beating the thief? She said that she would
meet me next day. I would like to know your address. He starts speaking French.
What does she start doing there? I started meeting him. The people will start
hiding the truth. What did you start asking him? Why did you start scolding
him? He starts weeping. He continues to weep. She may pass the exam. She can
pass the exam. They will talk to you. They would talk to you.
Exercise :-
Translate into English
·r ·ri ·¤i ¬ºni r` ·r ·ri ·¤i ¬º· ¬nni r` ·r ·ri ·¤i ¬ºni ºrni r` ~i¤· ¬¬ ·¤i
·i-i` ~i¤ ¬¬ ·¤i ·i-· ¬n` ~i¤ ¬¬ ·¤i ·i-n ºr` ·r -n¬ «in ¬ºn| r| ·r -n¬ «in
¬º· ¬nn| r| ·r -n¬ «in ¬ºn| ºrn| r| n- ¬¬¬ ¬·i¬ ·¤i ¤¸s· ¬n` n- ¬¬¬ ¬·i¬
·¤i ¤¸sn ºr`
For word meaning see last page of the book.
51

Have
1. ~¤· ¤i¬ ºªi·i/ri·i
I have a book for you. -º ¤i¬ ~i¤¬ l¬¤ ¤¬ l¬ni« r|
2. ªii·i/¤|·i
Would you have coffee with me? ·¤i ~i¤ -º ¬i·i ¬i¤| ¤|¤n`
3. ¬·i/nrºi ¬º·i
Have your seat please. ¬¤¤i ~¤·i -·ii· nrºi ¬|l¬¤|
Have fun. -¬i ¬|l¬¤|
4. ·i r,¤·ni r
They have to live in America. ¬·r ~-lº¬i - ºr·i r/ºr·i ¤·ni r|
I do not have to talk to him. -n ¬¬¬ «in ·r| ¬º·| r| (New Grammar)
5. ¬º·i·i
She will have her hair colored. ·r ~¤· «i¬ ¬¬º ¬º·i¤n||
I will have him call you. - ¬¬¬ ~i¤¬i ¬i¬ ¬º·i¬ni|
6. ¤¬i r
I have told you everything. - n-r ¬« ¬s «ni ¤¬i r¸|
7. ~-|º
There are two kinds of people in the world; have and have-not.
·l·¤i - ·i nºr ¬ ¬in rin r; ~-|º ~iº nº|«|
Exercise :-
Translate into Hindi
Does he have a black pen? I do not have to give him money. When will you have
them caught? What time are you going to have dinner today? She would be your
best companion. They asked me how much they would pay for that. Did he have
enough money to survive? I have sent the children to school. I have to send the
children to school. I am having to send the children to school. I have had to send
the children to school. You have to have them with you.

For word meaning see last page of the book.
52

Get
1. ¤i·i/
How much did you get for it? n-r ;¬¬ l¬¤ l¬n· ª¤¤ l-¬`
2. ¬n·i
I am getting cold. -n -· ¬n ºr| r|
3. ¬-n·i
She got your point very clear. ¬¬ n-riº| «in l«~¬¬ ¬-n - ~i¤||
4. l·¬i·i
Get me your manager on the phone. ~¤· -·¬º ¬i ¤i· ¤º ¬i~i|
5. ¬º·i·i
They will get this work done. · ¬in ¤r ¬i- ¬º·i ¬n|
6. ri·i
It is getting darker. ~·iºi ·¤i·i ri ºri r|
Go
1. ¬i·i
When is he going from here? ·r ¤ri ¬ ¬« ¬i ºri r`
2. ri·i
Why are you going mad about it? n- ;¬¬ l¬¤ ¤in¬ ·¤i ri ºr ri`
3. l«¬·i
How are the mangoes going these days? ~i- ;· l··i ¬¬ l«¬ ºr r`
4. ¬¤¬ni
It is a big go of my life. ¤r -º ¬|·· ¬| «·| ¬¤¬ni r|
5. ¤nln”i|¬
If you are go, life is good to you. ~nº ~i¤ ¤nln”i|¬ r ni l¬··n| ~i¤¬ l¬¤

~·s| r|
l-¬·i
53

Be
1. r / ·ii
I am to go from here. - ¤ri ¬ ¬i· ¬i (·i¬i) r¸|
2. «··i
Will you be my friend? ·¤i n- -ºi ·i-n «·in`
3. ri·i
You have to be positive about it. n-r ;¬¬ l¬¤ ¤i¬l-· ri·i r|
4. ri / ri ¬i¤ (~i·”i)
He be hanged. ¬¬ ¤i¬| · ·| ¬i¤|
Praised to be Jesus Christ. ¬|¬¬ ¬i;-- ¬| ¬¤ ri|
5. being = ~l-n-·
We are losing our being. r- ~¤·i ~l-n-· ªii ºr r|
Look
1. ·ªi·i
Look at the girls dancing in the party. ¤i-| - ·i¤n| ¬·l¬¤i ¬i ·ªii|
2. l·ªi·i
You look very tired today. n- ~i¬ «rn ·i¬ l·ªin ri|
3. ·ªii!
Look! I will not do this work. ·ªii, - ¤r ¬i- ·r| ¬ªni|
4. l·ªii·-
The look of the hotel has to be changed. ri-¬ ¬i ¬¬ «·¬i ¬i·i r|
5. ¤”i·
Go behind the originality, not the look. ·i-nl·¬ni ¬ ¤|s ¬i~i, ¤”i· ¬ ·r||
6. ·¬º
She gave me a look from the corner. ¬¬· ¬i· ¬ -n ¤º ¤¬ ·¬º ·i¬||

Do
1. ¬º·i
When are you doing this work? n- ¤r ¬i- ¬« ¬º ºr ri`
2. ~·¤¤· ¬º·i
I did English in my school. -· ;nl¬”i ¬| ¤«i; -¬¸¬ - ¬||
3. ¬¬ni·i
He did the puzzle in a second. ¬¬· ¤¬¬ ¬i ¤¬ ¬¬· - ¬¬ni l·¤i|
4. ni
I do know him. - ¬¬ ¬i·ni ni r¸|
5. ¬i¤¬ ri·i
It will not do for me. ¤r -º l¬¤ ·r| ¤¬ni|
May
1. ¬¬ni r (¬·ii··i)
She may pass this exam. ·r ¤r ¤º|·ii ¤i¬ ¬º ¬¬n| r|
2. ~i·”i
You may leave now. n- ~« ¬i ¬¬n ri|
3. ~·ºi·i
May I have your name please? ·¤i - ~i¤¬i ·i- ¬i· ¬¬ni r¸`
4. ¬i-·i ¬º·i
May you get the victory! -º| ¬i-·i r l¬ ~i¤ l·¬¤| ri|
5. might = «rn ¬- ¬·ii··i
She might accept my proposal. “ii¤· ·r -ºi ¤-ni· -·|¬iº ¬º|
5. might = “il·n
Truth disappears in the shadow of might. “il·n ¬ ¬i¤ - ¬¤ ni¤« ri ¬ini
r|
54
55
PREPOSITIONS
About
¬n·in
It is about 4 o’clock.
¬| n¤iº| -
He is about to leave. ·r ¬i· ¬| n¤iº| - r|
¬ «iº -
What are you talking about? n- l¬¬¬ «iº - «in ¬º ºr ri`
¬| ¤i¬·i -
I know what she is about. - ¬i·ni r¸ ·r l¬¬ ¤i¬·i - r|
Above
¬ ¬¤º
The fan is hanging above the table. ¤ªii -«¬ ¬ ¬¤º ¬-¬i r~i r|
¬ ~l·i¬
You are getting above your salary. n-r ~¤·| ¬¬º| ¬ ~l·i¬ l-¬ ºri r|
¬ ~-|º
He married in above his family. ¬¬· ~¤· ¬ ~-|º ¤lº·iº - “ii·| ¬||
~’-
The clerk should respect his above. ·¬¬¬i ~¤· ¬|l·¤º ¬i ¬--i· ¬º·i ¤ilr¤|
¬-n ¬ «irº
French is above you. ¤¤ n-riº| ¬-n ¬ «irº r|
¬ ·¤i·i
You speak above your age. n- ~¤·| ¬- ¬ lr¬i« ¬ ·¤i·i «i¬n ri|
After ¬ «i·
Don't read after mid-night. ~i·i| ºin ¬ «i· -n ¤«i|
¬ ¤·¬º -
The pick-pocket is after his money. ¤i¬--iº ¬¬¬ ¤¬ ¬ ¤·¬º - r|
¬ ¬iººi
He died after malaria. ·r -¬lº¤i ¬ ¬iººi -º n¤i|
¬ ~l·i¬
Give me all you have after 400 Rs. «aa ª¤¤ ¬~l·i¬ n-riº ¤i¬ l¬n·i r -n ·i|
¬ ¤|s
I am after you. - n-riº «i· r¸|
¬| ¬- ¬ «i·
He changed his career after 25. ¬¬· zr ¬ «i· ~¤·i ¬º|¤º «·¬ l¬¤i|
«i· ¬i
I can not be sure about after-world. ¤º¬i¬ ¬ «iº - - l·l”¤n ·r| ri ¬¬ni r¸|
¬ ·i- ¤º
He was named after the name of the city. “irº ¬ ·i- ¤º ¬¬¬i ·i- ºªii n¤i|
¬n·in ¤iº «¬ r|
At
¬ ¬-¤ ¤º
The bus reached me at 4 pm. «¬ · -n ¤iº «¬ ¤r¤i¤i|
¬ ¤i¬
He is standing at the gate. ·r n- ¬ ¤i¬ r|
¬ l¬·iº
The temple is at the river. -l·º ··| ¬ l¬·iº r|
¬ lr¬i« ¬
He was hired at 100 Rs. a day. ¬¬ ·aa ª l·· ¬ lr¬i« ¬ ¬i- ¤ ºªii n¤i|
¬| nº¤
What are you looking at? n- l¬¬ nº¤ ·ªi ºr ri`
-
He will live rest of his life at village. ·r ~¤·| «i¬| l¬·n| ni· - n¬iºni|
¬| º¤niº ¬
The car is running at full speed. ¬iº ¤¸º| º¤niº ¬ ¤¬ ºr| r|
(~ilªiº) -
She agreed to marry me at last. ·r ~ilªiº - -n¬ “ii·| ¬º· n¤iº r;|
¬ ¬º|«
The old man is at death. «¸«i ~i·-| --¤ ¬ ¬º|« r|
¤º
Getting furious at what I saw, I slapped him. -· ¬i ·ªii ¬¬ ¤º n-¬i ri¬º
-· ¬¬ n-i¤i -iºi|
Against
¬ lªi¬i¤
The public is against the vote. ¬in ·i- ¬ lªi¬i¤ r|
¬ ¬riº, ¬ ¬n ¬º
I was standing against the tree. - ¤· ¬ ¬riº ªi·i ·ii|
¬ l¬¤
He received 500 Rs. against the rent. ¬¬ l¬ºi¤ ¬ l¬¤ raa ª l-¬|
¬ l·¤º|n
The boat is sailing against the wind. «i- r·i ¬ l·¤º|n ¤¬i¤i ¬i ºri r|
Before
¬ ¤r¬
There was no one before 2 pm. ·i «¬ ¬ ¤r¬ ¬i; ·r| ·ii|
¬ ¬i-·
Everything is open before you. ¬« ¬s ~i¤¬ ¬i-· ªi¬i r|
¤r¬
Before education was not so important. ¤r¬ l”i·ii ;n·| ¬ªº| ·r| ·i||
56
57
By
¬
n- ¬iº ¬ ·¤i ¬i ºr ri`
,iºi
This work can not be done by the labors. ¤r ¬i- -¬·¸ºi ,iºi ·r| ri ¬¬ni r|
¬ ¬riº
¤l¬¬ · ¤iº ¬i «i¬ ¬ ¤¬·i|

·r “ii- n¬ ·i¤¬ ~i¤ni|
(-i¤i) ¬
ni¬| ¬¬ ¤¬ ;¤ si· ¬ l·¬¬ n¤||
¬ ¤i¬ ¬
¬¬· ¬n¬ ¬ ¤i¬ ¬ ¬iº ¤¬i¤||
¤i¬
~i~i ~iº -º ¤i¬ «-i|
·¬ ~i¤¬i ¤ri ¬¬ ~i·i r~i`
¬ lr¬i« ¬
~i¤¬i ¬·nir ¬ lr¬i« ¬ ¤¬ l·¤ ¬i¤n|
Behind
¬ ¤|s
n- ¬ ¤|s ¬i· ªi·i ·ii`
- “iil-¬
¤l¬¬ ¬il¬”i - “iil-¬ n·rniº ¬i
¬ ¬- ¬i·n| r|
- (¬i·¬iº| -) n-¬ ¬- ·r| r¸|
¬-¤ ¬ ¤|s
·i·| ¬-¤ ¬ ¤|s ¤¬ ºr| r|
From
¬
n- -n¬ ·¤i ¤irn ri`
¬-¤ ¬
-¬¸¬ ·c ¬¸· ¬ ªi¬ni|
¬ ·¸º
--”i· ¤ri ¬ l¬n·i ·¸º r`
¬-¤ ¬-¤ ¤º
n-r ¬¬¬i ¬-¤ ¬-¤ ¤º ·ªi· ¬i·i r|
¬iººi ¬
·r «ªiiº ¬ -º n¤i|
¤lº·iº ¬
·r ¤¬ ~·s ¤lº·iº ¬ r|
Why are you going by car?
The police caught the thief by his hair.
He will come back by evening.
The bullet missed him by an inch.
He drove the car by the jungle.
Come and sit by me.
By the way = ·¬
By the way what brings you here?
You will be paid by the week.
Who was standing behind the gate?
The police knows the culprit behind the plot.
I am not behind you.
The watch is running behind the time.
What do you want from me?
th
The school would open from 16 June.
How long the station is from here?
You have to visit him from time to time.
He died from fever.
He is from a noble family.
58
For
n-r ~¤· ¬- ¬| ¬¬i ·iin·| rin||
ª¤¤ -
-· ;¬ ·a ª - ªiº|·i|
¬-¤ ¬
- ·i ·i- ¬ ;n¬iº ¬º ºri r¸|
¬i ¬¬º
·r ~¤· ·¤· ¬i ¬¬º -º ¬¬ni r|
l¬¬¬ l¬¤
l¬¬¬ l¬¤ ¬¬· ¤¸º ·”i ¬| ¤i¤i ¬||
¬ lr¬i« ¬
¤r ¬iº ca l¬-| ¤ln ¬|-º ¤¬n| r|
¬ ·i-n
·r l¬¤ ªii· ¬ ·i-n ¬| ºri r`
·¤i
n- -n ·¤i ¤¸s ºr ri`
«¤i· ¬ l¬¤
·r ~¤·| ¬i· «¤i· ·i·i|
In
-·ii· -
·r n|· ¬·-iir ¬ ¬·· - r|
¬-¤ -
n- ¬«r - ·¤i ¬º ºr ·i`
¬ «i·
- n-¬ ¤¬ ¬·nir «i· l-¬¸ni|
-r|· -
¬i· ¬i -i¬- l·¬-«º - ~ini r|
~·º
·r -n ~·º ¬¬ ¬i ºr| r|
ºn -
¬i¬ ºn ¬ ·r| l¬ªii|
¤º
¤·i| ¤· ¤º «- r|
Into
¬ ~·º
l¬ni« ¬ ~·º ·ªii|
-
·r ¬¸¤ - lnº n¤i|
(·º ºin) -
-· ¬¬ ·º ºin - ¤«n ·ªii|
¬ l¬¤
You have to pay for your deeds.
I bought it for 10 Rs.
I have been waiting for two hours.
He can die for his words.
For he traveled across the country.
This car runs 60 km for a liter.
He is living for bread only.
What...for =
What are you asking me for?
He ran for life.
He is in London for three weeks.
What were you doing in the morning?
I will meet you in a week.
Winter falls in December.
She is taking me in.
Don't write in red.
The birds are sitting in the tree.
Look into the book.
He fell into the well.
I saw her studying into the night.
59
On ¤º
¬-·¤¸-º ¬i -«¬ ¤º ºªi ·i|
¬i
- -n¬·iº ¬i ¬i¬ni|
-
~il¤¬¬ ~il¤¬ ~i· ¬ l¬¤ ºi-n - r|
¬- ¤¬ ¤º
-¬·¸º ¬- ¤¬ - ¬|·· ¬| ºr r|
¬iº|
¬n ~n¬ ·i ¬i¬ n¬ ¬iº| ·ii|
s--| ¤º
·r -i «·· ¬| s--| ¤º r|
ri· ¤º
¤| ¬· ¤º ·r ni¬| ·· ¬ni|
-·ii· ¤º
n- ¬ri ºrn ri`
nº¤
¬¬· ~¤·| ¤|- ·i|· ¬| nº¤ -i· ¬||
Of ¬
¬-ni ¬ ¬i··ii·!
¬i «·i r~i
¬¬- ¬·º ¬i «·i r~i r|
¬i
¤l”¤- ¬ ¬in “ii·| ¬i n·i|ºni ¬ ·r| ¬n|
- ¬
n-- ¬ ¬i· ·¤i·i n¬ ·i· ¬¬ni r`
¬ ¬iººi
·r ¤·¬ ¬ ¬iººi -º||
Off ·¸º = ·¸º ri ¬i~i|
·¸¬º| ~iº
·r l¬·iº ¬ ·¸¬º| ~iº ·¤i ¬i ºri r`
«· = ¬-·¤¸-º «· ¬º ·i|
 r-¼
l¬¬ ºi· ¬ ·¸º r-¬º
s--|
~n¬ ¬i-·iº - s--| ¬¸ni|
-n
·r -º n¤i r|
(pay off) = · ¬º s-¬iºi ¤i ¬·i
-· ¬¬ ¤¬ ·¬º s-¬iºi ¬º l¬¤i|
Put the computer on the table.
I will be leaving on Tuesday.
The officers are on the way for office.
The labors are living on the low wages.
The war was on for the next two years.
She is on maternity leave.
On getting drunk he started abusing.
Where do you put on?
He turned his back on the crowd.
Beware of dogs!
The jacket is made of leather.
The people of west neglect marriage.
Which of you can run faster?
She died of AIDS.
Get off.
Why is he sailing off the shore?
Turn off the PC.
Off Link Road.
I will have off next Monday.
He is off.
I paid him off.
60
Over
¬¬¬ ¬º ¬ ¬¤º ·i·| -n| r|
;¬ ¤iº ¬ ¬¬ ¤iº
¤iº ·|·iº ¬ ;¬ ¤iº ¬ ¬¬ ¤iº ¤i· n¤i|
¬ ·¤i·i
¬iº ca ¬ ·¤i·i ¬| nln ¬ ¤¬ ºr| r|
¬-i·n
“ii ¬-i·n ri· ¬i ºri r|
«rn ·¤i·i
«rn ·¤i·i ¤ln·ii·i· l·ªi··i¬i ·¤·riº -n ¬ºi|
To
¬i
·r ~-lº¬i (¬i) ¬i ºri r|

;¬ ~¤· n¬ ¬|l-n ºªii|
,iºi
n- ¬« ¬ ,iºi ¬i· ¬in ri|
¬
-· ¬¬ n-¬ «in ¬º· ¬i ¬ri|
-
·iiºn - ~i¤¬i -·inn r|
¤i¬
-º ¤i¬ c «¬ ¬ ¤r¬ ¤¬ ~i·i|

·¬ ¬ ¤·¤|¬ n¬ ln·i|
¬
« ¬i c ¬ nºii ¬ºi|
¬ ¬-
·¬ «¬· - ·r l-l·- ¬- r|
¤º
;¬ l·¬ ¤º -n ¬i|
Up
¬¤º
¬¬ ¤ri·| ¬ ¬¤º ¬-i¤i n¤i|
¤i¬¸
;-º·- ~« ¤i¬¸ ri n¤i|
¤«i·
l«¬·¬ «rn ¬niº ¤«i· ¬ ·iºi r|
¬¤º|
·º·i¬ ¬i ¬¤º| lr-¬i -¸-i r|
¬¤º
There is a clock hanging over his head.
The thief jumped over the wall.
The car is running over 60.
The show is getting over.
Don't behave to be over-talented.
He is going to America.
Keep it to yourself.
You are known to all.
I told him to talk to you.
Welcome to India.
Come to me before 6 pm.
Count from 10 to 25.
Multiply 4 to 6.
It is quarter to ten.
Don't take it to your heart.
He was lifted up the hills.
The internet is up now.
The business is full of ups and downs.
The upside of the door is broken.
61
With
¬ ¬i·i
·r ~¤·| ¤i¤| ¬ ¬i·i ºr ºri r|
¬
- ·|¬ ¤· ¬ l¬ªi ºri r¸|
n¤iº| ¬ ¬i·i
¬r| ¤i¬·i~i ¬ ¬i·i ¬i- “iª ¬ºi|
¬ ·iºi r~i
¬¬¬i l·-in ·iil-¬ ¬--ºni ¬ ·iº
l·¤i n¤i|
-
n|ªi ·· ··”i¬| ¬·¬| -º| ¤·i¬· r
Some more prepositions
He is living with his aunt.
I am writing with a blue pen.
Start the work with proper plans.
His brain is washed with fanaticism.
The girl with sharp feature is my neighbor.
According to ¬ ~·¬iº In order to ¬ l¬¤
Agreeably to ¬ ¬r-n rin r¤ In reference to ¬ ¬··i -
Along with ¬ ¬i·i In regard to ¬ ¬·i r~i
Away from ¬ ·¸º In the event of ¬ ·i-·i ¬- -
Because of ¬ ¬iººi On account of ¬ ¬iººi
By dint of ¬| ni¬n ¬ On condition that ¬| l-·iln -
By means of ¬ ¬lº¤ Owing to ¬ ¬iººi
By reason of ¬ ¬iººi ¬ With a view to ¬ ·¬lº¤ ¬
By virtue of ¬ ·- ¤º
By way of  ri¼
Conformably to ¬ ¬¬i
For the sake of ¬| ªiilnº
In accordance with ¬ -nil«¬
With reference to ¬ ¬··i -
In addition to ¬ ¬i·n r¤
On the behalf of ¬| nº¤ ¬
In case of ¬| l-·iln -
In comparison to ¬ n¬·i ¬ºn r¤
In compliance with ¬ -nil«¬
In consequence of ¬ ¤lººii- -
In course of ¬ ¬- -
In favor of ¬ lrn -
In lieu of ¬| ¬nr ¤º
62
Word Meaning
- I ·r ¬·¬i he
n- you ·r ¬·¬| she
r- we · ¬in they
- I -ºi my -n me
n- you n-riºi your n-r you
r- we r-iºi our r- us
·r he ¬¬¬i his ¬¬ him
·r she ¬¬¬| her ¬¬ her
· they ¬·¬i their ¬·r them
Verb Patterns
l¬ªi·i write wrote written
¤«·i read read read
«i¬·i speak spoke spoken
¤«i·i teach taught taught
·i··i run ran run
¬·i take took taken
··i give gave given
ªiº|··i buy bought bought
«¤·i sell sold sold
ºi·i cry cried cried
r¬·i laugh laughed laughed
¤|-·i beat beat beaten
·i-·i scold scoldedscolded
«ni·i tell told told
·i¬·i send sent sent
¬··i hear heard heard
¬|n·i win won won
¬º·i do did done
¬·i·i narrate narrated narrated
·¤iº ¬º·i love loved loved
ni·i sing sang sung
ni¬| ··i abuse abused abused
¤i·i get got gotten
ºr·i live lived lived
-·· ¬º·i help helped helped
¤¸s·i ask asked asked
63
¬·i« ··i answer answered answered
¤¬· ¬º·i like liked liked
·iºi¬i ¬º·i trust trusted trusted
-rº·i stay stayed stayed
ªi¬·i play played played
·ªi·i see saw seen
¤|·i drink drank drunk
ªii·i eat ate eaten
¬i·i go went gone
~i·i come came come
·iiªii ··i cheat cheated cheated
«·i·i make made made
-iº·i kill killed killed
-º·i die died died
rºi·i defeat defeated defeated
¬¬ir ··i advise advised advised
ni··i break broke broken
“ii·| ¬º·i marry married married
¤¬i·i drive drove driven
«¬i·i call called called
¤r¤·i reach reached reached
ºªi·i put put put
l·ªii·i show showed showed
¬-·i get up got up got up
«-·i sit sat sat
«in ¬º·i talk talked talked
l-¬·i meet met met
¬i··i know knew known
lnº¤niº ¬º·i arrest arrested arrested
¬-n·i understand understood understood
¬|ªi·i learn learnt learnt
¬··i fight fought fought
·i¸¬·i forget forgot forgotten
Word Meaning
··i-·i accident
·il·’¤ future
¬··¬ bright
¬-¬ilrn ¬º·i encourage
·”i¤- country-love
·i| also
n¬ºi ¬-¤ past
64
Word Meaning
¤ri here ·¤il¬ because
·ri there ·i¤¬ back
ºi¬ daily “irº city
¬i; any ¤¸ºi ¬º·i complete
¬·i¬ question n·i| only then
·ri ¬ from there l¬··i ºr·i survive
¬s anything ¤ these
¤iº thief ¬«¬s everything
;· l··i these days ¤i· ºªi·i remember
l¬n·i how much «··i be
¬«n¬ until l¬n·i how much
¬l¬· but ¬ l¬¤ for
¬« when niº|¤ ¬º·i appreciate
l¤º ·i| still «iº - about
~nº if l·”·i¬ ¬º·i believe
¬i who / what ¬i·i ··i support
·¸¬º other s¤i·i hide
l¬ that ºi¬·ni politicians
l¬¤ only n-ºir ¬º·i mislead
-|¬ nºr properly ¬i-·i ¬º·i face
r-”ii always ¬r| proper
¬in people «·¬·i change
;¬l¬¤ so ¤«i; ¬º·i study
¬i¤·i think ºi¬·|ln politics
·iº home ¤r¬ before
¬·i take ~iº ·¤i·i any more
¬¤ truth ~« n¬ till now
n¸- «i¬·i lie with ·i~- ¬º·i oppress
¬-i·i earn ;¬i¬ ¬º·i cure
ºi¬·i stop l¬¤ir| soldier
nº|« poor «··~i ··i curse
¬¬i as ¬- deeds
·¤ºn ¬º·i hate ªi¤ ¬º·i spend
-l”¬¬ trouble ¬¬ir advice
si··i leave «iº «iº again and again
-i¤ ¬º·i forgive ªii·i «·i·i cook
¤r ¬« all this ¬ ª·i - as
-i¤| -in·i apologize ¬--|· ¬º·i except
n¬n| mistake ¬i-i· luggage
¬--¤i problem r-i·i remove
¬¬ni·i solve ·º·i fear
l··”i| foreigner «ri·i excuse
“i¬ doubt «¤i·i save
·¸º ¬º·i clear ¬--i· ¬º·i respect
¬i· ¬| which ªii¬·i open
·ii’ii language ºr-¤ secret
l·¤·n ¬º·i apoint

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