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1-D Model of Radial Turbocharger Turbine Calibrated by Experiments

1-D Model of Radial Turbocharger Turbine Calibrated by Experiments

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Turbocharger modeling

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Published by: Jun GWan Park on Dec 03, 2012
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1-D Model of Radial Turbocharger

Turbine Calibrated by
Experiments
Jan Macek, Jiří Vávra, Oldřich Vítek
Czech Technical University in Prague,
Josef Božek Research Center
Company
Logo
Contents
O Introduction
O Demands on a turbocharger
O Types of turbine characteristics
O 1-D model of a radial turbine
O Model calibration procedure
O Results of calibration
O Examples of predictions
O Conclusions
2002-01-0377
Introduction
O Motivation - recent demands on a
turbocharging
O downsizing of engines - efficiency,
emissions - requires high boost
pressure
O optimum turbine efficiency!
O simulation is an unavoidable tool
O correct turbine characteristics needed!
2002-01-0377
Introduction
O Turbine characteristics prediction
O results of experiments carried out in a
reasonable range (velocity ratio, pressure
ratio,…) should be extrapolated;
O appropriate form for extrapolation needed;
O extrapolation to high pressure ratio using
1-D model is cheap and flexible only if the
model is calibrated!
2002-01-0377
Contents
O Introduction
O Demands on a turbocharger
O Types of turbine characteristics
O 1-D model of a radial turbine
O Model calibration
O Results of calibration
O Examples of results
O Conclusions
2002-01-0377
Demands on turbocharger
O Boost pressure ratio higher than ~ 2 requires
high efficiency of a turbocharger
O Compressor/turbine interaction
O compressor input keeps turbocharger speed near
to optimum turbine efficiency if properly tuned
O pulse exhaust manifolds require compromise
turbine setting concerning its averaged efficiency
2002-01-0377
Demands on turbocharger
O Pulse exhaust manifolds require compromise
turbine setting concerning averaged
efficiency
TURBINE PARAMETERS = f(deg CA)
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Crank Angle [deg from CTDC]
I
s
e
n
t
r
o
p
i
c

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

e
t
a
T
;
D
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

m
u
T
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

R
a
t
i
o

x
=
u
/
c

s

[

1

]
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

R
a
t
i
o


p
i

T


[
1
eta T u/c s
mu T pi T
2002-01-0377
Contents
O Introduction
O Demands on a turbocharger
O Types of turbine characteristics
O 1-D model of a radial turbine
O Model calibration
O Results of calibration
O Examples of results
O Conclusions
2002-01-0377
Types of turbine characteristics
Operation parameters
O pressures p
0T1
, p
T2
and pressure ratio
O gas temperatures T
0T1
, T
0T2
O turbine speed n
T
and reduced speed
Performance parameters - standard characteristics
O reduced flow rate
O isentropic efficiency
2
1 0
T
T
T
p
p
= π
1 0T
T
Tred
T
n
n =
1 0
1 0
T
T T
Tred
p
T m
m
&
&
=
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

− − =

κ
κ
π η
1
1 0 2 0 1 0
1
T T p T T p Ts
T c T T c
2002-01-0377
Types of turbine characteristics
02P-447
Standard form
of turbine
characteristic.
Strong
dependence
on pressure
ratio.
2002-01-0377
Range of turbine operation
Types of turbine characteristics
Standard form
of turbine
characteristic.
Big efficiency
changes, strong
pressure/speed
dependence.
2002-01-0377
Range of turbine operation
Types of turbine characteristics
O Turbine flow rate depends on its speed, not
on pressures only
O Standard form of turbine characteristics is
not suitable for extrapolation.
O Derived (“dimensionless”) form of
characteristics should eliminate main
pressure dependencies.
O Mutual substitution of both types is provided.
2002-01-0377
Types of turbine characteristics
Derived operation parameters eliminating main
pressure dependence
O pressure ratio
O turbine velocity ratio
O Mach number calculated from impeller circumferrence
velocity
2
1 0
T
T
T
p
p
= π
1 0
1 0
max ,
T
T
M
T
D T
u
T
n
K
a
u
M = =
(
(
¸
(

¸

− = =

κ
κ
π
1
1 0
max ,
1 2 ;
T T p s
s
D T
T c c
c
u
x
n
Tred
2002-01-0377
Types of turbine characteristics
Performance parameters eliminating main pressure
dependence
O discharge coefficient
O isentropic efficiency
( )
2
2
2 0 1 0
s
T T p
Ts
c
T T c −
= η
( )
T
T
T T
Tref
T
p
T m
A
π ψ
µ
1 1
1 0
1 0
&
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

− =

κ
κ
π
1
1 0
1 2
T T p s
T c c
( )
1 1
1
1 2
1
2
1
2
2



+
∗ − −
|
.
|

\
|
+
= >
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

|
.
|

\
|


κ
κ
κ
κ
κ
π π
κ
κ
π
π π π π
at
ψ
at
r
c
.

T T
T
T T
κ
κ+
T
κ
T
p
m
Tred
2002-01-0377
Types of turbine characteristics
Turbine Characteris tics at Engine with Puls e Manifold
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3
Velocity Ratio [1]
I
s
e
n
t
r
o
p
i
c

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
;

D
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t



[
1
]
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

r
a
t
i
o



[
1
]
Discharge Coefficient
Isentropic Efficiency
Pressure Ratio
Both
pressure
and velocity
ratio
influences
must be
considered
2002-01-0377
Types of turbine characteristics
maximum
efficiency
nominal
velocity ratio
nominal discharge
coefficient
2002-01-0377
Both pressure
and velocity
ratio
influences
must be
considered:
nominal
values
Types of turbine characteristics
efficiency
discharge
coefficient
2002-01-0377
Both pressure
and velocity
ratio
influences
must be
considered:
relative
(normalized)
values
compared to
nominal
ones
Contents
O Introduction
O Demands on a turbocharger
O Types of turbine characteristics
O 1-D model of a radial turbine
O Model calibration
O Results of calibration
O Examples of results
O Conclusions
2002-01-0377
1-D model
of a radial
turbine
Inlet scroll
Nozzle
ring
Impeller
Outlet
Outlet
diffuser
diffuser
Impeller incidence
Impeller incidence
loss and relative
loss and relative
motion
motion
L L
e e
a a
k k
a a
g g
e e
Impeller
Impeller
windage
windage
Flow
separation
• flow rate
influenced by
losses and flow
separation
• efficiency
losses due to
friction and
flow separation
(wakes)
• windage
2002-01-0377
1-D model of a radial turbine
c
2
w
3
u
2
u
3
c
3
w
2I
w
2N
t +
r or a +
angle +
α
2
β
2N
β
3
α
3
Velocity transformation
Impeller incidence
Impeller incidence
loss and relative
loss and relative
motion
motion
2002-01-0377
1-D model of a radial turbine
s
∆h
N
01
02 I
s3
s3 N
3
s3 I
∆h
I
∆h
Ii loss
h
02 N
1
2 N 2 I
0 rel2 N 0 rel2 I
c
1
2
/2
03
0 rel3
c
2
2
/2
P
T
/m
T
w
2N
2
/2 w
2I
2
/2
-u
2I
2
/2
-u
3I
2
/2
w
3
2
/2
s2
c
3
2
/2
2002-01-0377
1-D model of a radial turbine
Summary of model features
O Flow through a nozzle channel with
dissipation in turbulent boundary layers
O Influence of centrifugal and Coriolis
acelerations (rotating channel)
O Incidence angle loss at impeller
O Leakages at impeller shroud and hub
(different impact of centrifugal force fields)
O Flow separation at shroud surface
O Iterations based on the case of
incompressible liquid
2002-01-0377
Contents
O Introduction
O Demands on a turbocharger
O Types of turbine characteristics
O 1-D model of a radial turbine
O Model calibration
O Results of calibration
O Examples of results
O Conclusions
2002-01-0377
Model calibration
O Calibration according to performance
variables - both flow rate (discharge
coefficient) and turbine efficiency determined
by experiments
O Experiments at different operation
parameters
O turbine speed
O pressure ratio
O upstream turbine temperature
O velocity ratio, pressure ratio and Mach number
calculations
2002-01-0377
Model calibration
O Tuning parameters
O exit angles at a nozzle ring and impeller - 2
O isentropic efficencies - 2
O incidence loss coefficient - 1
O leakage discharge coefficients at impeller shroud
and hub - 2
O flow contraction coefficient due to flow
separation at impeller shroud - 1
O windage loss coefficient of an impeller - 1
O TOTAL 9
2002-01-0377
Model calibration
O Calibration procedure - step 1 -
representation of experiments - turbine
driven by compressed air and loaded by
dynamometer or a special compressor
O regression representation of results of
experiments (enables later interpolation of
performance parameters)
O sets of performance and operation parameter
occurrences - using interpolation of measured
parameters in reasonable neighborhoods of
measured points
2002-01-0377
Model calibration
O Calibration procedure - step 2 - features of a
model:
O sensitivity analysis of performance parameters at
different operation ones to changes of tuning
parameters
O regression substitution of results at two levels -
dependencies on operation and tuning
parameters
O creation of a non-linear set of equations with
unknown tuning parameters
if both
if both
performance
performance
and
and
operation
operation
parameters assumed to be defined
parameters assumed to be defined
2002-01-0377
Model calibration
O Calibration procedure - step 3 -
O interpolation of the results of experiments
using their regression representation in a
reasonable neighborhood of a measured points -
providing
9 equations
9 equations for 9 unknowns
O solving the nonlinear set of equations from the
step 1
O repeating for different operation points until
dependence of tuning parameters on operation
parameters is provided.
2002-01-0377
Contents
O Introduction
O Demands on a turbocharger
O Types of turbine characteristics
O 1-D model of a radial turbine
O Model calibration
O Results of calibration
O Examples of results
O Conclusions
2002-01-0377
Results of calibration
Exit flow angles
2002-01-0377
Results of calibration
01-0377
Eficiencies of both nozzle ring and impeller
Results of calibration
2002-01-0377
Results of calibration
2002-01-0377
Results of calibration
2002-01-0377
Contents
O Introduction
O Demands on a turbocharger
O Types of turbine characteristics
O 1-D model of a radial turbine
O Model calibration
O Results of calibration
O Examples of results
O Conclusions
2002-01-0377
Examples of results
Measurement and simulation with constant
and variable tuning parameters at different
pressure ratios π
T
2002-01-0377
π
T
=1.6
Examples of results
Measurement and simulation with constant
and variable tuning parameters at different
pressure ratios π
T
2002-01-0377
π
T
=2.0
Examples of results
Measurement and simulation with constant
and variable tuning parameters at different
pressure ratios π
T
2002-01-0377
π
T
=2.4
Examples of results
O Differences of performance parameters in
dependence on either optimum or constant
velocity ratio are significant at high pressure
ratios.
O A compressor keeps an uncontrolled turbine
roughly at constant velocity ratio!
2002-01-0377
Examples of results
2002-01-0377
Total turbine
characteristics
for different
pressure
ratios in
dependence
on a velocity
ratio
Examples of results
Positive influence of an outlet diffuser
2002-01-0377
w/ diffuser of big
D
out
/D
in
original
turbine
w/ diffuser of small
D
out
/D
in
Contents
O Introduction
O Demands on a turbocharger
O Types of turbine characteristics
O 1-D model of a radial turbine
O Model calibration
O Results of calibration
O Examples of results
O Conclusions
2002-01-0377
Conclusions
Q 1-D model of a radial turbine has been
validated by experiments.
Q Calibrating procedures were developed.
Q Direct links of results to 1-D codes of cycle
simulation are provided at different levels
ya standard turbine characteristics, employed by
most of ICE simulation codes;
ythe modules in the form of special pipe elements
for advanced engine codes.
2002-01-0377
Conclusions
Q The model provides moreover simulation
tools for
yvaneless components upstream a turbine
impeller,
ya vaneless axial-radial diffuser downstream a
turbine impeller,
yinvestigation of the limit of sonic critical state
and its impact on a flow rate and isentropic
efficiency,
ya mixing in a shear layer downstream a twin-
entry scroll with different inlet pressures.
2002-01-0377
Acknowledgements
This research has been supported by the
project „Research Centers“ of the Ministry of
Education , Czech Republic, #LN00B073.
This help is gratefully appreciated..
2002-01-0377
The End
2002-01-0377

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