Qu’ran

*reading or recitation *book containing the speech of God gradually revealed to prophet Muhammad in Arabic and transmitted to us by continuous testimony *first source of shariah * consists of 114 suras and 6235 ayat *revealed over a period of 23 years * preserved in memory by the prophet and inscribed in stones, wood and other materials

2 kinds of revelation
1. Manifest revelation- communication from God to prophet Muhammad conveyed by angel Gabriel. 2. Internal revelation- consists of inspirations and sayings of the prophet but they are not part of the qur’an. - Consists of divine inspiration which is communicated in the word of the prophet

Two distinct periods:
1. Mecca- period prior to the prophet’s migration. Consists of matters of beliefs, the oneness of god, the necessity of the prophethood of Muhammad. - Has 85 suras - Suras are short but rhythmical and intense 2. Madinah- period after the migration. Consist of legal rules, emphasizes the political, social and economic life - Has 29 suras - Suras are detailed and conveyed sense of serenity 3 criterias 1. Time of revelation 2. Place of revelation 3. The nature of audience Other facts of qu’ran -140 ayas- about devotional matters such as salah, legal alms, fasting pilgrimage of hajj, jihad charities, oath taking, penances

divorce the waiting period of idda revocation. lease loan and mortgage -30 ayats. Definitive text.) .is one which is clear and specific. Characteristics of qu’ranic texts a. Example: specified shares in inheritance Prescribed penalties b. Speculative text. It has only one meaning and admits no other explanation. evidence. fosterage. custody of children. inheritance -70 ayats. consultation and the rights and obligation of citizens -10 ayats about economic matters regulating the relations between the poor and the rich.devoted to marriage. ( the mothers and daughters here are no exactly specified. dower. paternity.open to interpretation Example in marriage) prohibited to you are your mothers and daughters.about commercial transactions such as sale. highway robbery. adultery and false accusations -30 ayats about justice.-70 ayats. the workers’ right. equality.about crime and penalty such as murder.

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