DistributeD by US Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District 2012

Project contributors
sPonsor US Army contracting agency US Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District technical guiDance Susan Bupp, Parsons Corporation author Jennifer Corcoran, Brockington and Associates, Inc. Design anD eDiting John Cason and Meg Moughan, Brockington and Associates, Inc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.............................................................................................. 3 LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................... 7 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 11 Historical Overview ......................................................................................... 11 Purpose ........................................................................................................... 12 Previous Studies .............................................................................................. 13 A Note on Installation Names and Building Numbers ...................................... 14 Fort Gillem Timeline 1917-2011 ...................................................................... 16 Army Depot/Fort Gillem Commanders............................................................. 18 PRESENT-DAy ATLANTA AND FORT GILLEM ........................................................ 21 Location and Demographics ............................................................................ 23 ARMy DEPOT AT THE CANDLER WAREHOUSE 1917-1941 ................................... 29 WORLD WAR II MOBILIzATION AND DEPOT CONSTRUCTION .............................. 33 Depot Site Selected ......................................................................................... 33 The CCC at the Depot ....................................................................................... 34 Design and Environment ................................................................................. 35 Land Acquisition .......................................................................................... 35 World War II Army Construction Practices and Standardized Designs ............. 36 Atlanta General Depot Construction ............................................................. 38 Depot Infrastructure and Utilities ................................................................. 53 Motor Base Construction .............................................................................. 57 THE DEPOT AND MOTOR BASE DURING WORLD WAR II ...................................... 63 The US Army Reorganization and the Technical Services.................................. 63 Army Organization Effects Changes to Atlanta Installation ........................... 63 Distribution Areas ........................................................................................ 64 Missions of the Technical Services ................................................................. 65 Impact on Atlanta............................................................................................ 69 Life on Post During World War II ...................................................................... 70 Publications................................................................................................. 70 Events ......................................................................................................... 71 Fires ............................................................................................................ 71 Unusual Missions of the Depot During World War II ......................................... 72 Shoe Shop ................................................................................................... 73 Coffee Roasting Plant .................................................................................. 74 The Depot Historian ..................................................................................... 77
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ATLANTA MOTOR BASE ........................................................................................ 83 Prisoners of War at the Motor Base .............................................................. 85 Automotive School....................................................................................... 86 AFTER WORLD WAR II .......................................................................................... 99 Supply Surplus ...............................................................................................100 Morris Army Airfield .......................................................................................101 Explosive Ordnance Disposal ..........................................................................105 ATLANTA ARMy DEPOT BECOMES FORT GILLEM ................................................109 The New Mission of Fort Gillem ......................................................................110 Renaming Ceremony ......................................................................................111 FORT GILLEM IN THE 1970s AND 1980s ..............................................................115 VA Cemetery ...................................................................................................117 Bicentennial Events .......................................................................................118 Fort Gillem and the Environment ...................................................................119 NEPA and the Development of Environmental Regulations ..........................119 Environmental Improvement Efforts and Issues ..........................................120 Installation Improvements and Beautification ...............................................122 Holland Park Housing .................................................................................123 SCOUTS AT FORT GILLEM ....................................................................................129 ARMy COMMANDS AT FORT GILLEM ..................................................................133 Second US Army .............................................................................................133 First US Army Arrives at Fort Gillem ................................................................134 FORT GILLEM IN THE 1990s AND BEyOND ..........................................................137 War in the Persian Gulf ...................................................................................137 Fort Gillem Activities ......................................................................................138 Tenant Organizations and Construction ..........................................................140 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) ...........................................................144 The Future of Fort Gillem ................................................................................147

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CULTURAL RESOURCES OF FORT GILLEM ...........................................................153 Landmarks and Historical Markers..................................................................155 Flankers Road .............................................................................................155 Hardee Hall ................................................................................................155 Holland Hall ...............................................................................................155 Hood Avenue ..............................................................................................156 Iverson Gate ...............................................................................................156 McIntosh Gate ............................................................................................156 Morris Army Airfield ...................................................................................157 Wheeler Drive .............................................................................................157 SOURCES.............................................................................................................159 Archival Records .............................................................................................159 Print Sources ..................................................................................................161 Electronic Sources ...........................................................................................162 Interviews and Correspondence .....................................................................165

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Figure 1.0 Fort Gillem location map............................................................................................................................10 Figure 1.1 Installation name changes and dates. .......................................................................................................15 Figure 2.0 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 3.0 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 4.0 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Figure 4.9 Figure 4.10 Figure 4.11 Figure 4.12 Figure 4.13 Figure 4.14 Figure 4.15 Figure 4.16 Figure 4.17 Figure 4.18 Figure 4.19 Figure 4.20 Figure 4.21 Figure 4.22 Figure 4.23 Figure 4.24 Figure 4.25 Figure 4.26 Figure 4.27 Figure 4.28 Figure 4.29 Figure 4.30 Figure 4.31 Figure 4.32 Figure 4.33 Downtown Atlanta, 2012. .........................................................................................................................20 Fort Gillem entrance, 2012. .......................................................................................................................21 1864 map of Atlanta General Depot ..........................................................................................................22 Modern map of the installation. ...............................................................................................................24 Loading supplies at the Candler Warehouse Quartermaster Depot ...........................................................28 Sanborn map of Candler Warehouse buildings..........................................................................................29 Map of Atlanta area showing Candler Warehouse and Fort McPherson. ...................................................30 ca. 1941 photo of Candler Warehouse .......................................................................................................31 Letter from Col. J.W.G. Stephens to the depot historian, January 17, 1945, detailing the site selection. ..32 A worker during construction. ...................................................................................................................33 1877 Dodge-Ruger map. ...........................................................................................................................36 Depot site plan, 1942. ................................................................................................................................38 Aerial image of Depot site under construction, January 1, 1942. ..............................................................39 Depot site under construction, November 1941. .......................................................................................39 Succession of photos (1941-1942) showing ammunition igloos under construction. ..............................40 Photograph of loading platform and railroad tracks at warehouse Group E, 2011....................................41 Building 1, from 1942 completion report. .................................................................................................42 Building 101, April 2011. ...........................................................................................................................42 Building 2, from 1942 completion report. .................................................................................................43 Building 102, April 2011. ...........................................................................................................................43 Building 3, from 1942 completion report. .................................................................................................44 Building 103, April 2011. ..........................................................................................................................44 Building 4, from 1942 completion report. .................................................................................................45 Building 104, April 2011. ...........................................................................................................................45 Building 41, from 1942 completion report. ...............................................................................................46 Building 107, April 2011. ...........................................................................................................................46 Building 51/53, from 1942 completion report...........................................................................................47 Building 108, April 2011. ..........................................................................................................................47 Building 52/54, from 1942 completion report...........................................................................................48 Building 110, April 2011. ...........................................................................................................................48 Building 88, from 1942 completion report. ...............................................................................................49 Building 114, April 2011. ...........................................................................................................................49 Building 78, from 1942 completion report. ...............................................................................................50 Building 201, April 2011. ...........................................................................................................................50 Building 80, from 1942 completion report. ...............................................................................................51 Building 301, April 2011. ...........................................................................................................................51 Railroad lines under construction, 1942. ...................................................................................................52 Locomotive Repair Shop, 1942. .................................................................................................................53 One Group B Warehouse with truck loading platform visible at far right, 1942. .......................................53 LCL Freight Station Building, 1942. ............................................................................................................54 Fire station, 1942. ......................................................................................................................................54 The mailroom puppies,1944.. ....................................................................................................................55 7

Figure 4.34 Figure 4.35 Figure 4.36 Figure 4.37 Figure 4.38 Figure 4.39 Figure 4.40 Figure 4.41 Figure 4.42 Figure 4.43 Figure 4.44 Figure 4.45 Figure 5.0 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.5 Figure 5.6 Figure 5.7 Figure 5.8 Figure 6.0 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3 Figure 6.4 Figure 6.5 Figure 6.6 Figure 6.7 Figure 6.8 Figure 6.9 Figure 6.10 Figure 6.11 Figure 6.12 Figure 6.13 Figure 6.14 Figure 6.15 Figure 6.16 Figure 6.17 Figure 6.18 Figure 6.19 Figure 7.0 Figure 7.1 Figure 7.2 Figure 7.3 Figure 7.4 Figure 7.5

Electrical switching station, 1942. .............................................................................................................55 Water storage tank, 1942. .........................................................................................................................55 Sewage disposal plant, 1942. ....................................................................................................................56 East Gate House, 1942. ..............................................................................................................................56 West Gate House, 1942. ............................................................................................................................56 A guard checks ID, 1942. ............................................................................................................................56 Site Plan of the Motor Base, 1942. .............................................................................................................57 Storage warehouse, 1942. .........................................................................................................................57 Mess Hall (170-man), 1942. ......................................................................................................................59 63-Man Barracks, 1942. .............................................................................................................................59 Aerial photo of the Motor Base, facing west, 1949. ...................................................................................60 Aerial photo of the Motor Base, facing east, 1949. ....................................................................................60 Army Motors cover, March, 1945. ..............................................................................................................70 Joe Dope cartoon. ......................................................................................................................................70 Photo of Building 900 (Mechanical Repair Shop) upon its completion in 1942. .......................................71 1944 Aerial photo of the Motor Base, with repair shop and warehouse bays destroyed. ..........................72 Map showing Buford, Georgia, and the Depot...........................................................................................73 The Bona Allen Factory building. ..............................................................................................................74 Workers in the Atlanta coffee roasting plant. ............................................................................................75 Hand drawn graph illustrating coffee production at the Depot.................................................................76 US map of DoD coffee roasting facilities and distribution areas. ...............................................................77 The Ordnance Automotive School’s display, Armed Forces Day 19 May 1955............................................82 Cartoon illustrating the frequent name changes of the installation..........................................................84 He that relaxes is helping the Axis, from 1943 Atlanta Ordnance Depot historical report. ........................85 Main Gate of Atlanta Ordnance Depot (Motor Base), June 1947. ..............................................................85 “Classroom Lecture in Wheel Vehicle Repair Course”, March 9, 1941 – June 30, 1956..............................86 Fourth Service Command Reclamation Center, Chemical Warfare Service Repair Shop, 1945. .................87 Fourth Service Command Reclamation Center, Instrument Repair Shop, 1945.........................................88 Fourth Service Command Reclamation Center gate with headquarters in the background, 1945............89 “Combat Training - The Ordnance Automotive School,” March 9, 1941 – June 30, 1956. ..........................90 “Shop Experience Covering Lathe Operation in Machinist Course,” March 9, 1941 – June 30, 1956. ........91 “Graduating Class, Americus Branch, The Ordnance Automotive School,” March 9, 1941 – June 30, 1956.....92 “School Troops Participate in a Parade,” March 9, 1941 – June 30, 1956. .................................................92 “Public Display of Training Aids,” March 9, 1941 – June 30, 1956. .............................................................93 “Group of The Infantry School visitors inspecting a lathe threading project” ca. 1955..............................93 “Mr. Charles Garmon, Civilian-in-Charge, Automotive Tire Rebuild Course” ca. 1955................................94 “Brigadier General A.W. Beeman, Commanding General, Atlanta General Depot… March 1955.” .........94 “Brigadier General W.E. House, Assistant Chief of Ordnance for Manpower.” ca. 1955. .............................95 “Major Cherm Disyabutra (left), and Captain Chamras Ampawa.” ca. 1955. .............................................95 “Technical Sergeants Apolinar Dr Ramos (left), and Antonia B. Agno.” ca. 1955. ......................................96 “Captain Muhammed Kamel Abd el Badio, Egyptian Army.” ca. 1955. ......................................................96 Cover of “Guidebook of the Atlanta General Depot”, November 1, 1946....................................................98 Building 400 (center), facing south, August 1,1956. ................................................................................99 Building 400, 2002.....................................................................................................................................99 Building 401, facing north, August 1, 1956. ............................................................................................100 Building 401, 2002...................................................................................................................................100 “Army Vehicles by Thousands Rusting at Georgia Depot” newspaper photograph, 1946. ......................101 8

Figure 7.6 Figure 7.7 Figure 7.8 Figure 7.9 Figure 7.10 Figure 7.11 Figure 8.0 Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 Figure 8.3 Figure 8.4 Figure 8.5 Figure 9.0 Figure 9.1 Figure 9.2 Figure 9.3 Figure 9.4 Figure 9.5 Figure 9.6 Figure 10.0 Figure 10.1 Figure 10.2 Figure 10.3 Figure 10.4

Aerial photo of the Motor Base and Morris AAF, March 10, 1959.............................................................102 Aerial photo of Morris AAF, 1960. ............................................................................................................103 1st Lt. John O. Morris, Jr............................................................................................................................104 Kirk Morris at the 1959 dedication ceremony, standing next to the plaque dedicated to his father. ......104 An H-13 helicopter, with Kirk Morris along for the ride, at the 1959 dedication. ....................................104 The unit Insignia of the 52nd Ordnance Group. .......................................................................................105 Lt. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem II, June 28, 1974. ................................................................................................108 Invitation to the Atlanta Army Depot inactivation and Fort Gillem activation ceremony, June 28, 1974. ....109 Forces Command honor guard and color guard at the Fort Gillem activation ceremony, June 28, 1974. .....110 Inactivation of the Atlanta Army Depot, June 28, 1974. ..........................................................................110 Miss Ann Gillem, sister of Lt. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem Jr., admires the dedication plaque, June 28, 1974. ...111 Photograph of (then Maj.) Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, Jr., commander of US XII Corps, no date......................112 “New Shopping Center for Atlanta Military,” June 21, 1982....................................................................114 Army and Air Force Exchange Service at Fort Gillem, October 13, 1983. .................................................117 The Freedom Train, 1976..........................................................................................................................118 1985 Site map indicating “Known Buried Contaminate Area[s].” (Shown in green)................................121 Members of the Gillem family at the Gillem Memorial Garden Dedication, August 5, 1978. .................123 A Holland Park duplex, ca. 2009. .............................................................................................................124 A Holland Park apartment building, ca. 2009. .........................................................................................125 Cub Scout Pack 122, 1955 ........................................................................................................................128 Renaming of the Scout Hut in honor of Sergeant Morgan, November 1, 1963. ......................................128 The Boy Scout Hut at Stephens Lake, no date. ........................................................................................129 Map of the 1976 Boy Scout encampment ...............................................................................................130 Girl Scout “Camp Tara” patch from the 1986 summer camp. ...................................................................131

Figure 11.0 “Change of Command”, July 28, 1985. .....................................................................................................132 Figure 11.1 First Army commanding general, Lt. Gen. J. Michael Bednarek, June 3, 2011. .......................................134 Figure 12.0 “A convoy of military vehicles of the 101st Airborne, bound for Saudi Arabia”, August 23, 1990............136 Figure 12.1 Fort Gillem youth Fishing Rodeo at Stephens Lake at Fort Gillem, April 23, 2009. ..................................138 Figure 12.2 The final Gillem Gallop, November 22, 2010. ..........................................................................................139 Figure 12.3 Aerial photograph of the AAFES distribution warehouses at Fort Gillem (facing east), no date..............140 Figure 12.4 US Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory seal......................................................................................141 Figure 12.5 US Army Criminal Investigation Command seal. .....................................................................................142 Figure 12.6 “Studying fingerprints at Fort Gillem, Robert D. Whritenour”, November 1, 1991. .................................142 Figure 12.7 CID laboratory with expansion locations illustrated in three phases .......................................................143 Figure 12.8 CID laboratory with phase 3 expansion in progress, December 29, 2010. ...............................................143 Figure 12.9 Military Entrance Processing Station. ......................................................................................................144 Figure 12.10 Kane Hall, 2004, courtesy of James Clifford. .........................................................................................144 Figure 12.11 Conceptual drawing of the Fort Gillem Readiness Center. ....................................................................144 Figure 12.12 Firefighters struggle to contain a fire that engulfed Building 608, January 26, 2010. .........................145 Figure 12.13 Firefighters observe the remains of the burning Building 608, January 26, 2010................................145 Figure 12.14 Building 734, Fort Gillem chapel, just prior to demolition in 2010. ......................................................147 Figure 12.15 Fort Gillem Enclave ribbon cutting ceremony, October 12, 2011..........................................................147 Figure 12.16 Map of Fort Gillem area with the Enclave highlighted. ........................................................................148 Figure 12.17 Conceptual drawing of the Fort Gillem redevelopment master plan. ..................................................149 Figure 13.0 Figure 13.1 Map of Fort Gillem with NRHP-eligible buildings (with covenants) highlighted. ................................152 Map of Fort Gillem with landmarks and historical markers highlighted. ............................................154 9

285

FOREST PARK
1 mi 1 km

75 85

20

20

ATLANTA CITY LIMITS

675

FORT GILLEM
285 75

Figure 1.0 Fort Gillem location map.

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historical overview
Fort Gillem’s history is a story of cause and effect, supply and demand, need and fulfillment. It was born out of the US Army’s need to provide supplies to its troops and installations in the Atlanta area and throughout the Southeast. This original requirement was met during World War I with the depot at the Candler Warehouse near downtown Atlanta. When World War I was over, this depot was demobilized. Although the Candler Warehouse was again used between 1940 and 1941, with World War II approaching, the Army came to the realization that, while a depot facility was needed, the Candler buildings would not be sufficient for the scale of this conflict. This was a war unlike any that had come before it, and it called for a comparable storage and supply system. The supply requirements for the region could only be met by a completely new depot strategically and centrally located, interconnected by rail and roadways, on a piece of land nearly 1,500 acres in area. This was the Atlanta General Depot (Depot) and it was activated in 1941. Constantly responding to the Army’s changing requirements, the Depot had an array of missions, corresponding changes in name, and variations in its boundaries from World War II until the Vietnam era. What was originally operated as two separate installations, the Atlanta Quartermaster Depot and the Atlanta Ordnance Depot, became one installation in 1948. The official name of the installation was changed numerous times from Atlanta Quartermaster Depot (which provided supplies for the Quartermaster department) to Atlanta General Depot (which supplied all of the technical services). Other names included the Atlanta Army Service Forces Depot, Atlanta General Distribution Depot, and Atlanta Army Depot. All of these variations point to the shifting requirements of its army supply mission. Different departments controlled the Depot at different times depending on the most pressing needs, and conflicts around the world changed the Army’s demands. The basic job of the installation, however, remained the same: get supplies to the troops when and where they were most needed and as quickly as possible.

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The installation fulfilled this need in roughly the same fashion for over 30 years, until 1974, when it was deactivated and designated a sub installation of another, older Atlanta Army installation, Fort McPherson. The Depot was then renamed Fort Gillem. At that time, there was a significant change in the purpose and function of the installation. Rather than having its own mission to meet the supply needs of the Army, it now functioned under the direction of Fort McPherson and its commander. And while Fort Gillem had a number of important jobs during its history, these were often isolated tasks that had the particular requirement of needing large amounts of space. Therefore, Fort Gillem was not assigned an overarching mission and never operated as one cohesive installation as it did when its mission began in World War II as a well-oiled supply machine. The installation contains an immense array of warehouses and a spider web of rail lines that eventually exceeded any reasonable need of the Army. By the late twentieth century, many stood vacant and unused. Buildings that were constructed with extreme haste to meet wartime demands now fell into disrepair. They were now a burden to an Army that had become more nimble and efficient than what the facilities of Fort Gillem could provide. In 2005, the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission decided to close Fort Gillem. In a final response to Army demands and changes, Fort Gillem shut its doors in 2011. As the land and buildings of Fort Gillem are returned to public and civic use after their 70-year lifespan with the military, a small part endures as an Army Enclave. Enclaves are generally parts of former military installations that are retained for military use. The Enclave is only 257 acres in size, a fraction of the Depot’s original area, but its existence is a testament to the value of an Atlanta presence to the Army and to Fort Gillem’s strategic location.

Purpose
According to the requirements of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, the Army must consider the effects of installation closure on historic properties. On May 12, 2010, the Army and the Georgia State Historic Preservation Office signed a Memorandum of Agreement stipulating documentation of Fort Gillem’s history. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to document the history and architectural develop-

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ment of Fort Gillem through text, maps, and photographs and to provide the public with a record of the installation after its closing. This document is based on previously developed historic documentation for the installation as well as limited primary source materials. To document the installation’s history, archival research was conducted at the Public Information Office of Fort McPherson, the Southeast Regional Branch of the National Archives in Atlanta, and local libraries. The story of Fort Gillem has long been intertwined with that of its neighbor, Fort McPherson. One of the goals of this project was to illustrate the history of Fort Gillem in its own right, while recognizing the overall historical associations it has with Fort McPherson. It does not discuss Fort Gillem only in terms of its relationship to Fort McPherson, but recognizes that it existed as a separate installation for over 30 years and, therefore, warrants an investigation of its own. This work attempts to explain how Fort Gillem responded to world events and how the landscape and architecture of the installation was altered in response to them. It also includes explanations of how the mission of Fort Gillem reflected larger and ongoing efforts within the Army and the nation as a whole.

Previous studies
Several documents previously created to study historical Army buildings are applicable to Fort Gillem: • Housing an Army: The Wherry and Capehart Era Solutions to the Postwar Family Housing Shortage (1949-1962) • World War II and the U.S. Army Mobilization Program: A History of 700 and 800 Series Cantonment Construction • Nationwide Context, Inventory, and Heritage Assessment of Works Progress Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps Resources on Department of Defense Installations • Military Historic Context Emphasizing the Cold War Including the Identification and Evaluation of Above-Ground Cultural Resources for Thirteen Department of Defense Installations in the State of Georgia

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a note on installation names and building numbers
Since the Army took possession of the area of land that became Fort Gillem, the names, numbers, and functions assigned to the installation and its buildings have changed repeatedly. The following is a statement on the treatment of both installation names and building numbering. Alterations to Army command and organizational structure were typically the reason for installation name changes (see Figure 1.1 for installation name changes and dates). The dates for the installation name changes were gleaned from a variety of sources including previous histories, memos, articles, and national archives records. While more detailed explanations of name changes are included in the narrative history, the following general naming conventions have been employed for clarity. When referring to the two separate original installations, the western installation will be called the “Motor Base” while the larger installation to the east will be called the “Depot.” After the point at which these two installations were combined (1948), the combined area will be called the “Depot.” After 1974, it will be called “Fort Gillem.” See Figure 2.3 for Depot and Motor Base boundaries. All buildings on Fort Gillem are numbered; however, these numbers can be a source of confusion because they have changed over the years. Several major issues contribute to this problem: the original existence of two separate installations, the renumbering of buildings by area, and gaps in building records. Originally two different installations, the buildings of the Depot and the Motor Base were numbered separately. Therefore, there were two #1s, two #2s, and so on. Prior to the merger of the two installations in 1948, the numbering of the Motor Base buildings was changed to avoid duplication with Depot numbers. Immediately following World War II, all of the Depot buildings were renumbered. This renumbering grouped buildings into categories by area: 100-900. The 100 area was located farthest east and the 900 area was farthest west, so that the majority of the original Motor Base buildings were in the 800 or 900 areas. As a result of this renumbering, many of the original Depot buildings have had at least two different numbers, while the Motor Base buildings have had three. Some buildings had their numbers affixed or painted on their façades. These façade numbers were generally maintained, despite the renumbering.

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MOtOR BASE
AtlAntA MOtOR BASE February 2 - 24, 1942 AtlAntA QUARtERMAStER MOtOR BASE February 24 - August 1, 1942 AtlAntA ORdnAncE MOtOR BASE August 1 - November 13, 1942 AtlAntA ORdnAncE BASE November 13, 1942 - January 15, 1943 AtlAntA ORdnAncE dEpOt January 15, 1943 - 1948

dEpOt
AtlAntA GEnERAl dEpOt November 1, 1941 - July 17, 1942 AtlAntA QUARtERMAStER dEpOt July 17, 1942 - May 23, 1943 AtlAntA ARMy SERvicE FORcES dEpOt May 23, 1943 - May 1946 AtlAntA GEnERAl dEpOt May 1946 - July 1, 1947 AtlAntA GEnERAl diStRiBUtiOn dEpOt July 1, 1947 - 1948

The two installations merged in 1948 AtlAntA GEnERAl dEpOt 1948 - 1962 AtlAntA ARMy dEpOt 1962 - June 28, 1974

June 28, 1974 - September 15, 2011

FORt GillEM

So, the fire station, which is Building 103, has a number 3 on its façade, as this was the original number when it was part of the Depot. Additionally, many buildings originally had a “T” preceding the building number. This indicated a temporary building. Most of the 100-500 buildings were not temporary, while many of the 600-900 buildings were. On site maps from the 1980s, most of the temporary designations had disappeared, even though many of the buildings remained. Several lists were maintained in Depot records cross-referencing original and current numbers; however, these were not always completely accurate. Using these lists, as well as numerous other installation maps, drawings, records, and accounts, building information was compiled for this report. For clarity in this history, the building numbers indicated are typically the most recent or final number. If original numbers are referenced, they are identified as such.

Figure 1.1 Installation name changes and dates.

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FORt GillEM tiMElinE
70 years of Supply and Demand
1917, ApRil 6 Congress declared war on the German Empire and the US entered World War I* 1917 Army Depot established in Candler Warehouse in southwest Atlanta 1918, nOvEMBER 11 Armistice Day, World War I ends 1922, SEptEMBER Army Depot discontinued as part of post war demobilization 1939 Secretary of War ordered establishment of an Atlanta Supply Depot to serve the region’s troops 1940, FEBRUARy Fourth Corps Area Quartermaster Depot located at Fort McPherson 1940, SEptEMBER Fourth Corps Area Quartermaster Depot returned to Candler Warehouse 1940 Congress appropriates $20 million for construction of new Depot 1941 Construction begins on Depot and Motor Base at Clayton County site 1941, JUly 1 Col. Thomas L. Holland became the first commanding officer of the Depot 1941, nOvEMBER 1 Atlanta General Depot activated 1941, dEcEMBER 7 Attack on Pearl Harbor, US declared war on Japan the following day 1942 Construction completed on Depot and Motor Base 1942 Quartermaster Coffee Roasting Plant activated 1942 Buford Shoe Repair Factory operations begin 1942 Automotive School transferred from Fort McPherson and established at Motor Base 1942, JUly 23 Atlanta Quartermaster Motor Base redesignated as the Atlanta Ordnance Motor Base 1944 Buford Shoe Factory operations end 1945, MAy 8 VE Day (World War II ends in Europe) 1945, AUGUSt 14 VJ Day (Japan’s surrender announced, World War II ends in the Pacific) 1946 Adjutant General Regional Records Office and Transportation Supply Section established at the Depot 1946, OctOBER 1 American Graves Registration Service Distribution Center (for repatriating World War II dead) 1947 Adjutant General Regional Records Office discontinued 1948, ApRil 1 General Depot and Motor Base/Ordnance Depot administration merged 1950, JUnE 25 Korean Conflict begins 1953, JUly 27 Korean Conflict ends 1956, JUnE 30 Ordnance Automotive School and Quartermaster Coffee Roasting Plant discontinued

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Fort gillem timeline 1917-2011

1956, OctOBER Transportation Supply Section established to provide maintenance, support and supplies to army aircraft 1957 Airstrip and hangar completed 1959 Airstrip and hangar facility dedicated as Morris Army Airfield 1960, JUly 1 Ordnance Depot Maintenance Mission discontinued 1965 US troops first deployed to Vietnam 1973, AUGUSt 15 US troop involvement in Vietnam ends 1974, JUnE 28 Depot became a sub-installation of Fort McPherson, was deactivated as the Atlanta Army Depot and newly activated as Fort Gillem in honor of Lt. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, Jr. 1982 Commissary and Post Exchange opened on Fort Gillem 1983, OctOBER 1 Second US Army reactivated and assigned to Fort Gillem 1983 US Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory moved to Fort Gillem from Fort Gordon 1990, AUGUSt 2 Gulf War begins “Operation Desert Shield / Desert Storm” 1990 Installation served as refueling and service point for 101st Airborne Division on its way to debarkation for Saudi Arabia during Desert Storm *Red font indicates historic national or world event

1990 Georgia National Guard HQ moved to Fort Gillem 1991, FEBRUARy 28 Gulf War ends 1995, JUly 3 Second US Army inactivated 1995 First US Army headquarters relocated to Fort Gillem 1999, AUGUSt 14 The Atlanta Military Entrance Processing Station (MEPS) begin processing applicants at Fort Gillem 2001, SEptEMBER 11 Terrorist Attacks in New york, Pennsylvania, and Washington DC 2001, OctOBER 7 War in Afghanistan begins “Operation Enduring Freedom” 2002 Morris Army Airfield hangar demolished 2003 (cA.) CID lab constructed 2003, MARch 19 US begins “Operation Iraqi Freedom” 2003, MAy 1 End of major combat operations declared in Iraq 2005, MAy 13 BRAC announces closure of Fort Gillem 2011, SEptEMBER 15 Fort Gillem closed

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ARMy dEpOt/FORt GillEM cOMMAndERS1
BRiG. GEn. thOMAS l. hOllAnd .....................................January 1940 – June 1943 cOl. JOSEph W. G. StEphEnS ............................................June 1943 – January 1945 cOl. R. pOttER cAMpBEll .......................................... February 1945 – August 1945 cOl. GEORGE h. SchUMAchER .................................. August 1945 – December 1945 cOl. AlFREd t. WRiGht ........................................ December 1945 – December 1946 cOl. RichARd B. thORntOn .............................................January 1947 – April 1949 cOl. clydE MASSEy..............................................................April 1949 – August 1951 BRiG. GEn. GUStAvE h. vOGEl...........................................August 1951 – June 1952 cOl. FRAnk G. MARchMAn ................................................. June 1952 – March 1953 BRiG. GEn. FRAnk c. hOlBROOk...........................................April 1953 – June 1954 BRiG. GEn. AAROn W. BEEMAn..............................................June 1954 – April 1955 BRiG. GEn. JOSEph R. RAnck.................................................April 1955 – June 1958 BRiG. GEn. OlivER c. hARvEy ...........................................June 1958 – August 1959 BRiG. GEn. ROBERt c. kySER ....................................November 1959 – August 1962 cOl. JOSEph E. MURRAy......................................................August 1962 – June 1963 cOl. J. p. AlExAndER, JR. ........................................................July 1963 – June 1965 cOl. ROlAnd SAvillA .........................................................July 1965 – October 1966

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cOl. A. J. McdERMOtt, JR. ......................................October 1966 – September 1968 cOl. dEAn vAn lydEGRAF .................................................October 1968 – June 1970 cOl. MARShAll M. MOtES .......................................................July 1970 – May 1972 cOl. A. J. MARtinO......................................................................... June 1972 – 1973 *lt. cOl. WilliAM M. WOlFE .............................................August 1973 – June 1975 *lt. cOl. ROSS l. JOhnSOn ......................................................June 1975 – July 1977 *cOl. lUthER c. vAUGhn ..............................................August 1977 – January 1979 *cOl. tEd n. phillipS ....................................................... February 1979 – July 1980 *lt. cOl. JOE hOlMOnd .................................................. August 1980 – August 1984 *MAJ. (p) EdWARd l. ShERWOOd JR. ......................................... August 1984 – ** *lt. cOl. McARthUR BARnES ............................. December 1989 – September 1992 *lt. cOl. clAREncE t. cAtchinGS .......................................... September 1992 – ** *lt. cOl. ROBERt M. BUtt .............................................July 1995 – September 1997 *lt. cOl. ROBERt O. BURnS ....................................................... November 1997 – **
* Deputy Installation Commander of Fort Gillem under the command of Fort McPherson commander ** No record available

1 Fort McPherson, Public Affairs Office Files, “AMC Installation and Activity Information Summary,” July 1, 1972, (Information through 1972).

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The Atlanta area has been a population and employment center since the early days of its existence. A city sprang up here as a result of the rail lines that intersected at this location. This area of Georgia, which had previously been part of the Creek Indian Nation, was ceded to the United States in the 1820s. In 1833 several new railroads were chartered in Georgia; some of these lines would eventually meet and intersect at the location that would become Atlanta. The city was first incorporated in 1843 under the name “Marthasville;” this was changed to “Atlanta” in 1845. The first train arrived in Atlanta in 1846, and with it came an abundance of commercial activities. A post office, hotels, taverns, and homes soon followed. By 1850 Atlanta was connected to other cities throughout the Southeast.1 Atlanta was of great importance to the outcome of the Civil War, as its numerous rail lines represented a nexus of Confederate supply and transportation. As a result, in 1864 some of the final action of the Atlanta Campaign took place on and near the Fort Gillem site. Federal forces targeted this area because of the adjacent rail lines which were the chief means of supply for the Confederate army. Disabling these rail lines would impair the Confederate’s ability to fight. Under the command of Gen. Oliver O. Howard, the Federal troops tried to destroy the Macon and Western Railroad near the location of the Depot’s west gate. Gen. Alfred Iverson led confederate troops who staunchly defended their fortifications, which were located in and around the Depot site.2 After the Civil War, Atlanta experienced growth of its population, industry, and trade. By 1890 there were 11 different railroad lines that passed through the city. Atlanta became a center of southeastern manufacturing and transportation, and the rail21

Figure 2.0 (Opposite page) Downtown Atlanta, 2012.

Figure 2.1 Fort Gillem entrance, 2012.

Figure 2.2 Atlanta General Depot with site of Civil War activities indicated. Items that appear in red postdate the Battle of Atlanta. From Atlanta General Depot, US Army Forest Park, GA: Supply Center of the Southeast. 22

roads were one of the city’s largest employers through the 1920s. It was this vigorous commercial growth and ready access to transportation that made Atlanta an appealing location for an Army supply center. The city continued to develop in size and commercial might from the World War II period through the present day, and its advancement is expected to continue in the future.

location and Demographics
Fort Gillem’s original legal boundary, situated on Land Lot numbers 177-179, 204-208, and 210-213, consisted of approximately 1,487 acres. Fort Gillem is located within the City of Forest Park in Clayton County, Georgia, approximately seven miles south of the city of Atlanta, and ten miles southeast of Fort McPherson. The installation lies just west of US Highway 23/ Georgia Highway 42 (Macon Highway/Moreland Avenue) and just east of Georgia Highway 54 (Jonesboro Road) with Forest Avenue to the south and State Road to the north. There are two man-made lakes (Marchman and Stephens Lakes), several streams, and extensive wooded areas within its boundaries. Fort Gillem is served by two rail lines, the Central of Georgia Railway line to the west and the Southern Railroad to the east (now both are owned by Norfolk Southern). The remnants of railroad tracks divide the installation diagonally and run from the southwest toward the northeast, with numerous spurs accessing the various warehouses of the post (see Figure 2.3). Building types include residential, administrative, and industrial. The core historical buildings (including Buildings 101-104, 107, 108, 110, 114, 201, and 301) are situated on the eastern end of the installation near Hood Avenue, near Fort Gillem’s main gate. Today, Fort Gillem is quieter than it once was. There is still Army activity on the west side of the installation, where an Army Enclave has been established to contain the remaining military activities. The Enclave remains busy, with hundreds of workers, both military and civilian, coming and going each day. There is little comparison, however, between the installation today and the installation of the early days of World War II. The majority of the military land at Fort Gillem has been transferred from the Army, and plans are underway to redevelop it for commercial and industrial uses. Today, most of the buildings and warehouses, millions of square feet of space, and hundreds of acres of land, sit quiet and vacant, waiting to be productive once more.
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Figure 2.3 Modern map of the installation.

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Fort Gillem 2011 Approximate Area of Atlanta Depot Approximate Area of Atlanta Motor Base Railroad Tracks

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In 1940 the 10-county Atlanta metropolitan region had a population of 620,034; by 1970 it was 1,500,823; and by 2010 it had increased to 4,107,750. The population of Clayton County increased from 11,655 in 1940 to 98,126 in 1970 and had grown to 259,424 by 2010. In the year 2011, despite ongoing national economic woes, the Atlanta metropolitan area and Clayton County continued to grow. In fact, the Atlanta Regional Commission forecasts that the metro area population will reach nearly 6.5 million by 2020 and 8.3 million by 2040. The Clayton County population is anticipated to reach 321,800 by 2040.3 The total net loss of jobs that accompanied the closure of Fort Gillem is unclear because many of those affected by the closure transferred to alternate Army locations. The number of civilians employed at this location has steadily declined over the years. It reached its height during its first year, 1942, with 5,000 people.4 By 1990 this number had dropped to 2,859, and in 2008 (the last year for which employment data is available) civilian personnel numbered 1,443.5

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endnotes
Darlene Roth and Andy Ambrose, Metropolitan Frontiers: A Short History of Atlanta, (Atlanta: Longstreet Press, 1996) 1-27. 2 US Army, Atlanta General Depot, US Army Forest Park , GA: Supply Center of the Southeast (Atlanta: Public Information Office, Atlanta General Depot, 1957), 1-5. 3 ARC Atlanta Regional Commission, www.atlantaregional. com; US Census Bureau, “Georgia: Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990,” http://www.census.gov/population/ cencounts/ga190090.txt; US Census Bureau, “Sixteenth Census of the United States – 1940 – Population. Volume II: Characteristics of the Population,” http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/ documents/33973538v2p2_TOC.pdf. 4 National Archives at Atlanta, RG 92, Box 8, file 314.7, Historical, March 1943. 5 Jim Dale, Fort McPherson, Fort Gillem: The First Hundred and Sixteen Years 1885-2001, ed. Ronald Morton, (Fort McPherson, Georgia: Third United States Army, 2001) 98; Fort McPherson, Public Affairs Office Files, Economic Impact Card, 2008.
1

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A 1917 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Atlanta depicts the buildings of the Candler Warehouse. They are labeled “Atlanta Warehouse Company” and consist of five long buildings designated Warehouse[s] A, B, C, D, and E; sheds were located between each building. Together, the buildings create a U-shaped formation, with the bottom of the U facing west. These warehouses are immediately east of a large cluster of railroad tracks. If followed south, these tracks lead directly to Fort McPherson. The result of this layout was ideal: supplies were delivered to the Depot by rail or by truck, inspected, packaged, and shipped, either directly to Fort McPherson or to other army facilities throughout the southeast. Fort Gillem has its origins in World War I when an Army depot was located at the Candler Warehouse, at Glenn Street and Murphy Avenue in Atlanta. The building’s large storage capacity and proximity to the railroad line made this location ideal for its supply and distribution tasks. The depot supplied troops in eight southeastern states: North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. These states were known as the Fourth Corps area. In 1922, the depot was closed as a cost saving measure, and the troops in the southeast were supplied by other depots, including some as far away as Boston and Chicago. This arrangement was never satisfactory to the succeeding commanders of the Fourth Corps Area, and repeated requests were made for the re-establishment of a general depot near Atlanta.1

Figure 3.0 (Opposite page) Loading supplies at the Candler Warehouse Quartermaster Depot, no date. U.S. Army Signal Corp Photograph. Courtesy, Georgia Archives, Lamar Q. Ball Collection, 0493.

Figure 3.1 Sanborn map of Candler Warehouse buildings, 1917. (Buildings are indicated in orange, sheds in yellow.)

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Figure 3.2 Map of Atlanta area showing Candler Warehouse and Fort McPherson.

With the potential for the United States to enter into a second world war, a depot was re-established in Atlanta in October 1939. This facility was initially located at Fort McPherson, and commanded by Col. John A. Warden. In January of 1940, Lt. Col. Thomas L. Holland took command of the depot at Fort McPherson. In August of that same year, the War Department directed Col. Holland to obtain more space for operations, and by September, the depot operated out of a portion of the Candler Warehouses again. At this time, the facility was called the Fourth Corps Area Quartermaster Depot and was under the control of the Fourth Corps Area Commander, a Lt. Gen. Stanley D. Embick. By 1941, the depot occupied all of the space in the warehouses, consisting of 1,068,000 square feet of warehouse area, 245,000 square feet of shed space, and 18,000 square feet of office space.2 As Army activity increased and supply needs grew, the Candler facility became inadequate. In 1940 Congress authorized approximately $20 million for the construction of a new depot.

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On February 1, 1941, the Candler Depot was placed under the direct control of the Quartermaster Corps, and the name was changed to Atlanta Quartermaster Depot.3

endnotes
1 National Archives at Atlanta, RG 92, Box 8, file 314.7, “Historical”, March 1943, i. 2 Ibid, “The Constitution”, February 1941. 3 Ibid, “Historical”, March 1943, i-ii.

Figure 3.3 ca. 1941 photo of Candler Warehouse, Original Caption: “From Cotton Warehouse to Military Reservation” “Former cotton warehouse plant which has been turned into the Atlanta Quartermaster Depot is 38 acres of warehouses and railroad tracks. Here nearly two millions of pounds of freight are handled daily.” From RG 92, Box 8, file 314.7.

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Figure 4.0 Letter from Col. J.W.G. Stephens to the depot historian, January 17, 1945, detailing the site selection.2

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Depot site selected
There was much speculation about where the new facility would be located. In October 1940, the Marietta Daily Journal reported there was a “fifty-fifty chance” of the depot being located north of Atlanta in Cobb County. Construction costs for the new depot were estimated to be $20,000,000. The City of Marietta offered the government a 1,200-acre tract of land south of the city. The expected capacity of the depot was estimated to include 5,000,000 square feet of space and 25 separate buildings.1 Despite such offers, only two sites were considered strong candidates. According to Col. J.W.G. Stephens, a participant in the selection process, there were 29 possible locations under consideration, but the “Cook’s Crossing” and “Conley Tract” possessed the most potential. Cook’s Crossing was several miles southwest of Atlanta on US Highway 29 and the Conley Tract was southeast of the city on US Highway 23. Cols. Stephens and Holland accompanied by a Col. Greene, completed a survey of the Conley Tract and determined it was the best property to suit the Army’s needs. Col. Greene sent a telegraph to the Quartermaster General on October 23, 1940, followed by an official letter of recommendation on November 7, 1940.2 This new site, located near Forest Park and Conley, Georgia, was chosen because of its proximity to rail and roadways as well as the municipal airport. It was also central to the Fourth Corps Area that it was intended to serve.3 Construction of the new depot began in 1941, with grading and utility work underway by February. By March, work began on the buildings, and in April construction commenced on the streets. On November 1, 1941, the Atlanta General Depot was
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Figure 4.1 A worker during construction. From Fort McPherson archives.

activated in Forest Park, Georgia, although it was not fully occupied until March 1942.4 On December 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor was attacked. When news of the attack reached the nearby Fort McPherson, 25 enlisted men, who were commanded by a Capt. McCrary, were sent to guard the Depot. The Depot was supplied with 24 rifles and 260 rounds of ammunition in order to aid its protection.5

the ccc at the Depot
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a government program initiated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt as part of the New Deal. In existence from 1933-1942, it employed several hundred thousand young men in an array of conservation and public works projects across the country. The US Army administered the program, and the men lived and worked in camps, many of which were located on Army installations. After the attack on Pearl Harbor and the United States’ entrance into World War II, many CCC men were engaged in the construction of facilities for the Army..7

conley conFusion
There has been persistent confusion throughout the installation’s history regarding the name “Conley.” The Depot was sometimes colloquially known as the Conley Depot, the Depot at Conley, or other variations of this name. The misnomer has even made its way into some official records and documents. There are numerous instances where the name Conley appears, and people have failed to associate this name with the Depot or Fort Gillem. This has been a source of trouble for researchers, the public, and the Army since the earliest days of the installation. In a letter dated May 26, 1943, the frustration of the writer is evident when clarification on the proper address for the Depot was given: A large amount of mail intended for…this Depot is being delayed because it is being addressed either to Glenn Street & Murphy Avenue, S. W., Atlanta, Georgia, or Conley, Georgia…Both addresses are incorrect… Conley, Georgia, is a very small village located about two miles from the Depot, with a combination grocery store and post-office, and infrequent mail service. Depot personnel seldom has occasion to go to Conley, so the only way the Depot finds out that there is any mail at the Conley post-office is when the postmaster telephones – which is not often… Please help the Depot to serve you promptly by using the correct mailing address, namely:
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ATLANTA ARMy SERVICE FORCES DEPOT, ATLANTA, GEORGIA…6

The typical CCC camp consisted of 24 buildings, which included a kitchen, mess hall, and buildings for school, recreation, and medical care as well as barracks and quarters buildings. Garage and shop buildings were also typically part of these camps.8 At the Atlanta Depot, the CCC workers built a camp of approximately 22 buildings. These included seven quarters and barracks buildings, four garages, a school and school shop, a maintenance shop, a blacksmith shop, an oil and paint storage building, a recreation building, a bath house, a mess hall, a dispensary, a headquarters building, and an office building.9 The camp at the Depot was designated AF-9 and operated from April 16, 1942, until July 18, 1942.10 It was most likely located on the east side of the Depot. These 22 buildings comprised the CCC camp, however, they were not the only buildings on the installation constructed by the CCC workers. The men who occupied the CCC camp provided labor for the construction of many more of the Depot buildings and features. Twelve of the camp buildings were portable and were transferred to the Motor Base in the 1940s. Some of the CCC buildings may have remained into the 1990s. However, all of the CCC buildings were temporary (wooden) structures. Since the majority of the wooden buildings at Fort Gillem have been demolished, it is unlikely that any of the CCC structures remain.

Design and environment
The property known as Fort Gillem today originally consisted of two separate installations: the Atlanta Quartermaster/General Depot, located east of 20th Street, and the Atlanta Ordnance Motor Base, located west of 20th Street. Although the two installations were separate organizations, they were completed about the same time on land that was purchased together. The Depot comprised approximately 1,200 acres, and the Motor Base, approximately 300 acres. Robert and Company, an architectural firm now based in Atlanta, Georgia, was the original project architect and engineer for both installations.11 Land Acquisition A February 23, 1945, document depicting land ownership demonstrates the complex job of acquiring property for the installations. To produce a large parcel of land, which could meet Army requirements, property was acquired from at least 32 different

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Figure 4.2 1877 Dodge-Ruger map with Depot outlined in red. Image courtesy of David Rumsey Map Collection-http://www. davidrumsey.com.

parties. The largest single tract of land was 202 acres, sold by Y. M. Cates, while the smallest was only .18 acres, sold by Mrs. L. P. Laney. The final land area recorded as 1,486.7 acres is just a few acres short of the often-cited size of 1,500 acres. The DodgeRuger Map, created in 1877, illustrates the military operations of the Atlanta Campaign and also shows the names of the surrounding landowners. Two of the names on this map also appear on the 1945 map, Cates and Corine (spelled “Conine” on the 1945 map) underscoring the fact that this land had been in some families for generations. World War II Army Construction Practices and Standardized Designs Conservation of time, money, and materials was a constant military concern during World War II. Material shortages were common, especially the metal used for typical building components such as gutters, downspouts, and roof vents. Substitute materials had to be developed and used as required. As a result, wood framed buildings were required in order to
36

conserve the scarce metal resources, although steel framed buildings would have been more durable. Standardized building designs developed by the Army, such as the 700 and 800 series plans, were an important conservation measure. By using pre-approved plans for typical buildings such as barracks, mess halls, latrines, and storage buildings, many variables in construction, planning, and materials were eliminated. By choosing from these standard plans, the Army could more accurately estimate construction costs and schedules, as well as building material requirements. The 700 series plans were first developed in the late 1920s and underwent revisions in the 1930s prior to the US pre-war mobilization efforts. This series included plans for inexpensive, wood framed “temporary” structures typically used in military camps. These were widely constructed during 193839 because of the perception that soldiers would only be temporarily housed and trained in the US, and quickly sent overseas. As the US moved closer to joining the fight, the 700 plans became even more important because of their low cost and the fact that they could be quickly constructed. Despite the fact that these were intended to be temporary and to last only five to 20 years, many of them remained in use long after.12 Many of the 700 series buildings at Fort Gillem were not demolished until the late 2000s. The 800 series plans were an improvement on the 700 series. This new series was developed and approved by late 1941. These buildings were designed to accommodate more men, to be more comfortable, and to include advanced safety precautions such as hurricane and earthquake resistance. This series was also purported to allow for greater cost efficiencies, although the actual cost savings of the new plans was debatable. However by October 1942, with the increased intensity of the war, it became obvious that cost and speed were the most important factors for Army construction, and the 700 series again became the preferred type. The 800 series was cancelled by the end of the year. Many of the 800 buildings were included in plans for camps around the country, and in reality, planners chose the designs that best accommodated the needs of a particular project, with the materials that could be procured at the time. Therefore, 700 and 800 series buildings were often built within the same camps. This was the case at the Atlanta Motor Base where the two types are found alongside each other. The 700 plans were used for buildings
37

grouP b

grouP e

grouP D grouP c

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grouP g

Figure 4.3 Depot site plan, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

such as the headquarters, motor shops, and guardhouse, while the 800 plans were used for recreation buildings, mess halls, and storage buildings. Some types such as officer’s quarters and classrooms have examples of both the 700 and 800 designs. Atlanta General Depot Construction The buildings of the Depot are characteristic examples of World War II-era American military architecture. With a combination of both classically inspired buildings and support and warehouse buildings constructed from standardized designs, this installation is an important illustration of rapid military mobilization during the early years of World War II. The majority of the Depot buildings, other than the warehouses, were concrete and frame structures with red brick veneer. These include the administration and maintenance buildings, fire station, motor pool buildings, several utilities buildings, gate houses, guard house, and railroad buildings. Limestone and concrete accents appear on several of these buildings.

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The Army developed Standard Quartermaster plans for the large brick warehouses. Special warehouse bays were designed to facilitate loading and unloading of material from trucks and to trains. Original plans only included the 100, 200, and 300area buildings. On June 21, 1941, the Army authorized an expansion that included 10 warehouses (the 500area), six engineers sheds (Buildings 406-411), and the ammunition igloos (Buildings 321-326). The first warehouse building was completed on October 25, 1941, and the installation was formally activated November 1, 1941 as the Atlanta General Depot. The 600-area was authorized and completed in 1942. The last warehouse was transferred on May 1, 1942, and the final field progress report for construction was submitted on Jun 30, 1942.13 As originally constructed, the depot storage facilities included 24 fireproof brick and concrete warehouses, two wooden warehouses, 20 sheds, six igloos, and three inflammable storage buildings. The warehouses were divided up into different groups with letter designations B through F. Group B had eight fireproof warehouses, two open sheds, and one inflammable storage warehouse. Group C had four fireproof warehouses. Group D had two fireproof warehouses, six igloos, and one inflammable warehouse. Group E had ten fireproof warehouses, six closed sheds and one inflammable warehouse. Group F had two wood warehouses with two open sheds, and Group G had only two open sheds. Altogether the warehouses and storage sheds contained 4,771,814 square feet of space, which is roughly the size of 83 football fields or about 110 acres.14 The warehouse buildings featured a design that was especially suited to the unloading, repackaging, and reloading of goods. Typically, railroad spur tracks ran parallel to one side of the warehouse. This side would also have an elevated platform

Figure 4.4 Aerial image of Depot site under construction, January 1, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

Figure 4.5 Depot site under construction, Group B Warehouses in the foreground with Open Storage Area and Group E Warehouses visible beyond, November 1941. From Fort McPherson archives.

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ammunition igloos
Despite the fact that the Atlanta General Depot had ammunition storage bunkers, or igloos, this was not an ammunition depot. An arsenal was the type of depot equipped for large-scale ammunition storage. The depot in Atlanta was set up to store only light ammunition and only in quantities sufficient to supply this single installation. The general supply warehouses were the primary feature and focus of the Atlanta Depot.
Figure 4.6 Succession of photos (1941-1942) showing ammunition igloos under construction. From Fort McPherson archives.

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dEpOt lOGiSticS

Material brought in via rail Material repackaged and distributed throughout the Southeast

along its entire length. This allowed trains loaded with supplies to be quickly emptied of their contents and those materials to be brought into the warehouse. Within the warehouse buildings, shipments were unpacked, inspected, and used to fill orders, or requisitions, received by the Depot. The opposite side of the warehouse building was equipped with one or two loading docks designed to accommodate trucks. This way, supplies could be efficiently loaded and distributed to other Army camps and installa- Figure 4.7 tions throughout the Fourth Corps Area, the Photograph of loading platform and railroad tracks at warehouse Group E, 2011. area supplied by the Depot.

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Figure 4.8 Building 1, from 1942 completion report.

Figure 4.9 Building 101 was an administrative building and served as Post Headquarters. It was originally Building 1 and was later named Holland Hall. April 2011.

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Figure 4.10 Building 2, from 1942 completion report.

Figure 4.11 Building 102 was constructed as a utilities and maintenance building. It was originally Building 2. April 2011.

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Figure 4.12 Building 3, from 1942 completion report.

Figure 4.13 Building 103 originally served as a fire station and telephone exchange. It was originally Building 3, and had a capacity of 3,963 square feet with space for two engines. In the mid-1990s, an addition was built onto the east side of the building to accommodate a new fire engine and equipment. April 2011. 44

Figure 4.14 Building 4, from 1942 completion report.

Figure 4.15 Building 104 was the“Checker’s Office” and was originally Building 4. April 2011.

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Figure 4.16 Building 41, from 1942 completion report.

Figure 4.17 Building 107 was the Motor Pool Repair Shop. It was originally Building 41 and was part of the garage and shop complex. April 2011.

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Figure 4.18 Building 51/53, from 1942 completion report.

Figure 4.19 Building 108 was the Motor Pool Paint Shop. It was originally constructed as two separate Buildings, 51 and 53, and was part of the garage and shop complex. April 2011.

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Figure 4.20 Building 52/54, from 1942 completion report.

Figure 4.21 Building 110 was the Motor Pool Oil and Gas Storage. It was originally constructed as two separate Buildings, 52 and 54, and was part of the garage and shop complex. April 2011.

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Figure 4.22 Building 88, from 1942 completion report.

Figure 4.23 Building 114, the Boiler House, was originally Building 88. April 2011.

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Figure 4.24 Building 78, from 1942 completion report.

Figure 4.25 Building 201,the Water Pumping Station,was originally Building 78. April 2011.

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Figure 4.26 Building 80, from 1942 completion report.

Figure 4.27 Building 301, the yardmaster’s Office, was originally Building 80. At various times, it also functioned as a credit union building as well as offices for the Provost Marshal and Post Commander. April 2011.

51

Figure 4.28 Railroad lines under construction, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

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Depot Infrastructure and Utilities The shipping and transportation infrastructure located within and near the installation were features detailed in all of the Depot’s historical reports. A 1943 report of Depot operations reported the following transportation and utility statistics: 15 Railroad Facilities: • Depot is located between the main lines of the Central of Georgia and Southern Railways with a 520-car classification yard. • Spur tracks are provided to most warehouses. • Approximately 30 miles of track are located on the installation consisting of 90 pound rails. • Rolling equipment includes a 120-ton Baldwin Diesel, a 100-ton Alco Diesel, a 90-ton steam locomotive, a GE Diesel Electric 44-ton engine, a traveling crane with 25-ton capacity, and six flat cars. Motor Transportation: • Georgia State Highway 42 is located to the east. • Georgia State Highway 54 is located to the west with US Highway 41 one mile west of it. • Numerous trucking companies are located nearby. Air Transportation: • Atlanta Municipal Airport is three miles to the west and has two major airlines: Eastern and Delta Airlines, which operate throughout the East and Southeast. Truck Facilities: • Facilities include 18 miles of paved roads, and all warehouse buildings have loading docks.
Figure 4.30 One Group B Warehouse with truck loading platform (indicated by the arrow in the photo above) visible at far right, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

Figure 4.29 Locomotive Repair Shop, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

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lcl shiPments
Figure 4.31 LCL Freight Station Building, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

Railroad freight constituted the vast majority of material that was delivered to and from the Depot during World War II. Approximately 40 percent of all shipments that left the Depot were not full train cars. These were known as Less than Carload (LCL) shipments. The inefficient nature of this practice was corrected by the Transportation Corps with the creation of the Consolidated Car Service. Stations for consolidating these shipments were established in New york, Philadelphia, Cleveland, St. Louis, Chicago, and San Antonio. Distribution stations, also known as filler or export depots, were established at the Atlanta Depot as well as in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Oakland, Seattle, Tacoma, Spokane, Portland, and El Paso.16

Figure 4.32 Fire station, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

Fire Protection: • The Quartermaster Depot has a fire department with 37 civilian firefighters. Equipment includes two 750 GPM pumpers, 38,100 feet of hose (of various sizes), and 169 standard fire hydrants. • Throughout the Depot there are 1,935 fire extinguishers. None of the buildings are equipped with sprinklers, but plumbing is in place that allows for future installation. • A fire alarm system has been installed, with 59 pull stations located throughout the Depot. An additional 277 pull stations are currently being installed.

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Communication: • The Depot has a three position switchboard and operators on duty 24 hours a day. • A message center operates 24 hours a day as well. • Mail pick up and drop off occurs four times a day, except Sunday. Gas: • Gas is supplied by the Atlanta Gas Light Co. through a six-inch transmission line at a pressure of 50 pounds/square inch. • The gas distribution system consists of 56,000 feet of steel pipe. Electricity: • Power is supplied by Georgia Power Co. and comes from both Atlanta and Morrow, Georgia. • It is transmitted over 19,000-volt, 60-cycle, three-phase, three- wire, overhead power lines. • Overhead lines of 55,000 linear feet and underground lines of 5,400 linear feet distribute power throughout the installation. Water Supply: • Water is supplied by the City of Atlanta through an eight-inch gravity transmission line. • The distribution system is one pumping station, two 255,000-gallon storage tanks, one 200,000-gallon elevated pressure tank, and 94,400 feet of 8-14 inch water mains.

Figure 4.33 The mailroom puppies, “Special Delivery” and “Postage Due,” peek out of mailboxes at the message center of the Atlanta Ordnance Depot, while their mother, “Jeep,” looks on,1944. U.S. Army Signal Corp Photograph. Courtesy, Georgia Archives, Lamar Q. Ball Collection, 0788.

Figure 4.34 Electrical switching station, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

Figure 4.35 Water storage tank, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives. 55

(Right, top to bottom) Figure 4.36 Sewage disposal plant, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives. Figure 4.37 East Gate House, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives. Figure 4.38 West Gate House, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives. Figure 4.39 A guard checks ID, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

Sewage System: • Separate storm and sanitary sewage systems are in use. • The storm sewage system has 82,000 feet of concrete pipe to direct storm water. • The sanitary sewage system has 27,500 feet of piping, a sewage pumping station, clarifiers, filters, and chlorinators to treat waste water. Heating: • An extensive selection of coal fired boilers provides heat to many of the buildings, while a few have gas radiators and electric heaters. Plant Protection: • A boundary fence surrounds the installation and additional interior fences enclose the warehouse groups. • Constant patrols are performed throughout the installation, and four cars and 15 horses are supplied to the Guard for this purpose. • Everyone employed by the Depot is required to wear an identification badge. • All visitors must be escorted while on the property.

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Motor Base Construction Although Robert and Company served as architect and engineer for the Motor Base, the Army’s standardized 700 and 800 series plans were used (common for World War II mobilization construction projects) in the design of this installation’s buildings. The original plans for the Motor Base provided a total of 71 buildings for a maximum training and housing capacity of 1,908 men. Due to an early increase in the projected duties of the installation, an additional construction phase was instituted which provided for an additional 3,301 men. Control over Motor Base activities transferred from the Quartermaster Department to the Ordnance Department during 1942, so both departments oversaw construction projects for the installation. The construction of the Motor Base

Figure 4.40 Site Plan of the Motor Base, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

Figure 4.41 Storage warehouse, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

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was on a slightly later schedule than that of the Depot. Land surveys were complete by March 1942 and work on utilities and buildings commenced in April. By October, the Motor Base construction was complete.17 The following buildings made up the Motor Base’s operational facilities: nine one-story office buildings, one Base Shop, eight two-story shop/classroom buildings, two master warehouses, and ten one-story warehouses. Buildings related to the housing, feeding, and recreation of troops included: an officer’s club, non-commissioned officer’s club, service club, chapel, dispensary, post exchange, gymnasium, and fire station. In addition, the Army constructed the following buildings: two mess halls, 56 barracks, 17 orderly rooms, day rooms, troop headquarters, eight bachelor officer’s quarters, and two theaters, as well as assorted shops, sheds, and utility buildings. The majority of the buildings had a temporary classification. Outdoor facilities included athletic field, parade ground, driving range, and other fields.18

biograPhy oF brigaDier general thomas l. hollanD
General Thomas L. Holland was instrumental in the founding of the depot. He was commander of the depot at the Candler Warehouse and oversaw the site selection and construction of the installation that later became Fort Gillem. Born near Straughn, Indiana, on August 10, 1879, he attended DePauw University during the late 1890s. He later attended St. Lawrence University in New york where he studied law, graduated in 1907, and gained admittance to the bar.19 Following his professor of military science, Capt. Samuel V. Ham, Holland left DePauw in 1899 to serve in the Spanish-American War. Holland returned to DePauw and graduated in 1902. He returned to active duty during World War I and alternated between reserve and active duty with the Quartermaster Corps during the interwar years until he assumed command of the depot at the Candler Warehouse on January 2, 1940.20 On July 1, 1941, he became the commander of the new Atlanta General Depot at the Forest Park location, where he oversaw operations during World War II. 21 He received the rank of Brigadier General on April 2, 1943, after serving in the Quartermaster Corps for 42 years. He retired from the military in July 1944 and died less than two months later in Knightstown, Indiana, on August 19. Several sites at Fort Gillem were named in his honor including Holland Hall (Building 101), Holland Avenue (located between the 300 series warehouses), Holland Park (a residential section of the installation), and Holland Park Drive located within the residential area.
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Figure 4.42 Mess Hall (170-man), 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

Figure 4.43 63-Man Barracks, 1942. From Fort McPherson archives.

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Figure 4.44 Aerial photo of the Motor Base, facing west, 1949. From Fort McPherson archives.

Figure 4.45 Aerial photo of the Motor Base, facing east, 1949. From Fort McPherson archives.

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endnotes
1 “Fifty-Fifty Chance That Cobb Will Get Depot, Is Observed,” Marietta Daily Journal, October 24, 1940. 2 National Archives at Atlanta, RG92, Box 9, 314.7 – Atlanta ASF Depot, Letter from Colonel J.W.G. Stephens to the Depot Historian, January 17, 1945. 3 Ibid, Box 8, file 314.7 Histories, “Press Information-Atlanta Quartermaster Depot,” (1943) 2. 4 Louis M. Martinez, Fort McPherson: The First Hundred Years 1885-1985 (Fort McPherson, Georgia: Third United States Army, 1985), 58. 5 Ibid. 6 National Archives at Atlanta, RG 92, Box 4, Memoranda. 7 Dr. Susan Goodfellow, Marjorie Nowick, Chad Blackwell, Dan Hart, and Kathryn Plimpton., Nationwide Context, Inventory, and Heritage Assessment of Works Progress Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps Resources on Department of Defense Installations (Department of Defense Legacy Resource Management Program, 2009), 1-11. 8 Dr. Susan Goodfellow, et al., B-18. 9 Fort McPherson, Cultural Resource Management Office Files, File: Fort Gillem building numbers. 10 Dr. Susan Goodfellow, et al., 48. 11 Department of the Army, Integrated Cultural Resource Management Plan: Fort McPherson Fort Gillem US Army Recreation Area – Lake Altoona (Fort McPherson, Georgia: Cultural Resources Management Program, BRAC – Environmental Division, 2007), 1-22 – 1-24. 12 Diane Shaw Wasch, Diane Shaw, Perry Bush, Keith Landreth, et al., and James Glass, Ph.D., World War II and The U.S. Army Mobilization Program: A History of 700 and 800 Series Cantonment Construction (Washington, DC: US Department of the Interior, n.d.), 3-12. 13 Department of the Army, Integrated Cultural Resource Management Plan, 1-22 – 1-24. 14 National Archives at Atlanta, RG 92, Box 8, file 3114.7, Historical, March 1943, 1-6. 15 Ibid, 19-21. 16 James Clifford, “Fort Gillem, Georgia,” On Point: The Journal of Army History, 2007. 17 Fort McPherson, Cultural Resource Management Office Files, War Department, 1942 Completion Report of the Atlanta Ordnance Motor Base, Project P-2. 18 National Archives at Atlanta, RG 338, Box 1, file Historical Summary, March 1941-June 1956, 15-16. 19 National Archives at Atlanta, RG92, Box 8, 314.7 Histories – Press Information: Atlanta Quartermaster Depot 1943. 20 “Thomas Holland, “’02 Is Brigadier General,” The DePauw, September 17, 1943. 21 National Archives at Atlanta, RG92, Box 8, 314.7 Histories – Press Information: Atlanta Quartermaster Depot 1943.

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The basic mission of both the Depot and Motor Base installations involved the supply and repair of equipment for the Army during World War II. However, the specifics of the mission and the arrangement of the Depot functions within the Army was frequently altered and reorganized throughout the war.

the us army reorganization and the technical services
Near the beginning of the United States’ involvement in World War II, the Army was reorganized to allow it to deal more effectively with a global war. On March 9, 1942, the Army created three separate commands: Army Air Forces, which controlled both air strikes and coordination with ground forces; Army Ground Forces, which controlled the training and organizing of ground troops; and Army Service Forces, which was responsible for supplying troops and carrying out other administrative functions.1 The new Army Service Forces (ASF) included six supply sections of the Army which were later re-designated the “Technical Services.” These were the Chemical Warfare Service, the Corps of Engineers, the Medical Department, the Ordnance Department, the Quartermaster Corps, and the Signal Corps. A Transportation Corps was subsequently added to the Technical Services.2 Army Organization Effects Changes to Atlanta Installation The quickly changing designations of the Depot and Motor Base can be largely attributed to shifts during this period in the overall Army organization, especially the structure of the general depot system. During World War II there were four major types of depots: master, distribution, storage, and arsenal. The Atlanta Depot, categorized as a distribution depot, furnished equipment to the eastern area of the country. Before the March 1942 reorganization, the general depots reported directly to Wash-

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ington; therefore, when it was first activated on November 1, 1941, the Atlanta Depot was called Atlanta General Depot, and was not under the control of any one of the Technical Services. Under this system, the Atlanta General Depot was organized into six separate Supply Sections, each with an officer that reported directly to their superior in Washington, DC. The six sections were Chemical, Engineer, Medical, Motor Transport (Transportation), Quartermaster, and Signal. After the US entered World War II, there were plans to create a General Depot Service (as an additional Technical Service). It was discovered, however, that this arrangement would overlap with the duties of other organizations.3 Although the Quartermaster Corps was only one part of the Technical Services, it was viewed as the service that was best equipped to manage the general depots, and this management responsibility was placed under the Quartermaster Department in July 1942.4 Following this designation, on July 17, the Atlanta General Depot was re-designated Atlanta Quartermaster Depot. This changed the organization little, however, and the only alteration was in the loss of the Motor Transport activities and the beginning of the Buford Shoe Shop operations.5 Distribution Areas Each Supply Section (representing one of the Technical Services) had slightly different distribution areas. In March 1943, the Atlanta Quartermaster Depot served the following five Technical Services and geographic distribution areas: • Chemical Supply Section: Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee • Engineer Supply Section: Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee • Medical Supply Section: No typical distribution area • Quartermaster Supply Section: Alabama, Florida, and Tennessee East of the Tennessee River, also select supplies for Louisiana, Mississippi, North and South Carolina • Signal Supply Section: Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee6

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Missions of the Technical Services Each Technical Service within the Atlanta Depot also had its own mission statement. The responsibilities of the individual Services varied. The Quartermaster Department had a very detailed and extensive mission, due to its overall management responsibilities as well as duties within its own Service, while the Medical Department had a limited mission which involved filling small requisitions. The other three Services (Chemical, Engineer, and Signal) had their own individual requirements. The mission of the Chemical Section of the Atlanta Quartermaster Depot was: To obtain, receive, store and ship all classes of Chemical Warfare supplies and training ammunition, excepting toxic gasses, smoke and harassing gases in bulk, and maintain property accountability thereof. To utilize available space to best advantage for storing [c]hemical supplies, using modern warehousing methods. To inspect supplies which are received improperly packed or crated and to report any defects or deficiencies to the Office of the Chief, Chemical Warfare Service, or to the appropriate Procurement District. To act on shipping orders received from the Office of the Chief, Chemical Warfare Service, and to edit and otherwise process requisitions received from the field so as to place supplies in the hands of Property Officers at the various Posts, Camps and Stations, for distribution to troops with the least possible delay and not later than the dates they are needed by the troops. To ship supplies to Property Officers for troops on telephone requests where emergency will not permit advance written requisitions. To maintain records of status of supply of all Chemical Warfare items of all troop Units in the 4th Service Command and to automatically ship missing items of equipment to Property Officers to be placed in the hands of troops with the least possible delay to bring them up to full authorized allowances. To maintain a sufficient quantity of Station Stock in the hands of Post, Camp and Station Property Officers to permit them to replace damaged or worn out (continued on page 66)

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(continued) equipment and to furnish missing equipment to alerted Units with the least possible delay. To properly pack all shipments of items leaving this Depot so they will reach their destination in good condition and to properly mark them, paying particular attention to instructions receive from time to time for overseas shipments. To initiate tracers for shipments lost in transit or which do not reach their destination within a reasonable time. To keep Chemical Warfare Property Officers of Posts, Camps and Stations advised on any matters which may assist them in properly equipping troops in the field and with other pertinent information. To make frequent survey trips to various Posts, Camps and Stations located in the basic area served by this Depot for the purpose of locating excess stocks of supplies and making dispositions of same. The Mission of the Engineer Section of the Atlanta Quartermaster Depot: To obtain, receive, store and issue general Engineer troop equipment. To serve the Charleston Port of Embarkation and the 91 Posts, Camps and Stations located within the Fourth Service Command, which is comprised of seven (7) southeastern states. In addition, this Section serves as a filler depot for the Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation, New York Port of Embarkation, Savannah Port of Embarkation, New Orleans Port of Embarkation and the San Francisco Port of Embarkation. General troop equipment handled ranges from power cranes and diesel powered caterpillars, tractors, weighing 44,000 pounds, road graders, ditching machines, pabing machinery, air comressors, mobile water purification units, down to bottles of ink and thumb tacks. There are in excess of twenty-thousand (20,000) separate items of general troop equipment. In addition to the supply functions, this Section operates a Maintenance Shop for the repair of all Engineer troop equipment. It directs and trains the work of master mechanics who instruct the troops in the field in repair and maintenance. This Section also inspects all troop equipment in storage or in service with the various units within the Fourth Service Command.
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The Mission of the Medical Section of the Atlanta Quartermaster Depot: The assembling of various types of hospital units for export shipment in accordance with a program laid down by the Surgeon General’s Office… Small drop shipments are made to ports of embarkation and in a few instances to [P]osts, [C]amps and [S]tations in the continental United States. However, these shipments are extracts of unfilled requisitions from other depots which have been forwarded to this Depot by the Surgeon General’s office for issue and shipment. The Mission of the Quartermaster Section of the Atlanta Quartermaster Depot: To obtain and store the supplies necessary to effect distribution of items to the areas indicated below. Replenishment is effected as follows: (1) Purchase, (2) Requisition on Central Procuring Depots or The Quartermaster General (3) Automatic replenishment through action by The Quartermaster General. To distribute to[P] osts, [C]amps and [S]tations in the areas designated in Circular 1-4, OQMG, the items listed therein, and as prescribed in Tables of Allowances and Tables of Basic Allowances (these items include clothing, equipage, general supplies, subsistence, blank forms, musical instruments and coal). The basic area served by this Depot is that comprised of the states of Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and the eastern half of Tennessee, however this area is considerably expanded for certain supplies…[An extensive list of supplies follows and includes items from boots, to coffee, to furniture repair kits. The Depot’s designated distribution area for each of these items is indicated.] To make distribution of any item of supply to any point on orders from The Quartermaster General. This includes frequent shipments to Ports although this Section is not designated as a filler depot. To perform such functions of a Quartermaster Procurement District as may be delegated by the Office of The Quartermaster General or another Procurement District. [These functions included managing bids, contracts, and inspections as well as other duties as required.] (continued on page 68)

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(continued)

To operate the US Army Shoe Shop at Buford, Georgia, to which are sent for repair, salvaged shoes from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Service Commands. To distribute funds for local procurement to [P]osts,[C]amps, and [S]tations in the states comprising the basic area of distribution, Florida, Georgia, Alabama and the eastern half of Tennessee. To make frequent survey trips of the various Posts, Camps and Stations located in the basic area served by this Depot for the purpose of locating excess stocks of supplies and making disposition of same. The Mission of the Signal Section of the Atlanta Quartermaster Depot: To supply Signal Corps equipment to tactical organizations of the Army Ground Forces in the Fourth Service Command area; to Service Command installations at Posts, Camps or Stations in the Fourth Service Command; to the Charleston Port of Embarkation and to such units, organizations or establishments as directed by the Chief Signal Officer. To receive requisitions from Post Property Officers; these are edited in accordance with current instructions and those quantities approved for issue are shipped from this Depot. This Section receives, stores, issues and accounts for items of Signal Corps equipment as authorized or directed by the Chief Signal Officer. Certain items are procured locally as authorized by the Chief Signal Officer. To act as a 5th Echelon maintenance Repair Shop and as such repairs and tests equipment which cannot be repaired satisfactorily by a lower Echelon or which requires the use of highly trained, specialized technicians and a greater variety of machine tools than those available in lower Echelons. To be responsible for redistributing excess Signal Corps property as reported by Property Officers at Posts, Camps and Stations in this area. To supply Signal Corps equipment for the Charleston Port of Embarkation. Requisitions for stock of the Overseas Supply Section of the Port and requisitions from overseas units forwarded by the Port are filled by this Depot. To receive and fill requisitions from the Chief Signal Officer for shipment of Signal Corps equipment to other Ports of Embarkation and units, organizations or installations at any destination.7

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In August 1943, a trial program was carried out at the Atlanta Depot to test methods of consolidating activities of the separate Technical Services. Despite the reported efficiencies of the program, it was dropped because of the desire of the different Services to maintain control of their own activities. It is likely that the May 23, 1943, re-designation of the Atlanta Quartermaster Depot as the Atlanta ASF Depot was related to this program. On May 27, 1946, after the end of the war, the Atlanta ASF Depot was again designated Atlanta General Depot.8 The Motor Base, originally designated Atlanta Quartermaster Motor Base on February 2, 1942, was renamed Atlanta Ordnance Motor Base following a July 1942 shift in responsibility between the two departments. In this move responsibility for research, acquisition, distribution, and maintenance of motor vehicles transferred from the Quartermaster Corps to the Ordnance Department.9

Goods of all kinds passed through the Depot in support of the war. Luxury items were supplied to troops at home and overseas, as a 1942 newspaper article revealed, “daily, each soldier, no matter where he may be stationed, will receive a ration including one ounce of candy; 20 [cigarettes]; one-half box of matches, and one ounce of chewing tobacco.”10

impact on atlanta
The impact of the Depot on Clayton County and the Atlanta area was significant. The majority of people employed by the Depot were civilians, with 5,046 employed in 1943 and a payroll of approximately $1,000,000 per month. There were three categories of jobs at the Depot: office, warehouse, and “other.” Office jobs included clerical workers, telephone and teletype operators, and nurses. Warehouse workers were categorized as checkers, scorekeepers, carpenters, laborers, drivers, and packers. The classification of other included a wider variety of jobs such as paintThe Depot is largely an Atlanta institution. It is ers, patrolmen, inspectors, mechanics, not only located in the environs of the Gate City engineers, railroad crew, firemen, janiof the South but the large majority of its civilian tors, and yardmasters. By far, the jobs employees are either Atlantans or recruited which employed the most people were from some other section of Georgia. The South clerical positions and laborers, with can well be proud of its Army Service Forces employment totals of 1,189 and 1,338, Depot which is one of the largest in the nation, respectively.11 These numbers do not and has, moreover, the reputation of being one represent the full employment impact of the most efficiently operated institutions of of both installations, as numbers for its kind in any part of the world.13 the Motor Base were not included in these counts.12
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life on Post During World War ii
Publications First published during World War II, a common sight at both the Depot and the Motor Base would have been Army Motors magazine. This publication, distributed throughout the Army, was aimed at the soldiers responsible for repair and maintenance of motor vehicles. However, it also included tips on treatment of weapons, aircraft, and other equipment. It used cartoons and comic strips to instruct soldiers in a humorous and memorable way. A small cast of characters was employed in these illustrations including: Sgt. Half-Mast McCannick (the stereotypical army mechanic), Pvt. Joe Dope (the inept subordinate mechanic), and Connie Rodd (the attractive civilian mechanic who gave specific tips and advice). This periodical contained illustrations by Will Eisner, then a private in the Army. He had attracted the attention of his superiors with illustrations he created for a post newspaper during his early military career. He was a successful illustrator when he entered the service, and eventually became a highly acclaimed graphic novelist, known for the comic strip, The Spirit. Production of Army Motors ended at the close of World War II, but was quickly revived as PS Magazine: The Preventative Maintenance Monthly. PS Magazine celebrated its 60th anniversary in 2011.14 In 1945, the Depot published a weekly newsletter. It was generally two-three typed pages of information relevant to personnel at the installation. It did not typically include articles or editorial comment; it was essentially a bulletin board for announcements.

Figure 5.0 Army Motors cover, March, 1945. From wartimepress.com.

Figure 5.1 Joe Dope cartoon. From lonesentry.com.

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Regular sections included accident frequency reports, changes to the telephone directory, job vacancies, arrival, transfer, and departure of personnel, lost and found notices, activity announcements, and notices regarding conservation of resources. Regular notifications were included regarding blood drives and war bond sales. Events Even during World War II, soldiers had access to social and recreational activities on the installation. During the period 1944-45, an officer’s club formed, and a rifle club and a softball league were proposed. Meals were served in the cafeteria, which was located in the Administrative Building. At the adjacent Motor Base, a commissary, post exchange, and movie theater were also available. Some service members perhaps enjoyed too much of the local nightlife as evidenced by an order from Lt. Col. Hall that the Winner Café at 47 Marietta Street in Atlanta was “off limits to all members of the army.”15 A majority of the activities during this time focused directly on the war effort, and one frequent subject was the sale of war bonds. Personnel were often the recipients of memos encouraging them to invest in the war effort. One interesting contest for the title of “Queen of the Atlanta Ordnance Depot” was organized in 1945 for the promotion of war bond sales. The prize included the title, an opportunity to be recognized at a Victory Bond Dance, and a $100.00 Victory Bond. Women, single and married, could be entered into the contest by having purchasers of the $25 Victory Bonds write her name on the receipt and registering it with the war bond office. One entry was allowed for each bond purchased. An advertisement for the contest read: “This is your chance to do a big job in putting over the Victory Drive and, at the same time, profit by your efforts. Contact your friends! Harass your enemies! Accost perfect strangers! SELL BONDS!!!”16 Fires Many of the Depot buildings, including the large warehouses, had wood frame construction, and structure fires were a constant concern. According to Depot records, there were originally as many as four separate fire stations located throughout the installation. In 1944, a fire caused a reported $2.5 million in damage to buildings at the Motor Base. This blaze completely destroyed a huge mechanical repair shop (Building 900) and

Figure 5.2 Photo of Building 900 (Mechanical Repair Shop) upon its completion in 1942. From 1942 completion report.

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Figure 5.3 1944 Aerial photo of the Motor Base, with repair shop and warehouse bays destroyed (outlined in red above). From Fort McPherson archives.

severely damaged an adjacent warehouse (Building 923). There were no casualties but nearby vehicles sustained damage. Both structures were quickly rebuilt with steel framing instead of wood, and they remained in use for over 50 years. The combination of wood construction and industrial activities was the source of multiple fires over the years, including a 2010 blaze that destroyed another large warehouse.17

unusual missions of the Depot During World War ii
In addition to the typical supply obligations of an Army Depot during World War II, the Atlanta Depot also had some rather unusual missions during this time. These included a shoe shop and a coffee roasting plant. Both of these missions represented the Army’s need to conserve materials and streamline the supply process, so that the troops in the field would have everything required to win the war.

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985

BUFORD
75 575 85

5 mi 5 km

75 285

85

20

ATLANTA CITY LIMITS

285

FORT McPHERSON
675 285

20

75

FORT GILLEM

Shoe Shop Supplying proper shoes for soldiers had become a necessary but costly mission for the Army. Additionally, the Army found that although the soles of shoes might be beyond repair, the leather upper of the shoe was typically still in good condition. The Army decided to establish a facility for dismantling old shoes and reassembling them into a usable state. This activity conserved both money and resources (shoe leather). In April 1942, the Army established a shoe shop in a closed shoe factory in Buford, Georgia. This facility was under the control of the Atlanta Depot, and its operation was a part of the mission of the installation until August of 1943. The factory, originally the Bona Allen Shoe Factory, operated under the command of Quartermaster Supply Officer Col. Douglas H. Rubinstein. Initially, factory space was rented at $22,000 per year. By the end of the year, more space was required, and the Army rented an additional 81,290 square feet for $25,000 per year.

Figure 5.4 Map showing Buford, Georgia, and the Depot.

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The factory employees, mostly local, civilian workers, received the worn-out shoes; dismantled them; recycled the parts that could not be reused; cleaned, refurbished, and reassembled the material; and redistributed the shoes to the military. The factory was successful and allowed for significant cost savings. The Army estimated that it saved a total of $558,654.30 through this process. However, by June of 1943, the shop was not meeting the demands of the military. There were other problems as well, including labor issues, and problems with the facility. By August 1943 the Army canceled the mission and turned the shop over to private control.18
Figure 5.5 The Bona Allen Factory building. Courtesy, Museum of Buford.

Coffee Roasting Plant At the beginning of World War II, there were problems supplying all types of material and products to the military; coffee was no exception. This beverage, considered essential to troop morale, became both difficult and expensive to acquire. Coffee has long been an integral component in military rations. The use of coffee and demand for it only increased during World War II, when it was included in nearly all ration packages. Increased demand caused by the war resulted in significant increases in coffee production by the military. The Army, Navy, and Marine Corps all established coffee roasting facilities during World War II to supply their troops. At this time, the government held contracts with 22 commercial facilities for coffee production throughout the United States; additionally, there were 125 coffee roasting plants (some of them mobile, for easy relocation) around the world to serve troops stationed overseas. The Army operated five plants in the United States: in Atlanta, Brooklyn, Chicago, Memphis, and Seattle. Typically the coffee came from Brazil or Columbia and, in the United States, the beans were ground and packaged in bags or vacuum-sealed cans.19 The idea of creating a coffee roasting facility near Atlanta arose when Gen. Holland received instruction in May 1940 to consider establishing a plant. He wrote to officers at both the San Antonio and Chicago Depots inquiring about the equipment needed for such an endeavor. Through these inquiries, the company Jabez-Burns and Sons of New York was suggested as a supplier of equipment for the coffee plant. Once Gen. Holland understood the amount of equipment required for a coffee plant, he

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realized that the Candler Warehouse facility was inadequate, as a two-story building would be better suited for the operation. Early cost estimates for the facility were approximately $50,000, while available funds amounted to only $18,000. The Army decided to delay the project until the new Depot was under construction.20 The cost for the equipment originally planned for the plant was $51,105. Additional equipment for packaging and processing was added during construction. Jabez-Burns was awarded the contract to supply the equipment on August 26, 1941, and work began on the plant in September. Construction continued through November and December. Green coffee arrived in December so the plant could be operational as soon as it was complete. In December alone, 180,000 pounds of coffee was ordered and by the end of January, 1,064,000 pounds of coffee was delivered. Initially, the Army determined that the plant needed two skilled workers (at a salary of $100/month) and six unskilled (at a salary of $90/month) to begin working in late December. All of these initial employees were African-Americans. Once produc-

Figure 5.6 Workers in the Atlanta coffee roasting plant. Photo credit: WWII Signal Corps Collection, U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.

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Figure 5.7 Hand drawn graph illustrating coffee production at the Depot (from the 1943 historical report of the coffee plant).

tion began, five additional positions were added, and by August of 1943, there were 25 men working in the plant.21 This facility, which reportedly ran quite well, was not without problems. Fires were an ongoing concern, and two early incidents in February 1942 alarmed officials. On February 21, there was an explosion in one of the roasting cylinders; this incident caused little serious damage and was repaired by plant workers. Just six days later, there was a sighting of smoke coming from the plant at one o’clock in the morning. This was a result of smoldering residue left in one of the roasters. Officials, concerned about another fire, considered construction of a firewall within the plant. However, because neither of the incidents had caused serious damage to the brick warehouse, and because the risk of a fire that would endanger the entire building or its inhabitants was low, a firewall was never constructed.22 The coffee roasting plant operated through World War II. By August 1943, the plant had processed 24,808,384 pounds of coffee. The plant continued to operate in the 1950s, and a 1951 Army

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report estimated the average monthly production of roasted coffee at the Atlanta plant was 850,000 pounds. This figure represented 10 percent of the average monthly consumption of coffee for the entire United States military in 1951.23 A 1943 historical report of the Army’s coffee roasting plant at the Atlanta Army Depot expressed the importance of coffee to those in the army: “Coffee has always formed an important part of army diet. The soldier does not merely look upon it as another beverage but considers it as one of the necessities of life. Consequently the problem of supplying an abundance of good coffee comprises one of the fundamental tasks in the work of the Quartermaster Corps.”24 The Depot Historian During the early years of the Depot’s existence, a historian was employed on post to compile and record the history of the installation as it occurred. This gentleman’s name was Mr. Thomas E. Downey, Jr. He was appointed historian on April 19, 1943,

Figure 5.8 US map of DoD coffee roasting facilities and distribution areas. From the 1943 historical report of the coffee plant.

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and received a salary of $3,200 per year. By April 29, 1943, Downey had oriented himself with his required duties, and established a schedule for the months of April and May. He even produced a tentative outline for a history of the Depot, and included sections on the authorization, funding, and construction of the Depot; the Depot’s relationship to other parts of the Army; all manner of personnel figures and information; as well as details on the duties and organization of each department. Additionally, there were chapters to be included with information about the Army shoe shop, the coffee roasting plant, and the band instrument repair shop. In June 1943, the Depot’s new commanding officer, Col. J.W.G. Stephens wrote to Capt. A.M. Thornton of the Quartermaster Corps, inquiring about the objectives of the historian’s work, the expected timetable for the project, and the quality of the work produced by Downey. Capt. Thornton advised Stephens to ensure that the historical account addressed the unique aspects of the Depot. He also noted that the report would not be of any use unless it was finalized after the conclusion of the war, and that it would likely take months of work after that time to compile. He complemented the quality of Downey’s work, of which he had reviewed a sample. He ended the letter by saying “As you know, the success or failure of historical work of this type depends largely on getting cooperation from key personnel. Mr. Downey seemingly has been able to get this cooperation and seemingly is having no difficulty in obtaining the necessary data he needs to do a first class job.” Col. Stephens noted in the file that “Capt. Thornton assured me that we are using the proper methods, have the correct objective and that we are now making real progress.”25 Downey continued his work for some time and completed sections covering the coffee plant and shoe shop, but a complete history of the installation never materialized. On July 13, 1945, Col. Samuel N. Lowry (assistant for the Quartermaster General) issued a letter to Col. Stephens informing him that because the functions of most depots were the same and because the Quartermaster’s Office wanted to concentrate on historical reporting of depots with unique functions, it was no longer necessary to submit historical reports. The Army also compiled several historical reports of Motor Base activities. These were written by individuals assigned to this station, as they were well acquainted with the people and issues of the base. A report was written about the beginnings of the Atlanta Ordnance Depot in 1943 and around 1944 two

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reports were compiled about the training of Italian POWs at the automotive school. To mark the closure of the automotive school in 1956 a report entitled, “Historical Summary of the Ordnance Automotive School” was written by 1st Lt. Adrian D. Bolch Jr.

endnotes
1 John D. Millet, United States Army in World War II: The Organization and Role of the Army Service Forces (Washington DC: Center of Military History United States Army, 1954), 37. 2 Ibid, 297-302. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 National Archives at Atlanta, RG92, Box 8, File 314.7 Atlanta ASF Depot 1943-1945, “Historical”, ii. 6 Ibid, 10. 7 Ibid, 7. 8 Millet, 297-302. 9 Ibid, 302. 10 “Essential Luxuries,” Rockford Register-Republic, March 5, 1942. 11 Ibid, 11 and 18. 12 Documentation of employment numbers for the Motor Base have not been located; however, they would certainly show an even greater economic impact by the Army on the region. 13 National Archives at Atlanta, RG92, Box 8, File 314.7 Atlanta ASF Depot 1943-1945, “The Development of the Atlanta Army Service Forces Depot,” 1-2. 14 Comic art ville, “Rare Eisner: The Making of a Genius,” http://www. comicartville.com/rareeisner3.htm. 15 National Archives at Atlanta, RG 94, Box 4, Memoranda, Atlanta ASF Depot 1944-1945, memo dated March 23, 1944. 16 National Archives at Atlanta, RG338, Box 570674, March 6, 1945 (memo). 17 “Flames Damage Ordnance Depot,” The Oregonian, January 21, 1944. 18 National Archives at Atlanta, RG92, Box 9, 314.7 – Historical Studies – Shoe Shop. 19 John C. Fisher and Carol Fisher, Food in the American Military: a History (Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2011), 157.

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20 Ibid, Coffee Roasting Plant, 1-4. It was commonly noted in literature produced by the Army that a coffee roasting plant was located on the installation; however, its beginning was always dated post-World War II. This date was found to be in error, as indicated by a 1943 historical report on file at the National Archives, which details the construction and operation of the plant and indicates it became operational in December of 1942, just as the US entered World War II. 21 National Archives at Atlanta, RG92, Box 9, 314.7 – Coffee Roasting Plant, 9-17. 22 Ibid, 22-24. 23 Munitions Board, Coffee Roasting Operations of the Department of Defense (Washington DC: Munitions Board, 1952), 23 and 65, http:// cgsc.cdmhost.com/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p4013coll11/ id/790 (accessed November 21, 2011). 24 National Archives at Atlanta, RG92, Box 9, 314.7 – Historical Studies – Coffee Roasting Plant. 25 National Archives at Atlanta, Record Group 92, Box 9, File 314.7, Letter from Colonel J.W.G. Stephens to A.M. Thornton, June 28, 1943.

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One year ago today, Atlanta Ordnance Depot was born. Rolling red clay fields that once blossomed white with cotton are dotted now with unending rows of tents, barracks, shops, and warehouses. The once peaceful countryside echoes to the measured tramp of marching feet, the whine of the lath, the mighty roar of the most powerful vehicles ever known. From vast warehouses an unending stream of materiel flows to the farthest reaches of the earth; into the shops come once powerful engines, worn and worthless, to emerge a few hours later better even than when first they rolled from an assembly line; into the classrooms of the school come men untrained and unskilled to learn the secrets of the motorized machines upon which America depends. To those who have made it possible, to those who have fought and struggled that a dream might come true, be they private or major general, this story is dedicated. February 2, 1943. This is a saga of war. It is the story of men behind the battle lines; of their problems and their achievements; of what they have done and what they will do. Because it is, the picture must be viewed only by those who have a right to see it; the information must reach only those who are entitled to it. For the duration, this story must be restricted from the general public.1 The preceding lines are from a 1943 historical summary of the Atlanta Ordnance Depot (Motor Base). They effectively summarize the activities that took place on the Ordnance Depot during the early part of World War II. During this time there was a base shop, a supply division, and an automotive school.2 The Motor Base was activated on January 30, 1942 with Lt. Col. Richard N. Atwell as its first commanding officer. The installation began under the control of the Quartermaster Corps; however, it was transferred to the Ordnance Department on July

Figure 6.0 (Opposite page) The Ordnance Automotive School’s display on the installation parade field, Armed Forces Day 19 May 1955. From RG 338 Historical Summary.

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Figure 6.1 Cartoon illustrating the frequent name changes of the installation. From a 1943 Atlanta Ordnance Depot historical report.

25, 1942. The Candler Depot, which had operated as a separate entity up to this point, came under the control of the Motor Base on October 18, 1942; it was renamed Candler Ordnance Motor Supply Depot. With this new control, the Atlanta Ordnance Motor Base became the major motor transport installation in the country. It became the US Army’s largest supplier of motor parts, tools, and equipment.3 The base shop and automotive school were located at the Motor Base, while the supply division was located at the Candler Warehouses. A total of 62,000 different items were supplied from this facility. A major activity of the Atlanta Motor Base was the base shop. It was designated a fifth echelon repair shop, which handled the highest level of motor repair duties in the Army. It was responsible for the most complicated and extensive repairs that could not be performed in the field or at lower echelon shops. Its purpose was to receive worn-out engines from the field, to strip them, and to completely rebuild and redistribute them as needed. The idea for the facility was developed by engineers

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from General Motors, but rebuilding engines with assembly line methods and speed had never been attempted or accomplished before. Despite early setbacks, by December 1942, the shop had exceeded its maximum rated capacity of 1600 engines per month.4 The Atlanta Ordnance Motor Base was deactivated on April 1, 1948 as part of the post-war reorganization; its activities then became part of the Atlanta General Depot. Prisoners of War at the Motor Base During 1943, German and Italian prisoners of war (POWs) were sent to the United States, and a number of them were sent to Atlanta. These individuals participated in various manual labor positions, and some took part in the automotive school courses. They were involved in the training courses, with the intention of sending them back to their native countries with a marketable skill. Several hundred prisoners were included in this program, which was carried out between 1943 and 1945. While the POWs were forbidden to use any service clubs, they were permitted to move about the post where they were assigned. The most taxing problem for the command of the Motor Base was the language barrier. Great pains were taken to obtain the services of individuals with the ability to speak fluent Italian as well as teach automobile courses. This was accomplished only by sending scouts as far north as New York City and as far south as Miami. More success was had in finding Italian speakers capable of translating existing training materials into Italian. Italian service units, made up of volunteers from the POW ranks, were assigned to the installation and arrived in 1944. These men were supplied with all standard equipment with the exception of weapons. They were to receive technical training in automotive tasks but no military training. Although mili-

Figure 6.2 He that relaxes is helping the Axis, from 1943 Atlanta Ordnance Depot historical report.

Figure 6.3 Main Gate of Atlanta Ordnance Depot (Motor Base), June 1947, photo by Leo Fitzgerald courtesy of Lorna Fitzgerald.

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Figure 6.4 “Classroom Lecture in Wheel Vehicle Repair Course”, from the Ordnance Automotive School “Historical Summary” March 9, 1941 – June 30, 1956.

tary training was supposedly eliminated, it was replaced with a program called “Basic School for a Soldier” which included all courses except the use of weapons. Several of the courses were: articles of war, military discipline, military sanitation, first aid, physical conditioning, marches, camouflage, and map reading.5 Leadership at the Motor Base was also directed to provide instruction in the English language to the POWs.

automotive school
From 1941 to 1956, an automotive school was operated by the Army in Atlanta. It was established on March 9, 1941, at Fort McPherson, and was initially called the Fourth Corps Area Motor Transport School. The school was moved to the Motor Base in 1942, when facilities were sufficient to house its activities. Originally part of the Motor Base installation, the school became part of the Depot when the two installations merged in 1948. At its inception the school had 60 students, only four instructors,

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and very limited supplies for demonstration. Throughout its period of activity in Atlanta, the school trained students from the Army as well as other armed forces and individuals from foreign countries. The school provided personnel trained in all aspects of vehicle maintenance and repair from World War II through the Korean Conflict. Throughout its history the automotive school produced soldiers who were proficient in their specific fields, with a combination of classroom training and hands-on experience. A total of 71,760 students graduated from the school.6 When it began, the mission of the school was to train new recruits in general mechanics. Class sizes grew exponentially throughout 1941, and after Pearl Harbor was attacked and the United States entered World War II, it became clear that the structure, organization, and location of the existing Motor Transport School were not sufficient to meet the needs of the Army. The school moved from Fort McPherson to its new (Forest Park) location on February 2, 1942, and became part of the Atlanta Quartermaster Motor Base. When classes began at the

Figure 6.5 Fourth Service Command Reclamation Center, Chemical Warfare Service Repair Shop. Sgt. Joseph Mangum repairs equipment in the CWS Shop, 1945. U.S. Army Signal Corp Photograph. Courtesy, Georgia Archives, Lamar Q. Ball Collection, 0615.

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Figure 6.6 Fourth Service Command Reclamation Center, Instrument Repair Shop. Mr. Harry Werk repairs a telescope, 1945. U.S. Army Signal Corp Photograph. Courtesy, Georgia Archives, Lamar Q. Ball Collection, 0614.

Motor Base, the facilities were not yet complete. Classes were held in the base shop, with two locomotive steam engines used to heat the space for the students. By the end of 1942, the buildings for housing and recruit training were completed.7 The school employed civilian auto mechanics as instructors for the courses. By 1943 an increase in the intensity of the war had reduced the availability of civilians with this type of experience, so courses to train instructors were included in the curriculum.8 By 1944, the school also trained students to completely rebuild a variety of items and return them to useful military service. This activity grew to include many types of vehicles and equipment and, in 1945, the Fourth Service Command Reclamation Center was operated out of the Motor Base. It was in operation from March 15, 1945, until October 31, 1946. The Candler Warehouses were the headquarters for this command. During the 1944-46 period, the school had 160 military and 320 civilian instructors and 3,800 students. After the war ended student levels dropped significantly from 6,016 in 1946 to 2,381 in 1947.9
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When the Motor Base was deactivated in 1948, the automotive school became part of the Atlanta General Distribution Depot. Activities at the school diminished until 1950 and the beginning of the Korean Conflict, when student numbers increased from 300 during mid-year to 600 by year’s end. By June 1951, the school had 2,500 students. At this point, the school and the Army entered into an arrangement with the Georgia State Board of Education, which allowed some students to be housed and trained by the South Georgia Trade and Vocational School in Americus, Georgia. From March to October 1951, 375 men took classes in wheel vehicle repair under this program. Demand at the Depot was so great for some classes that they were taught in three shifts per day. An airframe mechanics class was instituted in 1952, but was short-lived as training loads were again reduced toward the end of the Korean Conflict.10 Aside from the training courses at the school, soldiers also had opportunities for extracurricular activities and service. Participation in community events was popular, with soldiers

Figure 6.7 Fourth Service Command Reclamation Center gate with headquarters in the background, 1945. U.S. Army Signal Corp Photograph. Courtesy, Georgia Archives, Lamar Q. Ball Collection, 0605.

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Figure 6.8 “Combat Training The Ordnance Automotive School,” from the Ordnance Automotive School “Historical Summary” March 9, 1941 – June 30, 1956.

putting on public demonstrations and displays. Events included parades as well as a large display tent at the 1955 Armed Forces Day celebration. The school frequently hosted civic organizations, school groups, and military recruits in order to foster a positive relationship with the Atlanta community. From 1947 to 1948 a disaster relief section was established. Its purpose was to provide equipment and troops to the Third Army’s region of responsibility. It served residents of Florida affected by flooding in the Lake Okeechobee area. Athletic activities were also popular and, in 1945, a team from the school, the Atlanta Ordnance Depot “Flames,” won the World Amateur Baseball Championship in Akron, Ohio.11

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In 1953, command of the automotive school transferred from the Atlanta General Depot to the Ordnance Training Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Over the next few years personnel and student numbers were continually reduced and on January 4, 1956, the school was ordered closed. June 30, 1956, marked the final day of the school’s operation.12

Figure 6.9 “Shop Experience Covering Lathe Operation in Machinist Course,” from the Ordnance Automotive School “Historical Summary” March 9, 1941 – June 30, 1956.

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Figure 6.10 “Graduating Class, Americus Branch, The Ordnance Automotive School,” from the Ordnance Automotive School “Historical Summary” March 9, 1941 – June 30, 1956.

Figure 6.11 “School Troops Participate in a Parade,” from the Ordnance Automotive School “Historical Summary” March 9, 1941 – June 30, 1956.

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Figure 6.12 “Public Display of Training Aids,” from the Ordnance Automotive School “Historical Summary” March 9, 1941 – June 30, 1956.

Figure 6.13 “Group of The Infantry School visitors inspecting a lathe threading project. Mr. T.P. Hutchinson, Civilian-in-Charge of the Machinist Course explains project as student operates equipment.” ca. 1955. From RG 338 Historical Summary.

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Figure 6.14 “Mr. Charles Garmon, Civilian-in-Charge, Automotive Tire Rebuild Course, explains the use of the Power Stitcher to visiting Japanese Army Officers. Left to right: Mr. Garmon, Colonel Shintaro Mizuta, Colonel yoichiro Hiroaka, Colonel Takashi Sema, Colonel Tsuneji Tomine, and (rear) Captain Echiro Endo, Interpreter.” ca. 1955. From RG 338 Historical Summary.

Figure 6.15 “Brigadier General A.W. Beeman, Commanding General, Atlanta General Depot, greets Brigadier General Joseph Horridge, Commanding General, The Ordnance Training Command, upon his arrival at the Atlanta General Depot, 19 March 1955.” From RG 338 Historical Summary. 94

Figure 6.16 “Brigadier General W.E. House, Assistant Chief of Ordnance for Manpower; Brigadier General Joseph Horridge, Commanding General, The Ordnance Training Command; Colonel Albert L. Hettrich, Commandant, The Ordnance Automotive School; and Colonel James L. Massey, Ordnance Officer, Third Army, depart The Ordnance Automotive School Headquarters for a tour of the School.” ca. 1955. From RG 338 Historical Summary.

Figure 6.17 “Major Cherm Disyabutra (left), and Captain Chamras Ampawa, members of the Royal Thai Army, operate a recapping mold in the Automotive Tire Rebuild Course of The Ordnance Automotive School.” ca. 1955. From RG 338 Historical Summary. 95

Figure 6.18 “Technical Sergeants Apolinar Dr Ramos (left), and Antonia B. Agno, of the Philippine Army, examine a student rebuilt engine used for classroom instruction in the Engine Rebuild Course, The Ordnance Automotive School.” ca. 1955. From RG 338 Historical Summary.

Figure 6.19 “Captain Muhammed Kamel Abd el Badio, Egyptian Army, examines a section of an Army personnel and cargo carrier used for classroom instruction in the Wheel Vehicle Repair Course, The Ordnance Automotive School.” ca. 1955. From RG 338 Historical Summary. 96

endnotes
National Archives at Atlanta, RG 338, Box 570675, “Atlanta Ordnance Depot.” 2 During 1942, administrative control of the installation and the school transferred from the Quartermaster Department to the Ordnance Department and the installation name changed from the Atlanta Quartermaster Motor Base (February 24, 1942-August 1, 1942) to the Atlanta Ordnance Motor Base (August 1, 1942-November 13, 1942). Other installation names included Atlanta Motor Base, Atlanta Ordnance Base, and Atlanta Ordnance Depot. When the historical summary was written, the current name was apparently “Atlanta Ordnance Depot” although the installation had worked under a variety of names during the 1942-43 period. 3 National Archives at Atlanta, RG338, Box 570675, “Atlanta Ordnance Depot.” 4 Ibid. 5 National Archives at Atlanta, RG338, Box 570675, “History of Italian Service Units,” 7. 6 National Archives at Atlanta, RG 338, Box 1, file Historical Summary, March 1941-June 1956,” 3-44. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. 10 National Archives at Atlanta, RG 338, Box 1, file Historical Summary, March 1941-June 1956,” 3-44. 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid.
1

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Figure 7.0 Cover of “Guidebook of the Atlanta General Depot” which contained a summary of information relevant to those visiting the installation, November 1, 1946.

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During the immediate post-World War II period, the Depot and Motor Base transitioned to peacetime military activities. Some missions continued without interruption, and new duties were assigned. Where once there had been a never ending outflow of supplies, there was now the reverse. Equipment and materiel returned from overseas, and the Depot was responsible for its reprocessing and disposal. In 1946, the War Department terminated the ASF, which had been established to meet wartime demands. As a result, on May 16, 1946, the Atlanta ASF Depot was re-named Atlanta General Depot. On October 1 that same year, the American Graves Registration Service Distribution Center was established at the Depot for repatriating World War II dead. Although the process of recovering the remains of fallen soldiers was more time consuming than it is today, the Army attempted to accomplish the task in a dignified manner. The pamphlet Tell Me About My Boy was produced by the Quartermaster Corp in 1946, and was intended to help families understand the Army procedures for recovering their loved one’s remains.1 On July 1, 1947, the Atlanta General Depot was designated the Atlanta General Distribution Depot. This designation was part of a reorganization testing period. The test involved using this installation as a postwar distribution system within the Third Army area (previously known as the Fourth Corps service area). It focused on “general distribution of logistical supplies and services.” This trial period ended approximately one year later. Administrative functions of the Atlanta General Distribution Depot and the Motor Base merged on April 1, 1948, and they became known together as the Atlanta General Depot.2

Figure 7.1 Building 400 (center), facing south, August 1,1956. From Fort McPherson archives.

Figure 7.2 Building 400, 2002. From Fort McPherson archives.

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Figure 7.3 Building 401, facing north, August 1, 1956. From Fort McPherson archives.

Figure 7.4 Building 401, 2002. From Fort McPherson archives.

As a response to increased activity during the Korean Conflict, Building 400 was constructed in 1952 and Building 401 was built in 1953. During the 1950s and 60s new missions for the Depot included a Medical Supply Section, the operation of Morris Army Airfield, as well as the introduction of the 13th Ordnance Detachment. Discontinued missions during this period included the Ordnance Automotive School and the Coffee Roasting Plant; both closed in 1956. In the 1950s the installation continued to be an active military community. There were many services and activities available to residents of the Atlanta General Depot. A 1957 guidebook describes the availability of a cafeteria, canteen, and legal and finance offices in Building 101, a credit union in Building 103, a veterinary office in Building 604, a branch exchange in Building 736, a canteen in Building 900, and a commissary in Building 902. Recreational and religious activities were also supplied. Several religious services were held in the Post Chapel (Building 734) each week. Building 133 held an officer’s open mess and nearby was a 9-hole golf course; the club house was Building 123. A pistol range and a swimming pool allowed further active recreation, and other activities included a library, a bridge club, a women’s club, and a veteran’s club (AMVETS).3 An Ordnance Maintenance mission was discontinued in 1960. In 1962 the Army was again reorganized and control of the installation was transferred from the Quartermaster Corps to the US Army Supply and Maintenance Command. At this time the Atlanta General Depot was renamed Atlanta Army Depot.4

supply surplus
An excess of supplies was a primary concern during this period. During the war, it was necessary to keep large amounts of equipment on hand, ready to fill orders as they were received. After the war, much of this materiel was declared surplus. In 1946, news

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reports across the country seized on the story of military excess. One article reported thousands of vehicles, unneeded, and left exposed to the elements at the Army Depot in Atlanta. It was estimated that 25,000 to 41,000 vehicles were being neglected, and that the Army was even unsure of the number of vehicles in its possession. Some vehicles reportedly had as few as 4,000 miles on the odometer.5 The Army responded that a shortage of sufficient personnel was the reason for the neglect. Recognizing the problem, the Army began a reduction of excess property. From June 10-26, 1946, the War Assets Administration arranged a sale of surplus items at the Depot; the value of property to be sold was estimated at $15,000,000.6 By November, the Depot had disposed of approximately 68,000 tons of materiel.7

Figure 7.5 “Army Vehicles by Thousands Rusting at Georgia Depot” newspaper photograph, 1946 (Omaha Evening World-Herald, May 13, 1946).

morris army airfield
In October 1956, a transportation supply section was established at the Depot. Its mission was to provide maintenance,

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Figure 7.6 Aerial photo of the Motor Base and Morris AAF, March 10, 1959. From Fort McPherson archives.

support, and supplies for the aircraft of the Third US Army. The result of this change in mission was the 1957 construction of an airfield which consisted of a 3,000-foot paved runway and a 20,000 square foot hangar and repair shop. Named in honor of 1st Lt. John Oliver Morris, Jr., Morris Army Airfield (Morris AAF) was located on the western side of the Depot, and was dedicated in 1959. The hangar (Building 935) and airstrip were completed at a cost of $500,000 and $574,000, respectively. The airstrip was built to serve fixed wing aircraft, and there were additional accommodations for helicopters. The Army anticipated that the field would become one of the nation’s busiest helicopter ports.8 A 1965 advertisement in a local newspaper called for applicants for the position of flight test pilot at the Army Depot. The starting pay was $8,650 per year.9 Morris AAF appeared as an active field in several aeronautical guides including the 1959 Jeppesen Airway Manual, the 1961 Great Smokey Mountains World Aeronautical Chart, and the 1971 Atlanta Sectional Chart. It is depicted as closed in the

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1974 Atlanta Sectional Chart, indicating that its use was discontinued between 1971 and 1974.10 Although Morris AAF opened to much fanfare, its life as an active airfield was limited because of its proximity to the Atlanta Municipal Airport (now Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport). The Atlanta Airport lies just a few miles west of the airfield. Just five years after Morris AAF was constructed, the midfield terminal concept was introduced for the Atlanta Airport. This new configuration would change the star-shaped runways into four parallel runways with a terminal at the midpoint, thus realigning all air traffic into an east-west pattern which would travel almost directly over Morris AAF. This would have complicated operations of the airfield enormously, and as a result, the mission of aircraft maintenance was transferred to Lawson Field at Fort Benning Georgia. On August 11, 1977, the dedication plaque, placed at the field nearly 20 years prior, was returned to the widow of Lt. Morris.11

Figure 7.7 Aerial photo of Morris AAF, showing 20 planes west of the airstrip, near the hangar, and at least four helicopters near Hood Ave, 1960. From Fort McPherson archives.

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First lieutenant john o. morris, jr. / airFielD DeDication
Figure 7.8 1st Lt. John O. Morris, Jr. From Fort McPherson archives.

John O. Morris, Jr. of Virginia was a 1st Lt. in the Army and served as a helicopter pilot. He was killed in a helicopter crash on May 11, 1955 near Thule Air Base in Greenland. Before Lt. Morris entered the Army in 1952, he served three years as a Marine pilot during World War II. At the time of the crash he was serving as Operations Officer of the Polar Investigation Branch of the Army Trans-Arctic Group. As Morris was one of the few helicopter pilots killed in the line of duty up to this time, the Army Memorialization Board designated the field in his honor. The dedication was held in 1959. In attendance were Mr. and Mrs. John O. Morris Sr., Mrs. Virginia Morris (wife of Lt. Morris), and their 5-year-old son, Kirk. A plaque describing Lt. Morris’ accomplishments and sacrifice were unveiled.12 Helicopters were displayed at the ceremony and Kirk was given a ride in an H-13 helicopter, the same type flown by his father.

Figure 7.9

Kirk Morris at the 1959 dedication ceremony, standing next to the plaque dedicated to his father. From Fort
McPherson archives.

Figure 7.10

An H-13 helicopter, with Kirk Morris along for the ride, at the 1959 dedication.

From Fort McPherson archives.

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The airstrip and hangar continued to be used by the Army, often as a staging and storage area. In 1993, the field was used to display vintage World War II aircraft for an open house event. When the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) operated out of Fort Gillem, the airfield was used for storage of FEMA trailers. The hangar was demolished in 2002, but the airstrip remains.

explosive ordnance Disposal
The US Army began its Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) activities during World War II. Before that time, there was no organization or trained personnel to handle unexploded ordnance. Until this time, bombs had been rather low-tech and were easily disarmed. World War II saw an increase in the sophistication of bomb construction and therefore, professionals were needed to disable them. Both the Chemical Corps and the Ordnance Corps were involved in the 1942 creation of the first EOD training programs.13 The industrial nature of the Atlanta Depot installation, with its many warehouse buildings and open, outdoor spaces made it a good location for ordnance disposal activities. Beginning in the 1960s, ordnance disposal teams were located at the Depot. These activities were maintained at Fort Gillem through the final years of its operation. The 13th Ordnance Detachment, operating under the Third US Army, was a tenant organization at the Depot. It was activated at the Depot by Third US Army General Orders 281 on December 20, 1961. The 547th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Control Team (EODCT) was also located at the Depot. In the 1990s the Army reorganized the basic EOD structure. At this time the 13th Ordnance Detachment was redesignated the 723rd Ordnance Company and the 547th was redesignated the 184th Ordnance Battalion.14 The 13th (723rd) had an interesting but dangerous job. Its mission was, “to detect, render safe, recover, evaluate, and dispose of unexploded United States and foreign explosive ordnance, including nuclear weapons, which have been fired, dropped, or placed in such a manner as to constitute a hazard to installations, personnel or material.”15 Both of these groups were moved to Fort Campbell, Kentucky in 2009. For much of the time the 52nd Explosive Ordnance Group (Explosive Ordnance Disposal) operated out of Fort Gillem

Figure 7.11 The unit Insignia of the 52nd Ordnance Group.

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it was the only active ordnance group in the army. The 52nd commanded four EOD battalions and 39 EOD companies within the continental US. It also deployed EOD companies to Bosnia, Kosovo, and Southeast Asia and it periodically sends personnel to other locations worldwide. The 52nd is dispersed throughout the country and responds to the ordnance disposal needs of both military and civilian communities, but it is made up of fewer than 1,200 total soldiers and officers.16 The 52nd was deployed to Kuwait in 2003, and in 2008, 40 soldiers were sent on a 15-month deployment to Iraq. The group was relocated to Fort Campbell, Kentucky in 2009 as part of the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) recommendations.

endnotes
Clifford, “Fort Gillem Georgia,” 2007. Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, “History” document. 3 US Army, Atlanta General Depot, 14-21. 4 Department of the Army, Integrated Cultural Resource Management Plan, 1-22 – 1-24. 5 “Army Vehicles by Thousands Rusting at Georgia Depot,” WorldHerald (Omaha, Nebraska), May 13, 1946. 6 “Bargain Sale Featured Monday At Conley Depot,” Marietta Daily Journal (Marietta, Georgia), June 9, 1946. 7 National Archives at Atlanta, RG 92, Box 12, Project 143 (1946), 10. 8 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, History file, “Morris Copter Airport Dedicated at Depot” (newspaper clipping). 9 “Army Depot Seek Flight Test Pilot,” Marietta Daily Journal (Marietta, Georgia), March 29, 1965. 10 Paul Freeman, Abandoned and Little-Known Airfields: Northern Georgia, Morris Army Airfield (AGD), Forest Park, GA, http://www. airfields-freeman.com/GA/Airfields_GA_N.htm (accessed November 18, 2011). 11 Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, “About ATL Airport: Airport History,” http://www.atlanta-airport.com/Airport/ ATL/Airport_History.aspx. 12 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, “One of Busiest in US: Morris Copter Airport Dedicated at Depot,” newspaper clipping, Phil Smith (author), no date. 13 James H. Clifford, “The Origins of US Army Explosive Ordnance Disposal,” http://www.armyhistory.org/ahf2.aspx?pgID=877&id=70& exCompID=56.
1 2

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James H. Clifford (Planner: Security Cooperation and Exercises Division, Force Generation Center) personal communication with author, April, 2012. 15 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, “AMC Installation and Activity Information Summary,” July 1, 1972. 16 James H. Clifford, “The Origins of US Army Explosive Ordnance Disposal.”
14

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As a result of the Vietnam conflict, the Army underwent significant organizational changes during the 1970s. After a sweeping reorganization in 1962 that was only partially successful, the Army wanted to alter its management structure again. This effort was intended to focus on the now, all-volunteer force. The 1962 effort had streamlined and consolidated the Technical Services and created two new commands, the US Army Materiel Command (AMC) and the US Army Combat Developments Command. The AMC was then in charge of storage and distribution of supplies and equipment.1 The 1973 reorganization was intended to improve military readiness, effectiveness of schools and training, and equipment and force development. It also had the goal of streamlining command levels and headquarters locations. This effort included changes to the AMC, which controlled the depot system.2 According to a 1973 report, the mission of the depots was to “receive, classify, store, issued, maintain, procure, manufacture, assemble, research, salvage, and dispose of materiel.”3 Factors cited for AMC changes were reduced defense resources, reduced force structure, and the introduction of advanced computer systems.4 These factors highlighted the need for a more efficient depot system. The reorganization included the plan to close the Atlanta Army Depot and transfer its duties to the Anniston, Alabama; Letterkenny, Pennsylvania; and Red River, Texas Army Depots.5 Another aspect of the reorganization was the deactivation of Third US Army, which had its headquarters at Fort McPherson. When Third US Army was deactivated, on July 1, 1973, US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) took its place. FORSCOM was a newly created organization whose mission was to ensure com-

Figure 8.0 (Opposite page) Lt. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem II gives a speech communicating his appreciation for the honor given to his father, June 28, 1974. From Fort McPherson archives.

Figure 8.1 Invitation to the Atlanta Army Depot inactivation and Fort Gillem activation ceremony, June 28, 1974. From Fort McPherson archives.

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Figure 8.2 Forces Command honor guard and color guard at the Fort Gillem activation ceremony, June 28, 1974. From Fort McPherson archives.

bat readiness of all Army units in the Continental United States (CONUS), including both the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard. As part of this change, rather than closing the Atlanta Depot property altogether, it was designated a sub-installation of Fort McPherson. At the time, it was expected that the new duties of the soon-to-be Fort Gillem, would only require about half of the installation’s acreage. A plan to subdivide the excess land had been designed and sent to the Department of the Army. This action ensured that other federal agencies would have the first opportunity to acquire the land. State agencies would also have an opportunity to purchase the land if they desired. If neither of these groups required the property, then it would be either sold or leased on the open market; however, the division and sale of Depot land was delayed.6 On June 28, 1974, the Depot was deactivated and transferred from Army Materiel Command to FORSCOM. The installation was renamed Fort Gillem in honor of Lt. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, Jr. This change enabled FORSCOM to use Fort Gillem to manage the flow of equipment and supplies in their area of responsibility.

Figure 8.3 Commander of the Atlanta Army Depot, Col. A. J. Martino (right), hands the Depot colors to Command Sargent Major R. C. Eckenrod for the inactivation of the Atlanta Army Depot, June 28, 1974. From Fort McPherson archives.

the new mission of Fort gillem
After becoming a sub-installation of Fort McPherson, Fort Gillem did not have an individual mission, but rather worked in support of the mission of Fort McPherson. In 1974 the mission of Fort McPherson was: [t]o command, operate and administer the use of the resources of Fort McPherson to accomplish all assigned missions in accordance with the provisions of AR 310-10 and appropriate general orders and directives. Provide support to Headquarters, United States Army Forces Command and assigned, attached, and tenant units and activities in assigned geographic areas.
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The history of Fort McPherson states that “[t]he post [Fort Gillem] now serves a multi-purpose role as the home for several Army Agencies, activities, and active and reserve units as well as various different Federal agencies.”7

renaming ceremony
On June 28, 1974, a ceremony commemorated the renaming of the installation. It took place in front of Holland Hall, Building 101. A bronze plaque honoring Lt. Gen. Gillem was placed in front of the building. In attendance were Lt. Gen. Gillem’s two sons, Lt. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem II, USAF Retired and Lt. Col. Richard D. Gillem, USA, as well as Mrs. Mary G. Daly.8 Following the ceremony, 250 guests attended a reception.

Figure 8.4 Miss Ann Gillem, sister of Lt. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem Jr., admires the dedication plaque, June 28, 1974. From Fort McPherson archives.

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lieutenant general alvan cullom gillem, jr.
Figure 8.5

Photograph of (then Maj.) Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, Jr., commander of US XII Corps, no date. From http://usacac. army.mil/cac2/cgsc/ carl/resources/csi/ hall/hall.asp

Born in Nashville, Tennessee, Alvan C. Gillem, Jr. graduated high school in 1908. After attending The University of Arizona at Tucson and the University of the South at Sewanee, Tennessee, he began his Army career in 1910 at Fort McPherson. He enlisted there and served as a Private and Corporal in the 17th Infantry. He was commissioned 2nd Lt. of Infantry on February 11, 1911. Gillem served his country at home and abroad, including assignments in the Philippine Islands, Siberia, England, France, Belgium, Holland, Germany, and China.9 In 1944, he led a 180-day, 300-mile advance which cut through German lines. After this heroic effort, he wrote: “Measured in history, 180 days is but a brief span, swift sped and of small account. Reckoned in hours of combat, of cold, rain mud and sleepless darkness, 180 days can be a lifetime.” 10 In 1945, he was assigned to the War Department Headquarters in Washington, D.C. There he served as the chairman of the Board on the Utilization of Negro Manpower. He became well known for his efforts for this organization and he is credited with advancing integration in the US military. A letter containing the General Orders for the renaming of the Depot, states that his position on the Board, “established him as one of the earliest champions of equal opportunity in the Armed Forces.”11 In June 1947 he became commander of the Third US Army at Fort McPherson. He was Commanding General of both Third Army and Fort McPherson during this time. He remained until his retirement on August 31, 1950. It was this post that so closely connected Lt. Gen. Gillem with the interests of the Atlanta Depot. In 1948 and 1949, Lt. Gen. Gillem was assigned control of all Army activities in the Third Army area, which included the Depot; during this thirteen-month time, he was in direct control of the Depot. 12 Lt. Gen. Gillem remained in Atlanta after his retirement and was involved with organizing purchasing activities for the State of Georgia. Later, he became the executive director for the National Foundation for the March of Dimes. He was a highly decorated military veteran and considered an outstanding citizen. He died in Atlanta on February 13, 1973. 13

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endnotes
Richard W. Stewart, ed., American Military History, Volume II: The United States Army in a Global Era, 1917-2008 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History United States Army, 2010) 278-279. 2 The Comptroller General of the United States Report to the Congress, The Army Reorganization for the 1970s: An Assessment of the Planning (Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, 1973), 1-2. 3 Ibid, 43. 4 Ibid, 43. 5 Ibid, 1-2. 6 “Army Depot Due Change of Status,” Atlanta Journal, June 25, 1974. (The division and sale mentioned in this article never occurred.) 7 Dale, 80. 8 Martinez, 86-87. 9 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, Biographical Sketch: Lieutenant General Alvan Cullom Gillem, Jr. 10 “Soldier’s legacy lives on,” Fort McPherson Sentinel, November 2, 2001. 11 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, Letter of General Orders Number 982, June 17, 1974. 12 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, Biographical Sketch: Lieutenant General Alvan Cullom Gillem, Jr., USA. 13 Ibid
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The Atlanta Army Depot had been a logistical support base for the army. When the Depot was deactivated, it was placed under the control of FORSCOM. After it became Fort Gillem (a subinstallation of Fort McPherson), it served multiple purposes for a variety of Army organizations. It housed both active and reserve units and other agencies. During this period, two issues arose. First, that some of the warehouses and buildings on the installation were becoming functionally obsolete, and second, the vast area of the installation exceeded the needs of the Army at this location. When Fort Gillem was placed under the control of Fort McPherson, responsibility and funding of recreational facilities and services were transferred. The service clubs and other recreation areas, including the craft shop, bowling alley, and golf course then became annex operations of those at Fort McPherson. Several new facilities were constructed around this time. Plans were established in 1973 for the construction of a skeet range at the Depot, to be funded by an $18,000 grant from the Third US Army Welfare Fund. Mountain Builders, Inc. of Atlanta, Georgia, constructed the range at a cost of $18,699. It opened on April 27, 1974, and remained in operation until 1987. Two pavilions were constructed at Stephens Lake in 1980 at a cost of $15,000. Two tennis courts were constructed in 1981. A new shopping center was opened at Fort Gillem in June 1982. This facility, constructed at a cost of $4.3 million, included a 87,925 square foot commissary and a post exchange.1 This center replaced a similar facility at Fort McPherson. In addition, a Senior NCO Billet was opened at Fort Gillem in Building 810 on July 18, 1985.2 When Fort McPherson assumed operational control and ultimate responsibility for the activities at Fort Gillem, several groups previously housed at Fort McPherson were moved to Fort Gillem in order to take advantage of the available office and storage space. For instance, the Commissary and Control offices moved to Building 906 at Fort Gillem. In another shift, ration issue warehouse activities were transferred to Building 207 at Fort Gillem. This move provided for more storage and better loading and unloading of products.3
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Figure 9.0 (Opposite page) “New Shopping Center for Atlanta Military,” AJCP196-001-b, Atlanta Journal Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library, June 21, 1982.

The large (and in many cases, vacant) warehouse buildings at Fort Gillem led to interesting storage assignments, like a peanut storage mission it was assigned in 1975-76. Throughout much of the twentieth century the Commodity Credit Corporation (a government owned and operated entity that is part of the Farm Service Agency of the Department of Agriculture) functioned to “stabilize, support, and protect farm income and prices.” It accomplished this by purchasing excess crops from farmers, thereby preventing large price decreases due to high production. Under this program, the Commodity Credit Corporation was required to liquidate excess stock prior to the next growing season. In May 1975 the Army agreed, in cooperation with the US Department of Agriculture and the Georgia-Florida-Alabama Peanut Association, to lease temporary storage space for 100,000 tons of peanuts at Fort Gillem.4 This agreement allowed the Commodity Credit Corporation to take advantage of Fort Gillem’s storage facilities, and to dispose of the peanuts before the next year’s harvest.5 As part of this project, trailers containing the peanuts were loaded and weighed and their contents graded and shipped. By fall of that year, the peanuts had already been partially removed and by February of 1976, the peanut storage and processing had been completed.6 During this period, some of Fort Gillem’s activities were somewhat haphazard; however, they still reflected the installation’s historic trend of responding to the Army’s needs as required. At this time, space was the thing the Army needed, and Fort Gillem had plenty. One organization that was assigned to the installation in 1973, the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) required a large amount of space, and due to this match of supply and demand, it persisted at the installation until Fort Gillem’s closing. It occupied 3 million square feet of warehouse space and employed over 2,000 people. From February to July of 1976, Fort Gillem was the site for maintenance and repair work on On September 1979, the Georgia Department two hundred combat support helicopof Natural Resources captured a four-and-a-half ters. Alterations to the aircraft included foot long alligator in Marchman Lake. It had painting in the new army camouflage been there for approximately two weeks before colors. This job was assigned to the incapture. It was relocated to marshland in South stallation because of the available space Georgia.8 and existing vehicle and mechanical maintenance equipment and expertise. 7

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va cemetery
In 1973, the Veteran’s Administration (VA) assumed responsibility for the National Cemetery System. During the late 1970s, a nationwide shortage of burial space prompted the VA to plan seven new, regional cemeteries, including one for the Southeast. The VA Administrator, Max Cleland, a native Georgian, Vietnam Veteran and later a US Senator, selected a 300-acre portion of Fort Gillem as the cemetery site. Cleland and Army officials toured Fort Gillem during 1979 and 1980 in preparation for the new cemetery. Two Congressmen involved with the site selection, Bill Nichols (D-AL) and Jack Thomas Brinkley (D-GA), visited Fort Gillem in July 1979 to inspect the area. They toured the west side of the installation, and made occasional stops along the way. They later said that they were against locating the cemetery at Fort Gillem because “cemeteries should be located in serene, bucolic settings, not in a place where there would be ‘airplanes

Figure 9.1 Army and Air Force Exchange Service at Fort Gillem:, AJCP196-001-a, Atlanta Journal Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library, October 13, 1983.

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and metro buses running up and down the road.’” Of particular concern to the congressmen was a map from World War II indicating that the proposed location for the cemetery had formerly been a trash dump for old tires and used oil.9 Once the information regarding the dump was made public, opposition to the Fort Gillem site grew. Although Max Cleland selected Fort Gillem as the location for the cemetery, it was not to be.10 In order to use the land for a cemetery, the Army had to declare the land surplus and hand it over to the VA. Because of opposition to the proposed location, and because of evident cost savings associated with an alternate location, this approval did not occur. The new VA Administrator, Richard Nimmo, reversed the selection of Fort Gillem in 1981 in favor of the alternate location of Fort Mitchell in Russell County, Alabama.11

bicentennial events
In 1976, the United States celebrated its national bicentennial. This landmark year was filled with celebrations and events across the county, as well as at military installations. Fort Gillem marked the year-long celebration with several events including, a wagon train pilgrimage, the Bicentennial Freedom Train, and the Boy Scouts of America’s Bicentennial Encampment (see the section “Scouts at Fort Gillem”). The Georgia Bicentennial Wagon Train Pilgrimage to Valley Forge paid a visit at Fort Gillem in April of 1975. The Wagon Train was comprised of five wagons, led by State Wagonmaster Frank Richman. A musical program was given to an audience of over 600 people. The event was held outside the airplane hangar at Fort Gillem. The wagon train originated at Stone Mountain State Park and traveled through 13 states on its way to Valley Forge.12 For one week in mid-May in 1976, the Bicentennial Freedom Train visited Fort Gillem. This was just one stop of its 21-month, 17,000-mile journey during which it visited more than 100 cities in 48 states. It was estimated that over 8 million people viewed the train’s collections during this period. The 25-car train held

Figure 9.2 The Freedom Train, 1976. From Fort McPherson archives.

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artifacts illustrating America’s history, growth, and changes over the previous 200 years. The items on display were from almost all 50 states and were from national museums as well as public and private collections. A ceremony was held on May 19 at 8:00 AM to mark the train’s opening to the public at the Fort Gillem stop. In attendance at the ceremony were George D. Busbee, Georgia Governor; Peter Spurney, president of the American Freedom Train Foundation; the Commander of Fort McPherson and Deputy Commander of Fort Gillem; as well as other local officials. A moving walkway carried visitors through the ten cars with exhibits, which held historical documents, rare objects, and memorabilia. Over 80,000 people visited the train during its stay at Fort Gillem.13

Fort gillem and the environment
NEPA and the Development of Environmental Regulations Passed by Congress in 1969, and signed into law by President Richard Nixon on January 1, 1970, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) resulted from an increasing awareness of the effect of human activities on the environment. Essentially, NEPA requires environmental studies to be carried out for any project that involves federal funding, work by the federal government, or federal permits. With this act came the establishment of the US Environmental Policy Agency (EPA), an organization designed to enforce its regulations. Subsequent regulations that affected environmental policies also included the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. Because Fort Gillem was part of the Army, and therefore a federal entity, it was subject to these new standards. With Fort Gillem’s history of industrial activity, including the World War II supply mission that involved large amounts of material considered toxic or environmentally harmful today, it was inevitable that some environmental issues would arise under more stringent regulations. Remediation efforts began as early as 1980, when the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency provided $200,000 for a water analysis and the installation of ground water wells at Fort Gillem. Subsequently, the Army prepared an Environmental Assessment Report for Fort Gillem in 1983. The report discussed the general layout

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and facilities of the installation as well as its mission and tenant agencies and activities. It also included discussions of the landscape and architectural resources in addition to detailed information about environmental issues. Significant environmental issues included hazardous wastes, water quality, aircraft noise, nuisance vegetation and fauna, among other concerns. The report also analyzed land use patterns and suggested patterns for future development.14 Environmental Improvement Efforts and Issues In the decades that followed the introduction of NEPA, several incidents were reported at various locations around the installation. One of the most significant of these occurred on March 22, 1976, when observers reported yellow smoke rushing 50-60 feet in the air in an area between the post boundary and Flankers Gate. It was discovered that the smoke was coming from an area formerly used as a burial pit for 55-gallon drums of chemicals and hazardous waste. After the smoke wafted across Fort Gillem, officials decided that experts from the Army Environmental Hygiene Office should be consulted to remedy the situation. After testing, it was revealed that the smoke contained cyanide, chlorides, and iodine. One week later, after consultations between the Army, local officials, and the Environmental Protection Division, the conclusion was reached that the waste would be neutralized, removed, and transferred to a landfill.15 On February 9, 1981, a leak in diesel fuel line caused a fish kill in nearby Stephens Lake, and fishing was suspended until further notice. After water samples were taken and testing completed, the Environmental Hygiene Office discovered that nearly 1000 gallons of fuel had entered the lake, causing the problem. The affected fuel line was subsequently repaired.16 Perhaps due to this incident, or general environmental awareness, two initiatives were undertaken in 1981 to improve environmental conditions on post. These included a drinking water cleanup effort and energy conservation measures. Monitoring of water wells was undertaken in the area near the landfill. Caps and locks were installed on the wells. Also around this time, personnel complained about the quality of the water in the area around Building 403, in the northeastern section of the installation. A strange taste and odor was reported, and an iron reducing bacteria was thought to be the cause of the problem. As part of the conservation effort, gas meters were installed to allow for proper billing and monitoring of consumption.17
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Highlighting a newfound attention to environmental contaminates, new installation site maps outlined “known buried contaminate area[s].” Site maps from 1985 identify a large area in the northwest corner of the installation and at least six other smaller areas in the central and eastern portions of the installation as containing hazardous materials. Beginning in the 1970s and continuing through the closing of the installation, ongoing efforts were made at Fort Gillem to address environmental issues on post. Earth Day, first held in 1970, is a national day of focus on environmental awareness. The Army participates in this observance annually, and uses it as an occasion to host events to promote environmental stewardship. The Army’s Earth Day theme in recent years has been “Sustaining the environment for a secure future.” Fort Gillem has used Earth Day events to educate people on issues such as recycling, litter prevention, protecting waterways, and reducing air pollution. Popular events at the post have included hazardous household waste disposals and electronic waste recycling.
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Figure 9.3 1985 Site map indicating “Known Buried Contaminate Area[s].” (Shown in green)

installation improvements and beautification
By the 1970s, the buildings and landscapes at Fort Gillem were ageing and building systems were becoming outdated. In an effort to improve the visual environment as well as living and working conditions on post, a series of upgrades was undertaken. An initial post improvement effort was the planting of the Gillem Memorial Garden in honor of Gen. Gillem. The dedication of the garden took place on August 5, 1978, and was attended by members of the Gillem family and honored guests. These included the mayor of Forest Park and the Fort Gillem Commander Maj. Gen. M. W. Kendall. A number of individuals and groups donated trees for the garden in memory of various members of the XIII Corps, of which Gen. Gillem was the Commanding General from 1943 to 1945. These included three white dogwoods, three winged euonymus, two golden raintrees, and a yoshino cherry. A special donation of three pink dogwoods was made by three members of the Gillem family: his sons, Lt. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, II and Lt. Col. Richard M. Gillem, and, Mrs. Mary Gillem Daly. It was noted in the program for the event that they were “His First Command.”18 A post beautification program was instituted at Fort Gillem in April 1979 and a competition was to be held among the family quarters residents living in both the Staff Circle and Holland Park areas (see Figure 2.3). Between May and August, winners would be selected as “Yard of the Month.” Signs would be placed in the winning yards and photographs would be taken of the winning yard and given to the occupant as a prize.19 More substantial upgrades and changes to infrastructure and buildings included a 1986 upgrade of the natural gas system and replacement of gas lines at various locations and a February 1987 renovation of the five family quarters buildings. This renovation was part of a family quarters upgrade implemented at both Fort Gillem and Fort McPherson that totaled $950,000. Several buildings were demolished around this time; typically because they had become maintenance problems, or because their function was no longer needed and they were not easily converted to an alternate use. Buildings demolished in the 1970s and 80s included: 718 (Mess Hall), 919, 920, 921 (Motor Repair Shops), and 944 (Officer’s Quarters).20

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Holland Park Housing Between the end of World War II and the early 1950s, the military encouraged private developers to build housing near existing military bases. This program was in response to the extreme shortage of housing in these locations, which resulted in military personnel and their families often living in poor conditions. Housing produced under this program was called Wherry Housing, after the bill’s sponsor, Senator Kenneth Wherry of Nebraska. No standardized plans or designs were specified for the housing. Developers received low interest loans from the Federal Housing Administration and leased land from the government and were then required to build and maintain the property for a forty year time period. Occupancy priority was granted to military personnel. Projects completed under the Wherry bill produced 83,742 housing units across the country. One of the Wherry projects, located at the Atlanta Depot, was called Holland Park Apartments. Consisting of 125 units, it was located on the east side of the installation, just south of the entrance gate.21 In 1957 the units were rented unfurnished, with

Figure 9.4 Members of the Gillem family at the Gillem Memorial Garden Dedication, August 5, 1978. From Fort McPherson archives.

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Figure 9.5 A Holland Park duplex, ca. 2009. From Fort McPherson archives.

the exception of a kitchen range and refrigerator, at a rate of $67.50 to $100.00 per month. They were available to both military and civilian personnel. Water service was supplied by the owner, while natural gas and electrical service were paid for by the occupant.22 Because of the lack of standardized designs for housing built under this program, there were often problems with the quality of the resulting buildings. Many builders cut costs by using inferior materials or insufficient construction techniques.23 This may also have been the case with the Holland Park buildings, as there were several accounts of poor maintenance and management of the units. By 1980, the development at Fort Gillem was in a state of disrepair and the Army considered closing the apartments. Col. C.H. Woliver, Fort McPherson’s commander, held meetings with residents to discuss plans and respond to their questions.24 Problems persisted with the housing. In 1990 the residential community opposed an Army proposal to sell the land and detach Holland Park from the installation. The Army deemed the property no longer essential to the mission of the base and

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wanted to exclude the land from the installation. Residents, concerned over existing insufficient maintenance, wondered how much worse it might be without Army oversight. Additionally, they were concerned about receiving proper services such as police and fire protection, which had previously been provided by Fort Gillem. During these proceedings the Army closed Holland Park Drive, which had previously connected the housing area to the installation. This move forced residents to use an entrance on Moreland Avenue and was cited as an inconvenience.25 Reliant Development Group took over managing the property around 1998. According to Reliant, the complex consists of two and three bedroom townhomes, three bedroom duplexes and ten single-family houses. When Reliant took over, utilities were upgraded with new plumbing, electrical wiring, and HVAC systems. Other renovations were made to cabinetry, floors, fixtures, appliances, and lighting. The total cost of the improvements was approximately $10,000 per unit.26 Better maintenance and security measures were reportedly implemented and conditions were much improved.
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Figure 9.6 A Holland Park apartment building, ca. 2009. From Fort McPherson archives.

endnotes
Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, Annual Supplements to History of Fort McPherson, Georgia (1973), 34-35; (1974), 69-70; (1980), 5. 2 Dale, 92. 3 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, Annual Supplements to History of Fort McPherson, Georgia (1973), 34-35. 4 Ibid, (1975 and 1976), 7. 5 Emory Murphy (Assistant Director of the Georgia Peanut Commission), personal communication with author, March 27, 2012. 6 US Department of Agriculture, Farm Service Agency, “About the Commodity Credit Corporation,” http://www.apfo.usda.gov/FSA/web app?area=about&subject=landing&topic=sao-cc. 7 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, Annual Supplements to History of Fort McPherson, Georgia, 1976; Dale, 93-96. 8 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, Annual Supplements to History of Fort McPherson, Georgia (1979), 11. 9 “Southern regional veterans cemetery to be dedicated,” Daily News (Bowling Green, Kentucky), May 24, 1987. 10 “Fort Gillem Site Chosen for National Cemetery,” Marietta Daily Journal, November 1, 1979. 11 The cemetery at Fort Mitchell, near Phenix City in Russell County, Alabama was dedicated in 1987. “Fort Gillem loses VA Cemetery,” The Atlanta Journal-The Atlanta Constitution, July 26, 1981. 12 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, Annual Supplements to History of Fort McPherson, Georgia (1975), 8. 13 Ibid. 14 Fort McPherson Public Affairs Office Files: Analysis of Existing Facilities/Environmental Assessment Report: Fort Gillem, Georgia, March 1983. 15 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, Annual Supplements to History of Fort McPherson, Georgia, 1976, 7. 16 Ibid, (1981), 14. 17 Ibid, 54. 18 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, Gillem Memorial Garden dedication photo album, August 5, 1978. 19 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, Annual Supplements to History of Fort McPherson, Georgia,1979, 11. 20 Dale, 92-93. 21 Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, Capehart Wherry Era Military Housing, http://www.achp.gov/army-capehartwherry.html. 22 US Army, Atlanta General Depot, 16-17. 23 Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, Capehart Wherry Era Military Housing.
1

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Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office Files, Annual Supplements to History of Fort McPherson, Georgia, 1980, 1981. 25 “Holland Park Residents Say They Are Caught In The Middle,” Clayton News Daily, July 24, 1990. 26 Reliant Development Group, “Corporate Info,” http://www. reliantdg.com/corpinfo.html.
24

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Figure 10.0 Cub Scout Pack 122 from the Coventry Presbyterian Church in Atlanta visiting the Atlanta Ordnance Automotive School, 1955. From RG 338 Historical Summary.

Figure 10.1 Renaming of the Scout Hut in honor of Sergeant Morgan, November 1, 1963, pictured are: Col. Louis C. Crouch, Penny Jones, Col. Alexander, Boy Scout (name unknown), and Mrs. Morgan. From Fort McPherson archives.

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The practice of Boy and Girl Scout troops holding events on military installations is common across the country. Fort Gillem’s large size and ample recreational facilities made it an ideal location for Scout camps, and the interesting aspects of Fort Gillem operations and history allowed educational opportunities for these groups. Although there is limited information detailing early Scout events at the Depot, there is evidence that Scouts visited the installation even in its early years. A 1955 photo depicts Boy Scouts visiting the Atlanta Ordnance Automotive School. A Scout Hut was located just east of Stephens Lake (see Figure 2.3). It appeared on maps of the installation as early as 1952 and was labeled Building 333 or T-333. It was likely designed by the Office of the Post Engineer and constructed by the Army with assistance from local Scouts. By the 1950s the Scouts had become a regular presence on the base. In November 1963, the Scout Hut was renamed in honor of a Sergeant Morgan, a casualty of the Korean Conflict, who had worked with the Scouts for several years. The hut featured a rustic interior, hewn log walls and a rubble stone fireplace. The Scout Hut seems to have been a fixture at the installation until the 1980s or 90s, when it disappears from maps and site plans; it was likely demolished around this time. Regular scouting events were held at Fort Gillem during the 1970s. Camps for both Boy and Girl Scouts were held on July 3-7 and August 6-16 in 1974. Events included field trips, crowning of a king and queen, and award of ribbons for arts and crafts, sports, as well as other activities.1

Figure 10.2 The Boy Scout Hut at Stephens Lake, no date. From Fort McPherson archives.

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Figure 10.3 Map of the 1976 Boy Scout encampment (courtesy of Dave Corley).

From May 14-16, 1976, the Bicentennial Encampment of the Atlanta Area Council of the Boy Scouts of America was held in celebration of the Bicentennial of the Army. There were a total of 8,000 Scouts in attendance with an additional 10,000 visitors. The airstrip and surrounding areas provided the camping and activity grounds. Although the weather was uncooperative, the events took place as planned. Exhibits were displayed by the Army including tanks, guns, construction equipment, and helicopters. Fort Benning provided a group of Army Rangers who demonstrated their skills with helicopter maneuvers and rappelling. Scouts enjoyed a parachute jump tower, built specially for the occasion, as well as fireworks, music, a worship service, and a Flag Pageant.2 Scouting activities continued throughout the 1980s, and there are several records of these events. In the fall of 1980, initial planning meetings were held between Lt. Col. Joe L. Holmond and Kenneth E. George, the District Scout Executive for Clayton County, for a three-week camp to be held at Fort Gillem the following summer.3 On May 4, 1985, the Boy Scout Diamond Jubilee Encampment was held to celebrate the 75th anniversary of Scouting. Approximately 10,000 Boy Scouts from 13 Georgia counties attended the event.4 In 1991, a Diamond Jubilee encampment was held at Fort Gillem to mark the Boy Scouts, Atlanta Area Council’s 75th anniversary.

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girl scout camPs
There were also day camps, typically held in June, exclusively for Girl Scouts during the 1980s. Two Girl Scout workers who were responsible for one camp, held in 1986 shared their recollections of the events: Linda Fazekas, a camp director, remembered that the ladies who were on the camp volunteer committee were trying to decide on a name for the day camp. At the time, reportedly someone was attempting to purchase land in Clayton County to locate a reconstruction of Tara from Gone With the Wind. So “Camp Tara” was the name they adopted. The camp participants enjoyed the Scout hut, fishing in the lake, and games in the open field nearby. The theme of Camp Tara involved teaching the girls about daily household life during the 1800s. Activities on this theme included churning butter, lashing [rope work], candle making, and participating in crafts and games that would have been popular during the period. Girls camped out in tents one night and cooked their own meals. One occurrence threatened to spoil the fun when an “unauthorized intoxicated individual” stumbled into the area of the camp one night. The camp leaders quickly called the MPs (military police) and the person was removed without incident. 5 Margaret Paschal stated that 1986 was her first year as the day camp administrator for the council. She volunteered to teach an activity session involving weather watching. As it turned out, there was certainly weather to watch because it was over 100 degrees every day of the camp. Lemonade drinking and weather watching went hand-in-hand.6

Figure 10.4 Girl Scout “Camp Tara” patch from the 1986 summer camp (courtesy of Linda Fazekas).

endnotes
Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office, Annual Supplements to History of Fort McPherson, Georgia (1974), 31. 2 Ibid (1975), 8. 3 Ibid (1980). 4 “Boy Scout Diamond Jubilee Encampment,” Atlanta Journal/Atlanta Constitution, May 4, 1985. 5 Linda Fazekas (Girl Scouts Camp Director), personal communication, December 2011-January 2012. 6 Margaret Paschal (Volunteer Advisor, Girl Scouts of Greater Atlanta), personal communication, December 2011-January 2012.
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Figure 11.0 “Change of Command” Lt. Gen. Johnston replaces Lt. Gen. Charles P. Graham in a change of command ceremony at Fort Gillem on July 27, 1985: AJCP-196-001-j, Atlanta Journal Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library, July 28, 1985.

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The US Army is divided into several commands. These separate entities oversee different geographic and operational areas of the Army. The number of commands active within the Army fluctuates over time in relation to organizational changes. Two of these commands, the Second US Army and First US Army have been headquartered out of Fort Gillem.

second us army
Second US Army was formed in October 1918, during World War I but was inactivated in April 1919 at the end of the war. In the following decades, Second US Army was inactivated and reactivated several times during various conflicts.1 It had been inactive since 1966, but was reactivated again in 1983 with Fort Gillem as its headquarters.2 The Army anticipated the addition of Second Army would create 441 new jobs (both civilian and military) for the installation, and that move would increase Army spending in the Atlanta area by $10.5 million annually. A ceremony held on October 1, 1983, at Fort Gillem celebrated the reactivation.3 Second Army was under the control of FORSCOM, which was headquartered out of nearby Fort McPherson. In 1983, Lt. Gen. Charles P. Graham commanded Second Army. In July 1985, Gen. Graham retired and was replaced by Lt. Gen. Johnny J. Johnston.4 At its headquarters at Fort Gillem, Second Army was responsible for the management and readiness training of Army Reserve and National Guard troops in seven states and two US territories. Second Army at Fort Gillem acted as a regional command for all US Army Reserve forces in Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands.5 Second Army was deactivated on July 3, 1995.6

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First us army arrives at Fort gillem
When Second US Army was deactivated, the First US Army was reorganized and its headquarters relocated to Fort Gillem in 1995. At the time, First Army’s area of responsibility included the eastern half of the US and two territories. The mission of the First Army was “to mobilize, train, validate, deploy and demobilize all continental United States-based Army National Guard and US Army Reserve Forces mobilizing in support of combatant commander requirements around the world.” Beginning in 2004, First Army was commanded by Lt. Gen. Russell L. Honoré, who oversaw operations in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. During this time, Lt. Gen. Honoré formed the Joint Task Force Katrina in which thousands of search and rescue missions were completed and meals and water delivered to those affected by the storm. Hurricane Katrina was a costly lesson in disaster preparedness. Lt. Gen. Honoré pushed for changes to more effectively integrate the operations and communications of first responders in order to improve their performance in future disasters. Lt. Gen. Honoré is also credited with improved methods of training for National Guard troops. After 37 years in the Army, he retired from service in 2008 and remains in the Atlanta area. Lt. Gen. Thomas G. Miller assumed the command of First Army on January 11, 2008.7 Following closure of Fort Gillem in 2011, First Army moved to Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois. A colors casing ceremony was held on June 3, 2011, to mark the transition.8

Figure 11.1 First Army commanding general, Lt. Gen. J. Michael Bednarek, secures the unit’s colors during the ceremony, June 3, 2011. From army.mil/ article/58964

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endnotes
GlobalSecurity.org, “Second US Army,” http://www.globalsecurity. org/military/agency/army/2army.htm . 2 Dale, 221. 3 “2nd Army will establish new headquarters at Fort Gillem,” Atlanta Journal, May 19, 1983. 4 Martinez, 87. 5 Dale, 222. 6 Second Army was later reactivated, and is now the United States Army Cyber Command/Second US Army, headquartered in Fort Belvoir, Virginia. 7 GlobalSecurity.org, “First US Army – Training Support XXI,” http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/1army-ts21. html. 8 Robert Saxon, “First Army cases colors and departs Atlanta,” June 4, 2011, http://www.army.mil/article/58964/ (accessed January 4, 2012).
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War in the Persian gulf
The War in the Persian Gulf occurred between August 1990 and February 1991. This conflict had a direct and immediate impact on the personnel at Fort Gillem. The conflict began when Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990. At this time the US began Operation Desert Shield, which had a goal of defending Saudi Arabia against an expansion of the Iraqi offensive. On January 17, 1991, the US military began Operation Desert Storm. This phase of the conflict was undertaken in order to liberate Kuwait from the Iraqi Army. US plans for this war involved a combination of attacks, requiring extensive coordination within the Army and between the different service branches. One obstacle to be overcome was the complicated problem of moving large numbers of troops, supplies, and equipment to ports where they could shipped overseas in support of the mission. Fort Gillem was engaged in this aspect of war logistics when, just a few weeks after Desert Shield began, the installation was host to an immense convoy making its way to the Middle East.1 Fort Gillem served as a refueling and service location for 101st Airborne Division as they traveled to their debarkation point for Saudi Arabia.2 This large convoy of army vehicles was headed to Jacksonville, Florida, with an additional stop in Savannah, Georgia, on the agenda. The convoy was made up of at least 400 military vehicles carrying over 1,000 troops, all from the 101st out of Fort Campbell, Kentucky. There was continuous activity as groups arrived and departed over the course of at least two days. Civilians and veterans lined the entrance to Fort Gillem to welcome the convoy.3 The logistics involved with servicing this group on such limited notice were staggering. In just seven days, the staff of the Directorate of Logistics at Fort Gillem had to fill hundreds of requisitions in support of the Middle East mission. Supplies and orders had to be filled through a variety of emergency channels including local vendors. However, the community and installation worked efficiently together and the convoy troops and vehicles were successfully serviced.4
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Figure 12.0 (Opposite page) “A convoy of military vehicles of the 101st Airborne, bound for Saudi Arabia, stopped at Fort Gillem last week”: AJCP-196-001-p, Atlanta Journal Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library, August 23, 1990.

Figure 12.1 “James Ballard, an information technology professional with the Atlanta branch of the Federal Reserve, coaches his grandson, Raphael, 5, April 23 at the Fort Gillem youth Fishing Rodeo at [Stephens] Lake at Fort Gillem,” April 23, 2009. From Fort McPherson archives.

On August 23, 1990, Second US Army at Fort Gillem began its participation of Desert Shield/Desert Storm when reserve units were activated. This included more than 300 National Guard and Reserve units and over 40,000 troops. This comprised 40 percent of the reserves activated during this conflict.5

Fort gillem activities
Fort Gillem was not only a place of employment for civilians and soldiers; it was home to those who lived on post and a second home to many who worked there. To support the sense of community, recreational events and facilities were available at Fort Gillem. Recreation facilities on post included Marchman Lake (7.5 acres), Stephens Lake (3.5 acres), tennis courts, a softball field, and recreational pavilions. Annual events included a fishing rodeo and the Gillem Gallop. The fishing rodeo was held at Stephens Lake and allowed military and local children the opportunity to participate. The Gillem Gallop, organized between1983-2011, was a five-kilometer
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race for both individuals and teams. Typically held in November in conjunction with the Fort Gillem birthday celebration, the event featured food, drink, and door prizes. The final Gillem Gallop took place in November 2010. In 1990 the Department of Defense selected Fort Gillem as the regional site for the Armed Forces Day Open House Celebration. The events, which took place on May 19, filled the entire day. Taking part in the celebration were representatives from all of the Armed Forces, Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, as well as leaders from local municipalities. The events included speeches, music, a road race, and numerous demonstrations of military techniques and equipment. The Army provided a wide variety of services to military and civilian personnel at Fort Gillem. Some of these included a retail and grocery store, gas station, barber and beauty shops, laundry, credit union, chapel for religious activities and the services of an Inspector General. Dining facilities included the Getaway Club and a pizza shop. Other services such as childcare, human resources center, library, educational center, well139

Figure 12.2 The final Gillem Gallop, November 22, 2010. From Fort McPherson archives.

ness center, and Public Affairs Office were available at nearby Fort McPherson.6

tenant organizations and construction
First Army was the senior military activity at Fort Gillem; however, the installation was home to a variety of US Army organizations as well as other Federal agencies. It was ideally suited to provide land, facilities, and transportation access to these groups. Several large-scale building projects in the era prior to the installation’s closing were associated with these tenant activities. Most of these buildings have been part of the preparation for the Enclave, a small section of Fort Gillem, located on the western side of the installation. It contains the Criminal Investigation Command laboratory, the Readiness Training Center, and several others. A distribution center for the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) operated out of Fort Gillem from 1973 until 2011. From this facility AAFES sent products to its stores in several international locations such as Europe and the Middle East, including Afghanistan and Iraq.7 At one point this facility occupied 21 warehouse buildings on the installation.8 Another tenant organization at Fort Gillem was the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA used Fort Gillem as a headquarters and a storage and staging area for natural disasters in the Southeast. The abandoned runway was an ideal location for the hundreds of travel trailers the agency kept on hand. FEMA sent these trailers to areas affected by disasters to provide temporary housing for victims. In 1992 Fort Gillem established a five year lease on part of its railway system. The Army made this agreement with the Norfolk Southern Railway Corporation for the purpose of hauling automobiles from the Ford Motor Assembly Plant in Hapeville, Georgia.9 Dedicated and opened for use on January 28, 1997, the Joseph E. R. Neal Fitness Center was a new building which provided a workout facility for service personnel and their families. It was located at Building 700 in an area which had been vacant land during the installation’s early years, but later held a playground as well as a small building (763). The ground breaking for the building occurred on March 13, 1995, and construction costs
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Figure 12.3 Aerial photograph of the AAFES distribution warehouses at Fort Gillem (facing east), no date. From Fort McPherson archives.

First lieutenant josePh e. r. neal
The fitness center at Fort Gillem was named to honor First Lt. Joseph E. R. Neal, who died in service to his country. Growing up in Bellport, New york, he was a leader of his peers and highly motivated in sports. He was praised for his athletic abilities and held several records at his high school. Neal volunteered for Army service in 1966. He went on to complete Officer’s Candidate School, Army Ranger training, as well as language training to become an interpreter. He was consistently at the top of his class and served as both a physical and moral example to his fellow soldiers according to those who knew him. Just three months before his twenty-second birthday, during a training activity, a grenade was accidentally detonated. Neal threw himself on the grenade, saving the lives of at least five other soldiers but losing his own in the process. At the dedication ceremony a plaque was unveiled in his honor. In attendance at the ceremony were his parents, William A. Neal Sr. and Josephine Neal.10

totaled $2,983,316. The new facility had 26,370 square feet. It contained basketball courts, volleyball courts, aerobics rooms, and a variety of exercise and weight lifting equipment.11 The US Army Criminal Investigation Command, or CID as it is commonly known, operates to investigate and prevent crimes within the Army. There are approximately 2,000 individuals worldwide who work under this command. Although there have been criminal investigations within the military since before the Civil War, the history of the Criminal Investigation Command originated with the creation of the Criminal Investigation Division in 1918 during World War I. Criminal investigative duties within the Army were centralized on September 17, 1971, when the US Army Criminal Investigation Command was created. CID headquarters is at Quantico, Virginia, and has six subordinate organizations: the 3rd MP (Military Police) Group, the 6th MP Group, the 202nd MP Group, and the 701st MP Group, as well as the US Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory and the US Army Crime Records Center. The 3rd MP Group was located at Fort Gillem.12 By World War II, CID had been in existence for almost 25 years, and the DoD realized that more advanced forensics
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Figure 12.4 US Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory seal.

Figure 12.5 US Army Criminal Investigation Command seal.

Figure 12.6 “Studying fingerprints at Fort Gillem, Robert D. Whritenour, special agent in the Army’s Criminal Investigation Laboratory, works on a case involving stolen computers” AJCP196-001-r, Atlanta Journal Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library, November 1, 1991.

investigations were needed to fight the criminal element within the service. To accomplish this new mission, the Scientific Investigation Branch was activated in Algiers, French North Africa on October 1, 1943. This was the first forensic laboratory of the US Army; the second was founded in Manila, also during World War II. Another laboratory was established at Fort Sam Houston, Texas; this facility was abolished and a new one established at Fort Gillem in 1983, and is now the only remaining full-service DoD crime lab in the world. The CID lab at Fort Gillem represents one activity that will remain as part of the Enclave. The Fort Gillem facility provides services for the DoD as well as other federal law enforcement agencies.13 In 2000 the firm HOK (formerly Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum) designed a new CID laboratory at Fort Gillem. The building houses several different divisions and caries out forensics tests in the following areas: drug chemistry, trace evidence, serology/DNA, latent prints, questioned documents, imaging and technical services and firearms and tool marks. The new building design (housing all functions in a single building) allows for increased security regarding evidence chain-of-custody. The steelframed structure is one-story, covering 90,000 square feet, and has a saw-tooth roof design that incorporates windows and natural light into the building interior.14 The main portion of the laboratory building was completed between 2003 and 2004 and the design allowed for future phased expansion of the building. There have been three expansion and renovation projects since the CID laboratory’s opening. Completed in 2008, the first phase added 8,288 square feet at a cost of $3.9 million. The second expansion, completed in 2009, added 25,672 square feet to the facility at a cost of $15 million. The most recent expansion and renovation project took place in 2010. Cost projections total $10.8 million. The expansion will add 10,000 square feet to the existing building, and affect the areas which handle investigations related to drugs, documents, and latent prints, as well as other building occupants.15

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On January 13, 2000, the Military Entrance Processing Station (MEPS) was officially opened at Fort Gillem in building 720. The MEPS is the facility where individuals wishing to enlist in the military undergo the required testing and processing. The Atlanta MEPS is part of a regionally dispersed, nationwide network of 65 similar facilities. Previous military entrance facilities were located at Camp Gordon (near Chamblee, Georgia), Fort McPherson, and an assortment of locations near downtown Atlanta. Construction on the current location began in 1997, was completed in 1999, and cost $3.7 million.16 Kane Hall, constructed in 2003, was the headquarters of the 52nd Ordnance Group (EOD) from 2004 and 2009. The building was named in honor of Col. Thomas J. Kane who was a pioneer of the Army ordnance disposal program and who became the first Ordnance Bomb Disposal officer in 1942. Col. Kane died in 1965, and dedication of the building occurred on his birthday, March 30, 2004.17 The Readiness Training Center (RTC) is located within The Enclave at Fort Gillem. After significant delays in the design and construction process, it was completed in 2010. The RTC now functions as a base for several Georgia National Guard units, and provides areas for offices, training, and specialized storage. Initially, the Guard anticipated housing the RTC in a renovated warehouse building (Building #608 or T-608). On January 26, 2010, the night before the proposed groundbreaking ceremony, the building caught fire. Fort Gillem firefighters assisted by additional units from the Forest Park, Clayton County, and Morrow fire departments, worked to tame the blaze but were unsuccessful. Because the building was more than sixty years old and wood framed, it was destroyed. There were no injuries or fatalities from the event, but it did receive an investigation from both military and civilian authorities.18 The architects for the project then designed a new building at the location of the original warehouse. Not wanting to aban143

Figure 12.7 CID laboratory with expansion locations illustrated in three phases: Red = phase yellow = phase 2 Blue = phase 3 From Fort McPherson archives.

Figure 12.8 CID laboratory with phase 3 expansion in progress, December 29, 2010. From Fort McPherson archives.

Figure 12.9 Military Entrance Processing Station. From www.mepcom.army.mil/ meps/atlanta/mets.html

don the aesthetic of a renovated structure, they designed the new building to copy the form of the original. It was made to look like a renovation, with details such as window openings that appear to have been enclosed. The new, 88,000 square foot building was designed to be environmentally sustainable as well as resistant to possible terrorist attacks.19

base realignment and closure (brac)
As the Cold War ended in the 1980s, the Department of Defense was left with a tremendous amount of aging and, in many cases, outdated military infrastructure. Beginning in 1988, the Federal Government initiated a BRAC Commission to provide recommendations on reducing the military footprint with the ultimate goal of achieving long-term cost saving. BRAC rounds in 1989, 1991, 1995, and 2005 resulted in the closure (or realignment) of hundreds of individual military properties and some large installations. BRAC recommendations are often highly controversial and can have a significant impact on surrounding communities because of the reduction of ancillary benefits that are associated with military installations, such as recognition, jobs, and economic revenue. Forts Gillem and McPherson successfully avoided BRAC during the 1980s and 1990s. In one specific instance in 1993, the BRAC Commission ultimately decided that acquiring the amount of storage necessary for services at Fort Gillem would be too expensive elsewhere ($10 million per year). In addition, it was noted that replacing the facilities at Fort McPherson would be extremely costly and time consuming.20 Such was not the case in 2005, when the BRAC Commission recommended and followed through with closure of
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Figure 12.10 Kane Hall, 2004, courtesy of James Clifford.

Figure 12.11 Conceptual drawing of the Fort Gillem Readiness Center. Courtesy of www. brph.com.

both installations. Although the State of Georgia and the local communities hoped that the two installations would be preserved, the Commission officially announced their fate on May 13, 2005; all activities at both installations would have to relocate by September 15, 2011. Preparations for the closing were a dominant feature of life on post during the 2005-2011 period. It was often difficult for military personnel and civilian employees to know and understand all of the details related to the BRAC and several measures were taken to keep people informed and to help them sort out their relocation and employment options. In 2008, a monthly column called “BRAC Rumors: Fact or Fiction” began appearing in the post newspaper, The Sentinel. It was based on questions left on the BRAC rumor control hotline and sent to the related email address. Typical questions included those regarding child care, health care, and access to the commissary and Post Exchange facilities. In January 2009, a series of BRAC town hall meetings began. These were held every 90 days with the intention of keeping people informed. Common themes of these meetings included explaining employment assistance programs and giving relocation assistance and advice. According to the BRAC Commission analysis, the cost of closing Fort Gillem would amount to a one-time expenditure of $56.8 million. This was projected to equal a savings of $35.3 million per year following its closure. One of the key arguments in deciding to close the installation was that Fort Gillem served primarily as an administrative installation and the move would place the isolated tenant organizations closer to other, similar groups, therefore facilitating better coordination. Some of the groups were recommended to be moved to more geographically advantageous areas or to locations with an operational, rather than administrative, focus. The local community expressed concerns relayed in the report including the understated costs, economic impacts on the community, and security challenges. The BRAC Commission ultimately supported the Secretary of Defense’s recommendations, with several stipulations. The
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Figure 12.12 Firefighters struggle to contain a fire that engulfed Building 608, January 26, 2010. From www.army.mil.

Figure 12.13 Firefighters observe the remains of the burning Building 608, January 26, 2010. From www.army.mil.

Commission stated that the Army should clarify plans for the Enclave, define expected expenditures more clearly, and work with the community to minimize impacts on employment levels. The final Commission recommendations were: 21 Close • Fort Gillem, GA • Army-Air Force Exchange System (AAFES) Atlanta Distribution Center Relocate • Headquarters, 1st US Army to Rock Island Arsenal, IL • Headquarters US Forces Command (FORSCOM) VIP Explosive Ordnance Support to Pope Air Force Base, NC • 2d Recruiting Brigade to Redstone Arsenal, AL • 52d EOD Group to Fort Campbell, KY • 81st RRC Equipment Concentration Site to Fort Benning, GA • 3d US Army Headquarters support office to Shaw Air Force Base, SC Establish an Enclave for: • Georgia Army National Guard • Remaining 81st RRC units • Criminal Investigation Division (CID) Forensics Laboratory22 The closure of Fort Gillem started a complicated logistical process that involved moving people, vehicles, equipment, and all other materiel slated for transfer to other installations. Although the BRAC process is ultimately intended to save money and resources, the expenses incurred to close Fort Gillem exceeded the early estimates. According to one estimate in 2005, a total $31 billion was projected for the cost of BRAC implementation nationwide; the individual cost for closing Fort Gillem was projected at $56.8 million. By 2008, this number had grown to $150.43 million. While the closure would still result in savings for the Department of Defense, these savings would not be realized as quickly as previously anticipated. Before any of the installation’s land could be disposed of, an Environmental Assessment was required to fulfill National Environmental Policy Act requirements. Additionally, the Depart146

ment of Housing and Urban Redevelopment (HUD) had to approve of redevelopment plans for the installation.23 On November 27, 2010, the Chapel (Building 734), constructed from a standard World War II era design, was permanently shuttered. As part of the BRAC decommissioning, all sacred objects were removed and sent to Fort Benning and Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The building was subsequently demolished along with several other wooden buildings in the vicinity in order to accommodate a re-design of the roadway in preparation for Enclave operations. On September 15, 2011, Fort Gillem was officially deactivated as an Army installation.24

Figure 12.14 Building 734, Fort Gillem chapel, just prior to demolition in 2010. From www.army.mil.

the Future of Fort gillem
As the Fort Gillem property enters the next chapter of its development, it reflects one of its previous configurations, when it was two separate installations, one serving as an army depot and the other as a Motor Base. The Motor Base was located west of the depot and was approximately 300 acres in size, while the larger portion, the depot, was approximately 1,200 acres. As BRAC progressed, the Army determined it would retain a portion of Fort Gillem in the form of an Enclave. The Enclave is a small section of land, approximately 250 acres, located roughly on the site of the former Motor Base. The Enclave will be administered by Fort Gordon, located near Augusta, Georgia, and will house several organizations, including the Georgia Army National Guard. A ribbon cutting was held October 12, 2011, to celebrate the opening of the new entrance to the Enclave.25 A large sign marks the entrance and has the words “Gillem Enclave” affixed to it. Below, is a bronze plaque marked “Fort Gillem” that resembles the plaque originally dedicated to Gen. Gillem in 1974.26 The City of Forest Park has a substantial task to look forward to in the redevelopment of the remainder of the Fort Gillem site. The challenge will be transforming an area that, for the past 70 years, has been used only for utilitarian purposes. The city of Forest Park, along with the Fort Gillem Implementation Local Redevelopment Authority, a group known as the FP/FG ILRA, is
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Figure 12.15 Fort Gillem Enclave ribbon cutting ceremony, October 12, 2011. From www.army.mil.

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responsible for making the area inviting to both developers and customers in addition to making it profitable. To this end, the FP/ FG ILRA has explored many options for the site. These included various combinations of industrial, office, retail, and residential uses. In 2007, a Strategic Reuse Plan was compiled and included analysis of current and future market conditions, proposed redevelopment strategies, inventory of existing facilities, and environmental concerns.27 The Plan cited three options for redevelopment: Alternatives A, B, and C. Alternative A included 800 acres of revenueproducing uses with: 642 acres of industrial and business park, 500 for-sale residential units, 435,000 square feet of retail space, and 280,000 square feet of office space. Alternative B included 780 acres of revenue-producing uses with: 600 acres of industrial and business park, 350 for-sale residential units, 210 forrent residential units, 870,000 square feet of retail space, and no office space. Alternative C included 774 acres of revenueproducing uses with: 585 acres of industrial and business park, 521 for-sale residential units, 180 for-rent residential units,
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730,000 square feet of retail space, and no office space. The preferred alternative at the time was A, however upon the installation’s closing, market conditions had changed significantly, and alterations to the plan were required.28 By January 2012, Forest Park was one step closer to implementing the redevelopment plans. After more than five years of negotiating, the City of Forest Park finalized an agreement with the Army to purchase the remaining 1,170 acres of the Fort Gillem site for $30 million.29 Originally planners had envisioned a mixed-use community that incorporated extensive residential and retail uses. However, with the economic downturn of the past several years the demand for residential units has decreased. The focus has been shifted to industrial and commercial uses, and the plan no longer includes residences.30 The most recent information from the FP/FG ILRA states that the plans currently include a 340-acre industrial and distribution park with 3.5 million square feet of building space, a 310-acre intermodal rail facility, a 48-acre office park which includes the Headquarters Building 101, and a manufacturing
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Figure 12.17 conceptual drawing of the Fort Gillem redevelopment master plan. Courtesy of the FP/FG ILRA.

complex. The industrial area will be located on the southern one-third of the property; the rail facility will take advantage of existing rail lines and be located to the center of the property; the office park will occupy the east side; and the manufacturing complex will be located north of Hood Avenue. A three-phase implementation process has been outlined with the redevelopment unfolding over the next 15 years.31 The most recent plans concentrate on job creation and 3,000 to 4,000 new jobs are expected from the redevelopment. One lingering concern is the environmental contamination remaining from the Army’s activities on the site. It is estimated that 165 acres of land is affected; however, the Army has accepted full responsibility for the cleanup.32 The FP/FG ILRA has a long and possibly difficult road ahead, particularly in a time of economic distress. They need to merge the development of the Fort Gillem site into the surrounding community and encourage residents and visitors to become patrons of the businesses and industry that will occupy the area. The involvement and cooperation of locals will be an important factor, and general improvement of the economic condition of the region will help support the transformation. Once a thriving Army community, the hope is that Fort Gillem will become a successful part of the City of Forest Park and the surrounding region.

endnotes
Richard W. Stewart, ed., American Military History, Volume II: The United States Army in a Global Era, 1917-2008 (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History United States Army, 2010) 416-420. 2 Shari Nettles, “Fort Gillem celebrates 60th birthday,” Fort McPherson Sentinel, November 2, 2011. 3 “Ft. Gillem Welcomes Huge Army Convoy,” Clayton News Daily, August 16, 1990. 4 “Steady Stream Through Georgia,” Clayton News Daily, August 27, 1990 (reprint of article from The Sentinel). 5 Dale, 103. 6 US Army, Fort McPherson/Fort Gillem: The Army in Atlanta 2010 Installation Guidebook (Atlanta General Depot, Atlanta, Georgia: Public Information Office, 2010). 7 Steven Smith (Corporate Communications Editor/Historian, Army & Air Force Exchange Service), personal communication, February 2012.
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“Ft. Gillem exchange service may be cut,” Atlanta Journal, October 13, 1983. 9 Dale, 100. 10 Fort McPherson: Public Affairs Office, Joseph E. R. Neal Fitness Center information, by Shari Nettles, January 13, 1997. 11 Ibid. 12 United States Army Criminal Investigation Command, “Frequently Asked Questions,” http://www.cid.army.mil/index.html. 13 Ibid 14 James Rutherford Fair, AIA, “Criminal Investigation Laboratory, Fort Gillem, GA, United States Army,” http://www.jrf-a.com/detail. php?project=gilem. 15 Fort McPherson, Electronic Files. 16 USMEPCOM: United States Military Entrance Processing Command “Military Entrance Processing Station,” http://www. mepcom.army.mil/meps/atlanta/index.html. 17 Clifford, personal communication with author, April, 2012. 18 James Denton Wylie, “National Guard Center Destroyed in Fire,” Army.mil, January 28, 2010, http://www.army.mil/media/105485/. 19 Mark Videkovich (BRPH Architects-Engineers, Inc.), personal communication with author, December 2, 2011. 20 “Avoiding the Hit: Officials Make Case for Bases,” Marietta Daily Journal, June 10, 1993. 21 Department of the Army, BRAC Commission Findings and Recommendations, May 13, 2005. 22 Ibid. 23 Bill Baldowski, “Fort Authority Gets Go Ahead,” Clayton Neighbor, November 12, 2008. 24 Kevin Stabinsky, “Day of rest: After 69 years of service, Fort Gillem Chapel completes its final mission,” Army.mil, November 23, 2012, http://www.army.mil/article/48539/. 25 Maj. Perry M. Jarmon, “Gillem Enclave partners with Fort Gordon,” The Fort Gordon Signal, October 14, 2011. 26 This may, in fact, be the same plaque in a new location, but this is unconfirmed. 27 Cousins/LNR, Fort Gillem Strategic Reuse Plan, (Forest Park/Fort Gillem, Georgia: Local Redevelopment Authority, 2007). 28 Ibid. 29 This acreage number is as reported in the Clayton News Daily article; however, it appears to disagree with some other sources, which set the acreage available for transfer slightly higher. 30 “Forest Park buys Fort Gillem for $30 million,” Clayton News Daily, January 13, 2012. 31 Fred Bryant (FP/FG ILRA Executive Director), personal communication with author, January 26, 2012. 32 “Forest Park buys Fort Gillem for $30 million,” Clayton News Daily, January 13, 2012.
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Although cultural resources at Fort Gillem could include both historic buildings as well as archaeological resources, the only significant remaining cultural resources within the boundaries of Fort Gillem are its historic buildings and structures. Because of the massive amount of grading and earthwork that took place during the construction of the Depot in the 1940s, it is believed that any important archaeological information would have been destroyed. Additionally, more recent logging and landfill activity would have further compromised any remaining artifacts. Archeological surveys of the area have not uncovered any significant information. While Fort Gillem remained under Army control, the buildings located within underwent periodic inspection and repairs that maintained them in serviceable condition.1 Under a 2010 Memorandum of Agreement between the Army and the Georgia State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), 57 buildings or structures at Fort Gillem were determined eligible for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). These include many of the brick and limestone structures, as well as warehouses, storage buildings, and other facilities. Ten buildings will have preservation covenants2 attached to their deeds including: Buildings 101 (Post Headquarters), 102 (Engineers Building), 103 (Fire Station), 104 (Guard House), 107 (Mechanic Shop), 108 (Paint Shop), 110 (Oil and Gasoline Storage), 114 (Boiler House), 201 (Water Pumping Station), and 301 (Yard Master’s Office).3

Figure 13.0 (Opposite page) Map of Fort Gillem with NRHPeligible buildings (with covenants) highlighted.

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FORT GILLEM

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AN

VIL

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HOOD AVENUE FLANKERS ROAD WHEELER DRIVE
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IVERSON GATE MORRIS ARMY AIRFIELD HOLLAND HALL HARDEE HALL
154 MCINTOSH GATE

landmarks and historical markers4
Flankers Road This roadway is located on the west side of the installation and adjoins with Hood Avenue near 20th Street. This street transition is a remnant of the original border between the Depot (to the east) and the Motor Base (to the west). There is a marker near this location with the following text: Commemorating action of General Iverson´s cavalrymen of Wheeler´s Corps in this vicinity who attempted to protect the railhead of Macon & Western Railroad for retreating Confederate troops after the fall of Atlanta. 031-AGD-6 Georgia Historical Commission 1957 Hardee Hall This building functioned as an officer’s club. The historical sign, located on adjacent Hood Avenue, has the following inscription: Named in honor of Lieut. General William Joseph Hardee (USMA 1838), CSA. A Corps commander during the Atlanta Campaign, he fought a delaying action on Depot site during the retreat. Later, he commanded the Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida and served as Corps commander in the Army of Tennessee until its surrender. Born at Savannah, Georgia, October 10, 1815. Died November 6, 1873. 031-AGD-2 Georgia Historical Commission 1957 Holland Hall Holland Hall is Fort Gillem’s headquarters, and is located on the east side of the installation. It faces east and has a historical marker attached to the front of the building with the following inscription: Named in honor of Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Holland, QMC Commanding Officer, Atlanta General Depot, July 1, 1941-June 5, 1943. Was responsible for selection, survey and establishment of Depot on its present site. Moved his headquarters here Dec. 1, 1941 from Candler Warehouse. Awarded Legion of Merit for exceptionally meritorious conduct and outstanding service as Commanding Officer, Atlanta General Depot. Retired from the military service July 1944. Born: Indiana, Aug. 10, 1879. Died: Knightstown, Indiana, Aug. 19, 1944. 031-AGD-7 Georgia Historical Commission 1957
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Figure 13.1 (Opposite page) Map of Fort Gillem with landmarks and historical markers highlighted.

Hood Avenue This roadway is the primary east-west path through the installation. It runs from Moreland Avenue on the east to Jonesboro Road on the west. A marker located near the Iverson Gate has an inscription with the following information: Named in honor of General John Bell Hood (USMA 1853), who was a Lieut. General in command of the 2nd Corps, Army of Tennessee, CSA, during Atlanta Campaign in 1864. He succeeded General Joseph E. Johnston as commanding general of Confederate forces who were defeated in the Battle of Atlanta and whose troops fought a delaying action on the Depot site during the retreat. Born at Owingsville, Ky., June 1, 1831. Died August 30, 1879. 031-ACD-1 Georgia Historical Commission 1957 Iverson Gate This gate is located on Jonesboro Road, at the southwestern corner of the installation. The text of the nearby historical marker reads: Named in honor of Brig. General Alfred Iverson, Jr., CSA. He became a first lieutenant, First U. S. Cavalry, 1856. In 1861 he resigned commission in U. S. Army and joined the Confederacy as a Col. Promoted to Brig. General in November 1862. He was in charge of a brigade of Wheeler´s Cavalry deployed on Depot´s present site, with mission of protecting Macon & Western Railroad, main supply line. Born at Clinton, Georgia, February 14, 1829. Died March 31, 1911. 031-AGD-3 Georgia Historical Commission 1957 McIntosh Gate Located along Moreland Avenue on the east side of the installation, McIntosh Gate is the primary entrance to Fort Gillem. The text of the nearby historical marker reads: Named in honor of Brig. General William McIntosh, US Army, Chief of the Coweta Tribe of the Creek Nation, he negotiated a treaty ceding this territory to the United States, which included the land on which the Depot now stands. The son of a Scotsman, Captain William McIntosh, and a Creek Indian princess, General McIntosh distinguished himself under General Floyd and General Jackson during the War of 1812. Born 1780. Died at the hands of fellow Indians in the spring of 1825. 031-AGD-5 Georgia Historical Commission 1957
156

Morris Army Airfield The airfield is named to honor 1st Lt. John Oliver Morris, Jr., who died in a helicopter crash in 1955. The airfield was completed in 1957 and dedicated in 1959. There is no known marker at this location. Wheeler Drive This roadway runs roughly north-south and passes in front of the headquarters building (Holland Hall). A marker is located near the intersection with Hood Avenue and has the following inscription: Named in honor of Maj. General Joseph Wheeler (USMA 1859), commander of the 2nd Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee, CSA. A renowned raider, he guarded the flanks of the Confederate Army, with headquarters near present Depot site, covering the Confederate retreat. A member of Congress 18811883 and 1885-1900, he was a Major General U. S. Vols. 1898, Spanish American War and the Philippine Insurrection and was appointed Brig. General, USA. He was one of the nation´s great Cavalry leaders. Born at Augusta, Georgia, September 10, 1836. Died January 25, 1906. Ghm 031-Agd-4 Georgia Historical Commission 1957

endnotes
Department of the Army Integrated Cultural Resources Management Plan, 1-6 – 1-7.
1 2 A preservation covenant is a document that obligates an owner to maintain and preserve a historic building. 3

See pages 38-47 for photographs of these buildings.

All historical marker inscription information is from Latitude 34 North, “Historic Markers Across Georgia,” http://www.lat34north. com/historicmarkers/CountyDetail.cfm?CountyNameKey=Clayton.
4

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158

archival records
Fort McPherson Cultural Resource Management Office Files War Department, U.S.A. 1942 Completion Report of the Atlanta Quartermaster Depot (Project P-1). 1942 Completion Report of the Atlanta Ordnance Motor Base (Project P-2). 1942 Completion Report of Atlanta Quartermaster Depot (Project P 41-1). 1942 Completion Report of the Atlanta Quartermaster Motor Base (Project P42-1). File: Fort Gillem building numbers Electronic Files Public Affairs Office Files • “AMC Installation and Activity Information Summary,” July 1, 1972. • Analysis of Existing Facilities/Environmental Assessment Report: Fort Gillem, Georgia, March 1983. • Annual Supplements to History of Fort McPherson, Georgia, 1967-1981, 1983-1984. • Biographical Sketch: Lt. Gen. Alvan Cullom Gillem, Jr., USA • Economic Impact Card, 2008 • Fort McPherson Sentinel, newspapers on file at PAO. • Gillem Memorial Garden dedication photo album, August 5, 1978. • Joseph E. R. Neal Fitness Center information, by Shari Nettles, January 13, 1997. • History File. • General Orders Number 982, June 17, 1974.

159

National Archives at Atlanta Record Group 92: Quartermaster General Box 4: Atlanta General Depot, Atlanta, GA. Files: Memoranda – Atlanta ASF Depot – 1944, 1945 Weekly Information Bulletin – Atlanta ASF Depot – 1945 Box 8: Atlanta General Depot, Atlanta, GA Files: 314.7 – History, Atlanta ASF Depot – 1943-1945 • “The Constitution” February 1941 • “Historical” March 1943 • Press Information, Atlanta QM Dept, 1943 314.7 – Atlanta ASF Depot – 1943-1945 • “Historical” March 1943 Box 9: Atlanta General Depot, Atlanta, GA Files: 314.7 – Atlanta ASF Depot – 1943-1945 • Letter from John R. Strother to The Quartermaster General, April 29, 1943 • Letter from Col. J.W.G. Stephens to A.M. Thornton, June 28, 1943 • Letter from Col. J.W.G. Stephens to the Depot Historian, January 17, 1945 • Letter from Samuel N. Lowry to Commanding Officer, July 13, 1945 • Tentative General Program of Historical Project at Atlanta Quartermaster Depot, April 28, 1943 • Tentative Outline of History of Atlanta Quartermaster Depot 314.7 – Historical Studies – Coffee Roasting Plant 314.7 – Historical Studies – Shoe Shop 314.7 – Histories – 1942 • Atlanta General Depot History, April 15, 1942 • Outline History of the Atlanta General Depot, June 14, 1946 • Brief Chronological History of the Depot Missions, January 11, 1946 Box 12: Atlanta General Depot, Atlanta, GA Files: Project 143 – 1946 • Guidebook of the Atlanta General Depot, November 1, 1946 Box 15: File: Depot Statistics • Review of Operations: Atlanta General Distribution Depot US Army, Atlanta, Georgia (January 21, 1948).

160

Record Group 338: Box 1: US Army Commands, Army Schools File: Historical Summary – January 1955-June 1955 • Folder of nine photographs File: Historical Summary – March 1941-June 1956 Box 570675 “Atlanta Ordnance Depot” “History of Italian Service Units”

Print sources
The Comptroller General of the United States. Report to the Congress, The Army Reorganization for the 1970s: An Assessment of the Planning. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, 1973. Clifford, James H. “Fort Gillem, Georgia,” On Point: The Journal of Army History, 2007. Cousins/LNR. Fort Gillem Strategic Reuse Plan. Forest Park/Fort Gillem, Georgia: Local Redevelopment Authority, 2007 Dale, Jim. Fort McPherson, Fort Gillem: The First Hundred and Sixteen Years 1885-2001. Edited by Ronald Morton. US Army Garrison Public Affairs Office, Fort McPherson, Georgia, 2001. (Revision of Louis M. Martinez’s Fort McPherson: The First Hundred Years 18851985) Department of the Army. BRAC Commission Findings and Recommendations, 2005. – Integrated Cultural Resources Management Plan: Fort McPherson Fort Gillem US Army Recreation Area – Lake Allatoona (Prepared by: Cultural Resources Management Program, BRAC – Environmental Division, Fort McPherson, Georgia) 2007. Fisher, John C. and Carol Fisher. Food in the American Military: a History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2011. Goodfellow, Dr. Susan, Marjorie Nowick, Chad Blackwell, Dan Hart, and Kathryn Plimpton. Nationwide Context, Inventory, and Heritage Assessment of Works Progress Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps Resources on Department of Defense Installations, Prepared for the Department of Defense Legacy Resource Program, under Project 07-357 by engineeringenvironmental Management, Inc., 2009.

161

Martinez, Louis M. Fort McPherson The First Hundred Years 18851985. Fort McPherson, Georgia: Third United States Army, 1985 (Revision of E.A. Metheny’s 1964 The Fort McPherson Story, 18851963.) Millet, John D. United States Army in World War II: The Organization and Role of the Army Service Forces. Washington, DC: Center of Military History United States Army, 1954. Roth, Darlene R. and Andy Ambrose. Metropolitan Frontiers: A Short History of Atlanta. Atlanta, Georgia: Longstreet Press, Inc., 1996. Stewart, Richard W., ed. American Military History Vol. 2: The United States Army in a Global Era 1917-2008. Washington, DC: Center of Military History United States Army, 2010. US Army. Atlanta General Depot, US Army Forest Park , GA: Supply Center of the Southeast. Atlanta, Georgia: Public Information Office, Atlanta General Depot, 1957 – Fort McPherson/Fort Gillem: The Army in Atlanta 2010 Installation Guidebook. Atlanta, Georgia: Public Information Office, Atlanta General Depot, 2010. Wasch, Diane Shaw, Perry Bush, Keith Landreth, et al., and James Glass, Ph.D. World War II and The U.S. Army Mobilization Program: A History of 700 and 800 Series Cantonment Construction. Edited by Arlene R. Kriv. Washginton, DC: US Department of the Interior-US Department of Defense, n.d.

electronic sources
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. “Capehart Wherry Era Military Housing,” http://www.achp.gov/army-capehartwherry. html (accessed January 27, 2012). The Army Historical Foundation: Army History Center. “The Origins of U.S. Army Explosive Ordnance Disposal,” by CSM James H. Clifford, 63d Ordnance Battalion (Explosive Ordnance Disposal), Fort Dix, NJ, http://www.armyhistory.org/ahf2. aspx?pgID=877&id=70&exCompID=56 (accessed November 17, 2011). Atlanta Regional Commission. www.atlantaregional.com (accessed February 17, 2012).

162

BRPH (Briel, Rhame, Poynter, and Houser). “Fort Gillem Readiness Center” http://www.brph.com/project_gallery/view/115 (accessed December 2, 2011). Comic art ville. “Rare Eisner/Making of a Genius” http://www. comicartville.com/rareeisner3.htm (accessed January 9, 2012). Fair, James Rutherford, AIA “Criminal Investigation Laboratory, Fort Gillem, GA, United States Army” http://www.jrf-a.com/detail.php?project=gilem (accessed November 21, 2011). Freeman, Paul. “Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields: Northern Georgia - Morris Army Airfield (AGD), Forest Park, GA,” http:// www.airfields-freeman.com/GA/Airfields_GA_N.htm (accessed November 18, 2011). GlobalSecurity.Org. “First US Army - Training Support XXI,” http:// www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/1army-ts21.htm (accessed January 4, 2012). – “Second US Army,” http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/ army/2army.htm (accessed January 4, 2012). Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. “About ATL Airport: Airport History,” http://www.atlanta-airport.com/Airport/ATL/ Airport_History.aspx (accessed November 29, 2011). Latitude 34 North. “Historic Markers Across Georgia,” Flankers Road http://www.lat34north.com/historicmarkers/MarkerDetail. cfm?KeyID=031-AGD-6&&MarkerTitle=Flankers%20Road (accessed December 21, 2011). – “Historic Markers Across Georgia,” Hardee Hall http://www. lat34north.com/historicmarkers/MarkerDetail.cfm?KeyID=031AGD-2&&MarkerTitle=Hardee%20Hall (accessed December 21, 2011). – “Historic Markers Across Georgia,” Holland Hall http://www. lat34north.com/historicmarkers/MarkerDetail.cfm?KeyID=031AGD-7&&MarkerTitle=Holland%20Hall (accessed December 21, 2011).

163

– “Historic Markers Across Georgia,” Hood Avenue http://www. lat34north.com/historicmarkers/MarkerDetail.cfm?KeyID=031AGD-A&&MarkerTitle=Hood%20Avenue (accessed December 21, 2011). – “Historic Markers Across Georgia,” Iverson Gate http://www. lat34north.com/historicmarkers/MarkerDetail.cfm?KeyID=031AGD-3&&MarkerTitle=Iverson%20Gate (accessed December 21, 2011). – “Historic Markers Across Georgia,” McIntosh Gate http://www. lat34north.com/historicmarkers/MarkerDetail.cfm?KeyID=031AGD-5&&MarkerTitle=McIntosh%20Gate (accessed December 21, 2011). – “Historic Markers Across Georgia,” Wheeler Drive http://www. lat34north.com/historicmarkers/MarkerDetail.cfm?KeyID=031AGD-4&&MarkerTitle=Wheeler%20Drive (accessed December 21, 2011). Munitions Board. Coffee Roasting Operations of the Department of Defense. Washington, DC.: Munitions Board, 1952. Accessed online at the Combined Arms Research Library, http://cgsc. cdmhost.com/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p4013coll11/id/790 (accessed November 21, 2011). Reliant Development Group. “Corporate Info” http://www.reliantdg.com/ corpinfo.html (accessed April 5, 2012). Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps for Georgia Towns and Cities, 18841922. Atlanta, Ga. 1917, Sheet 369, Accessed online at GALILEO: Digital Library of Georgia at http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/sanborn/ CityCounty/Atlanta1917/Sheet369.html (accessed January 6, 2012). United States Army Criminal Investigation Command. “US Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory,” http://www.cid.army.mil/index.html (accessed November 22, 2011). – “Frequently Asked Questions,” http://www.cid.army.mil/index.html (accessed November 22, 2011). US Army: www.army.mil. “National Guard Center Destroyed in Fire,” http://www.army.mil/media/105485/ (accessed January 4, 2012). – “First Army Cases Colors and Departs Atlanta,” http://www.army.mil/ article/58964/ (accessed January 4, 2012). – “Day of rest: After 69 years of service, Fort Gillem Chapel completes its final mission,” http://www.army.mil/article/48539/ (accessed January 6, 2012). – “PS Magazine marks 60 years of service,” http://www.army.mil/ article/56620/ (accessed January 9, 2012). 164

US Census Bureau. “Georgia: Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990,” http://www.census.gov/population/ cencounts/ga190090.txt (accessed March 1, 2012). – “Sixteenth Census of the United States – 1940 – Population. Volume II: Characteristics of the Population,” http://www2.census. gov/prod2/decennial/documents/33973538v2p2_TOC.pdf (accessed March 1, 2012). US Department of Agriculture: Farm Service Agency. “About the Commodity Credit Corporation,” http://www.apfo.usda.gov/FSA/ webapp?area=about&subject=landing&topic=sao-cc (accessed March 27, 2012). USMEPCOM: United States Military Entrance Processing Command. “Military Entrance Processing Station,” http://www.mepcom.army. mil/meps/atlanta/index.html (accessed January 19, 2012).

interviews and correspondence
Bryant, Fred Executive Director of the Forest Park/Fort Gillem Implementation Local Redevelopment Authority January 2012, email correspondence Clifford, James H. USA-Ret., Planner: Security Cooperation and Exercises Division, Force Generation Center April 2012, email and telephone correspondence Corley, David Boy Scout and AAFES, Fort Gillem employee January 2011, email correspondence Fazekas, Linda Girl Scouts Camp Director December 2011-January 2012, email correspondence Murphy, Emory Assistant Director of the Georgia Peanut Commission March 27, 2012, telephone conversation Paschal, Margaret Volunteer Advisor, Girl Scouts of Greater Atlanta December 2011-January 2012, email and telephone correspondence

165

Pentecouteau, Jean Paul Cultural Resources Manager, Fort McPherson June 24, 2011, Interview and tour of Fort Gillem Smith, Steven Corporate Communications Editor/Historian: Army & Air Force Exchange Service February 2012, email correspondence Videkovich, Mark BRPH Architects-Engineers, Inc. December 2011-Feburary 2012, email and telephone correspondence

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The story of Fort Gillem has long been intertwined with that of its neighbor, Fort McPherson. One of the goals of this project was to illustrate the history of Fort Gillem in its own right, while recognizing the overall historic associations it has with Fort McPherson. It does not discuss Fort Gillem only in terms of its relationship to Fort McPherson, but recognizes that it existed as a separate installatiaon for over thirty years and therefore, warrants a more detailed investigation. This work attempts to explain how Fort Gillem responded to world events and wars and how the landscape and architecture of the installation was altered in response to them. It also includes explanations of how the mission of Fort Gillem reflected larger and ongoing efforts within the Army and the nation as a whole.

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