# 課程編號：941 U0460 課程編號：941 科目名稱：矽光子學 授課教師：黃鼎偉 時間地點：一678 明達館 303 時間地點：一678

Step-Index Optical Fiber 3.1 THE STRUCTURE OF OPTICAL FIBERS 3.2 MODES OF AN OPTICAL FIBER 3.3 NUMERICAL APERTURE AND ACCEPTANCE ANGLE 3.4 DISPERSION IN OPTICAL FIBERS 3.5 SINGLE-MODE FIBERS: MODE PROFILE, MODE-FIELD DIAMETER, AND SPOT SIZE 3.6 NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, NORMALIZED PROPAGATION CONSTANT, AND CUTOFF WAVELENGTH
– Typically the core of a single-mode fiber will be singleof the order of 2-10 μm.

Figure 3.1 The structure of the step-index optical fiber

HElm or EHlm depending on whether the E or H field dominates the transverse field. a parabolic profile) – The integer l represents the fact that there will be 2l field maxima around the circumference of the field distribution. Figure 3.2 Refractive index profile of the graded-index optical fiber core Meridional rays The propagation angles of the skew rays are such that it is possible for components of both the E and H fields to be transverse to the fiber axis. – The integer m refers to the m field maxima along a radius. designated LPlm modes . α = 2 is the optimum (i. the exact modal solutions are usually approximated by Linearly Polarized modes.e. In weakly guiding fibers.Graded-Index Optical Fiber α r n r = n1 1 − 2Δ  r ≤ a a n(r ) = n1 1 − 2Δ TElm or TMlm modes Δ= n1 − n2 n1 r≥a – Communications fibers fall into this category with Δ usually being less than 3 % – For many applications.

TM02 HE2m. Principles and Practice. Principles and Practice. TE0m.e. Figure 3.m Figure 3. Reproduced by permission of Pearson Education Linearly polarized LP01 LP11 LP21 LP02 LP31 LP12 LPlm LPlm(l ≠ 0 or 1) Exact modes HE11 HE21. John Wiley & Sons. TE02.m. 2nd edn.6 Total internal reflection in a graded-index fiber. Table 3. TM0m HEl+1. 2nd edn. EH21 HE22. Pearson Education Limited. 2nd edn.Consider a graded-index fiber with a parabolic refractive index profile (i. Agrawal (1997) Fiber Optic Communica-tions Systems. EHl-1. Reproduced by permission of Pearson Education . J M Senior. Source: Optical Fiber Communications. Source: Optical Fiber Communications.P. Figure 3. TE01. J M Senior.1 Relationship between approximate LP modes and exact modes. New York by permission of John Wiley and Sons Inc. EH11 HE12 HE41.4 Intensity profiles of the three lowest-order LP modes.5 Structure of the gradedindex optical fiber Reproduced from G. α = 2) r n r = n1 1 − 2Δ  a n(r ) = n1 1 − 2Δ α r≤a r≥a Figure 3. TM01 HE31. Pearson Education Limited.3 Propagation constant of the exact fiber modes plotted against normalized frequency.

7 Mode trajectories in graded-index fiber. Source: Optical Fiber Commu-nications. na sinθa = n1 sin 90 −θc = n1 cosθc = n1 1− sin2 θc sin θ c = n2 n1 Figure 3.NUMERICAL APERTURE AND ACCEPTANCE ANGLE Critical angle θc. Reproduced by permission of Pearson Education Figure 3.8 Acceptance angle of an optical fiber . Acceptance angle θa.8 Acceptance angle of an optical fiber NUMERICAL APERTURE AND ACCEPTANCE ANGLE Numerical Aperture 2 2 na sinθa = n1 1− n2 / n12 = n12 − n2 2 NA = na sin θ a = n12 − n2 NA = n1 2Δ Figure 3. J M Senior. 2nd edn. Pearson Education Limited. Principles and Practice.

Source: Optical Fiber Communications. δτ ≤ 1 T 2 The bit rate BT. Pearson Education Limited.2/σ . resulting in distortion of the signal. A typical r. making BT ≤ ¼ δτ For a gaussian pulse. Principles and Practice. width σ.m. 2nd edn. with an r. J M Senior. Fiber Digital signal Emitter Information t Input Intensity Input Output Output Intensity Photodetector Information ²δτ τ 1/2 t 1/2 ~2δτ Figure 3. Reproduced by permission of Pearson Education Very short light pulses 0 T t 0 ~2 τ For a given pulse broadening. If pulses are not to overlap. rule of thumb is BT ≤ 0. δτ .s. is 1/T 1/T BT ≤ 1 2δτ Some texts use a more conservative rule of thumb.NUMERICAL APERTURE AND ACCEPTANCE ANGLE For skew rays 2 NA = na sin θ a cos γ = n12 − n2 Dispersion in optical fibers means that parts of the signal propagate through the fiber at slightly different velocities. then the maximum pulse broadening must be a maximum of half of the transmission period.m. T .s.9 The acceptance angle of skew rays.

generally Light pulse Intensity Cladding Core Broadened light pulse Intensity Axial Spread. and the ray propagating at the critical angle θc. Light pulse entering the waveguide breaks up into various modes which then propagate at different group velocities down the guide. At the end of the guide.The fastest and slowest modes possible in such a fiber will be the axial ray. ( sinθc = n2/n1 ) Figure 3. t max L / sin θ c L n12 = = c / n1 c n2 .10 The origin of modal dispersion Intermodal dispersion is a result of the different propagation times of different modes (different m) within a fiber. Δ τ t t min = distance L Ln = = 1 velocity c / n1 c L / sin θ c L n1 = c / n1 c sin θ c t max = or t 0 Schematic illustration of light propagation in a slab dielectric waveguide. the modes combine to constitute the output light pulse which is broader than the input light pulse. High order mode Low order mode In a multimode fiber.

Hence δτ = 62 ps/km. ps/km.49. Hence δτ = 49.6 ns/km. The maximum bit rate becomes BT = 1 2δτ BT = 1 2δτ ≈ 8 Gbit/s·km Gbit/s· ≈ 10 Mbit/s·km n2 n1 O 3 2 1 n (a) Multimode step index fiber.01 and n1 = 1. The maximum bit rate becomes If we let Δ = 0.01 and n1 = 1.49. . Ray paths are different so that rays arrive at different times. n2 3 2 1 2 3 O O' O'' n1 n2 n (b) Graded index fiber. it can be shown that δ t si = Ln1Δ c Ln1Δ2 δ t gi = 8c If we let Δ = 0. the velocity of the ray gradedis inversely proportional to the local refractive index.Δ is the relative refractive index (n1-n2)/n1 δ t si = t max − t min = For n1 ≈ n2 Ln Ln L n  n1 − n2  L n  = − 1= Δ c n2 c c n2  n1  c n2   2 1 2 1 2 1 For graded-index multimode fiber. Ray paths are different but so are the velocities along the paths so that all the rays arrive at the same time.

Δλ λ Intensity Intensity λ1 & λ 2 t λ1 λo λ2 λ 0 t τ For λ1 <λ2 Zero dispersion D = 0. even if transmitted by a single mode. and hence pulse broadening may occur. Vp1 = Vp2 (Light Packet at the same speed Vg = Vp) Phase velocity Group velocity vp = ω / β v g = δω / δβ Normal dispersion D < 0. Vp1 < Vp2 (Slow Light Packet Vg < Vp) Traveling time required for each frequency (wavelength) component τ = L / vg Hence ∂τ ∂ 1  =L ∂ω ∂ω  v g  ∂τ ∂2β =L 2 ∂ω ∂ω     Anomalous dispersion D > 0. Input Emitter Very short light pulse v g (λ 1 ) v g (λ 2 ) y Cladding y For λ1 <λ2 Vp1 Vp2 λ1 > λc v g1 Core λ2 > λ1 v g2 > v g1 λ1 λ2 Vg λ1 & λ 2 ω1 < ωcut-off E(y) Cladding Core ω2 < ω1 Cladding Output λ1 λ2 Spread.Different spectral components of the light source may have different propagation delays. Vp1 > Vp2 (Fast Light Packet Vg > Vp) Thus . δτ τ Intensity Spectrum.

11 The variation in chromatic dispersion with wavelength. The refractive index of any medium is a function of wavelength.12 Dispersion-shifted and dispersion-flattened fibers.3- Figure 3. Intramodal (Chromatic) Dispersion in Dispersion-modified Single-mode Optical Fiber DispersionSingle- There are two main contributions to chromatic dispersion: – Material dispersion. the propagation constant β would vary with wavelength for any waveguide structure. – Waveguide dispersion.55 μm. Group velocity dispersion (GVD) parameter. . Even if the refractive index is constant. Dispersion shifted fibers: shift λZD typically to 1. Dispersion flattened fibers: the total chromatic dispersion is relatively fibers: small over the wavelength range 1. The contribution of waveguide dispersion is dependent on fiber parameters such as refractive indices and core diameter. 2πc  ∂ 2 β  D=− 2  2 λ  ∂ω    Thus δτ ch = D LΔλ Figure 3.31 μm (λZD) in glass optical fiber.Delay time for a pulse with a specific frequency bandwidth Δω ∂τ ∂2β δτ ch = Δω = L Δω ∂ω ∂ω 2 Total chromatic dispersion D is the sum of the material dispersion DM and the waveguide dispersion Dw.6 μm. where the fibers: optical loss of optical fiber is a minimum. and hence different wavelengths that see different refractive indices will propagate with different velocities. There is zero dispersion close to 1. resulting in intramodal dispersion. and material dispersion eliminated. 1. resulting in intramodal dispersion. D ps/(km·nm).3-1.

D = 1 ps/(nm·km) BT = δτch ≈ 500 Gbit/s·km Comparison SI MM fiber BT ≈ 10 Mbit/s·km GI MM fiber BT ≈ 8 Gbit/s·km SI SM fiber BT ≈ 500 Gbit/s·km SINGLE-MODE FIBERS: MODE PROFILE. AND SPOT SIZE Cylindrical coordinates (r. exp -kymy Em = Em ( y ) exp j (ωt − β m z ) Figure 3. operated near λZD . (b) Variation of the first two modified Bessel functions. φ and z) – exp jβz – exp jmφ – Jm(r). ϕ ) exp j (ωt − β lm z ) Cartesian coordinates (x.Intramodal (Chromatic) Dispersion in Single-mode Optical Fiber For dispersion flattened single-mode optical fiber. y and z) – exp jβz – exp jmx or indep. of x indep. e. . Km(r) E LP = Elm (r . – cos kymy. MODE-FIELD DIAMETER.g.13 (a) Variation of the first four Bessel functions.

showing the mode-field diameter (MFD) and the spot size w0 Δ: relative refractive index difference λ0 operating wavelength .14 Field shape of the fundamental mode of a step-index fiber. Mode Field Diameter = 2w0 Spot size = w0 V +1 2w0 = 2a V Normalized Frequency: V number V= 2π λ0 2 a n12 − n2 = 2π λ0 an1 2Δ Normalized propagation constant: b b= 2 β / k 0 2 − n2 2 n12 − n2 = 2 β / k0 2 − n2 2n12 Δ a: fiber core radius Figure 3. K0(r) Figure 3. for normalized frequencies of V = 1.5 and V = 2.15 Approximation to the fundamental mode.MODE PROFILE – J0(r).4.

405 Figure 3.1428 −  V   2 (1.16 Propagation constant of the exact fiber modes plotted against normalized frequency. 2π an1 2Δ Vc Vλ0 2. Fitting curve for LP01 0.2.5 < V < 2.996   b ≈ 1.405 for step-index fibers λc = λc/λ0 = V/Vc.405 λc = .5) Cut-off Condition for Single Mode Fiber Vc = 2.