UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA CENTROAMERICA Integrantes: Karen Melisa Ruano Erazo 21011017 Fernando Alfredo Villela Barletta 20711271 (Speaker

) Josué Rubén Obando Moncada 20821054 Fecha: 13 de noviembre 2012

Tema: Japan

Asignatura: Mercadotecnia II.

Catedrático: Ing. Javier Matute.

San Pedro Sula, Honduras.

CLIMITE Most of Japan has four distinct seasons, which are somewhat similar to those in the United States. The Japanese climate is generally mild thanks to the tempering effect of the ocean. But because the islands of Japan stretch 1,400 miles from north to south there are great variations, ranging from tropical in Okinawa (with the same latitude with Key West, Florida) to blustery and snowy in Hokkaido (with the same latitude as Quebec). Springs is ushered in by plum blossoms in March and cherry blossoms in April, and is pleasant and sometimes rainy. Autumn begins in September and is characterized by falling leaves, crisp, cool, days and rice harvests. Northern Japan and temples with maple trres have pretty autumn colors. Winter tends to be mild on the Pacific side, with many sunny days, while the Japan Sea side tends to be colder and more overcast. Winter in Hokkaido and northern Honshu are shaped by frigid northwest winds from Siberia, which occasionally sweep across from the Asian continent bringing snow to coastal regions facing the Sea of Japan and to the central mountain regions. Hokkaido, northern Honshu and the mountains in the interior of Honshu are among the snowiest places on earth. Summer can be very muggy, hot and humid, especially in August and September. In many places they say it is so humid in the summer that you can walk and swim at the same time and so hot you can fry rice on the sidewalk. It is not usual for swimmers have to wait in line for an hour to get a ticket for a 20 minute dip in a local swimming pool. Southeast winds blow across Japan from the Pacific in the summer bring rain to coastal regions facing the Pacific. The humid rainy season—caused by the Bai-u front—lasts for about a month, from mid-June to mid-July in most parts of the country. But because Japan is strung out over such a large area latitude-wise the rainy season ends in Okinawa in June around the time it in starts Hokkaido and northern Japan. On most days of the rainy season it rains for one two hours or less. The temperatures are significantly cooler than later in the summer. LAND AND GEOGRAPHY With the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Sea of Japan to the west and the East China Sea to the south, Japan is an archipelago comprised of four major island and 6,800 smaller islands. Covering about 145,856 square miles (370,000 square kilometers), Japan is slightly larger than the United Kingdom, slightly smaller than California and one twenty-fifth the size of the United States. The nearest countries are Korea (about 100 miles to the west), Russia and China.

had come across umpteen number of other ages that have molded and characterized the history of Japan in a very interesting way. the region that embraces Osaka. HISTORY Japan has a rich and interesting historical background. The less developed side of Japan that faces the Sea of Japan is often referred as the ―backside of Japan‖ as opposed to more developed ―front side‖ that faces the Pacific. better way of farming. One is the Jomon era and the other is Yayoi era. East Japan refers mainly to the Tokyo-Yokohama. Japan Alps area. Pre-history of Japan : In the prehistorical age of Japan there can be two main era found. The other period. West Japan refers to everything south of Kyoto and Osaka on Honshu. plus the northern part of Kyushu. use of iron and bronze. History of Japan can be subdivided into certain parts for an easy and better comprehension of the civilization. The term Jomon means pattern of plaited cord and some of the earliest evidence of pottery are found belonging to this era . The Japanese civilization that has the evidence of being in existence in the early age of the Palaeolithic era. The history of Japan can be studied under. The area around Tokyo is called Kanto (a reference to Kanto Plain which Tokyo is part of). Kyoto and Kobe is called Kansai (or Kinki). In the history of Japan one can see the influences of not only different ages but also several monarchies that had ruled the people of Japan. • Pre-history of Japan • Japan in Ancient and Classical age • Feudal Era in Japan • Meiji Era and its Restoration • World War I • World War II • Japan during and after military control on it. They show that Japan has a rich history and cultural heritage that any country can be proud of. Mount Fuji. Tohuko describes northern Honshu. cultures and trends. Most of its territory is in the sea.The islands of Japan make up less than 15 percent of Japan‘s total territory. Yayoi was a little improved and people knew weaving. its people. In addition to the 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of ocean that Japan can also claims around the main islands according to the 1982 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea it can also claim 200 nautical miles around far flung Japanese islands that extend from near Taiwan and China to far out in the Pacific Ocean. Japan in Ancient and Classical Age : In this whole period Japan can be .

In feudal Japan the strong military rule that got a firm foundation during the Ancient and Classical historical period. Kamakura.subdivided under four other periods. These fanatic faiths and beliefs had in the very beginning given rise to the Sino-Japanese war in 1894 which lasted till 1895. These are. The war had finally established Japan as a world power. Feudal Era in Japan : Japan in the feudal period also went through some other subdivisions of ages . Before the beginning of the WWII the Japanese had entered another war with Chinese known as the Second Sino. Muromachi. The Russian government entered the war with the strong belief that they would defeat Japan but little did they realize how son they would exhaust their resources by persevering with an army that would decline to give in. providing Japan with a varied and colorful pattern of historical heritages . Kofun period.Japanese War which lasted over the years from 1931 to 1945 and Japan's inclusion into the WWII was predicted by this war. But ultimately a conflict with the Russians over the control of Liaodong peninsula implanted the seeds of the Russo-Japanese war that would start with the turn of the century in 1904 and continue for 1 whole year uptil 1905. It was not until a year was over that both sides realized that they had gained nothing from the war and the war was brought to a close with the mutual treaty of cease-fire signed in New Hampshire. A trend was suddenly noticed where Japan's hunger for power over vast stretches of land increased and the nation set out to conquer the world with the belief that they were born to rule. Gaining full possession of Manchuria the . These are. The war put the position of the Czar in question and Russia was forced to transfer the control of Korea to Japan along with the Trans-Siberian Railway. Under all these eras Japan went through a number of developments and traits. The war started with Japanese intentions of conquering Chinese territory and they first attacked Manchuria. continued with the aid of powerful regional rulers. Nara period and the Heian period. Azuchi-Momoyama and the Edo age. Japan nurtured high ambitions of conquering the world and being a world power since the early 1900's. The Japanese gain from this first Sino-Japanese war was the control of the territory of Korea and acquiring the Liaodong peninsula for a naval base. A strong willforce worked within the Japanese army and it could be perceived that they were more than willing to sacrifice their lives for their country in the war s. Intelligent and quick actions on the part of the Japanese army gave them many smaller victories within the whole course of the war and eventually weakened the Baltic army. Asuka period. The other periods in the history of Japan have several subdivisions and monarchies within them.

The attack on Pearl harbor forced China and USA to unify with the allies and wage war against Japan and hence.6% 
 note: up to 230.809 million.5%.) Major cities .257 million. Koreans 0. the move forced Japan to enter into WWII.368.population TOKYO (capital) 36.4%. other 7. The post-war periods saw American troops infiltrating into Japan and for some years after that they retained control of the Japanese archipelago.Japanese army progressed northward into Shanghai and after a bloody encounter with Mao Zedong's armies Japan was successful in gaining control of Shanghai and Nanjing. Chinese 0.5%. Japan surrendered unconditionally after the atomic bomb droppings over Hiroshima and Nagasaki and accepted their defeat in the hands of the allies with the treaty of Potsdam. With the capture of Wuhan in 1938 the Japanese army gained enough confidence to attack the Pearl Harbor which was under US control in 1941. PEOPLE Population 127.088 (July 2011 est. Sapporo 2.9%. Osaka-Kobe 11.4%.8% 
 note: total adherents exceeds 100% because many people belong to both Shintoism and Buddhism (2005) Languages Japanese . other 0. some have returned to Brazil (2004) Religions Shintoism 83. Fukuoka-Kitakyushu 2. Christianity 2%. Nagoya 3.325 million. Buddhism 71.507 million.673 million (2009) Ethnic groups Japanese 98.000 Brazilians of Japanese origin migrated to Japan in the 1990s to work in industries.

they select reputable merchandise according to community standards rather than personal preferences or even coordination to own style. they are enthusiastic in absorbing or imitating other cultures. On the other hand. Westerners clearly express their own opinions and speak directly in order to . etc. comparied with westerners. They tend to place themselves in their own exclusive and closed communities.
 Expressing strong personal opinions is not common as in western countries. they have more interest in human feelings and emotions than scientific or logical concerns. This environment influences largely their lives. When making purchases. Modesty is the prevailing attitude. houses. parks.  Japanese people tend to accomodate others' opinions rather than speak up for themselves. In the case of high-priced merchandise. roads. The behavior of competition and appealing themselves is observed only within their own community. In terms of book read. Japan is a country poor in natural resources but rich in hard-working and diligent people. Therefore. They prefer conservative merchandise rather than gaudy and appealing one. They developed their sense of allegiance in the group consequent to be exclusive. they have introverted personalities and they pay serious attention to harmony and cooperativeness in the group. Mini-component audio systems are essential in their narrow houses often referred to "rabbit hutches". Accordingly.GENERAL ATTITUDES The Japanese had to equip themselves to survive in those autocratic times and it still underlies current society and their unique characteristics. they prefer the one to appeal their own status than the performance or design. They feel comfortable with familiar people in the communities they belong to. Japan has a population of about half of the United States with a land area about 90% of the state of California. They are better at developping transistors than space development projects. They tend to pay attention to precise details rather than the big picture.
 In discussions. Factors informing this unique Japanese characteristics are:   They adapted to catering to authority and to harmonize with others. are designed in miniature size.    In personal life:  Japanese culture is group oriented and people tend to work together rather than exert their individuality. literary books rate more highly than scientific books. Consequently. They attach much importance to harmony.

penetration of all communities is important for successful marketing in Japan. such as electronics. have lyrics of sadness. houses. Most old Japanese folk songs and current "Enka" music as well. Development of transistors was the trigger for Sony to be current major organization. When selecting purchases. Their houses are narrow and often referred to as "rabbit hutches". Therefore. such as colleagues. Japanese people often speak English with Japanese grammar.
 The Japanese trial system is not a jury system. When Japanese people buy something. their culture is called "the culture of sadness". it is either for practical use or for status. with the melody written in minor scales. On the other hand.     avoid confusion. 
 
 It is believed that this Japanese characteristics has come about as a result of overpopulation. they are excellent at precision work. 
 
 People were not allowed to criticize authority during feudal warrior times. friends.
 Accordingly. when making travel plans they tend to select from the travel packages offered by travel agencies. they attach great importance to the opinions of salesmen. 
 
 As Japanese people have lived under dictatorship for such a long period of time. When they answer a negative question such as "Don't you think so?" and they don't think so. I don't think so". colleagues or friends rather than deciding by themselves. neighbors than to the performance of the goods or how well they suit their lifestyle. such as clothes.08 microns and are now aiming at reaching to 0. Expressing a contrary opinion would imply disrespect of the other person. Japanese people tend to attach more importance to the law and regulations than to their own judgment. Nikon is the top manufacturer of Stopper Lenses which are essential for the production of Super LSI. For example. electronic products. A judge makes the decision according to the law. etc. it is very important for sales people to be recognized as friendly and reliable advisors. Japanese people tend to have a group. the Japanese tend to attach more importance to the reputation of the item among the community they belong to. . Thus. the concept of Japanese grammar is such that they answer "Yes. rather than individual mentality. This is applicable to many products. The merchandise they buy is at the lowest or the highest ends of the price range. and intermediate-priced merchandise is not acceptable.
 Japanese usage of "Yes" and "No" is opposite to English. 
 Japanese people tend to attach more importance to the precise finish of a product rather than to overall performance of the goods. 
 
 Clicking on Episodes of how Japanese people attach importance to the precise finish of the products provides some illustrations of this. This is why it is said that Japanese people don't say "no". When shopping. This consciousness still underlies the characteristics of the Japanese people and they tend to instinctively obey authority. automobiles. They have succeeded in achieving the highest precision in the world of 0. Japanese people do not speak directly on the understanding that it is polite not to be direct.01microns.

If the application is approved. Employees have strong feelings that they are owned by their company and should to pledge their loyalty to the company. responsibility is shared by many people. Companies are transport ships and ministries are the warships to protect and support the transport ships which carry the economy.  In feudal times. administrative employees are the warriors and clerks are the general public. the subject is performed in whole organization scale as a company mission.S. This concept still underlies current Japanese society. They attach much importance to harmony. This is an example of the differences of attitudes between Japan and the United States that Japanese people attach importance to forming a group while Westerners attach importance to a technology (science). a lord who owned his castle governed his territory by his own law. In the 1880s. Changing jobs is regarded as disloyalty and is a disadvantage for the next employment opportunity. once the decision is made.  Companies also form nationwide group.S.  Many corporate systems are structured for cooperative employee performance. business trip or purchase (called "Ringisho") to the chief who passes it along to a higher level where it is again passed up the chain of command. with warriors working under him. One Hundred Yen shops recently appeared as a new and successful retailer concept and they are growing in size. Corporate policies are preaching the the importance of harmony.
 For example. quantity and popularity. This is called "Goso Sendan Houshiki (Armed Convoy System). In this way. recently the mayor of Osaka prefecture required the federal government's support to reduce the landing fee at Osaka International Airport which is under non-government management. market. Members of the general public was at the lowest status.  Japanese manufacturers cut their production costs by using sub-contractor grouping system. for such things as a new plan. An employee submits an application for approval. the U. the exclusive importers of General Motors and Mercedes recently dropped Buick from their list seems to be that it is not a prestedge car (highest end). The reason that Yanase. Private companies are therefore highly regulated by the government. On the other hand. this trend is expanding. As more importance is attached to a .
 On business:  Japanese people tend to accomodate others' opinions rather than speak up for themselves. The flagship is the Japanese Government.Currently. A company is the castle. it is sent to accounting section. automobile manufacturers developed the Information Technology to fight back. and then to purchasing section where the order is placed. In 1990s. Japanese automobile manufacturers reduced their costs by adopting a procurement method called "Kanban Hoshiki (Price and delivery control system by grouping sub-contractors)" and swept over the U. This system seems very inefficient. however.

make a speech. Most of the member of Japanese national assembly are graduates of law schools. but the Japanese domain name. or to touch any part of your face. whether it be a seven-course dinner or a sample at a supermarket. You may raise bowls to your mouth to make it easier to eat with chopsticks. as in homes. slurping hot food like ramen is polite.S. a company has more financial confidence than an individual. There are many cases of companies or organizations accepting business accounts only for companies. especially bowls of rice. you will receive a small wet cloth at most Japanese restaurants. the person's name is said without an honorific title even for high ranking employees. . Lifetime employment:
 The Japanese employment system has traditionally been operated as lifetime employment. com. raise his drink. EATING If you‘re with a dinner party and receive drinks. Within Japanese organizations. domain name. This comes from a strong group consciousness that every employee of a company belongs to the company and is a part of the company. wait before raising the glass to your lips. and people are categorized as insiders or outsiders. then carefully fold it and set it aside on the table. hosts invite their guests to take superior seats. when speaking of other employees. In Japanese organizations.jp is available for companies only. The U. In most Japanese companies. to show you are enjoying it. Changing jobs is regarded as a lack of allegiance to the company and is dis-advantageously evaluated by next employer. is available for both companies and individuals. Just before digging in. it‘s polite to say ―itadakimasu‖ (I will receive).co. . and someone will take the lead.    Slurping noodles or making loud noises while eating is OK! In fact. white-collar executives account for a higher percentage than executives come from technical field comparing with Western companies. Do not use it as a napkin. Use this to wash your hands before eating.    group than to an individual. Everyone will be served. and yell ―kampai!‖ (cheers). It is supposed that this custom has been passed down from feudal times.

a friend might get a lightning-fast 30degree bow. The duration and inclination of the bow is proportionate to the elevation of the person you‘re addressing. respect pounded into children‘s heads from the moment they enter school. 70-degree bow. GREETINGS .GESTURES Bowing is nothing less than an art form in Japan. For tourists. extended. It‘s all about position and circumstance. For example. a simple inclination of the head or an attempt at a bow at the waist will usually suffice. an office superior might get a slow.

if a National Holiday falls on a Sunday. whether you've placed them like this or not. and the visitor's head may crash with an outstretched hand. While only January 1 is designated as a national holiday. shops and restaurants are open on these days. HOLIDAY Almost all government offices. Often a Japanese host will have slippers ready for you on the next level after you've removed your shoes. I'm almost positive your Japanese host won't send you away from their home if you point your shoes in another direction. Don't be overly concerned. banks and schools will also close for a few days in mid-August. for a period of days known as "Obon" (the Buddhist event). Japanese know all about handshaking as well. Second Monday of January (national holiday) Coming of Age (seijin no hi): The coming of age of 20 year old men and women is celebrated on this national holiday. This area is made especially for the removal of outside footwear. many public offices. The Japanese shoe fairy. I guess. and foreign visitors who at least bob the head will get a smile of recognition. as well as at the end of the calendar year and the beginning of the new year (especially January 1 to 3). More information is available on the Coming of Age page. When you return to this area after your visit. In Japan. However. VISITING Fact but: Japanese homes and apartments have small. . but many department stores. you will usually find that you shoes are neatly facing the door. banks and post offices are closed on Saturdays. Sundays and National Holidays in Japan.   January 1 (national holiday) New Year (shogatsu): This is the most important holiday in Japan.japanese of all ages and backgrounds bow in greeting each other (even on the telephone!). the next day (Monday) will be observed as a holiday. often lowered entranceways called genkan. In addition to the Japanese National Holidays. many businesses remain closed through January 3. use a little common sense. More information is available on theNew Year page.

Showa Day is part of the Golden Week. March 14 White Day: The opposite of Valentine's Day: Men give cakes or chocolates to women.          February 3 Beginning of spring (setsubun): Setsubun is not a national holiday. More information is available on the Valentine's Day page. May 4 (national holiday) Greenery Day (midori no hi): Until 2006. March 3 Doll's Festival (hina matsuri): Also called girl's festival. due to the emperor's love for plants and nature. the former Emperor Showa's birthday. February 11 (national holiday) National Foundation Day (kenkoku kinenbi): According to the earliest Japanese history records. women give chocolates to men on Valentine's Day. May 5 (national holiday) Children's Day (kodomo no hi): . More information is available on the Setsubun page. It is not a national holiday. More information is available on the Doll's Festival page. Around March 20 (national holiday) Spring Equinox Day (shunbun no hi): Graves are visited during the week (ohigan) of the Equinox Day. Before 2007. which was put into effect after the war. on this day in the year 660 BC the first Japanese emperor was crowned. More information is available on the White Day page. April 29 (national holiday) Showa Day (Showa no hi): The birthday of former Emperor Showa. Greenery Day was celebrated on April 29. It is not a national holiday. More information is available on the Golden Week page. but celebrated at shrines and temples nationwide. May 3 (national holiday) Constitution Day (kenpo kinenbi): A national holiday remembering the new constitution. It is now celebrated on May 4 and is part of theGolden Week. February 14 Valentine's Day: In Japan. April 29 was known as Greenery Day (now celebrated on May 4).

November 15 Seven-Five-Three (shichigosan): A festival for children. December 24-25 Christmas: . Shichigosan is not a national holiday. the national holiday changes to the birthday date of the new emperor. Second Monday of October (national holiday) Health and Sports Day (taiiku no hi): On that day in 1964. Third Monday of September (national holiday) Respect for the Aged Day (keiro no hi): Respect for the elderly and longevity are celebrated on this national holiday. November 23 (national holiday) Labour Thanksgiving Day (kinro kansha no hi): A national holiday for honoring labour. December 23 (national holiday) Emperor's Birthday (tenno no tanjobi): The birthday of the current emperor is always a national holiday. cultural achievements. On culture day. July/August 13-15 Obon: Obon is a festival to commemorate deceased ancestors. If the emperor changes. More information is available on theObon page. More information is available on the Golden Week page. November 3 (national holiday) Culture Day (bunka no hi): A day for promotion of culture and the love of freedom and peace. schools and the government award selected persons for their special. More information is available on theTanabata page. Around September 23 (national holiday) Autum Equinox Day (shubun no hi): Graves are visited during the week (ohigan) of the Equinox Day. Third Monday of July (national holiday) Ocean Day (umi no hi): A recently introduced national holiday to celebrate the ocean. The day marks the return of Emperor Meiji from a boat trip to Hokkaido in 1876. the Olympic games of Tokyo were opened.           Also called boy's festival. More information is available on theShichigosan page. July/August 7 Star Festival (tanabata): Tanabata is a festival rather than a national holiday.

 Christmas is not a national holiday. Most houses in Japan do not have central heating. The traditional Japanese bed is a futon which is laid on the floor only during the night and kept in a closet (oshiire) during the daytime. heated tables (kotatsu) are a popular piece of furniture during the winter. rice cooker. microwave oven. The heating devices are turned off during the night and when nobody is in the room. and modern rooms with wooden or tiled floors. are found in most Japanese households today. More information is available on the Christmas page. Traditional tatami rooms have an alcove (tokonoma) in which a hanging scroll (kakejiku) and a flower arrangement (ikebana) or piece of pottery is displayed. The room entrances are sliding paper doors (fusuma) and sliding paper screens (shoji) which can be removed completely. chairs and sofas. but it is celebrated by an increasing number of Japanese. Japanese households often consist of both Japanese style rooms with tatami floors. More information is available on the New Year page. RECREATION . December 31 New Year's Eve (omisoka): December 31 is not a national holiday. and refrigerator. Most Japanese kitchens are equipped with a gas stove. You should always take off your slippers when stepping on tatami mats in order to protect them from damage. uniquely Japanese style furniture and household devices have survived or been introduced into the Japanese home. gas. including beds. In addition. In addition. Tatami mats are made of straw and measure roughly 180 cm x 90 cm. oil and electric ovens and air conditioners are used to heat single rooms. tables. the bedroom can then also function as a living or dining room. Instead. HOUSING Western style furniture. Consequently.

or play golf without stepping outside. Other activities that ranked high were driving. Murakami is not just the biggest name in Japanese contemporary art. 76 percent of the people interviewed said they liked to spend their free time traveling around Japan. 29 percent of those asked said they very often spend their leisure time in a natural places such as a park or countryside (compared to 47 percent in the United States) and 27 percent said they sometimes spend time in natural places. ski. In a survey in 2009.According to a survey on recreation in Japan. twice as many women are interested in personal computers than the tea ceremony and three times more would rather go bowling than engage in traditional flower arranging. retailers noticed that consumers were becoming more interested in purchases that related to a hobby or provided a skill. These sports are all done in front of a projection screen. According to a 1997 government White Paper on Leisure. In another survey. followed by overseas trips. [Source: Environics International] Modern forms of recreation are displacing traditional Japanese art forms. walks along the waterside. The most important figure in Japanese contemporary art today is the Tokyo-based artist Takashi Murakami. often including elements of Anime. Japanese contemporary art should not be confused with traditional Japanese art. and high priced contemporary artists in the world. ART Japanese Contemporary Art is art created by young Japanese artists or post-war (after WWII) era Japanese art. Japanese contemporary art is a mixture of modern and classic art styles. Running up long series of stairs—often the ones leading to Buddhist temples or Shinto shrines—is a common training method in Japan. and watching fireworks." Typical yu-suzumi pastimes include boat rides. picnics. Japan is a leader in recreation technology. Japanese . in 2009. three fourths of Japanese adults said they don‘t get enough exercise. hiking. golf lessons and equipment and gardening products. Because space is at a premium Japanese can go horse back riding. Horseback riders sits on a mechanical horse that moves up and down while watching trails pass by on a screen. and cultural activities such as movies and concerts. Particularly popular were cooking classes. he is also one of the most well know. influential. Manga or other popular culture. or "enjoying the evening cool. The ancient Japanese tradition of yu-suzumi. go parachuting.

contemporary art is a stand of Japanese art that is best known for its combination of classic aesthetics from Japan‘s long. This naturally created a lot of friction and wives have traditionally not liked their mother-laws. move in with the husband's parents after they get married and the wife's mother-in-law helps with the rearing of the children. children are not seen as individuals who are supposed to find themselves but rather as people responsible for keeping a family going. Traditionally. especially in the countryside.7 percent in 1999. Many newlywed Japanese couples. In a typical Japanese family the father is gone from the home much of the time. Japanese art sought the deeper spiritual roots of its subjects rather than the superficial appearances – however modern art has become more attached to these material possessions. while the mother is stuck at home. raising the kids by herself. and its more recent accentuation of western cultural trends and styles. even four generations living under one roof. People are not seen in the Christian view as individual children of God but rather as members of a family. creating in many ways a commentary on how the two intermingle. working very long hours. These days many women refuse to live with their mother-in-laws. Many Japanese artists have taken western styles and aesthetics to heart while combining them with traditional Japanese identity and have created a new form of art that has reverberated and permeated other cultures. The number of three-generation households decreased from 56 percent in 1972 to 29. It is often the duty of wife to take care or her husbands parents when they get old. Explaining why she moved her family out of her in-laws house one woman told the New . Men are expected be breadwinners and 100 percent devoted to their employers. Classically. Japanese artwork in today's cultural atmosphere retains many of the aesthetics of Japanese history while being fully aware of the modern curb of technology and internationalism. Women are expected to 100 percent devoted to their families. Moreover. tumultuous past. when a man moved into his parent‘s house with his wife. These ideas are rooted in ancestor worship and Confucianism. FAMILY/MARRIAGE Asians have traditionally regarded marriages as a bonding of families rather than individuals. his wife was expected to be a kind or servant to her mother-in-law and in some cases couldn't even leave the house without her mother-in-law‘s permission. Since the end of World War II the nuclear family has been steadily replacing the traditional Japanese extended family that often had three generations.

Hold the door open for a woman and let her go first. here are a few simple rules to follow in any situation. pull out her chair or offer her your seat. If.York Times. The long-term sluggishness of Japan's economy has made cheap dates. Your date may or may not expect you to behave in a "Western fashion. for example. Though the western practice of "ladies first" is not common in Japan. A picnic in the park is considered quite romantic. Drawing public attention to the object of your affection will result in acute embarrassment. It may sound trite." and be disappointed or confused if you do not. they may try to act in a "Western fashion. That said." DATING Avoid doing anything that draws public attention to your date: Japanese culture emphasizes modesty and blending in. you meet a man or woman you are interested in and want to ask them for their phone number or to go on a date. do so in private. Steer clear of public displays of affection." believing this will make you happy. even popular. There is no easy way to negotiate the treacherous maze of cultural baggage. Determining the proper dating etiquette in Japan is further complicated by the fact that you are not Japanese. Also. emphasizing fun and togetherness over glamor and extravagance. "It wasn't anything in particular just an accumulation of things that suddenly exploded. and you won't go wrong. Likewise. especially on the first date. but just being yourself will prove a lot less complicated in the end. Choose the standard dinner-and-a-movie date. I just thought it was my own life and I have to live it before it's crushed. Japanese women have heard of it and appreciate it when it is applied . especially in spring. quite common.

to them. Japan Guide advises: "When eating from shared dishes. Follow this basic Japanese etiquette at the table: say "itadakimasu" before you start eating and "gotchisosama deshita" when finished. remember that in Japan it is good manners to pour your partner's drink and allow them to pour yours. GOVERMENT . move some food from the shared plates onto your own with the opposite end of your chopsticks or with serving chopsticks that may be provided for that purpose" If you and your date are drinking alcohol.

high courts. The cabinet further consists of the ministers which are appointed by the prime minister and are usually members of the Diet. Elections for the House of Representatives are carried out every four years. The Emperor does not have any effective power but is only the symbol of the state. Beside the national elections there are prefectural and municipal elections. Judiciary: The highest court is the Supreme Court. It consists of the House of Representatives (480 members) and the House of Councillors (242 members). The members of the Diet are elected by the Japanese people. Judges are appointed by the cabinet. The prime minister is elected by the Diet. Executive: The cabinet is headed by the Prime Minister. Elections: The minimum voting age is 20 years. and summary courts. .The Diet building in Tokyo The current Japanese constitution was promulgated in the year 1946 during the occupation by the Allied powers: Legislature: The Japanese parliament is called the Diet. and half of the House of Councillors is elected every three years. Women received the right to vote in the new constitution. Other courts are district courts. family courts.

2. distribution. one of the government's high priority was catching up with Western standards in science and education. Thailand and Germany. foodstuffs and wood. electronic devices and computers. Japan's currency is the yen (JPY). Hong Kong.ECONOMY The Japanese economy is the second largest economy in the world. followed by the USA.000 Yen.000 Yen and 10. The Japanese currency is the Yen. Imports: Japan has a surplus in its export/import balance. However. Industries: Manufacturing. . services. followed by South Korea. The Japanese economy is one of the third largest in the world. literally meaning "circle". and is one of the world's most actively traded currencies. The Japanese education system was reformed mainly according to the German and French model which experts regarded as most suitable and advantageous. 100 Yen and 500 Yen. second only to the United States. Saudia Arabia. and communication are Japan's major industries today. 10 Yen. telecommunications and banking. construction. 5.000 Yen (very rare). 50 Yen. One yen corresponds to 100 sen. 5 Yen. Bills: come in 1. Australia. The Japanese currency is the Yen. The most important import goods are raw materials such as oil. Singapore. Resources of raw materials are very limited and the mining industry rather small. Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates. real estate. but is very strong in other sectors such as construction. Taiwan. Most important trade partners are China and the USA. sen are not used in everyday life anymore. EDUCATION When Japan opened herself to the world in 1868. Exports: Japan's main export goods are cars. It is one of the richest economies in the world with the highest level of social indices. Only the USA and China have a higher GNP. Most important agricultural product is rice. Agriculture makes up only about two percent of the GNP. Major supplier is China. Coins: come in 1 Yen. South Korea.000 Yen. The Japanese economy is very focused on their exports expecting a large industrial capacity.

Over 90% of all students also graduate from high school and over 40% from university or junior college. In order to pass entrance exams to the best institutions. and with them a high competitiveness among students. Most high schools. separated by short holidays in spring and winter. This healthcare is provided by both the local and the national governments. The number of graduate university students is relatively low. the Americans reformed the Japanese education system after their own which consists of six years of elementary school. Payments for personal medical services are offered through an insurance system called . medical ethics and bedside manners are not taught in Japan. Compulsory education includes elementary school and junior high school. each three years of junior and senior high school and four years of university or two years of junior college. HEALTH Japan offers a wide variety of options when you need medical help. followed by the best private universities. as well as a few private junior high schools and elementary schools require applicants to write entrance exams. Although Japan is an industrialized country. state of the art equipment. The most prestigious universities are the national University of Tokyo and University of Kyoto. Most foreign people have less than positive impressions of Japanese medical practitioners. Generally speaking. In spite of this.After the Second World War. many students attend special preparation schools (juku) besides regular classes. and being the world‘s leading country in technology. Japan still has excellent hospitals and clinics. At universities the percentage of male students is higher than that of female students while the opposite is the case at junior colleges. it is notable to see that few Japanese practice medicine. One of the reasons may be the fact that studying medicine in Japan can be very expensive. The Japanese school year starts in April and consists of three terms. the Japanese have no ‗family-doctor‘ system. Although there are numerous public and private hospitals as well as clinics. infectious disease control and prenatal care. or for one to two years between high school and university (yobiko). universities. and a one month long summer break. A characteristic of the Japanese school system are entrance exams. provides highly-technical. Healthcare in Japan The Japanese healthcare system provides free screening examinations for certain diseases.

and in medium or large companies. You are also required to do the same if you will be joining an employees‘ insurance scheme. These include whether you are visiting. Employers provide health insurance certificates to their employees. These concerns have alarmed the Japanese government and they in-turn have taken action to eradicate the practice. This system provides equality of access. or studying. Japan has had problems with medical practitioners who over-prescribe. fevers. The monthly premiums are calculated differently but are generally based on salaries. going back to the country of your birth. How it applies to the individual will generally depend on different factors. National Health Insurance in Japan. the government has increased its efforts to provide quality healthcare for them. As with other Asian countries. Medical insurance is divided into broader categories: the Employees‘ Health Insurance and the National Health Insurance. Membership in either of the schemes is a must. or when you are changing your name or address. This will require you to produce your Alien Registration Card. The premiums are based on the monthly salary of the insured person. As the number of expatriates within Japan grows. which is a community-based system. and other important factors. Health insurance Japan has a structure of universal health coverage. This is subdivided into different categories but generally applies to people who are working in private schools. INFRASTRUCTURE . Anyone who is staying in Japan for more than a year and is not covered by Employees‘ Health Insurance is obliged to apply for National Health Insurance. your age. The Employees‘ Health Insurance. working.universal healthcare. along with fees that are set by a particular government committee. or colds. it is still quite disturbing. in the national and the local government. Although this is normally only associated with minor ailments like coughs. there are still some that continue this illegal act. Additionally. A large number of specialists and surgeons in Japan obtained their qualifications from western countries like the USA and the UK. moving to another town or city. the coverage for medical costs varies with each scheme. Although incidents have been greatly reduced. This includes staffing hospitals with English-speaking medical professionals.

island nation. The nation therefore built up the manufacturing and processing industries to convert raw materials imported from abroad. and 2.A mountainous. Its 1. Construction The mainstay of infrastructure development is the construction industry. the largest domestic airport. Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. is the second busiest airport in Asia.7 percent nuclear power.2 million kilometers of paved road are the main means of transportation. Haneda Airport.4 percent of energy in Japan is produced from petroleum. However. transportation. Japan has inadequate natural resources to support its growing economy and large population.9 percent from hydro power. divided. which covered 70 percent of the country in the late 1980s. This strategy of economic development necessitated the establishment of a strong economic infrastructure to provide the needed energy. 16. Nagoya Port is the largest and busiest port in the country. Although many kinds of minerals were extracted throughout the country. 46. A single network of high-speed. were not utilized extensively. 21. Nuclear power produces 22.5 percent of Japan's electricity. limited-access toll roads connects major cities and is operated by toll collection companies. Agriculture and fishing were the best developed resources. As of 2008. Kintetsu Corporation. communications. Given its heavy dependence on imported energy. rates of car ownership and fuel levies are used to promote energy efficiency. car usage is the lowest of all G8 countries.5 . The nation's large and varied forest resources. and technological know-how. Japan's road spending has been extensive. New and used cars are cheap. Kansai International Airport and Chubu Centrair International Airport. 9. Japan has sought to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency. accounting for 10 percent of Japan's trade value. Dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional passenger transport and local big business are seven JR enterprises. which employed 9. only 50 percent of all distance traveled. Local deposits of metal-bearing ores were difficult to process because they were low grade. Most international gateways are Narita International Airport. Proposals for a new Maglev route between Tokyo and Osaka are at an advanced stage.7 percent from natural gas.4 percent from coal. and high percentage of young trees. most mineral resources had to be imported in the postwar era. but only through years of painstaking investment and toil.4 percent of the labor force in 1990 and contributed some 8. There are 173 airports in Japan. Some 250 high-speed Shinkansen trains connect major cities and Japanese trains are known for their punctuality. domestic sources were only able to supply between 25 and 30 percent of the nation's timber needs. underdeveloped road network. Because of the precipitous terrain.

After the two oil crises in the 1970s. which . which have. and the share of construction investment in GNP decreased gradually. Kyushu's coal is generally of poor quality and hard to extract. In 1987. and execution. however. Mining Mining was a rapidly declining industry in the 1980s. is among the most developed in the world. Construction starts in FY 1990 covered a total area of about 283 million square meters. 45 and 40 percent of the country's coal deposits. Japan's construction technology. In the late 1980s. and new or expanded airports. which includes advanced earthquakeresistant designs. these mines are located well inland. Domestic coal production shrank from a peak of 55 million tons in 1960 to slightly more than 16 million tons in 1985. Major firms compete to improve quality control over all phases of design. and the quality of the coal is good. Although demand for new private housing is expected to grow in the 1990s. Japan's approximately 1 million tons of coal reserves were mostly hard coal used for coking. especially for more sophisticated and higher value-added private housing and private nonhousing structures. continued increase in corporate earnings. business expanded through investor confidence. while coal imports grew to nearly 91 million tons in 1987. but the proximity of the Kyushu mines to ports facilitates transportation. management. inclined galleries. The share of construction investment in GNP rose sharply. Domestic coal mining companies faced cheap coal imports and high production costs. even greater growth is expected for new urban office buildings. In Hokkaido. highway construction. such as nuclear power plants and liquid natural gas (LNG) storage tanks. respectively. with about 134 square meters exclusively for housing. These include projects for Tokyo's waterfront and other urban redevelopment. Most of the coal Japan consumed is used to produce electric power. Research and development focuses especially on energyrelated facilities. In most Japanese coal mines. The largest firms are also improving their underwater construction methods. and rapid rise in land prices. making transportation difficult. improvement of personal income.percent of GDP. in Hokkaido and Kyushu. A number of large projects are underway. the coal seams are wider and can be worked mechanically. Total construction costs were estimated in excess of ¥49 billion. suggesting that the construction industry would experience continued growth throughout the 1990s. Unfortunately. Japanese coal is found at the extreme ends of the country. which caused them chronic deficits in the 1980s. construction investment turned sluggish.

and other uses.8 percent). The use of power had also changed qualitatively. natural gas.9 million barrels per day in 1990. About 75 percent of the .0 percent. and oil the rest. 23. its consumption of nuclear power and LNG has risen substantially.3 percent by the transportation sector. 84 percent was imported. switched from petroleum to coal.2 percent). and 3. coal 18. services.1 percent. and 1. Of this total. During the 196072 period of accelerated growth. including electric power companies and steelmakers. Energy Japan lacks significant domestic sources of energy except coal and must import substantial amounts of crude oil.1 percent. Brunei (17.1 million barrels of oil per day in the late 1970s to 4. In 1990. This arrangement is costly. The result is that a miner's daily output is far less than in Western Europe and the United States and domestic coal costs far more than imported coal. hydroelectic power 4.3 percent came from other sources. In 1988 oil provided Japan with 57. In 1950 coal supplied half of Japan's energy needs. geothermal power 0. from around 5. such as lubricating oil or asphalt. most of which is imported.extended in some places to 9. In 1990 the country's dependence on imports for primary energy stood at more than 84 percent.7 percent of which was used by industry. natural gas 10. residential. hydroelectricity one-third. Japan's total energy requirements were tabulated at 428. Japan's main LNG suppliers in 1987 were Indonesia (51. the latest year for which complete statistics were available. After the two oil crises of the 1970s. the pattern of energy consumption in Japan changed from heavy dependence on oil to some diversification to other forms of energy resources.4 percent).6 percent.3 percent for non-energy uses. Because domestic natural gas production is minimal. with only 3 percent of the world's population. nuclear power 9. By 1976. Japan's domestic oil consumption dropped slightly. doubling Japan's consumption of world energy.6 percent for agricultural.7 kilometers underground. were used instead of pits.2 million tons of petroleum equivalent. Japan was consuming 6 percent of global energy supplies. 26. Several Japanese industries. and the United States (3.3 percent of energy needs. despite the installation of moving platforms. While the country's use of oil is declining. Malaysia (20. Most of the more than 3.1 percent.3 percent). energy consumption grew much faster than GNP.300 power plants were thermoelectric. rising demand is met by greater imports. and other energy resources. including uranium. Abu Dhabi (7. In 1989 Japan was the world's third largest producer of electricity.3 percent). Its rapid industrial growth since the end of World War II had doubled energy consumption every five years. Consumption totaled 298 million tons: 46.

a component of the Office of the Prime Minister. announced the commencement of "the era of Japan's technological independence.6 percent of its income was devoted to that purpose. Nevertheless. Of alternative energy sources. the Science and Technology Agency. particularly after the Three Mile Island accident in the United States. and Japanese . British. of which Tokyo Electric Power Company was the world's largest. France. Electricity rates in Japan were among the world's highest. Of the 1. it finally imported technology from the United States and obtained uranium from Canada. Japan's ability to conduct independent research and development became a decisive factor in boosting the nation's competitiveness.000 kilowatts per hour in 1989. The Japanese reputation for originality also increased.9 percent of its national income (the highest ratio in the world). and nuclear waste disposal. Research and Development As its economy matured in the 1970s and 1980s. Japan has effectively exploited only geothermal energy. the huge investments necessary for fuel enrichment and reprocessing plants." By 1986 Japan had come to devote a higher proportion of its GNP to research and development than the United States. Japan's nuclear power program was strongly opposed by environmental groups. equivalent to 2.available power was controlled by the ten major regional power utilities. As early as 1980. with a total generating capacity of approximately 33 million kilowatts. Japan continued to build nuclear power plants. South Africa. During the 1980s. The ratio of nuclear power generation to total electricity production increased from 2 percent in 1973 to 23. In 1989 nearly 700. and West Germans combined. Although Japan was a late starter in this field. Although the United States spent around US$108. ranking it third behind Japan and West Germany. Japan was producing more engineers than any country except the Soviet Union and the United States. Japan spent US$39.1 billion on government and private research and development in 1987.6 percent in 1990. The country had six geothermal power stations with a combined capacity of 133. The Japanese were working to increase the availability of nuclear power in 1985. 40 percent were Japanese. only 2. At the same time. and Australia.2 billion on research and development in 1987.2 million patents registered worldwide in 1985. Other problems for the program were the rising costs of nuclear reactors and fuel. By 1991 the country had forty-two nuclear reactors in operation. Japan gradually shifted away from dependence on foreign research.000 Japanese were engaged in research and development. reactor failures. Similar trends were seen in the use of capital resources. more than the number of French.

3 percent). Research emphases in the 1980s were in alternative energy. Most research and development is private. and transportation equipment (3. Meanwhile. the Japanese government attempted to rectify national deficiencies in basic research by waging a broad "originality" campaign in schools. and by encouraging private cooperation in various fields. precision instruments (4. government moved away from supporting large-scale industrial technology. the national commitment to greater defense spending in the 1980s translated into increased defense-related research and development.5 percent in 1986). although government support to universities and laboratories aid industry greatly. as were 30 percent of aviation-related patents and 26 percent of communications patents.000 patent applications made in the United States.6 percent). Japan significantly trailed other industrialized nations in basic scientific research. In 1989 about 13 percent of Japanese research and development funds were devoted to basic research. Despite its advances in technological research and development and its major commitment to applied research. chemicals (4. such as shipbuilding and steel. In 1987 around 33 percent of computer-related patents in the United States were Japanese.2 percent). In 1986 private industry provided 76 percent of the funding for research and development. information processing. . however. As for government research and development. and modern industrial materials. by generously funding research.citizens took out 19 percent of the 120. life sciences. as is Japan's ratio of basic research expenses to GNP. The proportion of basic research expenses borne by government is also much lower in Japan than in the United States. In the late 1980s. which was especially strong in the late 1980s in electrical machinery (with a ratio of research costs to total sales of 5.

com/japan.emb-japan.japan-guide.html  http://country-facts.php?itemid=630     http://factsanddetails.com/japan/history-japan.php?itemid=860&catid=26&subcatid=160  http://www.html  http://www.html http://www.hn.com/japan.html .indexmundi.html  http://factsanddetails.com/wiki/Japanese_Contemporary_Art http://www.com/abroad/10-japanese-customs-you-must-knowbefore-a-trip-to-japan/  http://www.com/features/guide/2009/01/etiquette.fodors.com/japan.com/e/e644.php?itemid=786 http://www.com/healthcare-in-japan  http://factsanddetails.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/JapanINFRASTRUCTURE-POWER-AND-COMMUNICATIONS.com/japan/demographics_profile.eltnews.com/news/story_3990.Bibliografia  http://www.html  http://matadornetwork.go.com/es/country/asia/177-japan/1405-japan-infrastructure.html  http://www.allianzworldwidecare.mapsofworld.html  http://www.virtualjapan.jp/spanish-contents/Sobre-Japon.