Development of Geographical Thoughts and Concept in South Asia

A.S.M Hefzul Kabir
B. C. S. General Education

A.S.M Hefzul Kabir
B. C. S. General Education

Associate professor Department of Geography & Environment



What is Geography?
Many famous geographers and non-geographers have attempted to define the discipline in a few short words. The concept of geography has also changed throughout the ages, making a definition for such a dynamic and all-encompassing subject difficult. With the help of Gregg Wassmansdorf, here are some ideas about geography from throughout the ages: "The purpose of geography is to provide 'a view of the whole' earth by mapping the location of places." - Ptolemy, 150 CE

"Synoptic discipline synthesizing findings of other sciences through the concept of Raum (area or space)." - Immanuel Kant, c. 1780 "Synthesizing discipline to connect the general with the special through measurement, mapping, and a regional emphasis." - Alexander von Humboldt, 1845 "Man in society and local variations in environment." - Halford Mackinder, 1887 "How environment apparently controls human behavior." - Ellen Semple, c. 1911 "Geography is fundamentally the regional or chorological science of the surface of the earth." Robert E. Dickinson, 1969 "Study of variations in phenomena from place to place." - Holt-Jensen, 1980 2

"...concerned with the locational or spatial variation in both physical and human phenomena at the earth's surface" - Martin Kenzer, 1989 "Geography is the study of earth as the home of people" - Yi-Fu Tuan, 1991 "Geography is the study of the patterns and processes of human (built) and environmental (natural) landscapes, where landscapes comprise real (objective) and perceived (subjective) space." - Gregg Wassmansdorf, 1995 Geography is concerned to provide accurate, orderly and rational description and interpretation of the variable character of the earth‘s surface. -Hartshorne, Richard. (1939 The Nature of Geography.

Geographical Thoughts and Concept in South Asia
The highest mountains in the world. Lush jungles and the tenth-largest desert on Earth. Deep river valleys and high mountain plateaus. All of these features and many others decorate the countries that make up South Asia, which boasts one of the most diverse assortments of geographic features of any region on Earth. South Asia comprises the countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan, as well as the island nations of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. All told, some 1.73 million square miles make up South Asia. India's Ganges River is more than just a body of water. It is sacred to Hindus, to whom it symbolizes purity.

South Asian Countries:
India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos, PDR, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, The Philippines, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Timor-Leste, Maldives.

Fig: South Asia


LOCATION India, officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east, India has a coastline of 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi). It is bordered by Pakistan to the west; People's Republic of China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and Indonesia in the Indian Ocean. India lies to the north of the equator between 6°44' and 35°30' north latitude and 68°7' and 97°25' east longitude. India's coast is 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi) long; of this distance, 5,423 kilometres (3,400 mi) belong to peninsular India, and 2,094 kilometres (1,300 mi) to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep Islands. According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coast consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches, 11% rocky coast including cliffs, and 46% mudflats or marshy coast.

Gradual development of Indian Geographical Thoughts and Concept:
Indiana's state government founded Indiana University in 1820 as the State Seminary, and officially changed the name to "Indiana University" in 1838. Herman B Wells, the university's long-standing president (1938–1962) and chancellor (1962– 2000), is credited for elevating the university's stature in research, the arts, and international studies. IU is now known around the world as one of the leading public research universities in the United States. The IU Bloomington campus continues to grow and make history every year.

Nain Singh Rawat
Pandit Nain Singh Rawat was one of the first of the pundits who explored the Himalayas for the British. He hailed from the Johaar Valley of Kumaon. He mapped the trade route through Nepal to Tibet, determined for the first time the location and altitude of Lhasa, and mapped a large section of the Tsangpo, the major Tibetan river.


The pundit (explorer) cartographer Nain Singh Rawat (19th century CE) received a Royal Geographical Society gold medal in 1876.

Map from Mahmud al-Kashgari's

Uprooting Geographic Thoughts in India:
Under the cultural turn and transformation the new intellectual discourses started in the 21st century to search the roots, have cross-cultural comparison and to see how the old traditions be used in the contemporary worldviews. This book is the first attempt dealing with roots of Indian geographical thoughts since its beginning in 1920. It emphasises identity of India and Indianness and consciousness among dweller geographers in India, development and status of geography and its recent trends, Gaia theory and Indian context in search of cosmic integrity, ecospirituality and global message towards interrelatedness, Hindu pilgrimages and its contemporary importance, Mahatma Gandhi and his contribution to sustainable environmental development for global peace and humanism, and new vision to see meeting grounds of the East and the West on the line of reconstruction and reconciliation in the globalising world. These essays are selective and thematic, therefore overall view of comprehensiveness is lacking. But this book is not the end; obviously it is a beginning as already other volumes in sequence and continuity are in progress. At the end, the lead essays, representative of the three eras, by Spate (1956), Sopher (1973), and Mukerji (1992) are reprinted with a view to assessing the relevance of their challenging message even today. 5

Rana P.B. Singh is Professor of Cultural Geography and Heritage Studies at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India), and has published extensively on geographical thought, sacred geography, pilgrimage studies and heritage planning in India. His publications include 33 books and anthologies and over 175 research papers. On these themes he gave lectures in almost all parts of the world. His recent publications include Environmental Ethics (1993), The Spirit and Power of Place (1994), Cultural Landscapes and the Lifeworld (2004), and Uprooting Geographical Thought in India: Toward Ecology and Culture in 21st Century (2009). This book presents a compassionate and rational critique of the 'Roots of Indian Geography', and opens new ground for the younger generation and those interested in the understanding of the stories of the evolution and practices of geography in India, narrating both the sides, 'insider' and 'outsider'. … This is possibly the first attempt in the history of Indian geographical thought to explain and expose ancient thought linked to the present, and presenting a balanced critique of the achievements and weaknesses of each historical phase. —Prof. David Simon (from the foreword), Royal Holloway, University of London. This is a national geography with a difference. Much more than a history of geography in India or a description of the work of Indian geographers, it is an insightful account and interpretation of the Indian geographical imagination as this is informed by the Hindu tradition. Singh's innovative work will be of great interest to cultural geographers, ecologists, and other scholars concerned with our human use of the earth. —Prof. William Norton, Dept. of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. On the line of growing critiques to post-colonialism and post-traditionalism, this book is a pioneering attempt in interdisciplinary manner appraising the 'Roots of Indian Geography'. If geography is a way that interlinks ‗locality‘ to ‗universality‘, this book will serve as milestone for the contemporary generation of social sciences that embedded with issues of ethics and moral turn in philosophy and practice, i.e. crossing the borders. —Prof. Fukunaga Masaaki, Director, Centre of South Asian Studies, Gifu‘s Women University, Japan There come times in the evolution of all institutions when critical assessments of past and present achievements need to be made, with a careful and caring eye on future developments. Imbued with a long and honourable institutional identity, the study of geography in India is fortunate to have in this volume just such an assessment at a crucial time in the history not just of the interdiscipline of Geography in India, nor even of the wider academic matrix within which so much valuable geographical work has been accomplished in India, but of the intellectual traditions of India as a whole. In matters academic as in so many other realms of human endeavour, the twenty-first century is India‘s time on the global stage, and we can expect to see still more of India‘s scholars and Indian scholarship, geographers and geography among them, stage front and centre. This volume helps to explain how and why. — Prof. Jamie S. Scott, Institute of Advanced Study for Humanity, University of Newcastle, Australia It was unfortunate that in spite of rich and long philosophical and textual traditions of thought, in Indian geography there was no attempt to produce a book-length study in search of its roots and comparison with the contemporary Western thoughts. This book has successfully filled in this gap by rationally linking ‗insider‘ and ‗outsider‘ viewpoints and also projecting the vision of ‗moral turn‘ in geography. This book is a wonderful blending of philosophy and history where geography serves as bridge. — Prof. Gerhard Gustafsson, Department of Geography and Tourism, Karlstad University, Sweden. 6

Working together with the author since over last fifteen years, I realised the comprehensiveness and interrelatedness of geography in Indian classical thoughts that have now taken as a way for ‗new vision‘ in the era of New Age. This book is a welcome addition in ‗global understanding‘ through the great message of Indian geography for peace and harmonious relationship between mankind and nature.

Geography in Indian university:
In India various famous university open the department of geography. Punjab university is the frist name which open the geography department.

Punjab University:
University of the Punjab is ranked as one of the most prestigious institutions of Indo-Pak subcontinent. It was always renowned for its excellent academic traditions and achievements, educational opportunities for all and commitment to providing education at a postgraduate level. With such an educational background and legacy the Department of Geography was formally established at the University of the Punjab in October 1944. The aim was to introduce and promote postgraduate education in the discipline of Geography. Dr, Kazi Saeeduddin Ahmad, an eminent geographer and scholar of Aligarh University was entrusted the task of organizing and managing the department. He joined the department as Reader on 8th December 1944. He was subsequently appointed as the first Head of Geography Department on 20th April. 1945; and continued in this capacity till his retirement in September, 1966. The introduction and early development of Geography as a scientific discipline and subsequent growth as a reputable department providing quality education in geography is all a tribute to the organizational scholarly and administrative genius of Dr. Kazi Saeeduddin Ahmad. This department also enjoys the distinction of not only being a pioneer in the field of Geography but also as one of the few departments in Punjab University belonging to its pre-independence era. During the struggle for independence, it attained the singular distinction of playing a pivotal role in the Muslim Nation's struggle for independence when it assisted the All India Muslim League in vociferously and successfully countering the misleading Hindu-British propaganda that "India was geographically one and therefore Indivisible into two states". At independence this was the only geography department in Pakistan offering graduate work at both aster's and Doctorate levels. Capable and dedicated people on the basis of the merit and seniority have guided the department throughout its formative and progressive years. Upholding the democratic traditions, in 1973 the system of rotation of the post of Chairperson amongst the three senior most teachers of the department was introduced under the University of Punjab, Act 1973.

Department of Geography
The Department of Geography at the Madras University as one of the oldest Departments in this country and celebrated its Golden Jubilee in the year 1983. The Department has built high 7

traditions of teaching and research in the past 68 years. The academic efforts received a great fillip in 1976 when the faculty was strengthened and new courses for M.Sc Applied Geography was introduced. The Department has periodically updated the curriculum. At present the department is in fore front of implementing the Credit Based Semester System(CBCS).The Department currently has academic programmes for M.Sc and PH.D degrees. The Applied Geography Programme is a very specialised one with a heavy inputs on applied aspects of the discipline especially GIS,EIA and Remote sensing. The intake of students is limited to 10. The success of the training imparted to the students is reflected in their ready absorption in jobs and in specialised programmes viz M.Sc. Spatial Information Technology is offered in addition to the existing course. This course is to promote GIS technology and mapping science in our country. PG Diploma in GIS Management is yet another need based course offered as University-Industry and Community Interaction Centre(UICIC) programme. It is offered as an evening programme from the academic Year 1999-2000 onwards. The Ph.D programme is a specialised one with emphasis on socially relevant research such as agricultural and rural geography, watershed management, integrated area of planning,marketing geography,urban and metropolitan problems,quantitative and spatial analysis in geography social and area analysis, health care delivery systems and environmental problems. The department is collaborating with the Botany, Zoology and Geology Department of Tamil Nadu .Water Institute of Government of Tamil Nadu and Institute of Remote sensing (Anna University) in research programmes and has developed good academic contacts with ISRO,Bangalore:NRSA, Hyderabad:Survey of India, Hyderabad Land and Survey Records of Tamil Nadu,Town and Country Planning of the Government of Tamil Nadu and CMDA, Chennai to name a few. The Department has also been alive towards strengthening the teaching of geography in the affiliated colleges and to that end, has been organising Refresher Courses, Workshops and Curriculum Development Programmes, In recent years, faculty members are involved in advising and undertaking socially relevant and industry oriented projects. Some prestigious consultancy projects were successfully completed. Collaborations with overseas scholars, universities and research institutes are progressively added University of Madras – Departments of geography

HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL 1976-- Introduction of M.Sc Applied Geography in the Department under Semester System 1982-- The fourth National Cartographic Conference 1985-- Instituting Pro. V.L.S.Prakasa Rao Geography Award 1987-- Introduction of M.Sc. Cartography course 8

1987-- Indian Geographical Society Diamond Jubilee Celebration -National seminar on urban Growth . Water Supply and sanitation. 1987-- Instituting Indian Geographical Society Awards (1) 1989-- Indian Geographical society seminar at Coimbatore centre on "Women and Job Resources" 1990-- Indian Geographical society seminar at Thuvakudi centre on "Land and Water Resources". 1991-- Seminar on Environment impact assessment sponsored by UGC and the Department of Geography. 1991-- Indian Geographical society seminar at Kumbakonam Centre, on Environment and Rural Development. 1993-- Workshop on GIS for college Teaching. 1998-- Refresher Course on Environmental Studies. 2001-- M.Sc Geography offered by the Institute of Correspondence Education, first of its king in India, where in projects in the form of workshop compulsory apart from rigorous practicals.

Calcuttta University Department of Geography (Year of Establishment 1941)
The Department of Geography, University of Calcutta was founded on 9th August, 1941 under the able leadership of Prof S. P. Chatterjee, Padmabhushan in the College Street Campus, and it was shifted to the Science College at Taraknath Palit Campus, Ballygunge in the early 1960‘s where Prof. N. K. Bose, Prof Kanan Gopal Bagchi et al took active initiative for its development. The department has so far produced two D.Litts, two D.Scs and over one hundred sixty Ph.D. Scholars. Alumni of this department have made significant contributions in various states of India and also in different countries of the world.

Patna university

Head of the Department : Dr. Sudipta Adhikari
The Deparment of Geography was established in the year 1928. In the beginning the teaching was only upto B.A. Degree course. The Post-graduate Teaching was started in 1949. The Department of Geography has now emerged as a pioneer centre in Geography Teaching in Estern India. The Department of Geography is located in the campus of Patna College. A new building has been added in the Department of Geography for its Seminar Library, Museum, Map Processing Laboratary, Photography Laboratory etc. They are now suitably placed. Around the Department Maps of India, Bihar and Globe are exhibiting panormic view. About 110 students (55 in M.A. Part-I and 55 in M.A. Part - II) were admitted in which reservation rules are stricktly followed. There are about 45 girls students and 8 Scheduled caste and 1 S.T. student. PROJECT WORK : Prof. R.B.P. Singh has been awarded a research project by U.G.C. for two years on ``STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF WELDLANDS OF NORTH BIHAR PLAIN‘‘. The work has been started from April, 2004 and is continuing. PROFESSOR EMERITUS : Dr. P. Dayal is a celebrated geographer of India. He was appointed as Professor Emiritus in 1999 and has been imparting invaluable scholarly deliberations to the students of the Department whenever he is requested to deliver lecturer. GUEST LECTURES : 9

Dr. R. Dhussa, Professor of Geography, Akron University, U.S.A. delivered Guest Lecture in the Department on Cultural Importance of Deoghar. DEPARTMENT ASSETS : Its Seminar Library has more than 1500 Books and Journals. For want of permanent Librarian, students and teachers face difficulties in using the library. The Department also possesses more than 8000 Maps covering all parts of the World. These maps. However are not properly handled because of long time absence of Draughtsman and Map Processing Assistant. FUTURE PLAN : Though the Department is offering only formal education, it has oriented the syllabus on modern lines an included is Environmental Geography, Population Geography and Quantitative Geography, GIS, Remote Sensing etc. despite the lack of GIS and Remote Sensing lab. The Department has also submitted Proposal for Vocational Course (P.G. Diploma in Applied Cartography and GIS work) which is pending with the Inter-University Board for many years. The Department has oriented the research towards Environmental studies, sustainable development and problems of farmers in the State of Bihar. The Institute has two campuses. The main campus is at Roorkee in Uttarakhand and the other one is 50 km away at Saharanpur in Uttar Pradesh.

Geography department of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

IIT Roorkee is situated at the foothill of the Himalayas, in Hardwar district, within the state of Uttarakhand.

Department of Geography, University of Allahabad The department of Geography was founded in 1937 through the efforts Prof. R. N. Dubey, who later became the first professor & Head of the Department. Undergraduate study started immediately and the Post-Graduate study was started in 1946.The Geographers from the school of Geography, University of Allahabad have published more than 50 reference books, 372 research papers, organised seven national & international seminars & symposia and founded two societies i.e. Allahabad Geographical society & Institute of Indian Geomorphologists. Indian National Cartographic Association
1. The Background: Prof. Shiba Prasada Chatterjee known as the Father of Indian Geography was born on 22nd February, 1903 at Calcutta. He had a brilliant academic carrier. He obtained his master degree in Geology in 1926 from Banaras Hundu University. There after, he proceeded to 10

France and England for higher studies. He had the privilege of carrying out research in Geography the guidance of the then celebrated French Geographer, E de Martonne on Le plateau de Meghalaya. This pioneering study earned him D. Lit. Degree from de'l University de Paris at Sorbonne, and eventually in 1936. On the other hand he obtained Teachers ' Diploma from the University London later he made a comparative study of the British and French Educational system and his disseration on this subject earned him the Ph. D. degree in Education from the same University. This was only the beginning of his educational, scientific amid international activities which expanded many folds in the years to come the geographic world shocked to now the sad demise of Prof. Chatterjee on 27th February, 1989. 2. Contribution to teaching of Geography: Chatterjee's primary concern from the beginning of his career was teaching and research. He joined the Rangoon university as Head of the Department of Geology and Geography in 1928. He served that department till 1932 when he left for Europe for higher studies. On his return to India, Chatterjee joined the University of Calcutta and with great efforts was able to introduce Geography as a discipline in the Calcutta University, at first in the Teachers training Department and subsequently at the honours level in 1939 and 1941 respectively. He took charge of the Geography department in the capacity of Prof. and Head. His attachment with thid department lasted lifelong and he remained there as Emeritus Professor after his retirement in 1967. Chatterjee's reputationas a teacher went far and wide invitations came from Universities all over the world. Assignment came on to him as Visiting Professor at the Universities of Georgia (Athens) and Austin (Texas) in the USA in 1963, at Mascow University and at the Universities of Paris and Heidenberg in 1963 and at the California State University during the period 197072. 3. Establishment of the Geographical Society of India: Chatterjee felt the necessity of establishing a Geographical Society of all Indian Character. Calcutta being premier center for the study and teaching in Geography in undevided India was considered as the appropriate place to start the Geographical of India. Thus, the Calcutta Geographical Society, now known as the geographical Society of India, was established by his efforts in 1936, research journal of the soceity is known as Geographical Review of India which is, perhaps the first of its kind in the country and has reputation about its quality and regularly in publication. The Other geographical and scientific Societies in the country and abroad have drawn inspiration from him. Chatterjee also encouraged young Geographers regularly by contributing in the Observer, a magazine of the Student Geographical Association, Calcutta. 4. Creation of National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation: Chatterjee formulated for the first time, a proposal for the compliation of the National Atlas of India, containing maps of the various features of the nation. The authorities in the Central Ministries were very impressed and convinced about the essentiality of the project. It was at the instance of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India, that the National Atlas Organisation was established in 1956. S.P. Chatterjee was appointed the first Honorary Director of the Organisation. This organisation produced Bharat Rashtriya Atlas ( in Hindia ) in 1957. This paved the way of preparing Atlases including the formidable National Atlas of India in eight volumes ( in English). These Atlases have been highly appreciated in India and elsewhere and Chatterjee rightly earned the famous Murchison Grant from the Royal Geographical Society. The name of the Organisation in 1978 in order to widen the scope of activities of the Organisation. Under the direction of Chatterjee the activities of the Organisation multiplied and its status elevated to such 11

a mapping organisation employing perhaps the largest number of geographers under one roof in the world. The Irrigation Commission of India in late Nineteen Sixties approached Chatterjee to compile the first ever Irrigation Atlas of India. The offered to collaborate by providing data on various aspects of irrigation. The first collaborative venture in the form of Irrigation Atlas of India was published in 1970 under the guidance and direction of S.P. Chatterjee. After his retirement from the Directorship of National Atlas Organisation in 1969, his association continued as the Chairman of the advisory Board of the Organisation. 5. Contribution to International Geography and Cartography: As a foremost geographer of the country Chatterjee had been attached with various international events related to geography and cartography. He attended the International Geographical Congress held at Washington, D.C. in 1952, presiding over the section on Urban and Rural Settlements. He also presided over the section of Geographical Cartography and Photography in the International Geographical Congress held at Stockholm in 1960. In the 20th International Geographical Congress held at London in 1964, he acted as Chairman of the Section of Population Geography. Chatterjee was elected as the Vice-President of the International Goegraphical Union (IGU) at its Congress in Stockholm in 1960 and in the subsequent International Geographical Congress in London he was elected to Presidentship of the IGU for the term 1964-68. His devotion to his duties as bend of an international body was exemplary. He went over to almost every part of the world, meeting Geographers in Seminars and conference. He succeeded in pursuing the Government in India to extend invitation to organise the International Goegraphical Congress in India and for the first time in Asia the Congress was held in New Delhi in 1968. Chatterjee was accordingly appointed as the Chairman of the National Committee for holding the Congress. This event undoubtedly brought great prestige to Indian Geographers and helped them to develop colser relations with the International Comnunity of Geographers. For his contribution, Chatterjee had been honoured by several Geographical Societies all over the world, viz. The Association of Japanese Geographers, Tokyo, American Geographical Society and the Chinese Association for the Advancement of Science, Taiwan. 6. Contribution to National Development and Planning: At the time of the partition of the country Chatterjee prepared a map of Bengal, showing the distribution of population according to religion. This map was inter published by the Survey of India. Chatterjee was the first Indian Geographer to carry out complete land use Survey of a district of West Bengal (Howrah) in 1950. He was appointed as a member in Damodar Valley Diagnostic Survey, the Board of Land Use, Committee on National Resources of the Government of West Bengal. Executive Committees of India Council of Social Science Research. The name "Maghalaya" coined by him for the Garo, Khasi and Jaintin Plateau has been adopted by the Government of India to name the recently formed state in north eastern India covering those plateaus. 7. Contribution to the Development of Geography and Cartography: Prof. S.P. Chatterjee has a variety of interests in thrust areas ranging for Geomorphology to the evolution of human settlements. However, cartography had been his basic field of interest. His unique work Bengal in Maps was published soon after the partition of the country. During the same time he contributed papers on a variety of subjects, viz, economic surve of Europe, mineral and mineral products, geomorphology, glaciology, population and regional pattern, floods and hydrology, teaching of geography, geography and national planning, soils and the like. After the establishment of National Atlas Organisation, his contribution in producing National Atlas in India in 1957 has been hailed as a landmark in Geography and Cartography. He was approached 12

by the Government to write the chapter of physiography of the country for the Gazetter in India. His close association with Damodar Valley Corportion resulted into the preparation of Planning Atlas of Damodar Valley Region in 1969. His Presidential Address to the 21 st International Geographical Congress (New Delhi, 1968) in Toward Global Peace and Harmony: Approachment Between Developing and Developed Countries has been considered as a valuable contribution towards the understanding of problems of the world. The 21st International Geographical Congress organized by Chatterjee at New Delhi in 1968 was significant in many aspects. It brought out a large number of publications covering various aspects of geography of India and the developing countries. The most impressive number and quality to congress publications, again demonstrate the sincerity and imaginations of a great Geographer. He was approached by the International Association of Agricultural Economist based in Italy to contributed a chapter of India for their publication entitled world Atlas of Agriculture. He contributed the chapter on "Himalayan Mountain Ranges" in the New Encyclopaedia Britanica. He was entrusted to write the Progress of Geography on behalf of Indian Science Congress Association. His explanatory notes in National Atlas Plates have been used as a basis of research of all sorts. Besides, over a hundred articles brought out by him in different journals, his works are far too many to enumerate in this short sketch. Of late, he engaged himself in writing text books on geography. His latest venture was the comprehensive volume of Economic Geography of Asia. Formal awards in recognition of the contributions made by Chatterjee in the field of learning were conferred on him on many occasions. The most prestigious was the Murchison Grant by the Royal Geographical Society, London in 1959 for publication of the first ever National Atlas of India in 1957. Earlier, during his student days in Paris he earned the Gaudy Medal of Societe de Geographic Commerciale de Paris in 1937. He was a life patron of the Geographical Society of India, Calcutta and was made the first ever Indian National Cartographic Society in 1981. The National Geographical Society of India, Varanasi decorated him with the Jawahar Lal Nehru Medal in 1963. Considering his valuable contribution to international Geography and raising the status of Indian Geography, he was awarded Padma Bhushan in 1985, with this recognition, role of Geographer in national planning has also been recognized. 8. Personality : Prof. S.P. Chatterjee was a model of indomitable will and total dedication. Demand of extreme hard work, the snarl of apparently insurmountable difficulties never seen to have deterred him from pursuing a cause which he thought to be right and proper. He was a perfect "Karmayogi" or a person totally dedicated to noble work. The success achieved in elevating the status of Geography in India from a state of insignificance to that of honour and importance bear testimony to the sustained efforts put in and the magnificent obsession to the cause of geography that this great geographer had cultivated in his life. His life was a perennial sources of inspiration of all of his innumerable students and associates in fact any student of geography in India.

James Rennell : The Father of Indian Geography
James Rennell (1742-1830) geographer and marine engineer who made an exploration of the Bengal river basins and mapped them for the first time. Born in Devonshire, England, James Rennell joined the British navy in 1756. His father, John Rennell, was a captain in the artillery of 13

the King's army. While in the navy Rennell received training in marine survey and engineering. Before he entered the service of the east india company in 1763, Rennell surveyed some harbours in the Philippines. To facilitate commercial navigation, henry vansittart, governor of the fort william, gave him a commission in Bengal Engineers of the company's army and entrusted him with the specific responsibility of making a survey of the major rivers of Bengal and their tributaries. After the company's acquisition of the diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa (1765) the need for such a survey was more keenly felt. Governor robert clive thus established a regular survey department in 1767 with James Rennell as its Surveyor General.

James Rennell- The Father of Indian Geography By the time, of course, Rennell had largely completed his explorations of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river-systems. Dhaka was his operational headquarters. Originally, Rennell was employed for only surveying the Ganges delta with the special objective of finding a shorter passage suitable for large vessels from the Ganges to Calcutta, than that through the sundarbans and the Meghna. His daily journal gives a detailed account of this voyage and of three subsequent expeditions, during which he surveyed greater part of northern and eastern Bengal, penetrating beyond Goalpara in Assam. It was while he was engaged on this duty on the frontier of Kuch Behar that he was attacked and severely wounded by a party of the rebellious followers of Fakir majnu shah. The incident possibly impelled Rennell to take a command of an expedition against the Fakir rebels in north Bengal in 1771. Rennell records in his journal that in course of his explorations he was attacked by tigers, reptiles, dacoits and hostile people many times. Inadequately equipped though he was, he completed the survey within a span of three years with the help of only four assistants. His expeditions were so satisfactorily made that later the Survey of India found his identifications remarkably accurate. Rennell retired from the service with a pension in 1776 shortly after being promoted to the rank of Major in the Bengal Engineers. His Bengal Atlas, published in 1779, was a work of the highest importance from commercial, military and administrative points of view. To all users - academic, administrative and navigational, Rennell's Atlas was the 14

dependable guide until professional maps were made available in mid 19th century. Rennell's second great work was the first approximately correct map of India. The map was accompanied by a Memoir (1783) containing a full account of the plan on which it was executed. He also constructed a map of northern Africa in 1790. James Rennell was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1781. In 1791 he received the Copley Medal of the Royal Society. Later he devoted all his time to the study of winds and ocean currents. Finally, he reduced all his observations and findings of his ocean studies into one general system which came to be known among the geographers as 'Rennell's Current'. He was made an Associate of the Institute of France in 1800, and in 1825 received the Gold Medal of the Royal Society of Literature. He died on the 29 March 1830, and was buried in the nave of the Westminster Abbey.


Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located at the crossroads of South Asia, the Middle East, and Central Asia. It has a 1,046 kilometre (650 mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south, and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and the People's Republic of China in the far northeast. Tajikistan also lies very close to Pakistan but is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. The region forming modern Pakistan was at the heart of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and then later encompassed successively, recipient of ancient Vedic, Persian, Turco-Mongol, Indo-Greek and Islamic cultures. Pakistan's history has been characterized by periods of military rule and political instability. It is still a undeveloped nation that faces poverty and especially illiteracy

Pakistan Geographical Review is being published by the Department of Geography. Pakistan Geographical Review is the 1st geographic journal published in before independence. Formerly known as Punjab Geographical Review was 1st published in 1942. Later in 1950 it was renamed as Pakistan Geographical Review since 1950. It is annual journal published twice in a year. ISSN number was acquired for this journal in 2000. The Journal published research articles written by geographer from all over the Pakistan as well as outside the Pakistan. It is one of the prestigious journals of geographers in Pakistan Public universities National Defence University, Islamabad 15

Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore National University of Science and Technology, Rawalpindi Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences, Islamabad National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad International Islamic University, Islamabad Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad Iqra University, Islamabad Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad and Karachi COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad Bahria University, Islamabad Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad Air University, Islamabad The study and practice of geography has been started from the British period and it is still flourishing. The Pakistan‘s reasearchers, university geography students all are playing parts in this. Professor Kazi Ahmad, of the University of Punjab at Lahore, presents a concise general geography of Pakistan in a small volume. His book is quite useful to the general reader. Special emphasis is given to terrain, resource and urban centers. The quality of illustrations and several original maps are fairly good. Its chief weakness lies in Professor Ahmad's failure to provide geographical interprétation and an analysis of Pakistan's géographie patterns. However, he has successfully summed up the main geographical éléments in Pakistan‘s make-up. Useful statistics pertaining to climate, crops, population and industries of Pakistan are given at the end of the book. Supplementing Kazi Ahmad's book is a text written by Helen Qurashi for use in Pakistani schools. An outstanding book on Pakistan by a non-geographer is a study by Donald N. Wilber.

Department of Geography, University of Peshawar

The Department of Geography, one of the oldest Departments of the University of Peshawar, was founded in 1956 through the efforts of Prof. Mohammed Ashraf Khan Durrani. Since its establishment, it is committed to the mission of addressing the diverse dimensions of Physical and Applied Geography, Environment and Natural Resources. The Department started a new Master‘s degree Programme in the field of Environmental Planning & Management in 1988, which grew into full-fledged post-graduate department. After the incorporation of MSc program in Urban and Regional Planning with the collaboration of Nottingham University, UK, the Department of Geography was renamed as the Department of Geography, Urban and Regional Planning in 1993.Recognizing the importance of consistent changes in the field of geography in national and international scenario, the Department regularly updates its curriculum and has recently incorporated the emerging tools of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Computing. The Department provides a variety of programs, services and resources to enhance students‘ professional training and career success. Apart from an excellent collection of books and journals in its Seminar Library, the Department has fully equipped Meteorological Observatory, and Cartographic, Geomorphological, Remote Sensing, Computer and GIS Labs.The Department also regularly holds national and international seminars in the fields of 16

Geography, Planning and Natural Resources. The department is actively engaged in a number of research projects some of which are internationally collaborated and funded.


Afghanistan is officially called the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. It is a landlocked country. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north and China in the far northeast

The history of Afghanistan has been largely determined by its location. Afghanistan was a country of great empires and flourishing trade. Ahmad Shah Durrani ruled the country until 1973. The history of Afghanistan after Durrani's death was of turmoil. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries saw gradual extension of Russian control into Central Asia and Afghanistan was no exception. Islam also played a key role in the history of Afghanistan.


Afghanistan is situated in the Southern part of Asia. The country is located at 34°3'N latitude and 69°08'E longitude. The Political Map of Afghanistan indicates the major provinces and their capitals. The country has 34 Provinces. Kabul, the capital city, is also pointed out in the map of Afghanistan. Ahmad Shah Durrani created the Durrani Empire in 1747, which is considered the beginning of modern Afghanistan. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in "The Great Game" played between the British Indian Empire and Russian Empire

Origin of the name
The first part of the name, "Afghan", is an alternative name for the Pashtuns who are the founders and the largest ethnic group of the country. They probably began using the term Afghan as a name for themselves since at least the Islamic period and onwards. According to W. K. Frazier Tyler, M. C. Gillet and several other scholars "the word Afghan first appears in history in the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam in 982 AD." Al-Biruni referred to Afghans as various tribes living on the western frontier mountains of the Indus River, which would be the Sulaiman Mountains A Moroccan traveller, Ibn Battuta, visiting Kabul in 1333 writes:We travelled on to Kabul, formerly a vast town, the site of which is now occupied by a village inhabited by a tribe of Persians called Afghans. In this regard the Encyclopædia Iranica states: From a more limited, ethnological point of view, "Afghān" is the term by which the Persian-speakers of Afghanistan (and the non-Paštō-speaking ethnic groups generally) designate the Paštūn. The equation [of] Afghan [and] Paštūn has been propagated all the more, both in and beyond Afghanistan, because the Paštūn tribal confederation is by far the most important in the country, numerically and politically The term "Afghanistan," meaning the "Land of Afghans," was mentioned by the 16th century Mughal Emperor Babur in his memoirs, referring to the territories south of Kabu that were inhabited by Pashtuns (called "Afghans" by Babur). Though the modern state of Afghanistan was founded or created in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani Europin geographer are help line to grow up the grouth of geography in Afghanistan .they are the roots geographer of Afghanistan .


The Persian scholar Avicenna. His father was from Balkh, an important city of the Persian Empire, in what is today contemporary Afghanistan.

Ahmad Shah Abdali founder of the Durrani Empire.

Darius I and Alexander the Great were the first to use Afghanistan as the gateway to India. Islamic conquerors arrived in the 7th century, and Genghis Khan and Tamerlane followed in the 13th and 14th centuries. In the 19th century, Afghanistan became a battleground in the rivalry between imperial Britain and czarist Russia for control of Central Asia. Three Anglo-Afghan wars (1839–1842, 1878– 1880, and 1919) ended inconclusively. In 1893 Britain established an unofficial border, the Durand Line, separating Afghanistan from British India, and London granted full independence in 1919. Emir Amanullah founded an Afghan monarchy in 1926.

Alexander and Greek Rule, 330 BC - ca. 150 BC
It took Alexander only three years (from about 330 BC - 327 BC) to subdue the area that is now Afghanistan and the adjacent regions of the former Soviet Union. Moving eastward from the area of Herat, the Macedonian leader encountered fierce resistance from local rulers of what had been Iranian satraps. Although his expedition through Afghanistan was brief, he left behind a Hellenic cultural influence that lasted several centuries. Upon Alexander's death in 323 BC, his empire, which had never been politically consolidated, broke apart. His cavalry commander, Seleucus, took nominal control of the eastern lands and founded the Seleucid dynasty. Under the Seleucids, as under Alexander, Greek colonists and soldiers entered the region of the Hindu Kush, and many are believed to have remained. At the same time, the Mauryan Empire was developing in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. It took control, thirty years after Alexander's death, of the southeasternmost areas of the Seleucid domains, including parts of present-day Afghanistan. The Mauryans introduced Indian culture, including Buddhism, to the area. With the Seleucids on one side and the Mauryans on the other, 19

the people of the Hindu Kush were in what would become a familiar quandary in ancient as well as modern history--that is, caught between two empires. In the middle of the 3rd century BC, an independent, Greek-ruled state was declared in Bactria. Graeco-Bactrian rule spread until it included most of the territory from the Iranian deserts to the Ganges River and from Central Asia to the Arabian Sea by about 170 B.C. Graeco-Bactrian rule was eventually defeated by a combination of the internecine disputes that plagued Greek rulers to the west, the ambitious attempts to extend control into northern India, and the pressure of two groups of nomadic invaders from Central Asia--the Parthians and Sakas (perhaps the Scythians).


Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least 9,000 years. It appears that Kirant ethnicity people were the first people to settle in Nepal and ruled Nepal for about 2,500 years. Terai News writes, "Nepal has been highlighted for the last several centuries in Indian Sanskrit literature like ‘Skand Purana’. ‘Skanda Purana’ has a separate volume known as ‘Nepal Mahatmya’, which explains in more details about Nepal." Nepal is also mentioned in Hindu scriptures such as the Narayana Puja[ and the Atharva Siras (800-600 BC). Around 1000 BC, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the region. From one of these, the Shakya confederation, arose a prince named Siddharta Gautama (563–483 BC), who later renounced his royalty to lead an ascetic life and came to be known as the Buddha ("the enlightened one").

Pradyumna P. Karan Professor 20

P. P. Karan's research interest is in the application of geographic theories and methodologies to analyze problems of environment, development, and social change in non-Western cultures. His current research involves analysis of sustainable development and environmental management paradigms; models of economy and environment; nature-society relationships; theories of multinational corporations' locational behavior; and the role of multinational corporations in the environment, development, and social restructuring in the Asia-Pacific region. Examples of Paul's most recent research are the political economy of environmental movements; environment and development in Nepal; regional assessment of environmental change in the Himalaya; spatial structure of social networks and development levels in South Asia; social construction of nature and environment in Japanese landscapes; and social and environmental impacts of Japanese investments in the Asia-Pacific region. A Distinguished Professor (1985-86) in the College of Arts and Sciences, Paul chairs the UK Japanese Studies Committee. He is a charter member of the American Institute of Certified Planners and serves as development planning and environmental management consultant to governments and international agencies in the AsiaPacific region.

Sri Lanka.


Sigiriya Rock Fortress. Paleolithic human settlements have been discovered at excavations in several cave sites in the Western Plains region and the South-western face of the Central Hills region. Anthropologists believe that some discovered burial rites and certain decorative artifacts exhibit similarities between the first inhabitants of the island and the early inhabitants of Southern India. Recent bioanthropological studies have however dismissed these links, and have placed the origin of the people to the northern parts of India. One of the first written references to the island is found in the Indian epic Ramayana, which described the emperor Ravana as monarch of the powerful kingdom of Lanka, which was created by the divine sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera, the treasurer of the Gods.[22] English historian James Emerson Tennent also theorized Galle, a southern city in Sri Lanka, was the ancient seaport of Tarshish from which King Solomon is said to have drawn ivory, peacocks and other valuables. The main written accounts of the country's history are the Buddhist chronicles of Mahavansa and Dipavamsa.

University of Colombo


University of Peradeniya

University of Sri Jayewardenepura Department of Geography
The mission of the Department of Geography is to develop as a center of excellence in spatial studies through teaching scholarship and research in an environment which values, creativity, freedom of intellectual thought and expression, equal opportunity and academic growth, while committed to provide knowledge which blends the best of relevance theory and practice using appropriate technology for the benefit of student community and the wider society. Geography occupies a distinct place in the world of learning, offering an integrated study of the complex reciprocal relationships between human societies and the physical world. The geographers canvas is collared by place, space, and time: differences and dynamics in cultures, political systems, economies, landscapes and environment across the world, and the links between them. The discipline has traditionally focused on Human and Physical Geography. In recent years, however, the third category of has been recognized: Environmental Geography. This deals with the multifaceted nexus between human society and the environment. Geographic information system (GIS) and Remote Sensing are the two additional areas where geographers are playing the most prominent role. Geography is offered as a main subject in the BA (General) degree or students can choose it as the field of specialization. The Geography curriculum has been designed with eight principals in mind: (i) Broad aims and objectives of higher education; (ii) Research excellence as a springboard for teaching quality; (iii) An interdisciplinary approach to learning; (iv) Recognizing the interface between natural and social sciences; (v) Learning by the student, not teaching, as the main vehicle; (vi) Interacting logical and critical thinking; (vii) Develop the life and survival skills including communication skills; and (viii) Imbibe a sense of social responsibility achieving academic excellence through competitiveness. At first year, students have a choice of courses ranging from human geography and physical geography. The second year spans the full range of discipline and examines some of the major issues affecting the world today, while in the third year they are exposed to more specific, advanced and specialized courses with special emphasis on regional, environmental and sustainable development. A great deal of choice is available at the honors level. Head: Mr. G.M. Bandaranayake Faculty of Arts University of Sri Jayewardenepura Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.

Department of Geography, University of Ceylon
The Department of Geography is one of the first few Departments that was established in the University of Ceylon in Colombo in 1942. This department was shifted to University of Peradeniya in 1952 when the faculty of Arts moved there. Subsequently when a second faculty of Arts was begun in 1963 in Colombo, affiliated to the University of Ceylon in Peradeniya, several sub-departments were established and the sub-department of Geography was one, which became a fully-fledged Department in 1967. Initially only undergraduate programs were conducted in this Department. With the introduction of the Thistlewaite‘s reforms on curriculum development in the Arts Faculty undergraduate programme of the University of Colombo, the majoring concept was introduced and the Department of Geography conducted the courses accordingly, whereby the 23

undergraduates completed a three year degree (with Geography was one of the subjects) and majored in Geography in the following year to obtain the B. Phil.


A brief geographical journey to Bangladesh: Greek geographer Eratosthenes
The ancient Greek geographer Eratosthenes c.276-194 BC, was not only the first to add lines of latitude and longitude but was also the first geographer to add name of the Ganges in his world map. Please note that Bay of Bengal was known as the Eastward ocean. Eratosthenes retired as librarian of Alexandria Library. He also predicted about possibility of reaching India by sea sailing westward along the Mediterranean sea.

encyclopaediac It is not known much about Claudius Ptolemaeus c.100-178 ad.Ptolemy lived and worked in Alexandria and was the most well-known geographer of his time.He was the author of GEOGRAPHY,a book of encyclopaediac stature until the 16th century. Please note the appearance of the Ganges delta for the first time in the world map.Palibothra(Patna or Pataliputra) or Taprobane(Ceylon or Sri Lanka) exists but not Bay of Bengal. Mare Prasodum and not the Indian Ocean which exists. All the world maps from his time until 1300 AD was known as Ptolemaic map. One of the Alexander´s generals PtolemyI king of Egypt from 304 BC was his ancestor. 24

Abraham Cresques Abraham Cresques,a jew from Mallorca,mapped his famous Catalan map in the year 1357.He divided the world into 8 pages. This map is still well-preserved in Spain. Perhaps he is the first man to put BANGALA corresponding today`s Bengal in the world map. In his map the Ganges has disappeared and Java(IANA) is situated south of Bangala! Ceylon or Trapobana is situated on the SE of Bangala! Abraham expired in the year 1387. The word Bang is probably a Chinese or Tibetian word means marshland

A map of Indian subcontinent from the post Mughal-age. Bay of Bengal is shown as Golf von Bengalen.The Ganges and Jamuna with their tributaries and estuaries with Calcutta is well described. The German text did not make difficult to trace the places of India.


From the 15th century, the Europeans, namely Portuguese, Dutch, French and British traders exerted an economic influence over the region. British political rule over the region began in 1757 A.D., when the last Muslim ruler of Bengal was defeated at Palassey. In 1947 the subcontinent was partitioned into India and Pakistan. Present Bangladesh became the Eastern Wing of the then Pakistan. But the movement for autonomy of East Pakistan started within a couple of years because of language and cultural differences and economic disparity between the two wings.


Department of Geography & Environment DU

Nazrul Islam M.A(Dhaka), (on LPR) K.B. Sajjadur Rasheed Ph.D (Columbia), M.A (Dhaka), (on LPR) Rosie Majid Ahsan Ph.D.(Hawaii), M.A(LSE), M.A.(Dhaka), (on LPR) Ziaush Shams M.M.Haq Ph.D (UBC,Vancouber), M.Sc(Dhaka) A.H.M. Abdul Baqee Ph.D. (Dhaka), M.A(Memorial), M.Sc. (Dhaka) Amanat Ullah Khan Ph.D. (Kent State, USA ), M.A.(Simon Fraser, Canada), M.Sc.(Dhaka) A Q M Mahbub Ph.D. (Canterbury, New Zealand), M.Sc. (Dhaka) Shahnaz Huq-Hussain Ph.D. (SOAS), M.Sc. (LSE), M.Sc.(Dhaka) Nasreen Ahmad Ph.D.(Dhaka), M.Demo (Dhaka), M.A.(Dhaka) Md. Abdur Rob Ph.D. (Aligarh), M.Phil (Aligarh), M.Sc. (Dhaka) Hafiza Khatun Ph.D (Dhaka), M.A. (Alberta) M.A. (Jahangirnagar) Borhan Uddin M.A. (Windsor), M.A. (Dhaka) Rejuan Hossain Bhuiyan Ph.D (Aligarh), M.Phil (Aligarh), M.Demo (Dhaka), M.Sc. (Dhaka) Nurul Islam Nazem Ph. D. (Durham), M.Sc. (AIT), M.Sc. (Dhaka) Naznin Afrose Huq Ph.D (Salford, UK), M.Sc. (Dhaka) Md Shahidul Islam Ph.D ( UK), M.Sc. (Dhaka).

Jahangirnagar University

Department of Geography and Environment(Established in 1970)


Environmental Science Discipline
Environmental Science Discipline (ESD) of Khulna University is the first Institute for Higher Environmental Education in all public Universities of Bangladesh. The Discipline was established in 1996 with a view to the higher education for the excellence of environmental sustainability, particularly in the field of scientific and ecological point of view.

Jagannath University
Though this university received its university status in 2005 but it counts its history as an educational institution since 1858 when it was initially formed as Dhaka Brahma School. In 1884 its status was updated to higher secondary college which was further revised in 1975 when Jagannath started taking students in Honours and Masters programs. Its higher secondary program continued for 92 years until it was officially closed in 1982. In 2005 college was granted university status and became Jagannath University[4]. On 22 June 2009 a bill was placed in the parliament to assign the president as chancellor replacing the prime minister

Dept. of Geography & Environment, Jagannath University, Dhaka
The Department of Geography and Environment keeping in harmony with the long drawn glorious history of the Jagannath University has also got a golden past. In the year 1910, when it was turned into an Intermediate College, Geography was included as a subject in the curriculum at the Intermediate level. With the intention of wide spreading of education at different levels along side day shift; night shift was also introduced in this college in the year 1949. In the year 1953-54, Geography as a subject was introduced at the degree level. After passing through many constraints and ups & down Geography was included in the 1st part of M.A class course in the year 1972 and in the 2nd part of M.A class course in the year 1973. In the year 1976 honours course in Geography was introduced in this Institution under the changed modern global condition after bringing about some alterations and moderation in the syllabus of Geography at all levels, the name of this Department has been renamed from the ―Department of Geography‖ to ―Department of Geography and Environment‖ in the year of 2002. After the declaration of Jagannath College being transformed into a full fledged University on the 20th October of the year 2005, the night shift of this Department has been unified with the day shift. From session 2005-06, Semester system has been introduced in this department. This Department has got 16 teachers, 750 students, one office secretary, one seminar assistant and three M.L.S.S. Degree Offered The Department offers four years B.Sc. (Honours) and one year M.Sc. Program. Semester system has been introduced in the undergraduate level from the session 2005-2006 . In future the department will offer M.Phil and PhD Program. Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) – Course System The Bachelor of Science (Honours) Degree in Geography and Environment will comprise of Geography and Related course and will spread over 4(four) academic calendar years with a total marks of 2600. The four year B.Sc. (Honours) programme in Geography and Environment under 28

the annual system for the students admitted during the sessions 2002-2003,2003-2004,2004-2005 and will consist of a total of 26 units of courses (including laboratory, Practical and Viva-Voce) of which 20 units will be from the department of geography and Environment, 5 units related courses from revenant departments and 1 unit English, which is compulsory.There will be tutorial/ in course examination consisting 20% of course marks which will be conducted by the course Teachers contain an in course tutorial examination of 15 marks. Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) – Semester System, Total credit -135 The undergraduate course are divided into eight (8) semesters (six months) where a student has to study 111 credit (including theoretical & practical) offered by the department and 24 credit related course from relevant department. English and Basic computer course are included in semester system. The major theoretical and practical course focus on- Introduction to Geography and Environment, Fundamental Aspect of the Universe and Geosphere, Cartographic Techniques, Geomorphology, Economic Geography, English (Compulsory), Climatology, Anthropogeography, Statistical Geography, World Regional Geography, Basic Surveying Techniques, Oceanography, Geography of Soils, Geography of Bangladesh, Map Projections, Geographical Thoughts and Concepts, Biogeography, Geography of Bangladesh, Environmental Geography, Research Techniques in Geography, Hydrology, Urban Geography, Principles of Remote Sensing, Introduction to Computers, Advanced Surveying Techniques, Fluvial Geomorphology, Political Geography, Introduction to Geographic Information Systems, Environmental Chemistry, Geography of South Asia, Land Use and Socio-economic Studies, Study of Aerial Photo and Satellite Imageries, Agriculture and Rural Geography, Geography of Health and Environment, Natural Resource Studies, Hazards Studies, Transport Geography, GIS, Term Paper/Dissertation etc. Master of Science (MS) The Master‘s student under the annual system consists four theoretical papers carrying 350 marks. There shall be a 4 days practical examination (6 hours duration each day) carrying 200 marks and 50 mark of viva- voce. Total marks 600. Materials development by Shamsun Nahar, A.S.M Hefjul Kabir, Md. Moniruzzaman, Md.Abu Jafar, Md. Anowarul Haq Choudhury.

Nafis Ahmad- Founder of Geography in Bangladesh
Ahmad, Nafis (1911-1982) educationist and prominent Geographer. Founded the Department of Geography at Dhaka University in 1948. Born in Uttar Pradesh in India, Nafis Ahmad obtained his BA (Honours) and MA degrees from Aligarh Muslim University in India, in 1934 and 1935 respectively. He took his PhD in 1953 from the London School of Economics and Political Science. Nafis Ahmad started his career as a lecturer in Geography at Aligarh Muslim University in 1936 and headed the Geography Department of Islamia College in Calcutta, from 1940 to 1947. He became Reader, Professor and Head of the Geography Department at Dhaka University from its inception in 1948 until his retirement in 1971. Professor Ahmad also served as the Dean of the Faculty of Science, Dhaka University, from 1964 to 1966. After retirement, he served at the universities of Islamabad and Karachi in Pakistan. Nafis Ahmad 29

Dr Ahmad was the founder-President of the bangladesh geographical society (formerly East Pakistan Geographical Society) established in 1955 and was a Fellow of both the Royal Geographical Society and the American Geographical Society. Professor Nafis Ahmad wrote a number of books on geography including The Basis of Pakistan (1947), Muslim Contribution to Geography (1947, revised in 1965 and 1972) and Economic Geography of East Pakistan (1958 and revised in 1968). After the independence of Bangladesh, Economic Geography of East Pakistan was extensively revised and published as New Economic Geography of Bangladesh in 1976. He contributed several entries to Encyclopedia Britannica, Collier's Encyclopaedia and American Peoples' Encyclopaedia. Professor Nafis Ahmad was honoured with a 'Medal of Distinction' by the President of Pakistan in 1961 in recognition of his scholarship and contribution to higher education. He died in Dhaka on 31 May 1982.

Geographical thought and concept in Myanmar
The study and practice of geography has been flourished during the 20th century. Department of Geography, Yangon University Yangon University (also the University of Yangon, located in Kamayut, Yangon, is the oldest and most well-known university in Myanmar. The university offers mainly offers graduate degree (master's, post-graduate diploma and doctorate) programs in liberal arts, sciences and law. Full-time bachelor's degree programs have not been offered at the university's main campus since the student protests of 1996. Yangon University is the progenitor of most major universities in the country. Until 1958 when Mandalay University became an independent university, all institutions of higher education in Myanmar were under Yangon University. After the University Education Act of 1964, all professional colleges and institutes of the university such as the Institute of Medicine 1, Rangoon 30

Institute of Technology and Yangon Institute of Economics all became independent universities, leaving the university with liberal arts, sciences and law. From the beginning, Yangon University has been at the center of civil discontent throughout its history. All three nationwide strikes against the British (1920, 1936 and 1938) began at then Rangoon University. Anti-colonial movement's leaders like Aung San, U Nu, Ne Win and U Thant were all alumni of the university. The tradition of student protest at the university continued in the post-colonial era--in 1962, 1974, and 1988 and most recently in 1996. This university is very much famous for geographical studies. Its researchers and students have made some world class contribution in the history of geography science.

www.gradualdevelopmentofsouthasianuniversity www.indianuniversity www.bangladeshiuniversityhistory www.southasianmap Book Reference: AHMAD, Enayat , Bihar : A Physical, Economie and Régional Geography, Ranch Ranch University, 1965, 420 pages. AHMAD, Nafis, An Economie Geography of East Pakistan, London, Oxford University Press, 1958, 361 pages. GUPTA, P. Sen, Economie Atlas oj Madras State, New Delhi, National Council of Applied Economie Research, 1962. The Coconut Atlas of India, Ernakulam, Indian Central Coconut Committee, 1959. Atlas of the Northern Frontier oj India, New Delhi, Ministry of External Affairs, 1960. Historical Record oj the Survey oj India, Vol. 4, 1830 to 1842 : George Everest, CoIIected and compiled by Colonel R. H. Phillimore, Dehra Dun : Survey of India, 1958. Chatterjee S.P. Fifty years of Science in India. Spate, O.H.K Taking stock in India and Pakistan. Stoner, George F. Jr; Notable Geographical contritutions of the Indian census of 1961. Wilber, Dontd.N Pakistan; Yesterday and Today contemporary civilization series. Stephens, lan, Pakistan, New-York 1963. Karan, P.P; Nepal: A physical and cultural Geography. Nepali Gopgal Singh, The newars, Bombay. Farmer, Billi Ceylon: A divided Nationa, London. Brown, J.Coggin and Dey, A.K; India‘s Mineral wealth.