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HEALTH CARE PROCESS
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Nursing
October 2007 Chapter 1 The Problem and its Background
The medical practices today typically denotes a technique regarded by Western medicine as scientifically tenuous or used as an adjunct to more orthodox medical methods (1997). In many countries somewhere 30% to 40% of people turn to believe in medical myths and quack practices. Native American Shamanism. With this inequality. The provision of sufficient healthcare is an important aspect of human life not only in the prevention and treatment of diseases but also in the maintenance of good health. the thought of going to a hospital will be costly and expensive. Greeks. client demands. Naic Cavite. and Far Eastern philosophies (1998). the Philippine comprises different communities which have different medical myths and quack practices. non-allopathic methods of medical practices. curandismo or cuentas. many families are poor. Contemporary biomedical research has tended to be skeptical and sometimes contemptuous of these alternative. most notably. specifically the study will be conducted in Barangay Malainin. People subjected to poverty tend to suffer higher instance of mortality and morbidity as compared to those living affluently. The main context of medical myths and quack practices is to relieve pain. Primarily. Asian Indians ad Native Americans. It is possible both to keep an open mind about "traditional" medicinal belief and quack practices while at the same time taking care scientifically to evaluate its efficacy. San Roque. and practices and their accompanying theories and beliefs. Philippines. cultural practices. Much of the philosophy behind this scientific medical practicesis drawn from Ayurvedic or Eastern Indian medicine. there are those people who have lose their faith in medical practices from expensive hospitals. A focus on the mind-body relationship. is appropriately a research subject for both scientific medicine and medical myths and quack practices (1999). . those poor individuals may choose not to seek medical care from healthcare providers and prefers to believe in some medical myths and quack practices in their town. the healthcare aspect has long been vulnerable to the issue of inequality. and spirit are interconnected and wellness depends on equilibrium between these three components ( 1997). According to (2000) medical myths and quack practices in medicines are considered as familiar objects in the nation. modalities. the main goal of this research is to identify various medical myths and quack practices in one of the community or barangay in Cavite. It signals a need to attend to what alternative medicine offers patients. With this goal in mind. thus seeking the help of quack doctors with the hope that the ill-person will be free form the disease or sickness. Egyptians. On one hand. Specifically. Most people will do everything to prolong the life of their loved ones or to relieve the suffering of disease. not all people seeking the help of quack doctors and believing in medical myth are not poor. However. particularly in developed countries (2001). this is the primary effort of nations belonging to the third world category so as to access various healthcare services. body. and make money. Yet medical myths and quack practices has historically contributed for many people's sense of health and well-being over the centuries and still does in many countries. other than those intrinsic to the politically dominant health system of a particular society or culture in a given historical perspective. and traditions. With the economy of the Philippines. The Philippines is one of the many Asian countries with many beliefs. and movement toward brief therapy.Introduction Complementary and alternative medicines. The shared link among these medical modalities is the holistic approach to physical and mental wellness: that mind. thus. the study will also determine the influence of medical myths and quack practices in the health care process. This fact says something important about a lack of faith in now-established scientific medicine— as well as an eagerness to find more satisfying modes of treatment and care than are provided by mainline Western models of health care. Part of the beliefs is the existence of medicinal myths and quack practices. Furthermore. medical myths and quack practices is a broad domain of healing resources that encompasses all health systems. Among developing countries. postpone death. certain facilities and institutions are built in order to deliver health care services. some will try to do almost anything in order to exploit such desire by selling what practitioners claim as life prolonging nostrums and pain-killing remedies. including medical myths and quack practices fundamentally rooted on the medical systems and techniques of ancient people such as Chinese. elusive yet central to human nature. According to some studies. Medical myths and quack practices include all such practices and ideas self-defined by their users as preventing or treating illness or promoting health and well-being. growing number individuals seek the help of people who perform quack practices or aid their sickness through medical myths. With time constraints dictated by managed care initiatives.
express common concerns. The Interactional perspective identifies three elements that are fundamental in defining and understanding a community. Naic Cavite and their implication on the health care process within the barangay. community development. or a local ecology. is used to describe a commonly understood geographic area in which people interact. To understand ‘community’ social field theory ( 1959. and promotion of consumer advocacy. in spite of (and to some degree. and provides the basis for suggesting ways to strengthen participation. Today’s resurgence of medical myths and quack practices be traced. in part. Medical myths and quack practices also resonates with that era’s mix of iconoclasm. . This research study tends to provide a critical analysis regarding the influenced and effects of medical myths and quack practices in the health care process within the chosen community. Specifically.As mentioned. However. The investigation used the concept ‘community participation’ to underpin it. As the 21st century approaches. The body of work includes theory and concepts about the approaches to community participation generally and in health development specifically. to nostalgic holdovers from the neo-romantic search for simplicity and spirituality that permeated the “counterculture” that attracted so many youthful converts during the 1960’s and’70’s. These elements are a locality. The first element a ‘locality’. San Roque. and rural development. This is describe as a process involving a range of activities undertaken either collectively or individually by local people to address a health problem or issue like medical myths and quack practices. is the social interactions that occur in the locality (1998). The experience of illness and healing is shaped by cultural. and the most important according to this theoretical perspective. a local society. fewer studies have been made to evaluate these medical practices. With this. in this case. or to develop solutions to community issues. reliance on feeling over reason. It is said that if we conceptualise that the provision of health care among the people in the barangay is being affected by their belief in medical myths and quack practice. This enables a fuller understanding of the communities that participated and the reasons for their participation. and a process of locality-orientated collective actions (1991). as the activities undertaken by the communities in organising their general practices can be described as community participation. The conceptual framework used to underpin this investigation includes theory and concepts from community sociology. Many of the approaches to health promotion and primary health care have community participation as a core element. and moral components. political. the researcher chose this topic to help the country in analysing the value of medical myths and quack practices and the factors that drives people to seek the help of this kind of medical practitioners. because of) its rejection by mainstream science. medical myths and quack practices. 1970) and community interaction theory ( 1991) was used. The second element a ‘local society’ is a comprehensive network of associations for meeting common needs and expressing common interests. The concept includes actions community members take not only in health care provision but also in developing health services. mistrust of science. The term ‘community field’ describes locality-oriented collective actions bringing people together across the community to find common ground. or ‘community of place’. medical myths and quack practices are prevalence in many communities or barangay in the Philippines. The third element. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework The researcher theorises that medical myths and quack practices affect health care process in barangay Malainin. social. Statement of the Problem The study aims to determine the medical myths and quack practices in Barangay Malainin. several social trends have coalesced that enhance the popularity of medical myths and quack practices. this study sought to answer the following subproblems.
The discussion of this research will mainly focus on determination of medical myths and quack practices in the said barangay and how this affects the provision of health care process in the community. The issues that have been observed in the belief of medical myths and quack practices in different communities in the Philippines led the researcher to conceptualize a study that will answer the curiosity in identifying how these contexts affects health care process. Community.Additional knowledge will be gained when they are presented with information about the fallacies and misconceptions about medical myths and quack practices. San Roque. Nurses. benefit the following sectors. Hypothesis of the Study This study will work on the following hypothesis: “There is no significant difference among the perception of the respondents when they are grouped according to profile.” Significance of the Study Research is the best way to find solutions to medical issues and problems and to set standards for medical practice.the community will be benefited in a way that they will be informed about the disadvantages of believing in medical myths. The primary data on the other hand will be derived from the interview and survey questionnaire prepared by the researchers. the community may gain knowledge about the importance of seeking the help of medical practitioners than quack doctors. In addition. and To provide pertinent conclusion and recommendation that adheres to the objective of the study. the main objective of this study is to determine the implication of medical myths and quack practices in health care process in Barangay Malainin.Medical schools will be able to incorporate results of this study into their medical practice curriculum to inform future health care providers to understand how medical myths and quack practices affects or implicates healthcare process. To determine how medical myths and quack practices affects health care process in the community.To determine the specific medical myths and quack practices exercise in the barangay. The information that will be gathered for this study will be derived mainly from the secondary sources from journals and articles about medical myths and quack practices and also about standard health care process. and distributed to the selected sample. Residents. Scope and Limitation As mentioned. . The results of this study will therefore.Nurses will be benefited in a way that they will be able to understand how medical myths and quack practices misjudgement can implicate the provision of healthcare process in there areas of responsibilities. To determine the factors that pushes people to believe in medical myths and seek the help of quack doctors for their illness. Naic Cavite. Medical Education.
Time will be the greatest limitation to this research. such as socioeconomic factors. To promote the restoration and maintenance of health in their clients. for an individual known as the patient. the context of medical myths and quack practices in the Philippines and other countries and its implications to health care process. are beyond the control of the researcher and can create many variables within the research. As this study will be utilizing a small sample of participants. Foreign Studies Health care process as a discipline is concentrated on the provision of assistance to individuals. professionally or publicly.considered a "fraudulent or ignorant pretender to medical skill" or "a person who pretends. Definition of Operational terms The following are the definition of some operational terms: Nurse: Registered professionals who provide holistic care and assistance to patients. recover and maintain optimal health status and normal body functioning.is a derogatory term used to describe questionable medical practices. Health care practitioners recognize that the responsibilities and obligations of nurses is an essential part of the healthcare community. families and communities in order to obtain. healthcare practitioners became more particular in enhancing their knowledge through integrating with health and biological sciences (1993). Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies The study aims on identifying the medical myths and quack practices in the chosen barangay and to know its implications with health care process. health care process is not solely focused on health recovery and care but also with the provision of quality living as well. or nurturing. This part of the research will provide insightful details about healthcare process. The authority for health care practice is fundamentally based upon a social . it is necessary to study related literatures which tackle medical myths and quack practice and health care process both from the foreign and local settings. which is concentrated on quality life as understood by people and families. Health care is the process of caring for. the results may not effectively represent the general population. health care process refers to the functions and duties carried out by persons who have had formal education and training in the art and science of health care. Healthcare Provider: registered professional who devote themselves in providing healthcare services to patients. Quackery. The provision of holistic care for other people as well as the utilization of various complementary healing modalities is the foundation of the health care process. In this regard. Contemporary definitions of medical profession as a science and art. which may hinder long-term outcome objectives. Thus. to have skill. More specifically. or qualifications he or she does not possess Medical Myth. Quack. Environmental factors. knowledge.A medical myth is defined as a false or distorted belief regarding issues of health within a family or a community.
Public and private Hospitals that have sprouted up in the rural areas. and other sociodemographic variables as . However. Local Studies In the Philippines. and alternative medicines is a broad and inclusive church. Indeed. Just like medical diagnoses that aim in helping in planning. Despite the Public Health Ministry's dynamic campaigns to make available medical services in these regions. The provision of expanding medical services throughout the Philippines has been doggedly followed for several years to the manner that authorities began questioning the necessity of some barangay hospitals considered too close to larger provincial facilities. people think that these therapies are an “unorthodox” alongside of the clinically proven. Through generations of selective process. In one study. The medical myths and quack practices in the county were well respected and enjoy high social status among the Filipinos. the role of the health care practitioner is to provide help in the planning. These include salves for maladies. the services are still considered far' from adequate and sufficient today. Those people who are unable to obtain medical services from government hospitals resort to quack practices and drugs without prescriptions or proper advice. Nowadays. tested and evidenced-based orthodox medicine. execution or implementation and assessment of medical care. The curative effects of these traditional medicines were tested by traditional healers who practices quackery on their patient on try-and-error basis. The health issue have been compounded as an outcome of the misguided consumption of modern and western drugs. These studies have used gender. Medical myths and quack practices have become legacy of the history of a certain community and the number of users is fast dwindling. complementary. the conventional healers were known to give moral support and psychological comfort to their patients. There are many studies which examined the role played by medical myths and quack practices. body and spirit. The western-style medical care has reached a very restricted Filipinos. Alternative medicines. they have found that health belief approaches are organised in three orthogonal aspects. Additionally it may be seen as denoting a group of theories that share certain central philosophical tenets that fall broadly into the category of holism. When Western medical practice. these complementary and alternative medicines has continue to become the dominant form of medical practice (2003). It is uncertain if the modern medical services will ever be sufficient given the limited resources and trained man-power of the Philippine health organization.contract and agreement that described and explains the professional rights as well as mechanisms for public accountability. Aside from prescribing herbs as curative medicines (2007). specifically drugs just started to be used in the Philippines. ethnicity. alternative medicine is such a diverse field that even naming it presents challenges. provinces and later in the barangays have in no small part contributed to the dying art of traditional healing for some regions. alternative medicines and the likes. including medical myths and quack practices is now known as a collection of different therapies and healing approaches which believe in the energy of the body and the idea of a harmony and synchronization between the mind. There are certain factors in which health care practice are being influenced or affected. Alternative medicine is often defined by the modalities that it encompasses. implementation and evaluation of healthcare (1997). scientific explanations of disease. locally available. the medical myths and quack practices that were known to be effective and efficient in curing diseases were kept alive. The skills and knowledge on the curative application of any quack practices and medical myths in the country has been handed down fro generation to generation. These include the notion of alternative therapies. abundance. the Filipinos find these as too expensive but also too scarce. Foreign Studies The health belief system about ailments and illnesses are conceptualised as being myth-like in lieu of explaining the cure and etiology for many human diseases. mostly in urban cities. the conventional medicines and Western curative methods herbal medicines as part of health related practices had been widely used. but in most part of the world. the ineffective one was soon forgotten. and sorcerybased explanations of illness. Hence. Health organization refers to health care process as the diagnosis and treatment of human reactions and responses to potential or actual health problems and dilemmas. However it is delineated. the rural folks and as well as the poor people continued to rely on medical myths and quack practices including herbal medicines which are affordable.
television. hence. the research discovered that 42% of American adults used complementary and alternative therapies. and friends provide patients with lay information from television talk shows.1992). s mall number of data exist in line medical myths and quack practices (2000). quack practices affect the health and economy of this country. The mass media. (1989) investigated professional and popular/traditional medical cultures. local newspapers. . Both of these groups represent a large range of therapies outside the arena of conventional Western medicine. For instance. magazines. research scholars provide fascinating insights into different health-related belief contexts ( 1990. An extensive medical anthropology documents has created a rich ethnographic map of culture-specific. most of the healthcare providers do not typically recommend or impose the use of these medicines (2004). in part. For example. (1987) provided a review of literature of Spanish-American folk medical myths and theory as practiced in the Greater Southwest. an area they defined as northwest Mexico and southwest United States. the occurrence of empirical studies are very minimal. by support from some in conventional medicine. and/or simply treating illness as some sort of spiritual intervention. Often patients are desperate to improve their health and/or quality of life. articles. In these studies. According to a conducted nationwide study (1993). both terms will be used in this article to describe this collection of medical therapies. Americans will spend $60 billion on complementary and alternative medical therapies (2000). One of the largest groups of health professionals that are in regular contact with the public are nurses. Medical myths and quack practices are perhaps most recognized by their lack of acceptance by conventional Western medical practice. extrapolating the per visit costs solely of supervised health care. analyses of the probable acceptance of scientific evidence refuting folk wisdom are also examined. books. alternative medical therapies imply the use of treatments in place of mainstream medicine (2000) while complementary medical therapies imply the use of treatments that are used along with more conventional medical approaches.predictors of acceptance for explaining the cause of diseases. Approximately one in four individuals who sees a medical doctor for a serious illness may be using one of quack practice and believes in medical myth: yet over 70% of those individuals do not tell their medical doctor--a statistic that should alarm health care professionals including practicing pharmacists and allopathic physicians. Because a universally agreed upon classification of the various therapies as either alternative or complementary medicine does not exist. Beginning with Rivers "Medicine. conventional health beliefs and practices (1991). To do so. (1989) studied Asian refugees resettled in the United States to identify adaptation to Western medical practices. The research concluded that medical myths. and it seems logical to have nurses take a significant role in assisting patients in making informed decisions regarding alternative and complementary medical therapies. 1994). family. Magic. Medical myths and quack practices are terms often used synonymously. myths with Latin Americans. As the evidence increases. and essays found in the volumes of Medical Anthropology and Social Science and Medicine. 42 percent of the American adult population made 629 million visits to alternative health care practitioners and spent $27 billion out-of-pocket for these services (1998). Contrary to common opinion in the health care arena. Technically. The public seldom conducts literature searches of medical journals. This represents over a 47% increase since 1990 in total visits to alternative medical practitioners (Eisenberg et al. Since only few of the healthcare providers are accepting the conventional medical practice. so should the awareness and recommended use among traditional health care providers. and quack practices but mainly because these therapies fit their own values and philosophies regarding health and life ( 1998). more patients are buying and spending more on utilizing medical myths and quack practices that ever before. It has been estimated that in the year 2000. However. advocating steps to cure ailments. and by word of mouth testimonials regarding these therapies (1998). which reflects an increase from 34 % of adults in 1993 ( 1998). In the study made by Eisenberg and his colleagues in 1998. including nurses. in 1990 there is an approximately one third of the adult population of the United States of America who used at least one unconventional medical approach to treat illness. and Religion" (1927) to more recent documents. As the public increases its use of medical myths and quack practices. As noted in the study. even though medical myths and quack practices are lacking of acceptance and testing by professional healthcare providers. accuracy of clinical information often takes a backseat to the quest for improved health. medical myths. the majority of alternative medicine users do so not because they are dissatisfied with conventional medicine. Because of this. 1993). nurses will need to become well informed regarding the efficacy and safety of alternative and complementary medical therapies. a 1994 survey of physicians found that more than 60% of the physicians surveyed recommended alternative therapies to their patients and 23% reported incorporating these therapies into their own practices (Borkan et al. This increasing demand for and purchase of alternative and complementary medical therapies by health care consumers has been fuelled. it becomes necessary for accurate sources of information on these topics to be readily available to the public. the annual expense is likely to approach $14 billion a year in this country. In 1997. Patients choose medical myths and quack practices based on their abilities to judge the credibility of information presented by the mass media.
nurses have recommended the inclusion of medical myths and quack practices in the baccalaureate curriculum for nursing preparation ( 2001). etc. chiropractic care. massage. and use of medical myths and quack practices (1998. Research Design . In this manner.g. and meditation/relaxation. Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology The study aims on identifying the medical myths and quack practices and its implications to health care process. The literature also gave us some important details on how the provision of health care process in different areas was being affected by the medical myths and quack practices in their area. It also indicates some important issues on how medical myths and quack practices are being used in the Philippines and the factors that pushes the people to believe in medical myths and quack practices. using a random sample of 1000 nurses from American Nurses Association (ANA) they have found out that the vast majority (79%) of nurses perceived their professional preparation in the area of medical myths and quack practices to be fair and poor.g. the author will now demonstrate the methodology of the means of obtaining data for analysis and coming to the conclusion to meet the aim and objectives. 2000). All of the studies consisted of small local samples [less than 100 nurses]. These same three therapies (multivitamins. In this study also. there are needs and demands that should be considered and this include the positive and negative consequences that may be faced from all the appropriate therapeutic choices available for the patients. Synthesis This review of related literature and studies discussed different studies made about the medical myths and quack practices in both foreign and local settings. attitudes. This may be due to the lack of formal training in this area and as such. It can be said that nursing and health care practice can use holistic nursing therapies which can be determines as complementary in nature. Though it does show ethnic concerns to those out there. 1999. nurses can facilitate the combination of complementary. alternative. Perceived effectiveness of these therapies varied from a high of 51% for biofeedback. the nurses believed that therapies that were external (e. when the complementary and alternative medical therapies are being offered. the study found out that 1 in 4 nurses obtained their information on complementary and alternative therapies from their coursework. and surveyed specialty areas such as oncology ( 1998. survey-questionnaires will be tied with the primary data research collection of this study and the secondary research will be supported through the use of the research of other scholars as mentioned in the literature review. the respondents were likely to be more aware of widely used therapies such as biofeedback and chiropractic care ( 2001).. biofeedback and chiropractic care). acupressure. to a low of 5 percent for macrobiotic diets and 7% for body cleansing diets. Herein.) as safest. Recently. healing touch. In addition. It appears as though the nurses who responded were more likely to believe in more familiar and possibly more traditional alternative and complementary medical therapies (e. Study shows that medical myths and quack practices therapies can be considered as one of the best intervention inline with health care practice and do not exist to replace the traditional medical or nursing therapies. Referring to the aim and objectives set for the dissertation. chiropractic care. In the given studies it can be noted that the medical myths and practices are not only prevalence in the Philippines but also in other regions in the World. 1999) or certified nurse-midwives (2000). Almost one-third of the respondents used three therapies. and meditation/relaxation) were also among the therapies most often recommended to others (2001). and traditional therapies for an effective and efficient patient health plan (1998). the majority of nurses did not personally use any of the therapies. In regards to use of medical myths and quack practices. In the study made by (2001) entitled “Nurses’ Perception of Complementary and Alternative Medical Therapies”..A comprehensive review of the nursing literature found few articles specifically exploring nurses' knowledge.
the researcher intends to ask the respondents what they think of medical myths and quack practices in general. Through closed questions. the answer of the respondents would be within one of the limited expected answers of the researcher. Thus the researcher design a closed question type to remain focused on the statement of the problem and on the main purpose of the study. closed questions were used in the survey because the answers are easy to analyse and are straightforward as target respondents are mostly busy that they do not have enough time to give attention to open questions. Two sets of questionnaire will be used in this study. The qualitative method permits a flexible and iterative approach. Closed response questions save the respondent having to think of possible replies. as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause/s of particular phenomena. The barangay has a clinic near the municipal hall and there is also a public hospital in the town of Naic. For example. The member of each family in the barangay ranges from 4-8 individuals including the parents and their children. and allows the investigators to drop unproductive areas of research from the original research plan. The purpose of employing this method is to describe the nature of a situation. The first set is a survey-questionnaire that used to gather data from 50 respondents in barangay Malainin and the other questionnaire was used to know the perception of barangay healthcare officials in the area. This descriptive type of research will utilize observations in the study. To illustrate the descriptive type of research. Data Gathering Procedure . 100 residents will be used in determining the influence of medical myths and quack practices in health care process in the barangay. In addition. Research Instrument The researchers design a questionnaire for the survey. During data gathering the choice and design of methods are constantly modified. Naic Cavite which has a total population of approximately 815 families or 5000 individuals as of 2005. San Roque Naic Cavite.This study uses the descriptive approach. the researcher nevertheless extends the closed questions with the comments option to be able to gather qualitative data for this study. The primary aim of the questionnaire is to determine the impact of medical myths and quack practices in health care process in Barangay Malainin. Respondents of the Study To ensure that only pertinent data will be gathered. the researcher will be able to limit responses that are within the scope of this study. (1994) will guide the researcher when he stated: “Descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition. while the quantitative research method permits specification of dependent and independent variables and allows for longitudinal measures of subsequent performance of the research subject. This allows investigation of important new issues and questions as they arise. This research uses a mixture of closed questions and more open comments in the questionnaire. Each of the questionnaires consists only ten questions in order to make sure that the respondents answer all the given questions. These participants must be 20 years old and above. Locale of the Study Barangay Malainin is one of the barangays in San Roque.” The research described in this document is based on qualitative and quantitative method. Using a multiple choice method. However. the researcher opted to have respondents in Barangay Malainin. A closed question is one that has pre-coded answers. The simplest is the dichotomous question to which the respondent must answer yes or no. based on ongoing analysis.
Both the inclusion and exclusion criteria for respondent’s selection were adopted from the source. n % = -------. particularly the interviewers’ bias. residents age 20 and above will be included in the study. The questionnaire-survey will collect data on the respondents’ demographic profile first to check that the sample is appropriately stratified and representative and second to provide further information about the sample for analysis purposes. Percentage – to determine the magnitude of the responses to the questionnaire. After all the data from the researcher-made questionnaire were collected. As mentioned. n – number of responses N – total number of respondents f1x1 + f2x2 + f3x3 + f4x4 + f5x5 x = --------------------------------------------. Naic Cavite. the following statistical formulae were used: 1.x 100 N 2. The researcher will also use graph and charts for data presentation. copies of the questionnaire could reach a considerable number of respondents either by mail or by personal distribution. xt where: f – weight given to each response . But more importantly.The researchers collected the data from residents of Barangay Malainin.. responses to a questionnaire are objectified and standardised and these make tabulation easy. Statistical Tools Residents of Barangay Malainin and barangay health care providers who passed the entire inclusion and exclusion criterion were politely asked to answer the survey-questionnaire after giving their permission. The researcher opted to use the questionnaire as a tool since it is easy to construct having the rules and principles of construction which are easy to follow. the respondents’ replies are of their own free will because there is no interviewer to influence them. San Roque. Weighted Mean . Moreover. Generally. 10 barangay health care providers will be chosen to get their perception about medical myths and quack practices. In addition. This is one way to avoid biases.
determine whether there are significant differences between groups (e. which allows a researcher to summarize data (e. a chi-square test for independence evaluates statistically significant differences between proportions for two or more groups in a data set. To give an appropriate flow of discussion. line graphs) ( 2003). For a clearer presentation. findings are also divided into sections. the purpose.html#ixzz2E94uoecE . gender. bar charts. and graph results (e.g. educational background. the findings of the survey are presented in graphs and tables. compute means and standard deviations). Chapter 4 Presentation..g. occupation. civil status.. gender. The third section will discuss the view the result of the chi-square method to test the null hypothesis. They were also assured that all the information they had provided are solely for the purpose of the study while their identities would remain confidential. correlation. A chi-square test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic has a chi-square distribution when the null hypothesis is true. Part 1 Demographic Profile of the respondents This part will discuss the demographic profile of 100 individuals who answered the survey questionnaire sent by the research. examine relationships among variables (e. Analysis and Interpretation of Data This study aims on identifying the medical myths and quack practices in Barangay Malainin and its implications on the provision of health care process in the community. the importance. Prior to the initiation of the survey process.. educational attainment. SPSS is one of the most widely available and powerful statistical software packages that covers a broad range of statistical procedures.x – number of responses xt – total number of responses 3.g. multiple regression). Specifically. The researcher is assisted by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) in coming up with the statistical analysis for this study. The discussion of the perception of the chosen residents in Barangay who took part in the study about identification of the medical myths and quack practices and its implication to health care process will be discussed in the next section. and place of residence. and objectives of the study were relayed to the chosen respondents. Section one gives a summary of the demographic profile of the participants used in the study.typepad. and monthly income.com/term_paper_topics/2009/10/thesis-chapter-13. Read more: http://ivythesis. Chi-Square The researchers used the Chi-Square to test the hypothesis of the research. ANOVA). The description of the respondents includes their age.g.. This profile was categorised according to the respondents’ age. All questions asked in the survey questionnaire pertain only to the respondents’ insights on the regarding identification of medical myths and quack practices in the barangay. t-tests. This chapter discusses the results of the survey questionnaires given to the 100 chosen respondents. or any in which the probability distribution of the test statistic (assuming the null hypothesis is true) can be made to approximate a chi-square distribution as closely as desired by making the sample size large enough.
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