s-

THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY
FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB,
EDITED BY
LL.D.

tT. E. PAGE,
t

C.H., LITT.D.

E.

CAPPS,
POST,

PH.D., LL.D.

t

W. H.

D.

ROUSE,

litt.d.

L. A.

l.h.d.

E. H.

WARmNGTON,

m.a., f.b.hist.soc.

ARISTOTLE
PARTS OF ANIMALS MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS

AKISTOTLE
PARTS OF ANIMALS
WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY
A. L.

PECK,

M.A., Ph.D.

FELLOW OF Christ's college, cambridob AND CNIVERSITY LECTURER IN CLASSICS

AND A FOREWORD BY
F.

H. A.

MARSHALL,

C.B.E., Sc.D., F.R.S.

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS
WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY E. S. FORSTER, M.A.
PEOFESSOR OF GREEK IN THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFISLD

LONDON

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS
MCMLXI

li..

First printed 1937 Revised and reprinted 1945, 1955 Revised and reprinted 1961

G
Printed in Great Britain

CONTENTS
rAOB

PARTS OF ANIMALS
Foreword
.

.

Introduction

Text and Translation

...... ....
.

.

.

.

.

3
8

52

iMOVEMENT OF ANIMALS
PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS
Introduction

Text and Translation

...... ....
• •
.

436

440
543

Index to Parts of Animals Index to

Movement and Progression of
552

Animals.

......

From quotations which I had seen, I had a high notion of Aristotle's merits, but I had not the most remote notion what a wonderful man he was. Linnaeus and Cuvier have been my two gods, though in very different ways, but they were mere schoolboys to old Aristotle.
Charles Darwin to

William Ogle, on
the publication of his translation of

The Parts of Animals, 1882.

FARTS OF ANIMALS

To
A. E. P. and L. A. P.

FOREWORD
Aristotle refers to the De partibiis animalium as an inquiry into the causes that in each case have determined the composition of animals. He does not, however, employ the category of causation in the manner normally adopted by men of science, since in this book caus es are always considered in relati on to ends or purpose s, and design is reg^arded as havi ng had~a far larger share in the origin and developn^ nt ofliving struct ures tnan that allotted toji£C£asity. In the Histona animalium the parts themselves are
described, for although this work is to some extent physiological, its main object was to deal with the anatomy of the organism. The D<? pa riibus animalium
,

on the other hand, is almost^exghisivelyiphyj&ieleg^ical and tele ological, and trea ts of the fu nctioiiS-QfL the
parts.
logist only in

h avie

was that o f a telep mited degrj ej_iiQr_iieapppRrs.,to fak^jOhaT view ot life whjc hBergson calls_jthe But
Aristotle's position

a

li

doctriryeo f internal j^n^ lity^ (that is to say, that each indTvTdTiaTToratany rate each species, is made for itself, that all its parts conspire for the greatest good of the whole, and are intelligently organized in view of that end but wi thout regard for othe r_or^a]Qlsms Since every organ or part or kinds of organisms). of the body was held to have its peculiar function,

the existence of vestigial or rudimentary organs M^as

A2

3

FOREWORD
This was the doctrine of internal finahty which was generally accepted until Darwin elaborated his theory of Natural Selection. The wider doctrine of external finality, according to which living beings are ordered in regard to one another, never gained acceptance among scientific philosophers, and the only indication that Aristotle

unrecognized.

ever adopted it is furnished by a passage in which he suggests that the mouth in Selachians is placed on the under surface so as to allow their prey to escape while the fish are turning on their backs before taking their food but even this he qualified by the suggestion that the arrangement served a useful end for the fishes in question by preventing them from indulging in the harmful habit of gluttony. The De part'ihus a?iimaliu)?i opens with an introduction devoted to general considerations. This is followed by a discussion of the three degrees of composition, the first degree being composition of physical substances, the second degree, of homogeneous parts or tissues, and the third, of heterogeneous parts or organs. The tissues referred to are blood, fat, marrow, brain, flesh, and bone. After describing these, the organs are dealt with, and a
;

consideration of their respective functions, first in sanguineous animals {i.e. in Vertebrates), and secondly in bloodless animals (i.e. Invertebrates), occupies the remainder of the book. The account given of the physiology of the blood is especially interesting, and it is noteworthy that Aristotle understood something of the nature of the process of absorption whereby the food becomes converted into nutriment which is He carried by the blood to all parts of the body. supposed, however, that the matter derived from the

FOREWORD
gut passed first to the heart in the form of vapour or serum, and that it was there converted into true
blood by a process of concoction. Aristotle knew nothing of the real nature of respiration, and he regarded the lungs as serving to temper the bodily heat by means of the inspired air. He was also entirely ignorant of the fact that the blood passes back to the heart and lungs after supplying the tissues and organs with nourishment. On the other hand, he fully appreciated the existence of excretory organs, the function of which was to remove from the body such substances as could not be utilized. In this category are included fluids such as bile, urine, and sweat. In the section on the gall-bladder, as in so many other passages in his works on natural

how correct Aristotle points out that the gallbladder is not found either in the horse and ass or in the deer and roe, but is generally present in the sheep and goat. In the light of the knowledge that he possessed, therefore, Aristotle could scarcely have adopted a theory about this organ which has found expression in certain modern writings. According to this theory the gall-bladder is present in the sheep and ox because, these being ruminating animals, bile is only required at certain particular times when food passes into the intestine, whereas in the horse, which does not chew the cud, but yet is constantly eating, food is continually passing into the intestine and consequently a perpetual flow of bile is desirable. Since the gall-bladder is present in the non-ruminating pig but absent in the ruminating deer and roe, it is obvious that this theory cannot be consistently applied.
history,
is

it is

truly remarkable

in his statements.

He

FOREWORD
It is interesting to speculate about the school of research workers who must have contributed in providing material for this and the other works on natural science ascribed to Aristotle who they were, the circumstances under which they lived, and what manner of facilities were available for their investigafor it would seem certain that no man singletions handed could possibly have acquired such a vast body of knowledge, hardly any of which could have been derived from earlier observers. Yet the work in its completed whole seems to show the mark of one master hand, and its uniform character and the clear line of teleological reasoning that runs through it have been well brought out in Dr. Peck's translation. But putting aside its philosophical implications, the book consists of an attempt at a scientific record of all the apparently kno\vn facts relating to animal function. These are considered comparatively and as far as possible are brought into relation A^ith one another. And thus, as the earliest text-book on animal physiology in the world's history, this treatise will ever make its appeal, not only to the classical philosopher, but to all who are interested in the origin and growth of biological science.

F.

H. A. M.

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
Title.

Zoological
'^°^^*'

traditional title of this treatise is not a very informative one. The subject of the work is, however, stated quite clearly by Aristotle at the begin"I have ning of the second Book in these words already described mth considerable detail in my Researches upon Animals what and how many are the We must now parts of which animals are composed. leave on one side what was said there, as our present task is to consider what are the causes through which each animal is'as I there described it " (646 a 7 foil.). The title ought therefore to be " Of the Causes of the Parts of Animals," and this is the title actually applied to it by Aristotle himself (at De gen. an. 782 a SI).** Even so, the word " parts " is misleading it includes not only what we call parts, such as limbs and organs, but also constituents such as blood and marrow.** Perhaps, therefore, no harm is done by leaving the accepted (and convenient) Latin title untranslated. The De partibus, as well as the other treatises contained in this volume, forms a portion of ArisThe foundation of these is totle's zoological works. the Historia animalium, or Researches about Animals^ in nine books (the tenth is generally held to be
:

The

:

For the meaning of Cause see note below, " See note on " part " below, p. 28.

p. 24.

8

PARTS OF ANIMALS
spurious), in which observations are recorded, and consequent upon this are the treatises in which Aristotle puts forward theories founded upon these

observations.

according to Aristotle, a " concrete of " matter " and " form." Hence, in the De partihus Aristotle treats of the causes on account of which the bodies the " matter " of animals are shaped and constructed as they are, in general ; in the De incessu he deals specially with the parts that subserve locomotion. In the De anima he proceeds to consider Soul the " form " of an animal. In the remaining treatises, of which De motu, included in this volume, is one, he deals with what he calls the functions " common to body and Soul," among which he includes sensation, memory,

An

animal

is,

entity "

made up

appetite, pleasure, pain, waking, sleeping, respiraand so forth (see De sensu 436 a). The complete scheme is set out below :
tion,
I.

Record of observations,
Historia animalium.

10

(9)

books.

II.

Theory based upon observations.

De partihus
animalium
(«)
1

4 books

De

incessu
1

animalium

book

treating of the way in which the " matter " of animals is arranged to subserve their various purposes.
(treating of the "form" of animals the Soul. [

(b)

De anima

3 books j

9

ARISTOTLE
Parva valuralia


1

treating of the functions " common to

De
(P)

motu animalium

book

body and Soul," and in particular of some special departments
of
ani-

De generatione
animalium
5 books

mal behaviour.

Date of
*^°°^t£n.

The section (6) is necessary to the completeness of the scheme, but as it has given rise to a whole department of study, it is usually treated apart from the rest. Thus the main bulk of the zoological and biological works may be taken to consist of the three great treatises, Historia animalium, De partibus animalium, and De generatione animalium. It was these which, through translations made from the Arabic, were restored to the West by those who revived scientific studies at the beginning of the thirteenth century. The late D'Arcy W. Thompson, in the prefatory " I think it ^ote to his translation of H.A.,^ wrote can be shown that Aristotle's natural history studies were carried on, or mainly carried on, in his middle age, between his two periods of residence at Athens," i.e. in the Troad, in Lesbos and in Macedonia, between the years 347 and SS5 and this view has recently received convincing support from Mr. H. D. P. Lee,'' who bases his argument upon an examination of the place-names in H.A. This is opposed to the view which has been current for some years past,*' that the zoological works belong to a late period in Aristotle's life, and has important consequences for the
: :

reconstruction of Aristotle's philosophical develop*

The Works of Aristotle translated,
"

vol. iv.,
if.

Oxford, 1910.

C.Q.

xlii.

(1948), 61

*

See

W.

D. Ross, Aristotle, and

W

W.

Jaeger, Aristotle.

10

PARTS OF ANIMALS
ment, which cannot be dealt with here. It may, however, be remarked that, as Thompson said, it would follow that we might legitimately proceed to
interpret Aristotle's more strictly philosophical work in the light of his Mork in natural history. But apart from these considerations, the great importance of the zoological works is that they represent the first attempt in Europe to observe and describe in a scientific way the individual living object. Throughout the De pariibus Aristotle endeavours to provide a Final Cause " to explain the facts which he records some purpose which they are supposed to answer and Causes of this sort are by far the most common in his treatise. His outlook is therefore justly described as ** teleological " but it is important not to read too much into this description. Aristotle is never tired of telling us that Nature makes nothing and does nothing " without a purpose " ; but if we ask what that purpose is we may find that the answer is not quite what we had expected. Plato's notion of the " form " tended to divert his attention from individuals through a hierarchy of successive " forms " but for Aristotle " form " is not independent of matter form must be embodied in some matter, that is, in individuals. Thus we find all through that Aristotle cannot long keep his eyes from the individual wherein the form is actually embodied, because it, after all, is the End, the crowning achievement of the efforts of the four Causes. This outlook controls the arrangement of Aristotle's treatise. Since all processes of production are determined by the nature of the product which is to result from them, it is the fully developed product which we must first make it our business to observe,

Teleology.


;

;

;

:

-

"

The

four Causes are dealt with in a separate note, p. 24.

ii

ARISTOTLE
and when we have discovered what are its actual characteristics we may then go on to work out its Causes and to examine the processes by which it was
produced.
Synoi)sis

umu^lry.

I give a brief synopsis and a contents-summary of the De partibus
:

BRIEF SYNOPSIS OF DE PARTIBUS
Introduction
:

Methods.
:

Composition of Substances Three modes : (1) The primaiy substances. " uniform " parts. (2) The " non-uniform " parts. (3) The Consideration of (1) Hot, cold, solid, fluid. {a) fluid, {h) solid. (2) Uniform parts (8) Non-uniform parts, as follows External parts of animals. Internal parts of blooded animals.
: :

Internal parts of bloodless animals. External parts of bloodless animals. External parts of blooded animals (resumed), (a) Vivipara. (6) Ovipara.

SUMMARY
Book
639 a 15
ch. 1
I.

Introduction.
Science.

On

the

Method of Natural

Two
(1)

questions

propounded

:

Are we to begin with the ultimate species and describe its characteristics,
or with those that are

common

to

many
12

species

PARTS OF ANIMALS
639 b 8
(2)

(Put in three ways)
(a)

:

(b)

Are we to take first the phenomena, and then proceed to their Causes ? \Mnch is the primary Cause, the
Final or the Efficient (Motive)
?

(Answered

immediately

:

The

(c)

Final ; with a reference also to the influence of Necessity.) Are we to discuss first the processes by which the animal is formed, or the characteristics of it in its completed state ?

Answer to question (2). \Ve must begin with the phenomena, then go on to the Causes, and the formaprocesses or, in other words, the Final Cause concerns us first and foremost. This differs from the practice of the early philosophers, who concerned themselves with the Material Cause, though sometimes also with the Efficient (Motive) CiQse. We must begin at the End, not at the beginning.
tive

G40 b 17

640 b 80

Thus we must consider not merely the " primary substances, but the " uniform parts, which are made out of them, and also the " non-uniform " parts. In doing this, we shall be paying attention to the Formal Cause, which is more important than the Material Cause the animal as a finished whole is more significant than the substances out of which it was made. But mere form or shape is not enough " shaped matter " is not an animal. *' Form " in its full and true sense involves
:

:

**

" Soul " Soul " somehow is the animal's Efficient and Final Cause. Act:

ually, it

is

not Soul in

its entirety,

but

ARISTOTLE
some
office.

" portion " of Soul which

fulfils this

641 b 10
in

Thus the universe and the
it

living objects

are

the

products
:

of

something

642 a

1

analogous to human art trolled by a Final Cause. But Necessity also has
universe

they are conits

place in the

not nor but

(1)
(2)

" absolute " necessity
" coercive " necessity " conditional " necessity.

(3)

These two Causes, the Final Cause and
Necessity, set the stage for our piece.

642 b 5

ch. 2

Criticisms of dichotomy as a
classification of animals.

method of
is

644 all ch. 4

The

correct method of classification groups, such as Birds and Fishes.

by

644

a 23

Answer to question (1). We must deal with groups, not

species (e.g.

Bird, not Crane), ancLH-here a species does not belong to a largengroup, we must deal with species, not individuals (e.g. Man, not Socrates).

644 b 21 ch. 5
645 b
1

An

Exhortation to the study of animals.

Final summary of the Method, combining answers to both the original questions
:

(1)

First we discuss the attributes to a group ;

common

(2)

Then we

give the explanation of them.

Book
646 a 8

II.

ch. 1

Purpose and outline of the Treatise
subject animals.
is

:

Our

the

causes of the parts of

14

PARTS OF ANIMALS
6-46 a

13

(1)

Three modes of composition : Out of the " elements " or dynameis
(hot, cold, fluid, solid).

(2) (3)

The uniform parts The non-uniform
etc.).

(bone, flesh, etc.). parts (face, hand,

The
the

way

relation of them to each other, and in which the Causes control this

relation.

647 a 3

Parts
(a)
(b)

may be divided into Instrumental parts (non-uniform).
:

Media of sensation

(uniform).

647 a 25

The

faculty of sensation has its seat in the heart, which is thus uniform ; but it is also non-uniform, as it has to do with

647 b 10 ch. 2

648 a 20 649 b 9

motion. The uniform parts, generally. Variations occur in each of them, as is illustrated by the example of Blood. Resumption of the Three modes of composition
(1)
:

: meaning of " hot," " cold," " solid," " fluid," with special reference to Blood. This merges into a discussion of

The primary substances

(2)

The Uniform parts. Blood. Fibres, Intelligence and sensi-

651 a 20 ch. 651 b 20 ch. 652 a 24 ch. 653 b 19 ch.

5 6

and " temperament " generally. Serum. Lard and Suet (forms of Blood). Marrow (a form of Blood).
tivity,

7

The Brain.
Flesh

8

ch. 10 (3)

" part " par excellence counterpart. Bones, and their counterparts, and parts similar to Bone, The Non-uniform parts of animals. (This occupies the rest of the work.)

— the

and

its

.15

ARISTOTLE
655 b 28
General statement of the three organs indispensable to animals. Head Brain. Sense-organs. Ears. Eyes, etc. (ch. 14 Eyelashes and digression on Hair). Nostrils (esp. the Elephant's).
:

656 a 14 657 a 12 ch. 11 657 a 25 ch. 13

:

658 b 27 ch. 16 659 b 20 660 a 14 ch. 17 Book IH. 661 a 84 ch. 1 661 b 27 662 a 16 662 a 34 662 b 23 ch. 2 664 a 13 ch. 3 664 a 36 664 b 20

Lips.

Tongue.
Teeth.

(Note on " the more and

less.")

Mouth.
Beak. Horns. Oesophagus.

Neck

:

Larynx and windpipe.
Epiglottis.

665 a 27

ch. 4

Internal Viscera

Parts of

Blooded Animals:

:

665 b 5 667 b 15 ch. 5

Heart.
Blood-vessels (Great Blood-vessel and Aorta, and generally).

668 b 33 ch. 6 669 b 13 ch. 7 670 671 672 673 673

Lung.

(Why

viscera

b 32
a b b b
26 8 4 12

ch.

8

remarks.) Bladder.

are double, and other Liver and Spleen.

ch. 9 ch. 10 ch. 11
ch. 12

Kidneys.

Diaphragm. Membranes.
Variations in the Viscera (Liver and
Spleen).

674 a 9 ch. 14 675 b 29 676 a 7 ch. 15

Stomach and Jejunum.
Rennet.
General.

Intestines.

Book IV.
676 a 23 16
ch. 1

Internal parts of Ovipara,

PARTS OF ANIMALS
676 b 16 ch. 2 677 b 15 ch. 3 677 b 37 ch. 4
Gall-bladder and Bile.

Omentum,
Mesentery.

678 a 27 ch. 5

Internal

Parts

of

Bloodless

Animals

(Insects, Testacea, Crustacea, CephaloWith special reference to the pods). Sepia's " ink," and the Sea-urchin's

681 a 10

" ova." Creatures intermediate between animals

and
682 682 683 683 684
a 30 a 35 ch. 6 b 4 ch. 7 b 25 ch. 8 b 7 ch. 9

plants.

External Parts of Bloodless Animals

Of Insects. Of Testacea. Of Crustacea. Of Cephalopods.
Parts of Blooded Vivipara, {b) Ovipara.

685 b 30 ch. 10 External
(a)

Animals

:

(o)

Vivipara

686 a 6 686 a 24

Head and Neck. Hands and Feet and

relative propor-

Beginning from Man, tion of limbs. whose position is upright, there is a gradation of declivity in the animals, continuing to the plants, which are
687 a 2
688 689 689 690
a 12 a 4 b 2 a 5 690b 12 690 b 18 692 b 4 695 b 2

upside-down. Nature's habit in assignment of organs. The structure of the human hand, etc.
Breast.

Excretory organs.

Rear
(6)

parts.

Hoofs, hucklebones, etc. Ovipara: (i) Serpents and Quadrupeds.
(ii)
(iii)

Birds. Fishes.

17

ARISTOTLE
697 a 15
(c)

Intermediate Creatures:
Cetacea. Seals and Bats. Ostrich.

697 b 27
Method
of

Conclusion.

ficaUon.

glance at the summary Avill show clearly the order of subjects which Aristotle lays down in the first book to be followed in a treatise such as the

A

one

in

which he

is

engaged.

First,

then,

Under

(A) to describe the parts of animals as they and are observed to be (B) to give an account of their causes, and their formative processes." first, (A) the order of preference is to be the parts (1) common to all animals \ (2) where necessary, those common to a and lastly, (3) in group of animals only exceptional instances, those peculiar to a
;
:

;

single species.

be seen how Aristotle works out this the three books which follow. Before considering that, however, we should notice that Aristotle has a great deal to say about the correct or rather, against the inclassification of animals Chiefly, he inveighs correct classification of them. and his chief against the method of dichotomy objection to it is a simple and effective one that it does not work. It forces us to assign to each species one distinguishing mark, and one only (64-2 b 21 643 a 24). And it cuts off kindred species from each other on the strength of some quite subordinate
Also,
it

will

scheme

in

;

" De partibus is concerned chiefly with the causes and with the processes.

less

18

PARTS OF ANIiMALS
The right method, characteristic (642 b 10 foil.). says Aristotle, is to follow popular usage and divide the animals up into well-defined groups such as Birds and Fishes." And this leads him to distinguish two stages of difference (a) Cases in which the parts differ " by excess or
:

(6)

defect " as in different species of the same genus or group. Cases in which the resemblance is merely one of analogy as in different genera.

Examples of

(a)

:

many many
(b)

differences of colour and shape large or small or few
;

;

;

smooth or rough

;

e.g. soft

and
bill,

firm flesh, long and short or few feathers.

bone and fish-spine hoof hand and claw
;

;

nail
;

scale

and and

feather.
(Reff. for

the above, De part. an. 644 a 11-b 15 Hist, an. 486 a 15-b 21. See also Gen. An. (Loeb), Introd.) The doctrine of differences of" excess and defect," "The more ^^'^ ^^^^' or, as Aristotle also calls them, of " the more and less," may usefully be compared with that which underlies the modern theory of Transformations, and Indeed, Professor the comparison of related forms. . D'Arcy Thompson asserts that "it is precisely excess and defect in the case this Aristotelian of form which our co-ordinate method is especially
;
.

.

*

'

adapted to analyse, and to reveal and demonstrate as the main cause of what (again in the Aristotehan specific differences " {Growth and sense) we term
'
'

"

And

are, as

of course, into Blooded and Bloodless, though there Aristotle points out, no popular names for these

groups.

15

ARISTOTLE
The co-ordinates to which he refers p. 726;. are those of the Cartesian method, on which is based the theory of Transformations. By means of them it is possible to exhibit, say, the cannon-bones of the ox, the sheep, and the giraffe as strictly proportionate and successive deformations of one and the same form. These deformations can be either simple elongations, as in the instance just cited, or they may occur according to an oblique or a radial system of coordinates, etc." In this way, differences of " excess and defect " are reduced to the terminology of mathematics and it is especially interesting to notice this, as the phrase " excess and defect " itself had, in the Greek of Aristotle's time, a mathematical connexion. With it may be compared the wellknown Platonic phrase, " the great and small." But this is not the place to enlarge upon such topics.^ To rctum to Aristotle's classification. find t^^^^ ^^ implements his preliminary outline in the following way
Form,
;

ciassifica-

We

^mrts!

:

I. First,

he treats of the parts which are found in many different groups of animals, and also those which are to be considered counterparts of each
other in different groups. (1) above.

This corresponds to

A
II.

As he proceeds 'vvith this, he comes to the Viscera, which occur only in blooded animals." This provides a convenient point for embarking upon his second main division corresponding

For details see D'Arcy Thompson, op. cit. eh. xvii. The reader is referred to A. E. Taylor, " Forms and Numbers," in Mind, xxxv. 419 foil. xxxvi. 12 foil. D'Arcy Thompson, " Excess and Defect," in Mind, xxxviii. 43 foil. By " viscera " Ar. means the blood-like ones only. 20
*
*
;

;

•^

PARTS OF ANIMALS
the parts common to a to (2) above of animals, and we have first The Internal Parts of Blooded Animals.
:

A

group

III.

is followed by The hiiernal Parts of Bloodless Animals. IV. The External Parts of Bloodless Animals. V. The External Parts of Blooded Animals, which includes

This

Then, Then,

(a)
(6)

Vivipara. Ovipara.
(i)
(ii) (iii)

Serpents and Quadrupeds,
Birds.

Fishes.

(c)

Intermediate Creatures.

References to exceptional instances, as to Man, corresponding to the division A (3) above, are of course to be found throughout the w^ork. Aristotle thus works out the main lines of his classification. And in each instance, where possible, he endeavours to assign the Cause, to name the purpose, which is responsible for the parts as he describes them. This corresponds to (B) above. And here Aristotle is forced to admit an apparent addition to his scheme of Causes. The purpose, the good End, the final Cause, cannot always get a free hand. There is another Cause, Necessity. Aristotle takes great care to explain what is the nature of this Necessity (642 a 2 foil.). It is what he calls Necessity " ex hypothesi," or " conditional " Necessity, the sort of Necessity which is implied by any final Cause being what it is. If a piece of wood is to be split by an axe, the axe must ex hypothesi be hard and sharp, and that necessitates the use of bronze or
21

Necessity.

ARISTOTLE
The same sort of Necessity iron in the making of it. applies in the works of Nature, for the Hving body
an instrument. It is thus the final Cause which necessitates the various stages of the process of formation and the use of such and such material. Another kind of Necessity, however, makes its " appearance in Natural objects, and that is " simple
itself is

Necessity. The mere presence of certain things in a living organism entails of necessity the presence of Some results others (see 645 b 32, 677 a 17, b 22). follow inevitably from the very nature of the material used. This " simple " Necessity can therefore be regarded as a reassertion of themselves by the motive and material Causes" as against the final

Cause. Sometimes, however, even in circumstances where " simple " Necessity operates, Nature is able to use the resulting products to subserve a final Cause (663 b 22, 32, 677 a 15 see also the note on Residues,
;

p. 32).

Scheme of
anima
s.

The

Cf. Gen. An. (Loeb), Introd. §§ 6-9following table will show at a glance

the

g^j^^j^^ q£

Animals
:

as treated of

by Aristotle

in the

De partibus

A. Blooded Animals

B. Bloodless Animals
Insects

Man
Viviparous quadrupeds

Testacea
Crustacea

Oviparous

quadrupeds
animals

and
bians)

footless

Cephalopods

(reptiles

and

amphi-

Birds

Fishes
See De gen. an. 778 b
1.

PARTS OF ANIMALS
Intermediate

ARISTOTLE
Terminology
Technical terms,

following notes on some of the more difficult important of the technical terms used by Aristotle in the De partihus will, I hope, help to explain my
^j^^

The

translation and also to give some indication of the background of Aristotle's thought. (A fuller account will be found in De Gen. An., Loeb edn.)
Atrta,
I
**

cause."

the traditional translation " cause," perhaps in some contexts " reason " may although be a closer rendering, but a variation in the English term might well produce more confusion than clarity.
retain

To know,

says Aristotle, is to know by means of post. 94< a 20). A thing is explained when you know its Causes. And a Cause is that which is responsible, in any of four senses, for a The four Causes, of which two thing's existence. are mentioned very near the beginning of the first book (639 b 11), are :

Causes (see Anal.

(1)

Final Cause, the End or Object towards which a formative process advances, and ybr the sake of which it advances the logos, the rational

The

purpose.
(2)

The Motive
is

(or Efficient) Cause, the

agent which

responsible for having set the process in motion ; it is that by jvhich the thing is made. (3) The Formal Cause, or Form, which is responsible for the character of the course which the process follows (this also is described as the logos, expressing what the thing is). (4) The Material Cause, or Matter, out of which the thing is made.

24

PARTS OF ANIMALS
It will be seen that the first three Causes tend naturally to coalesce under the aegis of the Formal Cause, in opposition to the fourth, the Material Cause, a contrast which is clearly put by Adam of St. Victor in one of his hymns
:

effectiva vel formalis

causa Deiis,

etjiiialis,

sed nuviquam materia.

Hence, of course, comes the regular contrast of form " and " matter," in which, oddly enough, in modern usage the two terms have almost exchanged meanings. " Mere form," " empty form," in contrast with " the real matter," are phrases which indicate a point of view very different from that of
"

An equally drastic reversal of meaning has overtaken the term " substance," as controversies on " transubstantiation," and the existence " Cause " has of the word " unsubstantial " prove. but its meaning has certainly been more fortunate been narrowed down, so that " cause " now usually suggests the " efficient " cause only. At the same " time, we allow ourselves a wider variety of " efficient causes than Aristotle, and are more ready to admit actions and events or even series of actions and events. have, in fact, applied Aristotle's precise terminology to the wider uses of everyday non-technical purposes. For Aristotle, the doctrine of the Four Causes provides an exhaustive and precise classification of the things which can be responsible for another thing's existence, and by the naming of them the thing can be completely accounted for. As an illustration the following will serve. Suppose the object to be explained is an oak. The
Aristotle.
;

We

25,

ARISTOTLE
chronological order of the Causes their logical one.
(i.)

is

different

from

The Motive Cause
produced the acorn. The Material Cause
ishment.

:

the parent oak which
:

(ii.)

the acorn and

its

nour-

(iii.)

(iv.)

The Formal Cause. The acorn as it grew into a tree followed a process of development which had the definite character proper to oaks. The Final Cause the end towards which
:

the process advanced, the perfected oak-tree.

Aoyos.

There are several places in the De partibus where, rather than represent Aoyos by an inadequate or misleading word, I have transliterated it by logos. This serves the very useful purpose of reminding the reader that here is a term of very varied meanings, a term which brings into mind a number of correlated conceptions, of which one or another may be uppermost in a particular case. It is an assistance if we bear in mind that underlying the verb Aeyeu', as it is most frequently used, is the conception of rational utterance or expression, and the same is to be found ^^-ith Aoyos, the noun derived from the same root. Aoyo9 can signify, simply, something spokeii or uttered or, with more prominence given to the rationality of the utterance, it can signify a rational explanation, and expressive of a thing's nature, of the plan of it from this come the further meanings of principle, or law, and also of definition, or formula, as expressing
; ;

26

PARTS OF ANIMALS
the structure or character of the object defined. (Note here the application of the term logos to the Final and Formal Causes, recorded in the foregoing note.) Another common meaning is seen especially in the use of the dative Aoyw {cf. the verb XoyL^n/xai and its noun) bi/ reasoning, in thought, as opposed to fact or action, (See 640 a 32, Art is the Aoyos rov epyov 6 avev rrjs vX')]S at 64^6 b 2 we read of the Aoyos of a process of formation such as building, and the Aoyo9 of the house which is built at 678 a 35 of the Aoyos which defines the essence of something, and at 695 b 19 of " the Aoyos of the essence." At 639 b 15 the " Cause for the sake of which " the Final Cause is described as being a Aoyos.)
',

;

Fei/ecrts,

T ly veaOaL,

" formation," or " process of formation." " to be formed," " to go through a process

of formation."

These are the translations which

I

as more appropriate in a biological " coming into being," and the like.

normally use, treatise than

The process of formation is of course closely connected in Aristotle's thought with the doctrine of the
Four Causes.
Fei-ecrts is

results in the production of

a process which, at any rate in biology, an actual object, a living
:

creature.
Fo'ecris is also contrasted with ova-La and (^vo-ts" the order of things, we are told, in the process of formation is the reverse of the order in reality. For example, the bricks and mortar exist for the sake of the house
"

Care should be taken not to regard 0uatj as meaning

" the process of ^u'ea^ai."

B

27,

ARISTOTLE
which
is

come
sums

first

to be built out of them, but they in the order of time and fact.

and not

it

Aristotle
last in the

this

up by saying that what comes
first

process comes

in " nature " (646 a 25).

MopioVf " part."

The term M'hich occurs in the title of the treatise and is traditionally rendered " part " includes more than is normally included in the English " part of the body." For instance, this would not normally be applied to blood, but the term fxopLov is applied by Aristotle to all the constituent substances of the body as well as to the limbs and organs. For him,
blood is one of the ^<p(iiv fiopia (648 a 2 see also 664 a 9 690 a 8). A striking instance of the use of fiopiov in this sense is the phrase ra ofxoio/xepq /xopia, which are the subject of the next following note.
;
J

Ta Ta

6p.oiojji€prj

popia, " the uniform parts."

dvopoLOjieprj popta, "

the non-uniform parts."

term popiov to both emphasizes the inclusiveness of its meaning. As examples of the " uniform " parts he mentions (647 b 10) blood, serum, lard, suet, marrow, semen, bile, milk, flesh these are soft and fluid** ones also bone, fish-spine, sinew, blood-vessel " these are hard and solid ones. Of " non-uniform parts he gives as examples (640 b 20) face, hand, foot. The relation of the " uniform " parts to the " nonuniform " he describes as follows (647 b 22 foil.)
Aristotle's application of the
classes

these

;

:

"

For the meaning of "

fluid "

and "

solid " see below,

p. 32.

PARTS OF ANIMALS
(a)

some of the uniform are the material out of which the non-uniform are made (i.e. each
instrumental part
flesh, etc.)
;

is

made

out of bones, sinews,
;

(6)
(c)

some act as the nutriment of (a) some are the residue of (6) faeces,

urine.

It is not possible to

equate the two classes with the
;

later division into tissues and organs, since blood, for instance, though " uniform," is not a tissue the

term

" organs," however, corresponds closely with

own description to. opyaviKa fxcprj (647 b 23), " instrumental parts." The practical difference between the two classes is that each of the uniform parts has its o^vn definite character as a substance (in the modern sense), while each of the non-uniform parts has its own definite character as a conformation or organ. The heart is the only part which belongs to both classes (647 a 25 foil.) it consists of one uniform part only, namely, flesh ; but it also has essentially a definite configuration, and thus it is a non-uniform part. Three stages or " degrees of composition," so far as biology is concerned, are enumerated by Aristotle (at 646 a 13 foil.). What Aristotle seems to mean, though he has not expressed himself quite clearly, is that there are three stages involved in the composition of compound bodies, namely,
Aristotle's
:

(1)
(2)
(3)

the 8vvdfi€Ls (see following note) the uniform parts the non-uniform parts
; ;

;

and

finally,

of course, out of the non-uniform parts

(4)

the animal itself

is

composed.

ARISTOTLE

We have
(1) (2)

thus

(3)

the simplest sorts of matter ; the simplest organic substances compounded out of the foregoing (having no definite size, shape, or structure) the instrumental parts of the body constructed out of the foregoing (having definite size, shape,
;

and structure)
(4)

;

and

the organism as a whole, assembled out of the
foregoing.

term

in which the has caused confusion in the accounts of Anaxagoras's theories see Class. Qu., 1931, xxv. 34

Note.

—For a description of the way

rb. ojiotoixeprj

following.

This is one of the most difl^cult terms to render in English.
" potentiso well known that there is no need to enlarge upon it here. Nor need I discuss the mathematical meaning of

The

specialized

meaning of

Swdfj.ei,

ally," as

opposed to

h'€pye[a, " actually,"

is

SvvafXL'i.

Other meanings need some comment.

(1)

Avva/us was the old technical term for what

were

later to be called o-rotyera (elements). It appears in the writings of the Hippocratic corpus

and in Plato's Timaeiis. The best example of its use in De partihus is at the beginning of Book II. (646 a 15). The list of Swd/jLeis included the substances known as to vypoVf to g'>]p<'>y, to depfxoi', to Only ipyxpor, TO —iKpov, TO yXvKv, to Spipv, etc., etc. the first four of these were regarded by Aristotle as
SO

PARTS OF ANIMALS
the material of

compound bodies

:

all

the " other

differences," he says, are consequent upon these. The original meaning underlying this usage of the term seems to have been " strong substance of a

particular character." This would be very appropriate to TO SpLfxv, TO TTiKpov, ctc. (scc Uepl dp)(^aLr]S There is no notion here of the substance h]TpLKris). kavi?ig power in the sense of power to affect an external body in a particular way. (This meaning developed later.) If any effect did result, it would be described simply as the presence of the strong " substance, and the remedy for it was to " concoct

the strong substance or otherwise to bring it into a harmless condition by " blending " it with other substances. (2) As each of the substances known as Sui/a/xei? has its own peculiar character, sharply marked off from the others, the meaning of " peculiar and distinctive character " was naturally associated with the term. This seems to be its meaning in 655 b 12 : e^ di'dyKrjs 8e ravra iravra yecoSr) koL a-repedv e;)(et r7)x/ (j)vcriV ottXov yap avrr] 8vvap.ts. Indeed, in this meaning, Svvaixis seems to be a slightly more emphatic version of cfivcri^, with which it is often used in conjunction (in Hippocrates, for instance), or in a parallel May as in the passage just cited. Compare also 651 b 21, where the marrow is asserted to be aJ'/xards Tis cjivcTL's, not, as some suppose, r^js yovrjs onvepiiaTiKr] Other instances of this use of St'i^a/xis will Svvaiiis.

be found in
(3)

De partibiis.
this

From

usage
:

it is

not far to the idiomatic,
almost

pleonastic usage, e.g.

678 a 13 682 h 15

7; rj

TO)V €vrepoiv Syvajxts

= Ta

evrepa.

TWV

TTTipUJV BvvajMLS,
3.1

ARISTOTLE
657 a 4
This
is
i)

Ttuv fxvKT/jpiDV 8vvajJ.L<s 8t<^ir>ys.

paralleled
->)

by a

similar usage of ^vo-ts X
cfiV(TLS.

663 a 34> 676 b 11

roiv Kepdrayv

•>}

Twv

kvTepuiv

cfiVcrLS.

640 a 24, 646 a 14, (Other references for Svvafxis 650 a 5, 651 b 21, 652 b 8, 12, 653 a 2, 655 b 12, 658 b 34. See further Gen. An., Loeb edn., Introd. §§ 23 ff.).
:

b

17,

To vypov KOi rh ^y)p6v, " fluid substance and solid substance," " the fluid and the soUd."

These are two of the

Svi'a/xets.

Following Ogle, I use these renderings as being in conformity with the definitions given by Aristotle than " the moist and the dry," which have often been used. Actually neither pair of Enghsh words quite expresses the Greek. Aristotle's definition of them (at De gen. et corr. 329 b 30) is this

more

:

is not limited by any hmit of readily limited, ^i^pov is that which is readily limited by a limit of its o^\'n but can with difficulty be limited " i.e. of course by a limit imposed from without. He discusses the various senses in which these terms are used at 649 b 9 following.
**

vypov

is

that which

its

own but can be

Ile/otTTw/za,

" residue."
I

This term

have translated throughout

**

residue,*

S2

PARTS OF ANIMALS
more literal and at the same time less misleading than " excrement." " Surplus " would have been even better if the word had been a little more
as being

manageable. " Residue "
left

is

over

when the

so called because it living organism,

is

that which

is

by acting upon

the nutriment which it has taken, has provided itself ^vith a sufficient supply for its upkeep. Some of the surplus will be useless material contained in the food from the outset, or else has been produced during the process of reducing the food into a condition suitable for its purposes in the body. The useless residues include the excrements. In order to appreciate the status of the useful residues the outlines of the processes through which the food passes must be kept clearly in mind. Briefly, then, the food is masticated in the mouth, then passed on to the stomach and then the heart, where it is concocted " by means of heat in other words, it is turned into and blood, which is the " ultimate nourishment " this, when distributed into the blood-vessels, suppHes the body with nutrition. Generally, however, more blood is produced than is necessary for the actual upkeep of the body, and this surplus undergoes a further stage of concoction, and is used by Nature Marrow is a residue so are semen, in various ways. Sometimes, when nutrition is catamenia, milk. specially abundant, the surplus blood is concocted And some of the blood, into fat (lard and suet). reaching the extremities of the vessels in which it travels, makes its way out in the form of nails, claws, The Aristotelian doctrine of residues came or hair. down to Shakespeare, as is shown by the passage

;

;

*•

See page 34.

33

ARISTOTLE
in

Hamlet

(iii. iv.)

where the Queen says to Hamlet
haire, like life in excrements,

Your bedded

Start up, and stand an end.

This theory, as applied to hair, is expounded by Aristotle at 658 b 14 following, and modern biochemists have reason for believing that some pigmentation in animals, such as the black melanin of mammalian hair, or the yellow xanthopterine of the butterfly's

wing,

is

physiologically a form of excretion.
**

" Concoct,"

concoction."

These terms, which have already appeared in these notes, are used to translate TrecrcreLv, -n-eij/is. The Greek words are the same as those employed to denote the process of ripening or maturing of fruit, corn, and the like by means of heat also that of baking and cooking. Terms sometimes associated ^\ith these are fxera/SoXy and jjnTa/SdWeLv. For example, at 650 a 5 we read that TTci/'ts and [jteraftoXy take place Slo. t7]s tov dipfxov and at 651 b 26, as the creatures grow 8vv(tij.€0)<i and get " matured," the parts /xera/^aAAei their colour, and so do the viscera.

;

"irvxrj,

" Soul."

The English word " Soul," as will be seen, overemphasizes, when compared with ifi'X'h certain aspects of the Greek term, but it is by far the most convenient rendering, and I have used it in preference to " hfe " or " vital principle." It will be useful to have an outline of Aristotle's general doctrine about Soul. The different " parts " or " faculties " of Soul can
84

PARTS OF ANIMALS
be arranged in a series in a definite order, so that the possession of any one of them implies the possession of all those which precede it in the list
:

(1) nutritive Soul
(2)

in all plants
in all animals

(4)

sentient Soul (3) appetitive Soul )A locomotive boul A.c 1
1

V some [in
j

animals

^

(5) rational

Soul

in

man

only

At 641 a 23 Aristotle speaks of " parts " of the Soul, and though he often uses this phrase, the In the passage description he prefers is " faculties." which follows (641 a 33 foil.) all except appetitive
Soul are mentioned. Sentient Soul is mentioned again at 650 b 24, 667 b 23, 672 b 16. Aristotle raises the question whether it is the business of Natural science to deal with Soul in its entirety, and concludes that it is not necessary, since man is the only animal in which rational Soul is found. Thus it is only some part or parts of Soul, and not Soul in its entirety, which constitute animal nature. In the passage 641 a 14 follo-\\ing, Aristotle takes for granted his doctrine about Soul, which is as follows (De anima, Book II.). Animate bodies, bodies " with Soul in them " (Jjxxl^vxff), are " concrete subIn this stances " made up of matter and form. partnership, of course, the body is the matter and the Soul is the form. Thus Soul may be described as the
" form " or " realization " (eVreAeyeta, " actuality ") of the animal {cf. Depart., loc. cit.).

This statement, however,
precise.
It
is

is

elsewhere

made more

possible to distinguish
;

tions " of

an animal

for

an animal
B 2

" realiza" has Soul in it "
tfvo

35'

ARISTOTLE
even when
it is it is

asleep, but

its

full activity is
its

not

evident until

awake and about

call Soul, then, the " first animal, its waking life its " second realization.'* This distinction does not concern us in the De partibus. But an expansion of the definition is not irrelevant. Aristotle states that the Soul is the first realization of a body furnished with organs. The priority of Soul over body is emphasized in the passage just referred to (640 b 23—641 a 32), and in another interesting passage (687 a 8 foil.) Aristotle maintains that man has hands because he is the most intelligent animal, and not, as some have said, the most intelligent animal because he has hands. With this is connected the question whether the though it is not Soul is independent of the body As we have seen already, a raised in De partibus. ^wov is a single concrete entity made up of Soul and body, i.e. a certain form implanted in certain matter. The matter can exist, for it did exist, apart from the and as the form that is implanted in all the form individuals of a species is one and the same form, clearly it can exist apart from any one individual's matter though of course its existence is not independent of all the individuals' matter. Furthermore, the form the Soul requires matter of a not any sort of matter will do. particular kind From these considerations two conclusions seem to a follow (1) that transmigration is impossible human Soul cannot function in a hyena's body, any more than the carpenter's art can be executed by means of musical instruments (2) the Soul cannot function without a body at all ; cannot, we may say,

must

business. realization " of the

We

;

;

:

:

:

;

exist

(4.14-

a

19).

Sd

PARTS OF ANIMALS
But Aristotle is not satisfied. more than that. He finds a loophole. There may be some " part " of Soul (the rational part) which is not the " realization " of any body. The Soul, besides being the form, the formal Cause, of the body, is also its final Cause, and not only that, but the motive Cause too of all the changes originated in the body (De anima 415 b 7-28), for, as we saw (p. 25), the three non-material Causes tend
So
far,

so good.

He

feels the Soul is

to coalesce into one. This independent " part " of Soul " comes into the body from without " (see De gen. an. 736 b 25 foil.) and continues to exist after

the death of the body (see De anima 413 a 6, b 24 foil., 430 a 22, etc.). All this, however, raises problems not touched upon in De partihus ; indeed Aristotle himself offers no solution of them.

^^X^i
I

Kpacrts, aTrd/cptcri?, crvvTr]^is.

have indicated above, in the note on

SvvafXL?,

some of the older (Hippocratic) medical terminology
of which traces are to be found in the De partihus. There is no room for an adequate discussion of such terms and theories, and the following bare references must suffice.

In the Hippocratic treatise Tiepl Siacri^s the theory put forward that the human organism, body and Soul alike, is composed of fire and water (which really consist of " the hot," " the sohd," " the cold," and " the fluid ") the function of fire being to cause motion, of M'ater to provide nourishment. In ch. 35 we have a hst of the different varieties of Blend (KprjcTLSf (rvyKpi](TLs) of fire and water which may be
is

37

ARISTOTLE
found in the Soul in different individuals, and upon the Blend its health and sensitivity ^ depend. With these statements may be compared the
following passages in

De partihus
;

:

652 b 8

Aristotle, maintain that the Soul is fiie but it is better to say that it subsists in some such material. ** The hot " is indeed the most ser-

Some, says

viceable

material

for

the

functions

which the Soul has to perform, and these include nourishing and causing
motion.

647 b 30

foil.

Here

is

a reference to the different

varieties of blood,

and Aristotle

tells

us which sort of blood is aladi^TiKM-epov and which animals are on that account
(fipovtiuoTepa {cf.

650 b 24 and 686 b
K^ao-i?
is

28).

The phrase
Kpaa-Ls in

ttt/xaro?

actually

used at 686 a

9(Cf. also 650 b 29, the the heart 652 b 35, the parts in the head are colder than the cri'/x669 a 11, the KpacTLS fierpos Kpaa-LS of the body 673 b 26, its €VKpa<TLa.)
;

;

;

which occurs frequently in the found only once in the De partibus at 677 a 14 bile is said to be a residue or irvvTi-j^is. Properly speaking, crri'T/y^ts^ is the term applicable to the " colliquescence " or decay of the parts of the body themselves. {Cf. a-vvryj-y/xa at De gen. an. 724 b 26 foil. also (Tvi'T-)]^iSy 456 b 3 1; cf. also Piatt's note at the end of his translation of De gen. an. on 724 b 27.) The effect of the colliquescence is to produce an
(tvitt]^is,
is

The term

liepl

Si(u't//9,

;

,

The

adjective used

is (f)p6vifios.

38

PARTS OF ANIMALS
unhealthy a-oKpicn^ (abscession)

—a

term

in Ilept Suxlti]^ (see chh. 58

foil,

very common throughout).

In both places it is It occurs twice in De pariibus. used of a Tzepl-rMiJxi. At 690 a 9 the surplus earthy matter diroKpuTiv Xapf^av^i and forms a continuous At 681 b S5 Aristotle speaks of the nail or hoof. place where the (r-eppo-iKij or the TrepLTTOjpo.nK-q and here d-oKpta-ts seems to d-oKpiCTLs is effected mean simply " act of excretion." The meaning of the term seems both here and in Hippocrates to be specially associated with 7reptTTw//a-a, either useful A great ones, or useless and even harmful ones. deal of Ilept SiaiT/;? is taken up with suggestions for getting rid of harmful diroKpicreLS. The meaning of d-oKpLan^ is therefore wider than " excretion " or " secretion," as used in their present usual sense, though these are included among its meanings.
,

;

Tb p^kkov
above,
p. 19,

Kal rJTTov, " the more and and Gen. An. (Loeb), Introd.

less," see
§§

70

ff.

Translations of Aristotle's Zoology

The history of the translation of Aristotle's works begins with the Nestorian Christians of Asia Minor, who were familiar with the Greek language as their service-books were written in it, and before the coming of the Arabs they had translated some of the works of Aristotle and Galen into Syriac. Before

TransiaAristotle's zoological

ARISTOTLE
435, Ibas, who in that year was made Bishop of Edessa, had translated into Syriac the commentaries of Theodore on the works of Aristotle. Jacob, one of Ibas's successors at Edessa (d. 708), translated the Categories into Syriac, but a much earlier version had been made by Sergios of Resh 'Aina (d. 536), who had studied Greek at Alexandria. In 765 the Nestorian physician Georgios was summoned to Bagdad by the Caliph, and translated numerous Greek words into Arabic for him. By the beginning of the ninth century, translation was in full swing at Bagdad, under the Caliphate of al-Mamun (813-833), son of Harun-al-Rashid. The first leader of this school of translators was the physician Ibn al-Batriq, who translated the Historia animalium, the De partibus animalium, and the De generatione animalium into Arabic. But it was through southern Italy, Sicily and Spain that the transmission of Aristotle's works from the Arabic into Latin was effected. Messina had been recovered from the Saracens by 1060, and the whole of Sicily was freed by 1091. Under the Norman kings, Greeks, Saracens and Latins hved together in one community, and the court was the meetingground for eminent persons of all nations and languages. The reconquest of Spain had begun in the eighth century, so that here also an opportunity offered for making the works of Greek science available in Latin. Archbishop Raymond of Toledo (1126-1151) and Bishop Michael of Tarazona (11191151) were the patrons of the translators, who made Toledo the centre of their activity. One of these

was Michael Scot. There is in existence an Arabic translation of
40

PARTS OF ANIMALS
the zoological works, of which there is a ms. in the British Museum." It is probable that this is the translation made by Ibn al-Batriq, and that this Arabic version is the original from which Michael Scot made his Latin translation at Toledo.^ Michael was, among his other accomplishments, astrologer to Frederick II., King of Sicily, at his court at Palermo, and before 1217 he had reached Toledo and was at work there on his translations from the Arabic. His De a7iimaUhus (a translation of the zoological works in nineteen books) is one of his earliest works, and two Mss. of it ^ contain a note which gives a later limit of 1220 for the work. Other evidence'^ establishes that it was certainly finished before 1217, and it may even be placed in the first decade of the century. It is probable that Michael had as collaborator one Andrew, canon of Palencia, formerly a Jew. One of the earliest to make use of Michael's translations was Robert Grosseteste,^ Bishop of Lincoln (d. 1253), one of the leading Aristotelian scholars of the time, who quotes from Michael's version of
« B.M.Add. 7511 (13th-14th century). Th^s is the ms. referred to by Steinschneider, Die arabischen Uhersetzungen as B.^I. 437. this ms. I have seen p. 64, Judging from the passages which Dr. R. Levy kindly read for me in the Arabic ms., the Latin version is a close translation from it. Also, the contents-preface wliich is found prefixed to Michael Scot's translation corresponds exactly with the preface which precedes the Arabic version in this MS. (see the B.M. catalogue, Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum orientaliuyn, p. 215). One of them is ms. Caius 109, in the library of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. It is of the thirteenth century. ^ See S. D. Wingate, The Medieval Latin Versions, p. 75. • Born at Stradbroke, Suffolk. Franciscan.
** •^

A

41

ARISTOTLE
The De animalihus also formed the a commentary in twenty-six books by Albertus Magnus.'' This was probably written soon after the middle of the thirteenth century. Except for the portions which appear in Albertus 's commentary, and the earlier part of the first chapter," Michael's version has never been printed in extenso. Michael died in or before 1235, and is reputed to have been buried, as he was born, in the lowlands of Scotland. About the same time, at the request of a pupil of Albertus, St. Thomas Aquinas (1227-1274), who required more accurate versions for his commentaries on the works of Aristotle, new translations, direct from the Greek, were being undertaken by William of Moerbeke.^ William was born about 1215. He became a Dominican, was confessor to Popes Clement IV. and Gregory X., and was Archbishop of Corinth. He acted as Greek secretary at the Council of Lyons in 1274<. He died in 1286. The earliest dated translation made by him is one of the De partibus animalium. The date 1260 occurs in a ms. of it at Florence (Faesulani 168), which also contains Hist, an.^ De progressu This translation was made at an., and De gen. an.

De

gejieratione.^

basis

of

Thebes.

Among

later Latin translators of the zoological

" According to Roger Bacon, Michael appeared at Oxford in 1230, bringing with him the works of Aristotle in natural

history

and mathematics. " Ed. latest ed., H. Stadler, 'princepsy Rome, 1478 ; 1916-1921. « 639 a 1—640 a 20, printed by G. Furlani in Rivista degli Studi Orientali, ix. (1922), pp. 246-249. A small town south of Ghent on the borders of Flanders and Brabant.
**

42

PARTS OF ANIMALS
works the names of two Greeks must be mentioned. George of Trebizond (Trapezuntius), who was born in Crete in 1395, visited Italy between 1430 and 1438, and was secretary to the humanist Pope
Nicholas V., an ardent Aristotelian. George's work, however, was hurried and not over-exact, and he, together with his predecessors, was superseded by his contemporary Theodore of Gaza, who was born in Thessalonica about 1400, and was professor of Greek at Ferrara in 1447. In 1450 Theodore was invited by the Pope to go to Rome to make Latin versions of Aristotle and other Greek authors. His translation of the zoological works," dedicated to the Pope, Sixtus IV., soon became the standard version, and it is printed in the Berhn edition of Aristotle. Translations of the De gen. were made by Augustinus Niphus, of the University of Padua (1473-1546), and of the De gen. and De incessu by Peter Alcyonius
(Venice, 1487-1527). The De gen. was also translated by Andronicus Callixtus of Byzantium (d. 1478). With the later Latin versions we need not here concern ourselves, but something must be said of the scientific workers who were inspired by Aristotle, and of the translations into modern languages. The Renaissance biologists show unmistakably the Aristotle's difference in quaUty which there is between Aristotle's successors. physics and his biology. Hieronimo Fabrizio of Acquapendente (1537-1619) knew and admired Aristotle's work on embryology, and what is more,

himself carried out further important observations on the same subject. His brilliant successor, William Harvey (1578^1657), was a student of Aristotle, and
" In eighteen books, excluding the spurious tenth the Historia animalium,

book of

43

ARISTOTLE
much
of his inspiration came from that source. William Harvey was the first to make any substantial advance in embryology since Aristotle himself. But this is more appropriate to the De generatione than In other departments of study, to the De partihus. however, during the seventeenth century, the

authority of Aristotle and the scholastic doctrine with Mhich he was identified were being combated in the name of freedom, and thus it came about that the zoological works also, which had been brought to light by the dark ages, were allowed to pass back into oblivion by the age of enlightenment. They were not rediscovered until the end of the eighteenth century by Cuvier (1769-1832) and Saint-Hilaire (1805-1895) in the nineteenth.

Modern
1.

Editions

Berlin edition of Aristotle, by Immanuel Bekker. Berlin, 1831. Vol. i. (pp. 639-697) includes P.A. 1a. The Oxford edition (a reprint of the preceding). Vol. v. Oxford, 1837. includes P.A. 2. One-volume edition of Aristotle's works, by C. H. Weise (pre-Bekker text). Leipzig, 1843. Vol. v. contains P. A., edited and 8. The Leipzig edition. translated into German by A. von Frantzius. Leipzig, 1853. Vol. iii. includes P.A. Edited by 4. The Didot edition. Bussemaker. Paris, 1854.

The

5.

The Teubner
The Bude

edition.

Edited by Bernhardt Langkavel.

Leipzig, 1868.
6.

Edited by Pierre Louis. edition. French translation and notes. Paris, 1956.

With

a

Translations without Text
7.

Thomas Taylor. English

translation of Aristotle in ten

44

PARTS OF ANIMALS
volumes.
1810. 8. F. N. Titze.
Vol.
vi.

includes P.A. (pp. 3-163).

London,

German translation of Book I. In his Aristoteles ilher die wissenschaftliche Beliandlungsart
Prague, 1819.

der Naturkunde.
9.

translation. Stuttgart, 1855 (second ed., Berlin, 1911). 10. William Ogle. English translation, with notes. London, 1882. 1 1 J. Barthelemy-Saint-Hilaire. French translation, with notes. Paris, 1885. English translation, with notes (a re11. William Ogle. Oxford 1911. vision of No. 10). 12. Francisco Gallach Pales. Aristoteles: Obras comcontains De partibus and De incessu pletas. Vol.

Anton Karsch.

German

X

animalium. Spanish translation, without notes. Vol. Madrid, 1932. Ixii. of Nueva Biblioteca Filosofica.

Langkavel reproduces almost verbatim the Berlin
text, together with Bekker's apparatus, to w^hich a

great deal of other matter has been added, including some of Bekker's ms. notes in his copy of Erasmus's edition, and some corrected reports of the readings of the MS. E, which Langkavel himself inspected. Also, there are some emendations proposed by
Bonitz.

Any English translator must stand very much indebted to the work of William Ogle, whose translation, originally published in 1882, was revised by its author and republished in the Oxford series of It is not possible translations of Aristotle in 1911to overrate the care and exactness with which this piece of work was executed. I should like here to acknowledge my own indebtedness to it, and I have had its accuracy as a model before me. With regard to style, it will be seen that I have aimed at producing something rather different from Ogle's version.
4'5

ARISTOTLE
The Text
The
M3S.

The manuscript

authorities cited

by Bekker by
I

for the

De

partihus will be found on p. 50. The dates of some of the mss. as given for details scholars vary considerably
:

different refer the

reader to the various catalogues, and also to L. Dittmeyer's edition of Hist. an. (Leipzig, 1907) and W. W.
Jaeger's edition of
storation the text.

De

an. motu, etc. (Leipzig, 1913).

have relied upon the apparatus of Bekker and Langkavel for the readings of the Greek mss., except for those of Z, the oldest parts of which I have collated and at several places I have infrom photostats " spected the MS. itself. In some places (e.g. QQo b 17, 685 a 2, 16) I found the reading had been defectively
I
;

reported. It is clear that a more reliable collation of the chief mss. of De partihus is clearly needed. From a different source I have attempted to restore intelligibility to several corrupt passages with the aid of the Arabic version and the Latin version of Michael Scot, which represent an earlier stage of the Aristotelian text than our Greek mss. Among the passages dealt with in this way are the passage at Q5^ b 14

following, which has

been dislocated by glosses and phrases imported from elsewhere, and the remarkable passage about the structure of the Cephalopods at 684 b 22 following, where considerable havoc has been done to the text by references to a diagram which were inserted at some period between the date of the ms. from which the Arabic version was made and that of the archetype of all our present Greek mss. I have been able to restore this passage, though not always the actual Greek words, by reference to the Arabic version and Michael Scot's Latin
"

See additional note on

p. 434.

46

PARTS OF ANIMALS
Dr. Reuben Levy has it. passage for me in the 13th-14th century Arabic ms. in the British Museum, Add. 7511. For these two passages, and for a good many other suspected places, I have consulted all the known mss. of Michael Scot's version which are to be found in this country. They are (excluding mss. which contain
translation

made from
this

most kindly read

merely abridgements or extracts)

:

Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College 109
University Library
li.

3.

16
4.

Dd.
Oxford, Merton College 278 Balliol College 252 „

30

London, British

Museum Royal

12. C. Harl. 4970«

XV

All these are of the thirteenth or fourteenth century. I have inspected at test places the following three MSS. of William of Moerbeke's version
:

Oxford, Merton College 270 271 „ BalUol College 250

William's translation was made from a ms. or mss. which had already been infected by the corruptions found in the Greek mss. which exist to-day. I should like here to express my thanks to the Librarians who so kindly made arrangements for me to inspect the mss. under their care. Where I have accepted the reading of the Berlin edition, I have not n;iven any record of the ms. variThese are to be found in the apparatus criticus ants. of that edition and of Langkavel's edition.
• So far as I know, this ms. has not been mentioned in any of the published lists of mss. of Michael Scot's De animalibus.

Scope of
cr/JIcS,"*

4t

ARISTOTLE
I have endeavoured, except in the passage 691 b 28 to 695 a 22 in the fourth Book, to record all places where I have departed from the text of the Berlin edition, and I have given the source of the reading which I have adopted. Where Bekker himself introduced a reading different from that of the Mss., this is attributed to him by name. I have not recorded all of the many passages in which I have corrected the punctuation. The text has been reparagraphed throughout.

Punctua^°"'

Reference
Short bibiio-

The

following

list

includes authorities for state-

^*^

^'

ments made

in the Introduction,

and books which

the student of the Aristotelian zoological works and
their history will find useful
C.
:

H. Haskins, Studies
ed. 2,

Cambridge,

in the History of Medieval Science^ Mass., 1927.

Jaeger, Aristotle (English tr. by R. Robinson), Oxford, 1934. L. Leclerc, Histoire de la medecine arabe, Paris, 1876. T. E. Lones, Aristotle's Researches in Natural Science^ London, 1912. W. D. Ross, Aristotle, London, 1930. J. E. Sandys, A History of Classical Scholarship, Cambridge, 1908-1921. C. Singer, Studies in the History and Method of Science, Oxford, 1921. C. Singer, Greek Biology and Greek Medicine, Oxford, 1922. M. Steinsclineider, Die arahischen Uhersetzungen aus dem Griechischen (Beiheft XII. zum Centralblatt fiir Bibliotliekswesen), Leipzig, 1893. M. Steinschneider, Die europdischen Uhersetzungen aus dein Arahischen, in Sitzungsberichte d. kais. Akad. der Wiss., cxlix., Vienna, 1905.

W.

D'Arcy W. Thompson, Growth and Form, Cambridge, 1917 (new ed., 1942). 48

PARTS OF ANIMALS
D'Arcy W. Thompson, Essay on " Natural Science "
in

The Legacy of Greece, Oxford, 1924. S. D. Wingate, The Medieval Latin Versions of the Aristotelian Scientific Corpus, London, 1031. F. Wiistenfeld, Die Ubersetzungen arabischer Werke in das Lateinische, in Abhandlungen der k, Gesell. d. Wiss.

zu Gottingen,

xxii.,

1877.

Acknowledgements
It is a great pleasure to acknowledge here the help which I have received from many friends at Cambridge, not only by way of reading typescript and proof and by discussion, but also by the interest which they have shown in the work and by their continuous encouragement. The following have read the transProf. F. M. Cornlation either in whole or in part ford, Professor of Ancient Philosophy Dr. F. H. A. Marshall, Reader in Agricultural Physiology (w^ho has
:

;

also kindly wTitten the Forew^ord to this volume),

and Dr. Joseph Needham, Reader in Biochemistry. I am under a particular obligation to my colleague Mr. H. Rackham, who has read the whole translation both in typescript and in proof. I am indebted to Dr. Sydney Smith and a number of other friends for their kindness in discussing various points and Dr. Reuben Levy, for reading certain passages. Professor of Persian, has kindly read for me some
passages in the Arabic translation of the zoological works. To all of these gentlemen, without whose aid the work could not have been carried through, I record my sincerest thanks. The present (third) edition has again been revised. A. L. P.
July

nth

195;^

49

SiGLA

E

Parisinus regius 1853 (see p. 434)

Y
Z

Vaticanus graecus 261 Oxoniensis Coll. Corp. Chr. W.A.
Vaticanus 260 Vaticanus graecus 1339

2.

7 (see p. 434)

U
P
S

Q
b

Laurentianus Mediceus 81. Marcianus 200
Parisinus 1859
Parisinus 1921

1

m
2

Michael Scot's Latin version, from

my

vulg.

own The

transcription,

usual reading,

as

in

the

Berlin
in

edition.

Langkavel
Ogle
Piatt

Emendations proposed by Langkavel
his edition.

Emendations proposed by WiUiam Ogle
in footnotes to his translation.

Emendations proposed by Arthur Piatt, either (a) in " Notes on Aristotle," in Journal of Philology, 1913, xxxii. 292 following, or (6) recorded by Ogle in
\

^ r J Corntord
Th(urot)

RackhamI
Peck

footnotes to his translation. (Suggestions in private communications L^ ^^ ^^^^^ Professor Cornford and Mr. (^^.i^ham. Ch. Thurot, in Rev. Arch., 1867.« Emendations proposed by myself.

" Of over 100 textual points, many being of minor importance, raised by Th., about a third had been dealt with in my first edition (before Th.'s work came to my notice), some of them more fully, by other scholars or myself. Some of Th.'s other suggestions have been adopted in this edition.

50

The maister Cooke was

called Concoction.

Spenser, Faerie Queen

APISTOTEAOTS
nEPI
9

Z£2Ii2N

MOPION
/cat

a

Ilept

irdoav

Becjopiav

re

[ledoSov,

ofioicos

raTTeivorepav
rpoTTOL
rrj?

re

Kal

TLfXicorepav,
(x)V

Svo
fikv

(jiaivovrai

e^ecos

elvai,

ttjv

emorrnjuqv

5

rod TTpdypLaros KaXcos ex^i TTpooayopeveiv, rrjv 8* otov TTaiheiav rivd. TTeTTaiSevfievov yap ion Kara
rpoTTov TO hvvaoOai KpZvai evaro-xtos tl KaXcijs
-^ firj

KaXcjs dTToSlSajGLV 6 Xeyojv.

tolovtov yap
olofjied^

S-q

rtva

Kal Tov oXwg TreTTaiSevfievov
TTeTTaihevudai
TrXrjv
10

elvai, /cat

to

to

SvvaoOaL

TTOielv

to

elpr^pLevov.

TOVTOV

[xev Trepl TrdvTCOV cLs

el-nelv

KpiTiKov

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77ept

TLVos (j)VG€OJS d(f)OjpLapJvr]s'

etrj

yap dv

Ttg

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iGTopias Set TLvds virdpx^^v opovs toiovtov^ Trpos

ovs dva<f>epa>v a-TroSe^erat tov Tponov tcov Set/cvu52

ARISTOTLE
PARTS OF ANIMALS
BOOK
There
are,
I

as it seems, two ways in which a be competent in respect of any study or investigation, whether it be a noble one or a humble he may have either what can rightly be called a or he may have scientific knowledge of the subject what is roughly described as an educated person's competence, and therefore be able to judge correctly which parts of an exposition are satisfactory and which are not. That, in fact, is the sort of person we take the " man of general education " to be his ** education " consists in the abihty to do this. In this case, however, we expect to find in the one individual the ability to judge of almost all subjects, whereas in the other case the abihty is confined to

person

may

:

;

;

special science ; for of course it is possible to Hence possess this abihty for a limited field only. it is clear that in the investigation of Nature, or Natural science, as in every other, there must first of all be certain defined rules by which the acceptability of the method of exposition may be

some

tested, apart

from whether the statements made

ARISTOTLE
639 a
^
X

15 jjidvcov,

X^P^^

"^^^ '^^S'

e;)(et

rdXrjdes, etre ovroj?

etre dXXoj?.
[xiav

Xeyco 8' olov iroTepov heZ Xafx^avovras

eKdarrjv ovoiav Trepl ravrr]? hiopit,eiv Kad^
olov 7T€pl dvdpwTTOV (jiVGeOJS
ri

aVT'^V,

XioVTOS

T]

Poos

"^

Kal TLvos dXXov KaO" eKaarov npox^Lpil^orj

pievovs,

TO,

KOivfj

GvpLlSe^rjKora

Trdoi

Kara

tl

Koivov
20

V7To9ep.€vov£-^oXXd

yap

vrrapx^i

ravrd

TToXXoZg yev€GLv irepois ovolv dXXrjXo^v, olov vrrvos,
avaTTVorjy av^rjOLS, (jidiuis, Odvaros, Kal Trpos rov-

roL?

ooa roLavra rcov Xenrop^evajv Tradchv re Kal SiaOeoewv dS7]Xov yap Kal dSLopLorov ion Xeyeiv
VVV 7T€pl TOVTOJV (f)aV€p6v
pikv
8'

OTL Kal KaTOL fJi€p09

XeyovTGS

irepl ttoAAojv ipovp.€v TToXXdKis

ravrd'

25

Kal yap

Ittttois

Kal kvgI Kal dvdpojTTois VTrdpxei

'rcjv elpr]pLivo)v

eKaorov, wore idv Kad^ eKaorov rd

ovpL^^^iqKora^ Xiy-Q ns, TroAAa/cts" dvayKaodrjoerai
TTcpl rcov

avrwv

Xeyeiv,

ooa ravrd

p,ev VTrdpx^L rots'
pb-qhepiiav €X€l

ctSet hia<f)€povGi rcov t^cpojv,
30

avrd 8e

SLa(f)Opdv.

erepa

8'

lgojs iorlv

oh

GvpL^alvei rrjv
rfj

639 b [X€v
/car'

Karriyopiav €X€lv r7]v avrrjv Siacjiepeiv 8e
etSos"

8ta<^o/)a, otov
fJLLa

rj

rcjv ^cucov rropeia' ov

yap

(f)aLV€raL

rev etSet- hiacjyepei
epiJjL?.

yap

rrrrjoig

Kal

vevGi? Kal ^dhiGi? Kal

Aid Set
6

p.rj

hiaXeXridivai ttojs eTTLGKeTTreov, Xeyo)

8e TTorepov Koivfj

Kard yevos

TTpcjrov,

eW

vorepov

^

TO avu^e^-qKora Ogle

:

tcDv avfi^e^rjKOTcov vulg.

54


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
I.
i.

represent the truth or do not. I mean, for instance, should we take each single species severally by turn (such as Man, or Lion, or Ox, or whatever it may be), and define what we have to say about it, in and by itself or should we first establish as our basis the attributes that are common to all of them because of some common character which they possess ? there being many attributes which are identical though they occur in many groups which differ among themselves, e.g. sleep, respiration, growth, decay, death, together ^^^th those other remaining affections and
;

conditions which are of a similar kind. I raise this, for at present discussion of these matters is an obscure business, lacking any definite scheme. However, thus much is plain, that even if we discuss them species by species, we shall be giving the same descriptions many times over for many different animals, since every one of the attributes I mentioned occurs in horses and dogs and human beings alike. Thus, if our description proceeds by taking the attributes for every species, we shall be obliged to describe the same ones many times over, namely, those Avhich although they occur in different species of animals are themselves identical and present no difference whatever. \^ery likely, too, there are other attributes, which, though they come under the same general head, exhibit specific differences for example, the locomotion of animals of which there are plainly more species than one e.g. flight, swimming, walking, creeping.
;

:

Therefore we must make up our minds about the method of our investigation and decide whether we will consider first what the whole group has in
55

ARISTOTLE
639 b TTepl T(x)v Ihiiov deojp-qreov,
rj

Kad^ e/cacrrov €v6v^,

vvv yap ov

Stco/otcrrat Trepl

avrov, ovSe ye to vvv

pi'ldriGopievov, olov TTorepov

KaOdnep

ol fJLadrjpLarLKol

ra
10

irepl ttjv

aorpoXoyiav heiKvvovGiv, ovtoj Set Kal
TO. (jyaivofjieva TTpujTOV
/cat

Tov (jyvGiKov
Oecoprjoavra

ra

Trepl

ra

t,cpa

ra

fJiepr]

ra

Trepl

eKaarov,
rj

erret^'
ttcos.

OVTOJ Xeyeiv to 8ta Tt kol ras alrlag,
TTpog Se TouTOt?,
rrjv
TTjv TTepl
15

dXXcos

irrel rrXeiovs
(f)vaLKrjv,

opcofjiev

alrias Trepl

yeveohv Trjv

otov nqv 6^ ov eveKa Kal

oOev

Tj

ap)(r]

ttjs

KLvqaecog,

hiopiareov

Kal

TOVTOJV,

TToia

TrpcoTT)

Kal Sevrepa

TTe(j>VKev.

(jyaiverai he vpcarr] tjv XeyojJiev

eveKa tlvos' Xoyo?
ofJLOLOJs

yap ovTog, o.pxV Kara Te-xyT]^ Kal

^'

^ Aoyo?

ev re toZs
.

ev TOt? ^uoet GVveorrjKOGiv
rfj

tj

yap

rfj

hiavoia
TTjv

tj

acGOrjGei

opiGapbevos 6
ttjv

jjiev

larpos

vyieiav

6

8'

oiKohofxos

ot/ctav,

aTToStSoaat rovs Xoyovs Kal rag alrias ov ttoiovglv
eKOLGTOV,
20

Kal

8toTt

TTOiTjTeov

OVTCJS

-

jjidXXov

8'

eaTt TO ov eveKa Kal to KaXov ev Totg ttjs (j)VGea)s

epyois

ri

ev rols ttj? rex^qs.

to

8*

ef dvayK-qg
ofxoLcos,

OV TTaGiv vTTapx^L

ToXg

KaTOi

(f)VGLV

els

" This point is resumed and decided below, 644 a 23 6io b 2 ff. * " Causes." See Introduction, pp. 24 ff. * " Formation." See Introduction, pp. 27 f. ^
*

if.,

f

the " final " cause. the " motive " or " efficient " cause. ' Cf. 64o a 24. See Introduction, pp. 26 f.
i.e.

i.e.

56

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
common, and afterwards the

I.

i.

specific peculiarities

;

or begin straightway with the particular species.** Hitherto this has not been definitely settled. And

a further point which has not yet been should the student of Nature follow the same sort of procedure as the mathematician follows that is to say, in his astronomical expositions should he consider first of all the phenomena which occur in animals, and the parts of each of them, and having done that go on to state the reasons and the causes or should he follow some other procedure ? Furthermore, we see that there are more causes^ than one concerned in the formation^ of natural things : there is the Cause for the sake of which the thing is formed,^ and the Cause to which the begin?u?i£r of the motioji is due.^ Therefore another point for us to decide is which of these two Causes stands Clearly the first is first and which comes second. that which we call the " Final " Cause that for the sake of which the thing is formed since that is the logos f of the thing its rational ground, and the logos is always the beginning for products of Nature as well as for those of Art. The physician or the builder sets before himself something quite definite the one, health, apprehensible by the mind, the other, a house, apprehensible by the senses and once he has got this, each of them can tell you the causes and the rational grounds for everything he does, and why it must be done as he does it. Yet the Final Cause (purpose) and the Good (Beautiful) ^ is more fully present in the works of Nature than in the works of Art. And moreover the factor of Necessity is not present in all the works of Nature in a similar sense. Almost all

there

is

decided

:

;

— —

;

57


ARISTOTLE
639 b ^

o TTCLpajvraL Trdvres o^^^ov rovs Xoyovs avdyeiv,

ov

SteAojLtevot

TToaa^oj?

Aeyerat
rots'

ro

dvayKaXov.

V7Tdp)(^ei
25

he TO fxev

OLTrXojs

ollSlols,

to

S*

e^
iv

VTToOecreoj?

Kal toZs ev yeviaei

Trdaiv

wanep

TOLS TexvaaToT? , olov oIklo, Kal tcov dXXcov
TCJV TOLOVTOJv.

otwovv

dvdyKTj Se TOidvSe ttjv vXt]v vttr)

dp^au

el

eGTai OLKia

dXXo

tl reAos" Kal yeveaOai

T€ Kal KLvrjOrivai Set Tohe rrpcoTOV, etra ToSe, Kal

TOVTOV
30

Srj

Tov Tporrov

e(f)€^rjg

f^^XP^ '^^^ TeXovs Kal cboravTCos Se

ov eVe/ca ytVerat eKaoTov Kal eaTLV.
TOLS
(jivaei yivopievoi?.

640 a /cat eV

dAA* o Tpoiros Trjs
erri

diToSeL^ewg Kal Trjg dvdyKrj^ eTepos
(f)VGLKr]9

t€ ttjs
{eipr]Tat

Kal Tcbv 6ea>p7]TiKa)v
tj

e7noT7]pL(A)V .

S* iv

eTepois rrepl tovtojv.)

ov, rots' Se
6

TO eGOfievov
toS^

errel

yap dpxr) toXs fxev to yap roiopS' euTlv tj
r)

vyieia

tj

6 dvOpojiros, avdyKiq Toh^ elvai
errel

yeveoOai,
eKelvo

dXX ovK

eoTLv

tj

yeyovev,

i^

" " Absolute," simple or unconditional necessity, i.e. belongs to the " eternal things," such as the heavenly bodies For further details or the eternal truths of mathematics. see De gen. et corr. 337 b 14 if. " At Met. 1025 b ff. Aristotle makes a threefold classification of the sciences into (a) theoretical (contemplative), The result of (a) is knowledge (6) practical, (c) productive. only, of (6) knowledge and action, of (c) knowledge, action, " and some article or product. The three " theoretical

sciences are theology {i.e. metaphysics), mathematics, and physics (natural science). In the present passage, however, " Aristotle contrasts natural science with the " theoretical This is because he is considering Nature as a sciences. craftsman whose craft or science belongs to the third class the " productive " sciences. Our study of Nature's science

58

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
;

I.

i.

philosophers endeavour to carry back their explanations to Necessity but they omit to distinguish the " various meanings of Necessity. There is " absolute Necessity,^ which belongs to the eternal things and there is " conditional " Necessity, which has to do with everything that is formed by the processes of Nature, as well as with the products of Art, such as houses and so forth. If a house, or any other End, is to be realized, it is necessary that such and such material shall be available one thing must first be formed, and set in motion, and then another thing ; and so on continually in the same manner up to the End, which is the Final Cause, for the sake of which every one of those things is formed and for which it exists. The things which are formed in Nature are in like case. Howbeit, the method of reasoning in Natural science and also the mode of Necessity itself is not the same as in the Theoretical sciences. (I have spoken of this matter in another treatise.^) They differ in the following way.'' In the Theoretical sciences, we begin with what already is but in Natural science ^Wth what is goi?ig to be thus, w^e say, Because that which is going to be health, perhaps, or man has a certain character, therefore of necessity some particular thing, P, must be, or must be formed not, Because P is now, or has been formed, therefore the other thing (health, or man) of necessity is now may be a " theoretical " science, but Nature's science itself
;

;

;

:

;

is

" productive."
"

The reasoning process in a " theoretical " science, e.g. mathematics, begins, say, with A, and then deduces from it the consequences B, C, D. In a " productive " science, e.g. building, it begins with the house which is to be built, D, and works backwards through the preliminary stages which must be realized in order to produce the house, C, B, A. Cf. below, 640 a 16 ff.
c

59

ARISTOTLE
640 a
^

avayKTjs iorlv
aprrjaai
rrjg

ri

earat.

ouS' eariv els aihiov
aTTohei^eats
ttjv

ovv

rotavT'qs

dvdyKrjv,

iooT

etVetv, eVet

rdS' iarlv,

wpiarai Se kol
V7Tap)(^€L
10

Trepl

on rdS' eoriv. 8ttovtojv iv irepois, koI ttolols

KOI TToZa dvTLUTpe(f)eL Kal Sta rtV alriav. Aet 8e /XT^ XeXrjOevai Kal TTorepov TrpooriqKeL Xeyeiv, ojanep ol irporepov i-noiovvro rrjv decopiav, ttws

GKaarov yiveodai 7Te(f)VKe fxdXXov 7) ttojs ecrrtv. ov yap TL jjLiKpov 8ia(f)ep€L rovro eKeivov. €olk€ o ivrevdev dpKreov elvai [Kaddirep Kal rrporepov
€L7TOfiev,
15

on
Kal

TTpdJTov

Ta

cfyaivofMeva
ras"

XrjTTreov

Trepl

eKaarov
XeKTeov)
ecrrt

yivos,

eW^

ovTa>

alrias

tovtojv

Trepl

yeveoeojs'

fidXXov

yap raSe

ovfi^aivei Kal Trepl ttjv olKoS6fji7]GLV eVet rotdvS'

to elSos

ttjs olKias,
rj

yiveTai ovtojs.
eoTLV, aAA*
'f)

20 'E/XTreSo/cATj?

ovx ovK opdcog

t] Toiovh" IutIv rj oWia otl yap yeveois eveKa ttjs ovoias StoTrep ovuia eveKa ttjs yeveGews
.

eiprjKe

Xeycov

VTrdp^eiv

TToXXd TOLS ^CpOLS Sid TO GVjJL^TJvai OVTCJS iv TTj yeveGei, otov Kal tt^v pd^iv ToiavTiqv ex€LV otl
OTpa(f)evTos KaTa^d^jvai Gvve^r], dyvoojv TrpwTov p.ev OTl Set TO GTTepfXa to GVVlGTdv^ VTTapX^LV TOLaVTTjV
^

ovviorav Piatt

:

avarav vulg.

Though of course this Necessity has its place in natural science (see 642 a 31 ff.). It is, however, not the only sort of Necessity in Natural science, and not the paramount one. * See De gen. et corr. 337 b 25 ff. An example of a nonconvertible proposition is Foundations are necessary for a house to be built. You cannot say, " If foundations are laid a house must of necessity be built," because it is not " absolutely " and always necessary that a house should be built.
**
:

'

Cf. Plato, Philebus 54 a-c.

60

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

i.

Nor, in a process of or will be in the future." reasoning of this kind, is it possible to trace back the links of Necessity to eternity, so as to say, Because A is, therefore Z is. I have, however, discussed these matters in another work,^ and I there stated where either kind of Necessity applies, which propositions involving Necessity are convertible, and the reasons why. must also decide whether we are to discuss the processes by which each animal comes to be formed which is wliat the earlier philosophers or rather the animal as it actually is. studied Obviously there is a considerable difference between the two methods. I said earlier that we ought first to take the phenomena that are observed in each group, and then go on to state their causes. This applies just as much to the subject of the process of formation here too we ought surely to begin with things as they are actually observed to be when completed. Even in building the fact is that the particular stages of the process come about because the Form of the house is such and such, rather than that the house is such and such because the process of its formation follows a particular course the process is for the sake of the actual thing, the thing

We

— —

:

:

not for the sake of the process." So Empedocles was wrong when he said that many of the characteristics which animals have are due to some accident in the process of their formation, as when he accounts for the vertebrae of the backbone by saying ^ " the fetus gets twisted and so the backbone is broken into pieces " he was unaware (a) that the seed which gives rise to the animal must to
is
:

^

Emped.

frag. 97 (Diels, Fragmented, 31 b 97).
(31,

.

ARISTOTLE
640 a

€xov SvvajjLLV, €10^ on to TTOLTjoav TTporcpov VTTrjpxcv 25 ov jjLovov TO) Xoyo) o-AAd /cat rep xpova)' yevva yap 6 dvdpcjOTTos dvOpcoTTOv, wGTe Sid TO eKelvov rotdvS' etvaL T) yiveoLS ToidSe avix^alvei tcoSl. [opioicog Se Kal cttI tcov avTop^aTOj? Sokovvtcov yiveodai KaOdnep Kal eirl tcx)v Tex^cLOTCov evia ydp^ Kal drro TavTopbaTOV ytVerat raura rotS" avro T€)(yr]s, olov 30 uyteta. a>v^ /xev ovv TrpovTrdpx^t to ttolt^tlkov
[opLOLov],^ olov Tj'^ dvhpiavT07Toir]TiK'q , OX) [yap]^ yivcTai avTOfjLaTov. tj Se Texvrj Aoyo? tov epyov 6

^^

dvev
COS"

TTJg vXtj? eoTiv.
T]

Kal toIs diro Tvxrjs oftotcos"
Sto /xaAtcrra

ydp

TexvTj ex^L, ovtcd ytVerat.]*^
iTretST]

35

640 b

to dv9pd)Trcp elvai, €X€i' OV ydp ivhex^Tai etvai dvev TCOV piopLwv TovTCov. €t §6 pLTj, 6 Ti iyyvTaTa TOVTOVy Kal ri otl oXcos dSvvaTov aAAco?/ 'q /caAcos" ye ovTiog. raura 8' eVerar eVet 8' ecrrt tolovtov,
/xev

X^KTeov cos" hid TOVTO TavT

tovt^

-^v

TTjv

yevecTiv

wSl Kal TOiavT'qv GvpL^atveiv dvaySt]

KaZov
ToBe.

Sto ytVerat TrpdjTov tcqv pLoptcov ToSe, etra

Kal TOVTOV

tov TpOTTOV OpioicJS

€77t

TTav-

^Tcov TCOV <j>vo€i OVV LOT apiiv OJV 5 Ot pbkv ovv dpxoloL Kal irpajTOL ^iXoGo^iqcravTes
^ ^ 3

*
6
^

yap om. Z^. Z rwv vulg. om. Zi. om. vulg. 17 Z om. Z.
<Evia

<Sv

:

:

d/Aoicuy

(1.

27)
:

.

.

.

yiverai,

ex

i^/g«.
;

1032-1034 exorta,
inepta seclusi.

olim ut vid.
'

in

marg. 640 b 4 adscripta
oXojs OTL d. d. vulg.

OTt oXcos Z^

" i.e.

duce.
"

the same character as the animal which it is to proFor dynamis see Introduction, pp. 30 ff. No doubt a marginal note appended to 640 b 4.

62

:

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

i.

begin with have the appropriate specific character ° and (6) that the producing agent was pre-existent
it

;

was chronologically
:

earlier

as

well as logically-

by men, and therefore the process of the child's formation is what it is because its parent was a man. [Similarly too -with those that appear to be formed spontaneously, just as with those produced by the arts for some that are formed spontaneously are identical Avdth those produced by art, e.g. health. As for those things whose producing agent is pre-existent, e.g. the art of statuary, no spontaneous formation occurs. Art
earlier

in other words,

men

are begotten

;

is

the logos of the article wdthout the matter.
of chance
:

And

they are formed by the same process that art would employ.] ^ So the best way of putting the matter would be to say that because the essence of man is what it is, therefore a man has such and such parts, since there cannot be a man without them. If we may not say this, then the nearest to it must do, viz. that there cannot be a man at all otherwise than with them, or, that it is well that a man should have them. And upon this these considerations follow Because man is such and such, therefore the process of his formation must of necessity be such and such and take place which is why first this part is in such a manner
:

similarly with the products

;

formed, then that. And thus similarly with things that are constructed by Nature.

all

the
in

Now

those

who were the

first

to study

Nature

63

.

ARISTOTLE
640b
^

^

7T€pl (f)VGeoJs Trepl rrjg vXLKrjg apxrjs Kal rrjs roiavTiqs atVias" ioKOTrovv, rt? Kal TToca rt?, /cat ttws €K ravTiqs yiverai ro oXov, Kal rivos klvovvtos , olov

vov rj rod avrofidrov, rrjs 8' roiavhe nva (jiVCiLV ixovorjs i^ 10 avdyKiqs, olov rod jxev TTvpos Oepfi-^v, rrj? Se yijs ipvxpd-v, Kal rod fiev Kovcfi'qv, rrjs Se ^apelav. ovtojs yap Kal rov koctjjlov yevvcoaLV. ofjLOLOJs Se Kal irepl TTjV T(x)v ^(pcxjv Kal raJv ^urtov yeVeatv XeyovGLV, otov^ iv Tip GcofJLaTL peovros p^ev rov vSaros KoiXiav y€vio9ai Kal Trdoav vrrohox^jv ttjs re Tpo(f)rJ5 Kal rod 15 TTepiTTcopiaros, rod he TTvevpLaros hiaTTopevOivro's Tovs piVKrrjpag dvappayrjvai. 6 8' drjp Kal to vSojp vXrj rcov ocopLarcDv icrriv €k tcov tolovtcov yap aoj pbdrcDV ovviurdGi ttjv <j)Voiv Trdvres. el 8' 'ioTLV 6 dvOpcoTTOs Kal rd t,wa (f)V<jeL Kal rd piopia avrcov, X^Kreov dv rrepl oapKos ecrj Kal oarov Kal atfiaTos 20 Kal TOJV opiOLopLepcbv drrdvrajv, opiOLCOs he Kal rcov dvopiOiopiepcov, olov irpooconov, ;)^etpos', ttoSos", fj re TOLOVTOV eKaorov eonv avrcov Kal Kard rroiav SvvapLLV. ov ydp CKavov ro eV rivcov iorivy olov
veiKovs
r)

<j)iXia<^

r)

VTTOKeLjjLevrjs

vXr^s

TTvpds ri yrjs, ayoTrep Kav el irepl kXLvtis eXeyopLev rj TLVos dXXov rcov roLovrcov, eneLpcopieda pidXXov dv
25

hiopC^eLV ro elhos avrrjs
^

t)

rrjv vX'qv, olov
del.

rov ;^aA/<ov

oTi post olov vulg.

:

Ogle.

"

As Empedocles and Anaxagoras, whose attempts

to

discover the " material " and the " efficient " causes are mentioned a few lines below. See also Met. 983 b G ff ^ " Material " cause : see Introduction, pp. 24 ff. * " Residue " lit. " surplus " see Introduction, pp. 32 flF. Cf. Hippocrates, Uepl 8101x17?, i. 9. " Parts " : see Introduction, pp. 28 ff. '
:

;

<*

64

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

i.

the early days ° spent their time in trying to discover what the material principle or the material Cause ^ they tried to find out was, and what it was like how the Universe is formed out of it ; what set the process going (Strife, it might be, or Friendship, assuming throughout that Mind, or Spontaneity) the underlying material had, by necessity, some definite nature e.g. that the nature of Fire was hot, and light of Earth, cold, and heavy. At any rate, that is how they actually explain the formation of the world-order. In a like manner they describe the formation of animals and plants, saying (e.g.) that the stomach and every kind of receptacle for food and for residue is formed by the water flowing in the body, and the nostril openings are forcibly made by the passage of the breath.'* Air and water, of course, according to them, are the material of which the body they all say that Nature is composed of is made substances of this sort. Yet if man and the animals and their parts ^ are products of Nature, then account must be taken of flesh, bone, blood, in fact of all the " uniform parts," ^ and indeed of the " non-uniform parts " too, viz. face, hand, foot ; and it must be explained how it comes to pass that each of these is characterized as it is, and by what force this is effected. It is not enough to state simply the substances out of which they are made, as " Out of fire," or " Out of earth." If we were describing a bed or any other like article, we should endeavour to describe the form of it rather than the matter (bronze, or wood) or, at
;

;

:

;

"^

:

'

28

ff.

" Uniform " and " non-uniform " : see Introduction, pp. The distinction between " uniform " and " non-uniform "
is,

parts

historically, the predecessor of the distinction be-

tween " tissues " and " organs."

65'

ARISTOTLE
640 b
Tj

TO ^vXov,

€L

Se
rj

jjirj,

rrjv

ye rod avvoXov

kXlvt]
rrepl
tj

yap
rod

roSe iv rojSe
ax'i^P'Ciros €it]

roSc roiovSe, ware Kav
/cat ttolov rr]v

XeKreov,

ISeav
rfj?

yap

Kara
30

ttjv

i.Lop(f)r)v

^vgis

KvpLOjrepa

vXiKrjs

cf)V<7€a>s.

Et
ioTL

fiev
Tcx)v

ovv
re

Tw

G'xriixaTL

Kal rco ;^pc6^aTt eKaarov
tojv
iiopiojVy

t,a)a)V

Kal

opdcjs

av

ArjjjLOKpLTOS XeyoL'
(jyricrl

^atVerat yap ovtojs VTToXa^elv.

yovv rravrl St^Aov elvai olov

n
rw

ttjv pLopcfy-qv

iariv 6 dvOpcxJTTOS, ojs gvtos avrov

re

cr;^-)]/^aTt

Kal Ta> )(pd)\xaTi yvcxipiyiov.
35

Kairoi Kal 6 redvews
p.Opcji'^V,

€X€L TTjV aVTTjV TOV GX^jp^CLTOS

(lAA*

OjLtOJS'

ovK

ecTTLV avdpojTTOS'

€TL 8*

dSvvarov etvat X^^P^
t)

OTTOJGOVV hiaK€ipi€vr]v , olov x^^Xktjv
641 a opLOJVvpiOJS, a)07T€p

^vXivriVy ttXtju

TOV yeypapLpLEvov larpov.

ov yap
aj5Aot

hwrjoeTai

TTOieiv

ro iavrrjs epyoVy a)GTTep ouS'

XlOlvol to iavTcov epyov, ouS' o yeypapipiivos laTpog.

opLOiwS Se TOVTOLs ovhe rcDv tov TeOvrjKOTOS
6

fJLO-

piiov ovhev

ert

twv

tolovtojv eGTL, Xeyoj 8*
clttXcos etp'qTaL,

olov

6(j)daXp6si X^^P'

Xlav ovv
el

Kal tov

avTOV TpoTTOv wGTTep dv
^vXivqs.
ovTCx)s

T6KTOJV XeyoL TTepl x^^pos

ydp Kal

ol <f)VGLoX6yoi

Tas yeviGeis
vtto tlvojv
lgcjds

Kal

ras"

air las tov GX'ripaTos XeyovGiv.
hvvdpieojv ;

ydp iSrjpLOvpyrjOrjGav
10

dXX

6 p,ev

tcktcuv ip€L TTeXeKvv ^ Tpvnavov, 6 8' aepa Kal yrjVf
"
"

See Diels, Fragmented, 68 b 165.
i.e.

the early writers on " Nature.'*

66

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
any
rate, the matter, if described,
as belonging to the concrete whole.

I.

i.

would be described For example,

" a bed " is a certain form in certain matter, or, alternatively, certain matter that has a certain form ;
to include its shape and the manner form in our description of it because the " formal " nature is of more fundamental importance than the " material " nature. If, then, each animal and each of its parts is what it is in virtue of its shape and its colour, what Democritus says will be correct, since that was apparently his view, if one understands him aright when he says that it is evident to everyone what " man" is like as touching his shape, for it is by his shape and his colour that a man may be told." Now a corpse has and the same shape and fashion as a living body yet it is not a man. Again, a hand constituted in any and every manner, e.g., a bronze or wooden and the same one, is not a hand except in name applies to a physician depicted on canvas, or a flute carved in stone. None of these can perform the so

we should have
its

of

;

;

functions appropriate to the things that bear those names. Likewise, the eye or the hand (or any other part) of a corpse is not really an eye or a hand. Democritus's statement, therefore, needs to be qualified, or a carpenter might as well claim that a hand made of wood really was a hand. The physiologers,^ however, when they describe the formation and the causes of the shape of animal bodies, talk in this selfsame vein. Suppose we ask the carver " By what agency was this hand fashioned ? " Perhaps his answer will be " By my axe " or " By my auger," just as if we ask the physiologer " By what agency was this body fasiiioned ? " he will say " By air " and

c2

67,

ARISTOTLE
641a
^

rrX-qv

^eXriov 6 reKTcov ov yap iKavov ear at aura)

^

TO TOOovTov enrelv,

on

ejjLTTeaovTos

rod opydvov
Sloti,

TO

fJLev

KolXov iyevero to 8e eVtVeSov, dAAa

Tr)v nXriyy^v

enoirjoaTO ToiavTTjv, koI tlvos eVe/ca,
r]

epet Trjv alriav, ottws Toiovhe
ixopi^rfv yevrjTai.
15

Toiovhe ttote ttjv

A^AoV TOLVVV
XeKTeov
CO?

OTL

OVK OpOcbs XdyOVdi, Kal OTL

tolovtov to ^cvov, Kal nepl eKeivov Kal
TCJbv

tL Kal TTOLOV Tt Kal

fJLOpLOJV

eKaUTOV ,^

a)G7T€p

Kal TTepl Tov etSovs

Trjg kXlvt]?.
i/j^xV

Et
Tcov

St]

tovto idTL
ovhkv

V ^^XV^ p^^pos
avTO
AetVerat,

t)

pLT]

dvev

^vx^js {aTreXdovGT]? yovv ovkIti ^coov icTTiv, ovSe
20

pLopiojv

TO

ttXt^v

to!

ax^Jp-CLTL p,6vov, KaOoLTTep TO, pLvdevojJLeva el St]

XidovoOai),
etrj

TavTa ovtojs, tov
elhivai,

(J)vglkov irepl ^vx'^S OiV
et
/xt)

Xeyeiv Kal

Kal

Trdar]?,

/car'
Tj

auro
ipvxT]»

tovto Kad^ O TOLOVTO TO ^cpov, Kal Tt eoTiv
7j

avTO TOVTO TO

pLopiov,

Kal TTepl Tojv GvpL^e^y]d'AAcos"

25

KOTCJV KaTa Tr]v TOiavTTjv avTTJs ovaiaVy

re

Kal

TTJs

(f)vaeojs

Slxco? Xeyop.evr]s Kal ovGr]s, ttjs
cos"

pLev CVS vXrjs, ttjs S'
(JJS T)

ovGias' Kal eoTiv avTi) Kal

KlVOVOa Kal
^

(hs

TO TeXoS' TOLOVTOV he TOV ^CpOV
:

€KdaTov Peck

eKaarov vulg.

* Or, " reason "
*>

;

see Introduction, p. 24.
ff,

See above, 640 b 26.
:

" Soul "

see Introduction, pp. 34
*

Or

" motive."

68


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
"
I.
i.

By earth." But of the two the craftsman will give a better answer, because he will not feel it is sufficient to say merely that a cavity was created here, or a He will level surface there, by a blow from his tool. state the cause'^ on account of which, and the purpose for the sake of which, he made the strokes he did ; and that will be, in order that the wood might finally be formed into this or that shape. It must now^ be evident that the statements of the have to state physiologers are unsatisfactory. how the animal is characterized, i.e., what is the essence and character of the animal itself, as well as describing each of its parts just as with the bed we have to state its Form.^ Now it may be that the Form of any living creature is Soul,^ or some part of Soul, or something that involves Soul. At any rate, when its Soul is gone, it is no longer a living creature, and none of its parts remains the same, except only in shape, just like the animals in the story that were turned into stone. If, then, this is really so, it is the business of the student of Natural science to inform himself concerning Soul, and to treat of it in his exposition ; not, perhaps, in its entirety, but of that special part of it which causes the living creature to be such as it He must say what Soul, or that special part of is. Soul, is and when he has said what its essence is, he must treat of the attributes which are attached This is especially to an essence of that character. necessary, because the term " nature " is used in two senses (a) meaning " matter," and rightly meaning " essence " (the latter including both

We

;

;

:

(6)

It is, of the "Efficient"^ Cause and the "End"). course, in this latter sense that the entire Soul or

69-

ARISTOTLE
641 a
^

rjroL

Trdaa

rj

i/jvxr)

'q

fiepo?

n

avrrj?.

ojare

/cat

ovTios av XeKTeov
30

e'lrj

rco nepl ^uctcco? OeojprjTLKCp
7T€pl TTj? vXt}? , OGCp floiXXoV
T)

7T€pi ^VXrjS
vXr]
St'

lldWoV

7)

iK€LV7]V (j)VOlS

€GTLV

T}

dvcLTTaAtv

/Cat yoLp

kXlvtj /cat rpiTTOVs

to ^vXov eariv, ort Sura/xet ravra

iuTLv.

^ATrop-qG€i€ 8' dv rt? els to vvv XexOev eVtjSAei/ras',

TTorepov 7T€pl
35 etTTetv rj

TTOLGTjs

^VX'^^ '^V^ cfyvGLKrjg iuTL TO
et

Trepi

rivos}

yap

rrepl TTOLGrjs, ovhepiia
iTTLaTT^pLrjv <j)LXoGO(j)ia.

AetVerat Trapa ttjv
641 b

(l)V<JLKrjv

o

yap vovs

rcbv

vorjrcoVy
eir]' rrjs

coo-re

Trepl

ttolvtcjov

t)

(f)VGiKrj

yvwGLS av

yap

avrrjg Trepl vov /cat

rod vofjTov
avrr]

OecxjpijGaL,
rcJov

eiTrep

Trpog

aXXr^Xa, Kai

tj

dewpla

rrpos

dXXiqXa

TravTOJi',
7)

KaOaTrep

/cat rrepl
5

aiGd-qGeajs /cat rojv alGBr]ra)V.

ovk 6GTL

TT-aaa

rj

^wx^} KLvrJGecos dpx'^> ovSk rd piopia diravra,

dXX

av^rjaeajg [xev onep /cat iv roZs (jyvrols, aA-

Aotojo'ews' Se

TO aLGOrjTLKov,

(f)opd£ 8'
Tj

erepov

n

/cat

ov TO voTjTLKov vTrdpxei ydp
rojv
^cpa)Vy

(f)Gpd /cat

iv erepoLS

SidvoLa
^

8'

ouScri.

SijXov ovv

w? ov

Tiios {^lopiov)

Rackham.
is

" i.e. qualitative change, to this part of the Soul.

which

the " motion " proper

70

; ;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

i.

some part of it is the " nature " of a living creature. Hence on this score especially it should be the duty
of the student of Natural science to deal with Soul preference to matter, inasmuch as it is the Soul that enables the matter to "be the nature " of an animal (that is, potefitialli/, in the same way as a piece of wood " is " a bed or a stool) rather than the matter which enables the Soul to do so. In view of what we have just said, one may well ask whether it is the business of Natural science to treat of Soul in its entirety or of some part of it only since if it must treat of Soul in its entirety (i.e. including intellect) there will be no room left it ^vill for any other study beside Natural science include even the objects that the intellect apprewherever there is a pair hends. For consider of interrelated things, such as sensation and the objects of sensation, it is the business of one Now science, and one only, to study them both. intellect and the objects of the intellect are hence, the same science will study such a pair both of them, which means that there will be nothing whatever left outside the purview of Natural science. All the same, it may be that it neither Soul in its entirety that is the is source of motion, nor yet all its parts taken together it may be that one part of Soul, (a), viz. that which plants have, is the source of growth another part, (6), the " sensory " part, is the source of change"; and yet another part, (c), the source of locomotion. That even this last cannot be the intellectual part is proved, because animals other than man have the power of locomotion, although none of them has intellect. I take it, then, as evident
in

:

;

;

71

ARISTOTLE
641b
^

^

Trepl Trdu-qs
10 (f>V(n£,

^vx^j? XeKreov ovhk yap Trdaa ^vx^]
Tt {jLopLov avrrjg ev
t)

,

,

r

X

^

X

dXXd

Kal

rrXeioj.

"Ktl Se TcDv €^ dcf)aLp€G€OJs ovSevos olov r
rrjv (jyvaiKrjv OecoprjriKriv, iTTetSrj
TTOtet TTOLvra'
rj

etvat

(f)VGis eVe/ca

rov

^atVerat yap,
re-xyri,

wanep

ev rols re^ya-

oroZs eorlv
fxaGLV dXXr]
16

rj

ovrojs ev avrols roZs Trpaytjv

ns

dpxrj Kal air La roLavrr],

exofiev

Kaddirep to Oeppiov Kal to ijjvxpov €K tov rravTos.
8t6

pidXXov

eLKos

TOV

ovpavov

yeyevrjadai

vtto

roLavTTjs atrta?, el yeyove, Kal etvai Sid TOuavTrjv

aiTLav [jLaXXov

rj

to.

^oja

Td

dvrjTd'

to yovv rcray-

piivov Kal TO djpLGjjievov ttoXv fxdXXov <^aiveTai ev
20

Tols ovpavLOLS
CO?

7j

TTcpl

7]jU,as",

TO

S*

dXXoT* aAAcu? Kat
ol Se rcov fxev

eTvx^ nepl Td dvrjTa fidXXov.

^cpojv
8'

eKaoTov

(f)VG€L (j)aGlv etvai

Kal yeveGdau, tov

ovpavov aTTo tvx'^s Kal tov avTOfidTOV tolovtov
(h aTTO Tvx''^S

GVGTTJvai, ev

Kal ara^ta?

oi58'

otlovv

^atVerat.
25

iravTaxov he Xeyo[iev ToSe tovS* eVc/ca,

07T0V dv (jyaivrjTai reAo? Tt
pi/rjhevds ejXTTohit^ovTOs.

npo^ o

rj

KivrjGis rrepaivei

cocrre etvai (jyavepdv oti ccrrt

Tt TOLOVTOV, o Srj Kal KaXovjiev (f)VGLV' ov

ydp

Srj

6 Tt eTVX^v e^ eKdGTOV yiveTai GirepjiaTOs, dXXd ToSe
«
"

€/c

Tovhey ovhe Girepfia to tvxov

e/c

tov tv-

only an egg's

With this passage cf. Plato, Phihhus 29-30. " Cf. Samuel Butler, Life and llahit, p. 134, way of making another €:g^.''

A

hen

is

72

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

i.

that we need not concern ourselves with Soul in its entirety because it is not Soul in its entirety that is an animal's " nature," but some part or parts of it. Further, no abstraction can be studied by Natural science, because whatever Nature makes she makes for it is evident that, even to serve some purpose as art is present in the objects produced by art, so in things themselves there is some principle or cause of a like sort, which came to us from the universe around us, just as our material constituents (the hot, the cold, etc.) did.'^ Wherefore there is better reason for holding that the Heaven was brought into being by some such cause if we may assume that it came and that through that cause it into being at all continues to be, than for holding the same about the mortal things it contains the animals ; at any rate, there is much clearer evidence of definite ordering for what in the heavenly bodies than there is in us is mortal bears the marks of change and chance. Nevertheless, there are those who affirm that, while every living creature has been brought into being by Nature and remains in being thereby, the heaven in all its glory was constructed by mere chance and came to be spontaneously, although there is no evidence of chance or disorder in it. And whenever there is evidently an End towards which a motion goes forward unless something stands in its way, then we always assert that the motion has the End for its purpose. From this it is evident that something of the kind really exists that, in fact, which we call " Nature," because in fact we do not find any chance creature being formed from a particular seed, but A comes from a, and B from b nor does any chance
;
;

— —

;

;

seed come from any chance individual.^

Therefore

ARISTOTLE
641 b
^

x6^TO£ GcofMaTOs. o.px^ oipoL Kal TTOiriTiKov rod ef avTOV TO (l^ ov t6)^ GTrepfia. (jivuei yap ravra' yovv €K tovtov. dAAa fjurjv 'in rovrov (f)V€Tai, TTporepov ro ov to oirlpixa' yeveois jnev yap to onepfxa, ovoca Se to reXos. dfX(f)OLV 8* en irpoT€pov, dcf)* ov iorl to CTrep/xa. eom yap to OTripixa St;^a>s', e^ ov t€ Kal ov- Kal yap dcf)* od 35 aTTrjXOe, tovtov OTreppia, olov lttttov, Kal tovtov o euTat i^ avTov, otov opecos, Tpoirov 8* ov tov avTOVy aXX eKaTepov tov elprjfievov. eVt 8e SvvdfJLei 642 a TO GTrepfxa' hvvapus 8' co? e;^et irpos ivTeXdx^f-OLV
30

LGfJuev.

6

10

Etotv dpa 8u' atTtat avTai, to 6^ ov ev€Ka Kal TO cf dvdyKTjs' TToXXd yap yiveTai, otl dvayK-q. LGOJS 8' dv TL5 dTropr]G€Le TToiav XeyovGiv dvdyK-qv ol XiyovTe? i^ dvdyKrjs- tcov [xev yap Svo TpoTTOiv ovSeTepov otov 9^ vrrdpx^iv tcov SiajpLGfievcov ev toI? Kara ^iXoGo^iav. €gtl 8' ev ye toIs exovgl yeveoLV 7) rpLTT]' Xeyofxev yap Tr]v Tpo(j)r]v dvayKalov tl KaT ovheTepov tovtojv tcov Tponajv, dAA' otl ovx olov t dvev TavTrjs elvai. tovto S' ioTLV ojOTrep e^ vttoOiaecjs' woTTep yap irrel 8et cp^t^etv tco TreXeKet,
dvayKT] GKXrjpov etvai,
^

el

he GKXrjpov, ;)(aA/<ouv ^

<i$ ov ro> supplevi,

2

secutus.

There is a reference here, which is not apparent in the English version, to the etymological connexion between ^uats (nature) and 4>v€odai (to grow). Cf. Met. 1014 b 16 ff.
«»

^ *

Viz. actuality

is

prior to potentiality.

These treatises are referred to again in the Politics (1282 b 19) and in the Eudemian Ethics (1217 b 23). The two modes of necessity seem to be (1) " absolute " necessity (mentioned here), and (2) " coercive " necessity (see Met,

74


PARTS OF ANIMALS,


I.
i.

the individual from which the seed comes is the source and the efficient agent of that wliich comes out of the seed. The reason is, that these things are so arranged by Nature at any rate, the offspring grorvs ° out of the seed. Nevertheless, logically prior to the seed stands that of M'hich it is the seed, because the End is an actual thing, and the seed is but a formative process. But further, prior to both of them stands the creature out of which the seed comes. (Note that a seed is the seed " of " something in two senses two quite distinct senses it is the seed " of" that out of which it came e.g. a horse as well as " of " that which will arise out of itself e.g. a mule). Again, the seed is something 62/ potentiality, and we know what is the relation of potentiality to actuality.^ have, then, these two causes before us, to wit, the " Final " cause, and also Necessity, for many things come into being owing to Necessity. Perhaps one might ask which " Necessity " is meant when it is specified as a cause, since here it can be neither of the two modes which are defined in the treatises WTitten in the philosophical manner.*' There is, however, a third mode of Necessity it is seen in the things that pass through a process of formation as when we say that nourishment is necessary, we mean " necessary " in neither of the former two modes, but we mean that without nourishment no animal can be. This is, practically, "conditional" Necessity. Take an illustration: hatchet, in order to split wood, must, of necessity, be hard ; if so, then it must, of necessity, be made of
;

:

We

:

;

A

1015 a 20 ff.). The third he has referred to already at 639 b 2o. viz. " conditional " necessity. See pp. 21 f.

75

ARISTOTLE
642 a

aiSrjpovv, ovTCxj /cat eVet to aajjjLa

opyavov {eveKa
kol to

yap eKaorov tojv p,opLCOv, oXov), dvdyKrj dpa tolovSl etvau
Tivos

opLoica^ he

/cat €/c rotcovSt, el

CKelvo ecrrat.

"Otl
15

ixev

ovv hvo

Tpoiroi

ttjs
fjL€V

atrtas",

/cat

Set
jLtTy,

Aeyovras" Tvyxdveiv fidXioTa

dpL^olv, et 8e
/cat

TTeipaadai ye TTOieZv tovto, SijXov,^

ort TrdvTeg ol
Trepl
<f)VGeoJS

TOVTO

fjLT]

XeyovTes ovSev ws etVetv
dpx^)

Xeyovoiv

ydp

tj

(j)VGis

/xaAAov ttjs

vXtjs.

{ivLaxov Se rrov avTTJ

/cat 'E/XTreSo/cAT^s" TreptTrtTrret,

dyo/Jievos vtt^ avTrjs ttjs dXr^deias, /cat tt^v ovoiav /cat
20

TrfV (f)vaLV

aray/ca^erat

(jydvai

tov Xoyov elvai, olov
rcoi/

ooTovv dTroStSous" tL eoTiv ovTe ydp ev rt

aTOix^icQv Xeyet auro oure 8uo ^ r/Jta oyVe TrdvTa,

dXXd Xoyov TTJs /xt^ecos" avTcov. SrjXov tolvvv ort Kat T] odp^ TOV avTov Tporrov eoTi, /cat tcov dXXcov
TOiV TOLOVTCDV pLOpLOJV eKaUTOV.
25

a'lTLOV Se

TOV

flT)

eXdelv Tovs irpoyeveoTepovs
OTL TO Tt
rjvy

CTrt

tov Tpoirov tovtov,
ttjv

rjv

elvai /cat to

opioaodai

ovoiav ovk
cos*

dXX

rjipaTO

fiev ArjpLOKpLTOs

7Tpa>TO?,

ovk

dvayKaiov Se
vrr*

ttj (j)vaLKfj Becjopia,
eirl

dXX

eK(f)ep6pievos

liev

avTov tov TTpdyfiaTos' r]v^-q9r), to he ^rjTetv
^

HojKpdTovs he tovto
Trepl
(j)Voecx)s

to,

^Xrj^e,

sic

Ogle

:

el

8e

fi-q,

BrjXov ye TreipdaOai, ttouZv vulg.

See Diels, Fragmented, 31 a 78. " Element " : this term is normally used to denote the four substances, earth, water, air, fire. " This is probably a reference to Democritus's opposition to the theories of Protagoras, who held that " what appears
«
*

76

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

i.

bronze or of iron. Now the body, like the hatchet, as well the whole body as each is an instrument of its parts has a purpose, for the sake of which it is the body must therefore, of necessity, be such and such, and made of such and such materials, if that purpose is to be realized. It is, therefore, evident that of Causation there are two modes and that in our treatise both of them must be described, or at least an attempt must be
;
; ;

made

herein

to describe them ; and that those who fail tell us practically nothing of any value about " Nature," for a thing's " nature " is much more a

(Infirst principle (or " Cause ") than it is matter. deed, in some places even Empedocles, being led and guided by Truth herself, stumbles upon this, and is forced to assert that it is the logos which is a thing's essence or nature." For instance, when he is explaining what Bone is, he says not that it is any one of the Elements,^ or any two, or three, or even all of them, but that it is " the logos of the mixture " of the Elements. And it is clear that he would explain in the same way what Flesh and each of such parts is. Now the reason why earlier thinkers did not arrive at this method of procedure was that in their time there was no notion of ** essence " and no way of defining " being." The first to touch upon it was Democritus and he did so, not because he thought it necessary for the study of Nature, but because he was carried away by the subject in hand and could not avoid it." In Socrates' time an advance was made so far as the method was concerned ; but at that time philosophers gave up the study of Nature
;

Protagoras had to he to you, is for you." validity of sense-data ; Democritus denied

emphasized the
it.

77

ARISTOTLE
642a
^

^

30

TTpos he rrjv xPV^i-H-ov dperrjv
OLTTeKXiVaV ol (f)LXoGO(f)OVVT€£ .)

^

Kal rr]v ttoXltlktjv

AeiKTeov

8* ovrojs, olov

on

eari ixev

rj

dvaTTVorj

TOvSl x^P^^y 'TOVTO 8e ytVcTat 8ta raSe ef dvdyKrjs, 8* dvdyKTi ore /xev orjfjLalveL on el eKeZvo eorai 7j

35

TO ov eveKa, ravra dvdyKT] eorlv {ourcos')^ ^X^^^> ore 8' on eonv ovroj? e^ovra Kal Tre^u/cora* to
depfJLov

dvTLKpovov, Tov
642 b

yap dvayKaZov efteVat /cat irdXiv 8' dipa elapetv tovto

elaievai
S*
17817

dvayKalov ionv, rod ivros 8e Oepfiov dvnKOTrrovros iv rrj ipv^eL rov OvpaOev depos rj etooSos^ /cat 17
6^080?.
/cat

o

fjLev

ovv rporros ovrog 6
Xa^elu rds
8*

rrjs ixeOoSov,

rrepl

(Lv

hel

alrlas,

ravra

/cat

rotavrd eonv.
5

II.

AafjL^dvovorL

eVtot

to

/ca^'

eKaarov, 8t-

atpovfjievoL ro
rfj piev

yevos els hvo hia(j}opds.
rfj
^ *
17

rovro

8'

eoTt

ov pdSiov,

he dhvvarov.

ivlojv

yap eorai

ovTcos supplevi. eiGoSos om. pr. E.

" Goodness," or " virtue," is one of the chief topics by Socrates in the Platonic dialogues. Cf. Aristotle, Met. 987 b 1, " Socrates busied himself about moral matters, but did not concern himself at all with Nature as a whole." I have not attempted, except by one insertion, to straighten out the text of this confused account, which looks like a displaced note intended for the paragraph above (ending " realized," p. 77). If it is to remain in the text, it would follow at that place (after 642 a 13) least awkwardly. For a more lucid account of the process of Respiration see De resp. 480 a 16-b 5. * This is usually held to include Plato, on the ground that
"

discussed

''

78


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
I.

i.-ii.

and turned to the practical subject of " goodness," and to political science.) ^ Here is an example of the method of exposition.
**

We

point out that although Respiration takes place and such a purpose, any one stage of the Necesprocess follows upon the others hy necessity. sity means sometimes {a) that if this or that is to be the final Cause and purpose, then such and such things must be so but sometimes it means (6) that things are as they are owing to their very nature, as the following shows It is necessary that the hot substance should go out and come in again as it offers resistance, and that the air should flow in that is obviously necessary. And the hot substance within, as the cooling is produced, offers resistance, and this brings about the entrance of the air from \vithout and also its exit. This example shows how the method works and also illustrates the sort of things whose causes we have to discover. II. Now some ^^Titers ^ endeavour to arrive at the ultimate and particular species by the process of dividing the group (genus) into two differentiae.^ This is a method which is in some respects difficult and in other respects impossible. For example
for such
;
:

:

the

method of dichotomy is used in the Sophist and Politicus. But the method can hardly be said to be seriously applied to the classification of animals in the Politicus, and in the Sophist it is introduced partly in a humorous way, partly Either to lead up to the explanation of to /xt) ov (not-being). Aristotle has mistaken the purpose of the method (as he has at An. Pr. 46 a 31 if.) or (much more probably) he is
referring to

See

some other writer's detailed application of it. Stenzel in Pauly-Wissowa, s.v. Speusippus. ^ Each stage of the division gives two differentiae, which are treated as " genera " for the next stage of the division, and so on.
e.g.

79

ARISTOTLE
642 b

8ia(f)opa
7TOVV,
10 et

fJLia

ixovq, to, 8' ctAAa rrepUpya, olov vttogxI'^ottovv^'

hirrovv,
pLT],

avrrj

yap

fMOvrj

Kvpia.

he

ravTov TroWaKis avayKolov XeyeLV.
{jLTj

en

Se TTpoGT^Kei

hiaoTTav eKaoTOv yevos, olov rovs
8* eV dXXr) Statpeaet,
e/cet

opvidas rovs fxev iv rfjSe rovs

Kaddnep

ep^oucrtv
fJiev

at yeypafifidvaL hiaLpiaeis'
rajv

yap rovs

pLera

ivvSpojv

cru/x^atVet

8t-

Uprjadai, rovs 8' iv dXXo) yevei.
15

(ravrj] fxev ovv rfj
8' IxOvs'
/cat

opLOLorrjri opvis ovofia KeZr at,
8* elalv dvwvvpiOL, olov
icf)^

irepa

aAAat

ro evaifxov

ro dvaipLOV'
etnep

eKarepo) yap rovrcov ov Kelrai iv ovofxa.)
/XT^Sev ra>v

OVV

ojJLoyevojv

hiauTraorioVy
ovrco

rj

els

hvo

hiaipeuis pidraios

dv

etr]-

yap hiaipovvras
rd
8*

avayKatov

;^6opt^etv
jjiev

Kal hiaorrdv rdjv ttoXvttoSojv
iv

yap ion rd
20

rols

Tre^ols

iv

rols

ivvSpois.
III.

"Ert

orep-qoei /xev

dvayKaZov 8tatpetv Kal

hiaipovGiv ol Sixorofiovvres.
^

ovk eon 8e hia^opd
Ogle
;

arrow post

oxiI,6itovv vulg., del.

fortasse [a-nTepov]

scribendum

(cf.

An.

Post. 92 a

1,

Met. 1037 b 34).

broken up under several lines of on to say, and he repeats this at 643 b 14, where he adds that " contrary " groups will get lumped together under a single line (and " contrariety is maximum difference,' " see Met. 1055 a 5 ff., cf. 1018 a 30). " Aristotle holds that one is not enough see 643 b 9 ff. and 29 ff.
'

<* Other groups will get division, as Aristotle goes

;

80

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
(a)

I.

ii.-iii.

Some
:

'^

groups

will

get only one

differ ejilia,^

the

rest of the terms being superfluous extras,'' as in the
this last

example footed, two-footed, cloven-footed ^ since one is the only independently valid differentia. Otherwise the same thing * must of necessity be

repeated many times over. (b) Again, it is a mistake to break up a group, as for instance the group Birds, by putting some birds in one division and some in another, as has been done in these in the divisions made by certain wTiters some birds are put in with the water-creatures, and others in another class. (These tw^o groups, each
:

possessing its own set of characteristics, happen to have regular names Birds, Fishes but there are " other groups which have not, e.g. the " blooded there is no one regular and " bloodless " groups name for either of these.) If, then, it is a mistake to break up any group of kindred creatures, the method of division into two will be pointless, because those who so divide are compelled to separate them and break them up, some of the many-footed animals being among the land-animals and others among the

:

water-animals.
III. (c) Again, this method of twofold division makes it necessary to introduce privative terms, and those who adopt it actually do this. But a privation, as
" i.e. all terms except the final one can be dispensed with, because none of them constitutes an independent (/cupta) one line of division yields one valid differentia differentia and no more (c/. 644 a 2-10). Cf. 644 a 5 and Met. 1038 a 32. • In this case, " -footed " {cf. Met. 1038 a 19 if.).^^ But Aristotle does not explain how Si'tt-ouv is " superfluous."
;
<*

8L

ARISTOTLE
642 b

fiT]

25

ahvvarov yap eih-q ^Ivai rou t) tov arrripov cocTTTcp TTTepojaecxis kol ttoSwv Set Se rrjg KaOoXov 8ta<f)opdg etSr] etvai' el yap {jltj ecrrat, 8ta rt av eiy] rcov he Tcov KaOoXov Kal ov rcJov KaB^ eKaorov ; hiacfyopujv at ju-ev KaOoXov elal Kal e-xpvaiv etSr], OLOV TTTeporrjs' to [JLev yap aox^JTOv ro S' ^^X''~
orep'^uecog
fj

oTipiqcjiS'

ovTos, OLOV T^s" aTToSta?

GfJievov iarl Trrepov.

Kal ttoSottj^ (haavTCOS

r]

[lev
tj

TToXvGX^hTjs,
30 oLGXi-hrjg

7]

he hiox^hiqs i OLOV ra hlxoiXa,

8*

fxev

Kal dhLalperos, olov ra fXwvvxO" ;\;aAc7rov ovv hiaXa^eLV Kal elg roiavras hiacfyopas cSv
ethT],

euTLV

wgO^ otlovv ^cpov ev ravrai? v'rrdpx€iv TrXeioGL ravrov [olov TTrepojTov Kal drrrepov eoTL yap dficfico ravrov, otov [xvpfjir]^ Kal
Kal
{jLTj

ev

35

XafjLTTVpls
•^

Kal erepd rLva), irdvrojv he x(^Xe7Twrarov

dhvvarov
Kad^

rcov

dvayKalov yap els rds dvrLKeLfxevag } eKaorov vTrdpx^LV rLvl rwv hLa(f)opd)v
rrjv

643 a eKd(7r7]Vy

ware Kal

dvriKeLixevrjv

.

el

he

(jlt]

evhex^TO^L rols etheL hiacfyepovoLV inrdpx^tv ethos rL
rrjs

ovaias drofjiov Kal
opvLS dvOpojTTOV

^(oLOv

ev,
T)

dAA' aet hLacfiopdv e^eL
8t77oSia

ydp

dXXr)
rj

Kal

8ta</)opo?*
6 TT^S"

Kav

el eVat/xa,

ro

af/j-a hid(f)opov,

ovalas ro alfia dereov)
:

— el

ovhev
7]

8'

ovrojs eurLV,
ra

^ ras dvTiK€Lix€vas Peck ret avriK^iiia>a Titze : to. drofxa Prantl. vulg. : Ttt ivavria Ogle 2 11. 3-6 interpunctionem correxi.
:

dvaifia

mepoi;

have not attempted to keep a consistent translation for as Aristotle applies this term to " feathers " and to " wings " (of insects).
"
I

82

.

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

iii.

privation, can admit no differentiation there cannot be species of what is not there at all, e.g. of " foot" less " or " featherless," ^ as there can be of " footed and " feathered " ; and a generic differentia must
;

contain species, else it is specific not generic. However, some of the differentiae are truly generic and contain species, for instance " feathered " (some feathers are barbed, some unbarbed) and likewise " footed " (some feet are " many-cloven," some " twy-cloven," as in the animals with bifid hoofs, and some '* uncloven " or " undi\ided," as in the animals with solid hoofs). Now it is difficult enough to arrange the various animals under such hnes of diflPerentiation as these, which after all do contain species, in such a way that every animal is included in them, but not the same animal in more than one of them (e.g. when an animal is both Avinged and wingless, as ants, glow-worms, and some other creatures are) but it is excessively difficult and in fact impossible to arrange them under the opposite lines of differentiation. Every differentia must, of course, belong to some species and this statement wall apply to the negative differentiae as well as to the positive. Now it is impossible for any essential characteristic to belong to animals that are specifically different and at the same time to be itself one and indivisible ^ it ^'V'ill always admit of differentiation. (For example, Man and Bird are both two-footed, but this essential characteristic is not the same in both it is differentiated.^ And if they are both " blooded," the blood must be different, or else it cannot be reckoned as part of their essence.) If that is so, then, the one
;

;

;

:

:

*

As

the privative characteristic would have to be. « See below, 693 b 2 ff 83.

ARISTOTLE
643 a
^

Ilia

hia(f)Opa

hvcrlv

vrrdp^ei-^

et

8e rovro, SrjXov

on

dSvvarov Greprjoiv elvai hia^opdv.
t,(LoiSt

"Ecrovrat 8' at hia(j>opal laai roZs dropiOLs
elirep

dropid
jLtT^

re ravra
ioTLV.
(ft

/cat

at

Sta^opat dropLOL,

KOLV7] Se
10

8'

ivSex^Tai VTrdpx^t'V^ Kal

Koivrjv, dropLOV Se, SrjXov

on Kard
toj
hiacfiopal

ye

ri^v Koivrjv eV

to) auToJ

ionv erepa oVra
el

et8et
els

^oia.

coctt'

dvayKoloVy
€pL7TL7TT€i TO,

tSiot

at

a?

dropLa,

pLiqSejjLLav

avTcov etvat

dnavra KOivqv
8£t

el

8e

jLtrJ,

erepa dvra
/cat

els to^v avrrjv jSaStetrat.)

8' OL»Te
lb

TO auTO

dropLOV els erepav

/cat

erepav

levai Stacjiopdv rcov Sirjpr]pievojv,

ovr

els rrjv avrrjv

erepa,

/cat

diravra els ravras.

(f)avep6v roivvv

on

ovK ean Xa^elv rd dropua
Svo hiaipovvres rd
/cat

eiSr] (Ls
rj

SiaLpovvrat at els

t^cpa

/cat

d'AAo

onovv yevos.
dropLOLS ro)

yap

/car'

eKeivovs dvayKalov laas rds eo^dras
rols
^(-pois

elvai
20 etSet.

Siacfyopds

TrduL rots

ovros yap rovhe nvos yevovs, ov Sta(^opat
p^yiY
els

rrpoirai

rd (XevKd /cat rd eKarepov aAAat, /cat ovra>s
dropicov, at reXevralai
^
11.

XevKd, rovrojv

8'

rd Trpoao) ecus rojv
r)

rerrapes eaovrai

a'AAo

n

^

3-6 interpunctionem correxi. /A17 vTrapx^Lv vulg. corr. Titze, ^ supplevit Cornford.
:

•*

Because

it

cannot

fulfil

the

condition

of admitting

differentiation. At whatever stage of the division it comes (unless at the very end), the privative term will cover at least two species, and therefore at the next stage the dichotomists illegitimately, as Aristotle maintains. will have to divide it

84

;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
differentia
it
is

I.

iii.

will

clear

that

belong to two species. And a privative cannot be a

if

so,

valid
if

differentia.^

(d)

Now assuming that each species is indivisible
differentia also is indivisible,

:

each
to

and none

is

common

efitiae will

species than one, then the number of differbe equal to the number of species. (Supposing it were possible to have a differentia which though indivisible was common clearly, in that case, animals which differed in species would be in the same division in virtue of that common differentia. Therefore, if the
;

more

differentiae

under which the

indivisible

and ultimate

species fall are to be proper and private to each one, it is necessary that no differentia be common otherwise, species which are actually different will

come under one and the selfsame

differentia.^

And

place one and the same indivisible species under two or three of the lines of differentianor may we include tion given by the divisions different species under one and the same line of Yet each species must be placed differentiation. under the lines of differentiation available. It is evident from this that it is impossible to arrive at the indivisible species either of animals or of any other group by the method of twofold division as these people practise it, for even on their showing the number of ultimate differentiae must of necessity be equal to the total number of indivisible species of animals. Thus, suppose M^e have some particular group of creatures whose prime differentiae are " pale " and " not pale " by that method these two will each give two other differentiae, and so forth, until in the end the indivisible differentiae are reached these last ones will be either four in
;

we may not

;

:

85

ARISTOTLE
ttXtjOos tcov
a<f)*

ivos StTrAaCTta^o^eVcov rocravra he

Kal

TO, e'iSr].

("Eart
25

S'

Tj

Sia(j)opa ev rfj vXr)

ro elSos.^

ovre

ovre fiovq rj yap dvev vXt]? ouSev t,coov vXt]' ov yap Travrcos €xov aajfia eWat ^coov, ovSe
jjLopLov,

Twv

ixopicov ovBev, axJTrep ttoXXolkl? etprjraL.)

"Ert Statpetv XPV '''^^^ ^^ '^fj oixrla Kal fir) roTs crvjJLPe^rjKOGL KaO^ avro, olov el rig ra G)(r]p^aTa
SiaLpoLT),
so

ycovta?,

OTL ra /xev Svcrlv opOal? loas e;\;et ras ra he TrXeioGiv GVfJb^e^rjKos yap tl rco

Tpiyojvo) TO hvalv opdals taas exetv ras ywviag.

"Ert rot? avriKeiixevois hiaipeZv {Set)/ hid(f>opa

yap

aAAT^AotS" ravriKeiiieva, olov XevKorrjg
.

Kal

fxe-

Xavia Kal ev6vr7]s Kal KapLTryXonqs

eav ovv ddrepa
pLT]

hid^opa
35

fjy

rep avriKeipievcp hiaipereov , Kal
;!^/Dc6jLtaTt
.

ro

fiev vevaei ro he
epuipvxo^ Tols

TTpos he rovrois,

ra y

KOLVols epyois rod acopiarog Kal rrjs

643 b i/jvxT]?}

OLOV Kal ev raZs prjOeiaaLS vvv TropevrcKa Kal

Trnqva— eon

yap riva yevq

ols

dpL(f)a)

vTrdpxei Kal
pLvpynqKCDV

eon

nrrjvd Kal aTrrepa, KaOdirep ro
^

rwv

sic

Y

:

2

TO etSo? eV tt; vXtj vulg. <Set> supplevi.

His point is that it is nonsensical to suppose that this numerical correspondence is bound to occur. * As at 641 a 18 ff. « See Met. 1025 a 30. These are enumerated in De sensu, 436 a 7 if., and Aristotle seems here to be thinking of them as grouped together under the several faculties nutritive, appetitive, sensory,
<* <*

86

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

iii.

number, or some higher value of 2" and there will be an identical number of species." (The species is the differentia in the Matter. There is no animal part which exists without matter nor on the other hand is there any which is matter only, for body in any and every condition cannot make an animal or any part of an animal, as I have often
; ;

pointed out.^) (e) Again, the division ought to be made according to points that belong to the Essence of a thing and not according to its essential (inseparable) attributes. For instance, in making divisions of geometrical figures, it would be wrong to di\dde them into those whose angles are together equal to two right angles and those whose angles are together greater than two right angles because it is only an attribute of the triangle that its angles are together equal to two
;

right angles.''

" opposites," (f) Again, division should be by opposites being mutually " different," e.g. pale and dark, straight and curved. Therefore, provided the two terms are truly " different," di\ision should be by means of opposites, and should not characterize one side by ability to s\\'im and the other side by some colour. And besides this, division of li\dng creatures, at any rate, by the functions which are common functions of body and soul,*^ such as we actually find done in the divisions mentioned above, where animals are divided into " walkers " and " fliers " for there are some groups, such as that of the Ants, which have both attributes, being both

His point locomotive, and thought (see De an. 414 a 28 ff.). is that the correct way to divide and classify animals is rather by bodily characteristics, which is what he himself does.

sr

ARISTOTLE
643 b
,

yevos
5

—Kau rco
X

^

,

,

aypico

/cat

n

'

'

rjfjiepcp

\ov oet)

/

'

5 -\2 5

Otatpet-

o9ai' cbaavTco<3
TTOLvra

yap,

co?

yap dv So^€t€ ravra e'lBr] hiaipeZv elrreZvy ooa ruiepa Kal aypia rvyKvves iv
rfj

XOLV€L ovra, olov dvOpajiroi, Ittttoi, ^oes,
^IvSlkyj,

ves, alyes, Trpo/^ara* a)V eKaarov, el p.kv

10

15

8e ravra ev e'lhei, ro aypiov /cat to T^p.epov. "OAco? 8' oTTOcaovv hia<j)opa^ pna hiaipovvri rovro ovjjL^aLveLv dvayKaXov. dXXd Set TreipdaOai Xap,^dveiv Kara yevq rd ^coa, cos V(f)'^yr]v6^ ol ttoXXol hiopioavres opvidos yevos /cat l)(dvos. rovrcov 8' eKaarov TToXXaXs copiorai Siacjiopais, ov Kara rr)v ovrco fjuev yap rjroi ro irapdnav ovk SixorofJLLav. eun Xa^elv (rd avrd yap els rrXeiovs epLTTLTrrei 8tatpea€t? /cat rd evavria els rrjv avr-qv), tj }xia pLovov hia(j)opd eorai, Kal avrr] rjroL dnXTJ i) e/c edv he p.rj uvfJLTrXoKrjs rd reXevralov ear ai etSos". SLa(f)opds XafjL^dvrj ns hia^opdv,^ dvayKolov, oioirep GvvSe(jp.cp rdv Xdyov eva rroiovvras, ovroj Kal rrjv
ofxcovv/JLOv,

ov hirjprjrai

')(ojpis, el

ovx olov

t' etvai hiafj)opav

SialpecTLV ovve)(fj TToie'lv.
•20

Xeyco 8' olov uvpL^aivei

rot? StatpovpLevoLs ro ptev drrrepov rd he rrrepcordv,
TTrepojrov he rd piev jjpLepov ro 8' dypiov,
^
2

tj

ro /xev

Kal

EY

:

Kal toj vulg.
:

supplevi.
OTTOLavovv Sia^opav alii
8ia(f)opd A.

^

o-noLaovv

Y

:

Sta^opd vel

8(,a<f}opd

ESY.
*

ES

:

8La<f)opav A. ttjs
:

Sta^opa?

P

:

Sta^opas' A.

8La(f>opav

Y

;

rt?

Peck

Tr]v

vulg.

Cf. Plato, Politicus, 264 a 1. this see Piatt, C.Q., 1909, iii. 241. * For hLa<i)opd in the sense of " bifurcation " cf. Met. 1048 b 4, where he speaks of the two " parts " of a hi.a(f>opd.
«
»

On
i.e.

^

with the preceding terms.

See below, 644 a

5.

88

.

,

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

iii.

" winged " and " wingless " and by " wild " and " tame," " is not permissible, for this similarly would appear to divide up species that are the same, since practically all the tame animals are also found as ^vild ones e.g. Man, the horse, the ox, the dog (in India ^), swine, the goat, the sheep ; and if, in each of these groups, the wild and the tame bear the same name, as they do, there is no division between them, while if each group is specifically a unit, then it follows that " wild " and " tame " cannot make a
:

valid differentiation.''

And generally, the same thing inevitably happens whatever one single line of differentiation is taken for the division. The proper course is to endeavour to
take the animals according to their groups, following the lead of the bulk of mankind, who have marked off the group of Birds and the group of Fishes. Each of these groups is marked offhyjuani/ cUjferentiae not by means of dichotomy. By dichotomy (a) either these groups cannot be arrived at at all (because the same group falls under several divisions and contrary groups under the same division) or else there will be one differentia only, and this either singly or in combination ^ will constitute the ultimate species.* But (6) if they do not take the differeriiia of the differentia, they are forced to follow the example of those people who try to give unity to their prose by a
free
to

use of conjunctions there is as little continuity about their division. Here is an example
:

show what happens.

Suppose they make the

division into " wingless " and " winged," and then divide " winged " into " tame " and " wild " or into
'

And

group or

this will never completely represent species. See below, 644( a 6 ff

any actual
89'

ARISTOTLE
643 b

XevKov TO he (jLeXav ov yap hia(j)opa rod TrrepcoTOV TO jjfxepov ovSe to XevKov, dAA* ircpag apx"*] hcaSto ttoXXols to (f)opa<s' €K€X 8e Kara avfil^e^rjKo?. €v evOeojs hiaiperiov, warrep XeyofJiev. koI yap
25

ovT(x>s yiev at oreprjaeig ttoltigovgl 8ta<^opav, Iv Se

ov TTOirjUOVcnv. ovK evSex^raL rwv KaO* eKaarov elhaJv Xafi^dveiv ovSev hiaipovcn St;^a to yivos, woirep
rfj

SL)(OTOjJLia

"On

8'

rives oj-qOriuav, /cat

e/c

rayvhe cfyavepov. vncipxeiv
hia(f)opav

'ASwaTov yap
80

pilav

rojv

KaO^ eKacrrov hiaipercov, edv 0^ oLTrXd XajjL^dvr) ns^ idv re uvpLTreTrXeyiJieva' \Xey(x> he drrXa /xeV, edv firj ovpLTreTrXeyexj) hiac^opdv, olov rrjv ux^^OTTohiav fieva he, edv exj], olov ro TToXvox^'hes Trpos to"
,

85

644 a

yap rj ovvex^^o, ^ovXerat roJv rov yevovs Kara rrjv hiaipeuiv hia(f)opa)v co? ev Tt TO 77av OV, dXXd napd rrjv Xe^iv crvfJi^aiveL hoKelv rrjv reXevraiav fJLovrjv elvac hia(f)opdv [olov ro ttoXv7roAu770W o";(tSes" t) ro hirrovv, rd 8' vttottovv /cat TTepUpya'].^ on 8' a8uyaTOV rrXeiovs elvai roiavras,
Gxi'l>oTTOvvY rovro
0.770

5

hrjXov del ydp ^ahil,a>v IttI rrjv eoxdrrjv hiacjiopdv d^LKveZrai [dAA' ovk errl rrjv reXevraiav /cat to et8os"]'^ ai;TT7 8' iarlv rj ro ox^^ottovv (jlovov, -^ TTaaa rj av/jLTrXe^us, edv hiaiprjrai dvdpojTTos,^ olov el 8' €L ns avvdeir] vttottovv, hiTTOVv, ox^^ottovv rjv 6 dvdpcoTTOs axi'^oTTOvv jjlovov, ovnos eyiyver^ dv avrrj {tJ)' fila hia(f)opd. vvv 8' eTTeihr] ovk eaTtv,
,

^ '

risY: om.
seclusi.
*

viilg.

^

Trpos to) Piatt.

codices varia, ut videtur; sic Bekker, oloi' TTcpUpya seclusi.
.
.

.

^

dAA'

.

.

.

eiSos seclusi.
'

• dvdpioTTov

vulg.

<i7>

Ogle.

90

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
:

I.

iii.

" " pale " and " dark " neither " tame " nor " pale a differentiation of " winged," but the beginning of another line of differentiation, and can come in here only hy accident. Therefore, as I say, in dividing
is

we must distinguish the one original group forthwith by numerous differentiae and then too the privative terms will make valid differentiae, which they will never do in the system of dichotomy. Here are further considerations to show that it is impossible to come at any of the particular species by the method of dividing the group into two, as some people have imagined.
;

is

Obviously it is impossible that one single differentia adequate for each of the particular species covered by the division, whether you adopt as your differentia the isolated term or the combination of terms ° (for this is intended by the continuity of the series of differentiae throughout the division from the original but, in group, to indicate that the whole is a unity consequence of the form of the expression, the last one comes to be considered as the sole differentia). And it is evident that there cannot be more than one
;

such differentia for the division proceeds steadily until supposing the it reaches the ultimate differentia, and " this is either " clovendivision is aiming at " Man footed " alone, or else the whole combination, e.g. " clovenif one combined " footed," " two-footed," footed." ^ If Man were merely a cloven-footed animal, then this would be the one differentia, arrived But as he is not merely at by the right method.
;

" i.e. the last term of any series, or all its terms together, as he goes on to say. Cf. 643 b 15 f. * This definition appears also in Met. 1037-1038.

91.

ARISTOTLE
644 a

avdyKT] TToXkas elvat
ixrjv

jir]

vtto jxiav Siaipeaiv.
ecrrtv

dXXa
fxiav

ttXclovs

ye rod avrov ovk

vtto

10

St;^oro/xtav etvai,
a)€rT€
t,a)(jjv

dAAa

jLttav

Kara

filav reXevrdv.

dSvvarov otlovv Xa^elv tujv Kad^ cKaarov
Slxol hiaipovyLevovs.

15

IV. *A77oprjcr6t€ S' dv ng Sto. tl ovk dvcoOev eVt ovofian ifjLTrepiXa^ovTes dfia ev yevog dfjL(j)a> Trpoariyopevoav ol dvOpajnoL, o Trepiix^i rd re 'ivvhpa Koi rd TTTrjvd tojv ^cowv eart ydp eVta TrdOrj KOLvd Kal TOVTOLs [/cttt ToZs dXXoLS t^ois aTTaGLv]} dAA' dpLCjos 6p6d)s SnopLoraL rovrov rov rpoirov.

oua

fiev

ydp

StacfyepeL tojv yevchv

KaO^ VTrepox'rjv Kal

TO) [xdXXov Kal rjTTOVy^

ravra

VTret^evKrai ivl yevei,

20

dua 8' e;!^et to dvdXoyov, x^^jpis' Xeyco 8' olov opvis dpvidos hia(f)ip€L rw fiaXXov tj Kad^ vTrepox^jv (to fiev ydp fxaKpoTTTepov to he ^paxvTTTepov) , IxOves 8* opviOog TO) dvdXoyov (o ydp eKeivco TTTepov, 6arepo) XeTTLs). tovto 8e TTOielv IttI TrdoLV ov pdhiov
rd ydp TToXXd ^cpa dvdXoyov rauro TreirovOev. 'Ettci 8' ovGiaL jjiev elui rd eoxo-Ta etSr], /card 8€ TavTa Td^ TO clSos dhid^opa (olov TtWKpdTT)?, KopLGKOs), dvayKaXov ^ rd KaOoXov virdpxovTa
^

25

^

sic

Rackham
^

:

seclusi Ogle docente. to fiaXXov /cat to (to om.
:

Y)

^ttov vulg.

Kara 8e ravra ra Peck

ravra 8e Kara vulg.

This paragraph has been corrupted by confusing interwhich I have bracketed in the Greek text and With this passage cf. Met. omitted in the translation. 1037 b 27—1038 a 30. On this point see D'Arcy W. Thompson, Growth and Form, esp. ch. 17, and the same author's paper Excess or The Little More and the Little Less, in and Defect
**

polations,

''

;

Mind,

xxxviii.
ff.,

(N.S.)
ff.
;

149,

pp.

43-55.

See
p. 39.

also

infra,

661 b 28

692 b 3

and Introduction,

92

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
that,
it
is

I.

iii.-iv.

necessary that there should be many not under one hne of division. And yet tliere cannot be more than one differentia for the same thing under one hne of dichotomy one hne must end in one differentia. So it is impossible for those who follow the method of twofold division to arrive at any of the particular animals.** IV. Some may find it puzzling that general usage has not combined the water-animals and the feathered animals into one higher group, and adopted one name to cover both, seeing that in fact these two groups have certain features in common. The answer is that in spite of this the present grouping is the right one ; " because while groups that differ only " by excess (that is, "by the more and less " ^) are placed together in one group, those which differ so much that their characteristics can merely be called analogous are placed in separate groups. As an illus(a) one bird differs from another bird ** by tration the more," or " by excess " one bird's feathers are long, another's are short whereas (6) the difference between a Bird and a Fish is greater, and their correspondence is only by analogy a fish has no feathers at all, but scales, which correspond It is not easy to do this in all cases, for to them. the corresponding analogous parts of most groups of animals are identical. Now since the ultimate species are " real things," ^ Method* while within them are individuals which do not differ in species (as e.g. Socrates and Coriscus),^ we shall have to choose (as I have pointed out) ^ between
differentiae^
: :
:

;

:

'

i.e.

Lit. " substances," within the species " man." Above, at 639 a, b, etc.
*'

ARISTOTLE
644a

TTporepov €L7T€lv
eipTjTai.
(to.

t)

77oAAaK'ts"

TavTov XeyeLVy Kaddirep

8e KaOoXou Koiva' ra

yap

TrXeioaiv

VTTapxovra KadoXov Xiyojxev.)
TTorepa Set Trpaypiareveodai.
80

aiTopiav 8' e^^i rrepl

^

[ikv

yap ovoia to

rep elhei a.Top.ov, KpariGTOV, et rt? Sm'airo, Trepl tojv

Kad' €KaGT0V Kol drofjLOJv to) etSet Oecjopelv ^copis,

wcrnep
fjLTj

Trepi

dvdpwTTOv, ovtoj Kal^ nepl opvidos, (jcal
^'^^1
tj

TTepl

orovovv opvidos} {^X^^ y^P
t]

TOVTo), dXXd TTepl TOJV drofxcDV^ olov

'^^ yevos orpovOos r]

yepavos
35 77oAAaACtS'

tl tolovtov.
TTepl

^
8'

Se GvpL^ijaeraL XeyeLV

TOV

aVTOV TTddoV? Sid
icrrlv

TO

KOLvfj

TTXeioGiv vvdpx^iv, ravrrj

VTrdroTTOV Kal

Bi^h P-OLKpov TO TTepl

ovv opdcog

ex^i

eKdoTov XeyeLV xcopls' lgcjs fiev Ta puev Kara yevT) Koivfj Xeyeiv,
ojpLopievojv tcjv dvOpayTTCUv, Kal
e'chr]

oca XeyeTai KaXojg
6

ex^i re p.iav cpvatv Koivrjv Kal
TToXv
hieGTcx)Ta,

ev avTols^ prj
ei

opvis Kal
jLteV, e'lSr]-

IxOvs, Kal
8'
p,rj

tl

dXXo
Kad*

cgtIv dvcovvfJiov
TO,

tco yeveL

o^ota*

TrepLex^L

iv

avTO)^

ooa 8e
dvBpcjTTov

rotaura,

CKaGTOv, olov
€Tep6v eOTLV.
l^X^^^^
o-cujLtaro?

TTepl

Kal el tl tolovtov
pLopiojv

^^

'^^'S'

<j;^7^/xacrt

tojv

Kal tov
to,
ttc-

oXov, edv ofJLOLOTrjTa excocr^v, ojpLGTaL

yevT],
^
*

OLOV to tojv op] lOcov yevo? TTpos avTO
fjLT)

Kal]

Bonitz.
TTepl

TOVTO- aXXa
^ ' *

correxi, S secutus ; l;^€i yap etBr] to y4vos otovovv opviOos rtSi' arop-Oiv, olov ktX. vulg. * ofxoiojs vulg. correxi. avToU vulg'. correxi. avTw vulg. correxi. avTo. Z^, vulg. auro avTo Piatt, fortasse Z^

hunc locum

:

:

:

:

Y

:

94>


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
describing
species,
first
I.

iv.

of

all

the general attributes of

many

and repeating the same thing many times

(By " general " attributes I intend the over. " common " ones. That which belongs to many we One may well hesitate whether of call " general.")
For, in so far as it is the is the " real thing," it would be best, if one could do it, to study separately the particular and specifically indivisible sorts, in the same way as one studies " Man," to do this " with " Bird " too, that is, to study not just " Bird " Bird " is a group which since in the mass, but contains species the indivisible species of it, e.g. Yet, on the other hand, Ostrich, Crane, and so on. this course is somewhat unreasonable and longwinded, because it makes us describe the same attributes time and again, as they happen to be common So perhaps after all the attributes of many species. (a) So far as concerns the right procedure is this attributes of those groups which have been correctly marked off by popular usage groups which possess one common nature apiece and contain in themselves species not far removed from one another, I mean Birds and Fishes and any other such group which though it may lack a popular name yet contains species generically similar to describe the common
specifically indivisible

the two courses to follow.

which

— —

:

and (6) with attributes of each group all together regard to those animals which are not covered by this, to describe the attributes of each of these by itself e.g. those of Man, and of any other such species
;

there

resemblance of the shapes of their parts, or of their whole body, that the groups as e.g. the groups are marked off from each other
:

may be. Now it is practically by

95

ARISTOTLE
644 b
10

TTOvde /cat ro rcjv lxOvojv Kal
TO, rrj

re /cat tovtojv ov dvdXoyov oiiolottjtl, olov ev dvdpcoTrci) Kal i-)(dvL
jLtaAa/cta

ra

ourpeia.

ra yap

jLtopta Sta</)epor;crt

7T€.7Tov9ev

oGTOvv TTpos OLKavOav, dXXd fidXXov rot?
roZs

GcofjLaTLKoXs ndOeaLV, olov jjueyedei pLLKponqri, /xaAa16

KorrjTL UKXriponqTiy XeioT-qri rpa-)(yrr]TL Kal TOLOVTOiSi oXojg 8e to) /xaAAov /cat rjrTOV.

jjLedoSov,

20

ovv diTohex^Gd ai Set Tr]v nepl ^ucreca? Kal TLva rponov yivoir^ dv rj deojpua rrepl avrayv oSoj Kal pacrra, ert be irepl Siaipeaecjos, riva rpoTTOV ivbex^rai pLerLovcn Xafx^dveLv xPV^^t^^^y '^^'' Stort TO Sixorofielv rfj pikv dhvvarov rfj 8e K€v6v, elpr]Tai. hLOjpLGfJLevcov Se tovtojv irepl ra)v i(f)€^7Js
/xev

nto?

Xeyojfxev, dpxr]V riqvhe TTotrjudpievoL.

V.

Toil' ovGidJv

(Xeyo[JL€vy^

aTTavra
25

ooai (f)V(J€i ovveGTaai, rds fxev dyev^Tovs Kal dcfjOdprov? elvai rov alcova, rag Se jj.erex^t'V yeveueojs Kal
ovfjLJ3el3rjKe

(f)dopds.

Se nepl fiev

eKeivas Tt/xta?

ovaag Kal 9eias iXdrrovs rjjjLlv vTrdpx^tv deajpias (/cat yap i^ aJv dv rts" OKeipairo irepl avrcov, Kal TTcpl Sv etSeVat rroOovfJieVy TravreXco? iarlv oXiya rd (fyavepd Kara rr]v aLuOrjaLv), rrepl he rd)v (f)dapTd)v
<f)vrdjv
80

re Kal

t^ojcxjv

eviropovfjiev fiaXXov irpos rrjv

yvchoiv hid rd Grvvrpo(f)OV' ttoAAo.

ydp

rrepl

eKaarov

dv rwv VTrapxdvrojv jiovXopievos hiaiToveZv CKavcog. ex^i S* eKdrepa xdpiv. rcov fiev ydp el Kal /caret fiCKpov ecfyaTTrofieda, o/xcos" hud rr]V
yevos Xd^oL rt?
^

(Xeyofiev)

Peek.
roughly,

*•

Lit.,

" softies."

The group
(bivalves).

includes,

the

cephalopod moUusca.
"

Lit., " oysters "

96

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

iv.-v.

Birds, Fishes, Cephalopods," Testacea.^ Within each of these groups, the parts do not differ so far that they correspond only by analogy (as a man's bone and a that is, they differ not structurally, but fish's spine)
;

only in respect of bodily
larger
differ "

or

smaller,

rougher, and by the more and less."

quahties, e.g. by being or harder, smoother or so forth, or, to put it generally, they
softer
:

We
(1)

have now shown
to test a
is

science ; the most systematic and easiest way of studying Natural science (3) what is the most useful mode of Division for our present purpose ;
(2)

how

method of Natural
;

what

(4)

why dichotomy
futile.

is

in

one respect impossible and in

another

Now that we have made this beginning, and clearly distinguished these points, we may proceed. V. Of the works of Nature there are, we hold, two Aprotreptic kinds those which are brought into being and perish, oflnfmais'?^ and those which are free from these processes throughout all ages. The latter are of the highest worth and are divine, but our opportunities for the study of them are somewhat scanty, since there is but little evidence available to our senses to enable us to consider them and all the things that we long to know about. have better means of information, however, concerning the things that perish, that is to say, plants and animals, because we live among them and anyone who will but take enough trouble can learn much concerning every one of their kinds. Yet each of the two groups has its attractiveness. For although our grasp of the eternal things is but slight, nevertheless the joy which it brings is, by
:

We

;

97.

ARISTOTLE
644 b

TiixioTTiTa

Tov

yv(jjpil,eiv

rjhiov

7)

ra

Trap

rjfXiV

35

645 a

airavra, cooirep /cat rcjv epojfievcjjv to tvxov koI [XLKpov pLopiov KaTiSelv T^'Stov IcFTiv 7] TToWa ere pa /^^ctt [leydXa 8t' aKpi^eias ISelv ra 8e Sta to juaAAov
/cat TrXelco yvojpLt,eLV

onqixr]^

vnepox^v,
rr^?

etvai

/cat

avrcov Aa^jSavet tt^v rrjg eVtSe 8ta ro TrXtjaiaLrepa rjfjLwv (f)V(jea>s oLKeiorepa ayrt/caraAAcir-

en

5

CTiet Trpos ttjv Trepl ra dela (^iAo(TO(/>tW. rerai he nepL eKetvcov hir]\9oyLev Xeyovres ro (ffatvojJLevov
'^[juv,

n

XoLTTOv Trepl rrjg Joji/ctJ?

</)Ucreaj?

etVetv, fx-qSev
puiqre

TTapaXiTTOvras
TLfJLLcorepov.

eh
/cat

SvvafXiv

jLt^jre

arijiorepov
jLtT]

yap

eV

rot?

Kexo-pioiievoLs
ofiCDS^

avrojv rrpos rr]V ato-OrjOLV Kara rrjv Oeojpiav
7]

hrnxiovpyqaaoa
SvvajjievoLg

(J)vgl? ajJL'qxdi'OV?

rjSovdg Trapexet
/cat (jivoei

10

rot?
el

rds alrias

yvcopLl,eiv

(^tAocro^ot?.

rds

jLtev

Kalyap av e'er] rrapaXoyov /cat aroiroVy et/cova? avrwv Oecopovvres ;^atpo^€v on
rrjv
{jltj

TTjV hriiiLovpyr](jaoav rexvr]v ovvdecopovfxev, olov rT)v
ypacjiLKrjv
i)

TrXaonK-qv, avrojv Se rojv <^voei
fiaXXov dyarraypiev rr)V deajplav, 8to Set (irj alrias Kadopdv.

GVvearojriDV
15

SvvdpevoL

ye

ra?

SvGX^poLLveLV TTaiSiKcJos rTjV Trepl rojv anporepa)v l,cpa)V eTrioKeifjiv ev Trdoi yap rot? (j>voiKols eveori
^ o/Lio;?

Bekker

:

ofiolcos

codd.

" This passage, 645 a 6-15, is quoted by R. Boyle {0/ the Usefulnesse of Naturall Philosophy^ 1663) both in Gaza's Latin version and in an English translation, and he intro" And, methinks, Aristotle discourses very duces it thus Philosophically in that place, where passing from the consideration of the subliniist productions of Nature, to justifie his diligence in recording the more homely Circumstances of He also quotes the History of Animals, he thus discourses."
:

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

v.

reason of their excellence and worth, greater than that of knowing all things that are here below just as the joy of a fleeting and partial glimpse of those whom we love is greater than that of an accurate view of other things, no matter how numerous or how great they are. But inasmuch as it is possible for us to obtain more and better information about things here on the earth, our knowledge of them has the advantage over the other and moreover, because they are nearer to us and more akin to our Nature, they are able to make up some of their leeway as against the philosophy which contemplates the things that are divine. Of " things divine " we have already treated and have set down our views concerning them so it now remains to speak of animals and ° So far as in us lies, we will not leave their Nature. out any one of them, be it never so mean for though there are animals which have no attractiveness for the senses, yet for the eye of science, for the student who is naturally of a philosophic spirit and can discern the causes of things. Nature which fashioned them provides joys which cannot be measured. If we study mere likenesses of these things and take pleasure in so doing, because then we are contemplating the painter's or the carver's Art which fashioned them, and yet fail to delight much more in studying the works of Nature themselves, though we have the ability to discern the actual causes that would be a strange absurdity indeed. Wherefore we must not betake ourselves to the consideration of the meaner animals with a bad grace, as though we were children since in all natural things there is somewhat of the mar;
; ;

;

;

the following passage, a 15-23, describing reasoning of Aristotle."

it

as " that Judicious

D2

99'

^

ARISTOTLE
645a
TL
20

OavfiaoTov Kal KaOaTrep 'YipaKXecrog Xeyerai

TTpos Tous ^ivovs eliT^lv Tovg povXoiJL€vov9 ivTVX^^v

avTO), ot €7T€LSr] TTpocTLovreg elSov avTov depofievov
Trpog TO) Ittvo) eGTTjGav [eKeXeve

2.1

yap avrovs etVteVat Oappovvras' elvai yap Kal ivravOa Oeov^), ovtco /cat TTpos Tr]v ^-qrrjaLV rrepl eKaarov rcov ^cocuv TrpouUvai Set ixri hvG(x)7TOV}X€voVy d>s eV airaaiv ovros tlvos (f)vcnKov Kal KaXov. To yap fjLTj TVxovTCos dAA' evcKo, tlvos eV rot? tt^s" ov 8' eVe/ca (f)va€a>s epyoLs earl Kal fxaXiara' ovveoTTjKev t) yeyove rlXovs, ttjv tov KaXov ;^ojpav
€LXrj(f)€V.

el

8e

rts"

rrjv

rrepl

rcov

dXXwv

^cp(x)V

decopiav dnpLov etvat vevofiLKe, tov avTov Tponov

80

XPV '^^'' '^^P^^ avTOV' ovk eoTL yap dvev Svax^peia? tSetv e^ Sv avveGTTjKe to tojv dvdpcjTTOJV yevoSy olov at[jLa, udpKes, octtcl, cfiXe^es Kal ra rotaOra pLopta. opLolcos Te Set vo/xt^etv tov 7T€pl OVTLVOaOVV TOJV [lOpLCOV ^ TCx)V GK€VdjV StaoteaQaL
TToXXrjg

AeyojLtevov
firjSe

fjurj

Trepl ttjs vXrjs Trotetcj^at ttjv puvqix-qv,

TavTTjg x^P^^> <^AAa Trj? oXrjg piopcfirjs, olov Kal 7T€pl OLKias, dXXd pLTj ttXlvOojv Kal TTYjXov Kal ^vXojv

85

Kal TOV 7T€pl
oXrjs ovGias,

(f)VG€OJ£ TTepl TTjS

dXXd

purj

rrepl

ovvOeuecos Kal TTJg tovtcdv a jjlt] GvpL^alvei

XOJpi^opievd TTOTe ttjs ovocas avTcov.

Or, with reference to another use of ovala, " which gives Independent approaches to the position their being." that components are non-significant in isolation had been made, e.g. by Anaxagoras, as a physical philosopher (see my article in C.Q. xxv. 27 ff., 112 ff.), who held that " the things (i.e. the constituent elements) in this world are not separate one from another" (frag. 8, Diels, Fragmented
<*

them

100

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
vellous.
visitors

I.

v.

There is a story which tells how some once wished to meet Heracleitus, and when they entered and saw him in the kitchen, warming himself at the stove, they hesitated but Heracleitus there are gods said, " Come in don't be afraid even here." In like manner, we ought not to hesitate nor to be abashed, but boldly to enter upon our researches concerning animals of every sort and kind, knowing that in not one of them is Nature or Beauty
;

;

;

lacking.
I add " Beauty," because in the works of Nature and the purpose and not accident is predominant purpose or end for the sake of which those works have been constructed or formed has its place among what is beautiful. If, however, there is anyone who holds that the study of the animals is an unworthy pursuit, he ought to go further and hold the same opinion about the study of himself, for it is not possible without considerable disgust to look upon the blood,
;

flesh,

bones, blood-vessels,

and suchlike parts of

which the human body is constructed. In the same way, w^hen the discussion turns upon any one of the parts or structures, we must not suppose that the lecturer is speaking of the material of them in itself he is speaking of the whole and for its ovm sake
;

Just as in discussing a house, it is the whole figure and form of the house which concerns us, so in not merely the bricks and mortar and timber Natural science, it is the composite thing, the thing as a whole, which primarily concerns us, not the materials of it, which are not found apart from the thing itself whose materials they are."
conformation.
;

59 B 8)

also from the logical point of view, as seen in ; Plato, Theaetetus, 201 e ff.

101

ARISTOTLE
645 b

^AvayKalov 8e Trpcorov ra avjJL^e^rjKora SieXelv eKaoTOV yevos, oaa Kad^ avra TrdoLv vnapx^L rot? t,a)OLSy fJLeTOL he ravra ras alrias avrcbv TTeipdTvepl

etprjraL fxev ovv /cat Trporcpov on (jdai SteAetv. TToXXa Koiva TToXXols VTTapx^i rajv l^wcov, ra fiev olttXcos {olov TToSes, 7TT€pd, XeTTiSes, Kal ttolOt] St) rov avTov rpoTTOV tovtols), ra S' dvdXoyov {Xeyco 8'

dvdXoyov

,

on

roTs p^^v vrrdp^ei vXevpLOJv, rdls Se

TrXevpLCDV pL€V oVy o he rols e)(ovoi

nXevpova, eKel8e

VOL9 irepov dvrl
10

rovrov Kal

rots' /xev at/xa, rots'

15

TO dvdXoyov rrjv avrrjv €xov Svvap.iv rjvnep tols ivalpLOis TO alpLo)' to 8e Aeyetv x^P^^ Trepl eKdarcov TU)v Kad^ eVaara, Kal epiTrpoodev etVo/Ltcv ort TToAActKts' Gvp^^rjoerai ravra Aeyetv, eVetSav AeycopLev 7T€pl Trdvrcov rcov VTTapxovrcnv vndpx^i 8e TToAAotS' ravrd. ravra pL€v ovv ravrrj SLCoploOaj. 'Evret 8e ro pcev opyavov Trdv eveKd rov, rcov 8e rod oojpLaros pLopiojv eKaarov eveKd rov, ro 8' ov eveKa Trpd^is ns, (f)avep6v on Kal ro ovvoXov acJjpLa GvveGrrjKe irpd^eajs nvog eveKa ttoXv pie pods. ^ ov yap Tj TTpicTis rod TTpiovos X^P^^ yeyovev, dAA' o
TTpLWV TTJs TTpioeajs'
xpT^CTts'

ydp ns

rj

TrpiuLs euriv.

ware Kal ro
20

pLopia rojv epycjv

ra npos a 7Te(f)VKev eKaorov. AeKTeov dpa Trpcorov rds irpd^eis ras re Koivds^ ^ TToXvfMepovs P 7tXi]povs vulg. fortasse TToXvfx6p(f)ov, c£.
acopid ttcos ttjs iJjvx'^? eveKev, /cat
: :

646 b
2

15.

TTavTcjov

post KOLvas viilg.

;

delevi.


''

" blood " Aristotle means red blood only. " Blooded and " bloodless " animals do not quite coincide with verte-

Almost always used

in the singular

by

Aristotle.

By "

brates

and invertebrates which have red blood,

;

for there are
e.g.

some

invertebrates
insect

molluscs (Planorbis),

102

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

v.
Final
of the
-^i^^thod.

First of all, our business must be to describe the attributes found in each group ; I mean those " essential " attributes which belong to all the animals, and after that to endeavour to describe the
It will be remembered that I have causes of them. said already that there are many attributes which are common to many animals, either identically the same {e.g. organs like feet, feathers, and scales, and

affections

similarly),

or

else

common by analogy

only {i.e. some animals have a lung," others have no lung but something else to correspond instead of it ; again, some animals have blood, while others have its counterpart,^ which in them has the same value And I have pointed out as blood in the former). above that to treat separately of all the particular species would mean continual repetition of the same things, if we are going to deal with all their attributes, as the same attributes are common to many animals. Such, then, are my views on this matter. Now, as each of the parts of the body, like every other instrument, is for the sake of some purpose, viz. some action, it is evident that the body as a whole must exist for the sake of some complex action. Just as the saw is there for the sake of sawing and not sawing for the sake of the saw, because sawing is the using of the instrument, so in some way the body exists for the sake of the soul, and the parts of the body for the sake of those functions to which they are naturally adapted. So first of all we must describe the actions (a)
In other inlarvae (Chironomiis), worms (Arenicola). vertebrates the blood may be bhie (Crustacea) or green (Sabellid worms), or there may be no respiratory pigment
at all (most insects).

103

ARISTOTLE
645 b

25

Kal rots' Kara yevos koI ra? /car* efSoj. Aeyco Se KOLvas {lev at TraGiv v7Tdp)(0VGi rdls ^cools, Kara yevos Se ocrojv Trap' aXXrjXa rag Sia(f)opa9 opcjiiev KaB^ v-nepo-xr^v ovoas, olov opviOa Xeyco Kara yevos, dvOpcjOTTOv Se Kar* ethos, Kal Trdv o Kara rov

KaOoXov Xoyov firjhejJLiav ep^et Siacfyopdv. ra {JLev yap e)(ovaL to kolvov Kar dvaXoyiav, rd §€ Kara yevos, rd he Acar' elhos. "Ooai fiev ovv irpd^eis aAAcov eveKa, hrjXov on,
Kal
30

CUV

at

TTpd^ets

rov avrov rpoirov hieordoLV

opioiws he Kav el rives Trporepai Kal reXos erepcov Trpd^ewv rvyxdvovonv ovoai, rov avrov e^ei rpoirov Kal rcov jxopicov eKaarov wv at npd^eis at roiavraf Kal rpirov, a nvojv^ bvrcov
ovirep at Trpd^ecs.

dvayKalov
35

VTrdpx^eiv

.

{Xeyco he Trddrj Kal rrpd^eis

yeveoiv, av^rjaiv,
peiav, Kal ottog*

o;^etav,

eyp-qyopcnv,

vttvov,

tto-

S^6

a.

vnapx^i' fiopia he Xeyo) plva, o(f)daXpi6v Kal ro avvoXov opLOLOJS TTpoacoTTOV, ajv eKaarov KaXeXrau fieXos. he Kal rrepl rcov dXXwv.) Kat TTepl [lev rod rpoTTOV rrjs [ledohov roaavO*
t^cpois

aAAa roiavra rols

rds S* air las Tre LpaOcofiev eiTrelv irepi re rcov kolvcjv Kal rcov Ihicov, dp^djievou, KaOdirep
riplv elpT^adco'

hiajpLaajiev, irpcorov
^

dno

rcov npcorcov.
cov

a

Tivtov

Peck,

cf.

677 a 18:

vulg.

:

a tovtcov Ogle.

" *

Examples

will

See above, note on 644 a 17. occur during the course of the

treatise.

104

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

I.

v.

which are common, and those which belong (6) to a group, or (c) to a species. By " common " I mean those that are present in all animals by " those which belong to a group " I mean those of animals whose differences we see to be differences " of excess " " in relation to one another an example of Man is an example of a this is the group Birds. species so is every class which admits no differentiation of its general definition. These three sorts of common attributes are, respectively, (1) analogous,
;
:

;

(2) generic, (3) specific.

Now it is evident that when one action is for the sake of another action, then the instruments which perform the two actions differ exactly as the two actions differ and if one action is " prior " to another and is the " end " of that other action, then the part of the body to which it belongs wdll be " prior " to the part to which the other action belongs. There is also a third possibility, viz. that the action and its organ are there simply because the presence of others (By affections and actions necessarili) involves them.^ I mean Generation, Growth, Copulation, Waking, Sleep, Locomotion, and the other similar ones that are found in animals. Examples of parts are Nose, each of these is named a " limb " or Eye, Face " member." And the same holds for the rest too.) Let this suffice concerning the method of our inquiry, and let us now endeavour to describe the causes of all these things, particular as well as common and, according to the principles laid down, we will begin with the first ones first.
:

:

;

;

105

B
hiK
10 Tvepl

TLVCjJV

fJLev

ovv

fxopLOJV

Kai

TToaojv

avv

earrjKev eKaurov raJv

t,a)OJV,

iv rats iGTopiaLs rats

avrcbv BeS't^Xajrat oa^iorepov' 8t' as S' alrias €Kaarov tovtov e^^i rov rpoTTOV, eTTiGKeTrriov vvv, Xcoplaavras KaO^ avra rcov iv rals laropiais etpTjTpi(ji)v

8'

ovocbv TcDv (jvvdeueojv Trpcorrjv fiev dv
aepos,
vSaros",
irvpos.

TLS delrj TTjv eK rcov KaXovpLevcov vtto tlvojv oroiX^LCov,
15

OLOV yrj9,
e/c

en

8e

^eXrtov tocos

tcqv hvvdfiecov Xeyetv, /cat tovtojv
/cat

ovK i^

OLTTaacoVy dAA' oiairep iv irepois eipr^rai /cat

TTporepov vypov yap

$rjp6v

/cat

depp.6v /cat
icrrlv,

ipvxpov vXt] rdJv ovvOercov aajfidrajv

at 8'

20

aAAat 8ta^opat Taurats" aKoXovOovaiv, olov ^dpos /cat Kov^OTiqs /cat ttvkvottjs /cat {JLavorrjs /cat rpax^'^V^ '^^^ AetoTT^s" /cat rdXXa rd roiavra irddr] twv acopLdrajv. Sevrepa 8e avaraois €/c rcbv TrpcarcDV
-i^

TcDv

6pL0L0fji€p<JL)V

(jiVGlS

iv Tols

^CpOLS

icTLV,

oloV

OOTOV
"

/cat

uapKos

/cat

rcov dXXcov rcjv TOLOVTa)v.

series cf. Be gen. an. 714 a 9 ff. This " composition " seems to be intended to cover nonorganic compounds. * " Dynamis " here is clearly the pre-Aristotelian technical term. See Introduction, p. 30. See De gen. et corr. chh. 2, 8. ''In some contexts, " fluid " and " solid " seem more

For the threefold

first

"^

106

BOOK
I

II
P'lrpose and

HAVE already described with considerable detail my Researches upon Animals what and how many are the parts of which the various animals are composed. We must now leave on one side what was said there, as our present task is to consider what are the causes through M'hich each animal is as
in

the treatise.

there described it. Three sorts of composition can be distinguished. we may put composition out of the (1) First of all Elements (as some call them), viz. Earth, Air, Water, Fire or perhaps it is better to say dynameis ^ instead of Elements some of the dynameis, that is, not all, It is just as I have stated pre\-iously elsewhere.'^ these four, the fluid substance, the solid,*^ the hot, and the cold, which are the matter of composite bodies ; and the other differences and qualities such as heaviness lightness, firmness looseness, roughness smoothness, etc. which composite bodies present are subsequent upon these. (2) The second sort of composition is the composition of the "uniform"* substances found in animals (such as bone, flesh, These also are composed out of the primary etc.).
I
'^
;

in others, " moist " and " dry " (the traditional Aristotle defines them at De gen. and corr. 329 b 30. See also below, 6-1-9 b 9. I have normally translated them " fluid " and " solid " throughout. • " Uniform," " non-uniform"; see Introduction, p. 28.

appropriate

:

renderings).

107

ARISTOTLE
646 a
^

TpiTT]

he Kal reXevrala /car' dpLOfiov
oloV TTpOOCOTTOV

rj

rajv dv-

OfjiOLOfJLepOJV,

KoL ^^^PO? Kol TCOV

TOlOVrOJV
25

fJLOpLOJV.

'E-TTet 8'

ivavTLOJS inl rrjs yeveaeojs

e;^et /cat ttJ?

ovaias

ret

yap varepa

rfj

yevioei Trporepa ttjv

^UCTtv ioTi, /cat TTpcoTOV TO rfj yeveaeu reXevraiov

{ov

yap

ot/cta ttXlvOcov eVe/ceV ecrrt /cat Xidojv,

dAAa
rov

ravra

rrjs ot/cta?

ojjlolws 8e

rovr

e;)^et

/cat Trept tt^v
e)(€.i

dAAr^v vXrjv ov jjlovov 8e (f)avep6v
80

on

rovrov

TpoTTOV

e/c TTJ?

iTTayojyrjs,
e/c

dXXa

/cat /caret
els'

rov Aoyov
rt vrotetrat
0.776

77av yd/) TO ytvo/xevov
TTjv

rtvos" /cat
ctt*

yeveoLV,

/cat

dyr'

otpxy]?

apx^jv,

ttjs

TrpojTiqs KLVovoris /cat i)(ovor]s tJStj rivd (f)VGLV CTrt

Ttva

jLto/j^T^y

7)

TOLOVTOV dXXo reXos' dvdpojTTOs yap
<J)vt6v

dvOpojTTov
85

/cat

yewa
vXrjs)

EKaarov

VTTOKeLjjLevrjs

—rep

<J>vt6v

e/c

tt]?

Trept

fxkv

ovv

XP^^^
yeveaiv,
fjLopejiTjv.

646 b

Trporepav rrjv vXtjv dvayKaXov etvat

/cat rrjv

rep Xoycp 8e rrjv ovoiav /cat T17V eKacrrov

SrjXov 8' dv Aeyi^ rt? rov

Aoyov
Aoyo?
rov

tt^S"
e;\;et

yeveoecos' 6 [xev

yap
6 8e
5

rrjs OiKoSofirjaecos
TT^S"

rov

rrjs olKLas,

OLKLas ovK

e;^et

rjjs

olKohopLTjoccos.

opioiajs

Se rovro avp^e^rjKe

/cat

eVt rtuv dAAojv.

wore

rrjv pL€V rcjv Groixeioov vXrjv

dvayKalov etvat
e'/cetVcov

rojv 6pLOLop.epa)v eVe/cev varepa

yap

ravra

" Or, " efficient." Or, " in thougrht," " in conception." Almost represented here by " definition.**
^

108

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

i.

substances. (3) The third and last is the composition of the " non-uniform " parts of the body, such as face, hand, and the Hke. Now the order of things in the process of formation is the reverse of their real and essential order I mean that the later a thing comes in the formative process the earlier it comes in the order of Nature, and that which comes at the end of the process is at the beginning in the order of Nature. Just so bricks and stone come chronologically before the house, although the house is the purpose which they subAnd the same applies to serve, and not vice versa. materials of every kind. Thus the truth of my statement can be showTi by induction but it can also
;

;

be demonstrated logically, as follows. Everything which is in process of formation is in passage from one thing towards another thing, i.e. from one Cause towards another Cause in other words, it proceeds from a primary motive Cause which to begin with possesses a definite nature, towards a Form or another such End. For example, a man begets a man and a plant begets a plant. These new individuals are made out of the substrate matter approThus, matter and the process priate in each case. of formation must come first in time, but logically^
;
°'

the real essence and the Form of the thing comes This is clear if we state the logos ^ of such a process. For example, the logos of the process of building includes the logos of a house, but that of a house does not include that of the process of building. And this holds good in all such cases. Hence we see that the matter, viz. the Elements, must exist for the sake of the uniform substances, because these come later in the process of formation than
first.

109

,

ARISTOTLE
648 b
TT]

ravra yap Tjhrj TO reXos e^et xrat to Ttepas, ivl rod rpirov Xa^ovra ttjv ovGraoLV dpidfjiov, Kadamep €7tl ttoXAcov
yeveaei, tovtojv be

^

,

/

c- \

ra

\

^ > avofjiOLOfiepr].

^

\

10

GVfjL^alveL

'E^

d[Ji(f)OTepojv jJLev

TeXeiovaOaL ras yevecrcts'. ovv rd ^cool avvearrjKe rcov

yiopiiov TOVTCov,

dXXd rd

opLOLOfxeprj ra)v dvo/xoto-

ixepayv eVe/ceV
eloivy olov

ydp epya Kal Trpd^eis 6^daXp.ov Kal fJLVKrrjpos Kal rod TTpoGOJTTOV rravrds Kal haKrvXov Kal )(^€ip6s Kal rravros
iKeivojv

ionv

15

rod ^paxi-ovos
rix)V KLVT](7€a>v

.

7ToXvfji6p(f)a)v

Sc rcbv irpd^eoiv

/cat

VTTapxovowv rols t,a)ois oXols re Kal rols jJLopiOLS roLS roiovrois, dvayKalov ef Sv avyKeivrai rds hwajxeis dvofjiota? ex^LV Tvpo? fX€v ydp
riva pLaXaKorrjs XPW^H'^^ Trpds Se nva GKXr]p6rr]s Kal rd fjb€v rduiv e;^etv Set ra Se Kapupiv.
20

To, jLtev ovv ofiOLopueprj Kard fxepog StctAr^^e rds SwdpLets rds roiavras {to puev ydp avrcov iom pbaXaKov rd he oKXiqpov, Kal rd [j,€V vypdv rd 8e ^iqpov, Kal rd [Jiev^ yXiGXpov rd Se Kpavpov), rd 8' Kard rroXXds Kal avyKeipiivas dvoixoLOjJLeprj dXXr]Xais' irdpa ydp Trpds rd Trtecrat rfj x^^P^ XPV~ SiOTTep €^ SvvapLLs Kal TTpos ro Xa^€.lv. 25 GLfjLos oarojv Kal veijpcov Kal oapKos Kal rcjv dXXcov rcbv roLovrojv Gvveorr]KaGL rd dpyaviKd rcov fjuopiajv, dAA' ovK eKelva eV roijrcjv. 'Qs likv ovv eveKa nvos Std ravrr]v rrjv alriav ex^i' 7T€pl rovrojv rdv elprjfjievov rpoTTov, iirel he. ^-qrelrai Kal ttojs dvayKalov ex^-iv ovro), ^avepdv on 80 TTpovTTTJpx^v ovrco TTpos dXXr]Xa exovra i^ dvdyKTjs
* TO /i€v

PZ

:

om. vulg.

110

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
;

II.

i.

the Elements just so the non-uniform parts come than the uniform. The non-uniform parts, indeed, whose manner of composition is that of the third sort, have reached the goal and End of the whole process and we often find that processes of formation reach their completion at this point. Now animals are composed out of both of these two sorts of parts, uniform and non-uniform the former, however, are for the sake of the latter, as it is to the latter that actions and operations belong (e.g. eye, nose, the face as a whole, finger, hand, the arm as a whole). And inasmuch as the actions and movements both of an animal as a whole and of its parts are manifold, the substances out of which these are composed must of necessity possess divers dynameis. Softness is is useful for some purposes, hardness for others some parts must be able to stretch, some to bend. In the uniform parts, then, such dynameis are found apportioned out separately one of the parts, for instance, will be soft, another hard, while one is
later
; ;

;

:

another solid one viscous, another brittle. In the non-uniform parts, on the other hand, these dynameis are found in combination, not singly. For example, the hand needs one dynamis for the action of compressing and another for that of grasping. Hence it is that the instrumental parts of the body are composed of bones, sinews, flesh, and the rest of them, and not the other way round. The Cause which I have just stated as controlling the relation between them is, of course, a Final Cause but when we go on to inquire in what sense it is necessary that they should be related as they are, it becomes clear that they must of necessity have been thus related to each other from the beginning.
fluid,
; ;

Ill

ARISTOTLE
646b
^ ^

ret

[lev

yap

^

^

dvoixoiOfjLeprj
e/c

eV rcvv

ofJLOLOjJLepcov

iv-

hex^Tai ovveordvaiy kol
eVta Tojv
jxauLV,
aTrAcDs".
85

irXeLovajv koL evos, olov

oirXdyxycov TroAu/xop^a ydp toZs (^XV'
ofJiOLOjJLepovs

i^

ovra acofiaros

cog

el-neZv

Tct 8* ofJiOLoiieprj

eV tovtojv dSvvaTOV to
etrj

ydp

6iJLOLO[JL€peg ttoAA'

dv
ras"

dvofJiOLOjieprj.
/cat
rcJov

647 a

Aid

p.kv

ovv ravrag

alrias rd fxev dirXd
/cat

ofjiOLOfieprj,

rd 8e ovvOera
Tols
t>4>ois

dvoixoiofxepr]

fJLoplojv ev

ioriv.

*'Ovrojv

8e

Twv
iv

fiev

opyaviKcov fiepdjv rojv S*
rchv
fxev

aLGd-qrrjpLOJv
5

rols

t^Moig,

opyavLKcov

eKaoTov dvofioLOficpes
Tj

icrriv, axjTrep etirov TTporepov,

8* aiaOrjcTLg

eyyiverai irdcnv iv rols ofMOLOfiepeGLV

8ta ro rcjv aloOrjGeojv OTTOiavovv ivos rivos etvat

yevovg,

/cat

to alaOrjrripLov eKdarov ScKriKov elvai
rrdcrx^i 8e

rojv alaOrjTcov.

to SwdfieL oV vtto rod
rco yevec, /cat

evepyeua dvros, coot'
10

eon rd avrd

(et)^ eKelvo ev, /cat
fJLev t)

rovro
rctJv

ev, /cat 8td

rovro X^^P^

TTpoGOJTTOv

Tj

roLOvrojv ri pLopiojv ouSet?

eyxetpel Xeyeiv rcov (f^vaioXoyajv ro jiev elvai yrjVf

rd

8' vSojp,

ro 8e TTvp- rcov
1

8' aludr]rr]pLOJV

eKaarov

(eO Ogle.

" The translation " sense-organ " must not be taken to imply that the part through which the sense functions is an

112

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

i.

It is possible for the non-uniform parts to be constructed out of the uniform substances, either out of many of them, or out of one only. (Examples of the latter are furnished by certain of the viscera, which, although they are of manifold shapes and forms, yet for all practical purposes may be said to consist But it is of one only of the uniform substances.) impossible for the uniform substances to be confor then structed out of the non-uniform parts we should have an uniform substance consisting of several non-uniform parts, which is absurd. These, then, are the Causes o\Wng to which some of the parts of animals are simple and uniform ; while others are composite and non-uniform. Now the parts can also be divided up into (a) instrumental parts and (6) sense-organs.'* And we may say that each of the instrumental parts of the body, as I have stated earlier, is always non-uniform, while sensation in all cases takes place in parts that are uniform. The reasons why this is so are the follo\Wng The function of each of the senses is concerned w-iih a single kind of sensible objects ; and the sense-organ in each case must be such as can apprehend those objects. Now when one thing affects another, the thing which is affected must be potentially/ what the other is actually so both are the same in kind, and therefore if the affecting thing is single, the affected one is single too. Hence we find that while with regard to the parts of the body such as hand, or face, none of the physiologers attempts to say that one of them is earth, and another water, and another fire yet they do conjoin
:
:

;

;

" organ " in the stricter meaning of the word. " Organs " are normally " non-uniform," sense-organs are " uniform."

113

ARISTOTLE
647a
^

npos eKaarov iTTL^evyvvovai rcov oroi)(€iu)v , to /X€^ depa (jidoKovres elvai, to 8e rrvp. OvGTjs Se rrjs aloB-qoeiOs iv rolg dnXols fxepeaLV
15

^

evXoyoJS jJidXiGra
fjL€v

aujLtjSatVct ttjv

d^r]v iv oiJLOLOjxepei

rJKLcrra 8'

aTrXw rcjv aLa9rjTr)pla)v eyyiv€odai'

fidXiGTa yap avrrj Sok€l TrXeiovcov etvau yevojv, Kal
TToAAds" ^x^t'^ ivavTLa)G€L?

TO VTfo TavTr]v aloOriTov,

depfxov ipvxpdv, ^r]p6v vypov Kal ei tl dXXo tolovtov
20

Kal TO TOVTOJV aludiqTrjpLOV,
inel 8* dSvvaTOV elvai

7]

odpi Kal TO TaVTT]

dvdXoyov, GCxjpLaTajheGTaTOV eVrt rcov alaOrjTrjpiwv.
t,a)ov

dvev alGdi]GeaJs , Kal
t,(x)ois

Sid TOVTO dv

etrf

dvayKalov €X€iv tols
rj

cvta

ixopia ofJLOiojxeprj-

fiev

yap

aiGdrjGLg iv TOVTOig,

at Se 7Tpd^€L? Sid tojv

dvofjLoiofjiepdjv

VTrdp^ovGLV
klvovgtjs

avTois.
25

Tris 8'

aLGdrjTiKTJs

Swdfiecos Kal

Trjg

TO

t^CpOV

Kal

TTJS

9p€7TTLKrjg iv TaVTCp

fJiOpLCp

TOV
irporcts"

Gco/JiaTog 0VG7]g,

Kaddirep iv eVepot?

e'lprjTai

Tepov,

dvayKalov
fj

to

exov

rrpdJTOv

piopiov

TOLavTas dpxd?,
30

[xiv iGTi

heKTiKov TrdvTcov tojv
fj

aLGdrjTcov , Tcijv dTrXdjv etvai jjioptajv,

Se klvtjtlkov

Kal TTpaKTiKov, TOJV dvopLOLopiepojv
Tols dvaipiois
rj
,

.

hiorrep iv fikv
Tots" ivaipiois

t^ojois to dvdXoyov iv 8e Kaphia tolovtov eoTtv SiaLpetTaL

fxev

ydp

els

opLOLOfxepri

KaOdnep
TOV

tojv dXXojv GnXdyx^^cov eKaGTOV,
jJiopcfjTjv

hid

8e

TT^V

GX'JP'OLTOS

dvojJLOLOfJiepds

iGTLV.

TaVTTj 8' TjKoXovdrjKe Kal TOJV dXXoJV TOJV

"

See De somno, 455 b 34

ff.

114


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
II.
i.

each of the sense-orgsms with one of the elementary substances, and they assert that this sense-organ is
air, this

one

fire.

Sensation thus takes place in the simple parts of the body. The organ in which touch takes place is, however, as we should expect, the least simple of all the sense-organs, though of course like the others it is uniform. This is evidently because the sense of touch deals with more kinds of sense-objects than one and these objects may have several sorts of oppositions in them, e.g. hot and cold, solid and fluid, and the like. So the sense-organ which deals with these viz. the flesh, or its counterpart is the most corporeal of all the sense-organs. Another reason we might adduce why animals must of necessity possess some uniform parts at any rate, is that there cannot be such a thing as an animal with no power of sensation, and the seat of sensation is the uniform parts. (The non-uniform parts supply the means for the various activities, not for sensation.) Further, since the faculties of sensation and of motion and of nutrition are situated in one and the same part of the body, as I stated in an earlier work,° that part, Mhich is the primary seat of these principles, must of necessity be included not only among the simple parts but also among the non-uniform parts the former in virtue of receiving all that is perceived through the senses, the latter because it has to do with motion and action. In blooded animals this part is the heart, in bloodless animals the counterpart of the heart, for the heart, like every one of the other viscera, can be divided up into uniform pieces but on the other hand it is non-uniform owing to its shape and formation. Every one of the other so:

;

115

ARISTOTLE
647 a
35

KoXovfievcxJV

a7T\dy)(y<jjv

eVacrrov

cac
tj

t-^?

avrrjs

647 b

yap
Kal

vXrjs

Gweardaiv

alfiaTLK-rj

yap

(fivois rravrajv

avrcov Std to tt^v dioLV
SiaX-ji/jeGiV.

e;^€tv irrl TTopoL? (^Xe^LKoXs

vSaros IXvs, rdXXa GTrXdyxva rrjs Sid rchv (f)Xe^a)v pvoecos rod alparos olov Trpox^vp-ard iartv' rj 8e KapSta, 8ta
KaOoLTrep ovv piovros
5

TO Tojv

(fyXe^cov dpx^]

^Ivai Kal ex^tv iv avrfj rrjv

SvvafjLLV rrjv

8r]fjLLovpyovaav ro af/xa 7rpa)T7]v, €Ve/c

Xoyov i^ otas dpx^TaL^ rpo^ris
eardvai Kal avrrjv.
AtoTt
piev

roiavrrjg avv-

ovv alpLarLKa

rrjv pLopcfy-qv
rfj

iarlv ^iprjTaiy Kal Slotl
dvopLOLopiepi^.
10

rd oirXdyxva pkv opLOiopeprj rfj 8'
iarl

II.

Tdjv

8' 6pLOiopL€pcx)V pLopicov iv TOLS ^cpoLS

rd piev /xaAa/ca Kal vypd, rd Se OKXiqpd Kal areped, vypd pL€V t) oAcos" rj eojs dv fj iv rfj (jivaei, olov
at/xa,

Ix^Ry

TTipieXrjy

oreap, piveXog, yovrj, X^'^^'

15

ydXa iv rols exovuL, odp^, Kal rd rovroL? dvdXoyov ov ydp diravra rd ^cpa rovra>v rcov pLopLOJV rerevx^v, dXX evia rwv dvdXoyov rovrcov noiv. rd 8e ^r]pd Kal oreped rwv opLOLOpuepcov iarlv, otov oarovv, aKavOa, vevpov, (j)Xei/j. Kal ydp rojv opLOiopLepdjv Tj SiaipeGLS e^et hia(j)opdv' eon ydp ojs iviojv
ro piipos opLwvvpiov

rw

dXco, olov (f)Xe^6s

(j)Xeip,

ean

20

8'

Cl)S

OVX

OpLOJVVjXOV,

dXXd

7Tpoaa)7TOV 7Tp6(ja)7TOV

ovSapLws.
^ otas corr. in loco pluritim litterarum ot as Z {as Z^ in rasura). apxerat (vel dpx>] eWi) Peck, cf. 666 a 7, b 1, etc. : bexerat vulg.
:

Y

116


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
called viscera follows suit.
IT.
i.-ii.

They
all

are

all

composed

of the same material, as they

have a sanguineous character, and this is because they are situated upon the channels of the blood-vessels and on the
All these viscera (excluding points of ramification. the heart) may be compared to the mud which they are as it were a running stream deposits deposits left by the current of blood in the bloodvessels. As for the heart itself, since it is the startingpoint of the blood-vessels and contains the substance {dynamis) by which the blood is first fashioned, it is only to be expected that it will itself be composed out of that form of nutriment which it originates. have now stated why the viscera are sanguineous in formation, and why in one aspect they are
;

We

uniform and in another non-uniform. II. Of the uniform parts in animals, some are The uniform Some are ^^^ ^ soft and fluid, some hard and firm. permanently fluid, some are fluid only so long as they are in the living organism e.g. blood, serum, lard, suet, marrow, semen, bile, milk (in the lactiferous (As these parts are of course not to species), flesh. be found in all animals, add to this list their counterOther of the uniform parts are solid and parts.) examples are bone, fish-spine, sinew, bloodfirm This division of the uniform parts admits a vessel.
:

further distinction There are some of them of which a portion has, in one sense, the same name as the whole (e.g. a portion of a blood-vessel has the name blood-vessel), and in another sense has not the same name. (In no sense is this the case with a for instance, a portion of a face non-uniform part
: ;

cannot be called face at

all.)

117

ARISTOTLE
647 b

UpojTov
CO?
vXt]

fji€v

ovv

/cat rots'

vypotg fioptocg koI rots

^rjpols 77-oAAot rpoTTOi rrjs alrias elaiv.

ra

}i€V

yap

tlov fJLepojv rcuv dvofiOLopiepajv

25

30

rovTCUv yap avveur'qKev eKaarov rchv fxepcovy i^ OGTOJV Kal vevpojv /cat crap/ccuv /cat dXXojv roLOvrcov cru/x/SaAAo/xeVoji' rd fxev els rrjv ovalav ra 8* els TTjv ipyaulav), rd Se rpo(f)rj rovroLS rcov vypcjjv iori (Trdvra yap e^ vypov Xa/jL^dvet rr]v av^rjcTLv), rd 8e Trepirrcofiara avjJL^ePrjKev etvat rovra>v, olov riqv re rrjs i'qpds rpo(f)rjs VTToaraaiv /cat rr]v rr^s vypds rots exovai Kvoriv. Avrojv he rovrojv at hta^opal TTpds d'AAryAa rod ^eXriovos eveKev elaiv, olov rwv re aAAojv /cat aljjLaros TTpds alfia' rd puev ydp Xenrorepov rd Se
fxev KaOapcorepov eorru rd de 8e rd [lev ipvxporepov rd Se depjxdrepov, ev re rots fioploLs rod evos ^cpov {rd ydp iv roLS dvoj pLepeoi Trpos rd Karoj pLopta diacjiepei

eartv (eV opyavLKcov

7Ta)(vrepov

/cat

rd

OoXepcorepov,

en

35

ravrais rats Sta^opats")
648 a /cat dX(x>s

/cat

erepco

rrpos

erepov.
8'

rd

piev eVat^Lta rd}v

t,cx)cov ecrrl,

rd

avrt

rod alpLaros e^^i erepov

ri p.6piov roiovrov.

"EcjTt 8' loxdos p-ev TTOi-qriKcorepov rd rraxvrepov
at/xa /cat 6epp,6repov, alodrjrLKCjorepov 8e /cat voepd)-

6 e;!^et

repov TO Xeirrdrepov Kal ipvxporepov. rrjv avrrjv 8' diacpopdv /cat to ayaAoyov vrrdpxov^ vpos rd
^

TO

.

.

.

virdpxov

P

:

rtDv

.

.

.

VTiapxovTOiv vulg.

*•

**

i.

Or, " reason." See Introduction, pp. 32 ff. ' See Introduction, pp. 28 ff. With this passage compare Hippocrates, HipX SiairrjSf 35. See also below, 650 b 24 ff., and Introduction, pp.

37-39.

118

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

ii.

Now first of all there are many sorts of Cause to which the existence of these uniform parts, both the fluid and the solid ones, is to be ascribed. Some of them act as the material for the non-uniform parts {e.g. each of the instrumental parts is composed of these uniform parts bones, sinews, fleshes, and the like, which contribute either to its essence, or else towards the discharge of its proper function). Another group of the uniform parts fluid ones act as nutriment for the ones just mentioned, since everything that grows gets the material for its growth from what is fluid and yet a third group are residues ^ produced from the second group examples, the excrement deposited from the solid nutriment and (in those animals which have a bladder) from the fluid
°'

;

:

variations are found among different specimens of these uniform parts, and this is to subserve a good purpose. Blood is an excellent illustration. Blood can be thin or thick, clear or muddy, cold or warm and it can be different in different parts of the same animal instances are known of animals in M'hich the blood in the upper parts differs from that in the lower parts in respect of the characteristics just enumerated. And of course the blood of one animal differs from that of another. And there is the general division between the animals that have blood and those which instead of it have a parf^ which is similar to it though not actually
;
:

nutriment. Further,

blood.

The thicker and warmer the blood is, the more it makes for strength if it tends to be thin and cold, it is conducive to sensation and intelligence.'^ The same difference holds good with the counterpart of
;

119

ARISTOTLE
648 a
^

af/xa* Sto Kal jU-eAirrat Kal d'AAa

rotavra ^wa

(jipo-

VLjJLcorepa ttjv (I>vglv iurlv ivaLjJLOJV ttoXXojv,
evo-ifxajv to, ijjvxpov

Kal rcov

10

exovra Kal Aevrrov at/xa (f)povLapiara Se ra Oepfiov exovra Kal Xenrov Kal KaBapov aju,a yap irpos r avhpeiav to. rotavra Kal irpos (j^povqctLV ex^i KaXaj?. 8l6 Kal ra avoj puopia rrpos ra Kara) ravrrjv e;^et TTjV hia(j)Opdv, Kal rrpos ro OrjXv av ro dppev, Kal ra Se^ta Trpog ra apiarepa rod acojJLaros.
fJLcorepa rcov ivavrtajv euriv.

^OpLOiws Se Kal
15 fjLopiOJV

rrepl rcov a'AAojv

Kal rcov roiovrojv

Kal rGiv avo[ioio[iepo}V vrroXiqTrreov ex^iv rrjv Siacfiopdv, ra jiev irpos ra epya Kal rrjv ovoiav
eKOLGrcp rcov
l^cocov,

ra he

irpos ro [^eXriov

rj

^etpov,

otov ixovrcov 6(f)daXfjLov? a/x^orepcov
GKXrjp6(j)daXixa

ex€i pXe(j)apa

ra S' uypo</>^aA/xa, ra 3' ^X^''* ^po? ro
ex^t^v
rj

ra ix€v ian /cat ra fiev ovk
rr]v oipiv

aKpi-

^eorepav
20

elvai.

"On
avr7]v
(jiVGis,

8'

dvayKalov
(jtvaiv,

alfia

rj rj

ro rovrcp

rrjv

€xov

Kal ris iariv

rod atfiarog
ttoXXcov

TTpcorov SteAojLteVot? rrepl OepiJLOv Kal ipvxpoVy

ovrco Kal rrepl rovrov Oecopr^reov rds air las.

yap
25

7)

(j)VGis

dvdyerai rrpos ravras rds dpxds, Kal
rcx)v pLopiojv.

TToXXol SiaiJi(f)LGpr]rovGi TTola depfid Kal rrola ipvxpd

Tcjv

^cpcjov

Tj

evioi

yap ra evvhpa
(fivoecos

rcov

rret^ojv

OeppLorepd

(jyaoiv elvai,
rj

Xeyovres
rrjs

cos erraviGoZ

rrjv
"

ijjvxporTjra

rod ronov

avrcbv

This sentiment, which at first sight appears to go against the Aristotelian teleology, is supported by actual instances, e.g. the horns of the backward-grazing oxen (659 a 19) and of the deer (663 a 1 1) and the talons of certain birds (694 a 20).

120

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
:

II.

ii.

blood in other creatures and thus we can explain other similar creatures are of a more intelligent nature than many animals that have blood in them and among the latter class, whysome (viz. those whose blood is cold and thin) are more intelligent than others. Best of all are those animals whose blood is hot and also thin and clear they stand well both for courage and for intelligence. Consequently, too, the upper parts of the body have this pre-eminence over the lower parts the male over the female and the right side of the body over the

why bees and

;

;

;

;

left.

WTiat applies to the blood applies as well to the other uniform parts and also to the non-uniform
parts similar variations occur. And it must be supposed that these variations either have some reference to the activities of the creatures and to their essential nature, or else bring them some advantage or disadvantage. ° For example, the eyes of some creatures are hard in substance, of others, fluid some have eyelids, others have not. In both cases
;
;

the difference
vision.

is

for the sake of greater accuracy of

Before we can go on to consider the reasons why all animals must of necessity have blood in them or something which possesses the same nature, and also what the nature of blood itself is, we must first come to some decision about hot and cold. The nature of many things is to be referred back to these two principles, and there is much dispute about which animals and which parts of animals are hot and which are cold. Some assert that water-animals are hotter than landanimals, and they allege that the creatures' natural heat makes up for the coldness of their habitat.
'

121

ARISTOTLE
648 a

BepjxorrjSy Koi

ra dvaifia

rcov ivaifxcov /cat to, di^Xea

Tcbv dppevojVy olov HapjjLeviSr]? ras yvvaiKas rcov
80

avhpihv depfxorepas elvai
Sta TTjv BeppLorriTa
/cat

(fyrjGL

/cat

erepoi rives cu?

yLvofidvcov rojv yvvaiKelcxJVy ^KfXTTeSoKXrjs 8e rovvavrlov' ert 8*
at/xa
(f)a<jLV

TToXvaifio-uoais

/cat

x^^W
/cat

^^ H-^^ deppiov oirorepovovv elval
el 8'
e;!(et

avTOJV, ol Se xpvxpov.

roaavrTji'

TO
35

depjJLov

ro ipvxpov

dfjL(f)La^rJTr]aLV,

ri

XPV
iv-

TTepc Tcov

oiXXcov vTToXa^elv ;

ravra yap

rjpuv

apyearara
64:8 b

rcov nepl rr]v aicrdrjGLV.

"Eot/ce he Sta to iroXXaxoJS Xeyeudai to OepjJLO-

re pov

ravTa

avj-L^aLveiv'

eKaoTOs
(jltj

yap hoKeZ
XavOdvetv

rt

Xeyeiv TavavTia Xeycov.
8et TcDv
(f)V(jei

8t6 8et

rrojs
to.

ovveGTOjrojv

tol fiev

depfid Xeyeiv
errel
t,aj7Jg

Se ipvxpd,
a'lTia
5

/cat

rd

[lev irjpd tol 8'
/cat

vypd,
/cat

oti

y

TavTa axehov
/cat

Oavdrov

eoiKev

ctvat (f)avep6v, ert 8' vttvov /cat eyprjyopaecos /cat
aKfjLrjs

yqpojs

/cat

vouov

/cat

vyieias, dAA' ou
/cat /cou-

rpaxvTTjTes koi Xecorr^res ovSe ^apvTrjTeg
(f)6T7]Tes
/cat

odS^ dXXo TOJv ToiovTOJv ovSev

COS"

eiirelv.

TOUT*

euAoyco? (JVfi^e^rjKev KaOdnep yap iv
TrpoTepov,
eloi,

eTepois
10

e'lprjrai

dpxo-i

tcov

(f)VOLKajv
/cat

GTOixeiojv

avTai

OeppLOV

Kal

i/jvxpov

^Tjpov /cat vypov.

YioTepov ovv aTrXajs Xeyerai to dep/xov
vaxii>s;

7]

TrXeo7)

8et 817 Xa^eZv Tt epyov
*

tov depfJiOTepov,
note.

See above, 646 a

15,

and

122

'

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

11.

ii.

Further, it is asserted that bloodless animals are hotter than those that have blood and that females are hotter than males, Parmenides and others, for instance, assert that women are hotter than men on the ground of the menstrual flow, which they say is due to their heat and the abundance of their blood. maintains the Empedocles, however, opposite opinion. Again, some say that blood is hot and bile cold, others that bile is hot and blood cold. And if there is so much dispute about the hot and the cold, which after all are the most distinct of the things which affect our senses, what line are we to take about the rest of them ? Now it looks as if the difficulty is due to the term Tho primary " hotter " being used in more senses than one, as there (^) '^'S"^ seems to be something in what each of these writers and "cold." says, though their statements are contradictory. Hence we must permit no ambiguity in our application of the descriptions " hot " and " cold," " solid " and ** fluid " to the substances that are found produced by nature. It is surely sufficiently established that these four principles (and not to any appreciable extent roughness, smoothness, heaviness, lightness, or any such things) are practically the causes controlhng life and death, not to mention sleep and waking, prime and age, disease and health. And this, after all, is but reasonable, because (as I have said pre\'iously in another work) these four hot, cold, solid, fluid are the principles of the physical Elements." " Let us consider, then, whether the term " hot has one sense or several. To decide this point, we must find out what is the particular effect which a body has in virtue of being hotter than another, or, if there are several such effects, how many there are.
;
'

E

123

ARISTOTLE
648 b
^

15

eVa fxev 87) rpoirov Aeyerat ixdXXov ov fidXXov OepfxalveraL ro oLTTTOfJLevov, d'AAaJs- 3e TO fJLaXXov aiGdrjaLV ifiTTOLOVV iv ro) diyyaveiv, /cat rovr^ , iav [lerd Xvtttjs. eon 8* ore SoKel rovT* elvat ifjevhos' eviore yap rj e^is alria rov dXyeZv aloOavoiievois en ro rrjKruKCjrepov rov
TTOcra, el TrXelco.

depfiov

v(j)*

.

rod Kavarov KavoruKcorepov en iav ro fxev ttXIov ro 8' eXarrov ro avro, ro rrXeov rov fj 20 eXdrrovos depjjLorepov. rrpos 8e rourots" Suotv ro ra)(ea)s ipvxofievov dXXd ^paSeco? depfxorepov, fJLT] /cat ro ddrrov 6eppLaLv6}xevov rod depfxaivofievov PpaSecos depfjLorepov elvat, rrjv (f)vaLv ^ajLteV, cus" to
rr]Krov
/cat
.

25

8* opioiov on eyyvsfjiev evavriov on rroppo), ro Xeyerai fiev ovv el {jltj irXeovaxcj^? , dXXa TOcraurap^cD? erepov irepov depfiorepov rovrovs 8e rov? rpoirovs

dSvvarov inrapxeiv

rep avrco iravras' Oeppiaivei fxev

yap

fjidXXov

ro

l,eov

r'^Kec ro

Kavarov

/cat

vhcop rrjs (f)Xoy6s, /catet 8e /cat rrjKrov rj cf)X6^, ro 8' vSojp
t,eov

ovSev.

en

depfiorepov jiev ro

vScop

7]

TTvp

80

oXlyov, iJjvx^raL Se /cat ddrrov /cat /xaAAov to deppLOV vhojp pLLKpov TTvpos' OV ydp ytverai i/jvxpov TTvp,

vSojp 8e ylver at irdv.

en

0epp.6repov fxev
/cat

Kara

rrjv

d^Tjv ro t,eov vhojp, xpvx^rai 8e Odrrov

m^yvvraL

35

rov eXaiov. en ro alp.a Kara p.ev rrfv dcprjv depfiorepov uSaros" /cat eXalov, TTrjyvvrai he ddrrov. en Xidoi /cat oih-qpos /cat rd roiavra deppLaiverai /xev ^pahvrepov vharos, /catet he Oepfiavdevra pLoXXov.
TTpds

he

rovrois

rwv

Xeyop.evon>

deppLcbv

rd

jiev

"

Alluding, perhaps, to the expansion due to heat.

124.

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

ii.

A is said to be " hotter " than B (1) if that which comes into contact with it is heated more by it than by B. (2) If it produces a more violent sensation M'hen touched, and especially if the sensation is accompanied by pain. (The latter is not always a true indication, since sometimes the pain is due to the
condition of the percipient.) (3) If it is a better melting or burning agent. (4) If it is of the same composition as B, but greater in bulk,'^ it is said to be "hotter" than B, and in addition (5) if it cools more slowly than B, or warms up more quickly in both these cases we call the thing " hotter " in its nature as we call one thing " contrary " to another when it is far removed from it, and " like " it when
:

it

is near one thing

it.

is

said

But although the senses in which to be " hotter " than another

certainly as many as this, if not more, yet no one thing can be " hotter " in all of these ways at once. For instance, boiling water can impart heat more effectively than flame but flame is able to cause burning and melting, whereas water is not. Again, boiling water is hotter than a small fire, but the hot water will cool off more quickly and more thoroughly than the small fire, since fire does not become cold, but all water Again, boiling water is hotter to the touch does. than oil, yet it cools and solidifies more quickly. And again, blood is warmer to the touch than either water or oil, yet it congeals more quickly. Again, stone and iron and such substances get hot more slowly than water, but once they are hot they burn other things more than water can. In addition to all this there is another distinction to be made among the things that are called " hot " in some of them the

are

;

:

125'

ARISTOTLE
649 a

6

10

15

aXXoTptav e;^et rr^v depiior-qra ret 8' oiKeiaVy Sta(f)€p€L Se TO deppLov elvai ovtojs tj €K€lvcu? TrXelarov, iyyvs yap rod Kara avfi^ej^i^Kos etvai depjjLov dXXa fjLrj KaO^ avro ddrepov avrwv wGTTep dv et rt? Xeyoi, €L ovfi^e^-qKos etr] ro) TTVperrovn elvai fiovGLKco, Tov fJLOvaiKov elvai depfxorepov t) rov fxeO^ vyieias inel 8* iarl ro fiev KaO^ avro OeppLov ro depp-ov. 8e Kara ovpL^e^-qKos, i/jvx^raL fiev ^pahvrepov ro Kad^ avro, deppuaivei he pidXXov rroXXaKis rrjv aio67]GLv ro Kara uvpL^e^rjKos' Kal TrdXtv Kaiei {xev fiaXXov ro Kad^ avro 6epp.6v, olov r] (f)X6^ rov v8aro£ rov t,eovros, deppiaivei 8e Kara rrjv d(f)rjv ro cocrre t,eov ptaXXov, ro Kara avpi^e^iqKos deppiov. (f)avep6v on ro Kplvai hvolv norepov deppLorepov ovx aTrXovv coSt pLev yap roSe eorai Oeppiorepov, coSt he evLa he rcbv roLovrcxJV ovh^ eunv dirXdjs Odrepov. elrrelv on BeppLov tj pLT] deppLov o pLev ydp rrore rvyxdvei ov ro vTTOKelpLevov ov deppLov, ovvhval^opievov he deppiov, olov et rt? deZro 6Vo/xa
oihrjpcp
Oeppicp'

vhan

t)

rovrov ydp rov rpoirov ro at/xa
/cat TTOiel

OeppLov eunv.
20 rots'

he (f)avep6v iv rols roLov-

ro ipvxpdv (f)vaLS ris aAA' ov areprjois eonv, iv ouoLS ro vTTOKeLjxevov Kara irddos OeppLov eonv. rdxo- he Kal rj rod rrvpog (J)vgls, el ervx^, roiavrr) ns eariv 'Igojs ydp rd VTroKelpievov eanv rj Kanvos Tj dvdpa^, wv rd piev del OeppLov [dvaOvpLLaois ydp d eXatov KaiTvos), d 8* dvOpa^ drroG^eudels ipvxpd?. he Kal TTevKTj yevoir dv ijjvxpd. ex^i he deppLdrrjra
" That is, " blood " is really " hot x,"" and the " x " is no more hot of its own nature than the " water " in " hot water." Cf. 649 b 21 ff., and Torstrik, Rh. Mus. xii. 161 ff.
* Perhaps a reference to the resin which obtained from it.

on

is

in firwood or

is

126

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
heat
is

II.

ii.

it has been derived from a very great difference between these two ways of being hot, because one of them comes near to being hot " by accident " and not hot " of itself" as is obvious, supposing anyone were to assert, if a fever-patient were " by accident ** a man of culture, that the man of culture is hotter than a man whose heat is due to his perfect health. Thus some things are hot " of themselves " and some hot " by accident," and though the former cool more slowly, the latter are in many cases hotter in Again, the former have their effect upon the senses. e.g. a flame burns you a greater power of burning more than boiling water, yet the boiling water, which is hot only " by accident," causes a stronger sensation of heat if you touch it. From this it is plain that it is no simple matter to decide which of two things is the hotter. The first will be hotter in one way, and the second in another. In some cases of this sort it is actually impossible to say simply that a thing is hot or is not hot. I mean cases in which the substratum in its permanent nature is not hot, but when coupled (with heat) is hot as if we were to give a special name to hot water or hot iron that is the mode in which blood is hot.** These cases, in which the substratum is hot merely through some external influence, make it clear that cold is not just a privation but a real thing in itself. Perhaps even fire may be an instance of this kind. It may be that its substratum is smoke or charcoal and, though smoke is always hot because it is an exhalation, charcoal when it goes out is cold. In the same way oil and firwood ^ become cold. Further, practically all

their

own

;

in others
is

\v'ithout.

And

there

;

:

;

:

:

I2T

ARISTOTLE
649a
2:>
^

Kol TO, TTvpojdevra Travra o-)(eh6v, olov Kovia /cat re^pa, /cat to, vTTOGTrniara rcov ^coojv, /cat tcDv
TTepiTTOJfJiarojv
rj

^

,

f

T

f

\

X^^V*
eV

'^^

ifJLTreTrvpevcrOai

/cat

iyKaraXeXelcfidal tl

aurots"

Oepfiov.

aWov

8e

rpoTTOv Oepiia} TrevKT] /cat ra TTiova, ro) ra^v /xerajSaAAetv ei? ivipy eiav rrvpos.
30

Ao/cet Se TO depfiov /cat 7Tr]yv6vai /cat ri^/cctv.
/Ltey

ocra

ow

L'Saros' piovov,

ravra
yrjs

irriyvvoL

to

ijjvxpoVy

ocra Se
i/jvxpov

y^^S",

to

TrOp- /cat Tcoy deppicov Tn^yvvraL vtto

raxv pikv oua Xvrojs S' oca vSaros.

pLoiXXov

/cat

olXvtcos,

dXXa

Trepl pikv

tovtojv iv
/cat

iripois StctjptCTTat oacj^iorepov , nroZa ra TrrjKrd,
TT-^yvvraL 8ta TtVa? alrias.
35

To
TTO-GLV,

Sc Tt

OeppLOV /cat ttoIov

OeppLorepov eVetSi)

649 b

AeyeTat

ou tov auTov rpoirov VTrdp^ei dXXd TTpoa^LopiuTeov on KaO^ avro /xev roSe,
TT-Aeova;)^;^!)?,

Kara avpipe^rjKos Se
/xev

vroAAa/ct?

ddrepov,^
ttjv

en

8e

8vvdpL€L pL€v Tohi, Tohl §6 /caT* ivepyetav, /cat TOvSe

Tov rpoTTOV rohi, rco pLoiXXov
ToSt
/cat

dcjyrjv

Oep-

5pLaiV€LV,

8e

TO)

(j)X6ya

Xeyopuivov Se tou depp^ov
hriXov

on

to

i/jvxpov

Kat

TTept

jLtev

Oepp^ov

V7T€pOXT]S aVTcbv hlCOpioOcO

nvpovv. TroXXax^os, dKoXovQ-quei Kara rov avrov Xoyov. /cat ipvxpov /cat tt}? TOV rpOTTOV TOVTOV.
TTOieZv
/cat

III. 'E;)(op,ep'OV 8e /cat 776pt irjpov /cat
10

vypov SteA-

^€tv aKoXovOtxJs Tot? elpripiivois
^ Oipjxa Peck TToAAaKi? ^arepov]
:

.

Xeyerai Se ravra

Oepfiov vulg.

*

num

raAAo depfioTepov?

''

See 3/^^^or. 382 b 31 fF., 388 b 10 ff. Probably the text should be altered to read

:

'*

B hotter

by accident." " See note on QiQ a 16, and Introd. p. 32.

128

"

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

ii.-ui.

things that have passed through a process of combustion have heat in them, such as cinder, ash, the excrement of animals, and bile (an instance of a
residue).

These have passed through fire and some heat is left behind in them. Firwood and fatty they can quickly substances are hot in another way change into the actuality of fire. We must recognize that " the hot " can cause both congealing and melting. Things that consist of water only are solidified by the cold, those that conAgain, hot things are solidified sist of earth, by fire. those that consist chiefly of earth solidify by cold quickly, and the product cannot be dissolved again those that consist chiefly of water can be dissolved I have dealt more particularly after solidification. Mith these matters in another work,'' where I have stated what things can be solidified, and the causes
:
:

;

that are responsible for it. So, in view of the fact that there are numerous senses in which a thing is said to be " hot " or "hotter," the same meaning -w-ill not apply to all instances, but we must specify further, and say that A is hotter " of itself," perhaps " by accident " ^ ; and again actually and we that C is hotter potentially, must also say in what way the thing's heat manifests itself: e.g. causes a greater sensation of heat when touched causes flame and sets things on fire. And of course, if " the hot " is used in all these senses, there will be an equal variety of senses attaching to " the cold." This will suffice for our examination of the terms " hot " and " cold," " hotter " and " colder." III. It follows on naturallv after this to discuss "the solid" and "the fluid " on similar Unes.

B

D

;

;

E F

(?»" solid ""^"^"''^•'

'^

129

ARISTOTLE
649 b

7TX€ovax<^<s ,

olov

ra

/xev

Svvdfiei,

ra

8'

ivepyeta.

KpvaraXXos yap Kal
iyjpa}
juev

irav ro TTeTrrjyos

vypov Aeyerat
ovra

ivepyela

Kal

Kara
yrj

ovjijie^riKos,

Sum/xet Kal Kad^ avra vypd,
15 TO,

8e Kal ri^pa Kal

fxev vypd Kal avrd Sc /cat hwdpiei ^rjpdhiaKpidevra he ravra ra jxev vSaros dvaTrXr^GTiKd Kal evepyeia Kal hvvdfxei vypd, rd 8e yr^s aTravra

roiavra fJuxOevra vypuj ivepyela
avpi^e^-qKos, Kad^

Kara

^rjpd,

Kal

TO

Kvpiojs

Kal

aTrActJ?

^f]pov

rovrov

/xaAtcrra Aeyerat rdv rpoirov.
20

ojjlolws Se /cat
e-)(ei

ddrepa

ra vypd Kard rdv avrdv \6yov
dnXajs, Kal
hiCopLGpievajv
iirl

to Kvpiios Kal
tovtojv he
jxev

Oepficov Kal iJjvxp(J^v.
atjLta

<^avepdv ort to
Tjv

coSt

eon

deppLov [olov TL^

avTO) TO alpLari etvat;]* Kaddirep
oriiiaivoipiev

ydp^

el

ovojJiarL

tlvl*

rd
/cat

t^eov

vhajp,

OVTO) Aeyerat
25

to

8*

v7TOKeip,evov

o 770Te 6V
fJLev

alpid ear IV, ov OeppLov Kal Kad*

avrd eari
ev
puev

ojs

6ep[i6v

ecrriv,

eari

8*

cu?

ov-

ydp

rep

vrrdp^ei avrov t) OeppLorrjg, cjairep ev rw rod XevKov dvOpconov rd XevKov f) he Kard irddos, TO at^a ov KaO^ avrd Oepixov.^

Xoyo)

*0fiOLOJS he Kal rrepl ^r]pov Kal vypov.
^

hid Kal

^

olov Tt
*

Bekker.

ovo/xttTi TLVL
^
11.

Peck ^7/pov vulg. haec, signo interrog. adscr., seclusi. ^ yap Z om. vulg. PSUZ^ ovofiaTL Ti : ovofiari vulg.
^T]pa
: : :

EY

22-29 interpunctionem correxi.

" i.e. they assume the shape of the receptacle into which they are put.

130

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
These
" solid "

II.

iii.

terms

are

used in several

senses.

E.g.

and " fluid " may mean either potentially solid and fluid or actually solid and fluid. Ice and other congealed fluids are said to be solid actually and by accident, though in themselves and
potentially they are fluid.

On

the other hand, earth

and ash and the

like,

when they have been mixed

with a fluid, are fluid actually and by accident, but potentially and in themselves they are solid. When these mixtures have been resolved again into their

components, we have on the one hand the watery constituents, M'hich are anaplestic,^ and fluid actually as well as potentially, and on the other hand the earthy components which are all solid and these
:

are the cases where the term " solid " is applicable most properly and absolutely. In the same way, only those things which are actually as well as potentially fluid, or hot, or cold, are such in the proper and absolute sense of the terms. Bearing this distinction in mind, we see it is plain that in one way blood is hot [e.g. what is the essential definition of blood ?], for the term " blood " is used just as the term for " boiling water " would be, if we had a special name to denote that but in another way, i.e. in respect of its permanent substratum, blood is not hot. This means that in one respect blood is Heat essentially hot, and in another respect is not. will be included in the logos of blood, just as fairness is included in the logos of a fair man, and in this way blood is essentially hot but in so far as it is hot owing to external influence, blood is not
;
;

essentially hot.

A
solid

similar

argument would hold with regard to the and the fluid. And that is why some of these

e2

131

y

ARISTOTLE
649b
so
^

ev rfj cf)V(j€L Twv tolovtojv to, fX€V depjJLa Kal vypd, xwpL^^ojjLeva 8e TTiqyvvrai Kal i/jvxpcL ^atVerat, otov

^

^

TO

alfia,

ra 8e Oepfia Kal

tto-xo?

expvra KaOdrrep
'^^^

r)

XO^tJ, x^ptfo/xei-a S' €K rrjs (f)VG€OJs rojv exovrcDV

TovvavTiov TTaox^^'
likv

4'^X^'^'^^

7^9

vypaiverai' to
r]

yap

alfia ^rjpaiverai /xaAAov, vypaiverai 8'
'"'^

^avdr) X^^l35

dvTiK€iixev(x>v

60S"

^^ fJidXXov Kal rjrrov ju,eTe;)(ety VTTapxov^ Set Tidevai rovrotg.

rwv
ttojs

650 a

Hcos" /xev ouv deppLov Kal ttcos
T(JL)V

vypov, Kal

ivaVTLWV

Tj

(jiVGLS

TOV

atjU-ttTOS"

KeKOlVOJVTjKeV

€LprjTaL crx^Sov.
'Ettci 8' dvayKT]
Tpo(f)'r^v, Tj

ndv to av^avopievov Xap-^dveiv

5

rovTOJV

Trdoiv i^ vypov Kal ^7]pov, Kal yiverai Kal tj piera^oXr) 8td tt^s" tov Oeppiov Svvdfiewg, Kal ra ^a)a rrdvra Kal ra </)UTa,

8e

Tpo(f)rj

Tj TriijjLs

Koiv el pLTj 8t' aXXriv alriav, dXXd hid ravrrjv dvayKolov ex^iv dpx^v deppiov (f)VGiK7Jv. [Kal ravrrjv ojGTTep] at {8'y ipyaoiai rrjs rpo(f)rjs TrAetovcov elal

fioplojv'
10

7)

pikv

yap

Trpcorrj

(f)av€pd

rois

^coois

Xeirovpyia hid rod oropiaros ovaa Kal ra)v iv rovrcp pLopicov, oacnv tj rpo(f)rj Seirai hiaipioeojs. dXX avrrf piev ovSepiids airia 7Tei/jea>£, dAA' €vTTeijjias pidXXov rj ydp els piiKpd hiaipeois rrjs
rpocj^rjs

pdo) TTOiel rep deppicp rrjv ipyaoiav
TTJs"

rj

8e rr]s

dvcD Kal
^ '

Kdro) KoiXias

rjhr]

pierd deppiorrjros

vndpxov Peck
KOI
ravT-qv

(^vXeloai fJLopiois

: virdpxovTa vulg. uxnTcp seclusi, <8') ivvTrdpxovaav} Camus.

supplevi

:

Kal

ravr-qv

See above, note on 644 a 17. See Introduction, p. 34. Lit. " the dynamis of the hot substance," perhaps here something more than a mere periphrasis for " the hot sub"
*
*

132

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II. iii.

substances while in the Hving organism are hot and fluid, but when separated from it congeal and are observed to be cold, as blood does others, like yellow bile, are hot and of a thick consistency while in the organism, but when separated from it undergo a change in the opposite direction and become cool and fluid. Blood becomes more sohd, yellow bile becomes fluid. And we must assume that " more and less " ° participation in opposite characteristics is a property of these substances. We have now pretty well explained in what way blood is hot, in what way it is fluid, and in what way it participates in opposite characteristics. Everything that grows must of necessity take food. This food is always supplied by fluid and solid matter, and the concoction ^ and transformation of these is eifected by the agency of heat.'' Hence, apart from other reasons, this would be a sufficient one for holding that of necessity all animals and plants must have in them a natural source of heat though there are several parts which exert action upon the In the case of those animals whose food needs food. to be broken up, the first duty clearly belongs to the mouth and the parts in the mouth. But this operation does nothing whatever towards causing concoction it merely enables the concoction to turn out successfully because when the food has been broken up into small pieces the action of the heat upon it is rendered easier. The natural heat comes into play in the upper and in the lower gut,
; ;
:

;

stance," as emphasizing its proper and specific natural character, which makes it a particularly good agent for effecting concoction. See Introduction, pp. 30-32.

133

ARISTOTLE
650 a
15

8e /cat to nopos iori, /cat TO Gvvex^? aura) fiopiov o KoKovaiv olao^dyov, ooa Tcov t,a)OJV e^cL rovro to fiopiov, 'iojs els TTjv KoiXiav, ovTio /cat aXXovs hel nopovs^ etvat, St' cov arrav XijifjeTai to aojpLa ttjv Tpo^iqv, warrep
^voLKTjS
TTOielrai
TTjv
ireifjiv.

woTrep

arojJLa rrjs

aKarepydarov

rpocfyrj?

20 e/c

cfyaTvrjg,

e/c

ttjs

KoiXtas
Trjg

/cat

ttjs

tcx)v

ivTf.pcov

(f)V(T€(x>s.

TO, fj-ev

yap <^VTd Xapi^dvei
yrjs
rots* cjiVTols' ttj

ttjv Tpo(f)'qv

KaT€ipyaopi€vr)v
TTepLTTCOfJLa

€/c

rat? ptfat?

(Sto

/cat

ov ytVerat

yap

yfj /cat

TTJ ev avTTJ depjJLOTTjTL

xprjTai ayorrep koiXlo), to, 8e t,wa TrdvTa fxev ox^Sov, to, Se nopevTiKa (f)av€poj?y
e;^'et

25

olov yi]v €V avTols
-j^S",

to

tt^S"

kolXlos kvtos, i^
Set Ttvt ttjv

a)07Tep eKelva Tat? pl^aLS,

TauTa

Tpo(j)r]v

to ttjs ixo{JLdvr]s Treipeajs Xd^Tj TeXos. Tj fjLev yap tov UTopiaTos ipyacrla rrapaStScoat ttJ KOiXia, rrapd Se TavTiqs €T€pov dvayKalov
XapL^dveiv,
ecus*

30

Xapi^dveiv , orrep avpLJ^e^rjKev at yap (jyXe^eg /caTaTeivovTai hid tov ixeoevTepiov Trapdnav, KdTCoOev
€/c

dp^dpievai pi^xpi Trjg T€ TCOV dvaTopiOJV

/cotAtas".

Set Se

TavTa

deojpeZv

/cat TTJs (f)vaLKrjs

loTopias.
otov dyyelov
r]

'ETret Se Trdoris Tpo(f)rjs euTL tl SeKTLKov /cat tcov

ytvopievwv vreptTTCo/xaTCOv, at Se
alpLaTos
35 Tpo(f)r]

^Ae'/8es"

elai,

<^avep6v

oVt

to

atjLta

TeXevTaia

TOLS t,oiois Tols eVai/xot? eVTt, TOt? S dvaipLois
:

^

aXXovs Set TTopovs Peck

aXXas dpxo.s Set irXelovs vulg.

" Cf.
*

Shakespeare, Coriolanus
to

i.

i.

133-152.

The membrane

which the

" Dissections (or survived.

Anatomy)

intestines are attached. is a treatise which has not

134,

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
which

II. iii.

effect the concoction of the food

And,
it) is

just as the

mouth (and

in

by its aid. some animals the

so-called oesophagus too

which is continuous with the passage for the as yet untreated food, and so there must be other conveys it to the stomach passages through which as from a manger the body as a whole may receive its food from the stomach and from the system of the intestines." Plants get their and since it food from the earth by their roots is already treated and prepared no residue is produced by plants they use the earth and the heat in it instead of a stomach, whereas practically all animals, and unmistakably those that move about from place to place, have a stomach, or bag, as it were an earth inside them and in order to get the food out of this, so that finally after the successive stages of concoction it may reach its completion, they must have some instrument corresponding to the The mouth, then, having done its roots of a plant. duty by the food, passes it on to the stomach, and there must of necessity be another part to receive it This duty is underin its turn from the stomach. taken by the blood-vessels, which begin at the bottom of the mesentery,^ and extend throughout the length of it right up to the stomach. These matters should
;

;

be studied in the Dissections ^ and my treatise on Natural History.^ We see then that there is a receptacle for the food at each of its stages, and also for the residues that and as the blood-vessels are a sort of are produced container for the blood, it is plain that the blood (or its counterpart) is the final form of that food in Uving
;

^ The Natural History, otherwise History of Animals or Researches upon Animals. See 495 b 19 IT., 514 b 10 ff.

135

ARISTOTLE
650 a 650 b Tpocfirjv vTToXeLTTCi

5

10

15

kol hia rovro fxrj Xaix^dvovcrl t€ TOVTO Kal XafJi^dvovGiv av^dverai, Kal XPV^'^V^ M^^ ovGtjs vyieivov, (jyavX-qs 8e (f)avXov. on fxev ovv to atjLta Tpo(f)rjg ev€K€v vnapxei roXg ivaifioLS, (f)av€p6v eK rovrcov Kal tojv tolovtcov. /cat yap S(,d TOVTO dtyyavofievov atodrjULV ov Trotet [ojOTTep ot)S' aXXo tcov TTepLTTajjjLaTOJV ovSev, ovS^ rj TpO(f)r)) KaOdvep udp^-^ avTiq yap dtyyavofievr] TroLel ata6r](jLV. ov yap ovvex^S eVrt to atjLta TavTrj ovSe avjJLTTecjiVKOs, aAA' olov eV dyyeico Tvyxdvei Keijievov ov Se Tporrov €V T€ TTJ Kaphia Kal rat? (^XeiJjLV. XapL^dvei ef avTOV ra pLopia t7]v av^-qaiv, €tl 8e TTepl Tp0(f)rj£ oXco?, iv toIs ire pi y€V€aea>£ Kal iv vvv 8' cm irepoLS olKeioTepov eVrt hieXdeiv. ToorovTOV elprjodix) (togovtov yap xp^^f^H-ov) ^ otl to aljxa Tpocf)rjs eVe/ca Kal Tpo(j)r\s tcov fiopLWV eoTiv. IV. Tds" Se KaXovpiivas Ivas to fxev ex^i at/xa TO 8* OVK eX^i, olov TO tG)V €Xd(f)(jOV Kal TTpOKCJV. SioTTcp ov TriqyvvTai to tolovtov atfia' tov yap OLfxaTO? TO [lev vSaTcoSes fidXXov^ ioTL, 8l6 Kal ov

TO avaXoyov.

TTTiyvvTai,

TO 8e yecoSe? TrriyvvTai oruve^aTfil^ovTOs TOV vypov' at S' tves" yrjs eluiv. 2t»jLt/SatVet S* eVta ye Kal yXa(jiVpajTepav ex^LV
ri7V Stavotav tojv tolovtcov,

20

TOV

at/xaros", dAAct 8td tt^v XeTTTOTTjTa [xaXXov
^
11.

ov Std ttjv ipvxpoTTjTa Kal

4

f.,
^

interpunctionem correxit Cornford.

fidXXov

Z

:

/xdAAov ijjvxpov vulg.

In the Second Book. Also in De gen. et corr. With the sentiments of the following passage and its terminology (" more intelligent," " soul," " blend," etc.) compare the very interesting passage in Hippocrates, Ilepi
"
^

hiaL-rqs,

i.

35.

Cf. 648 a 3.

136

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
creatures.
in

II. iii.-iv.

This explains why the blood diminishes when no food is taken and increases when it is and why, when the food is good, the blood is healthy, when bad, poor. These and similar considerations make it clear that the purpose of the blood in living creatures is to provide them with nourishment and also why it is that when the blood is touched it yields no sensation, as flesh does when it is touched. Indeed, none of the residues yields any sensation either, nor does the nourishment. This difference of behaviour is because the blood is not continuous with the flesh nor conjoined to it organically it just stands in the heart and in the description of blood-vessels like water in a jar. the way in which the parts of the body derive their growth from the blood, and the discussion of nourishment in general, comes more appropriately in the treatise on Generation " and elsewhere. For the present it is enough to have said that the purpose of the blood is to provide nourishment, that is to say, nourishment for the parts of the body. So much and no more is pertinent to our present

quantity

;

;

:

A

inquiry.

of some animals contains what are The uniform the blood of others (e.g. the deer and B^iood! the gazelle) does not. Blood which lacks fibres does not congeal, for the following reason. Part of the blood is of a more watery nature, and therefore while the other part, which is does not congeal earthy, congeals as the fluid part evaporates off. The fibres are this earthy part. Now some of the animals whose blood is watery have a specially subtle intelligence.^ This is due not to the coldness of their blood, but to its greater thinIV.
called fibres
; ;

The blood

ARISTOTLE
660b
^

Sia TO KaSapov etvaf ro
TOVTCDV.

^

yap yeajSes ovSerepov ex^t
/cat

€VKivr]TOTepav yap e)(OVGi rr]v atodrjcrLV ra

XeTTTorepav exovra rrjv vyporrjra
SiOL
25

KaOapajrepav.

yap rovTO Kal tojv avaipLCOv eVia avvercorepav ex^L rr]v ipvxrjv ivlcov ivaifjLOJv, KaOdnep etprjraL Tvporepov, olov 7) /xeAtrra Kal ro yevos to tcov pivppLriKOJV Kav
et Tt

erepov tolovtov ianv.

SeiXorepa 8e
rr]v iv rfj

to.

Atav

vSarcvSr).

6 yap

(f)6^os Karaijjvx^i' TTpocohoiToiqTai

ovv TO) TTadei ra TOLavr7]v exovra
80

Kaphia
Sto

Kpaaiv ro yap vSojp ro) ifivxp^ Kal raXka ra dvaifxa SeiXorepa
TTpoterai
TreptrrcajLtara
/cat

TTrjKrov eGriv.

rcov evaipiojv iarlv

d)5 OLTrXiog eiTreXv, Kal aKivqrL^ei re (f)o^o-u[JL€va

Kal

[xera^aXXei,

evia

ras

XpocLS avrcov.

ra be

ttoXXols

TTax^ias yecohearepa rrjv
85

(f)vaiv

exovra Xlav tvas Kal eorl /cat dvfJLcoSr} ro
depfiorrjros

rjOos

Kal eKorariKa 8td rov dvfiov.
TTOLTiriKov 6 dvjio?,

yap
651 a

fxdXXov depixaivei

ra 8e orepea depfiavdevra rwv vypcov at 8' tides' arepeov Kal

yewSes, (Lore yivovrai olov rrvpiai ev rco alfxart Kal t,eGLV 7TOLOVGLV iv rols OvfiOLS. 8to ol ravpoL Kal
ol Kairpoi OvfJicoSeis Kal eKorariKoi' ro

yap

alfxa

Tovrojv IvajSeorarov, Kal ro ye rod ravpov rdxi'Orra
6

TTT^yvvrai iravrcov.
Ivcjv OX) TTrjyvvr ai
€L

i^atpovfievajv Be rovrcov rajv

ro

alfia'

Kaddnep yap
yT]?p^^]

e/c

tttjXov

ns

e^eXoL ro yecoSes ov irrjyvvrai ro vSojp, ovro)
e^aipovpLevoiV

Kal ro at/xa* at yap tve?

At 648 a 2 ff. For the connexion between fear and cold 692 a 22 ff., and Rhetoric, 1389 b 30. 138
''

cf.

667 a

16,

; ;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

iv.

ness and clarity, neither of which characteristics belongs to the earthy substance and an animal which has the thinner and clearer sort of fluid in it has also a more mobile faculty of sensation. This is why, as I said before," some of the bloodless creatures have a more intelligent Soul than some of the blooded ones e.g. the bee and the ants and such insects. Those, however, that have excessively watery blood are somewhat timorous. This is because water is congealed by cold and coldness also accompanies fear ; therefore in those creatures whose heart contains a predominantly watery blend, the way is already prepared for a timorous disposition.^ This, too, is why, generally speaking, the bloodless creatures are more timorous than the blooded ones and why they stand motionless when they are frightened and discharge their residues and (in some cases) change their colour. On the other side, there are the animals that have specially plentiful and thick fibres in their blood ; these are of an earthier nature, and are of a passionate temperament and liable to outbursts of passion. Passion produces heat and solids, when they have been heated, give off more heat than fluids. So the fibres, which are solid and earthy, become as it were embers inside the blood and cause it to boil up when the fits of passion come on. That is why bulls and boars are so liable to these fits of passion. Their blood is very fibrous ; indeed, that of the bull is the quickest of all to congeal. But just as when the earthy matter is taken out of mud, the water which remains does not congeal so when the fibres, which consist of earth, are taken out of the blood, it no longer congeals. If they are
;
;

;

139

ARISTOTLE
651 a
^

8e TTT^yvvraL, olov vypa
depfJLOv VTTO
10

^

yrj vtto xp'u'xpvs' rod yap rod ipvxpov iKdXi^opilvov auveJarjLtt^ct
/cat TTiqyvvraL

TO vypov, KaOoLTTep €Lpr]TaL irporepov,

ovx
Se

v'^o Oepfiov dAA' vtto ipvxpov ^rjpaLvojJievov.

iv

rots' GcojjLaaLv

vypov eVrt 8ta

rrjv dcpfiorrjra ttjv

iv TOZS ^CpOL?,

IIoAAcov S' iarlv air la

rj

rod aljxaros

<j>vois

koi

Kara to ^dos rolg ^cpoi^ kol Kara rrjv alod-qaiv, euAoyoJS" v\y] yap icrn Travrog rod awpLaros' r] yap
15 Tpo(f>rj

vXt],

to

S*

at;Lta

-q

iaxdrr]

rpo(j)ri.

ttoXXtjv

ovv
/cat

7T0i€L hia(f)opav depfiov

ov

/cat

ipvxpov

/cat

Actttov
^'
^^''"^
rj

TTaxv

/cat

OoXepov
o

/cat

Kadapov.

Ix^P

to vSarojSe? rod alpiaros Sta to
SLe(j)ddp9aL,
6oo-t€

pLrjTTCo 7T€Tr€(f>9ai

[lev

ef

dvdyKrjs lx^P> ^

^'

20

aljiaros X^P^^ eVrtV. V. HifjLeXrj 8e /cat areap SLa(f)€povaL jxev dAA-j^AaJV
/caret

TTjV

Tov at/xaro? hia^opdv.
ireTrefJiiJLevov 8t'

eort

yap

Iko.-

T€pov avTOJV at/xa
jLt'J7

evrpo^iav,
Si^Aot

/cat

ro

KaravaXiGKOfxevov els to GapKwSes fxopLov rcov
€V7T€7TTOv

^q)ajv,
25

8e

/cat

eurpa^e?.

Se ro

AtTrapov aiJTcDv rcov

ydp vypojv ro Xirrapov kolvov
Std rovro ovhkv
e;^€t rail'

dipos

/cat

TTvpos ioriv.

dvaipiojv ovre TnpLeXrjv ovre areap,

on

ovS^ atfia.

rdJv 8' ivaijjLCxJV rd oriap ex^i [laXXov,
"
^

[xev GOJfiarcohes

exovra ro af/xa

ro yap oriap yea)8e? eVrt, 8t6

As
I

it

were, the " raw " material.

" soft

have used the terms " lard " and " suet " rather than fat " and " hard fat " because they represent more
is

closely the distinction

between them

made by Aristotle. The difference now known to be less fundamental, and is

140

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
:

II.

iv.-v.

not taken out, it does congeal, as moist earth does under the influence of cold the cold expels the heat and makes the fluid evaporate, as has been said before so it is due to the solidifying effect of the cold, and not of the hot, that what remains becomes congealed. And while it is in the body the blood is fluid on account of the heat which is there. There are many points both in regard to the temperament of animals and their power of sensation which are controlled by the character of the blood. for the blood is the This is what we should expect material " of which the whole body consists material in the case of living creatures being nourishment, and blood is the final form which the nourishment assumes. For this reason a great deal depends upon whether the blood be hot, cold, thin, thick, muddy, or clear. Serum is the watery part of blood ; and it is watery either because it has not yet undergone concoction or because it has been already corrupted consequently some of the serum is the result of a necessary process, and some is there for the purpose of producing blood. V. The difference between lard and suet ^ is parallel They both consist of to a difference in the blood. blood that has been concocted as the result of plentiful nourishment that is, the surplus blood that is not used up to nourish the fleshy parts of the animal, but (This point is well concocted and well nourished. is proved by their greasiness, for grease in fluids is This explains a combination of Air and Fire.) why there is no lard or suet in any of the bloodless animals. And among the others, those whose blood Suet is denser tend to contain suet rather than lard.
;
:

;

i-ard

and

^^^
.

;

due

to varying proportions of unsaturated triglycerides and the lengths of the carbon chains.

141

ARISTOTLE
•51 a

TTrjyvvraL

KaOdnep Kal to
yrjS'

atfjia

to tvcDSe? kol avro

Kac OL
30

l,cofjLol

OL TOLovTOi' oXiyov

yap

ex^L vSaros,

TO oe TToXv

Sto

to,

pLJ]

dfjuc/xjohovra
rj

dXXa
avrcbv

Keparwhr) areap ex^i.

(j)av€pd 8'

<f)vois

rod roLovrov gtolx^^ov
€Lvai Kal

TrX^prjs ovaa rep Keparcohrjs darpayaXovs ex^iv diravTa yap ^r]pd kol yerjpd rrjv <j)VOLv iarlv. rd 8' djxcpcoSovra /cat

85

CLKepara
7]

/cat

TToXvGXiSrj TnfJLeXrjV ex^i dvrl orearog,
^iqpaivoiiivr] hid

ov TnjyvvraL ovSe OpvTTrerai

to

^Tj €Lvai yecoSr] rrjv (fiVGiv avrrjs.

Merpca
651 b t,a)Ci>v

puev

ovv ravra ovra iv rot?

jJLoptois rcov
ejU,7ro8i'^et,

co^eAet [Tvpos p^ev

yap

aiaOrjaiv

ovk

TTpds 8' vyieiav /cat SvvapLLV ex^i ^oiqBeiav), vnep-

^dXXovra Se

rco TrX'qQeL (jideipei

/cat
/cat

^Xdnreu.

et

yap
5

TTav yevoiro

rd oajp^a mpLeXr^

areap

y

0,770-

Aoit' dv.
p^opiov,
8'
Tj

t,(x)ov jjiev

yap iari Kard to
/cat

al(j0r]TiK6v

8e odp^
coo7T€p

/cat

to dvdXoyov aioOriTLKov' rd
rrporepoVy

at/xa,

e'lprjrai

alaOrjGiv,

hid ovhe mpLeXj] ovhe areap- atjLta
coar^ el irdv yevoiro

ovk ex^t ydp
hid kol

TreTTefip^evov eariv.

rd aajpia

roiovrov, ovk dv exoi ovhepiiav aiadrjaiv.

yrjpdaKei raxecjs rd Xiav niova' oAtyat/xa ydp are els
10

rr)V TTiorrjra dvaXiaKOjJievov
atjLta rihr]
ttpoojhoTToiiqr ai

rod alp^aros, rd

8'

oAty-

Trpds rrjv (f)dopdv'

rj

ydp

<f)dopd dXiyaipLia ris eari,

Kal rd dXiyaipiov^ rradr]/cat vtto BepyLov.
:

riKdv Kal VTTO ipvxpov rod rvxdvros
^

sic

Th.

:

animal pauci sanguinis

S

oXlyov vulg.

142

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
is
;

II. v.

it contains but Httle of an earthy character so it water against a large proportion of earth So congeals just as fibrous blood and broths do. too the animals which have horns but have teeth And it is clear that in one jaw only contain suet. their natural constitution is full of this element (earth) from the fact that they have horns and hucklebones, for they are all of them solid and earthy in constitution. On the other hand, the animals which have incisor teeth in both jaws and have toes (not uncloven hoofs), but no horns, contain lard instead of suet. Lard neither congeals nor splits up into small pieces when it dries, owing to the fact that it is not earthy. Lard and suet when present in the parts of animals they do not in moderate quantities are beneficial hinder the action of the senses, and they contribute towards the health and strength of the body. But when the amount of them is excessive they are This is shown by the destructive and injurious. consideration that if the whole body were to become The sine qua non of a lard and suet, it would perish. living creature is its sensory part, which is flesh or its and since, as I have said before, blood counterpart is not sensitive, neither lard nor suet, which are just concocted blood, is sensitive. Therefore, if the whole body were to become either of these, it would have no sensation whatever. For this reason, too, unduly their blood gets used up to fat animals age quickly and produce fat, so there is very little of it left anything that has but little blood is well on the road In fact, decay is just a form of bloodto decay. and an animal deficient in blood is deficiency easily susceptible to the effects of accidental cold and
;
: ; : ;

;

143

ARISTOTLE
651 b

15

Koi dyovcxjrepa Srj ra ttlovo. Ion 8ta Tr]v avrrjv airiav o yap eSet €K rod at/xaros' et? TrjV yovrjv levai K0.1 TO GTvepfxa, rovr els rrjv TTipLeXr^v avaXiGKerai koL to areap' Trerrofievov yap to at/xa yLverat ravra, ware oXcos ov yiverai 7reptTTC0/xa avrois ovhkv rj oXlyov.
-r)

^

20

25

Kat TTepl [lev alp.aros Kal Ixcopos Kal TTLfJLeXrjs Kal orearos, rl re iariv eKaarov avrcbv Kal 8td TLvas air lag, e'lprjrai. VI. "EaTt 8e Kal 6 fjLveXog aifiaros res (f>VGL9, Kal ovx cQGTrep olovral rives, rrjs yovrjs OTrepfiarLKT] SrjXoL 8' iv rots veois TrdpLTTav are yap SvvafJLLS' i^ aifxaros (jvvearwrojv rcov pLoplcxJV /cat t-^s" rpo(f)rjs ovarjs rols ijJi^pvoLs aljxaros, Kal iv roXs oarols o fjLveXos alpiarojh'qs eorlv av^avofxevcov 8e Kal nerrofxevcov, KaOdnep Kal ra fiopia fxera^aXXeu Kal ra aTrXdyxycL rds XP^*^^ [virep^oXfj yap alpLarwhes Kal
rd)v

OTrXdyxyojv eKaarov euriv en vewv 6vra)v), OVTOJ Kal 6 piveXos. Kat rojv piev TrtjLteAojScov XcTrapos Kal TnpLeXfj
8e pLT) TnpLeXfj opLOLOv^ dXXd oreap yiverai ro atpLa irerropievov, rovrois 8e o-TeaTcoST)?. 8t6 Tot? piev Keparo(f)6poLs Kal pir] dpLcfjcoSovciL arearcoSr]s , rols 8' dpucjxjjhovGi Kal iroXvax^^i^^^ TTipLeXcoS-qs. (rJKLcrra be roiovros 6 paxlrrjs earl
opLOLOs, oaois

80

pLveXos 8ta TO 8etv avrov elvai avvexrj Kal Ste;^ety

Sta
85

Trdcrrjs

rrjs

pdx€Cos
rj
:

hirjp'iqpiev'qs

G(f)OvSvXovs'

XiTTapos 8'

cov

T)

Kara rovs orearwSrjs ovk av
rj

opLolojs TjV Gvvexijs, dXX*
^

Opavaros
ofMotos alii.

vypos.)

ofjLOLOv

Z^

" e.g. secretion
"

of semen.

See above, on 647 b 27.

Plato, Timaeus, 73 c.

144

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
:

II. v.-vi.

heat. The same cause is responsible for the comthat part of the parative sterility of fat animals blood which ought to go to form semen and seed gets used up in forming lard and suet, which are formed by the concoction of blood. Hence in fat animals there is either no residue " at all, or else very little. I have now spoken of blood, serum, lard and suet, describing the nature and the Causes of each of them. VI. Marrow, again, is really a form of blood, and not, as some^ think, the same as the seminal substance'' of the seed. This is proved by the case of very young In the embryo, the parts are composed out animals. so it is not of blood and its nourishment is blood surprising that the marrow in the bones has a blood;

Jrarrow.

like

appearance. As they grow and become mature,^ the marrow changes its colour just like the other parts ^ of the body and the viscera, which while the creature is young all have a blood-like appearance owing to the large quantity of blood in them. Animals which contain lard have greasy marrow, like lard those whose concocted blood produces not a substance like lard but suet have suety marrow. Hence, in the horned animals which have teeth in one jaw only the marrow is suety, and in the animals that have teeth in both jaws and are polydactylous it (The spinal marrow cannot possibly be is like lard. of this nature because it has to be continuous and to pass without a break right through the whole and if spine which is divided into separate vertebrae it were fatty or suety it could not hold together as
;
;

well as
"

it

does, but

it

would be either

brittle or fluid.)
14.

Dynamis. See Introduction, pp. 30 if. and note on 646 a
^

A

concocted." good instance of Aristotle's usage of the term " part."
14'5

Lit. " are

ARISTOTLE
"KvLa
8'

ovK

e;)(et

raJv

^cLcov

cos

a^icos

€L7T€lv

jxveXov, OGOJV TO,
652 a

Surd laxvpa Kal

ttvkvol, olov

ra

Tou XeovTOS' rovTov yap ra oord, Sua to
darjfjLov e'x^tv, So/cet

TrdfXTTav
eirel

ovk €X€lv oAco?

fJLveXov.

8e T19V
t,cpOLs
6

jLtev
r]

TcDv ocrrcov avdyKf] (f)V(nv vnapx^iv toZs
do-TOtS",

TO dvaAoyov Tot?

ofov TOtS" ivvSpois

rrjv

aKavdav, dvayKolov eviois v-napx^^v Kal fiveXov,
':7s'

ilirrepiXa}Ji^avop.iviqs rrjg rpo(f)rjs e^

yiverai ra

Sard,
repov.

on

8'

rj

Tpo(f>rj

Tjdoiv alfxa, €ip7]TaL irpo-

€vX6yoJs 8e

/cat

orearajheis ol {iveXol Kal
rrjv

7n/xeAa)8ets" elcrlv Std

yap

dXeav

ttjv yLVOfJbevrjv

vrro
10 75

rod

Trepiex^crdaL roXs ogtols TTeTreraL to at/xa,
Triipis
^r]

8e Kad" avro

alpiaTOS oreap Kal

TTLpLeXi]

iaTLv.

Kal iv toIs

ra Sard

ttukvo,

kxovcn Kai
8'
rj

laxvpoL

€vX6yoJS iv roig fxev ovk eveon, rots
els

oXlyos^ eveoTLV
Tp0(f)lj.

yap ra Sard dvaXia Ker ai

*Ev 8e Tot?

fxr]

exovGiv Sard dAA' aKavdav 6

pax^T7]s fxovos iarl [xveXos' dAtyat/xd re
15

yap
rj

</>ucret

vTTapx^L ovra, Kal kolXt]
^ecos"
e;^et

aKavOa

piovov

rijs

pa-

lor IV.
;^ct>pav,

hio iv ravrrj iyyiverai' p.ovrj re

yap

Kal
8td

pLovTj

Selrai avvSeufJiov Sid rds

SiaX7ji/j€Ls.

Kal

6

ivravda
hid

pLveXog,

(Zanep
rrepovrjs

elprjr ai,

dXXoiorepos ioriv
1

rd dvrl

oXiyois

per errorem Bekker.

146

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II. vi.

Some animals have no marrow worth mentioning l these are they whose bones are strong and closefor instance, the Lion, whose bones contextured tain so insignificant an amount of marrow that they look as if they contained none at all. Now in view of the fact that the bodies of animals must have in them either bones or the counterpart of bones {e.g. the spines in water-animals), it follows of necessity that some of them must contain marrow as well, due to the enclosing of the nourishment out of which the bones are formed. Now we have stated already that the nourishment of all the parts of the body is blood. And it is quite reasonable that the various sorts of marrow should be suety and lardy because the blood undergoes concoction owing to the heat produced by its being surrounded by bone, and the product of blood when it undergoes concoction by itself is suet and lard. And also, of the animals that have strong, close-textured bones, some have no marrow, others have but little, and this is reasonable too, because the nourishment gets used up to supply the substance of the bones themselves. In those animals that have no bones but spine instead, the backbone contains the only marrow they It is the nature of these creatures to have possess. but a small amount of blood, and their only hollow spine is that of the backbone. Therefore the marrow indeed, it is the only bone where is formed in it there is room for the marrow, and the only one which requires something to connect it together, owing to its being divided up into segments. This also explains why the marrow here is (as I have already said) somewhat different from the marrow elsewhere. It has to serve as a fastening,
:

;

147'

ARISTOTLE
652 a

yap
20

yiveadai
Tt fxev

yXiaxpo?,

koL

vevpajh-qs

iarlv

tv'

Ata

fjLveXov, etprjTav

ovv ixveXov e;^6t Koi ri ianv 6

to,

Joia

ra e^ovra
eV tovtojv

jjLveXos,

<j)av€p6v,

OTL rrj5 alfjLarLKrj? Tpo(j)rjs rrjs et? ogto,
ixepiH^opievrjs

Kal aKavOav

iarl to e/x7reptAa^j8avo-

fxevov TTepLTTOjfia Tr€(j)dev.

VII. Ylepl S* iyK€(f)dXov gx^^ov icrnv ixofJLevov
25

elneXv ttoXXoXs yap Kal 6 eyKec^aXos So/cet fiveXos etvai Kal apx^} tov [xveXov 8ta ro ovvex'^ tov
paxcTTjv avTO) opdv fJiveXov.

eori he irdv rovvavrlov

avro) T7JV (f)VGLV (1)£ elrreZv 6 {lev yap lyKecjyaXos ijjvxpoTarov rcov iv rco aaypLari fioptajv, 6 Se piveXog
deppLos TTjv (/iVGLV StjXol 8'
30
Tj

XiTTapoTrjg

avrov Kal

TO

ttIov.

8 to Kal Gvvex^s 6 paxiTT}? ray iyK€(f)dXa)

€GTLV' del

yap

rj

(jiVGLS [xr^xci^'drat irpos ttjv

eKdorov

VTTep^oXrjv PorjOeLav rrjv rod ivavriov TrapeSplav, tva
dvLGdl^T] TT^v

darepov vTrep^oXrjv Odrepov.

on

fiev

35

ovv 6 p.veX6s Oeppios^ Igtl, hrjXov ck ttoXXcov. tj 8e tov iyK€(f)dXov ijjvxpoTiqs (jiavepd fxev Kal /cara t'))^
dl^LV,

€TL 8'

dvaipLOTaTov

T(2)v

vypcov Tojv iv T(h

652 b

GWfiaTL TrdvTOJv {ovS^ oTLOvv yap atfiaTOs ex^i €V avTcp) Kal avxp^'TjpoTaTOV. cgtl 8* ovt€ TrepiTTOjpLa

ovTe Tiov Gvvex^v popiajv, dXXd Ihios r) (f)VGL9, Kal evXoyoJS ToiavTrj. otl p.ev ovv ovk ex^i Gvvex^i-OLV ovSefxlav irpos rd acGdrjTLKa pLopia, SrjXov fiev Kal
5

8ta TrJ9 oipeo)?, ert 8e /jlclXXov toj pi]Sepiav TTOielv aLG9r]GLV 6iyyav6p.evoSy wGirep ovhe to atpia ovSe to
TTepLTTa>p.a tojv ^cocov.
*

Oepnos

PZ

:

depiJLOv

vulg.

148

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
and
;

II. vi.-vii.

so it is sticky and it is sinewy too so that it can stretch. We have now explained why marrow is present in certain animals. We have also made clear what marrow is. The surplus of the blood-like nourishment which is distributed to the bones and spine gets enclosed within them, and after it has undergone concoction then it is marrow. yil. The brain is the next subject on our list. It

Brain,

comes appropriately

that the brain is the marrow, because, as observation shows, the spinal marrow is continuous with the brain. As a matter of fact, however, the two are quite opposite in nature. The brain is the coldest of all the parts in the body, whereas the marrow is hot, as is shown by the fact that it is greasy and fat. And that is the real reason why the spinal marrow is continuous with the brain. Nature is always contriving to set next to anything that is excessive a reinforcement of the opposite substance, so that the one may level out the excess of the other. Now there are many indications that the marrow is hot and the coldness of the brain is shown not only by its being cold to the touch, but also by its being the driest of all the fluid parts of the body and the one that has the least blood in it in fact, it has none at all. It is, however, not a residue, nor is it to be classed among the parts that are continuous. It is peculiar in its nature, and this after all is but reasonable. Inspection shows that the brain has no continuity with the sensory parts, but this is shown still more unmistakably by the fact that like the blood and the residue of animals it produces no sensation when it is touched.
;

marrow, as many think really marrow " and is the source of
after the

«

Cf. Plato,

Timaeus 75

c,

d.

149

ARISTOTLE
652b
^ ^

*Y77ap;^et

Se roZs

^</>ot?

rrpo'S

rrjv

ttjs

(f)VG€OJs

oXrjg GOJTrjpLav.

ol fxev

yap rod ^cpov

rrjv ifjvx'^v

rideaai TTup tj TOiavrrjv tlvol SvvajjLLv, ^oprtKajs Tidevres' ^eXriov 8' 'Igojs (j)dvai iv tolovtco tlvl
10 crco/xart

avveordvai.
epyoLS

rovrov

S'

atrtov
tojv

on

rolg rrjs

ipv)(fj£

VTrr^peTLKcorarov

uiopLdrcov
klv€lv

ro

depfxov
rrjs

ianv

ro

rpecjieiv

yap Kal

^v)(7Jg

15

20

25

epyov iori, ravra Se Sta ravrrj^ /xaAtara yiverai ojiolov ovv ro rrjv ipvxr]v elvat Svvdfieojs. (f)dvaL TTvp Kal ro Tipiova r) rpvTravov rov reKrova ^ '7"']^' reKroviKrjVy on ro epyov rrepaiverai iyyvs dXX-qXcxJV ovoiv. on fiev ovv OeppLoriqros rd Joja fierex^LV dvayKalov, hrjXov e/<r rovrojv eVet S' diravra Setrat ttj? ivavrlas porrrj?, Iva rvyxdvr} rov fierpiov Kal rod piiaov (rr]v yap ovoriav €;^et rovro Kal rov XoyoVy rojv 8' aKpojv eKdrepov ovk e;!^et x^P^^)} ^^d ravrrjv rr]v air lav rrpo? rov rrjg KapSlas roTTOV Kal r7]v iv avrfj OeppLonqra pie fjLTjxdvqr ai rov iyK€(f)aXov rj (J)vgls, Kal rovrov X^P^^ VTrdpx^t rovro ro [jLopLov rolg ^ojols, rrjv <^vgiv exov kolvtjv vSaros Kal yrJ9y Kal Std rovro rd {/xev)^ evaijda ex^i- rrdvra iyKe<paXov, rwv 8' dXXojv ovSev tus" etVetv, ttXtjv ore /caret TO dvdXoyoVy otov 6 ttoXvttovs' oXiyoOeppia ydp
Trdvra hud rr^v dvaipilav.

'0 pikv ovv eyKe<f>aXos evKparov rroieZ rrjv iv rrj Kaphla OeppLorrjra Kal ^€Glv Iva he Kal rovro ro fjLopLov rvyxdvr) pLerplas Oepfiorrjrog, a^* eKaripas
rrjg
80

^Ae^os", rrjs re fxeydXr^s Kal rrjs KaXovpLevrjs

doprrjg, reXevrcoGiv at ^Ae^e? elg rr]v pnqviyya rrjv
^

</xev>

Rackham.

"

e.ff.

Democritus
'

;

see Aristotle,

De anima, 403 b

31.

Or, " proportion."

150

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

vii.

The brain is present in order to preserve the animal organism as a whole. Some " maintain that the Soul of an animal is Fire or some such substance. This is and might be improved a crude way of putting it
;

upon by saying that the Soul
of a fiery nature.

subsists in
for this

some body
is

that the hot substance is the most serviceable of all for the activities of the Soul, since one of the activities of the Soul is to nourish another is to cause motion and these are most readily effected by means of So to say that the this substance (\iz. the hot). Soul is fire is like saying that the craftsman, or his craft, is the saw or the auger which he uses, on the ground that the activity is performed while the two are near together. From what we have said this animals must of necessity have in at any rate is clear them a certain amount of heat. Now, everything needs something to counterbalance it, so that it may achieve moderation and the mean for it is the mean, and not either of the extremes apart, which has reality and rationality.^ For this cause nature has contrived the brain to counterbalance the region of and that is Avhy animals the heart and the heat in it have a brain, the composition of which is a combinaHence, although all tion of Water and Earth. blooded animals have a brain, practically none of the others has (unless it be just a counterpart, as in the case of the Octopus), for since they lack blood they have but little heat. The brain, then, makes the heat and the boiling in yet in order that the heart well blent and tempered the brain may still have a moderate heat, bloodvessels run from the great Blood-vessel and what is known as the Aorta, till they reach the membrane
;
;
:

The reason

;

;

;

151'

ARISTOTLE
662 b

Tvepl

rov iyK€(f>aXov.
(/)Ae/3es"

npos Se to

rfj 9ep[x6Tr]TL firj

jSAaTrretv, dvrl fxev jxeydXcov (^Kacy oXiyojv

nvKval

Kal Aerrrat

7r€pL€)(ov(jLv

avrov, dvrl he BoXe-

pov^ Kal Ttax^os at^aro? Actttov /cat Kadapov. 8to Koi rd pevpiara rols GcopiaaLV e/c rrjs K€(f)aXrjs eari
35

TT^v

dpx^jv,

doois
rrjs

dv

fj

rd

irepl

rov iyKe(f)aXov
dvadvpLiojTpo(j)'r]S

ipvxpdrepa
653 a pLevTjs

crvp^p^erpov

Kpdoeojs'
rrjs

ydp hid rdJv ^Xe^cov dvco
i/jvxop'^vov

to

TTepiTTCo/xa

hid rrjv rov tottov tovtov
^Aey/xaros"

hvvapLiv
hei

pevp^ara

Troiei

Kal

Ix^jpog.

he XafieZv, (hs pieydXco irapeiKat^ovra puKpoVy

ofxoLcos Gvpi^alveiv axjirep rrjv
5

rwv

vercov yeveaiv
drpiihos Kal

dvaOvpiicjp.ev'qs
(fyepopLevqs

ydp eK

rrjs yrjs

rrjs

vtto

rod deppiov irpos rov dvco roirov,

drav ev rco v-rrep rijg yrjs yeviqrai depi dvri ijjvxp<^, Gvviorarai rrdXiv els vhojp hid rrjv ipv^iv Kal pel
Kara) Tvpos Tr)v
yrjv.

dXXd

rrepl jjiev

rovrcov ev rais

rwv
10

vogcjov dpxoiis dppiorrei Xeyeiv,

ecf)^

ogov

rijs <f>v-

GiKT]s ^iXoGO(j)ias iorlv elireZv irepl avrojv.

riotet
fjLopiov

he

Kal rov vttvov rols

^cpois

rovro rd
p.r]

rols exovGiv eyKe^aXov, rols he

e^oucrt

15

TO dvdXoyov Karaipvxov ydp rrjv diro rrjs rpo^rjs rod aifiaros errippvoiv (j] Kal hid rivas opioias alrias dXXas), ^apvvei re rov roirov {hio rrjv KecjiaXrjv Kaprjl3apovGiv oi vrrvcoGGovres) Kal Karco noiei ro hio rrXeZov deppiov V7TO(j>evyeiv pierd rov a'ipiaros. d6poil,6pievov errl rov Kdrco rorrov drrepydt^erai rov VTTVOV, Kal ro hvvaodai eGrdvai 6p6d d(f)aipeiraL OGa ru)v t,cx)Lov 6p9d rrjv (f)VGiv eGri, rcov S* d'AAcoi'
*
2

(Kal)

Rackham.
:

OoXepov

colli.

Buss, (turbidi 2)

ttoAAou vulg.

152

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

vii.

which surrounds the brain. And in order to prevent injury being done through heat, the blood-vessels surrounding it are not few and large but small and and the blood is not muddy and multitudinous thick but thin and clear. This also explains why they occur when the fluxes begin in the head parts around the brain are colder than the rightlyproportioned blend." What happens is that, as the nourishment exhales upwards through the bloodvessels, the residue from it becomes cooled owing to the specific nature of the brain, and produces And we should be justifluxes of phlegm and serum. fied in maintaining that this process resembles, on a small scale, the one which produces rain-showers. Damp vapour exhales up from the earth and is carried into the upper regions by the heat and when it reaches the cold air up aloft, it condenses back again into water owing to the cold, and pours down towards the earth. However, so far as Natural Philosophy is concerned with these matters, the proper place to speak of them is in the Origins of Diseases.^ Furthermore, it is the brain (or, if there is no brain, its counterpart) which produces sleep in animals. It cools the onflow of blood which comes from the food (or else is due to other causes of the same sort), and weighs down the part where it is (that is why when a person is sleepy his head is weighed do>\Ti), and causes the hot substance to escape below together with the blood. Hence, the blood accumulates unduly in the lower region of the body and produces sleep at the same time it takes away from those animals whose nature is to stand upright the power to do so, and the others it prevents from
;
;

;

;

*

See

p. 38.

"

No

such treatise

exists.

153

ARISTOTLE
653a
20
^

^

^

N

X

r

./

t

aura

eV re

rots'

Trept alaB-qoeoJS

koL Trepl vttvov

hiojpLGixevois.

26

iyK€(f>aXog kolvos vSarog Kal TO GvpL^alvov 7T€pl avTov €ifj6pL€vo? yap yiverai irjpos Kal OKXvipos, Kal AetVerat ro yewhes i^arpLLaOevTOS rod vSaros vtto rrjs deppLonqros, a>u7T€p TO, TcDv -^(^ehpoTrojv lifj-qpLara Kal tojv aAAcov KapTTOJV, Sea TO yrjs elvai to TrXeZorov piepog, i^LOVTog rod pii)(6evros vypov' Kal yap ravra yiverai OKXrjpa Kal yerjpa TTapLvav.

"Otl

S'

IgtIv 6

yTjs", Si-jXoL

*'E;)(et
(1)5

Se rajv ^cocov iyKecfiaXov TrXelarov avOpcorros
piiyeBos, Kal raJv dvOpwTTOJV ol appeves

Kara

rwv

80

Kal yap rov rrepl rrjv Kaphiav Kal rov Sio TrXevpLova roTTOV Oepporarov Kal ivacpLorarov. Kal pLovov iorl rwv t^axMV 6p66v rj yap rod OeppLOV
drjXeicnv'
<f)VGis

ivLGXvovGa

TroL€L rrjv av^rjGLv 0.770

rod piCGOv

Kara

rrjv avrrjg (f)opdv.

rrpos ovv 7ToXXr]v deppiorrjra

avriKeirai TrXeiwv vyporrjg Kal i/jvxporrjg, Kal Sid ro
TrXrjdog
86

oxjjiairara

oGrovv,

o

m^yvvraL ro rrepl rrjv K€(f)aXrjv KaXovGL ^peypta rives, Sto, ro ttoXvv

653 b

Xpovov ro deppLov aTrarpLit^eLV rcov 8' aAAcov ovSevl rovro Gvp^acvec rwv evaipicov ^cowv. Kal pa<f)dg 8e rrXeiGras exec rrepl rrjv Ke(f)aX-qv, Kal ro dppev
TrXeiovs rdjv drjXeiiov, hid rrjv avrrjv alriav, ottojs 6

rorros evrrvovs

fj,

vypatvopLevos ydp

rj

Kal pidXXov 6 irXeicov eyKe(f)aXos' ^rjpaLvopLevog pdXXov ov TTOL-qGeu
rj

ro avrov epyov, aAA'
«
*•

ov ipv^et

rj

Tn]^eL,

wGre

See

The

J)e somno, 455 b 28 ff., especially 456 b 17 ff. cranial bone, which covers the anterior fontanelle.

154

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

vii.

holding their heads upright. These matters have been spoken of separately in the treatises on Sensation and on Sleeps I said the brain is compounded of Water and Earth. This is sho\Mi by what happens when it is Then it becomes solid and hard the earthy boiled. substance is left behind after the Water has evaporated owing to the heat. It is just what happens when pulse and other forms of fruit are boiled they also get hard and earthy altogether, because the greater part of them is earth, and the fluid mixed with it departs when they are boiled. Of all the animals, man has the largest brain for his size and men have a larger brain than women. In both cases the largeness is due to there being a great deal of heat and blood in the region around the heart and the lung. This too explains why man is the only animal that stands upright. As the hot substance prevails in the body it induces growth, beginning from the centre along its o\\'n line of travel. It is against great heat, then, that a large supply of This bulk of moisture fluid and cold is provided. is also the reason why the bone that surrounds the brain (called by some the bregma) ^ is the last of all the hot substance takes a long time to to solidify evaporate it off. This phenomenon does not occur Again, man in any other of the blooded animals. has more sutures in the skull than any other animal, and males have more than females. The size of the it is to secure brain is the reason for this also ventilation, and the larger the brain, the more If the brain becomes unduly ventilation it requires. fluid or unduly solid, it will not perform its proper function; but will either fail to cool the blood or else
:

;

;

;

;

F

155.

ARISTOTLE
653b
6
^

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^

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ean

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10

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gen. an. 722 a, 776 a 15

fP.

156


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
will
II. vii.-viii.

make

it

set fast, thus producing various forms of

Indeed, the heat that is extremely responsive to any influence upon it and if the blood which surrounds the brain undergoes any change or any other affection, then this heat at once becomes
is

disease, madness,

and death.

in the heart, being the source,
;

sensitive of

it.

We may now claim to have

considered

all

the fluids

which are present in animal bodies from their very There are others which are first earliest stages. produced only at some latter stage, and among these we must reckon the residues of the nourishment that is to say, the deposits from the bladder and from the gut and also semen, and milk these make their appearance according to the species and sex of the animal concerned. Discussion of the residues of the nourishment will come in appropriately during our general consideration and examination we shall then show in what animals of nourishment they occur, and why they do so. Semen, which gives rise to generation, and milk, which exists on account of generation, we shall deal with in the treatise on Generation.'^ VIII. We must now go on to consider the rest of Flesh and the uniform parts. Let us take first of all Flesh (and, ^^^^^* where Flesh is absent, its counterpart), for this is to animals both a principle and a body in itself. Its primacy can also be logically shown, as follows. We define an animal as something that has the powder of sensation, and chiefly the primary sensation, which is touch and the organ through which this sensation
;
;

;

;

is

And effected is the flesh (or its counterpart). flesh is either its primary organ (comparable to the
it is

pupil in the case of sight), or else

the organ and

157

ARISTOTLE
653b
^
^
7)

TTJs oipecos,

TO

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ov GVveLX-qiiixivov , cjanep dv

et

rt? TTpoaXd^OL rjj Kopj] ro 8ta(/>aves' rrdv.

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80

85

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6

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n

1

(tov) Ogle.
it

"

Apparently because the objects with which

deals are

it has be in bodily contact with them. * As apart from a priori reasoning. " Sometimes, as here, " counterpart " could be represented by the modern term " analogue."

more " corporeal " than those of the other senses

to

^

Lit.,

" the soft-shelled creatures."

158


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
II. viii.

the medium of the sensation combined in one (comparable to the pupil plus the whole of the transparent medium in the case of sic^ht). Now not only was it pointless, it was impossible for Nature to make such with a combination in the case of the other senses touch, however, it was due to necessity, since its sense-organ is the only one which is corporeal or at least it is definitely the most corporeal one." It is also clear from our actual experience in sensation^ that all the other parts exist for the sake of the organ In these I include the bones, the of touch (the flesh). skin, the sinews, the blood-vessels also the hair, nails of every sort and kind, and the like. The bones, for instance, which are hard in substance, have been devised for the preservation of the soft parts. The same is true of the counterpart ^ of the bones in other creatures two examples in species of fish are spine
;

;

:

and

cartilage.

Now with some animals this hard supporting substance is situated inside the body, with others (some of the bloodless ones) it is outside. It is outside in the case of all the Crustacea ^ {e.g. the Crabs and the group of Crayfish), and the group of Testacea* All these too, e.g. those that are known as Oysters. have their fleshy part inside, and the earthy part which holds it together and protects it is outside outside, because it performs an additional function as well since these creatures are bloodless, they possess but little heat, and the shell acts like it encloses the faintly burning heat a couvre-feu and protects it. Another quite different group of creatures, the Turtles and the group of freshwater

:

;

*

Lit.,

nearest

modern term.

"the shell-skinned creatures." See Introduction,

"Testacea"
p. 23.

is

the

159'

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160


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
II.

viii.

Tortoises, are apparently in like case. On the other hand, the Insects and the Cephalopods are differently constructed from these, as well as being Not only, as it appears, different from each other. have they no bony part, but they have practically no earthy part at all distinct from the rest of the

body.

The Cephalopods

being easily destructible as fleshy structures are, the substance of which they are formed is intermediate between flesh and sinew, having the softness of flesh and the elasticity of sinew. When it is split up, it breaks as flesh does, that is, not longitudinally but into circular portions. The reason for this seems to be that such a structure secures the greatest strength. There is found also in these creatures the counterpart of the spinous bones of the " pounce " (os sepiae) of fishes ; examples are
:

and from

fleshy,

are almost wholly soft yet in order to prevent their bodies

and the " pen " (gladius) of the Nothing of this sort, however, appears calamaries. this is because in them what is in the Octopuses called the " head " forms but a small sac, whereas in the cuttlefish and calamaries the " head " is of
the
cuttlefish,
:

considerable length. So we see that, in order to secure that they should be straight and inflexible, nature prescribed for them this hard support, just as she gave to the blooded creatures bones or spines. Quite a different contrivance obtains in the Insects different both from the Cephalopods and from the blooded creatures, as has already been stated. In the Insects we do not find the clear-cut distinction of hard parts and soft here, the whole body is hard, yet its hardness is such that it is more fleshlike than
;

161

ARISTOTLE
654 a
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^

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IX.

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PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

viii.-ix.

bone is and more bony and earthy than flesh. The purpose of this is to ensure that the body shall not easily break up. IX. The system of the bones is similar to that of Bonea. the blood-vessels each is a connected system beginning from one point. There is no such thing as a every bone is either bone by itself in isolation actually part of the connected scheme, or else is attached to it and so is in contact with it. This enables Nature to use any couple of bones either as a single connected piece, or, when flexion is required, as two distinct pieces. In like manner, there is no such thing as a blood-vessel by itself in they are all of them parts of one bloodisolation An isolated bone could never discharge the vessel. function for which all bones exist for, being discontinuous and disconnected from the rest, it could never serve as the means either for bending or for straightening a limb but worse than that, it would be a source of harm, like a thorn or an arrow sticking Similarly, if we imagine a blood-vessel in the flesh. isolated and not connected with the source of them all, it could never keep the blood within it in a proper condition, since it is the heat which comes from that source which prevents the blood from congeahng, as is shown by the putrefaction of blood when separThis source of the blood-vessels ated from it. is of course the heart, and the corresponding source of the bones in all bony species is what is called the backbone. The system of the bones is a connected whole, starting from the backbone, since the backbone connects together the length of the animal's body and holds it straight. Now although this backbone is a unity because it is connected together, it
: ; :
;

;

f2

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14-16) secludenda. elaiv vulg.

164,

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
is

II. ix.

also a thing of many parts because of its division into vertebrae, since the body must be able to bend

while the animal is in motion. And the bones of the various limbs (in those animals which have them) are connected with this backbone, from which they originate. Some of them have extremities which fit on to each other either (a) one is hollow and the other rounded, or (h) both are hollow and hold a huckle-bone between them (as it might be a bolt), to admit of bending and extension, since these movements would be quite impossible or at any rate (c) unsatisfactory ^^'ithout such an arrangement, There are some joints in which the adjacent ends of the two bones are similar in shape [these are bound together by sinews,] and there are pieces of cartilage inserted in between them, like a pad, to prevent them from rubbing against each other," Now the w^hole system of the bones exists to subserve the fleshy parts of the body, which have their place around the bones and are attached to them by thin fibrous threads. Modellers who set out to mould an animal out of clay or some other plastic substance begin first of all with a hard and solid core and mould their figure round it. Nature's method has been the same in fashioning animals out of flesh. With one exception, all the fleshy parts have a core of bone for the parts that move and bend, this is present as for those a means for enabling the limb to bend an that do not move, it serves as a protection example of this are the ribs, enclosing the chest, which are a means of protection for the viscera in
:

;

:

;

:

" The text of this paragraph has been confused by a number of interpolations, most of which I have omitted in

translating.

165

ARISTOTLE
655 a
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/cat

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jLtT7

3e

Trap-

20

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Se,
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rots'

^cporoKOis, Trpos rr)v

rd Se LGxvv LGXvporepcov Set rcbv Grepeojfidrojv. KaXovfjLeva oeXdxf] ^oJ^Spd/cai^^a r^v (J)vglv eGnv vyporepav re ydp dvayKalov avrcbv elvai rrjv kl<»

Cartilaginous fishes, including the sharks.

166

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

ix.

the region of the heart. The exception is the parts near the belly, which in all animals are boneless. The purpose of this is that the swelling which takes place of necessity after the receipt of nourishment may not be hampered, and (in females) to prevent any interference with the growth of the fetus. The nature of the bones is similar in all viviparous animals (that is, internally viviparous as well as externally) and as the Vivipara are much larger proportionately in bodily size than other animals, In some places many of these their bones are strong. animals grow to a great size, as for example in Libya and other hot dry countries. These large animals need stronger and bigger and harder supports, especially those of them that are particularly violent Hence, the bones of males are harder in their habits. than tlie bones of females, and those of carnivorous animals than those of herbivorous, because the carnivorous have to fight for their food. An example it has such hard bones that when they is the Lion Note are struck fire is kindled as it is from stones. that the Dolphin, being viviparous, has bones like the other viviparous creatures, and not fish-spines. In the creatures which though blooded are not viviparous Nature has made a series of graduated for example, birds have bones, but they changes are weaker than the bones of the Vivipara. The and the oviparous fishes have fish-spine, not bone serpents have bone whose nature is that of fish-spine ; except the very large species, and they have bones, because (just like the Vivipara) if their bodies are to be strong the solid framework of them must be stronger. The creatures called Selachia " have spines made of cartilage. This is because their movement
;
: : ;

167

ARISTOTLE
655 a
25

vTjaiVy coare Set Kal ttjv tojv epeiGjJidrcov firj Kpav' pov elvai aAAa fiaXaKcorepav, Kal to yecoSes ets" TO Sepfia TTOLV avriXcoKev rj ^vgis' a'fta 8e ttjv avrrjv
V7T€po-)(r]v els
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80

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ra cora
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tj

x^^^P^^

Kal OGTOV iGTLy hia^ipei he to) jJidXXov Kal rJTTOV
Sto Kal ovheTepov av^dveTai d-noKOTTev.
85

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ixev

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ovv iv Tols TTe^ots a/xueAot x^^^P^^ kcxo)fjLveXcp' to yap ;)(a)pt ^o/xevov ets* dnav
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Kal fxv^ojhrf ttjv tov
rj

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pdx^S

655 b x^^^P^^^^S" piiv ioTLv,

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TO,

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/cat OTrAat /cat

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olov ottXtj re dXrj Kal Kepas oXov,
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^

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irpos

eKdoTOis.

iv TOVTCp he to) yevei /cat
^

^u/uD8e? Z. ^ [ra ^a)a] secludit
*•

^v^iathr)

EPSZ.

Rackham.

Cf. the " law of organic equivalents."
^

See note on 644 a

17.

168


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
II. ix.

has to be somewhat supple, and accordingly the supporting framework of their bodies must be somewhat pliable, not brittle. In addition. Nature cannot allot the same plentiful supply of any one substance to many different parts of the body ° and in the case of the Selachia she has used up all the available earthy substance in constructing their skin. In the Vivipara too there are many instances of cartilaginous bones they are found where it is an advantage that the solid framework should be pliable and glutinous for the benefit of the flesh that surrounds them. This Such projecting applies to the ears and the nostrils. Carparts quickly get broken if they are brittle. tilage and bone are the same in kind and differ only by " the more and less " ^ ; so neither of them continues to grow when it has been cut out of the living organism. The cartilages of land -animals contain no marrow that is, no marrow existing as a separate thing. What in ordinary bones is separable is here mixed in with the body of the cartilage and gives it its In the Selachia, pliable and glutinous character. however, although the backbone is cartilaginous it contains marrow, because it stands to these creatures in place of a bone. The following substances or ** parts " resemble
;

:

sorts

the various bones very closely as regards their feel horn, and beak. hoof and talon of nail All these substances are present for the sake of selfdefence. This is shown by the fact that the complete structures which are made out of them and bear the same names e.g. the complete hoof, or horn have been contrived in each case by Nature for the creature's self-preservation. We must reckon the teeth in this
:

;

;

169'

ARISTOTLE
655b
10
^

^

^

^

T]

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TTOLvra

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ttjv
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15

ravra yecohrj Kal orepeav exec yap avrrj Svvajjug. 8to /cat Trdvra pidWov ev TOts" rerpaTTOGLV virapx^t' ^(xjoTOKOJV, Sta TO yewheoTepav €;^etv
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rovra>v Kal rcov exojJLevatv, olov Sepjjiarog Kal
Kal rpix^v Kal Trrepajv Kai
e'i

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ri roiovrov eari fjiepos,

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20

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Nw

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^

8e XeyojpLev otov dn^ ^PXV^ ndXiv, dp^drcov TTpcorojv. irdoi yap rols
aKvreos Buss. {oKvreojs

EY),

170

;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
class too.

II.

ix.-x.

In some creatures teeth are present to discharge one function only viz. mastication in others they are a means of force as well {e.g. sawlike teeth and tusks). All these parts are of necessity earthy and solid in character that is the proper sort of substance for a weapon. So there is a tendency for all parts of this sort to appear in the four-footed X'^ivipara more extensively than in man, because the former all have more earthy matter in their constitution. We shall, however, consider these substances, and the other kindred ones such as skin, bladder, membrane, hair, feather, and the counterparts of them, and all such parts, when we come to deal with the non-uniform parts. Then also we shall consider the Causes of them and for what purpose each of them is present in animal bodies since it is true to say, of both sets of things, that our knowledge of them must be derived from a study of the functions which they discharge. The reason why we have just been taking them with the uniform substances and out of their proper order is that in them the name of the complete structure is the same as that of a portion of it, and also because the sources and principles of them all are bone and flesh. We also left out all mention of semen and milk \vhen we were considering the fluid uniform substances. As semen is the source of the things that are generated and milk is the food that feeds them, the proper place to discuss these is in the treatise dealing with

;

;

Generation.

X.

We may now make

what

is

practically a fresh The nonall

beginning. We will begin first of that come first in importance.

with the things
171

paJ.tJ'^'^

ARISTOTLE
655 b
30

^cpoLS

rols TeXelois^
fj

Svo ra avayKaiorara fiopia
Tpo(f)rjv /cat
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re SexovraL rrjv

ro TrepLTTOjfia

dchtdaLv^- ovre

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ptev dxp'qcrrov TTepLrrajpLaros

ydp ravra l,rjv ovk €X€L
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eon to
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7)

ttjs ^Ci)y]9.

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SUY

:

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« These three parts of the " perfect " animals are again At De gen. an, referred to at De juv, et sen. 468 a 13 ff.

172

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II. x.

An animal can neither exist nor grow without food. Therefore in all living creatures of perfect formation there are two parts most necessary above all one by which food is taken in and the other by which residues
<*
:

(Plants which also we include eliminated. under the head of living things have, it is true, no place for the useless residue, but this is because their food, M'hich they get out of the earth, is already concocted before it enters them, and instead of this residue they yield their fruit and seeds.) And in all

are

creatures there is a third part intermediate between these indispensable two, and this is the seat of the source and principle of life. Plants, again, are so made as to remain in one place, and thus they do not exhibit a great variety of non-uniform substances they have few actions to perform, and therefore but few organs are needed to perform them. For this reason we must But consider plants and their formations separately. with creatures that not only live but also have the power of sensation, the formations are more varied, and there is more diversity in some than in others, the greatest variety being found in those creatures which in addition to living have the capability of living the good life, as man has. Man is the only one of the animals known to us who has something of the di\'ine This is in him, or if there are others, he has most.
;

one reason why we ought to speak about man first, and another is that the shape of his external parts is better kno\vnthan that of other animals. Another and obvious reason is that in man and in man alone do the the natural parts appear in their natural situation
:

733 b

1

viviparous ones.
see 666 a 28.

and 737 b 16, 26, the " perfect " animals are the For the " most highly finished " animals
173-

.

ARISTOTLE
656 a

TOVTOV avco irpos ro rod oXov
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15 776/31

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20

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OS ye dva'iad'qros Kal avros Igtiv ojUTrep oriovv
25

TOJV

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dAA'

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80

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re

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Tjj

Kal

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pdXiGT €V
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"

<f)VGLV eiGL,

See the identical phrase in De resp. 477 a 22. " Cf. Plato, Timaeus 75 a-c.

174

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
upper part of

II.

x.

man

is

placed towards the upper part

In other words, man is the only of the universe.^ animal that stands upright. In man, the head is lacking in flesh, and this follows of the of necessity from what we have said about the brain. gra^'aJJi® Some ^ say (erroneously) that if the head abounded Sensewlth flesh mankind's lifespan would be longer than °^s^^^it is, and they explain the absence of flesh as on pur-

pose to facilitate sensation, their view being that the brain is the organ of sensation, and that sensation cannot penetrate parts that are too fleshy. Neither of these assertions is true. The truth is that if the part surrounding the brain were fleshy, the effect of the brain would be the very reverse be of that for which it is intended it w^ould unable to cool the rest of the body because it would be too hot itself. And, of course, the brain is not it has no responsible for any of the sensations at all more power of sensation than any of the residues. People adopt these erroneous views because they are unable to discover the reason why some of the senses but they see that the head are placed in the head is a somewhat unusual part, compared with the rest, so they put two and two together and argue that the brain is the seat of sensation. The correct view, that the seat and source of sensation is the region of the heart, has already been set forth in the treatise Of Sensation/' where also I show why it is that two of the senses, touch and taste, are evidently connected of the remaining three, smell is placed to the heart between the other two, hearing and sight, and these this is are practically always located in the head owing to the nature of the organs through which
: ; ;

;

:

De

sensu, 438 b 25

flf.

175'

ARISTOTLE
656 a

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.

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aloOrjTwv)

Cook Wilson, qui

et

{ov)

post

Aeyofxcvov,

1.

35.

176

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

x.

they operate. Sight is always located there. The case of hearing and smell in fishes and the like shows that the opinion I maintain is patently correct. These creatures hear and smell, although they have no obvious and visible organs for these senses in the head. As for sight, it is reasonable enough that when present it should always be located near the brain, for the brain is fluid and cold, and the senseorgan of sight is identical in its nature with water, which of all transparent substances is the easiest to keep confined. Again, those senses which are intended for more precise work than the others must necessarily receive greater precision by being situated in parts where the blood is specially pure, since the movement of the heat in the blood ousts the activity appropriate to sensation. These are the reasons why the organs of these senses are placed in
the head. Now the back of the head is free from fleshiness as This is because the head is the well as the front. part which all animals that possess one have to hold as upright as possible. Nothing that carries a burden can raise itself upright, and the head would be burdened if it were well covered ^\dth flesh. And this is another reason to show that the lack of flesh on the head is not for the purpose of enabling the brain to function in sensation. There is no brain in the back of the head, although the back has no more flesh on it than the front. Some animals have their organ of hearing as well as of sight located in the region of the head. This is well explained on our view, which is that the organ of hearing is of air. The space in the head called the vacuum is full of air.

177

ARISTOTLE
656 b

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TO.

elvai
25

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exovTa
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errl he Trjg yXojTTTjs TOLOVTOV fxopiov, dXX ivTos •^TTOV fieVj {xaXXov 8' rj eirl ttjs d(f)r]S' eoTL yap olov
.

* "

ovh* avTO TO at/ia om. E. 11. 19-22 scclusi (20-22 Ogle)

:

partim ex 666 a 16 trans-

lata.

This passage seems to be a note on a remark which comes lines below, and should probably be omitted from the text. Part of it is taken from 666 a 16.
"

a few

178

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

x.

Passages (or channels) run from the eyes to the blood-vessels that are round the brain. And, again, a passage runs from the ears and connects to the back of the brain. [No bloodless part is capable of sensation, nor
is the blood itself. It is the parts which are out of blood that have this faculty. Hence, in the blooded animals, no bloodless part is capable of sensation, nor indeed is the blood itself, for it is no part of animals.] ^ The brain, whenever there is one, is in the forepart of the head. This is (a) because all acts of sensation take place in a forward direction (6) because the heart, from which sensation has its origin, is in the forepart of the body and (c) because the process of sensation depends upon parts that have blood in them, whereas the sac at the back of the head contains no blood-vessels at all. In fact. Nature has located the sense-organs in a very satisfactory manner. The ears are half-way round the circumference of the head, because they are to hear sounds from all directions alike and not only from straight before them. The eyes face front this is because sight is along one straight line, and we must be able to see along the line in which we are moving, which is directly forward. The nostrils are between the eyes, and this is quite reasonable. Each of the sense-organs is double, because the body itself is double it has a right side and a left side. It must be admitted that this duality is not at all clear in the case of touch this is because the primary senseorgan of touch is not the flesh or a corresponding part, but something internal. With the tongue the duality is not very clear, but more so than with touch.

indeed

made

;

;

:

:

:

179'

ARISTOTLE
657 a
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r)

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errl
rj

Kal

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yap iuxLayLevq.

he rcov

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yap Svo Kal
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r)

fiopLov iv (L

aloQ-qGis

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Se ro pLopiov

Kara
et?

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hioirep
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XI.

rd
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jirj

rod hepjiaros GKXijporrjra Kal rd e^^iv
dv eVAaae rd ojra.
ofiolajs he

rptxcis

dXXd TTrepcord elvac ovk ovv e^ei roiavrrjv
Kal rcov

vXrjv i^ rjs

<» Aristotle seems to refer here to the forked tongues of certain animals. See 660 b 7 flF.

180


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
The
II.

x.-xii.

(Taste, in fact, is itself, as it were, a sort of touch.) duality is plain, however, even with this sense, for it is seen to be divided.^ With the other senses, the organ is more evidently parted into two there are two ears and two eyes, and two passages for the The sense of smell, if it had nostrils in the nose. been other^^^se placed separated into two, that is, like the sense of hearing would not have been able to perform its proper function ; nor would that part of the body in which it is situated, since in animals which have nostrils, the sensation of smell is effected by means of inspiration, and this part is at the front and in the middle. This is
:

why Nature
straight line

has brought the nostrils together in a and made them the central of the three sense-organs in the head, located where the motion
Ears.

of in-breathing takes place. In the other animals as well as in man these senseorgans are very satisfactorily arranged as required by the peculiar nature of each animal. XI. For instance, the quadrupeds have ears that stand out free from the head, and they are higher than the eyes

an

or appear to be, although this is not really so it is illusion due to the fact that these animals are not upright but stand on all fours. And as they are usually in this posture when in motion, it is useful for them to have their ears well up in the air, and also
:

movable this enables them to be turned round and oick up sounds better from all directions. XII. Birds have the auditory passages only, owing to the hardness of their skin, and because they have feathers instead of hair, which means that they have not got the right material for forming The same argument applies to those oviparous ears.
:
'

181

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"

Or, " imperfectly developed."

Cf.

Bk.

III. ch. viii,

182

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
quadrupeds which have horny
;

II.

xii.-xiii.

scales.

One

vivi-

parous animal, tlie Seal, has no ears but only auditory passages but this is because, though a quadruped, it is deformed." XIII. Man, the Birds, and the Quadrupeds (both viviparous and oviparous) have a protective covering
eyes. The viviparous quadrupeds have to each eye (which also enable them some of the birds, especially the heavily to blink) built ones, and the oviparous quadrupeds, when they close their eyes, do so with the lower eyelid ; birds, however, can blink, with the aid of a memfor

Eyes,

their

two eyelids
;

brane that comes out of the corner of the eye. The reason for the existence of these protective coverings is that the eye is fluid in order to ensure keenness of vision. If the eye had been constructed with a hard skin it would of course have been less liable to injury by impact from without, but its vision would have been duller. For this cause the skin round the pupil is left thin and fine, and the safety of the eye is ensured by the addition
of the eyelids. The movement of the eyelids known as blinking is a natural and instinctive one, not dependent on the will, and its object is to prevent things from getting into the eyes. All animals that have eyelids do it, but human beings blink most of all, because they have the thinnest and
finest skin.

Now
why,

the eyelid

is

encased

^vith skin
it

;

and that

is

like the tip of the foreskin,

\\'ill

not unite

it has been cut, because both of them are skin and contain no flesh. said just now that some birds and the oviparous quadrupeds close the eye with the lower

again once

We

183

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ARISTOTLE
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184

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

xiii.

eyelid only. This is due to the hardness of the (a) The heavily skin which surrounds the head, built birds are not great fliers, and so the material which would have supplied growth for the wings has been diverted, resulting in thickness of the skin. These creatures, then, use only the bottom eyelid to cover the eye whereas pigeons and such use both eyelids. (6) With regard to the oviparous quadrupeds As the horny scales with which they are covered are in every case harder than hair, so their skin also is harder than ordinary skin. And as the skin on their heads is hard, they can have no upper eyelid but lower dovvn the skin has some flesh with it, and so they have a lower eyelid that is thin and extensible. Now the heavily built birds blink not with this lower eyelid, because its motion is slow, but A\ith the membrane above mentioned, whose motion is This blinking or nictitating swift, as is requisite. begins at the corner of the eye nearest the nostrils, because it is better that the membranes should have one place of origin rather than two, and in these birds this is where the eye and nostril are conjoined also, the front is more a place of origin than the side. The oviparous quadrupeds do not blink in this way, because, unlike birds, which have to use their eyes over great distances, they go upon the ground, and therefore there is no need for them to have fluid eyes or great accuracy of sight. The crooktaloned birds are sharp-sighted, for they view their prey from above, and that also explains why they fly to a greater height than other birds. The birds that remain on the ground, however, and do not fly much (e.g. barn-door fowls and the like) are
;
:

;

;

185

-

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SU.

186

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

xiii.-xiv.

not sharp-sighted, since there is no urgent necessity for it in their kind of hfe. Many differences in the eye itself are found among the Fishes, the Insects and the hard-skinned CrusIn the tacea, thougli not one of them has eyeUds. hard-skinned Crustacea there cannot be an eyehd at all, for the action of an eyelid depends upon swift working of the skin. To compensate for the lack of this protection, all these creatures have hard eyes it is as though the eyelid were all of a piece with the eyeball, and the creature looked through the lid as well. But since the vision is bound to be dimmed by this hardness of the eye, Nature has given the Insects (and even more noticeably the Crustacea) movable eyes, just as she has given some quadrupeds movable ears this is to enable them to turn towards the light and catch its rays and so Fish have fluid eyes for the to quicken their vision. following reason. They move about a good deal and have to use their sight over long distances. Now when land-animals do this, they are looking through but fish move about air, which is highly transparent so in water, which is inimical to sharpness of vision to counteract its opacity their eyes are fluid in composition. At the same time, water contains far fewer objects to strike against the eyes than the air hence fish need no eyelids, and because does Nature never makes anything without a purpose, they have none. XIV. Those animals that have hair on their body the others (birds have eyelashes on their eyelids and the creatures with horny scales) have none. the Libyan There is one exception to this rule The cause of this ostrich, which has eyelashes.
:

;

;

;

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188

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
will
'^

II.

xiv.

Man is the only animal be explained later. which has eyelashes on both lids. Why is this ? The quadrupeds tend to have more hair on their but in backs than on the underside of the body man the reverse is true. The purpose of hair is to and as the quadrupeds go on all give protection so fours, they need more protection on their backs they have no hair on their front, although the front Man goes upright, is the nobler of the two sides. and so there is nothing to choose as regards his need Therefore of protection between front and back. Nature has prescribed the protection for the nobler an example of how, out of given side, the front conditions, she is always the cause of that which is the better. This, then, is why none of the quadrupeds has lower eyelashes (though some have a few scattered hairs growing on the lower eyelid), or hair in the axillae or on the pubes, as man has. Instead of this, some of them have thick hair all over the back part of ^ their body {e.g. dogs), some of them have a mane {e.g. horses and such), others a flowing mane, like the male lion. Again, if an animal has a tail of any length. Nature decks that long hair for tails with a short stem with hair too {e.g. horses), short hair for tails Mith a long stem. This, however, is not independent of the general condition of the whole animal, for Nature gives something to one part of the body only after she has taken it from another part. So when she has made an animal's body extremely hairy, we find that there is not much hair about the tail. An example of this is the Bears.
;
;
;

;

«
*

See 697 b 13

ff.

Piatt deletes " the

back part

of."

189

ARISTOTLE
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« This is one of the passages fastened upon by Bacon in his tirade against the importation of final causes into physics, Adv. of Learning (publ. 1605), ii. pp. 29, 30 : " This I finde done not onely by Plato, who euer ancrcth vppon that shoare, but by Aristotle, Galen, and others, who do vsually hkewise fall vppon these flatts of discoursing causes ; For to say that

the haires of the Eye-liddes are for

a

quic-sette

and fence about

190

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
Man has
is (a)

II.

xiv.-xv.

the hairiest head of
necessity,
;

all

the animals.
is fluid,

This

due to

because the brain

and

and a large outgrowth the skull has many sutures necessarily occurs where there is a large amount of fluid and hot substance. But also (6) it is on purpose that is, the hair affords shelter to give protection both from excessive cold and from excessive heat. The human brain is the biorsrest and the most fluid therefore it needs the greatest amount of all brains of protection. A very fluid thing is very liable both to violent heating and \dolent cooling, while substances of an opposite nature are less liable to such
;
;

affections.

This, however, is a digression. We were led into it because the subject was connected with our investigation of the cause of eyelashes. Anything further that there is to be said about it will be said in its proper place. XV\ Both eyebrows and eyelashes exist to afford the eyebrows, like the eaves protection to the eyes of a house, are to protect the eyes from the fluids the eyelashes are Uke that run down from the head the palisades which are sometimes put up in front of an enclosure their purpose is to keep out things that try to get in." However, the eyebrows are placed where two bones join (which is why they often get so thick in old age that they have to be cut) and the eyelashes are placed at the ends of small blood-vessels, which have to stop where the skin itself comes to
:

;

;

;

the Sight

.

.

.

and the

like, is well

inquired

&

collected in

Metaphisicke, but in Phisicke they are impertinent." But there is no incompatibility, p. 33, " For the cause rendred that the haires about the Eye-liddes are for the safeguard of the sight, doth not impugne the cause rendred, that Pilositie is incident to Orifices of Moisture.'" See also Xen. Mem. i. 4. 6.

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192

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II. xv.-xvi.

an end. Thus, owing to the fact that the moisture which comes off is corporeal in composition, hair must be formed at these places even on account of a necessary cause such as this, unless some function of Nature impedes by diverting the moisture to another use. XVI. The general run of viviparous quadrupeds
differ

Nostriia.

very

little

organ of smell. ever. Those animals whose jaws project forward and become gradually narrower, forming what is called a snout, have the organ of smell in their snout this being the only possibility in the others, the jaws

among themselves as regards the The following variations occur, how-

;

nostrils are more definitely separated. The elephant's nose is unique owing to its enormous size and its extraordinary character. By means of his nose, as if it were a hand, the elephant conveys his food, both solid and fluid, to his mouth by means of it he tears up trees, by winding it round them. In fact, he uses it for all purposes as if it were a hand. This is because the elephant has a double character he is a land-animal, but he also He has to get his food from the lives in swamps. water ; yet he has to breathe, because he is a landanimal and has blood owing to his enormous size, however, he cannot transfer himself quickly from the water on to the land, as do quite a number of blooded viviparous animals that breathe hence he has to be equally at home on land and in the water. Some divers, when they go down into the sea, provide themselves with a breathing-machine, by means of which they can inhale the air from above the surface while they remain for a long time in the water. Nature has provided the elephant with something of this sort by giving him a long nose. If ever the

and

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:

;

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194.

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

II.

xvi.

elephant has to make his way through deep water, he will put his trunk up to the surface and breathe through it. This is possible, because, as I have said Now it would already, the trunk is really a nostril. have been impossible for the nostril to be put to all these uses if it had not been soft and able to bend for then by its very length it would have prevented the animal from getting its food, just as they say the horns of the " backward-grazing " oxen do, forcing them to walk backwards as they feed.^ So the trunk and in consequence Nature, as is soft and pliable usual, takes advantage of this to make it discharge it has to an extra function beside its original one serve instead of forefeet. Now in polydactylous quadrupeds the forefeet are there to serve as hands, not merely in order to support the weight of the animal but elephants (which must be included under this class of animals, because they have neither a solid hoof nor a cloven one) are so large and so heavy and that their forefeet can serve only as supports indeed they are no good for anything else because they move so slowly and are quite unsuited for bending. So the elephant's nostril is there, in the first place, to enable him to breathe (as in all animals that have and also it is lengthened and able to coil a lung) itself round things because the elephant spends much of his time in the water and cannot quickly And as his forefeet are not emerge upon land. available for the normal function, Nature, as we said, presses the trunk into service to supply what should have been forthcoming from the feet. The Birds and Serpents and the quadrupeds which
;
;

:

;

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See above, on

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from Herodotus,

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196

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
like

II.

xvi.

them are blooded and oviparous, have their nostril-passages in front of the mouth but they have
:

nothing which except for its function can be called nostrils nothing distinctly articulated. A bird, at any rate, one might say has no nose at all. The reason for this is that its beak really replaces jaws. And this is because of the natural structure of birds. A bird is a winged biped hence its head and its neck must be light in weight, and its breast must be narrow and it has a beak, which (a) is made out of

;

;

so that it will serve as a weapon as well as for the uptake of food, and (h) is narrow, owing to the small size of the head. It has the passages for smell in this beak, but it is impossible for it to have nostrils there. have spoken already about the animals that do

bony material,

We

not breathe, and shown why they have no nostrils some of them smell by means of the gills, some through a blow-hole while the insects smell through the middle part of the body. All of them smell, as all of them move, by means of the connate pneuma ° of their bodies, which is not introduced from without, but is present in all of them by nature. In all blooded animals that have teeth, the lips have their place below the nostrils. (As stated already, birds have a bony beak for getting food and for defence and this is as it were teeth and lips run into one. The nature of the beak can be illustrated thus. Supposing, in a human being, that the lips were removed, and all the upper teeth were welded to:

;

Lipa.

;

"

Cf.

De somno

et vig.

'Lvfi<f)irrov

YLveufia see

455 b 34 fF. For a full account of G.A. (Loeb edn.), pp. 576 ff.

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198


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
gether, and similarly
:

II.

xvi.

all the bottom teeth, and then each set were extended in a forward direction, and made to taper this would result in a beak such as birds have.) In all animals except man the lips are intended to preserve and to protect the teeth hence we find that the distinctness of formation in the lips is directly proportionate to the nicety and exactitude of formation in the teeth. In man the hps are soft and fleshy and can be separated. Their purpose is (as in other animals) to protect the teeth but still more important they subserve a good purpose, inasmuch as they are among the parts that make speech possible. This double function of the human lips, to facilitate speech as well as to protect the teeth, may be compared with that of the human tongue, which is unlike that of any other animal, and is used by Nature for two functions (a device of hers which we have often noted), {a) to perceive the various tastes, and (h) to be the means of speech. Now vocal speech consists of combinations of the various letters or sounds, some of which are produced by an impact of the tongue, others by closing the lips and if the lips were not supple, or if the tongue were other than it is, the greater part of these could not possibly be pronounced. For further particulars about the various differences between these sounds you must consult the authorities on Metre. It was wece^^ar?/, however, from the start that each of these two parts should be adapted and well-fitted for their function as stated above therefore their nature had to be suitable thereto, and that is why they are made of flesh. Human flesh is the softest kind of flesh and this is because man's sense of touch is there is much more dehcate than that of any other creature.
;

;

;

;

;

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660 b

/cat

77^6? epfirjvetav dAAT^Aots" Trdvres pi^v,
ctt*

erepoL Se tcDv crepcov i^aXXov, aJoT*
^

ivlcov /cat

/cai /LiaA.
^

€^€1 post re Vlilg.

;

traiisposui.

aladrjTiKCJTaTr) supplevi.

200


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
II.

xvii.
Tongu©.

XVII. Under the vaulted roof of the mouth is placed the tongue, and it is practically the same in but there are variations in the other all land-animals groups, whose tongues are as a whole different from those of land-animals and also different among themselves. The human tongue is the freest, the broadest, this is to enable it to fulfil and the softest of all both its functions. On the one hand, it has to perceive all the various tastes, for man has the most delicate senses of all the animals, and a soft tongue is the most sensitive, because it is the most responsive to touch, and taste is a sort of touch. It has, also, to articulate the various sounds and to produce speech, and for this a tongue which is soft and broad is admirably suited, because it can roll back and dart forward in all directions and herein too its freedom and looseness assists it. This is shown by the case of those whose tongues are slightly tied their speech is indistinct and lisping, which is due to the fact that they cannot produce all the sounds. A tongue which is broad can also become narrow, on the principle that the great includes the small, but not vice versa. That is why the clearest talkers, even among birds, are those which have the broadest tongues. On the other hand, the blooded viviparous quadrupeds have a limited vocal articulation it is because their tongues are hard and thick and not sufficiently loose. Some birds the smaller sorts have a large variety of notes. The crook-taloned birds have fairly broad tongues. All birds use their tongues as a means of communication with other birds, and some to a very considerable extent, so much so that it is probable that in
;
:

;

:

^

;

201

ARISTOTLE
66D b

fiddrjCLV etvai Sok€lv nap' aXXriXojv eipr]rai 8e Trepl

avrcjv iv rats laropiais rat? Tre/ot rwv S^cocov. Tcov 8e 77€^cDv Kal cootokcov Kal ivaipLWV npos
/lev T17V T7]? cf)a)vrjs
6

ipyaulav

dxp'r]crrov

ra

ttoXXol

TTjv

yXojrrav

e;^€t /cat

TrpoaheSepLev-qv Kal OKXrjpdv,

rrpos Se tt^v

twv ^^vjjlojv yevatv oi r' 6(f)eis Kal ol aavpoi fjLaKpdv Kal hiKpoav exovcnv, ol jjl€V ocjyeis ovTCD jxaKpav ojgt e/creiVecr^at e/c fiiKpov inl ttoXv, hiKpoav he Kal to aKpov XeTrrov Kal rptp^coSe? hia
(f)iJGecos'

rr]v Xi)(y€Lav tt^s
10

hiTrXrjv
hLTrXrjv

yap

rrjv rjhovrjv

Krarai tojv x^H-^^y wanep
yevaeoj? aiodrjuLV. *'E;^et he Kal ra

exovra

ttjv rrjs

15

20

eVat/xa rcov t^coajv to alody)' (jlt] TLKov raav x^l^^^' p-opiov Kal ra eVat/xa iravra' Kal yap 60a fJLT) hoKel rols ttoXXoXs e;^etv, otov evioL rcjv ixOviov, Kal ovTOL rpoirov riva yXlaxpov exovon, Kal GX^hov TTapaTrXrjaLOjg roXs TTorapLLois KpoKohelXotg. Ol) (^atVovrat S' 01 TrXelGTOi avrojv exetv hid tlv* alriav evXoyov dKavdcohr]^ re ydp eVrtv o ro-rrog rod orofiaros Trdoi rols roiovrois, Kal hia ro fjLLKpov xpovov etvai rr]v alod-qaiv rols evvhpoLs rwv XVjJLCOV, wGTrep Kal rj ;^p7Jcrt? avrrjs ^paxela, ovrcx) jSpa^^etav exovGiv avrrjs Kal rrjv hidpOpcuGiv. raxela S' T) hlohos els TTjv KoiXiav hid ro fir] oiov r eivai hiarpi^eiv eKx^piit^ovras' TrapeinriTrroL ydp dv ro vhctjp. ojGr edv jjirj ris ro Grofxa eiriKXivr], firj aKavOcohrjs (f>aiveGdai dc^eGrrjKos rovro ro piopiov, 8' iarlv ovros 6 r ottos GvyKeirai ydp €/c rrjs
'

25

Gvpn/javGecjDS Tcbv ^payx^coVy (Lv

rj

(f)VGis

aKavdcohrjs

ioriv.
"

See Hist. An. 504 b

1,

536 a 20

ff.,

597 b 26, 608 a 17.

202

PARTS OF ANIiMALS,
some

II.

xvii.

cases information is actually conveyed from one bird to another. I have spoken of these in the Researches upon Animals.^ The tongue is useless for the purpose of speech in most of the oviparous and blooded land-animals be-

cause

it is

fastened

down and

is

hard

;

but

it is

very

useful for the purpose of taste, e.g. in the serpents and lizards, which have long, forked tongues. Serpents' tongues are very long, but can be rolled into a small

compass and then extended to a great distance they are also forked, and the tips of them are fine and hairy, owing to their having such inordinate appetites by
; ;

means the serpents get a double pleasure out of what they taste, o\ving to their possessing as it
this

were a double organ

for this sense.

of the bloodless animals have an organ for perceiving tastes and of course all the blooded animals have one, including those which most people would say had not, e.g., certain of the fishes, which have a paltry sort of tongue, very like what the rivercrocodiles have. Most of these creatures look as if they had no tongue, and there is good reason for this. (1) All animals of this sort have spinous mouths ; (2) the time which water-animals have for perceiving tastes is short hence, since the use of this sense is short, so is the articulation of its organ. The reason why their food passes very quickly into the stomach is because they cannot spend much time sucking out its juices, otherwise the water would get in as well. So unless you pull the mouth well open, you will not be able to see that the tongue is a separate projection. The inside of the mouth is spinous, because it is formed by the juxtaposition of the gills which are of a spinous nature.
; ;

Even some

203'

ARISTOTLE
630b

Tot? Se KpoKoSeiXots uvfi^aXXeral tl Trpos Tqv rod fjiopiov TOVTOV avaTrrjpiav koi to rrjv oiayova €GTL jJL€V yap -q yXaJrra TTjv KOLTaj OLKLvqTov e;^€tv. TTJ KOLTaj GviJi(j)vr]s, ol 8' exovGLV cooTTep avdiraXiv
TTjV dvCO
30

^

^

,

,

,

,

X

KOLTOJ' TOls

yap aAAot?
ovk exovGL

"J]

civOJ

dKLVrjTOS.

Trpog [lev ovv rfj dvoj

rr^v

yXcarrav,

on

evavTiOJS dv e^oi irpos rrjV rrj? rpo(f)rjs €lgoSov, upos

he

rfj

Kara),

on

coGrrep fieraKeLfievT]
7Tel,cp

rj

dvoj ecrrtV.
l^rjv

en

he Kal Gvpi^e^rjKev avrco

ovn

IxOvojv

^Lov,

wGre Kal hid rovro dvayKatov dhidpdpoirov

35

avrdv ex^iv rovro rd fiopiov. Tdv 8' ovpavov GapKcohrj 77oAAot Kal rdJv IxQvojv exovGL, Kal rcjjv TTorajiiojv evioi G(j)6hpa GapKwhr]
Kal fiaXaKov, olov ol KaXovfievoL Kvrrplvoi, cjGre hoKelv roLS pur] gkottovglv aKpi^ajs yXwrrav ex^t,v ol 8' IxOves hid rrjv elp'qpievqv alriav ravrrjv. exovGi pLev ov Gacf)rj 8' exovGL rrjv hidpdpojGLV rrjs eirel he {rrjS rpo^r^s x^P^^^^ ^<^^ '^^^ yXcvrrrjs. p^ujLtcuv aiGOiqGis eveGn /xev ro) yXojrroeihel pLopicp, ov rravrl^ 8' op^olajs dXXd ra> aKpcp /xaAtcrra, hid

661 a

6

rovro roig ixOvgi rovr
'ETTt^u/xtav
8'
e;^et

d(j)a)piGrai pLovov.
rpocfirjs

rd ^cpa Trdvra
eK

cos
rrjs

exovra aiGOrjGiv
rpo(f)rjs'

rrjs rjhovrjs rrjs yivopievrjs

fxopiov
10

r) ydp eiTidvpLia rod rjheos eoriv. dXXd rd ovx dpioiov rovro ttolgiv, cL rrjv aiGdrjGiv TTOiovvrai rrjs rpocf)rjs, dXXd rois piev drroXeXvpLevov
,

roZs he TrpoGTrecfjVKOs

ogois pir)hev epyov virapxei

^ [ttjs Tpo<l)T}s xcipi*'] praecedentium interpretationem seclusi, cetera correxi t^s" ev toIs x^H-'^^^ earlv r) aiadrjois {els olaQriaiv Z) TO fiev (/xcv TO EYZ) yXcoTTOCLbes e^ei (e;^ei oni. Z) fi6pu)v * navri Z : Travr^j vulg. vulg.
:

204.


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
II.

xvii.

Among the factors which contribute to the deformity of the crocodile's tongue is the immobihty of its lower jaw, to which the tongue is naturally We must remember, however, that the joined. crocodile's jaws are topsy-turvy ; the bottom one is this is clearly so, on top and the top one below because in other animals the top jaw is the immovable one. The tongue is not fixed to the upper jaw (as one might expect it to be) because it would get in the way of the food as it entered the mouth, but to the lower one, which is really the upper one in the wrong place. Furthermore, although the crocodile is a land-animal, his manner of life is that of a fish, and this is another reason why he must have a tongue that is not distinctly articulated. Many fish, however, have a fleshy roof to their In some of the fresh-water fish e.g. mouths. those known as Cyprinoi it is very fleshy and soft, In so that casual observers think it is a tongue. given, the fish, however, for the reason already yet, tongue, though articulated, is not distinctly so inasmuch as the power also of perceiving tastes resides in the tongue-like organ, though not in the whole of it equally but chiefly in the tip, therefore on this account in fish the tip only is separate from the
;

;

jaw.

animals are able to perceive the pleasant is derived from food, and so they have a desire for food, because desire aims at getting that
all

Now

taste

which
is

which

pleasant.

The

part, however,

by which

this

perception or sensation of the food takes place, is not identical in all of them, for some have a tongue which moves freely and loosely, others (which have no vocal functions) have a tongue that is fastened down.

205

ARISTOTLE
661 a

•q

15

OKXiqpov roZs he /LtaAa/cov Kal rols yLoXaKoorpaKois, olov rov Kapd^oLs Kal Tols roiovroiSy ivros vTrdp^eL aropLaros tolovtov, Kal rots fiaXaKLOis, olov 07]7TLaLS TcDv 8* ivTopLOJV ^cpajv Ivitt fxev Kal TToXvTTOGLv ivros €)(eL ro toiovtov pLopiov, olov to tcDv ju,t»ppir^KUJV yivos, djaavrcos 8e Kal rcjv oorpaKoheppaov TToXXd' rd 8' Iktos, olov Kevrpov, aop.(f)6v 8e rrjv <f)voLV Kal KotXov, wad^ dpia rovrco Kal yeveadai Kal
(f)iov7]g,

Kal TOLS

jLtev

crap/ca>8es'.

8to

n

.

20

Tr)v rpo<f)riv dvaairdv.

hrjXov 8e rovro evrt t€ pLVLcov

Kal pLcXiTTajv Kal Trdvrcov tojv toiovtcjv, ert 8' Tols ydp 7Top(j)vpais €7T* ivLOJV TcDv oGTpaKohlppiOJV
TOcravTTjv
e;!^et

SvvapiLV rovro ro ptopLov ojore /cat

rGiV KoyxvXiojv hiarpv7Ta)GL rd oarpaKov, olov rojv

arpopL^atv

oh

heXed^ovaiv avrds.

ert

8'

ot r

25

olarpoL Kal ol pLvajTres ol pLev rd rdJv avSpajirajv ol 8e Kal rd rwv dXXojv t,(l)0)v Sepptara hiaipovoiv,
iv piev ovv rovroig roXg t,a)OLs
TTjV
(f)VOLV
-q

yXojrra roiavvq

earivy woirep dvrLGrp6(f)a)s

e^ovoa

rep

pLVKrrjpL ro) rdJv

eXe^dvr ojv Kal ydp
Kal rovrois
rj

eVetVots" rrpog

^oiqdeiav 6 pLVKri^p,

Kevrpov iorLV.
80

iirl

8e rchv dXXojv ^cpcov

yXcorra dvrl rj yXcorra

TTavrajv iorrlv otavrrep elVo/xev.

«

Under

this

name

Aristotle probably includes several

species of

Purpura and Murex.

Tyrian purple

(6, 6'

dibrom-

206


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
;

II.

xvii.

Some again have a hard tongue others a soft or fleshy one. So we find that even the Crustacea e.g.
have a tongue-Hke object mouth, and so have the Cephalopods e.g. the Sepias and the Octopuses. Of the Insects, some have this organ inside the mouth (e.g. the Ants), and so have many of the Testacea. Others have it outside, as though it were a sting, in which case it is spongy and hollov/, and so they can use it both for tasting and for drawing up their food. Clear examples of this are flies and bees and all such creatures, and also some of the Testacea. In the Purpurae," for instance, this " tongue " has such strength that they can actually bore through the shells of shellfish with it, including those of the spiral snails which are used Also, there are among the gadas baits for them. flies and cattle-flies creatures that can pierce through the skin of the human body, and some can actually puncture animal hides as well. Tongues of this sort, we may say, are on a par with the elephant's nose ; in their tongue these creatures have a useful sting just as the elephant has a handy implement in his
inside the

the Crayfish and such

trunk. In all other animals the tongue conforms to the description we have given.
indigo) is obtained from Murex brandaris. For the boring powers of these creatures' tongues see the reference for Purpura lapillvs given by Ogle (Forbes and Hanley, Brit,

Mollusca,

iii.

385).

207

661a
*E;)^OjLtevov
35 ecrrt

8e
rois

rtDv

elp-qixivojv

'q

rcov

oSovrcov

(f)VGL?

t,(joois,

kol to

arofxa

ro

Trepi-

^xoy^^vov VTTO Tovrcov /cat avveGrrjKos €k tq-utcov,
661 b

Tots' [xev ovv aAAots"
jLtev

r]

roJv oSovrcov (f>vaL9 Koivrj

eVt Ti^v

T-r]?

rpo^rjs epyaoiav v7Tdpx€L, x^^pt?

8e

Kara yevq rot?
iTTL

r)prjlJL€V7)S,

juev dA/crJ? X^P^^> '^^^ ravrrjs 8tT€ TO 7T0L€LV Kal TO /Xt) TTOLGXCIV

TO, fi€V
6

yap

aii(j)oZv eVe/cev e;)^ft, /cat

tou

^t^ Tradetv

/cat

ToO

TTOtetF,

otov ocra oapKocfxiya rcov dyplajv
Tct
/cat

rrjv

<j)VGLV

ecTTtV,

Se ^orjOelas
tcDv 'qfiepajv.

X^P^^»

axjirep

TToXXd ra)v dypicjv

*0
€;\;et

3' dvOpOJTTOS TTpOg

rrecjiVKOTag'

rovg

T€ TI^V KOLVTjV XP'^^^^ KoXcJS fiev Trpoadlovs o^ets", tva

Statptoot, TOWS' Se yoiK^iovs irXareZs, Iva
10

Xeaivcoaw
rrjv

opl^ovGL

8'

eKarepovs ol KvvoSovres, jiiaoi
6vT€S' TO Tc
ot

(f)VGLV dfJL(f)OT€pcjov

yap

jjilaov dii<j)OT€pa>v
rfj
fJLev

fi€T€X^i'
diets'
T7y

ra)v

a/cpcov,
TrAarets"

Tt

/cuvo8ovTes'
opioicjs

8e

eloiv
{jltj

8e

/cat

€7rt

—pidXiora
Tous'

Toiv ciAAcov

t^ipcjv,

oaa

navras exovoiv
TotouTous'
ttoAAo.
/cat

diets'

he

/cat

toutous"

toctouTr]V

Trpos"

Tr)V

8tdAe/CTOv

ydp

Trpo?

208

BOOK
The subject which follows

III
Teeth-

naturally after our pre\'ious

remarks is that of the Teeth. We shall also speak about the Mouth, for this is bounded by the teeth and is really formed by them. In the lower animals teeth have one common but they have addifunction, namely, mastication In tional functions in different groups of animals. some they are present to serve as weapons, offensive and defensive, for there are animals which have them both for offence and defence (e.g. the wild others (including many animals both carnivora) wild and domesticated) have them for purposes of
;

;

assistance.

teeth too are admirably adapted for the that all teeth subserve the front the molars ones are sharp, to bite up the food and on the are broad and flat, to grind it small border between the two are the dog-teeth whose and just as nature is intermediate between the two a mean shares the nature of both its extremes, so the dog-teeth are broad in one part and sharp in another. Thus the provision is similar to that of the other animals, except those whose teeth are all sharp ; but in man even these sharp teeth, in respect of character and number, are adapted chiefly for the purposes of speech, since the

Human

common purpose

:

;

;

:

209

.

ARISTOTLE
681b
15
^

yeveoLV tojv ypajJLfidTCov ol Trpoodioi tojv oSovtojv

"Evta he TOJV ^wojv, wuTrep etVo/xev,
€)(€L jiovov.

rpo(f)rjg X^P'-^

ooa §e Kal

rrpos ^orjOetdv re /cat rrpo^

dXK-qv,
S'
20

rd

fxev ;)^auAioSovTa9 e;^et,

KaBdirep vs, rd

d^el?

Kal

eVaAAarrovra?,

odev
tj

Kap)(ap6SovTa
lax^s avrcjv,

/caAetrat.

eVet

ydp

iv rolg oSovglv

rovTO he yivoLT
TTpds
TTjV

dv hid

ttjv 6^vTr]ra, ol y^pr^uipioi

dXKrjv

ivaXXd^

epLTTiTrrovoiv,

ottojs

p-y)

dp,^XvvojvTai rpi^opevoL npog aXXt^Xovg.
rcov
t,(jpcxjv

ovhev he

eorlv

dpa

Kap-)(ap6hovv Kal )(avXL6hovv,
TTOielv rrjv (f)vaLV p.rjhe
7rX7]yrJ5
r)

Sta TO pLTjhev
25

pdnqv

Trepi-

epyov eoTL he

rajv p.ev hud

^oijOeia,

Tcbv he hid hi^y pharos,

hiorrep at ^T^Aetat

rwv

vtov

haKvovGiv ov ydp e)(ovGi )(^avXi6hovras (Ka^oAou he ;Ypea»v tl Xa^elv, o Kal eirl rovrcov
Kal
errl

ttoXXojv tojv vorepov Xe-xdriaopiivcov earat

XpT](Jt'P'OV.
30

rcbv re

opyavLKcjjv pLoploJV

ydp Trpo? aA^r^v re Kal ^orjdeiav eKaara aTTohihcoGiv rj (pvoig rots
"?)

hvvap,evoL? XpT]<^daL p.6vois
TO)
/xaAtcrra,

juaAAov, /xaAtcrra he
TrXrJKTpov,

olov

Kevrpov,

Kepara,
he rd

XavXiohovra? Kal

ei tl

toiovtov erepov.

errel

dppev luxvpdrepov Kal BvpuKojrepoVy rd /xev piova oaa TO, he pidXXov ex^t' to. roiavra rojv /xoptojv.
85 pi,ev

ydp dvayKaXov Kal

rots" dj^Xeaiv ^x^iv,
jLtev

olov rd

TTpos rr^v Tpo</)7yv, exovai

rjrrov 8' exovGLVy

oaa
Kal

he TTpds piTjhev ra>v dvayKaicoVy ovk exovoLV.
"

See note on 644 a

17.

210

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

i.

front teeth contribute a great deal to the formation of the sounds. As we have said, the teeth of some of the animals have one function only, to break up the food. Of those animals whose teeth serve also as a defence and as weapons, some (like the SA\ine) have tusks, some have sharp interlocking teeth, and are called " saw-toothed " as a result. The strength of these latter animals lies in their teeth, and sharpness is the means of securing this so the teeth which are serviceable as weapons are arranged to fit in side by side when the jaws are closed to prevent them from rubbing against each other and becoming blunt. No animal has saw-teeth as well as tusks for Nature never does anything without purpose or makes anything superfluously. These teeth are used in selfdefence by biting tusks by striking. This explains
; ;
;

they have no tusks. (At this point we should make a generalization, "The more which will help us both in our study of the foregoing J-^^^ F^^ cases and of many that are to follow. Nature allots defensive and offensive organs only to those creatures which can make use of them, or allots them " in a greater degree," " and " in the greatest degree " to the animal which can use them to the greatest exbite
:

why sows

This applies to stings, spurs, horns, tusks, and the rest. Example Males are stronger than females and more spirited hence sometimes the male of a species has one of these parts and the female has none, sometimes the male has it "in a greater degree." Parts which are necessary for the female as well as for the male, as for instance those needed for feeding, are of course present though " in a less degree " ; but those which serve no necessary end are not
tent.
:

;

211'

ARISTOTLE
662 a Slcl

rovTO

Tcov

iXdcf)OJV

ol

jJLev

appevcs

e^ovoi

Kepara, at 8e ^7]Aetat ovk exovcnv.
/cat

hia^epei 8e
rcov ravpcjv
/cat

ra Kepara rwv

dr]\eicJL)v

^otov

/cat

ofiOLCOs
6

Se Kal iv roZs Trpo^drois.

TrXrJKrpa

Tojv dppevcov ixovTcov at TroXXal rcov drjXeioJv ovk

exovGLv.

COS"

S'

avTOJS

€;^et

rovro Kal ivl rwv

dXXojv rcov roLovrojv.)

10

Ot 8' LxOveg Trdvres etcrt KapxapoSovre? 7TXr]v rod ivos rod KaXovfjLevov uKdpov rroXXol 8' exovGi Kal iv rats yXojrr ais ohovras /cat iv rots ovpavols. rovrov 8* atrtov on dvay/catov iv vypoZs ovol TrapeLuSex^crdaL ro vypov dfia rfj rpo(f)fj, Kal rovro
,

raxio)^

iKTrifirreiv.

ov yap eV8e;\;eTat Xeaivovras

SiarpL^eLV elupioL yap dv ro vypov els rds KoiXias.
8ta rovro iravres elalv d^els npos rrjv hiaipeoiv
[xovoVy

Kal^

TToXXol

Kal

TToXXaxfj,

tva

avrt

rod

Xeaiveiv els 77oAAa Kepjiarit^atoi rco rrXr^dei.
15

yapujjol

8e 8ta TO rrjV dXKTjv axehov aTracrav avrols 8ia

rovra>v etvai.
*'E;(et

Se

/cat

rrjv

rod arojJLaros
/cat

(f>vcnv

rd

t,cpa

rovrcov re rcov epyojv eVe/ca

en

rrjs dvaTTVorjs,

7]

oaa dvaiTveZ yap (j>vois
Xprjraiy

rcov ^cocov Kal Karaipvx^rau Ovpadev.
avTY] Kad^ avri^v, cooTrep et7ro/xev, rois

20

KOLVols ndvrojv [xopLOis els TroAAa rcov tStojv /caraolov Kal
tj

irrl

rod Gr6p.aros

rj

fiev rpocfnj

Trdvrcov kolvov,

S* dXKTj nvcJov 'lSlov

Kal 6 Xoyos
tj

iripcoVy

en
^

8e rd dvarrveZv ov Trdvrcov kolvov.
sic

8e

P

:

hialpcaiv.

tto-Xlv

koI vulg.

o

Probably the

parrot-fish.

Cf. 675 a 3.

212

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

i.

present. Thus, stags have horns, does have not. Thus, too, cows' horns are different from bulls' horns, and ewes' from rams'. In many species the males have spurs while the females have not. And so with the other such parts.) All fishes are saw-toothed except one species, Many of them have teeth on their the Scarus.'* tongues and in the roof of the mouth. This is because as they live in the water they cannot help letting some of it in as they take in their food, and they have to get it out again as quickly as possible. If they failed to do so, and spent time grinding the food small, the water would run down into their gut. So all their teeth are sharp and intended only for cutFurther, they are numerous and ting up the food. placed all over the mouth so by reason of their multitude they can reduce the food into tiny pieces, and this takes the place of the grinding process. They are also curved this is because practically the whole of a fish's offensive force is concentrated in
; ;

its

teeth.

The mouth,
to fulfil these

too,

is

present in animals on purpose

Mouth,

purpose, at
spiration.

same offices, but it has also a further any rate in those animals which breathe

and are cooled from without

—namely, to
Nature

effect re-

As we

said earlier.

will often quite

spontaneously take some part that is common to all animals and press it into service for some specialized purpose. Thus, the mouth is common to all animals, and its normal and universal function has to do with food but sometimes it has an extra function, peculiar to some species only in some it is a weapon, in others a means of speech or more generally, though not universally, it serves for respiration. Nature has
:

:

;

213

ARISTOTLE
632a
^

(j)VGis

airavra ovvriyayev els eV, TTOiovaa Sta^opdv
ras" rrjs

^

avTOV rod jiopiov Trpo?
25

epyaaias

hiacjiopas.

Sto TO, /xeV ecrrt ovGTO^Lojrepay
ocra
jLtev

ra Se /xeyaAoaro/xa.
-x^dpiv,

ydp

Tpo(j>T]s

kol dvaTTVorj? Kal Xoyov
Se

avGTOfjLcjorepa,

rwv

Kapxo-pohovra
avTols
rrjs

Trdvra

X^P^^ dveppojyoraovorjg
^ijyiiaoi

j^orjOeias

'^^

H'^^

yap

dXKrjg

iv rols

xPV^^I^ov ro

jjLeydXrjv etvac ttjv dvdrrTV^Lv
80

rod OTOjiaros' TrXeloai

yap Kal Kara
TrXeov

fieit^ov

hrj^erai, ouovrrep dv iirl to
Grof-ta.

dveppcoyr]

ro

exovGi 8e

/cat

ra>v

IxOvoJV ol hrjKriKol /cat
ol he
fjiTj

GapKo^dyoi roiovrov aro/xa,

GapKO(j)dyoL fivovpov roLovrov

yap avrols

Xpr}OLfxov, eKelvo 8e dxpy]crrov.

Tot?
35

S'

opviGiv

eon ro

KaXovfj.evov p'uyxps aro/xa*

rovro yap dvrl
he rovro

;)^etAtov /cat

ohovrojv exovGLV.
^^^^ "^^^

8ta-

662 b (jtepei

Kara rds

XP'^^^^^

^orjdeias.

rd

fiev

yap
Kal

yafiipcovvxo^ KaXovfieva hid

ro oapKOe;^et

(jiayelv

piiqhevl

rpe^eGdai Kaprra) yapujjov

rd

pvyxos drravra'
rovro) re

;)^/37]crt/xov

ydp

irpos rd Kparelv /cat
r)

^laGriKcorepov roiovro
5

7r€cf)VK6g.

8*

dA/o]

ev

Kal

rots

ovv^i'

8td

/cat

rovs

ovvxols

yapujjorepovs exovGLV.

rdv

8' d'AAcov e/cdcrroj

npos
p-ev

rdv ^iov XPV^'-P'OV

ecrrt

rd pvyxos, olov rols

hpvoKOTTOLs LGxvpdv Kal gkXtjpov, Kal Kopa^L Kal

KopaKojheGi, roXg he puKpols yXa(f)vpdv irpos rds

GvXXoyds rcbv
10

KapircJov

Kal rds

Xiqifjeis

rwv
eXt]

t,(x)-

hapiojv.
214.

OGa he

7Torj(f)dya

Kal ocra Trap^

^fj,

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

i.

brought all these functions together under one part, whose formation she varies in the different species to
various duties. That is why the animals which use their mouths for feeding, respiration and speaking have rather narrow mouths, while those that use them for self-defence have wide and gaping mouths. All the saw-toothed creatures have these wide mouths, for their method of attack is biting, and therefore they find it an advantage to have a mouth and the wider it opens the that will open wide greater the space the bite will enclose, and the greater the number of teeth brought into action. Biting and carnivorous fishes have mouths of this in the non-carnivorous ones it is on a tapering sort snout, and this suits their habits, whereas a gaping mouth would be useless. In birds, the mouth appears in the form of a beak, which serves them instead of lips and teeth. Various sorts of beak are found, to suit the various uses including defensive purposes to which it is put. All of the birds known as crook-taloned have a curved beak, because they feed on flesh and take no vegetable food a beak of this form is useful to them in mastering their prey, as being more adapted for the exertion of force. Their beak, then, is one weapon of offence, and their claws are another that is why their claws
suit its
;

;

Beak,

:

^

;

are exceptionally curved.

Every bird has a beak

which is ser\-iceable for its particular mode of life. The woodpeckers, for instance, have a strong, hard beak so have crows, and other birds closely related to them small birds, on the other hand, have a finely constructed beak, for picking up seeds and catching minute animals. Birds that feed on herbage and that live by marshes (e.g. swimmers and
;
;

215

ARISTOTLE
662 b

Kal ureyavoTTOoa, ra jJLev aAAov TpoTTOv xp'^f^^H'OV ex€i TO pvyxos, ra 8e TrXarvpvyxC' avrcov ecrrtv tolovtco yap ovri paStcu? hvvarai 6pvG(j€LV, a)<j7T€p Kal Tojv TerpaTToScjov TO rrjg vo?'

KaOdirep ra

^

^

^

^

/

^

^

X

vxx

ttAcoto,

15

Kal yap avr-q pL^o(f)dyos. pit,o^dya Tcov opviwv Kal

€TL
rcJbv

8'

opLOLO^LCov eVta

aKpa rod pvyxovs
rOVTOLS OVGL

/ce;^apay)LteVa*

ra ra 7Tor]^dyois yap
exovai
Acat

TrOL€L paSiO)?.

Hepl
Ke(f)aXfj

fiev

ovv

rcJov

dXXcov

[loptajv

tcov

iv

rfj

ux^^ov

etpr^rai, rcov 8' dvdpojTTWv

KaXelrai

TO pLera^v
20

rrj? K€(f)aXrjg

Kal rod avx€vos TrpoaajTTOVf
i,cx)(x)v

a770 rrjs rrpd^eajs avrrjs ovopLaaSiv^ cos €0lk€V' hid

yap ro

jjlovov

opdov etvac rwv
Kal rrjv
(f)a>vr]v

(jlovov

Trpoa-

codev OTTCJTTe
liepl

et?

to

Trpoaco

8ta-

25

80

Kepdrojv Ae/CTeov Kal yap ravra exovoiv iv rfj K€(f)aXfj. e;(et 8* ovSev KaO^ opioioriqTa 8e Kal p.€ra(f>opdv t,a)or6KOV. fJiTj Xiyerai Kal irepcov rivcbv Kepara' dAA* ouSevt ^o-qdeias avTOJV TO epyov rod Keparog VTrdpx^i" yap Kal aA/CT^s" X'^P'-^ exovoi to, ^(pOTOKa, o rcbv dXXojv tCjv XeyopL€v<jJv ex^iv Kepas ovh^vl ovp.^eprjKev ovSev yap XPV'^^^ '^'^^^ Kepaoiv ovr djJLvvopevov ovre Trpos to KpaTelv, direp lox^os doa pcev ovv TToXvaxf-^yj tcuv ^oJcov, €otIv epya. tovtov 8' a'criov otl to pLev oi;Sev ex^t Kepas. Kepas ^oTjQeias aiTLov Iotl, toIs Se ttoXvox^^^olv VTidpxovoiv €Tepai ^orjOeiai' SeSojK€ yap rj (j)VGis Tols pi^V OVVXOLS Tols 8' oSoVTa? pLaXTjTlKOVSt TOIS
II.

8e

7T€(^i;/c€

Tots'

"

Under this heading

all

the

Mammalia known to

Aristotle

216

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
mode

III.

i.-ii.

web-footed birds) have a beak adapted for their of hfe, a special instance of which is the broad beak, which enables them to dig for roots easily, just an as the broad snout of the pig enables it to dig example of a root-eating quadruped. These rooteating birds and other birds of similar habits sometimes have sharp points at the end of the beak. This enables them to deal easily with the herbaceous food which they take. We have now, I think, spoken of practically all but the parts that have their place in the head in man, the portion of the body between the head and the neck is called the Prosopon (Face), a name derived, no doubt, from the function it performs. Man, the only animal that stands upright, is the only one that looks straight before him (^prosothen opope) or sends forth his voice straight before him

;

(jproso, opd).

these also, HomR still have to speak of Horns Horns are present, grow out of the head. though some other found only in the Vivipara creatures have what are called horns, owing to their resemblance to real horns. None of these so-called horns, however, performs the function proper to horns. The reason why the Vivipara have horns is for the sake of self-defence and attack, and this is not true of any of these other creatures, since none of them uses its " horns " for such feats of strength either defensively or offensively. The polydactylous animals," moreover, have no horns, because they possess other means of defence. Nature has given them claws or teeth to fight with, or some other part capable of
II.
:

We

when

;

are included, except ruminants, solid-hoofed animals, Cetacea.

and
217-

ARISTOTLE
662b
35
^

S'

aAAo
fiev

^

TL jJLopLov LKavov ajjivveiv.

Tojv Se St^*^^^^
/cat

663 a

ra

rroXXa

Kepara

e;^et

irpos olXk-qv,

rwv
pLrj

[lojvvxojv eVta, ret 8e Kal Trpos ^oiqdeiav, ogols^

SeSojKev
K€V,
6
rj

T)

(f>VGLS

dXXr]v dXKrji> npos oojTr^piav, olov
cooTrep
rrjv

Ta)(VT7]Ta Gcoiiaros, KaOdrrep roZs lttttols ^e^orjOrjjjLeyeOog,

rat?
0.770

Kap.rjXoLS'

Kal yap
^cocov

fieyedovs

VTrep^oXrj

rwv dXXcov
ra Se
TOJV
{ro

<f)dopdv LKavT] Ka)Xv€LV, oTTep GVfi^e^'qKe rals Kafx-q-

XoLS, €Tt 8e jJLaXXov rots iXecjjaaLV.

;)^auAt-

oSovra,
e^oxT],
10 (f)VGLS,

wanep
S'

/cat

ro tcjv vd)v yivos,
7T6(j)VK€v
Tj

hi-)(aXov (pv).^

"Ocrots"

dxpT](yTOs

Kepdrojv
r)

TOVTOLs

TTpOGTeOeLKev

irepav

^o'qdeiav

OLOV rats' /xev iXdcj^oig rdxo?

yap

fxe-

15

/cat to 7roAuo-;(iSe9 jLtaAAoy ^Xdirrei 7) ^ov^dXois he /cat hopKdGL {irpos eVta /xev yap dvOiGrdpieva rots Kepaaiv dp^vvovrai, rd Se drjpiwSr] /cat /xa;^ijLta d7TO(f)€vyovGL) rols he ^ovdGOLs (/cat ydp TO-UTOis yafii/jd rd Kepara 7re(f)VKe rrpos dXXriXa) rrjv rod TrepLrrcopLaro? d(f)€GLV' rovrco ydp dpivverai (jio^ijdevra- /cat ravrrj Se rfj npoeGCL Sta-

yedog avrdjv
ccx^eAet), /cat

,

ooj^erat erepa.
01)

dpia S* t/caras" /cat irXeiovs ^or^^etas"

SeSa>/cev

t^

(f)VGLs

rols avrols.

20

"Ecrt Se TO, TrAetara rojv K€paro(f}6pojv Si;^aAa, Aeyerat Se /cat picovvxov, ov KaXovGiv 'IvSt/cov oVov. To, /xev ovv TrXelora, Kaddirep /cat ro otu/xa
hifipr^rai rdJv l,d)OJV ots Tiotetrat tt^v KcvrjOLV, Se^tov
/cat

dptorrepov, /cat
1 Sc

Kepara Svo
vulgr.
:

7Te(j>VKev e;j(etv

Sta

post oaoi?
2

del. Piatt,

Thurot

<ov> Ogle.
16.

Cf. above,
*
*

on

6

J-8

a

The European
This
is

bison.

probably the Indian Rhinoceros.

This account

218

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

ii.

rendering adequate defence. Most of the clovenhoofed animals, and some of the solid-hoofed, have some have horns for horns, as weapons of offence self-defence, as those animals which have not been given means of safety and self-defence of a different order the speed, for instance, which Nature has given to horses, or the enormous size which camels have (and elephants even more), which is sufficient to prevent them from being destroyed by other animals. Some, however, have tusks, for instance s^vine, although they are cloven-hoofed. In some animals the horns are a useless appendage," and to these Nature has given an additional means of defence. Deer have been given speed (because the size of their horns and the numerous branches So are more of a nuisance to them than a help). have the antelopes and the gazelles, which, although they ^^ithstand some attackers and defend themselves with their horns, run away from really fierce fighters. The Bonasus,^ whose horns curve inwards to meet each other, protects itself when frightened by the discharge of its excrement. There are other animals that protect themselves in the same way. Nature, however, has not given more than one adequate means of protection to any one animal. Most of the horned animals are cloven-hoofed, though there is said to be one that is solid-hoofed, the Indian Ass," as it is called. The great majority of horned animals have two horns, just as, in respect of the parts by which its movement is effected, the body is divided And the into two the right and the left.
;

of it comes from the Indica of Ktesias of Knidos, quoted in Photius's Bibliothecay Ixxii. pp. 48 b 19 (Bekker) foil.

H

219

ARISTOTLE
663
a
^

^

^

rr)V avrr]v

atVtav^- ecrrt 8e kol jjlovokIpar ay olov 6
ecrrt 8'
e;^et

^

^

opv^ Kal 6 'IvSt/cos" KaXovjxevos ovos". jLtey opu^ 8/;)^aAoi^, o 8' ovo? fjLcovvxov.
T*
25

o

8e

to,

jjiovoKepara to

Kepas iv toj

pLdaa)

rrjs

K€(f)aXrjs'

yap eKarepov rojv jjLcpaJv /xaAtar' av e;(Ot Kepas €V TO yap fxeoov 6p.0LCx)s kolvov aii^oripcov
ovTco
tCjv iaxo-Tcov.

€vX6ya)s

€LvaL TO ficovvxov

8' dv 8d^et€ piovoKepojv rod hi^aXov fxdXXov ottXt] yap
e;\;et

Kal XV^V '^V^ avrrjv
80 /cat

Kepari

<f)VGLV,

cucr^'

dfia
/cat

TOt? auTots"

")}

ox^cri'S

yiverai rajv ottXojv
/<at

rd)v Kepdrcxjv.
eXXeixpLV
fjLa>vvxoLS
rj

en
Tat?

8'

t^

CT;(tcrt?

to

8i;)^aAov

xaT
Tots"

rrjg

(fivaews

iariv,

war*
8ouo'a

euAoya>S"
rrjv

iv

OTiAat?

vrrepox'^v

(f)VGis

dvcoOev

dcjieXXe

Kal fjLovoKepwv irrolrjaev.
K6(f)aXrjs TTOLrjuai rrjv

^OpddJs 8e
85

/cat

TO

e77t rrjg

T(vv Kepdrojv <f)vcnv,
Mco/xos" StajLte/Lt(^eTat

dXXd

firj

tov ravpov

Kaddnep 6 Algwttov on ovk eiri rots

663 b wpLOLs

5

rd Kepara, odev rag TrXrjyds eTrotetT* €7tI tov doOeveordrov fiepov? ov yap o^v ^Xiirajv 6 MojjLtos" TauT TTJs Ke(f)aXrjS' iTTeTLpLr^Gev. warrep yap Kal el eTepa)di ttov rod acofiarog Kepara i7Te(f)VKeL, ^dpos dv rrapeZx^'^ ^^~
€X€L

dv laxvpordras, aAA'

Xojs ovhev ovra XP'^^^^^ f^^^ ejjLTToSia rujv epya)V ov TToAAois" Tjv, ovra> Kal irrl rwv cjpLOJV 7re<f)VK6ra.

yap
yat,
fxev

fjLovov XP'^ aKorreZv rroBev

laxvporepai at

ttAt^-

dAAa /cat TTodev rroppcorepaf ojcjr errei ^^'Ctpas" OVK exovGLV, errl 8e rojv TTohujv dhvvarov, iv 8e
^

avTTjv aiTiav

Peck

:

alrlav Tavrrjv
lix.

Vlllg".

*

See Babrius, Myth. Aesop,

8-10.

220

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

ii.

reason in both cases is the same. There are, however, some animals that have one horn only, e.g. the Oryx (whose hoof is cloven) and the " Indian Ass " (whose hoof is solid). These creatures have

head this is the nearest approximation to letting each side have its own horn, because the middle is common equally to both extremes. Now it is quite reasonable that the one horn should go with the solid hoof rather than with the cloven hoof, because hoof is identical in nature with horn, and we should expect to find divided hoofs and divided horns together in the same animal. Again, division of the hoof is really due to deficiency of material, so it is reasonable that as Nature has used more material in the hoofs of the solid-hoofed animals, she has taken something away from the upper parts and made one horn only. Again, Nature acted aright in placing the horns on the head. Momus in Aesop's fable " is quite \\Tong when he finds fault with the bull for having his horns on the head, which is the weakest part of all, instead of on the shoulders, which, he says, would have enabled them to deliver the strongest Such a criticism shows Momus 's possible blow. If the horns had been placed lack of perspicacity. on the shoulders, as indeed on any other part of the body, they would have been a dead weight, and would have been no assistance but rather a hindrance to many of the animal's activities. And besides, strength of stroke is not the only point to be conwidth of range is equally important. sidered Where could the horns have been placed to secure this ? It would have been impossible to have them on the feet ; knees with horns on them would have
: :

their horn in the middle of the

221

ARISTOTLE
663b
10

^

Tots"

yovaGLV ovra rrjv kolijliJjlv eKcoXvev av, avayKOLOV CUCT77ep VVV €)(^OVaiVy €7TL TTJ? K€<f)aXTJS €;^€tV. dfia Se /cat npog ras ctAAa? klvt^g€ls rod acofjiaros
dvejJLTToSLGTa 7T€(f)VKeV OVTCO jJidXiGTa.
St' oXov ureped rot? iXd(l)ois KoX diTO^dXXeL piovov, ev€Kev pL€V cic^eAetas" tojv S* Kov(f)Ll,6pievov, ef dvdyKTjg 8e Sta to fSdpos. a'AAcov rd Kepara p-^xpi nvog KolXa, rd 8' a/cpa areped Sid to TTpos rds TrXrjyds tovt etvat XP"^'

^

"Eart 8e rd Kepara

fjLovoLs,

15

20

8e /xrySe to KotAov ao^eves" ^7 o^ €K Tov Sepp^aTog, iv rovrco^ iv^pp.ocrraL (rdy^ arepeov ck tojv octtcDv outco ydp /cat Ta K€paTa exovTa Trpog aAK'T^v t€ XPV^'-I^^'^^'^* eoTt* /cat TTpog TOV d'AAov ^lov dvoxXoraTa. TiVo? /xev ovv eveKGV r) tojv KepaTOJV (jivaig, elpr]Tai, /cat 8ta TtV atVtav tcz /xev exovuL ToiavTa
Gifiov.
oTTOjg
7T€(j)VKev

Td

8' ou/c

Yiojg

he

exovGiv TTJg dvayKaiag

(jjvoeojg

exovorrjs

toIs
(fyvaug

virdpxovuiv i^ dvdyKrjg rj /caTO, tov Aoyov €V€Kd tov KaTaKexp'TjTai, Xiyojpiev.
86

WpojTOV

pukv

ovv TO GOjpLaTOjhcs

/cat yeajSes" TrXelov

vrrapx^t Tolg pbell^oGL tojv
yvojpLt,opL€vojv

l,qjojv,

K€paTO(f)6pov Se

pLLKpov irdpLTTav ovhev ta/xev eAap^tcrTOV

yap

CCTTt tojv

SopKag. Set Se ttjv <j>voLV Oeojpelv €Lg Td 77oAAa ^XenovTa' r) ydp iv Toi TravTL rj cos" eVt TO TToXv TO /caret (f)VGLV eGTLV. TO 8' OCTTOiSeS' eV
^

o

Peck,

cf.

Hist.

An. 500 a 8:
^

suprascr.
3

(v. p. 46). <To> Peck : cf. Hist.

Z

tovtco

Peck
9.

ov vulg., om. EPY: ov touto) 8' vulg. :

An. ^500 a
:

* icTTL

Piatt

:

efi'ai

vulg.

€117

av Thurot.

For

the

contrast

between

"necessary

nature"

and

222

;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
;

III.

ii.

been unable to bend and the bull has no hands so they had to be where they are on the head. And being there, they offer the least possible hindrance to the movements of the body in general. Deer alone have horns that are solid throughout and deer alone shed their horns this is done (a) on purpose to get the advantage of the extra lightness, (b) of necessity, owing to the weight of the horns. In other animals the horns are hollow up to a certain distance, but the tips are solid because solid tips are an advantage when striking. And to prevent undue weakness even in the hollow part, which grows out from the skin, the solid piece which is fitted into it comes up from the bones. In this way the horns are rendered most serviceable for offensive purposes and least hampering during the rest of the


:

;

time.

This completes our statement of the purpose for which horns exist and the reason why some animals have them and some have not.

We must now describe the character of that necessary nature," owing to which certain things are present of necessity, things which have been used by " rational nature " to subserve a " purpose." To begin with, then the larger the animal, the greater the quantity of corporeal or earthy matter there is in it. We know no really small homed animal the smallest known one is the gazelle. (To study Nature we have to consider the majority of
**
**
:

cases, for

it is

either in

what

is

universal or

what

happens in the majority of cases that Nature's ways are to be found. Now all the bone in animals'
" rational nature" see above 640 b 8-29, G41 a 25 1 fiF., and cf. G.A. (Loeb edn.), Introd. § 14.
ff.,

642 a

223

ARISTOTLE
663 b
SO Tots'

oiojJiaoi

Toiv t^comv yecoSe? virdp^^L'
cttl

Sto

Krat

TrAetaroy ev rolg iieyiGroLS dis

to ttoAu
tojv

jSAe-

ipavras

elirelv.

rrfv

yovv tolovtov aajfiaTOS
TOts"

Trepir-

rojfiaTLKTjv

vnep^oX-qv eV

fxetl^oGi

^ojcuy

VTTOLpxovaav eVt ^o-qOeiav kol to
Xprjrat
85
r)

avjjLcfiepov

Kara-

(jivais,

koL rrjv peovcrav i^ avdyKT]? elg rov
{JLev

dvoj TOTTOV Tols
ciTreVet/xc,

CIS

oSovTa?

/cat

;^aL'AtoSovTa?

TOtS"

8'

ets"

Kepara.

8to

tcuv

Keparo-

664 a

cfyopcov ouSev eariv dpL^iohov dvco yap ovk ep^et tous" TTpoudiovs oSo^Tas" d^eXovoa yap evrevdev tj (f>VGLs

TOLS KepauL 7Tpooedr]Key /cat
tous"

r]

hihopilvr] rpocfirj

et?

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constituent substance.

See on 648 a

224

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

ii.-iii.

bodies consists of earthy matter ; so if we consider the majority of cases, we can say that there is most earthy matter in the biggest animals.) At any rate, in the larger animals there is present a surplus of this corporeal or earthy matter, produced as a residue, and this Nature makes use of and turns to advantage to provide them with means of defence. That portion of it which by necessity courses upwards she allots to form teeth and tusks in some animals, and to form horns in others. And we can see from this why no horned animal has incisor teeth in both jaws, but only in the bottom jaw. Nature has taken away from the teeth to add to the horns ; so that the nourishment which would normally be supplied to the upper teeth is here used to grow the horns. Why is it, then, that female deer, although they have no horns, are no better off for teeth than Both of them are, the male deer ? The answer is but the females have by nature, horned animals lost their horns because they would be not only The horns are indeed of no useless but dangerous. more use to the males, but they are less dangerous because the males are stronger. Thus in some animals this " part "^ of the body in others, is secreted for the formation of horns however, it causes a general increase in the size of the teeth, and in others again it produces tusks, which are like horns springing out of the jaws instead of the head. We have now dealt with the " parts " that appertain to the head. III. The place of the neck, when there is one, is Of the below the head. I say " when there is one," because oesopha^'us only those animals have this part which also have
:

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225

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Th.

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

iii.

those parts that the neck subserves viz. the larynx and the oesophagus, as it is called. The larynx is present for the sake of the breath : when animals breathe in and out, the breath passes through the larynx. Thus creatures which have no

lung {e.g. fish) have no neck either. The oesophagus is the passage by w^hich the food makes its w^ay to the stomach so those that have no neck have no distinct oesophagus. So far as food is concerned, however, an oesophagus is not necessarv'-, since it and there is really exerts no action upon the food no reason why the stomach should not be placed immediately next the mouth. The lung, however, could not be so placed, because some sort of tube must be present, common to both lungs, and divided into two, by which the breath is divided along the this is the best bronchial tubes into the air-tubes method for securing good breathing, both in and out. This respiratory organ, then, of necessity, is of some length and this necessitates the presence of an oesophagus, to connect the mouth to the stomach. Now the oesophagus is fleshy, and it can also be extended like a sinew. It is sinewy so that it can and it is fleshy so that stretch as the food enters in it may be soft and yielding and not be damaged by the food grating on it as it goes down. What are called the larynx and windpipe are constructed of cartilaginous substance, since the purpose they serve includes speech as well as respiraand an instrument that is to produce sound tion must be smooth and firm. The windpipe is situated in front of the oesophagus, although it causes it some hindrance when food is being admitted^ as when a piece of food, no matter whether solid or fluid, gets
;
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Larynx and
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228

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
into the windpipe

III.

iii.

by mistake, and causes a great deal of choking and distress and violent coughing. This sort of thing occurs and can be observed whenever a piece of food goes the wrong way ; yet they must be mysteries to those who hold that animals take in their drink by way of the windpipe. And there are many counts on which we can show that this is a ridiculous opinion to hold, (a) There is no passage leading from the lung into the stomach, such as the oesophagus, which, as we can see, leads thither from the mouth. And again, (6) there is no doubt where the fluid discharge comes from in cases of vomiting and sea-sickness, (c) It is plain, too, that the fluid matter which we take does not collect immediately in the bladder, but goes first into the stomach. This is shown by the fact that the dregs of dark wine affect the colour of the residual discharge from the stomach and this colouring has often been observed in cases where the stomach has been wounded. Still, perhaps it is silly to be too minute in discussing these silly theories. The windpipe, as we have said, is situated in front, Epiglottis. and therefore is interfered with by the food. To deal with this difficulty, Nature has contrived the epiglottis. Not all Vivipara ^ have this, but only those which have a lung, and a hairy skin, and are not covered with horny scales or feathers. Those that are so covered have, to serve instead of the epiglottis, a larynx which closes and opens, just as the epiglottis does in the others it comes down and lifts up again : it lifts up during the entrance and exit of the breath, and subsides while food is being taken, to prevent
** ; ;

See e.g. Plato, Timaeus 70 c 7, and Taylor ad loc. Ogle chancres the text here to read " blooded animals,** which brings the statement nearer the truth.
"
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230

;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

iii.

anything coming in by mistake into the windpipe. If there is any error in this movement, or if you breathe in while you are taking food, coughing and choking results, as I have said. But the movement of the epiglottis and of the tongue has been so neatly contrived that while the food is being masticated in the mouth and is passing over the epiglottis, the tongue seldom gets in the way of the teeth, and hardly ever does any food slip into the windpipe. I mentioned some animals that have no epiglottis. This is because their flesh is dry and their skin hard and thus if they had one, it would not move easily, because it would have to be made out of constituents of this sort. It is quicker to contract the edges of the windpipe itself than it would be to close an epiglottis, if, as in the hairy creatures, it w^ere made out of the same sort of flesh as the rest of their bodies. This will suffice to show why some animals have an epiglottis and some not how Nature has contrived it so as to remedy the unsatisfactory position of the windpipe in front of the oesophagus. Still, the windpipe is bound by necessity to be in this position for the following reason. The heart is situated in the middle of the body and in the fore part of it and in the heart, we hold, is the principle of life and of all
;
;

movement and

sensation. Both of these activities take place in the direction we call forw^ards that is the very principle w^hich constitutes the distinction between before and behind. The lung is situated in the region of the heart, and surrounding it. Now breathing takes place for the sake of the lung and and the the principle which is situated in the heart breath passes through the windpipe. So, since the
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Limited by Aristotle to blood-like viscera only.

232

:

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

iii.-iv.

heart must of necessity be situated in the front place of all, both the larynx and the windpipe, which lead to the lung and the heart, must of necessity be situated in front of the oesophagus which leads merely Speaking generally, unless some to the stomach. greater object interferes, that which is better and more honourable tends to be above rather than below, in front rather than at the back, and on the right side rather than on the left. We have now spoken of the neck, the oesophagus, and the windpipe, and our next topic is the
viscera.

IV. Only blooded animals have viscera.'^ Some, but internal not all, have a complete set of them. As no blood- blooded less animals have them, Democritus must have been animals.
in his ideas on this point, if he really supposed that the viscera in bloodless creatures are invisible o^ving to the smallness of the creatures themselves. Against this we can put the fact that the heart and the liver are visible in blooded animals as soon as they are formed at all, that is, when they are quite small in eggs they are visible, just about the size of a point, sometimes as early as the third day, and very small ones are visible in aborted embryos. Further, just as each animal is equipped Mith those external parts which are necessary to it for its manner of life and its motion, and no two animals require exactly the same they vary in the ones, so it is with the internal parts various animals. Viscera, then, are peculiar to the blooded animals, Heart, and that is why each one of the viscera is formed of blood-like material. This is clearly to be seen in the new-born offspring of blooded animals in them the viscera are more blood-like, and at their largest in
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233.

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ESUYZ.

The first observer after Aristotle to realize the disparity the relative sizes of- the parts with time was Leonardo da Vinci (a.d. 1452-1518).

in

234

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
:

III.

iv.

proportion" this is because the nature of the material and its bulk are especially obvious at the first stage of a creature's formation. The heart is present in all blooded animals, and the reason for this has been already stated : It is obviously necessary for all blooded creatures to have blood, and as blood is a fluid, there must of necessity be a vessel to hold it, and it is evidently for this purpose that Nature has contrived the blood-vessels. And these bloodone source (one is vessels must have a source always better than many where it is possible), and This is certain, because the this source is the heart. blood-vessels come out of the heart and do not pass through it and again, the heart is homogeneous and in character identical with the blood-vessels. Furthermore, the place in which it is set is the place of primacy and governance. It is in a central position, and rather in the upper part of the body than the Nature lower, and in front rather than at the back always gives the more honourable place to the more honourable part, unless something more important prevents it. WTiat I have just said is seen most clearly in the case of man, yet in other animals the heart tends in a similar way to be in the centre of the " necessary body," i.e. the portion of it which is terminated by the vent where the residues are discharged. The limbs vary in the various animals, and cannot be reckoned among the parts that are *' necessary " for life, which is why animals can lose them and still remain alive and obviously they could have limbs added to them without being killed. Those who suppose that the source of the bloodvessels is in the head are wrong, because (1) this involves holding that there are many sources,

;

;

;

:

235

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Or 236
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" traverse."

The connotation

of this term seems to vary.

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
;

III.

iv.

and (2) it involves placing them scattered about in a cold region (its intolerance of cold proves this). The region round the heart, on the other hand, is warm. And (3) as has been said already, the bloodvessels run all through " the other viscera, whereas none passes through the heart which clearly shows that the heart forms part of the blood-vessels and Which is reasonable enough since is their source. the centre of the heart is a body of dense and hollow structure, and this is full of blood it is hollow to form a receptacle for the blood ; dense to guard the source of heat and the store of blood is obviously there because that is the starting-point of the bloodvessels. In none other of the viscera and in no other part of the body is there blood and yet no bloodvessels ; in each of the other parts the blood is contained in blood-vessels. And this too is reasonable, as the blood is conveyed and conducted away from the heart into the blood-vessels, whereas none is thus conveyed into the heart from elsewhere, for the heart is itself the source and spring of the blood, or the first receptacle of it. All this, however, is more clearly brought out in Dissections and Formative Processes, where it is sho^n that the heart is the first of all the parts to be formed and has blood in it straightway. Further, all motions of sensation, including those produced by what is pleasant and painful, undoubtedly begin in the heart and have their final ending there. This is in accord with reason since, wherever possible, there must be one source and the best situation for that is the centre, only because there is only one centre, and the centre is equally (or nearly equally) accessible from every Again, as every bloodless part, and the direction.
;
; ;

;

;

;

237

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238

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

iv.

blood itself as well, is without sensation, it is clear that the part where the blood is present first, and which holds it as in a receptacle, must of necessity be the source. This reasoning is supported by the evidence of the senses. In embryos, as soon as they are formed, the heart can be seen moving before any of the which other parts, just like a living creature shows that it is the source of their nature in all blooded animals. Another piece of evidence to support this is that all blooded creatures have a heart why ? because they are bound to have a source for their blood. All blooded creatures, it is true, have a liver too but no one would care to maintain that the liver is the source either of the blood or of the whole body, because it is nowhere near the place of primacy and governance, and, also, in the most highly finished ^ animals it has something to counterbalance it, as it were, viz. the spleen. Again, the liver has no receptacle for blood in itself as the heart has like the rest of the viscera, it keeps its blood in a blood-vessel. Again, a blood-vessel runs all through it, whereas no blood-vessel runs through the heart all blood-vessels have their source from the heart and begin there. Since, therefore, of necessity the source must be one of these two, the heart or the liver, and as it is not the liver, it must of necessity be the heart which is the source of the blood just as it is of the rest. An animal is defined by the fact that it possesses sensation and the part of the body to have sensation first is the part that has blood in it first in other words, the heart, which is the source of the blood and the first part to have it. The apex of the heart is sharp and more solid than
<*
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;

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239

ARISTOTLE
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478 b

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And

see the next note.

Instead of towards the breast.

The meaning of
.

this

passage is made clear by Hist. An. 507 a 2 ff In all animals, says Aristotle, the " apex " of the heart points forwards, and " forwards " is towards the breast. in most animals Fishes

240

;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

iv.

the rest, and it lies towards the breast, and altogether in the fore part of the body so as to prevent it from for in all animals the breast has comgetting cooled paratively little flesh on it, while the back is well supplied and so gives the heat of the body ample In animals other than man protection on that side. the heart is in the centre of the region of the breast in man it inclines slightly to the left side so as to counteract the cooling there, for in man the left side I have is much colder than in other creatures. said already that the placing of the heart is the same in fishes as in other animals, though it appears to be different, together ^^'ith the reasons" for the apparent difference. In fishes its apex is turned towards the head ^ but in them the head is " forwards," because the head is in the line of direction in which
:

;

they move.

The heart has in it an abundance of sinews, which reasonable enough, as the motions of the body have and as these are performed by their origin there contraction and relaxation, the heart needs the sinews We have said to serve it and to give it strength. already that the heart is like a living creature inside the body that contains it. In all cases that we have examined the heart is boneless, except in horses and a certain kind of ox. In these, owing to its great size, the heart has a bone for a support, just as the whole body is supported by bones. In the large animals, the heart has three cavities, in the smaller ones, two only and in no species has it less than one. The reason for this has been given there
is
;

;

:

appear to be an exception to this rule, but only because in them " forwards " is towards the head.

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242

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
must be some place

III. iv.

in the heart which will be a (As we receptacle for the blood when first formed. have stated several times, blood is first formed in the heart.) Now there are two chief blood-vessels, the so-called Great Blood-vessel, and the Aorta each of these is the source of other blood-vessels ; and the two differ from each other (this will be discussed hence it is better for them to have separate later)
; ;

sources.

This result can be obtained by having two separate supplies of blood, and thus we find two receptacles wherever this is possible, as in the larger animals ^vhich of course have large hearts. But it is better still to have three cavities, and then there is an odd one in the middle which can be a common source for the other two since, however, this requires the heart to be particularly large, only the very largest hearts have three cavities. Of these cavities it is the right-hand one which contains the most blood and the hottest (that is why the right side of the body is hotter than the left) ; the left-hand cavity contains least blood, and it is The blood in the middle cavity is intercolder. mediate both in amount and heat, although it is the this is because the source must purest of them all remain as calm as possible, and this is secured when the blood is pure, and intermediate in its amount and
; ;

heat.

The heart has also a sort of articulation, which resembles the sutures of the skull. By this I do not mean to say that the heart is a composite thing, consisting of several parts joined together, but an articulated whole, as I said. This articulation is more distinct in animals whose sensation is keen, and less There are distinct in the duller ones, such as swine.
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PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. iv.

other differences in the heart ; some hearts are large, some small, some are hard, some soft ; and these tend by some means to influence the creature's temperament. Illustrations of this are animals whose powers of sensation are small have hearts that are hard and dense, those whose sensation is keen have softer ones ; and those with large hearts are cowardly, those with small or moderate-sized ones, courageous (this is because in the former class the affection which is normally produced by fear is present to begin M'ith," as their heat is not proportionate to the size of their heart, but is small and therefore hardly noticeable in the enormous space that it occupies ; so that their blood is comparatively cold). The following creatures have large hearts the hare, the deer, the mouse, the hyena, the ass, the leopard, the marten, and practically all other animals M'hose cowardice is either outright or else betrayed by their mischievous behaviour. Similar conditions obtain in the blood-vessels and if they are large, they are the cavities of the heart The effect of the same-sized fire is less in a cold. large room than in a small one and the same applies to the heat in these receptacles, the blood-vessels and Further, extraneous motions have a the cavities. cooling effect upon hot things and the more roomy a receptacle is, the greater the amount of air (or pncuma) in it and the stronger its effect. Thus we find that no animal which has large cavities or large blood-vessels has fat flesh, and conversely, that all (or most) fat animals have indistinguishable blood-vessels and small cavities. The heart is the only one of the viscera indeed
: :
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Cf. 650

b

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See also 692 a 20.

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TTporepov eiprjrai' ro re yap vypov dirav
/cat

dyyeiov 8etTat,
2i6

ro

<j)Xepu)v

yevos dyyetov, to

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

iv.-v.

the only part in the whole body which cannot withstand any serious affection. This is readily the other parts depend upon the heart, understood and when this source itself is ailing, there is no place whence they can obtain succour. A proof that the heart cannot put up with any affection is this Never has the heart in a sacrificial victim been observed to be affected in the way that the other viscera sometimes are. Very often the kidneys are found to be full of stones, growths, and small abscesses ; so is the liver, and the lung, and especially the Many other affections are observed in spleen. but in the lung they occur least these organs often in that portion which is nearest the Mindpipe, and in the liver in that portion which is nearest its junction with the Great Blood-vessel. This is readily understood those are the places where they are most closely in communication with the heart. Those animals, however, which die as the result of disease, and affections such as I have mentioned, when cut open are seen to have diseased affections of the heart. have now spoken of the heart we have said what its nature is, what purpose it serves, and why it and that will suffice. is present V. I suppose that the next subject for us to discuss is the Blood-vessels, that is, the Great Blood-vessel and the Aorta. It is these into which the blood goes first after it leaves the heart, and the other blood-vessels are merely branches from these. We have already said that these blood-vessels are present for the sake of the blood fluid substances always need a receptacle, and the blood-vessels generally are the receptacles which hold the blood. We may
:
:

;

:

We

:

;

Blood^^^^®
^'

:

24,7.

.

ARISTOTLE
687 b

af/xa €V ravrais' Slotl 8e

8vo Kal
dpx'f)^

oltto fxids

oipxV^

Kad* arrav to aoj/xa SiareivovGL, Xeyojfxev.

Tov
fJLids

fxev

ovv els filav

avvreXelv

/cat

oltto

aLTLOV TO jLtlW €)(€LV TTOLVTa rTjv alad'qTLKrjv

i/jvx^v ivcpyela, coare

Kal to

jjLopLov ev

to TavTTjv
hrjvap.iv
/car'

€xov TTpojTOJS
25 /cat

(eV pikv Tols

evaip,ois
S'

/caret

/car'

ivepyecav,

twv
/cat

avaipuDV ivlois

evepyecav p,6vov)y 8to

ttjv

tov deppLou

apx'rjv

dvayKaXov iv to) avTco
atria
/cat

tottco elvai- avTT] S'

IotIv

to) atjitart

tt^s"

vypoTTjTos

/cat rT^S"

^ep-

pLOTTjTOS'

hid pukv ovv TO iv ivl etvai pLoplcp ttjv

alG9r]TiK7jv
80

dpx^v Kal
rj

tyjv

ttjs

6eppi6T7)T0S Kal

tj

TOV

atjLtaros"

dno puds idTiv

dpxrjs, hud he ttjv tov

atpLaTos ivoTTjTa Kal

rcDv (fyXe^cov aTTO pads.
etv^at

Ai;o S' etVt Sta to to, croj/xara
ivalpLCDv
Stco/Dtarat

hipLeprj tcov

Kal

TropevTLKOJV'

iv

Trdui

yap

tovtols

to

eprrpoodev
Kal

Kal to

oTTioOev

Kal to

he^Lov Kal TO dpLGTepov Kal to dvco Kal to /cara>.
35 oact)

he

TipnojTepov

rjyepLoviKWTepov
rj

to

epu(fiXeifj

868 a

vpoadev tov
TTJs dopTTJs'

oTTiodev, tooovto) Kal
rj

pieydXrj
rj

pLev

ydp

iv tols epLTrpooOev,

8' iv

Tols OTTiodev KeiTaiy Kal ttjv p,ev dnavT^

e;)^et

ra

evaip^a ^avepcos, Trjv 8* eVta p^ev dpivhpojs evia 8'
d(j)av6js.

Tov
6

8'

els

TO TTdv hiahehouOai to

(fyXe^as a'lTiov

cjcopia Tas to navTOS elvai tov aco/xaros" vXrjv

TO

at/xa, Tots" 8' dvaipiois

to dvdXoyoVy raura

8' iv

*

And

potentially

many

;

cf.

682 a 4

ff

248

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. v.

now go on to explain why there are two of these bloodvessels, why they begin from a single source, and why
they extend all over the body. The reason why finally they both coincide in one source and also begin from one source is this. The sensory Soul is, in all animals, one actually therefore the part which primarily contains this Soul is also one (one potentially as well as actually in the blooded animals, but in some of the bloodless animals it is only actually one °), and for this reason the source of heat also must of necessity be in the selfsame place. But this concerns the blood, for this source Thus is the cause of the blood's heat and fluidity. we see that because the source of sensation and the source of heat are in one and the same part, the blood must originate from one source too and because there is this one origin of the blood, the blood-vessels also must originate from one source. The blood-vessels are, however, two in number, because the bodies of the blooded creatures that move about are bilateral we can distinguish in all of them front and back, right and left, upper and lower. And just as the fore part is more honourable and more suited to rule than the back part, so is the Great Blood-vessel pre-eminent over the Aorta. The Great Blood-vessel lies in front, while the Aorta is at the back. All blooded creatures have a Great Bloodvessel, plainly visible but in some of them the Aorta is indistinct and in others it cannot be detected. The reason why the blood-vessels are distributed all over the body is that blood (and in bloodless creatures, its counterpart) is the material out of which the whole body is constructed, and bloodvessels (and their counterparts) are the channels in
;

;

:

;

21-9,

ARISTOTLE
668
3

(f)X€^l

Kal

Tpe(f)€Tai

TO) avaXoyov Ketadai. ttcos" /xev ovv ra ^a)a koL €K rivos Kal riva rpoTTOv
rrjs

dvaXafi^dvovcnv ck
crecD?
10

KOiXlas iv tols Trepl yeveGKorreZv Kal Aeyetv.

Aoyots"

fJ^dXXov

dpfJiol^eL

[EvviGrafjievcov Se rcov pLoplcov

eV rod at/xaro?,
^Ae/3ctjv

Kaddirep

eiTTOfiev,

evXoycns

r)

rcov

puat?

Std TTavTog rod awfiaros 7re(f)VK€V' Set
atfJLa Slcl

yap Kal ro

TTavTos Kal irapd Trdv etvai, elnep rdJv jxo-

picov

IT'

eKauTOV eV rovrov Gwear-qKev^ "EotKe 8' ojOTTep €v re rols ki^ttols at vSpaycoylai KaraoKevdljOVT at drro puds dpx^js Kal Trrjyrjg et? TToXXous 6x€rov? Kal dXXov? del irpos to Travrrj

pLeraSiSovaL, Kal iv rat? OLKohopiiais irapd

ndaav

TTjv rcov depLeXiojv VTToypa^riv Xidoi Trapa^e^XrjvraL,

Sid TO

TO, pL€v Kr]7T€v6pL€va (jiveoOai

eK rod vSaroSj,

20

Tovs Se depLeXiovs eK rwv XtOcov olKohopLeiadai, rov avrov rpoirov Kal rj <^vgl? to atpia Std Travros

wX^TevKe rod owpLaros,
Tovro.
(j)Xe^ag,
25 (f)vXXu)v

cVetST)

navro?

vXt] 7T€<f)VK€

yiverai he KaTaSrjXov iv rols pLaXcara Kara-

XeXeTTTvapiivois' ovOev

yap dXXo

(f)aLveTai irapd

rds

KaBdrrep

iirl

rdjv dpLTreXivajv re Kal avKivajv

Kal du

dXXa roiavra' Kal ydp tovtojv
rovrcuv S*

avaivopievcov^ (fiXi^es XeiTTOvraL piovov.

auTLov OTL TO
aojpLa Kal
*
11.

afjLta
t)

Kal ro dvdXoyov rovrco Suva/xet

odp^
^

ro dvdXoyov iariv KaOdirep ovv
1).

10-13, quae praecedeiitia

4-7 repetunt, secludenda.

avau'Ofieicov attice

Bekker.

« This seems to be an unnecessary repetition of the last sentence but one.

250

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
which
this

III. v.

material

is

carried.

As regards the

manner

which animals are nourished, the source of the nourishment, and the processes by which they take it up from the stomach, it is more appropriate to consider these subjects and to discuss them in the treatise on Generation.
in

[But since the parts of the body are composed out of blood, as has been said, it is easy to see why the course of the blood-vessels passes throughout the whole body. The blood must be everywhere in the body and everywhere at hand if every one of the parts is constructed out of it.] The system of blood-vessels in the body may be compared to those water-courses which are constructed in gardens they start from one source, or spring, and branch off into numerous channels,
**
:

and then into

still

more, and so on progressively, so

as to carry a supply to every part of the garden.

And

again, when a house is being built, supplies of stones are placed all alongside the lines of the foundations. These things are done because (a) water is the material out of which the plants in the garden grow, and (6) stones are the material out of which the foundations are built. In the same way, Nature has provided for the irrigation of the whole body with blood, because blood is the material out of which it is all made. This becomes evident in cases of severe emaciation, when nothing is to be seen but the blood-vessels just as the leaves of vines and fig-trees and similar plants, when they wither, leave behind nothing but the veins. The explanation of this is that the blood (or its counterpart) is, or its counterpotentially, the body (that is, flesh Thus, just as in the irrigation system the part).
:

I

251

ARISTOTLE
668 a

iv

rats

ox^Teiais

at

jLteytarat

rwv
S*

Td(f)pa)v

8ta-

fXcvovGLV, at 8' eXd)(LGTa(, Trpwrai koI rax^ojg vtto
TTJ?
30

IXvo?

d^avt^ovrat,

ttolXlv

iKXeiTTOvcrqs

(jiavepal yivovrai,

tov avrov rponov
Suya/xet

/cat

tojv (jiXe^cbv

at /xev jLteytcrrat hiafiivovuiv, at 8'

iXd^^Lurai yi8'

vovrai

udpK€s

ivepyeca,
8 to
/cat

etatv

ov8ev

rJGGov (f)Xe^€s.

GCjL)l,o}xivcov

rdv GapKwv
07}8ev 87jAoy,
"^

Kad^ oTLovv alfia pel hiaLpovpievcjv' Kairoi dv€V pLev

^Ae^o? ovK eGTLV
35

at/xa, <f)Xe^iov^
0.1

8'

COGTTep OvS^ €V ToZs OX^TOiS

Td<f)pOl TTplv

TrjV

668 b tAuv i^aipeOrjvaL.

'E/c

/Ltet^ovcov

8'

€t?

e'AacrcroL'S'

at

^Ae^e? aet

TTpoipxovrai ea>? rou yeveGdai revs iropovs iXdG-

Govg rrj? rod atf^iarog TTayrurrjros' 8t' ayv rep /xev alpLan SloSog ovk €Gri, ro) Se TTepirrcLpiari rrjs vypdg LKpidSog, ov KaXovpLev ISpcbra, /cat rovro
5

StaOeppLavdevros
dvaGropLOjdevrcov.
at/xarcoSet

rod GcopLaros Kal rajv
tJSt]

(jyXe^iwv

8e

rtatv

ISpojGaL

Gvve^r]

rov pLev GcjpLaros pvdhos /cat pLavov yevopLevov, rod 8' atpLaros i^vypavOevros 8t' d-n-eipLav, dSvvarovGTjs rrjs
Trepirrwpiari

8td

Ka^^^iav,

iv roZs (f^Xe^LOLs deppLorrjros Trecraetv 8t* oXLyorrjra.
10

{etprjraL

yap on

rrdv

ro koivov yrjs
rj

/cat /cat
rj

vharos
ro alpLa

TTaxvv^Tat TveGGopLevov,
pLiKrov i^ dp(f)OLV.)

8e

rpocfirj

dSvvarel 8e neGGeiv
avrrjs oXiyorrjra

deppLorrj?
/cat

ov pLovov 8td
TrXrjdog
/cat

r7]v

dXXd

8id

VTvep^oXrjV ri^s
1

€lG<f>epopiiv7]s

rpo<f)7Js'

(^Ae/3tov

Bekker.
?

*•

Could Aristotle have seen a case of haematoporphyria

252

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. v.

biggest channels persist whereas the smallest ones quickly get obliterated by the mud, though when so in the body the the mud abates they reappear largest blood-vessels persist, while the smallest ones become flesh in actuality, though potentially they are blood-vessels as much as ever before. Accordingly we find that, as long as the flesh is in a sound conand dition, wherever it is cut, blood will flow although no blood-vessels are visible, they must be there (because we cannot have blood without bloodvessels) just as the irrigating channels are there right enough, but are not visible until they are cleared of mud. The blood-vessels get progressively smaller as they go on until their channel is too small for the blood But, although the blood cannot to pass through. get through them, the residue of the fluid moisture, which we call sweat, can do so, and this happens when the body is thoroughly heated and the blood-vessels open wider at their mouths. In some cases, the sweat consists of a blood-like residue ° this is due to a bad general condition, in which the body has become loose and flabby, and the blood watery owing to insufficient concoction, which in its turn is due to the weakness and scantiness of the heat in the small blood-vessels. (We have already said that all compounds of earth and water are thickened by concoction, and this category includes food and blood.) The heat may, as I say, be in itself too scanty to be able to cause concoction, or it may be that it is scanty in comparison with the amount of food that enters the body, if
; ;

:

See A. E. Garrod, Itiborn Errors of Metabolism, Oxford, 1923, Also H. Giinther, Deutsches Archiv /. klin. pp. 136 ff. Medizin, 1920, 134, PP- 257 fF.

253

ARISTOTLE
668 b
^

yiverat
15 SiCTG'q'

8e

rrpos

TavTr)v

oXiyr].

r^

S'

VTrep^oXrj

Kal yap rep ttogo)
evrrerrrov.

/cat raj ttoico'

ov yap ttov
e/c

6pLoia>s

[pel he fxaXiara

ro aifia Kara
rojv

rovs evpv)(cop^(yTOirovs rcov iropcov SiOTrep
IJAJKrripojv

Kal rcov ovXcvv Kal

rrjs

eSpas, eviore he

Kal Kal
20

e/c
ov)(^

rod orofiaros

alfJLoppothes

dnovoL yivovrai,
/Stas".)

(jjcrnep e/c rrjg

apriqpias p.era
tj

Atecrrojcrat 8*

avcodev

re p.eydXr]

(^Xeip

Kal

rj

doprrj, Kara) 3* evaAAacjcroL'crat (TVvexovGi ro aayp^a.
TTpo'Covuai

yap
T)

oxit^ovrai
fxev
e'/c

Kara

rrjv

Si^utav rcov

KOjXajv, Kal

npoepx^rai,
25 /cat

rj

8' e/c

rod efiTrpoodev els rovmodev rod oinoOev els rovfXTTpoaOev,

GVfJi^dXXovaiv els

ev warrep yap

ev rots irXeKO-

fievois eyyiverai
ri]s rd)V

ro Gvvexes

[JidXXov, ovroj

Kal Sta

^Xe^dov evaXXd^ews GwhelraL rd)V aojpidofiolajs he Kal

rojv
rrjs
fjier
30 e/c

rd Trpoodia rols dmadev.
dKpi^eias d)S exovaiv at

dno

Kaphias ev roXs dvoj ronois GVfi^alvei.
e/c tt^s*

ro he
^ajLKrjs

(jjXe^es rrpos dXXiqXas,

re rojv dvaroficov Set OeujpeZv Kal
piev

tar op las.

Kat

Trept

<j)Xel3d)V

Kal

Kaphlas

elp-qcdoj,

rrepl he rd)v

dXXajv urrXdyxyajv OKeTrreov Kara rrjv

avrrjv fxeOohov.
e;\;et 8ia ro nelov elval n dvayKalov pev yap yiveodai ro) OeppLcp Kardipv^Lv, ravr-qs he heXrai OvpaOev rd evaip^a rcov l^cLcov deppcorepa ydp. rd he /x?) eVat^a

VI. UXevpLova pev ovv
t,wajv.

yevos rd)V
85

669 a

*

" The posterior rena cai'a. Hist. An., especially 511 b 11—515 a 26.

254

;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
this is excessive
;

III. v.-vi.

and
it

this excess

to the quantity of
less

or (since

may be due either some substances are
its

patient of concoction than others) to

quaUty.

(Haemorrhage occurs most where the passages are widest, as from the nostrils, the gums and the fundament, and occasionally from the mouth. At these places it is not painful when, however, it occurs from the windpipe, it is violent.) The Great Blood-vessel " and the Aorta, which in the upper part are some distance from each other, lower down change sides, and thus hold the body compact. That is to say, when they reach the place where the legs diverge, they divide into two, and the Great Blood-vessel goes over to the back from the front, and the Aorta to the front from the back and thus they unite the body together, for this
;

changing over of the blood-vessels binds together the front and the back of the body just as the crossing of the strands in plaiting or twining makes the
material hold together more stoutly. similar thing occurs in the upper part of the body, where the blood-vessels that lead from the heart are interchanged. For an exact description of the relative disposition of the blood-vessels, the treatises on Anatomy and the Researches upon Animals ^ should be
consulted.

A

We have now finished our discussion of the heart and the blood-vessels, and we must go on to consider the remaining viscera on the same lines. VI. First the Lung. The reason why any group of
animals possesses a lung is because they are landcreatures. It is necessary to have some means for cooling the heat of the body and blooded animals are so hot that this cooling must come from outside
;

Lung,

255

,

ARISTOTLE
669a
^

^

/cat

Toj

(7Vfi(f)vrco

TTvevfJLarL

dvdyKT]

Se

Karaipvx^LV

e^cudev

Suvarat Kara\jjv')(€iv vSari tj depi. 7]

SiOTTep Tijjv fiev l-)(9vojv ovheis ex^L TrXevfJiova, dXX*

5

dvrl Tovrov ^pdyxLo., Kaddnep eipTirai ev tols irepl dva7TV0T]S' vSarc yap TTOLclrai ttjv Kardifjv^iv rd 8* dvaiTveovTa rep dipt, hioirep Trdvra to, dvaTTviovra e;^€t TrXevpiOva. dvaTTvel Se rd fxev TTcl^d
Trdvra, eVta 8e /cat rojv ivvSpojv, olov <j)d\aiva /cat
heX(j>ls

Kal rd dva(f)VGdjvra
€TTayL(j)or€pit,€i

Kiqrri

Trdvra' TToXXd
rrjv

ydp

10

ra)V

t)Cx)Oiv

rrjv

cf)VGLVy

Kal rdjv re

TT€l,a)v /cat

rdv dipa Sexofievcov Sta

rov

ocxijiaros

KpdcTLV ev vypcp StareAet rov TrXeZorov xpovov, /cat rojv ev ro) vypcp p^erexei rooovrov evia rfjs 7Tel,rjs
(f)VGeaj9

wor

ev rep TTvevpLan avrcvv elvau ro reXos

rov
15

l^rjv.

Tov

8* dvaTTvelv

6 vXevpLcov opyavov eon, rr)v fiev

dpx'Tjv rrj? KLvrjaecos ex^JV dTTO rrjs /capSta?, ttoiwv 8' evpvx<^pLav rfj elaoSco rov TTvevpiaros hid rrjv

20

ro fieyeOos' alpofxevov pev GvvLovros 8* e^epx^rau TrdXiv. ro 8e TTpos rrjv dXatv elvai rov vXevp,ova rrj? Kap8tas' ovK eip-qrai /caAcos" ev dvdpajTTO) re ydp ovpt,^aivei puovov cos eiTreiv rd rijs Trrjhijaews 8ta to jjLovov ev eA7rt8t yiveaOai /cat TrpoohoKia rov p.eXXovroSy dTTex^i r' ev rols TrXeiorois ttoXvv roTiov /cat Kelrai rrjv deoiv dvcorepoj rod TrXevpiovos, ojare p^TjSev ovp^dXXeodai rdv TrXevpova Trpds rrjv dXatv rrjs Kaphlas. Ata^epet 8' d TrXevfJiOiv ttoXv rotS" ^cools. rd fiev
GOfjicfyor-qra
/cat

avrov

ydp elupeZ ro

TTvevp,a,

*•

" 476 a 6. See above, on 659 b 17. « See above, on 650 b 19 ff. This view is expressed by Timaeus in Plato's Timaeus, 70c.

«

256

^

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. vi.

them, though the bloodless ones can do their own cooling by means of the connate pneuma.^ Now external cooling must be effected either by water or by air. This explains why none of the fishes has a lung. They are water-cooled, and instead of a lung they have gills (see the treatise on Respiration).^ Animals that breathe, on the other hand, are aircooled, and so they all have a lung. All land-animals breathe so do some of the water-animals (e.g. the whale, the dolphin, and all the spouting cetacea).
;

This

is

not surprising, for

many
:

animals are inter-

mediate between the two some that are landanimals and breathe spend most of their time in the water o^ving to the blend ^ in their bodies and some of the water-animals partake of the nature of land-animals to such an extent that the limiting
;

condition of life for them Ues in their breath. Now the organ of breathing is the lung. It has its source of motion in the heart, and it affords a wide space for the breath to come into because it is when the lung rises up, the large and spongy breath rushes in, and when it contracts the breath goes out again. The theory ^ that the lung is provided as a cushion for the throbbings of the heart is not correct. This leaping of the heart is practically not found except in man, and that is because man is the only animal that has hope and expectation of the future. Besides, in most animals the heart is a long way off from the lung and lies well above it, and so the lung cannot be of any assistance in absorbing the throbbings of the heart. There are many differences in the lung. Some
:

* In quadrupeds the lung is above the man, owing to the difference of posture.

heart, but not in

257

ARISTOTLE
25

yap

evaijiov

e;)(et

kol /xeyav,

ra
T')7v

8'

iXdrraj

/cat

aofi(f)6p,

ra

^ikv

^cporoKa Std

O^pixoTrjTa ttjs

(pvGecos /xetjco /cat TToXvaifxov,
/cat fjLLKpov,

ra

8'

cooroKa ^rjpov

SwdfJievov 8e fJLeydXa Suaracrdai iv

rw

eix<f)vodo6 at, cjorrep
30

rd rerpdiroha
Trpos"

jJLev

(horoKa Se
rcov

Tojv Tret.ujv, olov 61 re oavpoi /cat at ;^eAajvat /cat
77-ay

TO TOiovrov yevos, ert 8e
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r)

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85

Sto

/cat

dSn/ja

/cat

oAtyoTrora ravra Trdvra,

Kat

Suvarat 77oAuy ev roi vypo) dve-x^eodai XP^^^^' ^'^^ yap oXiyov e^ovra Oepfiov iKavchs ^.ttl ttoXvv xpo^ov
9

b

Karaiffux^rai v-n

avrrjs rrj? rod vXevfjiovos klvt]/cat

aeojs, ovTos depojSovs
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K€vov}

ra

fieyeOi] toutojv iXdrroj rcov

t,a)OJV ojs eTTLTTav etTretv
T)

to yap deppLov av^rjTLKOv,
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Cf. 653 a 30

258

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. vi.

animals have a large lung, which contains blood others a small one and spongy. In the Vivipara it is large and has much blood in it because these creatures have a hot nature in the Ovipara it is dry and small, but it can expand to a great size when inflated among land -animals, the examples of these are oviparous quadrupeds like the lizards, tortoises, and all such creatures, and in addition to these the All these have a tribe of winged things, the birds. spongy lung, which, like froth, runs together and contracts from a large volume into a small one. So it counts as small ; and also it is membranous. As a result, all these creatures are not much subject to and also they can bear to thirst, and drink but little remain a long time under the water this is because their heat is scanty and can therefore be sufficiently cooled over a long period by the mere motion of the lung, which is void and air-like. (Consequently, one may add, in general these creatures are smaller in size than the majority of animals, as gro\\i:h is promoted by heat, and a plentiful supply of blood is a sign that heat is present. Furthermore, heat tends to make the body upright," which explains why man is the most upright among the animals and the Vivipara the most upright among And there are no viviparous the quadrupeds. creatures, either with or Avithout feet, so fond of creeping into holes as the Ovipara are.) The lung, then, is present for the sake of the this is its function always. Sometimes, breathing to serve the purpose of a particular group, it is bloodThere less, and such as has been described above. is no common name which is applied to all animals because that have lungs. But there ought to be
;
:

:

:

;

:

:

:

i2

259

AllISTOTI.E
669b
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Th.

260


III. vi.-vii.

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
the possession of a lung
characteristics,

is one of their essential there are certain characteristics which are included in the essence of a " bird," the name which is applied to another such

just

as

class.

VII. Some of the viscera appear to be single why the others double arrdoubie. the heart and the lung) {e.g. the kidneys) and some it is difficult to place under either heading. The liver and the spleen apparently are intermediate they can be considered either as each being a single organ, or else as two organs taking the place of one and having a similar character. In fact, however, all of them are double. And the reason for this is that the structure of the body is double, though its halves are combined under one source. have upper and lower halves, front and back halves, right and left halves. Thus even the brain as well as each of the sense-organs tends in all animals to be double so does the heart it has cavities. In the Ovipara the lung is so much divided that they appear to have two lungs. The kidneys but there is fair room for are obviously double This is be- Liver and hesitation about the liver and spleen. cause in those animals which of necessity have a "P^^®^ spleen, the spleen looks rather like a bastard liver, while in those which have a spleen though not of necessity i.e. a very small one, as it were by way of a token the liver is patently double, and the larger part of it tends to lie towards the right, the smaller towards the left. Still, there are cases even
{e.g.
;
;

;

We

;

;

among the Ovipara where

this division is less distinct

than in those just described, while in some Vivipara the division is unmistakable e.g. in some districts
2G1

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262

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. vii.

hares appear to have a couple of livers so do certain fishes, especially the cartilaginous ones.* The spleen owes its existence to the liver being placed somewhat over to the right-hand side of the body this makes the spleen a necessity in a way, though not an urgent one, for all animals. Thus, the reason why the viscera are double in their formation is, as we have said, that the body is two-sided, having right and left. Each of the two aims at similarity, just as the sides themselves strive to have a similar nature, and to be as like as twins ; and just as the sides, though dual, are conjoined together into a unity, so also it is with the several
;
:

viscera.
all

The viscera which are below the diaphragm are of them present for the sake of the blood-vessels,

in order that the latter

may have freedom of carriage and at the same time be attached to the body by means of the viscera, which act as a bond. Indeed, there are, as it were, anchor-lines thrown out to the body through the extended parts e.g. from the Great Blood-vessel to the liver and to the spleen, for these viscera act, as it were, like rivets and fasten it to the body that is to say, the liver and the spleen fasten the Great Blood-vessel to the sides of the body (since blood-vessels pass to them from it alone), while
:

;

the kidneys fasten it to the rear parts. And to the kidneys to each of them there is a blood-vessel passing not only from the Great Blood-vessel but also from the Aorta. These advantages, then, accrue to the animal organism from the lower viscera. Liver and spleen also assist in the concoction of the food, since they both

«

Sharks,

etc.

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:

264

PARTS OF ANLMALS,

III. vii.

have blood in them and so are hot. The kidneys assist in connexion with the residue which is excreted
into the bladder.

Now the heart and the liver are necessary to all animals. The heart is necessary because there must there must be, as it were, a be a source of heat hearth, where that which kindles the whole organism and this part must be well guarded, shall reside being as it were the citadel of the body. The liver is necessary for the sake of effecting concoction. All blooded creatures must have these two viscera, and that is why these two are always present in them. third, the lung, is present in those animals that breathe. But the spleen, where present, is present of necessity in the sense of being an incidental concomitant, as are the residues in the stomach and in the bladder. So in some animals the spleen is deficient in size, as in certain birds which have a hot stomach, e.g. the pigeon, the hawk, and the kite the same applies to the oviparous quadrupeds (all of these have an extremely small spleen) and to many of the scaly These animals just mentioned also lack creatures. a bladder, because their flesh is porous enough to enable the residues formed to pass through it and produce feathers and scales. For the spleen draws off the residual humours from the stomach and in virtue of its blood-like nature can assist in the conIf, however, the residue is too coction of them. bulky or the spleen has too little heat, the stomach gets full of nourishment and becomes diseased.
: ;

A

spleen.

;

,

And
the
fluid

in

many

cases,

when the

spleen

is

ailing,

stomach becomes hardened owing to the which runs back into it. This happens with
265

ARISTOTLE
670b
^

rag vyporriras.

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olg Se oXiyi) TrepirrayoLS yiverai,

15

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" The reference to the " columns " or " double list " is There was a Pythagorean avaroixia; this and not clear. other avGTOLxlai are mentioned in Ross's note on his translation of Met. 986 a 23. i.e. left and cold are both in the same column ; right and hot are both in the other column.
''

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
tliose

III.

vii.

who make water

excessively

:

the fluids are

drawn back again into the stomach. But in animals where the amount of residue produced is small, as in birds and fishes, the spleen is either small or present simply by way of a token. In the oviparous quadrupeds, too, the spleen is small and compact, and like a kidney, because the lung is spongy and the animals drink little, and also because the residue which is produced is applied for the benefit of the body itself and of the scaly plates which cover it,
just as in birds feathers.
it is

applied for the benefit of the

In those animals, however, which possess a bladder, and whose lung contains blood, the spleen is watery. The reason already given partly explains this. Another is that the left side of the body is generally more watery and colder than the right. As we know, the opposites are divided up into two columns," so
that each
right cold ;
is

same

classed with those that are akin to it, e.g. column to left, and hot to and thus some of them stand together in the column, as I have just indicated.^
is

in the opposite

Kidneys are present in some animals, but not they are present to serve a good purof necessity
;

pose

to say, their particular nature enables to cope with the residue which collects in the bladder, in those cases where this deposit is somewhat abundant, and to help the bladder to perform its function better. Since the bladder is present in animals to serve
;

that

is

them

precisely the

same purpose

as the kidneys,
it.

we must

now say something about

This will involve a departure from the serial order in which the parts actually come, for we have said nothing so far about

267

ARISTOTLE
670 b

copiorai, TOVTO 8e tl rcov irepl

ret cr77-Aay;^va jxopioiv

VIII. Kucrrtv
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268

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. vii.-viii.

the diaphragm, though this is one of the parts that are near the viscera. VIII. The bladder is not present in all animals Nature seems to have intended only those animals which have blood in their lung to have a bladder. And this is quite reasonable, when we remember that such animals have an excess of the natural substance which constitutes the lung, and are therefore more i.e. they need a subject to thirst than any others larger amount of fluid food as well as of the ordinary solid food, and the necessary result of this is that a larger amount of residue also is produced, too large in fact for all of it to be concocted by the stomach and excreted with its own proper residue hence it is necessary to have some part that will receive this additional residue. This shows us why all animals which have blood in their lung possess a bladder As for those whose lung is spongy and which too. therefore drink little, or which take fluids not as something to drink but as food (e.g. insects and fishes), or which are covered with feathers or scales or scaly plates, not one of these has a bladder, owing to the small amount of fluid which they take and owing to the fact that the surplus residue goes to form feathers or scales or scaly plates, as the Exceptions to this are the particular case may be. though scaly-plated they have a bladder. Tortoises In them the natural formation has simply been stunted. The cause of this is that in the sea-varieties the lung is fleshy and contains blood, and is similar to while in the land-varieties it is the lung of the ox disproportionately large. And whereas in birds and snakes and the other scaly-plated creatures the moisture exhales through the porous flesh, in these it
: ;

Bladder.

;

:

;

269

ARISTOTLE
671 a
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X^pdatai fjLLKpdv Trdfirrav. IX. 'OjjLOLCos 8' ex^i Kal Tvepl vecjipcov. ovhe yap ve(f)povs ovT€ rcov TTrepwrcov /cat AeTrtSajrcDv ovhev €X€L ovT€ Tcov (^oXlSojtcov, ttXtjv at daXaTTcai X^XojvaL Kal at ;;^e/oo'atat dAA* d)s rrjs et? rovs

80 v€(f)pov9

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ovT€

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ovheTepov toIs
35 atfJioVy

S'

ajGTTep

etpT^rat,

dXXois ^ojots" toZs exovGLv evtov TrXevfiova vrdat gvjjl-

671 b

^€^r]K€v €X€LV v€(f)pov£. KaTaxpTjTai yap rj (f)vcns dfia TCOV re cfjXe^dJv X^P^^ '^^^^ Trpos ttjv tov

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t)

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rots'

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djLtaAetS",

o^otot 8e

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Ik ttoXXcjv

v€(f)pdjv

fXiKpaJv

Kal ovx
toZs

a)G7T€p ol

twv
8to

rrpo^dTCjov Kal tcov dXXcov

TOJV

reTpaTToScov.

Kal

to

dppcoGTTjfia

<•

Greek, " hemys."

This description, which does not

fit

270

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
cannot do
is

III. viii.-ix.

so, because the integument which surrounds dense, hke a shell ; and so the excretion is produced in such quantities that the Tortoises need some part which shall act as a vessel to receive it. That, then, is why they are the only animals of the kind which have a bladder. In the sea-tortoise it is large, in the land-tortoise quite small. IX. Much the same may be said of the kidneys as Kidneyts. Kidneys are not present in any of of the bladder. the animals that have feathers or scales or scaly plates, except the two sorts of tortoises just mentioned. In some birds, how^ever, there are flat Iddney-shaped objects, as if the flesh that was allotted to form the kidneys had found no room for its proper function and had been scattered to form several organs. The Emys ^ has neither bladder nor kidneys this is because it has a soft shell which allows the moisture to But, as I said before, all transpire freely through it. the other animals whose lung contains blood have kidneys, since Nature makes use of them for two purand (2) to poses (1) to subserve the blood-vessels excrete the fluid residue. (A channel leads into them from the Great Blood-vessel.) There is always a hollow (lumen), varying in size, in the kidneys, except in the seal, whose kidneys are more solid than any others and in shape resemble those of the ox. Human kidneys too resemble those they are, as it were, made up out of a of the ox number of small kidneys,^ and have not an even surface like those of the sheep and other quadrupeds. Thus, when once an ailment attacks the human

them

:

:

;

:

any animal now known as Emys, seems to be that of some
freshwater tortoise. This is not true of the normal adult, but the foetus.
''

it

is

true of

274

.

ARISTOTLE
671 b
10
^ ^

avdpcoTTOLs

voarjcrojGLV' avfi^atvei

SvaanaXXaKTOV avrcov iariv, av dna^ yap ojairep ttoXXovs v6(f)povs
"q

vooovvTixjv x^^XeTTOjrepav etvaL ttjv laaiv

rcov eva

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'0

8'

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ovk

et?

to

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el?

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15

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avvexels.

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rov rponov rovrov
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ve(f)povs,
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rj

20 ^ahitpr^

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tov

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fjieaov 8ta.
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tJSt]

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ovv

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01

fiev

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ras" elprjfxevas.

etcrt,

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ras" Svvdpieis

exovGi

80

'Ev TTaGL 8e ToXs exovGL vecf)povs 6 Se^Los dvojTepco TOV dpiGTepov eGTLv 8ta ydp to ttjv klvtjglv elvaL eK TCOV Se^Lcov Kal iGxvpoTepav 8td raur' etvat ttjv

The

ureters.

272

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. ix.

kidneys, the trouble is not easily removed, because it is as though the patient had many kidneys diseased and not one only ; and so the cure is more difficult to
effect.

The channel which runs from the Great Bloodthe kidneys does not debouch into the hollow part of the kidneys, but the whole of what it supplies is spent upon the body of the kidneys ; thus no blood goes into the hollows, and at death none congeals there. From the hollow part of the kidneys two sturdy channels lead into the bladder, one from each these contain no blood. Other channels come from the Aorta to the kidneys ; these are strong, continuous ones. This arrangement is on purpose to enable the residue from the moisture to pass out of the blood-vessel into the kidneys, and so that when the fluid percolates through the body of the kidneys the excretion that results may collect into the middle of the kidneys, where the hollow is in most cases. (This explains, incidentally, why the kidney is the most ill-scented of all the viscera.) From the middle of the kidney the fluid is passed off through the aforesaid channels into the bladder by which time it has practically taken on the character of excremental residue. The bladder is actually moored to the kidneys as has been stated, there are strong channels extending
vessel to
** ; ;
:

for which the kidneys exist, as well as their character and functions. The right kidney is always higher up than the left. The reason for this is that as motion always begins on the right-hand side, the parts that are on that side are stronger than those on the other ; and owing to this

from them to it. We have now given the causes

273

ARISTOTLE
671 b
^

(j)VGiv

^ ^ TTjv rcbv

8e^ta>v,

Set TrpooSoTTOLrjoaGdai

Blol

rr]v KLvrjGLV irpos

ro avoj ravro} ra /xopta /xaAAov,
/cat

eVet Kal rrjv o(f)pvv rrjv Seftav aipovcri pLoXkov
€TTLKeKapipL€vr]v €xov(jL TTJs

35

672 a

dpLGTepds jLtaAAov. /cat Sta TO aveoTTaodai avojrepov rov 8ef tov v€(j)p6v ro •^TTap aTTTeraL rov Se^tou v€(f)pov iv Tracrtv eV rot? Se^totS" yap to rjirap.
rcDv GnXdyxvcov to SLrjdeiadai to TTepLTTOjpLa Sid Twv v€(f)pcov TO ydp AetTTOftCVOV at/xa KaOapov ov evTreiTTov cart, reAo? 8' evTreiplas aLpLartKrjg TnpeXr) /cat oTeap eoriv. [ajuirep yap ev Tols 7T€TrvpcopievoLs ^ripols, olov Tjj Te(f)pa, eyKara-

"KxovGL

8'

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ve(j)pol

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i^

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8ta

6

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vypoZs'
OeppLOTTlTOg pLOptOV.
/cat €7Ti7ToXdt,€L
10

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iv
tl

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iv TOt? vypols)
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ly

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15 rots'

pLev

ovv

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/cat

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rou

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^

ioTLV, OTTOJS
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fj

TTpo^oXrj Tols TTept
villfiT.

ravra Peck
«

Trdvra

See Book

II. ch. v.

274,

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. ix.

motion they are bound to make their way upwards before the ones on the left. Tlius people raise the right eyebrow more than the left, and it is more arched. A result of this drawing up of the right kidney is that in all animals the liver, which is on the
right side of the body,
is

in contact with

it.

than any other of the viscera. This is partly a necessary consequence upon the percolation of the residue throuirh the kidneys in other words, the blood which gets left behind there is easy of concoction because it is pure, and when blood undergoes complete concoction the final products are lard and suet. (A parallel is to be found in the case of solid substances which have undergone combustion e.g. a certain amount of fire gets left behind in ash. So, in fluid substances which have undergone concoction some portion of the heat which has been generated remains behind. That is
fat
:
: :

The kidneys contain more

Fat in ^^'^'i^y^

and come to the top of This fat is not formed actually in the kidneys themselves, because they are so dense it collects outside them. In some it has the form of lard, in others the form of suet, according to the character of the animal. (The difference between the tw^o has been explained already in another connexion.) " This formation of lard, then, about the kidneys is the necessary consequence upon the conditions which necessarily obtain in animals that possess kidneys. But there is another reason for its formation, and that is, on purpose to safeguard the kidneys themselves and to preserve their natural heat. The kidneys are the outermost of all the \'iscera, and therefore they need more warmth. WTiereas the back is liberally supplied with flesh, which enables it to act as a
oily substances are light
fluids.)
:

why

27:5

ARISTOTLE
672 a

rrjv

8' Kaphlav OTrXdyxi'OLg rj [auapKoi yap at KapLTral ttolvtcov)
,

6o(j)vs

aaapKos

olvtI crap/cos"

20 Tj

TTLfieXr]

TTpo^Xrjjjia

y iverai roZs

V€(f>poL?.

en

ovv he

hiaKpivovGi
TTLOves ovres'
OepfjiOTr]?.

Koi

TrirrovGi ttjv vyporrjra fiaXXov to yap Xiirapov Oepfiov, Trerrei S* r]

fxev ovv ras alrias ol vecfypol TTifxeXcondcn Se tols ^(x)ols 6 Sextos" dnLfjieXa)atriov he ro rrjv (J)Vglv ^r^pdv etvai repos eoTLV.

Ata ravras

Seis eloiv, ev

25

rrjv rcjv

Se^LCJV Kal KivqrLKCjrepav'

rj

he Kivrjcn^

ivavria- nqKei

yap to

rrlov fiaXXov.

Tols ve^povs

p^ev

ovv

dXXois
he

Repots

ovp(j)epei

^X^''^ TTLOvaSy

/cat TroAAa/cts"

e-)(ovoiv

re rovs oXovs

TTepLTrXeoJS-

aTTodvrjGKeL.
so

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TTpo^aTov

dXX dv

Gvp^alveiv

eirl

tcov TTpo^dTOJV, otl rot? piev
cocrr'

mpe-

XcoheGLV vypdv to ttIov,

3^

ovx dpioiws cy/caraKXeiopeva to, rrvevpaTa TToieZ tov ttovov. tov he G(f)aK6XLGpiov tout' a'iTcov eGTLv hid Kal TCOV dvdpCjJTTOJV Tols TTOVOVGL TOVS Ve(f)pOVS, KaLTT€p TOV TTtal,

672 b

veodaL GvpL<f)epovTog dpojs dv Xiav ylvcovTai tt loves, tcx)v S* d'AAcov ohvvai davaT7](f)6poi Gvp^aivovGiv. Tol? GTeaTwheoLV tjttov ttvkvov to GTeap rj tols

npo^dTOLS.

Kal

tw

TrXrjOeL ttoXv

Ta Trpo^aTa

vrrep-

^ctAAef yiveTai yap 7TepLve(f)pa Td^LGTa tcqv ^ojcov Ta Trpo^aTa TrdvTOJV. iyKaTaKXeLopevrjs ovv ttjs
vypoTTjTOS Kal Tojv TTvevpdTOJV 8ta tov G(j)aKeXLGpidv
^

oAA* av

,

,

,

he^iov post elaiv

1.

23 transponit Thurot.

276

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. ix.

protection for the viscera about the heart, the loin, in common with all parts that bend, is not so supplied ; and this fat we have been speaking of serves as a safeguard to the kidneys in place of flesh. Further, the kidneys are better able to secrete and to concoct the fluid if they are fat, because fat is hot and heat causes concoction. These are the reasons why the kidneys are fat. In all animals, however, the right kidney has less fat than the left. This is because the right-hand side

dry and solid and more adapted for motion than and motion is an enemy to fat, because it the left tends to melt it. Now it is an advantage to all animals to have fat kidneys, and often they are completely filled with fat. The sheep is an exception if this happens to a sheep it dies. But even if the kidneys are as fat as can be, there is always some portion which is clear of fat, if not in both kidneys, at any rate in the right one. The reason why this happens solely (or more especially) Some animals have their fat to sheep is as follows. in the form of lard, which is fluid, and thus the wind cannot so easily get shut up within and cause trouble. When this happens, however, it causes rot. Thus, too, in the case of human beings who suffer from their kidneys, although it is an advantage for them to be fat, yet if they become unduly fat, pains result which prove fatal. As for the animals whose fat is in the form of suet, none has such dense suet as the sheep has and moreover, in the sheep the amount of it is much greater the fact that they get fat about the kidneys much more quickly than any other animal shows this. So when the moisture and the wind get shut up within, rot is produced, which rapidly kills
is
;
:

;

;

277

AKISTOTLE
672 b
5
^

dvatpovvTaL raxecos' Sta yap
(jyXe^os

rrjg

aoprrjs /cat rrj^

€vdv9 OLTTavra ro ttolOos irpos ttjv Kaphiav
oltto

ol he TTopoi avvex^ls TTpOS TOVS V€(f)pOVS.

tovtcov tcov cjiXe^cav

etcrt

Hepi
10

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ovv

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v€(f)pa)v.

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X. rvy(jipevas*

^dveL 8e ravra K€)(CjpiGiJLeva dXXrjXijjv rep Sta^co/Ltart.

TOVTO Se to Sta^co/xa KaXovai rives

o Stopi^et rov re TrXevfiova Kal rrjv Kaphiav. KaXelrai
Se rovro ro 8td?co/xa iv rols eVat/xot?, ujairep
etpr^raL,
(j^peves.
e;^ft

/cat

he iravra rd evaijjLa auro,

15

Kaddirep Kaphiav Kal rjirap. rovrov 8' atrtov ort rov hiopLGpLOV X^P^^ ^^'^^ '^°^ '^^ TTepl rrjv KoiXlav roTTov Kal rod Trepl rrjv Kaphiav, ottojs t) rrjs
aLuOrjriKTJs

4'^XV^ ^PXV diraOris KaraXapL^dvYjrai hid rrjv diro rrjs

fj

Kal

jjlt]

raxv

rpo(f>7Js yLvofxevrjv

dvaOvpiiaoiv Kal ro ttXtjOos rrjs eireicdKrov 6ep{JLorrjros.
errl

yap rovro

hieXaj^ev

rj

^vois, olov

20 TTapoLKohojjirjjjia

TTOLVjoaGa Kal (f)payp.6v rag <j>pevas,

Kal 8tetAe ro re rn-UcLrepov Kal ro drifiorepov iv
OGOLS evhex^Tai hieXelv ro dvoj Kal Kdrco' rd fiev

ydp

dvco iarlv ov eveKev Kal ^eXriov, rd he Karco rd rovrov eveKev Kal dvayKaTov, rd ri]s rpo(f)rjs

heKriKov.

"Eart
25

he

rd

Sta^cojLta

Trpos

fiev

rds TrXevpdg
p.€Gov
8'

uapKCoheGrepov
raGLV
TTjv

Kal

iGxvpdrepov,

/caret

vpuevcoheGrepov ovrco ydp Trpds rrjv lgxvv Kal rrjV
;)^p')7crt/LtajTe/30V.

Stort he irpos rrjv 6epp.drr]ra
GrjjjLelov

Karojdev olov jrapaejivdhes eiGi,

€k rajv

278

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III.

ix.-x.

the sheep off. The disease makes its way directly to the heart through the Aorta and the Great Bloodvessel, since there are continuous passages leading from these to the kidneys. We have now spoken of the heart and the lung ; and also of the liver, the spleen and the kidneys. X. These two sets of viscera are separated from Diaphragm. each other by the diazoma, which some call the phrenes (diaphragm). This divides off the heart and the lung. In blooded animals it is called j)hrenes, as All blooded creatures have one, just as I have said. they all have heart and liver. The reason for this is that the diaphragm serves to divide the part round the stomach from the part round the heart, to ensure that the source of the sensory Soul may be unaffected, and not be quickly overwhelmed by the exhalation that comes up from the food when it is eaten and by the amount of heat introduced into the system. For this purpose, then. Nature made the division, and constructed the phrenes to be, as it were, a partition-wall and a fence and thus, in those creatures where it is possible to divide the upper from the lower, she divided off the nobler parts from the less noble ones for it is the upper which is " better," that ybr the sake of which the lower ex-' ists, while the lower is " necessary," existing ybr the sake of the upper, by acting as a receptacle for the
; ;

food.

Towards the ribs the diaphragm is fleshier and stronger, while in the middle it is more like a membrane this makes it more serviceable as regards strength and extensibility. An indication to show why there are, as it were, " suckers," to keep off the
:

heat which comes up from below,

is

provided by

279

,

ARISTOTLE
672 b

GVfxpaivovrojv orav yap Sua
GCOGLV vypoTiqra
80

rrjp

yeirviacnv cXkv-

depfjirjv

Kal TTepLrTCxjfiariKTjv^ cvdvg

€7nS-qXoJs rapdrrei t7]v hidvoiav Kal ttjv alodiqGiv,

hio

Kal KaXovvrai
at

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ojs

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rt

tov
8*

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Se

iderexovGL

/xev

ouSeV,

iyyvs

ovaaL rcov fierexovrajv
^oXrjV TTJ? SiavoLag.
elcrlv,
85

eTTihriXov ttolovgl ttjv [lera-

Sto /cat Aevrrat /caret fxeuov

TTpos ras"

ov fiovov ef dvdyKrjs, on oapKcoSas ovaag ra nXevpas dvayKalov etvau oapKco'^^Grepas

aAA*
673 a Sets'

tv*

on

oXiyioTTjs iierexfJ^oiv LKpidhos' oapKco-

ydp dv ovGai Kal elxov Kal elXKOv fidXXov
TToXX-qv.

tVjLtaSa

on
Tr)v

he

OepfiaLvofxevaL
uiqixaiveL

Ta^io^S

Kal to Tovs yeAcora? avfi^alvov yapyaXt^oficvoL t€ ydp raxv yeAcocrt, Sta to tt^v Kivquiv dcfiiKveladai
iTTiSrjXov

TToiovGi

aiadrioiv,

Trept

6

Ta^^U
rjpejjia

TTpOS

TOV rOTTOV TOVTOV, OepfJLaivofJLevov^ 8' 7Tol€lv ojJLCog eTTLSrjXov Kal KiveZv ttjv 8ta-

votav TTapd ttjv TTpoaipeGiv.
yiovov dvdpojTTOv atVtov
17

tov 8e yapyaXit,€Gdai
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re XcTTTOT'qs tov SepjJiaTO^
t,(jp(jjv

Kal TO

{jLovov

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6 8e

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10

TOV [xopLOV TOV
TiVfjL^alveLV 8e

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^aat

/cat irepl Tct?

eV Tots' TToXefxois
(f)p€vag yeXcjjTa

TrXrjyds et? tov tottov tov 7T€pl

Ta?

Sid TTJV €K TTJs TrXrjyrj? yLVOjJbevrjv deppiOTriTa, tovto
^

depiiaivoixevov

Peck

:

depfiaivovat.
^

vulg.

:

-ovaa

SZ

:

-ovaav

PUY.
° The Risus Sardonicus System of Medicine^ (1910),
:

KVTjaecjs

Langkavel.

viii.

see Allbutt 642.

and Rolleston,

A

280

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
:

III. x.

whenever, owing to their what actually happens proximity, they draw up the hot residual fluid, this at once causes a recognizable disturbance of the intelligence and of sensation. And that is why they as if they took a part in the act are called phrenes of thinking (phronein). This of course they do not do but their proximity to those organs w^hich do so take part makes the change of condition in the That, too, is why the intelligence recognizable. this is not due phrenes are thin in the middle entirely to necessity (though as they are fleshy to begin with, the parts of them nearest the ribs must there is another of necessity be more fleshy still) reason, which is, to enable them to have as little moisture in them as possible, since if they had been wholly of flesh they would have tended to draw to themselves and to retain a large quantity of moisture. Another indication that it is when heated that they quickly make the sensation recognizable is afforded by what happens when we laugh. When people are tickled, they quickly burst into laughter, and this is because the motion quickly penetrates to this part, and even though it is only gently warmed, still it produces a movement (independently of the ^\^ll) in the intelligence which is recognizable. The fact that human beings only are susceptible to tickling is due (1) to the fineness of their skin and Tick(2) to their being the only creatures that laugh. ling means, simply, laughter produced in the way I have described by a movement applied to the part around the armpit. It is said that when in war men are struck in the on acpart around the diaphragm, they laugh count of the heat which arises owing to the blow.
:

;

;

;

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:
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<• Iliad, X. 457 and Od. xxii. 329. In both plaees the text of Homer has SOeyyoixevov (" As he spake . . ."). " The Berlin text here reads " Caria," but the Oxford ms. Z reads " Arcadia." cult of Zeus hoplosmios is attested only for Methydrion, a town in Arcadia, and the name Kerkidas is found in Arcadia, not in Caria. (See A. B-

A

282

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
;

III. x.

This may be so and those who assert it are more credible than those who tell the tale of how a man's head speaks after it is cut off. Sometimes they cite Homer in support, who (so they say) was referring to
this

when he wrote
As
it

spake, his head was mingled with the dust

(not

As he spake,

his

head was mingled with the dust.)

**

In Arcadia ^ this kind of thing w^as at one time so firmly believed that one of the inhabitants was actually brought into court on the strength of it. The priest of Zeus hoplosmios had been killed, but no one knew who had done it. Certain persons,

however, affirmed that they had heard the man's head, after it had been cut off, repeating the following line several times
'Twas Kerkidas did slaughter

man on man.

So they set to work and found someone in the district who bore this name and brought him to trial. Of course, speech is impossible once the windpipe has been severed and no motion is forthcoming from the lung. And among the barbarians, where they cut heads off with expedition, nothing of this sort has taken place so far. Besides, why does it not occur with the other animals [For {a) the story about the laughter when the diaphragm has been struck is plausible, for none of the others laughs and (6) that the body should go forward some distance after the head has been cut off, is not at all absurd, since bloodless animals at any rate actually go on
.''

;

Cook, ZeuSy

ii.

290,

who

gives the evidence,

and

J. Schaefer,

De Jove apud Cares

culto^ 1912, pp.

370

f.)

K

283

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284

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
living for a long time.

III. x.-xii.

The reason for these phenohas been explained elsewhere.] We have now said what is the purpose for which each of the viscera is present but also they have been formed of necessity at the inner ends of the bloodvessels, because moisture, i.e. moisture of a bloodlike nature, must of necessity make its way out there, and, as it sets and solidifies, form the substance of the viscera. That, too, is why they are blood-like in character, and why the substance of all of them is similar, though different from that of the other

mena

;

parts.

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Membranes.

Some covering

;

;

;

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'^"^^5^^.

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in

in some it is split into several parts, some almost undivided. This variation of form is
:

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286

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
found

III. xii.-xiii.

first of all even among the viviparous blooded animals ; but it is more noticeable among the fishes and oviparous quadrupeds, whose livers differ not only from those of the Vivipara, but also from each other's. In birds, the liver very closely resembles in both, its colour is pure and that of the Vivipara The reason for which is, that their bodies blood-like. give a very free passage to the breath, which means that they retain very little foul residue; hence, indeed, some of the Vivipara have no gall-bladder, and this is largely due to the very considerable assistance given by the liver in maintaining a good blend" and healthiness in the body. This is because the purpose which these viscera serve lies chiefly in the blood, and after the heart the liver contains more blood than any In most of the oviparous other of the viscera. quadrupeds and the fishes the liver is yellowish, and in some of them it is altogether bad-looking, on a par Avith the bad blend of the rest of their bodies. This happens in the toad, the tortoise, and the like. As for the spleen In horned animals that have cloven hoofs it is rounded e.g. in the goat, the sheep, and similar animals unless greatness of size has made it grow out at some point lengthways, as in the In all the polydactylous animab the case of the ox. spleen is long, as in the pig, in man, and in the dog. In animals with solid hoofs the spleen is intermediate between the two and has the characteristics of both : in one place it is broad, in another narrow, as exemplified in the horse, the mule, and the ass. XIII. Now the viscera differ from the flesh not only in the bulkiness of their mass, but also in their situation, for the flesh is on the outside of the body, while they are inside. The reason for this is that
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288

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. xiii.-xiv.

some their nature shares that of the blood-vessels of them exist for the sake of the blood-vessels, others do not exist apart from the blood-vessels.
:

is

XIV. Below the diaphragm is the Stomach, which placed where the oesophagus ends (if there is an
;

stomach
intestines.

oesophagus

if

not, immediately next to the mouth).

Next
is

after the stomach called the Gut.

and continuous with

it is

what

It must be obvious to everyone why all animals have these parts. It is a necessity for them to have some receptacle for the food they take in, and to expel it again when its moisture has been extracted and there must be two different places for from it these two things the unconcocted food and the there must also be another place in which residue the change from one to the other is effected. Two receptacles, then, one for the incoming food, one for the residue which is no more use as there is a separate time for these so there must be a separate However, it will be more appropriate to go place. into these matters in our treatise on Geiieration and Nutrition.'^ At the present we must consider the variations that are to be found in the stomach and its
;

;

subsidiary parts.

The stomach
different

differs

both in

size

and appearance

in

animals. Those of the blooded Vivipara which have front teeth in both jaws have one stomach ; e.g. man, the dog, the lion, and the other polydactyls so also those that have solid hoofs, and those which e.g. the horse, the mule, the ass although they are cloven-hoofed have front teeth These rules apply unless in both jaws, e.g. the pig. the size of the frame and the character of the food
; ;

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PARTS OF ANIMALS,
:

III. xiv.

modify them for instance, if the food is thorny and woody and therefore not easy to concoct, in which case the animal has several stomachs, e.g. the camel so also have the horned animals, as they have not front teeth in both jaws. Thus also the camel has not the two rows of front teeth either, although it has no horns this is because it is more necessary for the camel to have several stomachs than to have all these front teeth. So, as it resembles the animals which lack the upper front teeth in that it has several stomachs, therefore the arrangement of its teeth is that which normally accompanies the multiple stomachs in other words, it lacks these front teeth, And also, as its food as they would be no use to it. is thorny, and as the tongue has of necessity to be of a fleshy character, Nature has made use of the earthy matter saved from the missing teeth to make the roof of the mouth hard. Again, the camel ruminates as the horned animals do, because it has stomachs that resemble theirs. Every one of the horned animals (such as the sheep, the ox, the goat, and the the deer, and the like) has several stomachs purpose of them is this Since the mouth is deficient in teeth, the service which it performs upon the food deficient and so one stomach after another is receives the food, which is quite untreated when it enters the first stomach, more treated in the next, completely treated in the next, and a smooth pulp in the next. And that is why these animals have several such places or parts, the names of which are (1) the paunch (rumen), (2) the net or honeycomb-bag {reticulum), (3) the manyplies (omasum), (4) the reed" (ahomasum). For the relation of these to each other
;
:

;

:

;

°

Or, true stomach.

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ly

(^vcng

dvaXapL^dv€L rrjv rod uroparos eVSetav. ctcrt 8e Ttves" ot TOUTOJV oi}8ev e^'oucrtv, dAAd rov irpoXo^ov^ jiaKpov, oaa pLaKpoorKeXrj /cat e'Aeta, 8td ri^r rr^s" alriov 8' ort rpo^T] irdoi rpo(f>rjs vyporrjra. rovrois evXiavros , ware GvpL^aiveiv 8td ravra rwv TOLOvrojv rd^; /cotAtas" etvat vypds [8td tt^v dneiplav
"j^

/cat TT^v rpo(f)'qv].^

675 a

Tous" 8e

Ttijy Ixdvojv yivos e;)(et ^ev dSovras", rouKapx^-pdhovr as ox^^ov ws elircZv Trdvres^' oXiyov ydp ri Ion yevos ro p.r) roiovrov, olov 6 KaXovp,€vos GKdpos, OS Srj Kal 80/cet p^rjpvKd^eLV

To

8e

^

irpoXo^ov] cTOfxaxoi' Og-lc, collate Hist.
'

An. 509 a

9.

secludenda. ndvras vulg. TTavres Ogle
2
:

"

At 507 a 36

ff.

^

The

gizzard.

*

Ogle reads " oesophagus."

292

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. xiv.

as regards position and appearance, the Researches upon Animals'^ and the treatises on Anatomy should be

consulted.

The same reason
for the difference

as has just been described accounts which presents itself in birds in the

part which receives the food. Birds, like the other animals, do not get the full service from the mouth in dealing with the food since they have no teeth at all, and they have nothing with which to bite up or grind down the food and so some of them have, before the stomach, what is called the crop, to perform the work instead of the mouth. Others have a broad oesophagus or their oesophagus has a bulge in it, just before it reaches the stomach, in which they keep a preliminary store of untreated food or some part of the stomach itself sticks out. Others have a strong and fleshy stomach ^ which is thus able to store the food up for a long period and to concoct it although it has not been ground down thus Nature makes up for the deficiency of the mouth by means not only of the heat of the stomach but also by its special character. Other birds have none of these devices, but a long crop,^ because their food is moist these are the long-legged marsh birds. The reason for this is that the food which all of these take is easily ground down, and the result is that the stomachs of birds of this sort are moist [o"\\ing to the unconcocted and moist state of the food]. The tribe of fishes have teeth practically all have saw-teeth. There is one small group to which this does not apply, e.g. the Scarus,^ as it is called, and it seems reasonable to suppose that this is why

;

;

;

;

:

:

^

The

parrot-fish

;

see above, 6Q2 a 7.

293

ARISTOTLE
675a
5
^

10

15

evXoycos Sia ravra {xovos- Kal yap ra fxr] dju,(^coSovra K€paro(f)6pa 8e fxrjpvKd^ei. o^eXg 8e Travras^ €xovGiv, a)GT€ SteAety /xev SvvavraL, <f}avXojs Se 8teXeXv ivSLarpL^eiv yap ov^ olov re )(povil,ovTag' 8l67T€p ovSe TrAaTet? exovaiv oSovrag, ouS' eVSe;^€rai Xeaiveiv juctrr^v av ovv elxov. ert Se arofiaxov ol fjL€v oXojs ovK exovGiV, ol he ^pa^vv. dAAa irpos rrjv ^oi^detav rrjs Trei/jeoj? ol fiev opviBajheis exovat ras KOiXias /cat uapKwSeis, olov Keorpevs, ol Se TToXXoL TTapa rrjV KOiXiav d7TO(f)vdhas nvKvas, tv* iv ravrais coavrep eV TTpoXaKKiois drjaavpti^ovre? ovacrrjTTCjDGL Kal TT-errcocrt ttjv rpocjyiqv. exovui 8' evavTLOJs oL lxOv€9 rots' opvioi ras d7Toj)vdhas' ol

^

20

26

yap IxOv^S dvco rrpos rfj KOiXla, raJv 8' opvidcov exovres diro^vdhas Karoj npos rep reXeu rov ivrepov. exovGL 8* d7T0(f)vdSag eVta /cat Ta>v Jojotokcjov ivrepLKa? Kdroj 8td rrjv avrrjv alriav. To 8e rcov IxOvcxJV yevos aTrav, 8td to evhecGrepcos e;^etv ra rrepl ttjv rrjs Tpo(f)7]s epyaacav, dAA' aTreTTra hiaxojpeZv, XaipLapyov rrpos rrjv Tpo(f)T^v iaTL, Kal Tojv dXXojv 8e TrdvTOJv oua evdvevrepa' rax^tas yap yivop.eviqs rrjs Siaxcopijoecjos, Kal Sid ravra ^pax^lag ovoiqs rrjs dTToXavaeoj? , rax^Xav dvayKalov yiveod ai irdXiv /cat r-qv eVt^u/xtav. Td 8' dii<j)OL>hovra on fxkv fxiKpdv e;^et KoiXiav CLprjrai Trporepov els Scacfiopds 8e TTLTrrovoi hvo irdoai ax^Bov ra fxev yap rfj rrjs kvvos opLoiav
liev

OL

^

TTavras

S:

TTavres vulg.

*

**

" Probably some kind of mullet. Caecal appendages " (Ogle), or " alimentary sacs." " The vermiform appendix.

294

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. xiv.

it alone ruminates, for horned animals which have no teeth in the upper jaw also ruminate. All teeth in fish this enables them to bite up their food, are sharp
;

this is because though somewhat unsatisfactorily hence they cannot spend long over mastication they neither have flat teeth nor may they grind therefore it would be idle to have the food down the teeth. Furthermore, some fishes have no gullet but, in order to asat all, others have a short one sist the process of concoction, some of them, hke the Kestreus,^ have fleshy stomachs, similar to those of birds the majority, however, have a large number of appendages ^ by the side of the stomach, in which to store up the food as it might be in additional cellars and there putrefy it up and concoct it. The appendages of fishes are, however, quite different from those of birds. In fishes they are fairly high up beside the stomach, whereas when present in birds they are down below at the end of the gut. Some of the V ivipara also have appendages ^ of this latter kind, and their purpose is the same. The whole race of fishes is gluttonous for food, because their equipment for reducing it is defective, as a result of which most of it passes through unconcocted. Of all, those which have a straight intes;
;

;

;

;

tine are especially gluttonous, since the food passes through quickly, which means that their enjoyment

of it is brief, and therefore in its turn the desire for food must come on again very quickly. I have already said that in animals with front teeth in both jaws the stomach is small. These stomachs fall into two main classes. Some have a stomach resembUng that of the dog, some that of

"

295

ARISTOTLE
676 a ^

30

35

exovGL KoiXiav, ra Se rfj rrjs vos- eari 8* t] [lev Trjg vos /xet^cov /cat rivas exovoa fierplas TrXaKag TTpos TO xpovLOJTepav yiveodai rrjv ireifjiv, r] 8e rrjs kvvos fiiKpa TO fieyedos Kal ov ttoXv tov ivTepov vireppdXXovoa Kal Xeca to. ivTog. jLtero. yap ttjv KOiXiav exet 7) TcDv ivTepcjov eyKeiTai (j)vois rrdai rot? l,ajois. he hia(j>opas iroXXas, Kaddirep rj KotAta, Kal tovto TO fjLopLOV. Tols fJLev ydp OLTrXovv ioTi Kal opLOiov avaXvopievov, tols S' dvofJiOLOv ivloLs puev ydp evpvT€pOV TO TTpos TTJ KOlXLa, TO Se TTpOS Tip TcAct OTevoTepov^ (hioTrep at Kvves /xerd ttovov rrpotevTai

675hrrjv TOLavTTjv TrepLTTWOLv), Tols 8e TrXeioaiv dvojOev GTevoTepov,^ Trpos tco re'Aet 8' evpvTepov.

Met^O) 8e Kal dvaSLTrXcnoeLs exovTa TToAAds' rd
Tibv K€paTO(j)6pa)v ecrrt, /cat ol oyKOL ttjs /cotAtas"
5

TovTOLs pLeit^ovs Kal rcDv ivTcpcxJV 8td to pteyedos' TTavra ydp cLs etTretv pieydXa rd K€paT0(f)6pa 8td
TTjv

10

KaTepyaaiav tt^v ttjs Tpo(f)rjs. Trdui 8e toZs /xt] evdvevTepoLs Trpo'Cdv^ evpvTepov ytverat to pLopuov TOVTO, Kal TO KaXovpLevov KoXov exovoL, Kal tov ivTepov TV(j)X6v Tt Kat oy/ccoSes', etT* e/c tovtov to 8e /LteTa TTaXiv GTevoTepov^ /cat elXiypievov. TOVTO evdif TTpos TTjv €^ohov 8taTetV€t TOt» TrepLTTOjpLaTOs, Kat TOLS /xev tovto to pLopLOV, o /caAowpL€vos

dpxds,

kvlocjoStjs

ioTLy

ToZs
Tjj

8'

aTTLpLeXos.

TrdvTa 8e TavTa pi€pi7]xdv7}TaL

cfyvaeL
Tpo(f)'rjv

TTpos Tds

dppLOTTOvoas ipyaalas

rrepl

ttjv

Kal tov

yLvopL€VOv TTcpLTTcopiaTos.

TTpo'CovTL

ydp Kal KaTa-

15

^aLVOVTL TO) TTepLTTcopLaTL €vpvxojpLa ytVcTat, Kol TTpos TO pLeTapdXXeLV loTapLevo) tols evx^XoTcpois
*

arevatTepov bis vulg.
^

^

irpo'Cov

Peck

:

irpolovaw vulg.

cmvoTipov

SU

:

arevwrepov Vulg.

e96


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
and

III. xiv.

the pig. The pig's stomach is larger than the dog*s, it has some folds of medium size, so as to prolong the time of concoction. The dog's is small in size not much bigger indeed than the gut, and its inner The gut has its place next after surface is smooth. Like the stomach, this the stomach in all animals. In some part too presents many various forms. animals it is simple and similar throughout its length, when uncoiled in others it is not similar throughout. Thus, in some it is wider near the stomach, and narrower towards the end (that is why dogs find difficulty in discharging their excrement) ; in the majority, however, it is narrower at the top, and wider at the end. In the horned animals, the intestines are longer and and their bulk (as well as have many convolutions the bulk of the stomach) is greater, owing to the size horned animals being, on the whole, of the animal large in size because of the ample treatment which their food receives. Except in those animals where it is straight the intestine gets wider as it proceeds, and they have what is called the colon and the blind and swollen part of the gut ° ; and then after that point it gets narrower again and convoluted. After this, it goes on in a straight line to the place and in some this where the residue is discharged part (which is called the anus) is supplied with fat, in All these parts have been others it is devoid of fat. devised by Nature to suit their appropriate functions in treating: the food and in dealinfj with the residue produced. As the residue proceeds on its way and goes downwards, it finds a wider space where it remains in order to undergo transformation ; this is what
; ;
:

;

"

The

caecal dilatation.

297

ARISTOTLE
675 b
t(Jl)V
t,ix)(x)v
7}

/cat

TrAetovos- SeofievoLs rpo(f)rJ£, Slcl

to
iv-

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T7]v

depjionqra
oltto

rcov tottcov.

etr*

revdev

ttolXlv,

(Zanep

rrjs avco

KoiXias Sep^erat
/cat rrjs

GTevorepov^ evrepov, ovrcxjg eV rod kcoXov
€vpv)(^ujpias
20

iv rfj
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koltco
ets"

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orevo-

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Kal

epx^rai

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ro

TTepLrrcxjfJLa
rj

e^LKfiaopievov TrdpLTrav,
fiT]

ottojs

rajjuevrjraL

(f>vai,s

adpoos
fjiev

fj

r)

efoSo? rod TTepLrrwfJLaros.
I^cocjv

"Ocra

ovv efvat Set tojv

ooxjypoviorepa
p-^.v

TTpos TTjv rrjs Tpo(f)rjs ttoltjglv evpvx(^pio.s

ovk
8*

ex^L fieydXas
25 €;\;et

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ttjv

Kara) KoiXiav,

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ovk evdvivrepd icmv.
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r)

pLev

yap

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8*

evdvrrjg
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raxvTrjra iTTiOvpiias' SioTrep 60a tojv

l^cpojv

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ex€i ^ €vpvx(J^povs rds VTTohoxd?, rd pL€v yaarpLpLapya rd 8* els rdxos iaruv.
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80

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rrjv 7rpa)rr)v
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rrjs

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he

TTpo'Covoav
etvat

Kal

e^-

iKpiaapievqv,

dvay/catov

n

Kal ro

piera^v,

85

en Trp6o(j)aros ovr rjht] rovro Trdvra rd roiavra ^coa rr)v KaXovpievr]v ex^L vrjomv Kal iv rep pLerd rrjv KoiXiav ivrepcp ro) Xenrcp' rovro yap piera^v rrjs r* dvoj, iv rd drreTTrov, Kal rrjs Kara), iv fj ro dxp^^CFTOv rjSr] fj
iv
a)

pLera^dXXet Kal ovr*
8td

KOTTpos.

rrepirrwpia.

yiverai 8' iv
^

ttclgl pLev, S-qXrj 8*

iv roXs

oT€vwT€poi' bis
"

Langkavel.

^

i.e.

i.e. the " stomach." the " large intestine."

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

III. xiv.

happens in the animals which need and take more food owing either to their size or to the heat of these After this, just as it goes into a parts of the body. narrower part of the intestine after it leaves the upper gut," so also it goes into a narrower channel after the colon or wide part of the lower gut,^ and into into these the residue passes when the spiral coil its juices have been completely exhausted. In this way Nature is enabled to keep the material in store, and the residue is prevented from passing out all at the same moment. In those animals, however, which have to be more controlled in their feeding, there are no great wide spaces in the lower gut, but their intestine is not straight, as it contains many convolutions. Spaciousness in the gut causes a desire for bulk of food, and straightness in the intestine makes the desire come on again quickly. Hence, animals of this sort are gluttonous those with simple receptacles eat at very short intervals of time, those with spacious ones eat very large quantities. Since the food in the upper gut, when it has just entered, must of necessity be fresh, and M'hen it has proceeded further downwards must have lost its juices and be practically dung, the organ which lies between the two must of necessity be something definite, in which the change is effected, where food Therefore all is no longer fresh and not yet dung. animals of this sort have what is called the jejunum, which forms part of the small intestine, which is next That is to say, it has its place to the stomach. between the upper gut, where the unconcocted food is, and the lower gut, where the now useless residue is. All these animals have the. jejunum, but
;
: '

Jejunum,

'

299

;

ARISTOTLE
676 a jLtet^ocrt

5

Kal vrjarevaauLV dAA' ovk iSrjSoKOcnv' t6t€ olov^ fieTalxf-itov yiverai rcov tottcuv diJi(f)0repcxjv, ihrjhoKOTCov he fXLKpo? 6 Katpo? rrjs /lera^oXrjs. rots [jL€V ovv drjXeoL^ yiverai ottov av rvxij Tov dvo) Ivripov rj vtjotls' ol 8* dppeves* exovGL irpo rov rv(f)Xov Kal rrj<^ Karoj KotAta?.

yap

Srj^

XV. "Kxovai Se TTjv Ka\ovp.ev7]v TTveriav rd jj-ev TToXuKolXia Trdvra, rcov Se pLOvoKoiXicxJV haGVirovs.
ex^i Se rd exovra tojv ttoXvkolXlojv ttjv TTveriav ovr iv rfj fjLeydXrj KoiXia ovr iv ro) K€Kpv(f)dXcp ovr* iv
10

to) reXevratci) ro) rjvvarpcp, aAA* iv rw jLtera^u rov reXevraiov Kal \hvof tcjv TTpcjrcov, iv rep /caAou}ievcp ixivcp.
e;^et

Se ravra Trdvra TTveriav hid rrjv

7TaxvrT]ra

15

rod ydXaKros' rd 8e fiovoKoiXia ovk e^et, XeTTrov ydp rd ydXa ra)v {jlovokolXlojv. Slo rcov {lev Keparocf)6pcov Tnjyvurai, rojv 8' aKepdrcjv ov TT-qyvvrai ro ydXa. rep 8e 8acru7roSt yiverai TTveria 8td rd vepLeodai ottcoSt] iroav 6 ydp roiovros x^i^os" CTvvLorrjcnv iv rfj KoiXia rd ydXa roZs
ipL^pvoLS.

SiorL 8e rcov ttoXvkolXlojv iv rep ix^^^
TTveria, e'lprjraL iv rols TTpo^X-qpLaaLV.
^ 2

yiveraL

rj

817

Z

:

17877

vulg-.

olov

PZ, om. vulg.

'

^T^Aeai] TeAet'ots
* ^

Z

:

TrXeloat.

Piatt.

dppeves] Kvves Piatt. [8uo] secludendum.

"

This seems to

mean

that \vhen the animal

is

fastinp: the

two receptacles do not bulge, and so the jejunum is visible and though alter the animal lias fed you might expect to see the jejunum^ because it should be full of food which is being

800

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
it is

III. xiv.-xv.

apparent only in the larger ones, and in them only when they are fasting, not when they have recently been eating, for when they are fasting, there is an interspace between the two receptacles, whereas when they have been eating, the time taken by the change is short." In females the jejwiuju can have its in males place in any part of the upper intestine it is placed immediately before the caecum and the lower gut. XV. Wliat goes by the name of Rennet is present in all animals which have a multiple stomach the hare is the only animal with a single stomach which has it. In the former class the rennet is not in the paunch^ nor in the reticulum, nor in the ahomasum (the but in the stomach between last of the stomachs) the last one and the first ones, i.e. the so-called omasum (manyplies).'' All these animals have rennet similarly, the singlebecause their milk is so thick bellied animals have no rennet, because their milk is thin. This also explains why the milk of horned animals coagulates, while that of the hornless does As for the hare, it has rennet because it feeds not. on herbs with fig-like juice and this juice can coagulate the milk in the stomach of sucklings. I have stated in the Problems'^ why, in the animals that have many stomachs, the rennet is formed in the manyplies.
; ; ;

Rennet.

;

;

transmuted inside it (see above, 675 b 32), because the change is effected so rapidly. * Lit. " the great stomach." ' See above, 674 b 14 if. ^ No such reference can be found.

it

is

not visible,

-301

A
676 a

25

8e rponov ex^i ra nepl ra OTrXdyxva KoiXiav kol rcav elprjiiivojv [lopLCov eKaarov TOLS reTpanoai fxev cootokols 8e ra>v ^cvojv Kal rols Kal yap rj rcov 6(f>€OJV aTToaiv, olov rols 6<J)€glv. (f)VOL? iarl uvyyevr]s tovtol?' ofiOLa yap eon cravpcp TOvroLS Se Kal rots' Ix^vcri, fjLaKpo)^ Kal (XTToSi. TTOLvra TTapaTrXrjGia, ttXtjv ra fiev e;\;6t TrXevyiova 8td

Tov avTov
TTjv

Kal

80

TO 7T€^ev€LV, ol S' ovK e;^ouo'tv, dAAa ^pdyxi^ci dvrl Kvanv S* ovd^ ol IxOves exovaiv TOV TrXevjjLOVOs. ovre rovrcov ovSev ttXtjv x^^^^V^' TpeneraL yap €ls rds (fioXiSas ro vypov 6Xiyo7T6ra)v ovrojv Std rr]V dvaLfjLorrjra rod TrXevjiovos, Kaddrrep rols opvioiv kol eViAef/catVet he ro nepLrrcxifia els ra Trrepd.
TTaoL Kal rovrois, ayoirep Kal rols opviaiVy hiort^ iv

85

rols exovGL Kvoriv e^eXdovros tov TrepLrrcojJLaros v(j)[araraL dXfJLvpls yeojhiqs iv rols dyyeiois' ro yap yXvKv Kal TTorLfiov dvaXioKerai hid Kov<f)6rr]ra ets"

rds odpKas.
676 b

Tcxjv S' 6(j>e(x)v ol ex^is
TTjv

npos rovs dXXovs exovoi

Kal iv rols lxOvctl to. rovs d'AAous" l,iporoKovoL yap e^o) Kal rd aeXdx'T] Kal ol ex^LS, iv avrols (poroK-qoavra pLovoKoiXia he rrdvra rd roiavra eori,, TTpcbrov.
avrrjv
hLa(f)opdv
rjv

aeXdx'T] TTpos

^

(xaKpw

Y

:

fxaKpcp ^ vulg.

^

Sio'ti

Ogle

:

8i,6iT€p

vulg,

302

BOOK
What
viscera, the stomach,

IV

has been said already on the subject of the and each of the other parts mentioned, appUes to the footless creatures (such as the Serpents) as well as to the oviparous quadrupeds. Indeed, the Serpents are akin to these for a serpent A third class in is like a long and footless lizard. the which all these parts are similar is the Fishes only difference is that the first two classes are landcreatures and therefore have a lung, whereas fishes Fishes have no have no lung but gills instead. bladder, nor has any of these creatures (except the tortoise) ; the reason is that they drink little (because their lung is bloodless), and the moisture in them is diverted to the horny scales, just as in birds it is diverted to the feathers. And in all these creatures, as in birds, the residue ^ is white on the surface, since in those animals that have a bladder, when the residue has been voided an earthy salt deposit settles in the vessels, the sweet and non-briny portion, o^^^ng to its lightness, being used up upon the
:

:

flesh.

The Vipers have the same peculiarity among the Serpents as the Selachia have among the Fishes. Both of them are externally viviparous, though they first produce their ova internally. All these
"

See Introduction, pp. 32

ff.

^03

ARISTOTLE
676 b
5

KaBairep raAAa ra d^^cuSovra* kol GTrXdyxva- Se
TTaiJLTrav

fxiKpa

KVOTTLV.

k^^i, ayairep ol 8' O^etS" Sid T7)v
/cat

rdAAa ra
TOU
/cat

firj

exovra
lJLOp(f)rjV,

CTCU/XaTO?

ovoav fiaKpav

ctt^vt^v,

rd

ax'r]yio,ra

tcx)v

10

OTrXdyxyojv cxovgl Std ravra jLta/cpd /cat rot? rdiv dAAojv t,cx)cov dvofioia, Std rd Kaddirep iv rvircp rd ax'TjlJ-CLT^ avTcov TTXaoOrjvai Std rdv tottov.

ETTtVAoov Se
Toiv

/cat

fxeaevrepiov /cat

rd

Trept
/cat

T17V

ivTcpajv

(j)V(jiv,

en

Se

rd Std^co/xa

ri^v

KapStav TrdvT
Se
/cat

e;^et

rd eVat/xa rcov ^wojv, nXevfiova

dprrjpLav irdvra ttXtjv tcov Ixdvcov. /cat tt]v decTLV Se T-^s" dprrjpias /cat rou olao^dyov ndvra
e;^^^'''^^

15

ra

ofiOLcos

e;^et

Std rds" elprjiievag atrta?

Trporepov.
II.
L,a)(jDv,

'Ex^*^

^^

'^^^

;Y^A'))v

rd

fjLev eirl
COS"

ro) rjiraTt,

rd TroAAd rdiv ivalfxcov rd S' aTTrjprrjfxevr^v eirl
e'/c

Tois €VT€poLs,

oucrav ou;^ rjrrov
avTrjs
.

rr^?

/cdrca

KoiXias TTjv
20

(f)VGLv

St^Aov Se jLtdAtcrr' eTTt rcDv
Trdyres", /cat ot TroAAot

Lxdvcov OVTOL yap exovcrl re
77/90?

Tot?^ ivrepoLs, €vioi Se Trap'

oAov rd evrepov
rcov
6(f)€a)v

7Tapv(f)aaiJi€vr]v,

otov

rj

dpua'

/cat

ol

irXeloroi rdv avrdv rpoirov.
(fiVGLv

hioTrep ol Xeyovres rrjv

x^^V^ alaOijoecos nvos etvat X^P'^ °^ etvat Std rovro, dnajg (f)a(jl ydp M rijs ^^XV^ '^^ TTepl rd rjirap fxopiov haKVOVoa jikv GvvLGrfj, Xvopiivr] S' IXecov TTOifj' rd [xev ydp oXojs
rrjs

KaXws XeyovGLV

^

Toi?

PYZ

et corr.

U

:

om.

viilg.

^ See 650 a 14. See 665 a 10 ff. This seems to refer to the views expressed in Plato, Timaeus^ 71 d.

«
"

304


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
IV.
i.-ii.

creatures have one stomach only, as do the other animals that have front teeth in both jaws. And their viscera are quite small, as are those of the other creatures which have no bladder. However, on account of the shape of the serpents' bodies, which is long and narrow, the shape of their viscera too is consequently long, thus differing from those of other animals. This is because the shape of them is fashioned, as though in a mould, on account of the space available for them. All blooded animals have an omentum, a mesentery, and the whole intestinal equipment also a diaphragm and a heart and all but the fishes have a lung and a windpipe too. The relative positions of the windpipe and the oesophagus are the same in all of them. The reasons for this have been given already. II. The majority of the blooded animals have a Gaii-biadder ^^^®' gall-bladder in addition. In some it is placed up ^^'^ against the liver in others it is separate from the liver and placed against the intestines, indicating that equally in these its derivation is from the lower gut.^ This is clearest in the fishes, all of which have one, and in most of them it is placed against the intestines, though in some it runs along the whole length of the intestine, like a woven border, as in the Amia a similar arrangement is found in most of the serpents. Hence, those who assert that the gallbladder is present for the sake of some act of sensation are wrong. They say its purpose is as follows on the one hand (a) to irritate that part of the Soul
; ; **
; ;
:

which is around the liver, and so to congeal it and on the other hand (6) by running free to make that because some part cheerful. This cannot be true
'^

;

;

305

ARISTOTLE
676 b
^

ovK €X€L x^^W*
e'Aa^o?
OLTTOKeKpiiJLevqv,

^^

^'^^^'

'^'^'^og

Kal opevg

/cat

ovog

/cat

Kal irpo^'

ovk e;^et 8' ovh* rj KOLjjLrjXos dAAa ^Ae^Sta x'^XwSr] fxaXXov ovk

80

€xei 8' ouS' Tj (f)coKrj ;^oA7]v, ouSe tcov BaXarriojv heX(j)i5. iv he rols ylveoi tols avroZs ra fikv c^civ
cf)aLV€TaL
TO,

8'
ecrrt

OVK
/cat

e)(€LV,

OLOV cV TfS TCOV flVcbv
eviOL
jiev

TOVTCxJV

8'

o

avdpojTTOs,

yap

35

677 a

e^ovres ^pXriv eirl rod T^Varos", eVtot 8' ou/c exovres' 8to /cat ytVerat dfX(f)LG^T^T'q(jLS irepl oXov rod yevovs' ol yap evrv^ovres oTTorepcjcrovv exovGL rrepl Trdvrwv VTToXapi^dvovGiv djs d-navrcxiv crujLt^atVet 8e rotourov /cat Trepl rd TrpoixdvTa>v. jSara /cat rag atyas" to, /xep' yap TrAetara rovrcuv e;\;et x^^W> <^^' Iviaxov puev rooavrrjv wore 8o/cety repas elvai rrjv UTrepjSoArjv, otov eV Nafoj, iviaxov 8' ou/c exovGLV, OLov iv XaA/ct8t ttj? EujSotas' /cara Ttva T0770V T'jjs' x^P^^" auTcov. €Tt 8e, cjorrep ^tprjij)aivovTai

6

rat,

T^

"T"^^

lxOva)v aTTiqpTiqr ai ttoXv rod rJTTarog.

OVK

6p9(x)s 8'

ioiKaaiv ol Trepl ^Ava^ayopav vtto-

XajJL^dveiv ojg alriav

ovaav rcov 6^ea>v voarnidroiv'

10

VTTep^dXXovaav ydp dTToppaiveiv irpos re rov TrXevcr;(e8oy yap fjLova Kal rd? (f)Xe^as Kal rd irXevpd. ols ravra ovjx^aivei rd irdO-q tCjv voacov, ovk exovGi xoX'qv, ev re rat? dvarOjLtat? dv eylvero rovro (f)avep6v' en 8e to ttXtjOos ro r iv rols dppcoorr]fiaoLV vndpxov Kal ro aTToppaivoixevov davjji^XTjrov. dAA' eoLKev rj X^^V^ Kaddrrep Kal rj /card ro dXXo
" This is true of quite a number of species, and as Aristotle says, the gall-bladder is specially variable in mice. In man,
its absence is rare ; and Aristotle's statement may well be derived from his observation of aborted embryos, in which the gall-bladder develops somewhat late.

306

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

ii.

animals have no gall-bladder at all, such as the horse, the mule, the ass, the deer, and the roe and the camel has no distinct gall-bladder, but what would better be described as consisting of small biliaryThere is no gall-bladder in the seal, nor vessels. (among sea-animals) in the dolphin. Sometimes in the same group there are some animals which look as if they have one, and some as if they have none** : This is true of the Mice and also of the human species, as in some individuals the gall-bladder is placed against the liver and is obvious while in some it is missing. The result of this has been a dispute concerning the group as a whole. Whatever an observer has found to be the condition of the individuals he happens to have seen, that he holds is true of every individual throughout the group. The same has occurred with regard to sheep and goats, most of
; ;
;

which have a gall-bladder
individuals
it
is

;

but, whereas in

some

so large that its excessive size is portentous (e.g. in Naxos), in others it is entirely{e.g. in a particular district of Chalcis, Euboea). further point, already mentioned, is that in fishes the gall-bladder is separated from the liver by a good distance. Moreover, it is safe to say that Anaxagoras's school is wrong in holding that the gall-bladder is the cause of acute diseases they say that when it gets too full it spurts its liquid out into the lung and blood-vessels and sides. This must be ^\Tong, because nearly everyone who suffers from these affections actually has no gall-bladder, and this would be proved if they were dissected. Besides, there is no comparison between the amount of bile which is present in these ailments and that which is emitted from the

absent

A

:

gall-bladder.

No

;

it

seems probable that, j ust as the
'

307

ARISTOTLE
aojfJLa
ytvofjievr]
/cat
rj

TvepLTrajfia
ro) rjirari

rt

ecrriv

i]

avvTrj^tg,

OVTOJ
15

errl

X^^V
Kal

TreptrrcojLta etvat
rj

koI

ovx €V€Kd
ivLore
jLtacrtv,
rj

Ttvos",

a)G7Tep

ev

rrj

KOiXia Kai

iv TOis ivripois vTroaraat?.
(f)vaL?
jxrjv
ets"

Karaxp^jrai fJLev ovv to cu^eAt/xov Kal rot? TTepLrrcol,rjT€Xv

ov

Sta tovto Set

Trdvra evcKa

TLV05'

dXXd

TLVcov ovTcov TotoTJTCOj^ €T€pa i^ dvdyKrj^

avfJL^aLvei Sta

"OaoLs
20

ixkv
rj

ovv

ravra TToXXd. rj rod iJTrarog ovaraoL?
(f)vais
rj

vyieivrj

eon

Kal

rod aljiaros

yXvKela

rj

els

rovr

25

ovk tcr;j^et x^^W 8* €7tI rod rjTraros, rj eV rtat (/>Ae^tots-, rj rd jikv rd hid Kal rd rjrrara rd rcvv dxoXcov evxpoj Kal ov. yXvKepd eoriv (hs eTTiirav eLTretv, Kal rojv ixdvrojv ;^oAt^v to vtto rfj X'^^fj '^^^ rjrraros yXvKvrarov rcov Se ovvLurafievajv i^ rjrrov KaBapov ionv.
aTTOKpivojJievrjy
jikv

ravra

Trdfirrav

aljxaros rovrov^ iarlv
riOjJLa-

rj

x^Xrj rd yivojievov rrepirrfj
rpocf)fj

ivavriov re ydp

rd Trepirrojjia
rriKpov,

povXerat elvai Kal
at/xa
30

rw yXvK€i rd
(fyavepov
rj

Kal re

yXvKv rd vyialvov.
Xeyovcn
rojv

ovv

on

ov nvog

eveKa, aAA'
XCLpi'^crrara

drroKadapjxd ioriv

dpxo-iOJV

^^^ ^^' x^^'^ol <j)duKovr€s

airiov

elvai

rod

TrXeio)

t,rjv

XoXrjv, pXeipavres irrl

rd

pLOJVVxoL Kal

ravra ydp dxoXd re Kal ^fj Kal rd jirj icopajjidva utt'
35

xp^vov rd jirj ex^LV rds iXd(f)Ovs' noXvv xpovov. en 8e eKeivojv on ovk e'xei
rrjv

xoAtJv,

otov S€X(f)ls Kal KafirjXos, Kal

xdvei jiaKpo^ia ovra.
^

evXoyov ydp
:

ravra rvyrod rjiraros

TovTov Peck

tovt* vulg.

308

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

ii.

bile elsewhere in the body is a residue or colliquescence, so this bile around the liver is a residue and serves no purpose like the sediment produced in the stomach and the intestines. I agree that occasionally Nature turns even residues to use and advantage, but that is no reason for trying The truth is to discover a purpose in all of them. that some constituents are present for a definite purpose, and then many others are present of necessity in consequence of these. We may say, then, that in animals whose liver is healthy in its composition, and in which the blood that supplies the liver is svv'eet, there is either no gall-bladder at all by the liver, or else the bile is in tiny vessels, or else in some these are present and in some not. This is why the livers of gall-bladderless animals are, generally, of a good colour and sweet ; and in those that have a gall-bladder the part of the liver immediately below it is very sweet. But in those animals which are formed out of blood which is less " since " residue pure, the bile is the residue of this " food," and means that which is the opposite of " bitter " the opposite of " sweet "; and healthy blood

;

is

finite

sweet. So it is evident that bile exists for no depurpose, but is merely an offscouring. So that

Mas an extremely neat remark which we find made by some of the old authors, when they say that if you have no gall in you your life will be longer. This was a reference to animals with uncloven hoofs and to deer, which have no gall-bladder, and are longlived. And also, certain other animals are long-lived, such as the dolphin and camel, which, though unobserved by them, have no gall-bladder. After all, the liver is vital and indispensable for all blooded
^

309

ARISTOTLE
(pvGLV,

errLKaipov
t,(joois,

ovoav

/cat

avayKaiav
ttololv

Tracrt

TOtj

677 b ivalfJiOLs

ovoav, rod /cat to tovtov [lev rod t,7Jv iXdrrco rj ttXcloj xpovov. GTrXdyx^ov etvat TTepirroJiia tolovtov, tcov 8' dXXojv
alriav elvai,

nv

fjLTjSevos,

Kara Xoyov

euriv.

rij

fxev

yap

/capSta

5

tolovtov ovSeva 7TXrjGLdt,eLV olov t€ yap Severat Biaiov TrdOos), tcov S'
GTTAayxvcxJV

;)^u/xov

[ovSev
rjTrap

dXXtov ovhkv

avayKaiov

ecrrt

rot?

t,^ots",

to o

fiovov SiOTTcp /cat TOVTO avfjL^aivei rrepl avTO pLovov. aTOTTOV T€ TO /Xt) 7TaVTa)(OV VOpLL^eLV, OTTOV dv TLS lStj <j>Xeypia rj to vTr6oT7]pL,a ttjs /cotAtaj, TreptTTcu/xa etvat, opLOLOJS he hrjXov oVt /cat ;\;oA')7v, /cat pir)
10

Si,a(f)€peoOaL toZs tottois-

Kat
TO,

Trept ftev XoArj?,

8*

ou/c

e;Y^^

'''^^

Sta TtV atTtav Tct />tev cxet C^<^^> etpr^Tat, III. Trept 8e

pieaevTepiov
iv
15

/cat iiriTrXoov Xolttov etTretv

TavTa yap
€GTL

TO)

TOTTCp

TOVTO)

/Cttt

jLteTO,

TcDv

pLOpiOJV

TOVTOJV.

"EoTt 8e TO jLtev eVtVAoov exovGL GTeaTcoSrjs, toIs 8e
TTOta 8*
CCTTtv

u/xT]y

TOt?

/Ltev

OTeap

7npL€Xr]v

TTLpLeXcoSrjs-

e/caTepa toutcov,

e'lprjTaL

irpoTepov.

TJpT-qTai} 8e

20

to eVtVAoov opLOLCO? tols T€ plovokolXlols /cat Tot? TToAf/cotAtots' aTTo pi€<jrjs TTJ? KoiXlag /caTO. tt^v VTToyeypapLpievrjv olov pacfiijv iiTex^L Se to t€ AotTTOP' T7^? /cotAtas" /Cat TO Tojv ivTcpcov ttXyjOos opLOLOJS TOLS ivaipLOLS, eV T€ TOls TTC^OtS" /Cat TOtS" ivvSpOL? t,(pOLS. *H )Ltev ow yev€GLS ii dvdyKT]? avpL^alveL TOLavT-q Tov popiov TOVTOV ^rjpov yap /cat vypov pLLyf.LaTos OeppLaivopievov to €Gxcltov del 8epp,aTa>8es' ytVcTat
'

Tjp/crai

SUYZ.

310

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

ii.-iii.

animals, and so it is quite reasonable to hold that the condition of it controls the length of its owner's life. And it is equally reasonable to hold that the liver produces a residue such as the bile although none of the other viscera does so. Take the heart no such humour as bile could possibly come near the heart, because the heart cannot withstand any violent affection. Of the other viscera none is indispensable to an animal, except the liver only, and that is why this phenomenon occurs in connexion \\ith the liver exclusively. And it would be absurd to say that phlegm and the sediment produced by the stomach are residues when found in some places but not in and clearly the same applies to bile others its
: ; :

locality

makes no

difference.

We have now spoken of the gall-bladder, and we have shown why some animals have it and why some have not. III. It remains to speak of the Mesentery and of the Omentum. These are in the same region and close to the parts we have just described. The Omentum is a membrane, formed of suet omentum, or lard according to the animal in which it is. (We have already stated which animals contain suet and which lard.) " Whether the animal has one stomach or many, the Omentum is always fastened to the middle of the stomach, on the line marked o'n it like a seam and it covers the rest of the stomach and most of the intestines. This is so in all blooded creatures, land- and water-animals alike. As for the necessary ^ formation of this part, it occurs as follows. When a mixture containing solid substance and fluid is warmed up, the surface of it always becomes skin-like and membranous and
;

;

At 651 a 26

fF.

»

See Introd. p. 22.

311

ARISTOTLE
677 b
^

/cat
25

^ ^ u/xevtt»Ses",
rpo(f)rjs.

o Se T07709 ovrog roiavriqs TTArjp-qs
eVt Se Sia TTu/cvoTT^ra

r

V

/

T

/

\

/

cotI

SirjOoviiei'ov

rrjs

alfiarcoSovs

rpoijyrjg

rou vfievog ro dvayKOLOv
rrjv

Xmapov

elvai {rovro

yap XeTTTorarov) Kal 8td
rov tottov
avfJiTreTTOfJievoy

depfjLOTTjra ttjv irepl

avn

30

oapKojhovs Kal at/xarcoSou? Gvardorecos areap yiveoBai Kal 77tjLteArJv. r] [xev ovv yeveais rod cxrtttXoov Gvpi^aiveL Kara rov \6yov rovrov, KaraXprjrai 8'
Tpocfirjs, Tpo(j>-qv'
rj

(jyvoLs

avro)
Trerrry

irpos rrjv

evTreiptav rijs
t,a)a Trjv

oTTios

paov

Kal ddrrov rd

TO
TO

/Ltev

yap

depfiov TreTTTiKov,

Oepjjiov,

8'

eTTLTrXoov ttZov.

to 8e Kal hid rovr

ttlov

airo

[xeGT]? rjprrjTai^ rrjs KocXlas,
35 orvjJLTTerreL

ro erreKeiva^ fiepos Kal rrepl (jl€V ro TrapaKelfievov rjirap.

on

rod

eTTLTrXoov e'iprjrai.

IV.

To

8e KaXovjJLevov fxeaevrepLov

eom

fxev

vfJirjv,

StaretVet 8e avvex^? diro rrjs rcjv ivrepojv rrapa678 a Tacrecos" et? rrjV (jtXi^a rrjv fieydXrjv

Kal rrjv dopmjv,

TrXrjpe^ ov (jiXe^cbv ttoAAcov

Kal ttvkvcov, at reivovoiv

diTo raJv ivrepcov et? re rrjv [xeydXiqv cfyXe^a Kal rrjv

doprriv.
5

rr]v

[xev

€vpi^(TOfjL€V ofioLOJs

ovv yeveaiv ef dvdyKTjs ovoav roL£ aAAot? pioploLs^' Std TtVa 8'

alriav VTrdpxei rols ivalfioLs, (jiavepov eoriv
oKOTTovoiv.

em-

inel

ydp dvayKalov rd ^cpa
i^
rj(;

rpo(f)7]v

Xapi^dveiv dvpadev, Kal ttoXlv Ik ravrrjg yiveodai
rr)v

iaxdrrjv

rpocfyrjv,

rjSr]

8ta8t8oTat

ets"

ret

p-opia [rovro Se rot?
1

jLtev

dvaipLois dvcovvfiov, rols 8'

^
^

€TTiKCiya

<ToiouTois>

^pKrm EPSUYZ. Peck en' eKCivo vulg. [fio/3iots] vfxeai fiopiois Ogle
:

:

Piatt.

312

;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

iii.-iv.

the place \vhere the Omentum is is full of nutriment Furthermore, owing to the thickof this very sort. ness of the membrane, that portion of the blood-like nutriment which percolates through it must of necessity be fatty, because that is the finest in texture and then owing to the heat in that part it will be concocted and so become suet or lard instead of some This, then, is the way fleshy or blood-like substance. in which the formation of the Omentum occurs. Nature, however, turns the Omentum to advantage in the concoction of the food, so as to enable the animal to concoct its food more easily and more quickly ; for the Omentum is fat fat things are hot, and hot things aid concoction. For this reason, too, the Omentum is fastened to the middle of the stomach since as regards that part of the stomach which is beyond, the liver which is close by it assists it in concoction. So much for the Omentum. IV. What is called the Mesentery is also a membrane and it extends continuously from the line of extension of the intestines as far as the Great Bloodvessel and the Aorta. It is full of blood-vessels, which are many in number and closely packed together and they extend from the intestines as far as the Great Blood-vessel and the Aorta. shall find, as with the other parts, that the development and formation of the Mesentery is the result o^ necessity As for its purpose in the blooded animals, that is clear enough to those who consider. Animals must of necessity take in nutriment from without " and, again, out of this the " ultimate nutriment has to be made and from this store the supply is distributed directly to the parts of the body. (In blooded animals this is called blood ; there is no
; ; ; ;

Mesentery.

We

.

;

S13

ARISTOTLE
678a
10
^
^

evalfjiOLg at/xa /caAetrat), Set rt etvai St*

ov els ras

(f)X€^ag
rpo(f)rj.

eK

rrjs

TO.

KoiXias olov Sta pit^wv TTopevaerai r) {lev ovv t^vra rcts" pt^a? ^X^^ ^^^ '^V^ YV^
XafJLJSdvei Tr]v Tpo0i]v), rot? Se t^cLoig
r)

[iKeWev yap
KOiAia Kal
16
Tj

rcov ivrepcov SvvajjLLs yrj Iutlv, i^
rr^v

rjg

Set Xafi^dveiv

Tpo(j)i]v

SioTrep

replov

(f)VGLS

iartv, olov pittas
pLcv

rj rov e^ovaa ras St'

[JLeaev-

avrrjs^
ecrrtv,

<f)Xe^as.

ov

ovv eVe/ca to fjLecevrepiov
(fyXeftojv

ctprjraL'
7TCOS

rtVaSe rporrov
rd

Aa/x/3avet rrjv Tpo(f)'^v, Kal

elGepxerai Sta rojv

diro rrjs icrxdrr]?^

rpO(f>r\s els

piopia Trdvra^ to StaStSojuevov etV rds

20

^Xe^as, iv rots nepl rrjv yevecnv rwv ^cocov Xex^ijaerai Kal Tr]v rpocji-qv. To, jLtev ovv evaijia rcov t,ix)OJV ttcos e;\;€t fi^xpi' tcDv
Kal Sta rivas alrias, e'lprjraL' nepl Se rcov els rrjv yeveaiv avvreXovvrcov , ols hoKel Sta^epetv to OijXv rov dppevos, ixdp-evov ptev eon Kal XoiTTOV rcov elpr]ii€vcov aAA' errethj] irepl yeveaecos XeKreov, dppLorrov earl Kal irepl rovrcov iv rfj
StcuptCTjLteVcov jJLopLCov,

25

TTepl eKeivcov decopla SieXOeiV.

V. To, Se KaXovpLeva ptaXdKia

/cat

[laXaKoarpaKa

80

noXXrjv exec Trpos ravra SLacf}opd.v evOvs yap rrjv rcov GTrXdyxvcov aTrauav ovk exei (f>VGLv. ojioicos S' ouSe rcov dXXcov dvaipLcov ovSev. eon Se Suo yevq
XoLird rcov dvalpicov,
ivropLcov

yevos.
(f)VOis,
^

ef

rd r oorpaKoSeppLa Kal ro ov yap ovveorrjKev r)

rcov
rcov

airXdyxvcov

ovhev rovrcov exei at/xa, Sta to
:

avTTJg

• ioxo-rrjs
'

iravra

Peck avTTJs vulg. Peck eiaiovcrqs vulg. Ogle ravra vulg. om. Z.
:

:

:

814

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
special

IV. iv.-v.

name

for it in the others.)

Now

there must

be some passage or passages (as it might be roots) through which this nutriment shall pass from the stomach to the blood-vessels. The roots of plants are of course in the ground, because that is the source from which plants get their nutriment. For an animal, the stomach and the intestines correspond to the ground, the place from which the nutriment has to be derived. And the Mesentery exists to they contain these vessels, corresponding to roots pass through the inside of it. This completes my account of its Final Cause. As for the means by which the nutriment is taken up, and the way in which that portion of the ultimate nutriment which
;

distributed into the blood-vessels reaches all the parts of the body through them, these points will be dealt with in the treatises on the Generation of
is

Animals and on Nutrition. I have now described the blooded animals as far as concerns the parts that have been dealt with, and also the causes that are responsible. It remains, and would follow after this, to speak of the organs of generation, by which male and female are distinguished. But as we shall have to deal with generation itself, it is more appropriate to speak of these organs in our consideration of that subject.
V. The animals called Cephalopods and Crustacea internal First of all, bloSless are very different from the blooded ones. they have no visceral structure at all. This is true animals. of all the bloodless creatures, in which are included beside Cephalopods and Crustacea two other groups,

the Testacea and the Insects. This is because none of them has blood, which is the material out of which

L

315

ARISTOTLE
678a

85

678 b

ovGiag avrojv elvat tl tolovtov Trddos [avrrjs]^' fiev eVat/xa to. 8' aVat^a, iv ro) Xoycp ivvTrdp^ei rco opit^ovn rrjv ovoiav avTcov. en S' cov eveKev exovcn ra OTrXdyx^cL to. evaifxa rcbv ^cpcov, ovSev lUTrdp^ei roZs tolovtols' ovre yap ^Ae/Sa? exovoLV ovre Kvonv ovr dvairveovoiv dX\d [jLovov dvayKalov e;^etv avroX? to dvdXoyov rfj KapSlo,' to yap alaOrjnKov ^VXV^ '^'^^ '^^ "^V^ ^^t]? cttnov (ivy^ ^PXfl '^^^^ '^^^ fiopLCOv /cat rov awpLarog

^ rrjg

^

^

on yap eon ra

,

VTrap^ei Trdoi rols ^coot?.
5

ra he

irpo? rrjv Tpo(f)r]v

10

Kal ravra e^ dvdyKrjs Trdvra' ol he rpoTTOi hLa<j)epovGi hid rovg tottovs ev of? Xafx^dvOVGl TTjV Tpo(j)iqv. "YjXovgi he TO. fiev fiaXdKLa rrepl to KaXovpevov OTopia hijo ohovras, Kal ev rep orop^an dvn yXojrT7]s aapKcohes n, S Kpivovai rrjv ev rols ehearols opLolcjog he Kal ra pbaXaKourpaKa tovtols r]hovriv. TOWS' TTpcjTOVs oSovTa? e;Yet Kal to dvdXoyov ttj yXcoTTT) aapKoJhes. eTi he Kal to. ouTpaKoheppLa rravTa to tolovtov ex^L p.6pLOV Sta ttjv avT'qv aWlav
flop La

ex^i

TOL£

evaipoLs,

TTpos

rrjv

ttJs"

Tpo(j)rJ5

aiodrjOLV.

opLOLOJ? he Kal

Ta evTopLa Ta

pLev ttjv

e^Lovoav

em-

pOOKLha TOV GTOpLaTOS, OLOV TO TC Tcbv
15

jLteAtTTcDv

yevo£ Kal to tojv pLVLcov, ojarrep eip-qTai Kal irpoTepov ooa he pnq eaTLV epLTTpoadoKevTpa, ev tw GTopiaTL ex^t- TO tolovtov pLopLov, olov TO Tchv jxvppLTjKOJV yevos Kal el tl tolovtov eTepov. oSdvTa? he TO, pLev ex^i' toutcov, aAAotorepous" he, Kaddrrep
^

avTTjg socliisi.

'

ev

supplevit Th.

See Introduction, pp. 26 ff. ^ These teeth are the two halves of what might be compared to a beak.

"

316

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
viscera are
;

IV. v.

made and the reason for this is that a the fact condition of this sort is part of their being that some animals are blooded and some bloodless will be found to be included in the logos which Further, we shall see that none defines their being. of those purposes for whose sake blooded animals have viscera operate in these other creatures they have no blood-vessels and no bladder, they do not
:

'^

:

breathe the only organ they must necessarily have the counterpart of the heart, since the sensitive part of the Soul and the original cause of life is always situated in some place which rules the body and its parts. Also, they all have of necessity the parts adapted for dealing with food and nutrition but the manner of these varies according to the places where they take their food. The Cephalopods have two teeth around what is called their mouth ^ and inside the mouth, instead of a tongue, they have a fleshy object, by means of which they discriminate the savour of things to eat. Likewise, the Crustacea have these front teeth and the fleshy counterpart of the tongue. The Testacea all have this latter part, too, for the same reason that blooded animals have a tongue, viz. to perceive the Similarly, too, the Insects taste of the food they eat. have, some of them, a proboscis which comes out from the mouth, as with the Bees and Flies (this has been mentioned earlier '') and the ones which have no sharp protrusion in front have a part such as this Some of inside the mouth, as Ants, and the like. these creatures have teeth, though somewhat different from ordinary teeth (as the Flies,'^ and Bees) ;
:

is

;

;

;

"

*

Or

At 661 a 21 ; cf. Hist. An. 528 b 28. " Ants " (translating Meyer's emendation).
317

ARISTOTLE
678 b
20
^

TO T€ Tojv

iJLVLcov^

Kat TO Tcov fj-eXiTTcov yivos y ra 8'

-x^prir ai rfj rpo(f)fj' ttoXXol yap €X€i, TOJV ivTOfxojv ov Tpo(j)r]s ex^f' X^P^^ rovs ohovras

ovK

oaa vypa

dAA' dXKrj?.

Tcbv

8'

iv Tols

Kar

oGTpaKohepfjLOJV ra {xcv, ajoirep iXex^l ^^^^ dpxoLS XoyoLs, rrjv Ka\ovp.evr]v e^ei

25

yXwTrav laxvpdv, ol he koxXoi /cat dSovra? Suo, KaOdnep rd ixaXaKoorpaKa. fierd Se to arofia roZs
fiaXaKLOL? eurl oTOjiaxos piaKpos, tovtov S' exofievos TrpoXo^os olog irep tols opviGiv, elra avvexy]?

rrj?

KOiXla, Kal ravrrjg ixopLevov evrepov dirXovv piexpi i^oSov. rats /xev ovv o-qiriais koL tols ttoAu7TOGLV djU-ota Kat TOt?
GXT^P'O.crt'

Kal

Tjj d(f)fj

Ta

irepl

30

TT^y

KoiXiav Tat? he KaAou/xeVat? TevdiuL hvo
at
KotAttuSet?
Tj

p.ev

opLOLOJS

elalv

VTTohoxciL,

tJttov

he

TTpoXo^ojhrjs

eTepa, Kal TOt?

CT;(rJ/xaCTtv

eKeivcxJV

35

hLa(f)epovGL Std to Kal to cco/xa Trdv e/c {laXaKOjrepag ovveoTdvaL oapKos. TavTa 8' €;^et tci [lopLa tovtov tov Tponov 8td TTjv avTTjv aLTLav wGTTep Kal OL opvLdes' ovhe yap TOVTCx)v ovhev evhex^TaL XeaiveLv ttjv Tpo(f)-^v, hLoirep

679 a

6 TTpoXo^os eo-Tt TTpd Trjs AcotAta?. Ilpds ^o-qOeLav he Kal oojTrjpiav ex^L TavTa tov KaXovpLevov OoXov ev ;)^tTtuvt VfievojheL 7TpoG7T€(f)v-

6

KOTL^ TTJV e^ohov exovTL Kal TO Trepas fjTrep dcj^LaGL TO TTepLTTCop^a TTjS KotAta? KaTa TOV KaXovpievov avXov ovTOS 8' eGTlv ev toZs vtttlols. ex^L p.ev ovv ndvTa TO, /xaAd/cta tovto to p.6pLov t8tov, /xdAtCTTa 8* 7] GrjTTLa Kal irXelGTOV OTav ydp (f)o^rj6a)GL Kal
^ *

liviajv^ [xvicov l,a>ov

EY
I

:

fivpfii^Kcov

Meyer.

7Tp0O7T€<f>VK6Tl

Oglc

npoa7T€<f>VK6Ta VUgl.

S18

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
:

IV. v.

these are the creatures others have no teeth at all whose food is fluid. Indeed, in many of the insects the purpose of the teeth is not mastication of food at all, but for use as weapons. Of the Testacea, as we stated in the opening treatise," some have a very strong tongue (so-called) and the Sea-snails actually have two teeth as well, like the Crustacea. In the Cephalopods there is a long gullet next after the mouth, and contiguous to that is a Continuous with this is the crop like a bird's. stomach, then immediately the intestine, which is simple and reaches to the vent. In the Sepias and Octopuses these parts round the stomach are similar both in shape and in consistency. The creatures called Calamaries, like the others, have the two gastric reC'Cptacles,^ but the first of them is less like a crop ; and they differ in shape from the organs of the previous classes, and that is because their bodies are composed of softer flesh throughout. These creatures have these parts arranged in this way for the same reason that birds have them: they, like birds, are unable to grind down their food ; hence the crop is placed before the stomach. The Cephalopods, for the sake of self-defence and self-preservation, have what is called their Ink. This is contained in a membranous bag which is attached to the body, and comes to an end in an outlet where the residue from the stomach is discharged by the soThis is on the under side of the body. called funnel. All the Cephalopods have this peculiar part, but it is most remarkable in the Sepia, as well as the largest When the Sepia is frightened and in terror, in size.
;

" At Hist. An. 528 b 30 ff. Viz. the crop and the stomach.
'

319

ARISTOTLE
679 a
^

heiaojGiv, olov (j^pdyjia irpo rod acofiaros TTOiovvrat
Ti]v

rod vypov [leXaviav /cat OoXcjoglv. at [lev ovv TevOiSes Koi TToXvTTohes exovcnv avcodev rov doXov
€7t\

rfj {jlvtlSl ijLaXXov,

-q

Se
Stct

crr^TTta

npos

rfj

kolXlo.

10

Kara)'

TrXeio)

yap

e^^i-

TOVTO 8* avTjj GviJ,^aLV€L Sto, Tov ^iov avTrfS, p-r] ^X^'-^ ^' dXX7]v ^orjOeLav, wanep
6 TToXvTTOvs
TCtS"

to ;^p7]cr^at fidXXov. TO TTpooyeiov [Jiev elvai
XPV^^H-^^^
(jvpL^alveL

TrXeKTO-vas

e;)(£t
'q

^^'' '^V^

rod
16

;!^paj/xaTOS'
Tj

pLeTa^oX-qv,

avTO),

coGirep Kol

t^ Se revdlg TTeXdyLov Igtl tovtojv pLOVOV. irXeioj p.ev ovv €X€L Tj G7]7Tia TTapoL TOVTO TOV doXov, KaTOjOev Sc 8ta TO TrXeioj- pahiov yap TTpoteGdat Kal TToppcjdev cltto

Tou doXov TTpoeGis, 8ta SetAtav.

TOV TrXeiovos.

ytVerat Se [o doX6s\^ KaOajrep
€.7tI

rotS"

20

TOV 7T€pLTTCOpLaT0£ yetoSes", ovtco Kal tovtols 6 OoXos Std to jitT^Se TauT* e;^etv KUOTtv OLTTOKpLveTai yap to yecoSioTaTOV els avTOVy Kal TTJ G-qiria TrXeiGTOv Sta to TrAetOTOV ex^iv Giqp.e'iov Se to GrjTTLOv tolovtov 6v tovto yecoSes". yap 6 /Ltey ttoXvttov^ ovk e;^et, at Se Tevdihes X^^' (St' tjv S* alriav to, pev ovk SpcoSes" Kal XeiTTov. ex^t- TO. S' e;^et, Kat ttolov tl tovtojv ex^t eKaTepov,
€ipr]TaL.^)

OpVLGLV VTTOGTT^pia TO XeVKOV

25

Kvaipiojv S' ovTOJV Kal Sta tovto KaT€ipvypL€va>v Kal (f)o^r)TLKa)v, coGirep iviois oTav Setoojotv rj KOiXia TapctTTeTat, TOts" S' eV tt^s" KVGTews pel Kal TOVTOLS TOVTO GvpifSaLveL pLev e^ TTepLTTOJGlS
^ ,

^

[6 doXos] seclusi
^

eiprjTat,
is

o oin. P. irpoTcpov P.
:

**

The

nnjtis,

which

the

same

as the mecon,

organ, and corresponds to the Uver. " Cf. above, 67G a 32.

is an excretory See below, 679 b 11,

320


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
it

IV. v.

produces this blackness and muddiness in the water, as it were a shield held in front of the body. Now the Calamaries and Octopuses have this ink-bag in the upper region of the body, quite near the mytis'^', whereas in the Sepia it is lower down, against the stomach, since it has a larger supply because it uses This circumstance is due (1) to its living it more. near the land and (2) to its having no other means of defence nothing like the Octopus, for instance, which has its twining feet, which are useful for this purpose ; it can also change its colour, and it does so (just as the Sepia emits its ink) when put in fear. Of all these, only the Calamary lives well out at sea and gets protection thereby. Hence, compared with it, the and because this is Sepia has a larger supply of ink larger, it is lower in the body, as it is easy for it to be emitted even to a considerable distance when the supply is great. The ink is earthy in its nature, like the white deposit on the excrement of birds, and it is produced by these creatures for the same reason they, like birds, have no urinary bladder ^ so the earthiest matter is excreted into this ink, especially in the Sepia, for the Sepia contains an exceptionally large amount of earthy matter. An indication of this is its bone, which is earthy. The Octopuses do not have this bone, and in the Calamary it is cartilaginous and slight. (We have said why some of these animals have this part and why some have not, and what in each case its character is.) These animals, as they have no blood, are cold and liable to take fright. While in some other animals fear causes a disturbance of the stomach, and in some the discharge of residue from the bladder, in these creatures its effect is to make them discharge their

;

;

'

321

ARISTOTLE
679a
^

^

di'dyKrjg

d^Uvai Sta
rj

heiXiav,

cjOTrep

€K Kvarcojg
GcorrjpLav

Tols inovpovGLV,
80

Se (^vgls

df.La ro)

tolovtco xrcpir-

Tcofiart

Karaxp'TJTai npog f^orjdcLav Kal

avTcov.
^oclStj

"K^ovGL Se Kal rd ptaXaKoarpaKa, rd re KapaKal ol KapKLVOL, Svo pikv oSovra? tov<^

TTpcorovs, Kal fiera^v ttjv
(jjGTTep e'uprjraL

odpKa

rr]v yXcjaaoeLSrj,
8*

Kal Trporepov, eu^u?

ixdp^evov rod

GTopLaros
35

GTopiaxov
ju-etjco

puKpdv
tj^

/caret

fxeyeOos

rwv
evioi

Gcopbdrajv [rd

77^0? to, eAarrco]^-

rovrov he

KoiXiav €xop€vr]v,
679 b dvco

ecf)*

ol re

Kdpa^oi Kal

Tojv KapKLvojv ohovrag exovGiv irepov? Sid to tovs
jjLTj

hiaipelv
/car'

txravcos",

dird he rrj? /cotAta? 'ivrepov

drrXovv
''E;^et

evOv

p-^xpi-

Trpds

ttjv

e^ohov

rod

TrepLTrcjpLaros.

8e Kal tojv oGrpaKoSeppcov eKaGTOv ravra

rd
6

fJLopiay

rd

/xev Sir]pdpa>pL€va jjLaXXov

rd

8'

rjrrov

iv 8e rot? pLeit^oGi hiahiqXorepd CGriv e/cacrra rovol /xev ovv koxXoi kol dSovra? exovGi gkXt]ro}v. povs Kol olets", a)G7T€p e'iprjrai rrporepov, Kal rd jxera^v GapKOjSeg op^olcog rols paXaKiois Kal /LtaAaKOGrpaKOiSy Kal rrjv Trpo^oGKuSa, Kaddnep eLpr]raL, fiera^v Kevrpov Kal yXojrrrjs, rod 8e Gropiarog ixdpi€VOV otov opvidcohri rivd npoXo^ov, rovrov 8' ex6pi€Vov GropLaxov rovrov 8' ex^rai rj KoiXia, iv fj T) KaXovpLevT] fjL-qKOJV, dcji* ^? Gvvex^S eGnv evrepov dnX-qv r7]v dpxr]v €XOV dno rrjs pLTQKOJVos' €GrL ydp iv TTaGL rot? oGrpaK-qpols TTcpirrcopLa rovro ro fidXiora hoKovv elvat ihwhipiov. e;;^et 8' opioiajs rep
* seclusit

10

Rackham.

322

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
ink
;

IV. v.

and though this is an effect due to necessity, hke the discharge of urine in the others, yet Nature makes good use of this residue at the same time for the animal's defence and preservation. The Crustacea as well, that is, both the Crabs and the Caraboids, have the two front teeth, and between the teeth they have the tongue-like flesh, as has already been stated " and immediately next to the mouth they have a gullet which is quite small comand immediately after pared with the animal's size that the stomach and on this the Carabi and some of the Crabs have another set of teeth, since the upper ones do not masticate the food sufficiently. From the stomach a simply formed intestine runs straight to the vent where residues are discharged. These parts are present in every one of the Testacea as well, more distinct in some, less in others. They
; ; ;

are more Take the

clearly

marked

in

the larger

animals.

These have (1) as stated already, the teeth, which are hard and sharp, (2) the fleshy object in between them, similarly to the Crustacea and Cephalopods (3) the proboscis, as already mentioned,^ something between a sting and a tongue (4) immediately after the mouth is a sort of bird's crop, and (5) after that the gullet (6) continuous with that is the stomach, and (7) in the stomach is what is known as the mecon'^', and (8) attaching to this is an intestine this intestine begins directly from the mecon. This residue (the mecon) appears to be the most tasty piece in all the Testacea. The other creatures that have spiral shells (e.g. the
Sea-snails.
; ; ;
:

*

At 678 b 10. At 661 a 15 ff. The hepatopancreas or liver see above, 679 a
«
"
;

9.

l2

323

ARISTOTLE
679 b
15
^

Kox^cp /cat rdXXa ra Kal KrjpvKeg.
"Ecrrt

arpofJil^coSr],

olov

7Topcf)vpai

8e

yeurj
jLtev

Kal

e'lSrj

ttoXXol

rtuv

Sepjjicov TOL

yap

GTpoji^coSrj ioTiv, wGTrep

oarpaKOra

vvv elpTjiievay ra he ScOvpa, ra Se fxovodvpa. rpoTTOV
8e rtva Kal ra arpojjL^coS'q ScOvpoig eoiKev ex^L yap
CTnTTTuy/xar' enl rep (pavepcp rrjg
20

aapKos rravra ra
re
7Top(f)vpaL

TOiavra
77/30?

e/c

yeverrjs,

olou

at

Kal

KTipvKes Kal OL vrjpe'lraL Kal irdv ro roiovrov yevos,
^oi]d eiav
f)

yap

firj

TTpo^e^XrjraL ro oorpaKov,

paSiov ravrr) ^XaTrreaOai vtto rojv OvpaOev irpoGTTLTTrovrajv.
7r€(f)VK€vaL
25

ra [lev ovv jjiovoOvpa Sta to rrpocrGw^eraL rco v paves ^x^tv ro oorpaKov,
aXXorpioj
(jypdypiari

Kal yiverai

rporrov rivd

St-

dvpov, olov at KaXovfJLevai XeirdSes' ra Se SiOvpa,
OLOV Kreves Kal [xveg, rco ovvdyeiv, rd Se GrpopL^ajht]

Tovrcp rep eTTiKaXvpLpiari, cjorrep SlOvpa ycvojjLeva eK
fiovodvpojv.

6

S'

exlvo? fidXiora ndvrcov
Gvvr]pe(f)e?

dXewpdv
Kal K€'
ex^t,

80

€X€L' kvkXco yap ro oorpaKov x'^P^KOjpievov rats aKdvOaig.

lSlov

S'

rcov

OGrpaKoSepfJLOJV rovro,

KaOdnep

etprjraL

nporepov.

TcDp' 8e fiaXaKOGrpaKCxJV Kal rcJov

oGrpaKoSeppLwv
avrt/cet/xeVcos"*

GvveGrrjKev
rot? /xev

rj

^vais rols pLaXaKiois

yap
/xev

e^oj ro GapKcoSe?, rols S' ivros, eKros

8e ro yeojSes.
35

Oavra

ovv

6 8' exlvos ovhev ex^i GapKcoSes. ex^t^, Kaddrrep e'lp-qrai, Kal rdXXa

rd oorpaKohepixa Grojjia re Kal ro yXcurroeiSes Kal KoiXiav Kal rod Trepirrcoixaros rrjv e^ohov, hia^epei
*

The operculum,

324

:

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
snails in structure.

IV. v.

Purpuras and the Whelks) are similar to the Sea-

There are very many genera and species of TesSome have spiral shells, like the ones just mentioned some are bivalves, some univalves. In a way, the spiral shells resemble the bivalves, as they have, all of them, from birth, a covering ° over the exposed part of their flesh, e.g. the Purpuras, the Whelks, the Nerites, and the whole tribe of them. This covering serves as a protection for in any place where the animal has no shell to protect it, it could quite easily be injured by the impact of external
tacea.
; ;

objects.

The univalves' means of preservation is this they cling to some object, and have their shell on the so they become in a way bivalves in upper side virtue of the borrowed protection afforded by the object to which they cling. Example, the Limpets. The bivalves proper (e.g. Scallops and Mussels) get the spiraltheir protection by closing themselves up shelled creatures by the covering I mentioned, which, as it were, turns them from univalves into bivalves. The Sea-urchin has a better defence system than any he has a good thick shell all round him, of them As I stated prefortified with a palisade of spines. viously, the Sea-urchin is the only one of the Testacea which possesses this peculiarity. The natural structure of the Crustacea and of the Testacea is the reverse of that of the Cephalopods. The latter have their fleshy part outside, the form.er have the earthy part outside and the fleshy inside. The Sea-urchin, however, has no fleshy part at all. All these parts, as described mouth, tongue-like are present object, stomach, vent for the residue in the rest of the Testacea too, but they differ in
; ;
:

,

325

,

ARISTOTLE
680 a he Trj Oeoet

Kal rot? Tovrojv €KaaTov, e/c ^cpa decopeLuOoj Kal Toj Xoycp TO. Se Trpo?

ov Se rponov e^ct re tcjv IcrropLCJV rwv nepl ra eV tojv dvaTOfJicov' ra fiev yap rrjv oipiv avrojv Gaffyrjvl^eiv 8et
fJieyeOeaLV.

fidXXov.
6

10

'IStto? S* exovGL Tcov 6orpaKohepp.OL>v 61 r e-)(lvoi Kal TO rojv KaXovfievcov ttjOvcov yevos. exovGL 8* ol ix^voL oSovras {jlev irevre Kal jxera^v to oapKchhes oirep €7rl Trdvrojv icrrl rtov elpTjjjLevojVy exppievov he rovrov oropiaxoVy dno he tovtov ttjv KOiXiav els TToAAo, hiTjp'qpeviqv, warrepavel ttoXXols rod t,a)ov KoiXias exovTos. Kex(JopL<jf.LevaL p.ev yap elcn Kal TrX-qpeis TreptTraj/xaro?, e^ eVos" S' TJpTrjvraL rod GTopLaxov Kal reXevTcocn npos pbtav e^ohov ttjv rod TTepirrojpLaTOS. vapd he r-qv KoiXiav aapKajhes pLev ovhev exovGLV, wdTrep e'ipiqrai, rd he KaXovpieva cod TrXeicu rdv dpidpidv ev u/xeVt ;)(6opt? eKaurov, Kal kvkXo) dno rod uroptarog pLeXav* drra hteaTrappeva

15

Xvhr]v, dvojvvpLa.

ovrcov he irXeLovcov yevcbv [ov

ydp

ev ethog rcov ex^vcov Trdvrojv eori) rrdvres piev ep^oucrt
pLopLa, dAA' ovk eScoSi/xa Trdvreg rd KaXovpieva cod, Kal puKpd rrdpirrav e^cxj rcov imTToXa^ovrcxjv. oXcos he rovro Kal nepl rdAAa avpL^e^rjKe rd oorpaKoheppia' Kal ydp at crdpKes ovx opLOicxJS ehajhipLoi TrdvTCov, Kal rd TTepirrcjopia, rj KaXovpLcvq pLTjKOJv, evLCxJV piev ehcohipos evicnv S' ovk ihcohipios. eon he rols orpopi^coheGiv ev rfj eXiKj}
"
*

ravra rd

20

Hist.

An. 52Sh 10

ff.

This seems to imply that diagrams or illustrations accompanied the treatises. * These form what is compared to a lantern at Hist. An. 531 a 5, hence the name, " lantern of Aristotle."

326

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
their position

IV. v.

For the details of these, conupon Animals^ and the Dissections. Some points are better explained by inspection'' than in words. The Sea-urchin and the genus of Ascidians are peculiar among the Testacea. The Sea-urchin has five teeth,^ and between them it has the fleshy substance (the same as in all the above-mentioned creatures) after that, the gullet, after that, the stomach, which is divided into several compartments, so that the animal seems to have several stomachs. But although they are separated from each other and are full of residue, they all spring from the gullet and they all terminate in the residual vent. Apart from the stomach, these creatures contain no fleshy substance, as I have said. They have, however, what are called ova ^ there are several of them and each and scattered at random is in a separate membrane round the body, beginning from the mouth, are certain black objects,^ which have no name. There are several kinds of Sea-urchin, and in all of them these parts are present. Not all, however, have edible^ ova, and, except in the common^ varieties, they are quite small. There is a similar distinction among the other Testacea the flesh is not equally edible in all of them, and in some of them the residue (the so-called mecon) is edible, in others not. In the spiral shells, the mecon is in the spiral, in univalves
size.

and

sult the Researches

;

;

;

:

**

*

These are really ovaries (or testes) gonads. These may be the ambulacral vesicles, but the
:

identifica-

tion
'
'

not certain. See the story of the Spartan in Athenaeus iii. 41. The word translated " common " may mean " living near
is

the surface."
'

S27

ARISTOTLE
680 a

^

25

30

35

Tovroy TOLS 8e fiovoOupocg iv rco ttvBixIvl, oiov raZs 3e hidvpois rrpos rfj Gvva(f)fj' to 8* wov KoXovpLevov iv rots he^ioZs, iv he roZs eirl Odrepa r) €^ohos rod 7T€pLTT(jL)fiaTOs Tots" Sidvpoig. KoXeZrai 8* (hov ovK 6pda)s V7t6 tcjv KaXovvrcjJV rovro yap €GTiv olov Tols ivaljjLOLs, OTav €v9r]v6jaLv, Tj TTLorrjs. Sio Kal yiverai /caret rovrovs rovs Kaipovs rod evtavTov ev ols evOrjvovuLVy ev re to) eapi Kal IxeroTTOjpcp' ev yap toj ipv)(^ei Kal rals aXeais ttovovGL TTavra rd oarpaKoSepfiay Kal (f)€p€LV ov 8uyavTat rag virepj^oXas or^pLelov 8e to GVfJL^alvov €7Ti Tcov e-x^ivojv €vdv£ T€ ydp yivofievoL exovGi Kal iv rals 7TavGeXi]voL£ fidXXov, ov 8ta to vefieGOaL Kaddirep rives oiovrai fiaXXov, dXXd 8ta ro dXeeivorepas etvau rag vvKrag Sid to (jichs rrjs GeXrjvqs. SvGpiya ydp ovra Sid ro dvaifxa elvau Seovrai dXeas. Slo Kal iv rep depei fiaXXov Travra^ov evdiqvovGiv,
XeTrdcTLy TOtS"
.

esObTrAi^i^

OL

iv to)

Ylvppaio)

evpirrcp'

iKelvoi 8'
vofjirj?

ou;)^

rjrrov rod ;)^et/xtDyo?TTOVS /caTO, ravTTjv rrjv

a'iriov

8e ro

evrropelv

6

rore [xaXXov, aTroXenrovrcov tcov lyjdvojv rovs rowpav. *'E;^ouo't 8' ol i)(ivoi irdvres toa Te rw dpiOpLcp to, cpa Kat TTepiTTd' nevTe ydp exovGLV, togovtovs 8e /cat Tovs oSovTas Kal Tds KoiXlas. aiTiov 8* on to d)6v iGTL, KaOaTTep e'iprjTai irpoTepov, ovk (hov dXXd rod t^wov evrpo<j)ia. yiveTai he tovto inl ddrepa
" This is true of the sea-urchins in the Red Sea, though not of the Mediterranean ones. The former have a cycle corresponding exactly to that of the moon. The five roeSi ovaries, or testes are large and swollen during the week preceding each of the summer full moons, and tlie spawning of the eggs takes place during the few days before and after full moon. For a most interesting discussion of this and kindred matters

S28


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
;

IV. v.

(like limpets) it is in the tip in bivalves it is near the hinge. In the bivalves the so-called ovum is on the right-hand side, and the residual vent on the left. " Ovum " is a misnomer actually it corresponds to fat in blooded creatures when they are in good condition and that is why it appears only in spring and autumn, which are the seasons when they are in good condition. In great cold and great heat all the Testacea are hard put to it they cannot endure inordinate temperatures. The behaviour of the Seaurchins is a good illustration of this they have ova in them as soon as they are born, and at the time of full moon these increase in size " ; and this is not, as some think, because the creatures eat more then, but because the nights are warmer owing to the moonhght. These creatures have need of the heat because they are bloodless and therefore adversely affected by cold. That is why they are in better condition during the summer, and this is true of them in all localities except the strait of Pyrrha,^ where they flourish equally well in winter, and the reason for this is that in winter they have a more plentiful supply of foodstuff, due to the fish leaving the district at that season. The Sea-urchins all have the same number of ova an odd number, five, identical with the number of teeth and stomachs which they have. This is accounted for by the " ovum " not being really an ovum (as I said before) but simply a result of good nourishment. The " ovum " is found in Oysters too, though
;
;

;

:

H. M. Fox, Selene, especially pp. 35 Roy. Soc. B., 1923, 95, 523.
see
"
:

fF.,

and

id.

Proc.

In Lesbos, leading to the lagoon, one of Aristotle's favourite hunting-grounds see Hist. An. 544 a 21 (seaurchin), 548 a 9, 603 a 21, 621 b 12. Cf. Gen. An. 763 b 2.
'

329

ARISTOTLE
680 b

[Movov €v roZs oorpeois, ro /caAou/ierov <h6v.

rauro
tolvvv

he rovTO
10

ion

/cat

to eV rols i\ivoL£.
/cat

irrcl

iuTL O(f)aLp0€Lhr]9 6 ixLi'o^y

ovx a)07T€p eVt tojv

dXXojv oorpecxjv rod GojpLaros kvkXos els, 6 S* e)(luos ov rfj ptev TOiovTos rfj 8' ov, dXXa Travrrj opiOLos {G(f)aLpo€iSr]g ydp), dvayKi) /cat to wov opLOLOJS exetv

ov yap ioTLVy (Lorrep rots aAAot?, to kvkXco dvopuoLOV iv pL€Gcp ydp
16
Tj

Ke(f)aXrj Trdaiv

avTols, to) S'

dvOJ TO TOLOVTOV pLOpLOV.

OLOV T etvai to ojov

dXXd pLTjV OuSc GVV€X^S ovhe ydp rot? aAAot? dAA' errl

20

dvdyKT] tolvvv, irrel OaTepa tov kvkXov piovov. TOVTO pL6V aTravTCUv KOLvoVy lSlov 8' e/cetVou etrat TO CTCO/xa a^atpoetSes", pLr) elvai dpTia Ta cod. /caTa SidpieTpov ydp dv tjv, Std to opLotojg 8etv ex^iv to €v6ev /cat evOev, et tjv dpTia [/cat /caTo, hidpLeTpov^' ovTCOS 8' e;(dvTa)V eV dpL(f)6T€pa dv tov kvkXov ctxOV TO (hov. TOVTO 8' OVK TjV OvS* €7x1 TCJJV dXXoJV ooTpecxJV i-TTi BdTepa ydp ttjs nepLcfyepeLas exovoL Ta OGTpea /cat ot KTives to tolovtov pLopiov. dvdyKT)
Toivvv Tpta
7]

7T€.VT€

elvai

r^

d'AAoy

Tti^'

dptdpLov

25

ovv Tpta etx^, TToppoj Xiav (jdvY TjV, et 8e TrXeLOJ tcjv vreWe, Gwex^s dv tovtcdv Sc TO pi€v ov ^IXtlov, to 8* OVK eV8e;^d/xevov. dvdyKT)
TTepLTTOv.
el pL€V

dpa ttcVt' avTOvs ^X^^^ "^^ ^^• Atd Tr]v avTTjv 8' atTtav /cat
€0"p(taTat

tj KoiXia TOLavTTj Kat to tcov oSovtojv togovtov eGTL ttXtjOos.

€KaaTOV ydp tojv
80

cocov, olov aco/xct Tt

tov

t,a)ov ov,

TTpOS

TOV TpOTTOV TOV
^

TTjS

/COtAta?^
^

OpLOlOV
Ogle.

C^^etV

secludenda.
^

(ai^)

KoiXias

Ogle

:

{co^s vulg.

830

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
on one side of the body only
;

IV. v.

it is the same as that of the Sea-urchin. Now the Sea-urchin is spherical, and is not just one flat disk hke the Oysters thus, being spherical, it is not different shapes in different directions, but equiform in all directions hence of necessity its " ovum " is correspondingly arranged, since this creature's perimeter is not, as in the others, non-equiform ° they all have their head in the centre, whereas the Sea-urchin's is at the top. Yet even so the " ovum " cannot be continuous, since no other of the Testacea has it thus it is always on one side of the disk only. Hence, since this is a common property of all species of Testacea, and the Sea-urchin is peculiar in having a spherical shape, the result follows of necessity that the Sea-urchins cannot have an even number of ova. If they were even, they would have to be arranged in diametrically opposite positions, because both sides would have to be alike, and then there would be ova on both sides of the circumference but this arrangement is not found in any of the other Ostreae both Oysters and Scallops have ova on one side only of Therefore there must be three, their circumference. or five, or some other odd number of ova in the SeaIf there were three, they would be too far urchin. if more than five, they would be quite conapart tinuous ; the former would not subserve a good purpose, the latter is impossible. Therefore the Sea-urchin must of necessity have five ova. For the same cause the creature's stomach is cloven into five and it has five teeth. Each of the ova, being, as it were, a body belonging to the creature, must conform to the general character of the stomach,
;
;
:

;

;

;

;

That

is, it is

circular in all planes, not in one only.
'

331

ARISTOTLE
680 b

dvayKalov ivrevOev yap
ovarjg
tj

r)

av^r]ais.
ttolv

jjLid? ^leu

yap

TToppw dv rjGav,
rrjs

cocrre /cat

dv Karelx^ '^o kvtos, Svoklvtjtov etvai rov i)(ivov Kal [xtj ttXtjrj

povadai
rcjv
85 7T€VTa)(fj

Tpo(l)rjs

StaAet/xjLtarcov

dvayKT]

to dyyelov rrevre 8* irpos eKaGTCp

ovtcjjv

ovaav
to yap

SLfiprjadai.

Sea rrjv avrrjv S' alriav Koi

TO

T(x)v

ohovrcxjv

€orL
7)

TOGovrov
^trj

ttXtjOo?^'

681 a ofJLOLOv

ovTco?

dv

<f)VGLS

aTroSeSojKvta tols

elprjixevoLS [xoplois.

Atdrt

/xev

ovv Trepirrd Kal rooavra tov dpidpLov

ex^i 6 exlvo£

rd

cod, etpr^raf Stort S' ol /xey TrdpLirav

pLLKpd ol Se /xeyaAa, atrtov to
rrjv (fiVGiv
5

OepfioTepov? elvat

TOVTov?' 7T€TT€iv ydp TO deppiov SvvaTaL
hioTrep TTepirTaypLaros TrX-qpeis

Tr]V Tpo(f)r]v pidXXoVy

ol dppajTOL pidXXov.

Kal TrapaGKevd^eL klvtjtlkcoKal
GTjfXeloV §€
irrl

repOV?
pLTj

Tj

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pL€V€LV iSpaLOVS.

TOVTOV TO ^X^LV
ujs klvov-

Tovs TOLOVTOV9 del Tt
pL€vov5 TTVKvd' xpdJvTat
10

tcov

dKavdwv

ydp

ttogI Tat? dKdvOaig.

To, 8e rrjOva puKpov tcov (f)VTd}V Sta^epet ttjv
(f)VaLV,
OfJLCOS

8e

t,Cx>TlKCiJT€pa

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r]

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diljvx(J^v

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pLeTa^alvei Gvv^xdos diro tcov

els to,

^a>a

8ta TCOV
coGre
15

t,(I)VTCov

pLev

ovk

ovtcjjv

be ^cpcov, ovtcos

hoKelv

TrdjJLTrav

fiiKpov

hiacfyepeiv

darepov

darepov rep Gvveyyv?
^

aAAi^Aots".
recentior
is

o piev ovv GTToyyos,

hinc
;

manus

E

(

=E).

"

This

is

true

but motion

effected

mainly by the tube-

feet,
*

not noticed by Aristotle {vide Ogle). The " sea-squirts."

332

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
because growth has

IV. v.

its origin from the stomach. there were only one stomach, either the ova would be too far away from it, or the stomach would entirely fill up the cavity, which would make it difficult for the Sea-urchin to move about and to find But, as it is, there sufficient food to replenish itself. are five ova separated by five intervals, and so there must be five departments of the stomach, one for each interval. For the same reason there are five teeth, since this enables Nature to assign one tooth alike to each ovum and each department of the stomach. I have now stated why the Sea-urchin has an odd number of ova, and why it has five of them. Now some Sea-urchins have quite small ones, and some large the reason for this is that the latter have a hotter constitution, and the heat enables them to concoct their food better. This explains why the uneatable ones tend to be full of residue. This natural heat also induces the creatures to move about, and so instead of remaining settled in one place they keep on the move as they feed. An indication of this is that Sea-urchins of this sort always have something sticking on to their spines (which they use as feet),** which suggests that they are continually moving about. The Ascidians ^ differ very little in their nature from plants, but they are more akin to animals than the Sponges are, which are completely plants. Nature passes in a continuous gradation from lifeless things to animals, and on the way there are living things which are not actually animals, with theresult that one class is so close to the next that the difference seems infinitesimal. Now a sponge, as I said just now, is in

Now

if

:

'

3S3

ARISTOTLE
681 a

ojGTTep

eiprjTaiy

/cat

tco

t,rjv

7TpoG7Te(f)VK(l)S

fJLOvov,

OLTToXvOels
TT-avreAcDs"
jjLoves,

Se

fJLT]

i,TJV,

OfjLOLOJS

^X^^

TOt?

<j)VToZs

ra 8e KaXovfieva oXodovpia koi
Se
/cat

ol irvev-

20

erepa Toiavr iv rfj daXdrrr) fiLKpov Sia(f)€p€L rovTcov rep aTToXeXvadat' ata^Tjcrtv pi€v yap ovSepLLav €;^et, l^fj S' ojOTrep ovra (j>VTa aTToXeXvpLeva. eori 8e /cat iv rols imyeiois <j>vroZs €VLa roLavra, a /cat l,fj /cat yiverai ra pLev iv eripois (j)vrols, ra he /cat aTToXeXvpieva, olov /cat to e/c rod YiapvaGGov KaXovpLevov vtto rivcxjv iTriTrerpov rovro
€TL

yap
25

l,fj

TToXvv

;)^povop'

Kpejidpievov
/cat

dva>

eTrt

rcov
et rt

TrarrdXojv.
pLOvov

eon

S*

ore

ra rr]dva,

/cat

roiovrov erepov yevos, ra>
(j)vr(x)

piev TrpooTrecfyvKos ^rjv iraparrX-qGLOv, rep 8' *ix^^^ '^^ GapKcoSes

So^eiev dv ex^LV riv*
TTorepojs dereov.

alGdiqGiv'

dBr]Xov Se

rovro

80

hiaipeGLV,

"^X^^ ^^ '^ovro ro ^cvov Svo TTopovs Kal pilav re hex^rai rrjv vyporrjra rrjv els fj
fj

rpo(f)'qv, /cat

TrdXiv SiaTrepLTreL rrjv VTToXeLTTopLevxjv

yap ovSev ion hr^Xov exov, rdXXa rd oGrpaKoSeppLa. 8to pidXiGra /cat rovro, Kav et rt aAAo roiovrov rcov i,(pajv, (jyvriKov hiKaiov KaXelv ovhe yap ra>v (jivrcov ovhev €X€L
LKpidSa'
TTepirrcjopLa

ojGTTep

85

TTepirrojpia.

8ta pieGov he Xeirrov

hidt,<jjpLa,

iv a>

681 b

TO Kvpiov vTrdpx^iv evXoyov rrj? ^corjs. a? he KaXovGLV OL pLev Kvlhas ol 8' dKaX'iq<^as eGri piev ovk oGrpaKoheppLa, dAA' e^co TTiTrrei rwv hirjprjpLevwv yeva)v, iTrapL^orepit^eL he rovro /cat (f)vrcp Kal ^cpco
,

"
"
*

Or " sea-cucumbers." The precise reference of
Sea-anemones,
called

this term is not known. by the Greeks " sea-nettles."

S34

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
all

IV. v.

respects like a plant

:

it

lives

only while

it

is

growing on to something, and when it is pulled off it What are called Holothuria and the Sea-lungs^ dies. and other similar sea-animals differ only slightly from the sponges in being unattached. They have no power of sensation, but they live just as if they were plants unattached to the soil. Even among land-plants such instances exist living and gro^\ing either on other plants or quite unattached for example, the plant found on Parnassus, sometimes called the Epipetron (Rockplant). If you hang this up on the pegs ^ it will keep alive for a considerable time. Sometimes it is doubtful whether these Ascidians and any other such group of creatures ought to be classed as plants or as animals In so far as they live only by growing on to some other object they approach the status of a plant but yet they have some fleshy substance and therefore probably
:
: :

;

two and one septum by one orifice it takes in fluid matter for food, by the other it discharges the surplus moisture so far as can be seen it has no residue like the other Testacea. And as no plant ever has any

are capable of sensation of a kind. This particular creature (the Ascidian) has
;

orifices

;

residue this is a strong justification for classing it (and any other such animal) as a plant. Through its middle there runs a thin partition, and it is reasonable to suppose that the governing and vital part of the creature is situated here. As for what are called Knides or Acalephae,^ they are not Testacea, it is true, but fall outside the defined groups. In their nature they incline towards the plants on one side

Those

common

their stinging

to the Mediterranean are more virulent powers than those of the north.
,

in

335

ARISTOTLE
681 b
^

^

TTjv

(f)UGLV.

Toj

(jLev

yap

OLTToXvecrOaL

Kal rrpoo-

TTLTTTeiv TTpos rTjv Tpo(f)rjv eVta?
6

avTOJV ^a>t/cov ccrrt, Kal ra> aladdveoOai rcov TTpouTrnnovTayv' en he rfj

rod GcofJLaros rpaxvrr]TL ;)^prJTat TT-pos" rrjv acjTiqplav' Tip 8' areXes elvai Kal TTpoGcfyvead at rap^ecus" rat?
TTerpaig ro) yevei rcov cfyvTcbv TrapaTrX-qGLOv, Kal
TTepiTTCopLa
pLTjSev

rw

10

exeiv ^avepov, GTOfJca S' ex^i-v. ofMOLOv Se rovTcp Kal ro tujv aGrepojv IgtI yevos Kal yap rouro ttpqgttltttov eKxyj-ill^eL ttoXXol tojv

oGrpecov
^cpcov,

rots'

t'

a7ToXeXvp.evois

rcov

elprjfjLevojv

OLOv TOLS TC piaXaKLOLg

Kal Tot? [xaXaKOrrepl rcov

GrpaKOLs.
SepjJLcov.

6

S'

avros Xoyos Kal

oGrpaKo-

To. fxev ovv pLopia ra Trepl ttjv rpocjy'qVy airep avayKaZov TraGiv VTrapxeiv, exei rov TrpoeipiqpLevov
15

20

Set 8e St^Xovotl Kal rcov rols evaipiois VTTapxovrcov Kara ro Kvpiov rcov aiGOrjGecov exeiv dvdXoyov ri pLopiov rovro yap Set TraGiv vnapxeiv eart Se rovro roZs p.ev pLaXaKioig ev rols ^ojot?. Vfievi Keifxevov vypov, St' ovnep 6 Grofxaxos rerarai TTpo? rrjv KoiXiaVy irpoGTre^VKe Se jrpos ra rrpavrj roiovrov S* fjLoiXXov, Kal KaXeZrai pLvns vtto rivcov. erepov Kal roZs (xaXaKOGrpaKOLs eGri, Kal KaXeZrai KOLKeZvo fJLvrLg. eGri S' vypov Kal GCOfiarcbSe? dpua rovro ro jJLopiov, reivei Se St' avrov, KaOajrep elp-qr ai, Sta fxeGOV fxev 6 Grofxaxos' el yap tjv /JLera^v rovrov Kal rod Trpavovs, ovk dv rjSvvaro

rpoTTOV,

2r,

XafjL^dveiv opLOLCog StacrraCTtv elGLOVGr]g rrjs

rpocfj-fj?

Sta rr]v rod vcorov GKXrjporrjra.

eVt Se rijg fivrf,8os

ro evrepov e^coOev, Kal 6 60X65 Trpos rep evrepcp,
<*

That

is,

dorsal.

336

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV. v.

and the animals on the other. Towards the animals, because some of them detach themselves and fasten

upon their food, and are sensible of objects that come up against them and also because they make use of the roughness of their body for self-preservation. Towards the plants, because they are incomplete, and quickly attach themselves to rocks and further, because they have no residue that can be seen, though they have a mouth. The group of Starfish resembles these creatures Starfish too fasten on to their food, and by doing this to oysters suck large numbers of them dry. But Starfish also resemble those unattached creatures of which we spoke, the Cephalopods and the Crustacea. The same may be
; ;
;

said of the Testacea.

The parts connected with nutrition are such as I have now described. These must of necessity be present in all animals. But there is yet another part which every animal must have. These creatures must have some part which is analogous to the parts which in blooded animals are connected with the control of sensation. In the Cephalopods this consists of a fluid contained in a membrane, through which the gullet extends towards the stomach. It is attached to the body rather towards the upper " side. Some call it the mytis. An organ just like this, also
called the mytis,
is

present in the Crustacea.

This

part

is

fluid

and corporeal at the same time.

The

extends through the middle of it. If the gullet had been placed between the mytis and the dorsal side, the gullet would not have been able to distend sufficiently when the food enters, owing to the hardness of the back. The intestine is placed up against the outer surface of the mytis, and the ink-bag
gullet, as I said,
,

337

.

ARISTOTLE
681 b
^ O77C0S"

on

SvGx^p^S

CLTToOev

on
80

8' 6(jtI

aTTexj] rrjs elaoSov Kal to rod ^eXriovos /cat rr\s dpx^S' to dvdXoyov rfj Kaphia rovro ro [jLopiov,

TrAetCTTOV
fj

o roTTOS [ovro^ yap eanv 6 avros) koL rj yXvKVTTjg TTjS VypOTTjTOS d)S OVUa 7T€Tr€[XfX€Vrj Kol
SryAot

aliiarcohrjs.

Ev
TrXrjv

Se Tols 6orpaKohepp,oig
Set
t,7]T€lv

e;\;£t

pikv

rov avrov

TOTTOV^ TO KVpLov TTjS aLGQ-qdeco? , tJttov S' i7TLhr]Xov.

del

Trepl

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TavT7]v Tr]v
tt^v
7]

apx'Tjv,
85 TpO(f)T]V,

ooa

puev piovifiay
St*

tov Sexop-evov pLoptov
TTjV

Kal

OV
7)

TTOieiTai
TTjV

dlTOKpLGiV

T7]V
682 a

GTreppaTLKTjV

TT€pLTTCOpaTLKT^V ,

OGa §€

Kai TTopevTiKCL Tojv
Tots'
S*

t,(x)ajv,

del ev^ ro) pLeGco tojv

SeftcDv /cat rcDv dpiGTepcbv
ivTopLoig

TO
rots"

pi€V

TTJs

ToiavTTis
eXexQ'"]

dpx^s
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5

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TTOLGL

€V

pLOVOV €V 7TOi€iV TO TOIOVTOV , Kal hwapivT]

pL€V TTOiei pLovov ev,
8* ev

OV SwapLeinj Se

TrXeioj.^

hrjXov

eTepois erepcoy jLtaAAov.
hia(j)opdv eVtot?
ttoAAt^p'.

To, 8e TTpos rrjv Tpo(f>r]v pLopua ov ttolglv opLolcJS,
10

pLaTos

ivTos yap tov gtoKaXovpLevov KevTpov, WGTTepavel GvvdeTOV Kal ^xov yXcoTTrjg Kal ^etXcuv
e;)^et

aAAa

pL€V

€GTL

TO

^ ^

roTTOv
sic

Pkackham

:

SL Y

(Suva/u.ei'a

rponov bis S)
:

viilp:.
:

^

ev

V

:

om. vulg.

OV bvvafievT) Se ttXcloj Z bvvdfxeL 8e ttXclw vulg.

Kal hvvafjLevrjv fiev, €i> ttolcl ixovov ov bwa/xeirrj S' evepyeia noiel fiovov €v,

(cf.

667 b 25).

338

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
up against the
its
;

IV. v.

this is to ensure that it and intestine unpleasantness are kept as far as possible from the body's entrance and from the sovereign and most noble part. The mytis occupies a place which corresponds exactly with that of the heart in blooded creatures which shows that it is the counterpart of it.** Another proof of this is that the fluid in it is sweet that is, it has undergone concoction and is of the nature of blood. In the Testacea the part which rules sensation occupies the same place but is not so easy to pick out. But this source of control should always be looked for in around some middle position in these creatures stationary ones, in the midst between the part which receives the food and the part where the seed or the residue is emitted and in those which move about, always midway between the right side and the left. In insects the part where this control is placed, as was said in the first treatise,^ is situated between the head and the cavity where the stomach is. In the majority there is one such part, but in creatures like the Centipede, that is, which are long in the body, there are more than one so if the creatures are cut up they go on living. Now Nature's desire is to make this part a unity in all creatures, and when she can, she makes it a unity, when she cannot, a pluraUty." This is clearer in some cases than in others. The parts connected vdih nutrition are by no means alike in all insects indeed they exhibit great differences. For instance Some have what is known as a sting inside the mouth a sort of combination of tongue and lips, which possesses the
:

:

;

:

;

:

*
*

The heart of invertebrates escaped At Ilist. An. 531 b 34.

the notice of Aristotle. « Cf. 667 b 22 if.

339

ARISTOTLE
682 a

a/xa

SvvaixLV rols 8e (jlt^ exovuiv efXTrpooOev to Kevrpov iorlv ivros rcov oSovrcov tolovtov alaOrjrrjpLOv.
16

TOVTOV

8' ixofi^vov Trduiv

evrepov evdv

/cat

aTrXovv

IJ-^XP^ '^V^

i^oSov rod TTepLTTcvfiaTOS' evioLS

8e rovTo iXlKrjv ex^t.
OLTTO

ra Se KoiXiav /xera to GTOfia,
evTepov elXiyfjLevop, ottoj^

Se rrjs KOiXias to

ocra ^pcoTLKcoTcpa /cat fxel^oj tt^v cf)VGLv
kxxi
IS lav
20

vnohox^v
avTO
St*

TrXeiovos Tpocl}rjs.

to Se tcov TeTTiycDV yivos to yap

€X€i
ep^et

{JLaXiGTa

tovtcov (J^vglv

fxoptov

OTOjjLa /cat
Slol
pit,'r]S

yXojTTav
Sep^erat

ovfXTrecfiVKos,

ov KadaTrepel
TCOV vypojv.

ttjv Tpo(f)r]u diro
to,

rrdvTa fxkv ovv IgtIv oXiyoTpocjya
^ojcov,

evTopia Tojv

Sid ipvxpoTr)Ta {to
/cat

ovx ovtco yap Oepixov

Slol

fXLKp6Tr]Ta

cos

/cat

Setrat

Tpocf)rjs

Tr€TT€t TTjv TpocjiT^v Tax^oJS , TO Sk ijjvxpov d-

25 Tpo(f>ov), jLtaAtcrra

8e to tcov TeTTiycov yevos' LKavrj
rj

yap

Tpo(f)r]

tco

ocopiaTi

e/c

tov irvevixaTog vttoicjirjfxepoLs

jxevovaa

vypoTiqs, KaOdirep TOt?

^cools

(ytvcTat Se
/xev
t,fj

TavTa

irepl

tov noi^TOv),

ttAt^v e/cetva

pads r^p.epas

;\;poj-'ov,

TavTa Se

TrXecovcov

pi€V r]p.€p(jjv, oXiycov Se tovtcov.
30

'ETTet 8e TTepl tcov ivTos VTrapxdvTCov pLoplcov tols
t,cx)OLS

etprjTai,

liraviTeov.

ndXiv nepl tcov Xolttcov tcov gktos dpKTeov 8' avro tcov vvv €Lprjf.L6vcoVf

dAA'

ovK

d(/>'

Sv

dTTeXiTTOjjLeVy

ottcos

dno tovtcov
/cat

SLaTpL^rjv

iXdTTCO

ixovTCOv

eirl

tcov TeXeicov

ivaipicov ^cocov 6
35

Xoyos GxoXdl,r] fxdXXov.

VI. Td jLtev ovv evTOfia tcov t^cocov ov TToXvp-eprj pkv TOV dpiOpiov ioTLv, djjicos 8' e;(et irpos d'AAT^Aa
3 to

PAHTS OF ANIMALS,

IV. v.-vi.

character of both. Those that have no sting in front have a sense-organ of that sort behind the teeth. After the mouth, in all insects comes the intestine, which is straight and simple right up to the residual (Sometimes, however, it has a spiral in it.) vent. And some there are which have the stomach next after the mouth, while from the stomach runs a twisted intestine this gives the bigger and more gluttonous insects room for a larger amount of food. Of all these creatures the grasshoppers are the most In them the mouth and tongue are united peculiar.
;

and through this they from fluid substances as through a root. All insects take but little nourishment and this is not so much because they are small as because they are cold. (Heat needs nourishment and quickly concocts it cold needs none.) This is most marked in the grasshoppers. They find sufficient nourishment in the moisture which the air deposits so do the one-day creatures which occur around the Black Sea. Still, they live only for the space of a day whereas the grasshoppers live for several, though not many, days. Now that we have spoken of the internal parts of animals, w^e must go back and deal with the remainder of the external parts. We had better begin with the creatures of which w^e have just been speaking, and not go back to the point where we left the external parts. This will mean that we take first those which need less discussion, and that will give more time for speaking of the " perfect " animals, i.e. the blooded
so as to single part,

make one

draw up
;

their nourishment

;

;

;

ones.

VI. Insects

first,

then.

Though

their parts are not external

numerous, insects

differ

from one another.

They
'

all

PARTS OF BLOODLESS
ANIMALS.

3U

ARISTOTLE
682 a
682 b TTpog rrfv

6

77oAi;77oSa fiev yap eoTL Trdvra Sea to ^paSvTTJra Kal KaTai/jv^LV rrj? (f)VGeaJs ttjv TToXvTTohlav avvriKcorepav avrols ttouIv rriv Kivqaiv Kal jxaXiaTa TToXviroha ra pLaXiara Kareijjvyixeva Sta TO [JirJKOs olov TO Twv lovXcxJv yevos €tl 8e 8td to dpxas ^x^LV TrXeiova^ at t ivTOfJLai etVt Kal ttoXvTToSa /caTct TavTo} ioTLV. "Oaa 8* iXoLTTOvas e;^€t 77o8as", tttt^vcl TavT* ioTl
8ta</>opas'.
.

npos

TTjv eXXenpLV ttjv tG)v ttoSojv.

TTTTjVOJV (hv jJiiv
Tpo(f)7]v

avTcov 8e tcDv ioTLV 6 ^LOS VOfiaSlKOS Kol SlOL TTjV

10

15

dvayKalov eKTOTril^eiv, TeTpaTTTepd t€ ioTi Kal Tov Tov ucLpiaTos €^€1 Kov<f)ov oyKov, olov at Te /xeAtTTat Kal Ta GV(jL(f)vXa (,cpa TavTais' hvo yap e^' €KdT€pa TTTepd^ exovoLv. ooa 8e puKpd tG)V tolovTa)Vy hiTTTepa, Kaddirep to tojv fivicov yevos. Ta 8e ^apea^ Kal TOt? ^tois iSpala TroXvTTTcpa jjiev o/xotco? Tat? /xeAtTTai?* ioTLv, ex^L 8' eXvTpa TOt? TTTepols, otov at T€ fJLTjXoXovdai Kal Ta ToiavTa tcov ivTOficov,
TTTepojv SuvafiLV ihpaicov yap fidXXov ioTi tojv evKivrjTOjv, SioTTep €X€L (fypaypLOV Trpo avTOJV. Kal daxt-c^TOV Se TOVTOJV ioTL TO 7TT€p6v Kal aKavXov ov ydp iuTi 7TT€p6v dXX V/JLTjV SepfxaTLKos, OS Sid ^rjpoTTjTa ef
07T0JS
0(x>t,rj

TTjV

TWV

ovTOJv

evSidcfiOopa

20

dvdyKTjg d^ioTaTai tov TOV oapKcoSovg.

CTco/xaTo? avTOJV ipuxofievov

"EvTOfia
cAtTTeTttt

8'

OTTOJS u<x)tpr]TaL hi

ydp

eoTt 8ta Te Ta? elp-qjievas atVta?, /cat dirdd €iav ovyKafirrTOfxeva' avvTa fxrJKos exovT avTCJV, tovto 8' ovk
fXTj

dv iyiveT
^

avTols
:

ovglv

ivTOfJLOis.
:

to,

8e

firj

ravrd Peck
^
:

Tavra

Y

:

7TT€pa TOV acvfxaTos vulg.

ravT vulg. tov
:

ravras Ogle.
a.

delevi.

^apda Ogle

^paxda vulg.

*

/xeAtTrats {ovk) Piatt.

342

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
;

IV. vi.
(a) insects,

have numerous feet this is in order to make their motion quicker, and to counteract their natural slowness and coldness. Those which are most subject to coldness owing to their length (e.g. the Centipedes) Furthermore, have the greatest number of feet. these creatures have several sources of control and on that account they have the " insections " in their bodies, and the numerous feet which are placed in
;

precise correspondence.

Those that have fewer feet are winged by way of
compensation.
;

Some

of these flying insects live a

wandering life and have to go abroad in search of food so they have a light body and four wings, two such are the bees and the kindred on either side The small ones have only two \\'ings all told tribes. Those that are heavy and sedentary like the flies. in their habits have the larger number of wings like the bees, but they have shards round their wings (e.g. the Melolonthae'^ and similar insects) to preserve
;

them in their proper condition

for, as these creatures are sedentary, their wings are more liable to be destroyed than those of the nimbler insects and that is why there is this protection round them. An insect's wing is not divided, and it has no shaft. In fact, it is not a wing at all, but a membrane of skin, which being dry detaches itself of necessity from the creature's body as the fleshy part cools off. I have already stated some reasons why these creatures have " insected " bodies there is another, viz. it is so that they may curl up and thus escape injury and remain safe. It is the long ones that roll themselves up, and this would be impossible for them if they were not insected. Those that do not roll up
;
; :

*

Perhaps cockchafers (Ogle).

S^3

ARISTOTLE
682b
25
^ ^

IXiKTo. avrcjv (jKXrjpvverai fjidXXov avviovra els

^

^

ras

rofxas.

hr]Xov 8e rovro yiverai diyyavovTCov, olov

eVt

Tcov

KaXovf-Uvcov

Kavddpcjv

(f)0^rjdevTa

yap

dKLvr]TL^€L,

Kal TO

CTOJ/xa

yiverai GKXiqpov avTcov.

rfj
80

dvayKOiov 8' evropLOis avrols elvai' rovro yap iv ovaia avrcjv vrrapx^L ro TToXXdg e)(€iv dpxdg, Kal ravrrj TTpoaioiKe rols (j>vroZs. cooTrep yap rd (f)vrd, Kal ravra Statpou/xeva Svyarai ^rjv, ttXtjv ravra [lev
€K€Lva Se Kal reXeia yiverai ttjv (f)VOLV Kal Svo e^ evos Kal TrXeto) rov dpLdfjLov. eVta rojv ivrofiojv Kal Kevrpa Trpds "E;\;et S' ^orjdeiav rcov ^XaTrrovrojv to /xev ovv Kevrpov
.

yi'iXP'' "^^^oSt

85

rols

jLtev

epLTTpoodev

epLTTpoodev

Kara

rols S* OTTiaOev, rols fxev rrjv yXcorrav, rots S* ornodev Kara

ion

rd

ovpalov.

WGirep

yap

rols

iXl^aoi
;^p7^crt^ov

rd

rcjv

683 a rrjv dXKTjv

re Kal rr)V r7]s rpo(f)rjs xp-rjcrtv, ovrojs rdjv ivrdjJLOJV ivLOis rd /caret rr]v yXcJorrav rerayfievov aloddvovrai re ydp rovrco rrjs rpo(f)rjs Kal dvaXafid(T[X(jL)V

alaOrjrrjpiov

yeyevrjrai

rrpds

6

10

PdvovGL Kal TTpoodyovrai avrrjv. doa he fi-q ianv avrcbv efXTTpooOoKevrpa, dhdvras €;^et rd piev ehcjohris X^P^^ "^^ ^^ '^^^ Xap^^dveiv Kal irpoodyeadai rrjv rpo(f)'qv, otov ol re [xvpijLrjKes Kal rd rdov pieXurTcov TTaacjv yevos- dua 8' oTnaddKevrpd eon, hid rd dvpidv ex^^v ottXov ex^^ rd Kevrpov. exovat he rd pLev ev eavrdls rd Kevrpa, Kaddnep at pbiXirrai Kal ol G(f)rJKes, hid rd TTrrjvd elvai- Xejrrd piev ydp dvra Kal e^co evcf)dapra (av)^ r]V el he nax^a rjv^ ajGTTep rols OKopTTtois, (^dpos dv Trapelx^v. rols he
^

(av) Ogle.

* 8e

nax^a ^v Piatt

:

8' direixev

vulg.

3U


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
IV.
vi.

increase their hardness by closing up the insections. This is obvious if you touch them e.g. the insects called Canthari (dung-beetles) are frightened when touched and become motionless, and their bodies become hard. But also it is necessarif for them to be insected, for it is of their essential being to have numerous sources of control and herein they resemble plants. Plants can live when they are cut up so can insects. There is a difference, however, for whereas the period of survival of a divided insect is limited, a plant can attain the perfection of its nature when divided, and so two plants or more come out of one. Some of the insects have a sting as well, for defence against attackers. In some the sting is in front, by the tongue in others it is behind at the tail-end. Consider the elephant's trunk this is its organ of smell but the elephant uses it as a means of exerting force as well as for the purposes of nutrition. Compare with this the sting of insects when, as in some of them, it is ranged alongside the tongue, not only do they get their sensation of the food by means of it, but they also pick up the food with it and convey Those which have no sting in front it to the mouth. which some of them use for eating, have teeth others for picking up the food and conveying it to the mouth, as do the ants and the whole tribe of bees. Those that have a sting at the back are fierce creaSometures and the sting serves them as a weapon. times the sting is well inside the body, as in bees and wasps. This is because they are winged, and a delicate sting on the outside of the body would be easily on the other hand, a thick one such as destroyed Scorpions scorpions have would weigh them down.
;

;

;

:

;

:

;

;

,

345

ARISTOTLE
3 a

OKopTTLOL? TTel^oZs ovui Kol KepKOv^ exovcTLV GivayKOiov em ravTTj^ ^X^^^ '^^ Kevrpov, r^ firjdev )(p-qoLpiov
€LVaL 77/30? TT^V OlXktJv SiTTTepOV S' OvdeV ioTLV OTTiodoKevrpov Sta to audevrj yap Kal puKpa clvai SiTTTepd iuTLv iKava yap ra puKpa a'ipeodai vtto tCov eXarrovcov top dpLdfjLov. 8ta ravro Se rovro Kai epLTrpooOev e;^et to Kevrpov audevrj yap ovra pLoXis hvvarai rolg omadev^ rvTrreiv. rd Se TTOAVTTrepa, Sia ro jLtct^co rrjv (f)VOLv elvai, irXeiovcov r€TV)(y]K€ TTTepOJV Kal LG)(VeL TOtS" OTTiodev fJLOploLS.
.

15

20

^eXnov
avojjiOias

S'

ivSexofievov

firj

ravro

opyavov

eirl

^x^iv xPV^^'^^y diXXd ro fxev dfivvrLKov o^vrarov, ro Se yXatrrcKov oop.(f)6v /cat OTraoriKov
Trjs
rpo(f)r}g.

ottov

yap evhex^^ai XPV^^^'' Svolv
purj

inl
25 77/309

8u'
7)

epya
(f)vuL<:

Kal

epi7Tohit,€LV

rrpos
r)

erepov,

ovSev

e'tcode

TTOielv

wajrep

;)(aA/<:euTtACT7

evreXeiav o^eXiGKoXvxvi-ov' dXX ottov (jltj ivSex^rai, Karaxprjrai rw avrco iirl TrXeioj epya. Tovs Se TToSas rovs rrpoodiovs /Ltet^ou? eVta rovrojv ex^-iy OTTCos eTreihy] 8ta ro GKXrjp6(f)daXfxa etvau OVK aKpi^rj rrjv oipLV exovcri, rd rrpooTTLTTrovra rols
rrpoodcoLs diroKadaipwoi OKeXeoiv drrep Kal
(j^ai-

80

vovrai -noiovGai at re /xutat Kal rd

(JLeXirrcoSr] rcjv

^wcDV del ydp xo-po-K^^ovcn rols TrpooBiois UKeXeuiv. rd S* dTTLoOia pLei^co rcov fieGCJV Sta re rr]v ^dhiGLV Kal rrpds to atpeodai paov and rrj? yrjg dvairer*

KcpKov
^

Kevrpov vulg. (coniecerat Ogle) Ogle TavT Vulg. omodev Ogle, Thurot efx-rrpoadev vulg.
:

Z
^

TavTT]

:

:

The principle of" division of labour " in a living organism, not stated again until 1827 (by Milne Edwards). See Ogle's
"

note.

346

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV. vi.

themselves, being land-creatures and having a tail, are bound to have their sting on their tail ; otherwise it would be no use for exerting force. No twowinged insect has a sting at the rear these are small weak creatures, and can be supported by a smaller number of wings that is why they have only two. The same reason explains why they have their sting in the front owing to their weakness they cannot well deliver a blow with their hind parts. Manywinged creatures, on the other hand, owe their greater number of wings to their own greater size, and so too their hind parts are stronger and bear the sting. It is better, when it is possible, that one and the same organ should not be put to dissimilar uses that is, there should be an organ of defence which is very sharp, and another organ to act as a tongue, which should be spongy and able to draw up nourishment.
;
:

:

;

And

thus,

whenever

it

is

possible to

employ two

organs for two pieces of work without their getting in each other's way. Nature provides and employs two." Her habits are not those of the coppersmith who for cheapness' sake makes you a spit-and-lampstand combination. Still, where two are impossible, Nature employs the same organ to perform several pieces of work. Some insects, whose eyesight is not distinct owing to their eyes being made of some hard substance, have specially long forefeet, which enable them to clear away anything that comes down on to the eyes. Flies and bees and the like are obvious examples they are always crossing their front legs. These creatures' hind legs are longer than their middle ones for two reasons (1) to assist them in walking, and (2) to lift them more easily off the ground when they
:
:

M

,

3-i7

ARISTOTLE
683 a
^

ofMeva.
<f)av€p6v,
35

oaa Se

TT-qSi-jTiKa

olov at t'

avrcov en [xaXkov rovro aKplSeg /cat to roJv ipvXXcov

yivos' orav yap Kaixijjavr

683 b

eKreLvrj ttolXlv, dvayKalov ovk ejXTrpoodev 8* aAA' OTTtcr^ev fJLovov exovGL rd TT-qSaXLcohrj at a/cptSe?* rrjv yap KafJLirrjv dvayKalov etaoj KeKXdodai, rGiV

dno

rrj?

yrjg

rjpQai.

8e TTpoaOiojv kcoXojv ovSev Se rd roiavra Trdvr

eon

tolovtov.

e^diroZa
j-Lopiois.

iarl ovv rots dXTLKols

VII. TcJov
6

8'

TToXvpiepe?.
elvai
TTjv

ooTpaKohepixojv ovk ean to oajfia rovTOV 8' atrtov to fiovifiov avru)V

TToXvixepearepa ydp dvayKalov rd KLvrjTLKd Old TO (TrXelovsy^ ctvai avTtov 7Tpd^€is' opydvojv ydp Selrai TrXeiovcov rd TrXeiovajv pLerexovTa KLvrjaecov. tovtojv he rd fiev aKLvqra Trd/jLTrav iarl, rd 8e p^iKpas fierex^i' Ki(f)Voiv

€LvaL TOJV ^cpCDV

lo

VT]G€cos' dAA'

7]

(J)V<JL5

TTpos

GCjjrTjpiav

rujv oarpaKCOV OKXr]p6rr)ra TTepidOrjKev.
TO, ixev [JLOvoOvpa

avrols rrjV eon 8e
orpofJLTCt

rd 8e btdvpa avrojv, rd he
/cat

pcoSr],

KadaTTep eLprjr at Trporepov

toutcuv

15

e^ovra, olov K-qpvKe?, rd 8e a(j)aLpoeihr\ /cat rwv fjiovov, KadaTTep rd rcov ex^vcov yivos hidvpojv rd fiev ianv dvanrvKra, olov Krives /cat pives (e77t ddrepa ydp ovyKeKXeiurai, wore avfi€V iXiKTjv
.

oiyeaOai
dfJL(f)a)

irrl

ddrepa

/cat

(jvyKXeUadai), rd

8'

iir

ovp,7Te(f)VK€V,

olov rd rcov gojXtJvcjov yevos.

20

diravra 8e rd oarpaKohepp^a, Kaddirep rd (f)vrd, rovrov 8' atVtoy oTt Kara) rrjv K€(f)aXr]v 'e-)(^i.

Karajdev Xapi^dvei
rals pit,ais.
dvco €X€iV,

rrjv

rpo(f)rjv,

ajGirep

rd
p,kv

(j>vrd

Gvjx^aiveL ovv avrols
8'

rd

Karoj

rd
1

dva> Karco.

iv vpivi 8' eCTTt,
Piatt.

hC

(jtX^Lovs)

Peck: {noWas)

318


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
rise in flight.

IV. vi.-vii.

This pecuHarity is even more noticeable in the leaping insects, such as locusts and the various sorts of fleas, which first bend their hind legs and then stretch them out again, and this forces them to rise up from the ground. The rudder-shaped legs which locusts have are at the rear only and not in front this is because the joint must bend inwards ,** and no front limb satisfies this condition. All these creatures have six feet, inclusive of the parts used for leaping. VII. In Testacea the body is not divided into several parts, owing to their being of stationary habits, as opposed to creatures which move about : the latter are bound to have more parts to their body because their activities are more numerous, and the more motions of which a species is capable, the more organs it requires. Now some of the Testacea are altogether stationary others move about but little ; and so, to keep them safe. Nature has compassed them about with hard shells. Some of them are (as I said earlier ^) one-valved, some two-valved ; and some conical, either spiral like the Whelks, or spherical like the Sea-urchins. The two-valved shells are divided into (a) those M'hich open i.e. which have a
;

(?>)

Testacea.

:

joint on one side
e.g.

and can open and shut on the other ; the scallops and mussels (6) those which are joined together on both sides, e.g. the group of razorfishes. In all Testacea, just as in plants, the head is down below. The reason for this is that they take up their food from below, as plants take it up by their roots so they have their nether parts above and their upper parts below. These creatures are enveloped in a membrane, and through this they strain fresh;
;

«

See note on 693 b

3, p. 433.

»

At 679 b

16.

ARISTOTLE
683 b
^

TO TTOTLjj-ov /cat Xaix^dvei ttjv Tpo(f)-^v. Se Ke(j)a\riv fxev Trdvra, rd 8e rod crdjjLtaro? ixopia TTapd to rrjg TpO(f)i]s Scktikov dvcovvpa
ov
SirjOel
ex^i'

rdXXa
25

.

VIII. To, he fiaXaKOGrpaKa Trdvra Kal TTopevTLKd,

rd

Sio TToScDV ex^t' ttXtjOos. €Gtl he yevr] jxev rerrapa /xeytCTT* aurcDv ol re KaXovpevoi Kdpa^oi /cat
acrra/cot
/cat

Kapihes
e'lhf]

/cat

/cap/ctVot*

toutojv

S'

eKaarov
zo TTjv

TrXeioj

fJLop(f)r]v

earl hia(j>epovra ov fxovov Kara dXXd /cat /cara ro jxeyeOos ttoXv' rd
TTdfjLrrav

fiev

ydp [leydXa rd he puKpd
fxev

rd
earl

ovv

KapKwcohrj
^X^*-^

/cat

avrcov eoriv. Kapaj^whr] rrapopLoi

rw XV^^^

d[jL(f)6repa.

ravras

S'

ov
/cat

TTopeias
rtajs

exovGL x^P''^> dXXd rrpos rd XajieZv

35

Ko^raGX^Xv dvrl ;)(etpajv. Sto /cat KdpLTrrovGLv ivavravra? rols ttogLv rovs p-^v ydp errl rd koZXov
S' IttI

rdg

rd

Trepicfiepeg

KapLnrovGL

/cat

eXiGGOVGiv

ovroj

ydp

;!^pr^CTt/i.at

rrpds rd Xaf^ovoai 7TpoG(f)epeGdai

684 a rrjv rpo(f)rjv.

ol pev /capa/3ot exovGLV ovpdv, fj ovk exovGiv ovpdv rots p^ev ydp hid rd vevGriKols elvai ;)^p7Jo-i^os' r^ ovpd [veovGt ydp diTepeihopevoL olov irXdrais avrals), rots he Kap-

AtacjiepovGL S'

ol he KapKLVoi

5

kLvols ovhev xPV^^I^ov hid rd irpoGyeiov etvai rdv
^iov^ avrcnv Kal elvai rpcoyXohvras.

ogol

8'

avrojv

TTeXdyioi etVt, 8ta rovro rroXv dpyorepovs exovGi

I'j

rovs TTohas^ TTpds rrjv TTopelav, olov at re palai Kal ol 'Hpa/cAea>Tt/cot KaXovpevoi KapKivoi, on oXlyr) KLVTjGei ^^pcoyrat, dAA' rj acorrjpLa avroXs Toj oGrpeiwheis elvai yiverai' hid at /zev p.alai
^

TO

/3iov
^

Bekker per typothctae errorem, avTwv post TTohas vulg. : om. Y.

350

;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV. vii.-viii.

water to drink, which is their way of taking nourishment. All of them possess a head, but except for the part which takes in the food none of the other parts has a special name. VIII. All the Crustacea can walk on land as well as swim and hence they all have numerous feet. There are four main groups of Crustacea, called (1) Carabi
;

(c)

Cru^*^^"

Each of (2) Astaci; (3) Carides; and (4) Carcini." these contains several species which differ not only in shape, but also in size, and that considerably, for some species are large, others extremely small. The Carcinoid and the Caraboid Crustacea resemble each other, in both having claws. These claws are not for the sake of locomotion, but serve instead of hands, for catching and holding and that is why they bend in an opposite direction to the feet, which bend and twist toward the concave side, while the claws bend toward the convex side. This makes the claws ser\iceable for catching hold of the food and conveying it to the mouth. The two groups, Carabi and Carcini, differ in that the former have a tail and the latter have not. The Carabi find a tail useful because they are swimmers tliey propel themselves with it as though with oars. A tail would be useless to the Carcini, which spend their lives near the land and creep into holes and Those that live out at sea and move about crannies. but little, and owe their safety to their shelly exterior, have for these reasons feet which are considerably less
;
:

effective for locomotion
<*

:

examples of

this are the

Roughly, these four divisions
groups, thus
;
:

may be

represented
;

by our

own

(1) lobsters

;

(2) crajrfish

(3)

prawns and
-

shrimps

(4) crabs,

351

ARISTOTLE
AeTrrocj/ceAetS',

ol

S'

*H/3a/<:AeajTt/<:ot

fiLKpoGKeXels

elaiv.

01

he

TrdfjLTrav

yuKpol KapKLVoi, ot aXiaKovrai Iv

ToXs fiLKpoLS lxOvSlol?, €xovgl tov? TeAeuTatou? TrAaret? TroSa?, tva rrpos ro velv avrols XP^^-tjUOt djGLV, ojGTrep 7TT€ pvy ta rj irXdras exovreg rous" TToSas.

At
15

he Kaplhes tcjv fxev KapKivoeihwv hia(f)epovoL
(jltj

ra> ex^iv KepKov, rchv he Kapa^oeihajv hid to
ex^t^v p^TyAas"

a? ovk exovau hid ro ttXelovs ^X^^^ rrohaSy ivravOa ydp tj eKeWev dvrjXa)Tai av^rjGL?. TrXelovs 8' exovui TTohag, on vevorLKcorepd eoriv
t)

TTopevTLKcorepa.
To,
8'

V7TTLOIS pLOpia Kal TTepl T7]V Keto he^aaOai to vhcop Kal dcfielvau 20 exovGL ^payxoeihrj- TrXaKOjheGTepa he to, KaTOj at d-qXeiai rcjv dppevauv Kapd^cxjv exovai, Kal to. eV eVtTTTuy/xart hauvTepa at drjXeiaL KapKLVOL TO) TOJV dppevojv, hid to eKTeiveiv to, (hd rrpos aura, aAAa piT] aTToOev, ojo-nep ol Ixdveg Kal rdAAa ra (^cpdy TLKTOVTa- evpvxoJpeoTepa ydp ovTa Kal pLel^co ol [lev ovv Kapa^oi 25 ;!(djpay e;)(et rots' cools pidXXov. Kal ol KapKLVOL Trdvres Trjv he^Ldv exovcrL XV^W toIs ydp he^Lols rravTa [xell^oj Kal LGX^poTepav 7T€(f)VKe TO, ^cpa hpdv /xaAAov, rj he (^vgls aTroStdwGLV del ToZs XP^cr^ct' hwafievoLs eKaGTOV t) pLOVoos pdXXoVy OLOV x^uAtoSoyras- Kal ohovTas Kal r] 80 KepaTa Kal TrXrJKTpa Kal TrdvTa ra rotaura p,opLa, OGa Trpos ^o-qdeLav Kal dA/<:rjv eGTLv.^ Ot 8* acrra/cot pLovoL, orroTepav dv TVxoJcrf'V exovGL p.eL^oj tcjv xV^djv, Kal at ^r^Aeiat /cat ot

eV TOtS"

(f)aXr]v

rd

fxev els

^

<a»a)

Peck

:

r-qKOvra
2

S

:

KvtoKOvra
:

PY

:

woTOKOvvra Ogle.

^(jTif,

Peck

eiaiv

vulg.

352

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

viii.

Maiae ^ (whose legs are thin) and the crabs called Heracleotic (whose legs are short). The little tiny crabs, which are found among the catch with small fishes, have their hindmost feet flat,
useful for swimming. from the Carcinoids in having a tail, and from the Caraboids just mentioned in not having claws. Claws are absent because they have more feet the material for their growth has gone And they have more feet because they into the feet. svn.m about more or move about more. As for the parts on the under ^ surface around the head, in some animals these are formed like gills so as the lower to let in the water and to discharge it parts, however, of female crabs are flatter in formation than those of male ones, and also the appendages on the flap are hairier. This is because they deposit their eggs there instead of getting rid of them, as the These fishes and the other oviparous animals do. appendages are wider and larger and so can provide more space for the eggs. In all the Carabi and in all the Carcini the right claw is bigger and stronger than the left. This is because all animals in their activities naturally use the right side more and Nature always assigns an instrument, either exclusively or in a better form, to those that can use it. This holds good for tusks, teeth, horns, spurs and all such parts which serve animals for assistance and
like fins or oars, to

make them

The Carides

differ

:

;

;

offence.

In Lobsters only, whether male or female, a matter of chance which claw is the bigger.
*

it

is

The

Probably the spiny spider-crab. ^ That is, ventral.

353

ARISTOTLE
684 a ^

dppeve?.
35

a'iriov he

rod

fxev ^x^lv

xV^^^ otl
8*

iv rco

yeVet

etcrt

tco

exovri

xV^^^' tovto
Kal ov

OLTOLKrcos
e(/)*

684 b

exovuLV

on

TreTTrjpojvraL

;)^pcDvTat

o

7T€(f)VKaGLV, qAAo, TTOpelag x^P^^-

Ka^' eKaGTOV he
TLVL
5

tujv fiopicxjv, rig

rj

deuig avrcov
d'AAcov /cat

Kal riveg hLacf>opal irpos d'AA^^Aa, rojv r
SiacfyepeL
to,

dppeva rcov drjXeiwv, €K re ra)v
/cat
e/c

dvaropLCJV
Trept Tct

deojpeiaBuj

rcov

tcrroptcov

rttjv

^a)a.

10

rrepl ivros fiev roJv ojanep Kal nepl rcov ctAAcov t^ipiov eKTos S' e;!^ft to re rou crcujLtaros" KVTOSy dhiopiGTov 6v, Kal rovrov vohag epLTrpoodev Trepl Tr)v Ke(f)aXrjV, evros jJLev raJv 6(f)daXfia)Vy Trepl he TO GTOjJLa Kal Tovg ohovras. rd fxev ovv dXXa t,cpa rd exovra rrohag rd jjiev efXTrpoGdev e;^et /cat

IX. Tcov

he

jJLaXaKLOJv

elpiqraL

Trporepov,

oTTLGdev,

rd

8' e/c

rod irXayiov, ojorrep rd TToXvTroha

15

20

Kal dvaijia rcov ^cocov rovro he ro yevog Ihlojg rovrcov rrdvras ydp exovGL rovs rrohas errl ro ejiTrpoGOev. KaXovpuevov rovrov 8' atrtov on GVvrJKraL avrcov ro OTTLoOev rrpos ro efirrpoGdev, wGTTep rdjv oGrpaKoheppicov rots GrpofM^ajheoLV. oAoJS" ydp rd oorpaKohepi^ia ex^L rfj fiev opLOLOJS he roZs jLtaAa/ctot?. fj rots' piaXaKOGrpaKois rfj fxev ydp e^ojdev ro yecoheg evrog he ro oapKcbhe?, rols jLtaAa/coCTTpd/cots", to Se gx'^P-ol rod o-aj/xaros" ov rpoTTOV GvveGrrjKe, rolg ^aAa/ctots", rpoirov fiev
,

See Hist. An. 525 a 30—527 b 34, 541 b 19 ff. At 678 b 24 ff. The theory that the cuttle-fish is comparable to a vertebrate bent double was put forward in a paper read before the Academy of Sciences in 1830, and was the origin of the famous
«
^
'^

354>

:

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
reason

IV. viii.-ix.

why they have

claws

is
;

because they belong

to a group which has claws and tliey have them in this irregular way because they themselves are

deformed and use the claws not

for their natural

purpose but for locomotion. For an account of every one of the parts, of their position, and of the differences between them,
including the differences between the male and the female, consult the Anatomical treatises and the
Inquiries upon Animals.'^

IX. With regard to the Cephalopods, their internal parts have already been described, as have those of the other animals.^ The external parts include (1) the trunk of the body, which is undefined, and (2) in front of this, the head, with the feet round it the feet are not beyond the eyes, but are outside the mouth and the teeth. Other footed animals either have some of their feet in front and some at the back ; or else arranged along the sides as with the The bloodless animals that have numerous feet. Cephalopods, however, have an arrangement of their own. All their feet are on what may be called the front. The reason for this is that their back half is drawn up on to the front half,'^ just as in the conical-shelled Testacea. And generally, though in some respects the Testacea resemble the Crustacea, in others they resemble the Cephalopods. In having their earthy material outside and their fleshy material inside, they resemble the Crustacea ; but as regarding the formation and construction of their body they resemble the Cephalopods -all of

(i)

Cephs

^°P°^^-

controversy between G. St-Hilaire and Cuvier about unity of type. This controversy excited Goethe more than the revolu(Ogle.) tion of the same year.

M

2

'

355

ARISTOTLE
684 b

TLva

TTOLvray

(jLaXiora

he

rcov

oTpofx^coScov

ra
€;(et

e^ovra

rrfv

iXiKrjv
7)

dfji(f)OT€pa)v

rov TpoTTov
formiter

<j)vaLs^'

et

yap tovtov propter hoc ambulant
avfjL^e^rjKev
eirl

uni-

{akX ovY KaOdnep
t,cpa>v /cat

rcov

TcrpaTToScov
25

rcov dvOpcjuTTCOv.

homo

vero

habet os

in capite, scihcet in parte superiori corporis,
oltto

€7T€LTa rov arofiaxov, eVetra Se rrjv KOiXlav,

8e

ravrr]? to evrepov p-ixP^ '^V^ Ste^oSou rov irepirrcofiaros.

rovrov

jxev

ovv rov rpoTTOv
KecffaXijv

e;^et

roTs

€vaLfjLOL9 ^cpoi?,
fxevo'^
30

Koi (i€rd r-qv

ioriv 6 KaXovjjiopia

Ocopa^, Kal rd nepl

rovrov rd Se Xonrd

rovrojv re X^P^^ ^^^ eveKa rrjs Kiv-qoeojg TrpooedrjKev 71 (f)VGis, olov rd re rrpoaOia KcJoXa /cat rd OTnadev.

^ovXerai Se
ivrofioLS
'q

/cat

rots'

fiaXaKoarpaKoig

/cat

rot?

y evOvajpca rcov evroodihicov rov avrdv
hia(j)epeL

€X€LV rpoTTov, /caTct Be rds vir-qpeoias rds e^codev

KLvqrLKds
re
/cat

rcov ivaipicjov.

rd he

/xaAct/cta

(jd^^ arpopL^cohrj rcov oarpaKohepp^cov ex^i

^ sequitur locus corniptus. quae corrigi possunt sec. vers, arabicam corrcxi, suppositicia eieci, amissa e versione latina Mich. Scot supplevi. text. vulg. habet tj <j)vais (Lc-rrep et tls

eV evdeias, KadaTrep avfi^e^rjKev eVi rcov TerpaTToBcov Kal rcov avdpoiTTwv, TrpcjTov p.kv inl aKpco ro) avoj ard/xaTi rrfS €v9eias Kara to A, iTTura K^Kara. addunt PY> to B tov OTOfxaxov, [to 8e om. PY] V rrjv KOiXiav oltto Sc tov ivripov TOVTOV fxkv OVV fl^Xpi' TTJS 8l€^680V tov TTepiTTCOjJLaTOS, 1^ TO A. TOV TpOTTOV eX^L TOls (.VaijXOlS t,a)OLS, KOI TT€pl TOVTO ioTlV lj K€(f)aXrj KOL 6 dcopa^ Ka\ovp.evos {koX, dcopa^ SU)* to. 8e Xonrd,
vorjaei€V
l,(x)wv

etc.
2

vide et quae p. 432 scripsi.
<dAA' ov>

Peck.

3

<Ta> Peck.

356

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

ix.

them do so to some extent, but most markedly those conical Testacea which have a spiral shell, since both these classes have this natural strucand therefore they walk with an even gait, ture * and not as is the case with quadrupeds and man.^ Now man has his mouth placed in his head, viz. in the upper pari of the body, and after that the gullet, then the stomach, and after that the intestine which reaches as far as the vent where the residue is discharged. This is the arrangement in the blooded animals, i.e., after the head comes what is known as the trunk, and the parts adjoining. The remaining parts {e.g. the hmbs at front and back) have been added by Nature for the sake of those which I have
;

just

mentioned and

also to

make movement

possible.

in the Crustacea too and in the Insects the internal parts tend to be in a straight alignment of
this

Now

kind though with regard to the external parts which subserve locomotion their arrangement diifers from that of the blooded animals. The Cephalopods and the conical-shelled Testacea have the same
;

" The passage which follows has been badly corrupted by The references to a diagram which have ousted the text. words in itaHcs have been translated from the Arabic version, of which Michael Scot's Latin translation is given opposite, in See supplementary note on default of the original Greek. p. 432.
* This refers to their uneven progression by moving first one side of the body and then the other. The Testacea, however, " have no right and left" {De incessu an. 714 b 9), and their movement was evidently an awkward problem for Aristotle. He reserves them until the very end of the De incessu, and he has to admit that they move, although they ought not to do so They move Trapa <^volv. The mechanism of their motion can be detected by the microscope, and is known as ciliary. See also De incessu^ 706 a 13, 33, Hist. An. 528 b 9.
!
'

357

ARISTOTLE
885 a

avTols
/xeVojs"

fj,€V

TrapaTrX-qoiajg,

tovtols

8'

dvrearpa^'

KeKafiTTrai

yap

rj

reXevrrj Tvpos rrjv dp)(rjv,
[icf)^

a)07r€p dv et Tt? ttjv evOelav

rjs

to E]^ Kafiipas

TTpooaydyoL to

A

Trpog to

A.

ovtcos

ydp

Keifievajv

vvv Tcov ivrooOicov TrepiKeirai toIs /xev
.')

/xaAa/ciotS"

to

KVTOSy o KaXetTai

[jlovov irrl tcov rroXvrrohojv K€(f)aXy]-

TOLS 8' OOTpaKohepflOlS TO TOIOVTOV €GTLV 6 OTpOfXjSo?.

Sta^epet

S*

ovSev

dXXo

ttXtjv
-rrepl

on

roZs p-kv

pLoXaKov TO TTepi^, Tols Se GKX-qpov
TT€pieOr]K€V
T]

ro aapKwhes

(f)VOLS, OTTOJS GOjt,iqTai

hid TTjV SvGKLVT]-

Giav Kal Sid TOVTO to
10

TrepLTTCjpia rots re

paXaKiois

i^epx^Tat
ttXtjv

7T€pl

to GTop^a Kal tols GTpopftcLheGi,

roXg pikv piaXaKLOLS KarcodeVy toIs 8e GTpope/c

jScoSeatv

tou irXayiov.

15

pikv ovv ttjv alriav toIs piaXaKiois ot TOWTOV eXOVGL TOV rpOTTOV, Kal V7T€VaVTL(JJ9 t} TOts" d'AAot?. exovGi 8' dvopoiws at Gr^Triai Kal at revOiSes TOt? ttoXvttogl Sid to vevGTiKal povov €tvat, Tous" 8e Kal TTopevTiKovg. at pikv ydp Toug
TToSeS"

Ata TavTTjv

dvcvdev

rd)V

ohovTWV (e^ puKpovsY

e;(ouo-t,

/cat

TOUTO^V TOU? CGXaTOV? SvO
TCOV OKTOJ Svo

/Xet^OUS', TOUS"

8e XoLTTOVS
coGTrep
/ctoAa,

Karwdev peyiGTOV? rrdvrojv.^ ydp TOt? TeTpaTTOGi to. ottlgO ia iGxvpoTepa
Kal ravTais piiyiGTOi ol Karcodev
20 (77-o8es')'**

to ydp
Kal
Oi

(f)OpTiOV

OVTOi eXOVGi Kal KiVOVGL pidXiGTa.

€GX0iTOi hvO pi€il,OVS TCOV pieGCOV, OTL TOVTOLS GVVpost ^s add. Z to o\ov (f>r)aL. vid. p. 432. Schneider ex Gazae vers, {senos exiguos) sex S ; fxiKpovs (sed noBa)v pro oSovtcov), idem E teste Buss. ^ TT-avTcov Ogle * <7ro8es'> Rackhani. TovTcvv vulg.
^

seclusi

;

^

;

Z

:

358

:

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

ix.

arrangement as one another, but it differs completely from that of the others, as the tail-end of these creatures is bent right over to meet the front, just as if I were to bend the straight hne over until the point D met the point A. Such

A B C D
internal parts. situated the sac (in the Octopuses and in them only it is called the head) in the Testacea the corresponding thing is the conical shell. The only difference is that in the one case the surrounding substance is soft, and in the other Nature has surrounded the flesh with something hard, to give them the preservation they need owing to their bad locomotion. As a result of the abovementioned arrangement, in both sets the residue leaves at a point near the mouth in the Cephalopods under the mouth, in the conical Testacea at the side

then,

is

the

disposition

of

their

Round them,

in

Cephalopods,

is

:

of it.

So what we have said explains why the feet of Cephalopods are w^here they are, quite differently placed from all other animals' feet. Sepias and Calamaries, however, being swimmers merely, differ from the Octopuses, which are walkers as well they have six small feet above the teeth, and of these the ones at each end are larger the remaining two out of the total eight are down below and largest of all. These creatures have their strongest feet do^v^l below, just as quadrupeds have their strongest limbs at the back and the reason is that they carry the weight of the body and they chiefly are responsible for locomotion. The two outer feet are larger than the inner ones because they have to help the others 359
;

;

;

'

ARISTOTLE
685 a

VTTrjperovorLV.

6 8e ttoXvttov? tous iv fieuo) rerrapas

jieycGTOvs-

25

80

35

685 b

6

ovv TTOLvra exovat ravra oktw, dAA' koL at revOcSes ^pax^ls, ra he TToXvTToScoSr] /xeyaAous". to yap kvtos rod crajjuaro? at pL€v fieya exovauv ra} he puKpov, cuare rots' ftey a^etAev aTro rod Gcofxaros, Trpos he to jjltjkos tcov 7Toha)V TTpoaeOr^Kev rj (f)VGi?y rat? 8' oltto tcov hionep TOt? TTohcov Xa^ovaa to oajfia -qv^-qaev. fiev OX) pLovov TTpos TO veZv xPV^^l^ot, OL vohes dXXa Kal TTpos TO ^ahi^eiv, Tat? S' dxpr](JTOL' puKpol yap, TO he KVTOS /xeya exovacv. eVet Se jSpa^^et? exovoL Tovs TTohas /cat d;^p')70'T0us" Trpos to dvTiXapi^dveodaL Kal fir) dirooTTaodai^ diro tojv TreTpojv, OTav KXvhojv Kal ;!^6tjLtcuv, Kal rrpos to to. aTToOev tt poody eodai, fj hid TavTa rrpo^ooKihas exovai hvo paKpds, at? oppiovoi Te Kal dTTooaXevovoiv wGrrep rrXolov orav x^^^dov fjy Kal Td aTToBev OrjpevovGi Kal TrpoudyovTai TavTais at Te arjTTiai Kal at revdlhes- ol he ttoXvTTohes ovK exovGi to,? Trpo^ooKihas hid to tovs rrohas avTols elvai irpos TavTa XPV^^I^^^^' ^vlols^ he KOTvXrjhoves Trpos TOt? Troat /cat TxAe/CTavat TTpooeioLy hvvapLiv exovGai* Kal ovvdeuiv TOLavTr]v otavTrep rd TrXeypLaTia ols ol larpol ol dpxouoi tovs haKTvXovs eve^aXXov ovtoj Kal e/c tcov Ivcjv

IloSa?
/xey

fi€V

at

o-qTriai

*

dnoaTTdadai
^

Peck Bckker ivlois Peck
^

Ttt

:

ol
:

vulg.

:

avriaTrdadai codd. oools vulg.

*

^Xovaai

P

:

exovai vulg.

"

The use

of these aavpai or aeipat

is
;

crates, Ucpl dpdpcov (Littre iv.

318-330

tubes

woven out of palm-tissue are

by Hippo" The satisfactory means of
described
iii.

L.C.L.

390

:

3G0

"

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

ix.

in performing their duty. In the Octopuses, however, the four middle feet are the biggest. And although all these creatures have eight feet, the Sepia's and the Calamary's are short ones, since their bodies are large in the trunk, and the Octopus's feet are long, because his body is small. Thus in one case the substance which she took from the body Nature has given towards lengthening the feet, and in the other she has taken away from the feet and made the body itself bigger. Hence it results that the Octopuses have feet which will serve them for walking as well as for swimming, whereas the other creatures' feet will not do so, being small, while the body itself is big. And inasmuch as these creatures' feet are short, and useless for holding on tightly to the rock in a storm when there is a strong sea running, or for bringing to the mouth objects that are at a distance, by way of compensation they have two long probosces, with which during a storm they moor themselves up and ride at anchor like a ship therewith also they hunt distant prey and bring it to their mouths. These things the Sepias and Calamaries The Octopuses have no probosces because their do. feet serve these purposes. Some creatures have suckers and twining tentacles as well as feet these have the same character and function as well as the same structure as those plaited tubes which the early physicians used for reducing dislocated fingers." They are similarly made out of plaited fibres, and their
;
:

reduction, if you make extension of the finger both ways, graspins: the tube at one end and the wrist at the other." The aavpa was thus a tube open at both ends. similar passage in Diodes ap. Apollonius of Kitium, no doubt taken from Hippocrates, refers to " the aetpai which children plait (L.C.L. iii. 453).

A

.

361

ARISTOTLE
685 b

TreTrAey/xeVat
TO,

elalv^

Kal^

eXKOvai

ivSiSovTa.

7TeptAa/x/3avet /xev

ra aapKca /cat yap ^(^aXapa ovra*

10

orav 8e ovvrelvr), Tiie^et Kal €-)(€TaL rod eyros" diyydvovros Travros. "ncrr' eVet d'AAo ovk eoTLV cL TTpoad^ovraL, aAA* 7] rd fX€v ToZs TToal rd 8e rat? TTpo^ouKiGi, rauras exovGi TTpds d\K7]V Kal ttjv dXXrjv ^orjOeiav^ dvrl
X^i'POJV.

rrohcov piovoKorvXov.

15

dXXa SiKorvXd ion, ylvos he rt ttoXvalnov Se to firJKOS Kal rj ActtroTTjs Tr]g (/jvaeajs avrdjv {jlovokotvXov ydp dvayKalov elvai rd orevov. ovk ovv ojs ^eXriarov exovauv, dXX (Ls dvay Kalov Std rdv lSlov Xoyov r7]s ovolas. Urepvyiov 8' exovoL ravra rrdvra kvkXo) Trepi to
To, fxev ovv

20

25

rovro 8' irrl fjiev rdjv dXXcov uvvaTrropLevov Gvvex^9 eon, Kal IttI tojv pLeydXwv revOcov at 8' iXdrrovs Kal KaXovfievat revOlSeg TrXarvrepov re rovro exovGL Kal ov orevov, a)07T€p at ar^TTiai Kal ol TToXvTToSes, Kal rovr dird piioov -qpyp.evov, Kal ov kvkXo) 8ta iravros. rovro 8' exovaiv O7TC0S vecooL Kal TTpds TO Siopdovv, (x)a7T€p roLS fJLev TTTqvots TO oppoTTvyiov, rots 8' IxOvcn to ovpalov. iXaxiorov 8e rovro Kal TJKLora eTrihiqXov rols TToXvTTOOLV ioTL Sid TO flLKpOV €X€IV TO KVTOS Kal hiopdovodai rots ttooIv t/cavcos". Hepi fjL€V ovv TOJV ivTOfxcov Kal fiaXaKoarpaKOJV Kal OGTpaKoBepfjiOJV Kal [jiaXaKLOJV eiprjrai, Kal 7T€pl Twv ivrds fiopiajv Kal rcov cktos.
KVTOS.
/cat

80

X. HaAtv
^

8'

e^ VTTapxrjs vepl raJv ivaipaxiv
^

/cat

Kal

Ogle

:

aU

vulg.

aXKriv xP^io-v Kal ^oi]deiav

Y, Ogle.

S62

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
action
is

IV. ix.-x.

to

draw
;

flesh

and yielding substances, as

follows.

First they encircle the object while they

are still relaxed then they contract, and by so doing compress and hold fast the whole of whatever is in contact with their inner surface. So, as these creatures have nothing else with which to convey objects to the mouth except the feet (in some species) and the probosces (in others), they possess these organs in lieu of hands to serve them
as

weapons and generally to assist them otherwise. All these creatures have two rows of suckers, except a certain kind of Octopus, and these have only one, because owdng to their length and slimness they are so narrow that they cannot possibly have another. Thus they have the one row only, not because this

arrangement is the best, but because it is necessitated by the particular and specific character of their being. All these animals have a fin which forms a circle round the sac. In most of them it is a closed and continuous circle, as it is in the large Calamaries (teuthi), while in the smaller ones called teuthides it is quite wide (not narrow as in the Sepias and Octopuses), and furthermore it begins at the middle and does not go round the whole way. They have this fin to enable them to swim and to steer their course, and it answers to a bird's tail-feathers and a fish's tailfm. In the Octopuses this fin is extremely small and insignificant because their body is small and can be steered well enough by means of the feet. This brings to an end our description of the internal and external parts of the Insects, the Crustacea, the Testacea, and the Cephalopods.
,

X.

Now we must

go back and begin again
.

^vith

363

ARISTOTLE
685 b

ap^aixevoLS aire rcov vttoXolttcjov Kal TTporepov €lpr)[jLevojv pLopicjv tovtcov 8e SiopLoOevrcov Trepl rCov ivaLficov Kal cootokojv tov
i,ci)OTOKOJV eTTiGKeTTTeov,

,

,

,

,

>

,

,

^

^

f

avTov rpoTTOV epovpiev.
ovv pLopia ra Trepl rrjv Ke(f)aXrjV rwv ^wcjov Kal ra Trepl tov KaXovpievov avx^^oL Kal Tpdx^Xov. ex^t Se Ke(j)aXr]v Trdvra rd 686aeVat/xa ^cpa- rcov 8' dvaipiojv eviois dhLopiorov TOVTO TO p.6pLOV, otoV ToXs KapKLVOLS. aVX^^CL OVV

Ta

pLev

35

eiprjrai

rrporepov,

TO.

fiev

t^cpoTOKa tto-vt
tcl

'ex^^>

tojv S'
puev

cootokcov
6-6

to,

pLev
6 e'xet,

ex€L TO. o'

ovk e^er oaa
he
purj

yap

TTvevpLova

Kal avx^vo. ex^i,
Tj

dvaTTveovTa

pad ev

OVK ex^t TOVTO TO
"EcTTt 8'

pLOpiOV.

XdpLV dvayKT] yap tovto to

10

pLaXidTa tov eyKe(j)dXov pLoptov ex^^v Tolg ivaipiois, Kal iv avTiKeipLevco tottco ttjs KapSlag, 8td TOLS elprjpievas TrpoTepov atrta?. e^eOeTO 8' t] (f)VGis ev avTjj Kal tojv aLadrjaecuv evta? Sid to GvpLpLeTpov etvai ttjv tov a'lpiaTOS Kpdoiv Kal evnrrjSeiav npos re ttjv tov iyKe(f)dXov dXeav Kal TTpos TTJV TciJv oloQ'qoeojv rjavx^oLV Kal dKpi^eiav.
pLev Kecl)aXrj

€TL 8e TpLTOV pLOpLOV VTTedrjKe TO

T'r]V

TTJS TpO(f>rJ9

15

CLGoSov hiqpiovpyovv evTavOa ydp VTreKeiTO ovpupieTpcos pidXiGTa- ovTe ydp dvojdev KeloOai ttjs KapSias Kal ttjs dpx^s evehex^ro ttjv KoiXiav, ovTe KdTwdev ovo7]s ov TpoTTOV e^^et vvv iveSex^TO ttjv etcro8ov ert /caroj etvau t-:^? KapSlas' ttoXv ydp dv^ TO pLTJKO? rjv TOV GWpLaTO^, Kal TTOppCO XiaV TTjS r) pev ovv Ke(f)aXrj Kivovoris dpxT]S Kal TreTTOvor^s TOVTCOV xdpiv eGTLV, 6 8' avx'Tjv TTJs" dpTTipias ;^aptv
.

^

av P,

om. vulg.

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV. x.

the blooded viviparous animals. Some of the parts Mhich we have already enumerated still remain to be described, and we will take these first. This done, we will describe similarly the blooded Ovipara.

We have already " spoken of the parts around the External head, and what is called the neck, and the throat. I'.looded All blooded animals have a head, but in some of the animals. ^^^^^ bloodless ones the head is indistinct {e.g. in crabs). " All Vivipara have a neck, but not all Ovipara to be precise, only those which breathe in air from without and have a lung. The presence of the head is mainly for the sake of Sead and the brain. Blooded creatures must have a brain, which (for reasons aforeshown) ^ must be set in some place opposite to the heart. But in addition, Nature has put some of the senses up in the head, apart from the rest, because the blend of its blood is well proportioned and suitable for securing not only warmth for the brain but also quiet and accuracy for the senses. There is yet a third part which Nature has disposed of in the head, viz. the part which manages the intake it was put here because this gave the bestof food ordered arrangement. It would have been impossible to put the stomach above the source and sovereign part, the heart and it would have been impossible to make the entrance for the food below the heart, even with the stomach below the heart as it actually is, because then the length of the body would be very great, and the stomach would be too far away from the source which provides motion and concoction. These then are the three parts for whose sake the head exists. The neck exists for the sake of the
:

;

^

;

"

At 655 b 27—665 a

25.

^

At 652 b

17

ff.

365

ARISTOTLE
686 a
20
^

yap ccttl, kol gcjoI,€L ravTqv kol rov olcrokvkXco nepLexcov. rols /xev ovv d'AAots" ecrrt KapLTTTos KOL G(f)ovSvXovs €)(a>v , ol 8e XvKOL Kai XiovTCs pLOVOGTovv Tov av^^va ex^vGiv. e^Xeifje
TTpo^X-qjxa
<f)dyov

yap

7)

(f)vaLg ottojs rrpos rrjv

laxvv

;^p7]CTt/xoy

avTOV

excoGi jLtaAAov ^ Trpos ras d'AAa? ^orjOelas. 'E;^o/xeva 8e rov avx^vos Kal rrjs K€(f)aXrjs
25 7T

rd re
6
p,€V

pood la KcoXa rols

^cool? iorl Kal

Owpa^.

so

ovv di'dpcoTTo? dvTL oKeXojv Kal TToSiJjv Tcov TTpoadiajv PpaxLovag Kal rds KaXovpievas ex^i ;\;6tpas'. opOov fiev ydp ian piovov rojv t,a)Cx)v hid to ttjv (J)VGLv avTOV Kal rrjv ovaiav elvai deiav epyov 8e rov deiordrov to voelv Kal cfipovelv tovto 8' ov paScov TToXXov TOV dvcodev erriKeipiivov awp-aTOS' to ydp ^dpos hvGKivif]Tov rroiei ttjv Scdvoiav Kal rrjv
KOLVTjv

aludr]GLV.

hid

irXeiovos

yivopiivov
peTreiv

tov

^dpovs Kal tov

ocopLaTixihovs

dvdyKT]

rd

GcopiaTa TTpos Triv yrjv, (Lgtc irpos ttjv docjidX^iav dvrt ^paxidva>v Kal x^^pdjv tov? TTpoGdtovs TToSas
35

vveOrjKev

rj

(jiVGis

Tolg

TeTpdrroGLV.

tovs

/Lcev

686 b

6

ydp ottlgOlovs hvo rraGiv dvayKaZov toIs TTopevTiKoZs ^X^^^> Td he ToiavTa TeTpdiroha iyeveTO ov hvvapiivrjs ^ipeiv to ^dpos ttjs i/jvxrjs- "rravTa ydp €GTL Td Ja>a vavajh-q rdAAa Trapd tov dv6pa>7TOV vavcbhes ydp Igtiv ov to /xev dvoj pLeya, to he <f)epov TO pdpos Kal Tre^evov puKpov dvoj 8' eVrtv
d KaXovpLevos dcnpa^, ajro
ttJ? KecjyaXrjS i^^X/^t
'^'^S'

" For the " general " or " common " sense see De mem. 450 a 10, etc. and cf. Be part. an. 656 a 28, 665 a 12. The " general " sense is not another sense over and above the ordinary five, but rather the common nature inherent in
;

S66

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
:

IV. x.

windpipe it acts as a shield and keeps the windpipe and the oesophagus safe by completely encircling them. The neck is flexible and has a number of vertebrae in all animals except the wolf and the lion whose neck consists of one bone only, for Nature's object was to provide these with a neck that should be useful for its strength rather than for other purposes. The anterior limbs and the trunk are continuous Limbs, and with the head and neck. Man, instead of forelegs reia'tive and forefeet, has arms and hands. Man is the only sizes, animal that stands upright, and this is because his nature and essence is di\ine. Now the business of that which is most divine is to think and to be intelligent and this would not be easy if there were a great deal of the body at the top weighing it down, for weight hampers the motion of the intellect and of the general sense.'* Thus, when the bodily part and the weight of it become excessive, the body itself must and then, for lurch forward towards the ground safety's sake, Nature provided forefeet instead of arms and hands as has happened in quadrupeds. All animals which walk must have two hind feet, and those I have just mentioned became quadrupeds because their soul could not sustain the weight bearing Compared with man, all the other animals it doAMi. are dwarf-like. By " dwarf-like " I mean to denote
;
;

that M'hich is big at the top (i.e. big in the " trunk,'* or the portion from the head to the residual vent), and small where the weight is supported and where

them

all thus Aristotle {De somno) argues that their simultaneous inactivity during sleep is not a mere coincidence but is due to the inactivity of the central perceptive faculty of which they are differentiations. Among the functions of the " general " sense are discrimination between the objects of
;
:

two senses, and the perceiving that we perceive.
'

367

ARISTOTLE
686 b
^

10

i^oSov rod TrepLrrcjofxarog. rot? fikv ovv avBpcjTTOi^ rovTO irpos to Karco ovpLi-ierpov, kol ttoXXco eXarrov eon reXeiovpiivois' veois S' ovui rovvavTLOV ra fiev avoj fxeydXa, to 8e Karoj puKpov (8to Kal epnovcri, ^ahil,eLV S' ov hvvavrai, to Se
7Tpa>Tov oz58'
epTTovGiv,

a\X

aKLViqTit,ovuiv)'

vdvoi

yap

elcTL

rd

Traihia Trdvra.

rrpoCovoi he roZs p-ev

dvdpojTTOis av^erai rd Kdrojdev rol? Se rerpdnoai TovvavTLOV rd Kdrco pLeyiura rd rrpajrov, Trpo'Covra S' av^erat errl rd dvoj, rovro 8* eorl rd and rrjg eSpag errl rrjv KecjjaXr^v Kvros. hid Kal ro) vifjei ol
15 77-coAot

TcDy LTTTTajv ovSev rj piLKpdv eXdrrovs elai, Kal veoL p,ev dvres diyydvovGi red oTTiaBev GKeXei rrjs K6(f)aX7Js, Trpeo^vrepoi 8' ovres ov hvvavrai. rd (lev ovv pLcovvxoL Kal St^i^Aa rovrov ex^L rdv

rpoTTOVy
fjLev

rd Se

77oAu8a/<:Ti'Aa

Kal aKepara vavajSrj
TTOielrai
rijs

eoriv, rjrrov he rovrcov hid Kal rrjv av^rjatv

20 Trpos"

rd dvoj rd Karco Kard Xoyov

cAAeti/fecD?.

25

"Kan he Kal rd rwv opvldojv Kal rd rcov Ix^vojv yevos Kal Trdv rd evaipLOv, wcnrep eiprjrai, vavcohes. hid Kal d^poveorepa Trdvra rd t,ci)a rcov dvOpcoTTCOv ear LP. Kal ydp rcdv dvOpcvTrcov, olov rd re rraihia rrpds rods dvhpas Kal avrajv rcov ev -qXiKia ol vavcohei? rr]v ^vglv, edv Kal riv^ dXXrjv hvvap,LV exwoL TTepurr-qv, dXXd rep rdv vovv e;^€t.v iXXeiTTOVGLv. atriov 8', WGnep etprjraL npdrepov, on rrjs ijjvx'TJS dpx'Tj ttoXXoXs hrj^ hvGKLvqros eon 7] Kal GCopLarcvh-qs. eVt 8' eXdrrovos yLvop,evr)s rrjs
^

TToXXols

hi)

et insuper addit

Peck -noXXo) Srj vi\]p. add. Kal Y, (^apd aiofiaTi Karate pofiimj).
: :

Piatt, qui

368

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
is

IV. x.

locomotion is effected. In man, the size of the trunk proportionate to the lower portions, and as a man ^rows up it becomes much smaller in proportion. In infancy the reverse is found the upper portion is large and the lower is small (and that is why infants cannot walk but crawl about, and at the very beginning cannot even crawl, but remain where they are). In other words, all children are dwarfs. Now, in man, as time proceeds, the lower portion grows their lower Not so with the quadruped animals portion is biggest at the beginning, and as time proceeds the top portion grows (i.e. the trunk, the portion between the head and the seat). Thus foals are quite or almost as high as horses, and at that age a foal can touch its head with its hind leg, but not when it is older." \\Tiat has been said holds good of the animals that have solid hoofs or cloven. The polydactylous, hornless animals are indeed dwarf-like too, but not so markedly, and so the growth of their lower portions compared with the upper is proportionate to the smaller deficiency. The whole groups of birds and fishes are dwarf-like indeed, so is every animal vnth blood in it, as I have said. This is why all animals are less intelligent than
: :
:

;

man. Even among human beings, children, when compared with adults, and dwarf adults when compared with others, may have some characteristics in which they are superior, but in intelligence, at any
they are inferior. And the reason, as aforethat in verv many of them the principle of the And if the heat which soul is sluggish and corporeal.
rate,
said,
is
" These observations are entirely correct. Cf. Ogle's See also Hist. an. quotation ad loc. from T. H. Huxley.

500 b 26

ff.
'

369

ARISTOTLE
686b
80
^

alpovurjs OepiioTrjTOS koL rod yeojSovs TrXelovos, rd

^

T€

(jco/JLaTa

eXdrrova rcov

t,a)OJv

earl Kal TToXvrroha,

Tf.Xos 8' ctTToSa yiverai Kal rerafiiva irpos rrjv yrjv.
jJLLKpov S' ovTCO

KOLTO),

Kal

TO

TTpo^aivovTa Kal rriv dpxV'^ exovGL Kara rrjv K€(f)aXrjv pLoptov reXog

85

SS7 a

6

Kal dvaLGdrjrov, Kal yiverai (fyvrov, Kdrw, rd he Kdrco dvoj' at ydp pl^aL rots (f)VTol9 GTopiaTog Kal K€(f)aXrjg 'ixovai SvvapLLv , TO Se airipp^a rovvavriov dvo) ydp Kal €77* aKpoLs yiverai roZs Trropdoig. At' rjv puev ovv alriav rd fiev StVoSa rd Se ttoXvTToSa rd 8' a77oSa rcov i,ci)a)v ecrrl, Kal 8ta rlv alriav rd fxev <j)vrd rd he Joja yeyovev, eLprjraL, Kal 8toTt pLovov opdov iarL rcov t,a)(jov 6 dvdpwiTos' opdcp 8' ovrt rrjv cf)VGLV ovhepLia XP^^^ UKeXcov rcov epLTTpoodicov, dXX dvrl rovrcov ^pax^ovas Kal ;(etpa? aTTohehcoKev rj (f)VGL£. ^Ava^ayopas piev ovv <f)y]oi hid rd x^^poi? ^X^'-^ (j)povL[jLcorarov etvat rcov l^cocov dvOpcoTTOV evXoyov he hid rd cfipovipLcorarov elvai
OLKLvrjTov iari,

€xov rd

fjLev

dvco

10

x^^P^^
eloiv,
T)

XajjL^dveiv.

at
roj

fxev

ydp

;)(etpe?

opyavov
[irpoa-

he

<j)VGis

del hiavepiei, Kaddirep dvdpcoiTOS
hvvajjievcp

<j)p6vLpL09,

eKaorov
rep

;^p^(T^at

rjKeL
rj

ydp

ovrt avXrjrfj

hovvai pidXXov avXov?
avX-qriKi^v)- rep

ro)

avXovs exovri Trpoadelvai

yap

pLel^ovi Kal Kvpicorepcp npoaedriKe
15

rovXarrov, dAA' ov ro) iXdrrovL rd rupLLcorepov Kal /xet^ov. el ovv ovrco? l^eXnoVy rj he (jyvais eK rcov evhexopevcov
With the terminology used
i.

<*

in

11.

28-29

cf.

Hippocrates,

TlipX StatTTj?,
^

35.

That

is, it

answers to residue in animals

;

cf.

655 b 35.

370

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
raises the

IV.

x.

organism up wanes still further while the earthy matter waxes,*^ then the animals' bodies wane, and they will be many-footed and finally they lose their feet altogether and lie full length on the ground. Proceeding a little further in this way, they actually have their principal part down below, and finally the part which answers to a head comes to have neither motion nor sensation at this stage the creature becomes a plant, and has its upper parts below and its nether parts aloft for in plants the roots have the character and value of mouth and head, whereas the seed counts as the opposite,^ being produced in the upper part of the plant on the ends of the twigs. We have now stated why it is that some animals
;

;

;

feet, some many, some none at all some creatures are plants and some animals

have two

;

why
;

and

the only one of the animals that stands upright. And since man stands upright, he has no need of legs in front instead of them Nature has given him arms and hands. Anaxagoras indeed asserts that it is his possession of hands that makes man the most intelligent of the animals but surely the reasonable point of view is that it is because he is the most intelligent animal that he has got hands. Hands are an instrument and Nature, like a sensible human being, always assigns an organ to the animal that can use it (as it is more in keeping to give flutes to a man who is already a flute-player than to provide a man who possesses flutes with the skill to play them) thus Nature has provided that which is less as an addition to that which is greater and superior not vice versa. We may conclude, then, that, if this is the better way, and if Nature always does the best she can in the circumstances, it is not true
is
; ; ;
; ; ,

why man

371

ARISTOTLE
TTOieL

TO

peAriGrov,

ov

oia

ras

;^etpas'

ecrrtv

o

avdpojTTOS
[jLcoTarog
20 rj

^povLjJLOjraros,
l,a)CDV

rarov elvai rcov

dAAa 8ta to (f)povLfX(x)e-)(^ei -x^elpag. 6 yap cfypovLKaXojs,

TrXeLGTOtg dv opydvois e-x^piqaaro

Se X^^P eoLK€v elvat ov)( ev opyavov aAAd TToXXd' eon yap (hoTrepel opyavov npo 6pydva)V. tco ovv
irXeloTov
rcx)v

TrXeLorag

eVt Se^aaOau re^vas to Swajxevcp opydvcov XPW^H-^^ "^W X^^P^ drro'

'AAA'
25

ol

Xeyovres

(1)S

GVvedTrjKev ov

KaXws

6

dXXd )(eLpiura ra)V t,(h(xJV [dvviToSrjrov re yap avrov elvai ^aoi /cat yvjJLvov /cat ovk exovra onXov irpos rrfv dXK-qv) ovk opdujs XeyovGiv. rd fjiev yap dAAa jLttW €;^et ^orjOeiav, /cat fiera^dXXeadat dvrl ravrr)? irepav ovk €gtlv, dAA' dvayKalov ayorrep vrrohehepievov del Kadcvheiv /cat
avdpcorros

irdvra TrpdrreLv,
IXTjheTTore
30

/cat

ttjv

irepl

to

CTdj/.ta

dXecvpav
hi]

KaradeGOai,
ottXov
TToAAds"

/xT^Se

p.eraf^dXXeGdai o

Irvyxo-vev^

exov^' ro)
e;i^ety

687 b jSo7]^etas"

/cat

Se dvOpcoTTCp rd? t€ ravras del e^eGri
/cat /cat

pLera^dXXetv,
'^^^^

eVt

8'

ottAov
rj

olov dv ^ovXrjraL

OTTOU dv^ ^ovXrjTai ex^iv.

yap X^^P
/cat

^^tt

ovv^

XV^'^
/cat
6

/cepas"

yiverai

hopv

/cat

^Icjiog

dAAo

oTTOtoroui^ ottAov /cat

opyavov rrdvra yap

€GTai ravra Std to Trdvra hvvaGOai Xafi^dv€LV /cat ex^tv auTT^v ei)* 8e ovfxiiepiiqxdvqTaL^ /cat to etSo?''
Ti^ cf)VG€L rrjs x^tpds", Staiperr)
1

yap

/cat 77oAuaxtS'>ys"

eTyy;^avev ev
2

Tvyxdvci. €v Th. ; hic alia : l^cuv viilg. ex'ov Z, et corr. ^ 07T0U av] OTTorai' Og'le.
:

U^

omnino

11

U

*

CX^'-^

avTrjv eu
/cat

P

:

^

"irvfifi€fXTix<ii'r]rai
«

Ogle
vulg.

:

ovfifieixrjxo-vfjadai
:

ex^Lv Tavrrj vulg. vulg.
elBos

€?So9

PSUYZ.

372

;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV. x.

to say that man is the most intelHgent animal because he possesses hands, but he has hands because he is the most intelligent animal. We should expect the most intelligent to be able to employ the greatest number of organs or instruments to good purpose now the hand would appear to be not one single instrument but many, as it were an instrument that represents many instruments. Thus it is to that animal (viz. man) which has the capability for acquiring the greatest number of crafts that Nature has given that instrument (viz. the hand) whose range of uses is the most extensive. Now it must be wrong to say, as some do, that
;

the structure of man is not good, in fact, that it is worse than that of any other animal. Their grounds are that man is barefoot, unclothed, and void of any weapon of force. Against this we may say that all the other animals have just one method of defence and cannot change it for another they are forced to sleep and perform all their actions with their shoes on the whole time, as one might say they can never take off this defensive equipment of theirs, nor can they change their weapon, whatever it may be. For man, on the other hand, many means of defence are available, and he can change them at any time, and above all he can choose what weapon he will have and where. Take the hand this is as good as a talon, or a claw, or a horn, or again, a spear or a sword, or any other weapon or tool it can be all of these, because it can seize and hold them all. And Nature has admirably contrived the actual shape of the hand so as to fit in with this arrangement. It is not all of one piece, but it branches into several pieces which gives the possi: :

:

:

;

373

ARISTOTLE
687 b
^^

eVt

yap

^

^

iv ro) SiaLperrjv elvat /cat avvderrjv elvai,

^

10

15

KOI )(prjadaL ivl^ Kal Svolv Koi TToXXaxcog cGnv. /cat at Kafnral rcov SaKTvXojv KaXco? exovau irpos ra? Xijipei^ /cat TTieoeis. /cat e/c TrXayiov els, Kal ovros ^pa^vs /cat 7Ta)(vs dXX* ov fiaKpos' cooTrep yap et pjr] rjv X^i-P oXoj£, OVK av Tjv Xt^iJjl?, ovto) Kav el fir] eK TrXayiov ovros rjv. ovros yap KarcoOev dvo) TTte^et, onep at erepoL dvcodev Karco' Set 8e rovro ovpL^aivetv,
el
jLteAAet

iv TovTcp S' €K€LVO ovK eoTiv.

laxvpcog cjOTrep
els

cuva/x/xa
/cat

laxvpov

GvvSetv,

Iva

lodt,rj

cuv

ttoXXoIs.

^pa^vs

20

Sta re rr^v lgxvv Kal Stort ovSev 6(f)eXos el jxaKpos. (/cat o eaxoLTOS Se fiiKpos opOcos, Kal 6 fieaos fxaKpos, woTiep KcoTrr] peoovecos^' pLoXiura yap to dvdyKrj TrepiXap^dveadaL kvkXco XapL^avofxevov

Kara to
/caAetrat

fieuov rrpos Tas epyauias)

Kal Sta tovto
dxp'^fyroi
cLs

p.eyas

fxiKpos

a)v,

on

elnelv ol d'AAot

dvev tovtov.

ev Se

Kal to tcov
i^cpa
ep^ct

ovvxo^v
/cat
25

fjLep.rjxdvr]TaL'

Ta

pLev

yap dXXa

TTpos XPV^''^ avTovs, toIs S' dvOpcoTTOLS emKaXvTTTrjpia- cr/ceVaajLta yap tcov dKp(X)Tr]pia}v elaiv.

At

Se

KapLTTal

rcov ^paxi'Ovwv

Tr]V rrjs Tpo(f)rjs Trpooaycoyrjv

exovau rrpos re Kal irpos Tas aAAa?
eKeivois fiev

Xprjoeis evavTicos toZs TeTpdiroGiv.

yap dvayKalov e'lacx) KdpLTrreiv Ta epLTrpoodia KCjXa {Xpa>vTai yap ojs^ ttouiv) tV 7^ xPl^^f^^ irpos Trjv
^

ivl]

Hid Ogle.
:

^

fxeaoyecos

Schneider
^

fxeoov veojs vulg.

d)s

r, om. vulg.

" That is, the pieces. Ogle's suggested emendation would be translated " use the hands singly." The two transpositions suggested for this passage by Ogle seem un-

necessary.

374

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
bility

IV. x.

of its coming together into one solid piece, whereas the reverse order of events would be impossible.

Also,

it is

possible to use

them "

singly, or

two at a time, or

Again, the joints of the fingers are well constructed for taking hold of things and for exerting pressure. One finger is placed sideways this is short and thick, not long like the others. It would be as impossible to get a hold if this Mere not placed sideways as if no hand were there at all. It exerts its pressure upwards from below, whereas the others act downwards from above and this is essential for a strong tight grip (like that of a strong clamp), so that it may exert a pressure equivalent to that of the other four. It is short, then, first, for strength, but also because it would be no good if it were long. (The end finger also is small this is as it should be and the middle one is long like an oar amidships, because any object which is being grasped for active use has to be grasped right around the middle.) And on this account it is called " bi"; " althouo;h it is small, because the other fingers are practically useless without it. The nails, too, are a good piece of planning. In man they serve as coverings a guard, in fact, for the tip of the fingers. In animals they serve for practical
in various ways.
:

;

:

use as

M-ell.^

The

joints of the

arms

in

man bend
:

in the opposite

direction to those of quadrupeds this is to facilitate the bringing of food to the mouth, and other uses to which they are put. Quadrupeds must be able to bend their fore Hmbs inwards so that they may be serviceable in locomotion, since they use them as
'^

«

That is, as tools. See note on 693 b 3, p. 433.
'' '

375

ARISTOTLE
687 b
,

so

TTopclav, inel OeXei ye KOLKelvcov rols TToXvoaKTvAoLs

,

X

/

,

,

-

\

^

/\

ov

JjLOVov

TTpos TTjv TTopelav )(pr]GLfM

etyat

ra

e/x-

TTpooOev OKeXr), aAAa koI avri
<f)aiv€TaL ;^pctjyneva'
688 a
/cat

;)(etpajv,

cjOTrep /cat
/cat
djLtu-

yap Xaf-LpdvovGi
Tct

vovrai Tols TTpoodioLs.

8e pLajw^a rols oTnadtoLS'
'^^^

ov yap ex^i avrols
ay/ccocrt
/cat
Sto.

ret

TrpoaOta gkIXt] avdXoyov rols

rat?

x^P^^^-

^^

TroAi'Sa/CTuAajv

5

rovro /cat TrevraSa/cruAous' e;)(et Tot's" TTpoodiovs TToSas, Tou? 8* oTTLodev T€TpahaKTvXovs, olov Xeovres /cat Xvkol, ert 8e /ewe? /cat 77ap8aA€tc*
eVta
/cat

o

yap

TTepLTTTOS coGirep 6 rrjs

X^^P^^ yiverai pidyas
/cat

[TTepLTTTOs']}

rd 8e puKpd rcov TToXvhaKrvXojv
ex^i

Tovs
10

to ipTTvariKa elvai, orrcns rols ovv^i TrXeiooLv ovglv
ottlgOlovs

TrevraSaKTvXovs

8ta

dvrcXapLpavopLeva paov dvepirrj irpos to pLerecopo-

repov

/cat

vnkp

Kecf^aXrj?.

8e rcov dyfcwvojv rols dvdpojTTOis, tols 8* aAAot? Tcov ipLTTpoodicov GKeXojv, TO KaXovpi€vov
MeTa^-i)

15

GTTJdoS eGTly TOLS /XeV dvOpCOTTOLS ^xov nXdTOS €VXoyojs {ov yap kojXvovglv ol dyKcbves e/c TrXayiov TrpoGKelpevoL tovtov etyat tov tottov TrAaTuv), Tot? 8e TeTpdlTOGL 8td TT^V €77t TO TTpOGBLOV TOJV KCvXoJV €KTaGLV iv TO) TTOpeveodaL /cat /xeTa^dAAetv tov
TOTTOV GTeVOV TOVT
TO, pL€V

eGTL TO pLOpLOV.
t,(I)(X)V

TETpdnoSa TCJV
/cat

/Cat 8td TOVTO OVK eX^L pLaGTOVS €V

TOJ TOTTO) TOVTO}' TOLS 8' dvOpCOTTOLS 8td TI^V evpV-

Xojplav
20

to CT/ceTTct^co^at 8etv to, Trept ttjv touto vndpxovTOS tov tottov oapKCvSoVS OL pLaGTOL SLTjpOpOJVTaL, GapKCoheLS 6vT€S Tols p-ev dppeGL 8td TT^v elprjpLevTjv atTtav, e77t 8e
/capStav,

8td

^

TTeixTTTos seclusi.

37G

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
feet

IV.

x.

though even among quadrupeds the poly; dactylous ones tend to use the fore hmbs not only for and this can locomotion but also instead of hands actually be seen happening they take hold of things and defend themselves with their fore limbs. (Solidhoofed animals, on the other hand, do this with their hind limbs, as their forelegs have nothing that corresponds to elbows and hands.) This explains why some polydactylous quadrupeds actually have five toes on their forefeet (lions, wolves, dogs and leopards, for instance), although there are only four on their hind feet the fifth one, like the fifth ^ digit on the hand, is a " big " one.^ However, the small polydactylous quadrupeds have five toes on their hind feet too, because they are creepers and this gives them more nails, and so enables them to get a better hold and creep up more easily to greater heights and above your head. Between the arms in man (in other animals between the forelegs) is what is known as the breast. In man the breast is broad, and reasonably so, for the arms are placed at the side and so do not in any way prevent this part from being wide. In the quadrupeds, however, it is narrow, because as they walk about and change their position the limbs have to be extended forwards. And on this account, in quadruIn man, peds, the mammae are not on the breast. on the other hand, as the space here is wide, and the parts around the heart need some covering, the breast is fleshy in substance and the mammae are placed on it and are distinct. In the male they In are themselves fleshy for the reason just given.
;
: :

;

Breast.

"

Now

And needed when

generally called the " first." the foot is used as a hand.

77

ARISTOTLE
688
a

Tojv Or^Xeicbv 7TapaK<EXpf]Tai /cat Trpos erepov epyov
Tj

(jyVGLS,

07T€p ^afiev aVT7]V TToXXoLKLS TTOLelv 0.770Tpo(f)rjv.

25

TLuerai yap ivravOa rols yevvajpiivois
o
eiGLv OL {jLauTol 8ta to Svo
/cat

Svo
/xeV,

ra

pLopia elvac, to t

apLOT€p6v

TO he^iov.
to
/cat

/cat

oKXrjpoTepoi

oicopLGiJievoi he Sia

Ta? rrXevpas ovvdiTTeadaL
jxr]

fxev dAAy^Aats"^ /caTcx

tov tottov tovtov,

eTTiTrovov
t^ojois eV

8' eti^at TTjv (jyvGLV avToJv.
so jLtev

tols S' d'AAot?

TO) GTiqdei /.leTa^i) tcov GKeXcbv ahiJvaTov cgtiv
ri

cp^etv

^^aXcTTov^

tovs fiaoTovs (ifXTTohl^oLev
rjSrj

(jlcv

yap av

Trpos ttjv TTopelav), €)(Ovgl S'
TO. [xev

ttoXXovs

TpOTTOVs.^

yap oAtyoTO/ca

/cat fJLCJVVXCi

Kal

K€paTocf)6pa eV Tots' piripois exovGC tovs jxaoTovs,
/cat
35 jLtev

TOUTOVS" hvo,
Trepl ttjv

Ta Se TToXvTOKa r^ TToXvoxt-hrj to. yaoTepa nXayiovs Kal ttoXXovs, olov

688 b

yg Kal KViOV, TCt Se hvo IXOVOVS, TT€pl fxeGTiv flivTOL yaoTcpa, otov Xeojv. tovtov 8* atVtov ovx otl

oXiyoTOKOv, inel

Tt/CTet ttotc TrAetoj 8uotv, dAA' otl els

ov TToXvydXaKTOV dvaXiGKei yap
GapKO(f)dyov elvai.

to

GCJjJia T7)r

XapL^avofJievrjv Tpo(^rjV, Xafi^dvet Se GTrdviov hid to
5

*0

8* eXe(j)as

hvo piovov

e;)^€t,

tovtovs

8* vtto

Tat?

piaGxdXais rcov epLTrpoGdiajv GKeXojv.
fXeV
pLTjpoLS OTL TToXvGXf'hes

aiTiov he tov
pLTj

hvo €X€LV OTL pLOVOTOKOV CGTU, TOV he
{ovhev he

eV TOts

yap

ex€L TToXvGxi'hes

eV

TOts
^

piripols),

dvoj

Trpos

rat?

p^aGxdXais,

dAA'^Aas Bekker per typothetae errorem. - r) xaAeTTOv P vulg. non habet.
:

^

fort.

Tovovs

Rackham

(sic

etiam

E teste

Buss, et Z),

378


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
IV. x.

the female, Nature employs them for an additional function (a regular practice of hers, as I maintain), by storing away in them nourishment for the offspring. There are two mammae because the body has two parts, the right and the left. The fact that they are somewhat hard and at the same time two in number is accounted for by the ribs being joined together at this place and by the nature of the mammae not being at all burdensome. In other animals it is either impossible or difficult for the mammae to be situated upon the breast, i.e. in between the legs, but, exsince they would be a hindrance to walking cluding that particular position, there are numerous ways in which they are placed. Animals which have small litters, both those that have solid hoofs and those that carry horns, have their mammae by the thighs ; and there are two of them. Animals that have large litters or are polydactylous, either have numerous mammae placed at the sides upon the abdomen or have only two, set in the middle e.g. s\\ine and dogs of the abdomen e.g. the lion.« The reason for this is not that the lion has few cubs at a birth, because sometimes the number exceeds two, but that it is deficient in milk. It uses up all the food it gets upon the upkeep of the body, and as it is a flesh-eater it gets food but rarely. The elephant has only two mammae (this is because it has its young one at a time), and they are under the axillae of the forelegs and not by the thighs because the elephant is polydactylous and no polydactylous animal has them there. They are high up, near the axillae, because that is the place of the foremost
;
;
** This, like incorrect.

many

of Aristotle's statements about the lion,

is

N

379

, .

ARISTOTLE
688 b
10

jiaGTovg,

OTt TTpoJTOL OVTOL TOJU fJLaaTOJV TOt? TroAAoLiS" eXOVGL Kal tjLttuvrat ydXa ttXclgtov. arjiielov

^

Se TO

Irrl

roJv vcov tojv

GVjjL^aLVOv rots

yap

TrpcoroL?

15

20

25

80

rovs rrpcorovs Trapexovui /xacrrous" 4^ ovv to npcoTov ywofievov ev fiovov ioTL, TOVTCp TOVg fXaGTOVS dvayKOLOV e)(€LV TOU? rrpJjTOVS' TTpcoTOi 8' €LGLV ol VTTO Tat? pLaGX^Xais o p-kv OVV eXi^as hid TavTiqv ttjv atrtav Svo e^^i Kal ev TOVTO) tco tottco, Ta 8e TToXvTOKa Trepl ttjv yaGTepa. tovtov S' atrtov ort TrXeiovwv Sel jLtaGTCJV Tols TrXeioj peXXovGiv e/crpe^etv eirei ovv eVt TrXdTOs ovx oTov re aAA' tj Svo p^ovovg ^x^i'V Sid to Svo efvat TO t' dpiGTepov Kal to he^Lov, lirl p.r\KOs dvayKalov ex^iv 6 Se /xeTa^u tottos tcov ep^rrpoGdev GKeXdjv Kal TCOV OTTLGOev €X€L p.rJKO? p.6vov. TO, 8e jJLT) TToXvGxt'hr] aAA' oXtyoTOKa rj KepaTO^opa iv^ TOtS" p.r]pOL? eX^L TOV? /XaCTTOU?, olov 177770?, OVO? Kdp.'qXos (TauTa ydp pLOVOTOKa, Kal to, pL€V pLCJvvxa, TO Se Slxi^Xov), €tl S' eXacf)o? Kal jSou? Kal at^ Kal TciAAa TTavTa to. TOiavTa. a'lTiov 8' otl tovtois av^r]Gi£ errl to aVo) tou GcopLaTos €.gtlv. wgB^ 7) OTTOV GvXXoyrj Kal TrepLovGia yiveTai tov irepiTTcopiaTos Kal alpaTOs [ovtos 8' o tottos €gtIv 6 KdTCJ Kal 7T€pl TCt? €Kpods), ivTavOa iTTOiTJGeV rj <j)VGLS TOVS pLaGTOVS' OTTOV ydp KLVrjGLS yiVETai TTjS Tpo(f)rjs, evT€vBev Kal Xa^eZv Igtlv avTols hvvaTov. dvdptOTTOS piev ovv Kal 6 d-qXv? Kal 6 dpprjv e;^et pLaGTOvg, iv Se Tot? d'AAot? eVia tcov dppevojv ovk e;^et, ofoy 1777701 ol puev ovk exovGcv ol 8' exovGLV, OGOL eOLKaOL TJI pTjTpi.
yevofJiivoLS

^OLpcov

^

Kal €v vulg.

:

Kal del. Ogle.

380

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
mammae

IV. x.

in those that have many, and these are the ones that yield the most milk. An illustration of a sow will offer the this is the case of the sow first of its mammae to the first ones of the litter. Thus, where the first of an animal's litter amounts to one and no more, such an animal must possess these first mammae, and " the first mammae " means those under the axillae. This explains, then, the number and position of the elephant's mammae. The animals that have large litters have their mammae Why is this ? They have upon the abdomen. numerous young to feed, and so they need numerous mammae. Now as the body has two sides, right and left, the mammae cannot be more than two deep across the body, and so they have to be disposed lengthwise, and the only place where there is sufficient length for this is between the front and hind Non-polydactylous animals which yet produce legs. few at a birth, or carry horns, have their mammae by the thighs, as the horse and the ass (both solidhoofed) and the camel (cloven-hoofed), all of which also the deer, the ox, the bear their young singly goat, and all such animals. The reason for which is, that in them the growth of the body proceeds in an upward direction so the place where the superfluous residue and blood collects is down below, near the places of efflux, and there Nature has made the mammae for where the food is set in motion, there In man, both is the very place where they can get it. male and female have mammae, but some males of other animals have none, as e.g. stallions, some of which have none, while others, which resemble their
:

;

;

;

dams, have them.
381

ARISTOTLE
688 b

Kat
35

^

^

776/31 fjLev

jjLaarojv eip-qrai, /xera be

^

^

S

^

ro

>

(Tr7]Uos

-/3

o Trept TT^v KoiXlav iari tottos, aavyKXeioros rals
8ta
t')]^

689 a TrXevpals

€Lp'qfi€i'r]v

efiTTpoaOev
rr]v

alriav,
rrj?

OTTOjg

fJLT]

eix7Tohit,cx)oi

fx-qre

olvolStjglv

Tpo(f)r]?,

dvayKOiov GVfil^atveiv Oepp.aivoiilv'r]'^ avrrjs, P-rj^e ra? varepag to,? Trepl rrjv Kv-qoiv. TeAo? Se rod KoXovpulvov dcopaKos euri ret pLopua
rjv

6 TO, Trepl Tr]V rrj?

TrepiTTOJuecos e^oSov, rrj? re ^r^pas

vypds- KaTa)(prjTaL o tj (f)VGLS rep a'urcp piopicp e-ni re rrjv rrjs vypdg e^oSov TTepirrojaeo)^ Koi Trepl rrjv 6-)(eiaVy opioiojs ev re rots' drjXeciL kol
/cat TT^S"

rot? appeoiv,^ e^oj tlvojv oXiyojv
iv 8e rot? t^cporoKois TrduLV.
10

Tracrt rots' eVatjLtots",
r^

a'iriov 8' ort

yovrj

vypov eoTL rt Kal TTepirrcnpia. {tovto Se vvv pLev VTTOKeiadoj, varepov Se hei\dr]GeTai rrepl avrov.) Tov avTOV Se rpoTTov kol ev rots Q-qXeoi rd re
Karafirivia, Kal
fj

tt potevr ai

rr^v yovijv^'

SioptoOij-

oeraL he Kal nepl tovtojv varepov, vvv 8' vrroKeigOco povov on rrepLrrajpLa Kal rd Karapti^via rolg
I'j

yovi],

driXeoLV vypd Se rrjV (J)Vglv rd Karafi-qvia Kal tj a)Gre^ rwv opolojv els rd aura* /xopta r7]v

eKKpiGiv etvai Kard Aoyov eGriv.
ex^i, Kal
TTTJ

hia(f)epovGL
e/c

rd re
re

Trepl

rd Trepl rd ^cpa
20

rrjv kvt^glv,

ri^g

evrds 8e ttcjs rd Grreppia Kal iGropias rrjs Trepl

(f)avep6v Kal rcJov dvaroptajv,

Kal vorepov
8' e;Y^t

XexOrJGerai ev rols Trepl yeveGecog.

on

Kal

-

Kal
*

€L

TTpotevrai

nva

yom^i' Plait.
:

'

post (Lore

vulfz;.

TO.

habrt tcDv avTa>v Kal Ogle del. avTO. Peck Tavra to. Vlllg.
:

382

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

x.

This concludes our remarks on the mammae. After the breast comes the region around the stomach, which is not enclosed by the ribs for the reason stated earlier,** viz. to avoid interference (a) with the food when it swells, as it must do when it is heated, and (6) with the womb during pregnancy. At the end of what is called the trunk are the parts Excretory °^^^^^that have to do with the discharge of the residue, both solid and fluid. Nature employs one and the same part for the discharge of the fluid residue and for copulation in all blooded animals (v/ith a few exceptions), male and female alike, and in all Vivipara without exception. The reason is that the semen is a (This statement may stand for fluid, and a residue. the present the proof of it will be given later on.^) The same applies to the catamenia in females, and the part where they emit the semen.'' This also will be For the present, let dealt with particularly later on. the statement stand simply that the catamenia in females (like the semen in males) are a residue. Now both semen and catamenia are fluids, so it is reasonable that things which are alike should be discharged through the same parts. A clear account of the internal structure of these parts, showing the differences between the parts connected with semen and those connected with conception, is given in the Researches upon Animals ^ and the Dissections, and there will be a discussion of them in the book on
:

In De gen. an. 724 b 21 ff. This seems to agree with what Aristotle says on the subject in the Hist. An., but contradicts what he says in De gen. an. Piatt's suggested emendation would make the translation read " and to the semen, if so be they emit any." " At 493 a 24-b 6, 497 a 24 ff., book iii, ch. 1.
*
"
:

383

ARISTOTLE
689a
^

26

ox^iiara rcbv yLopicav tovtojv rrpos rrjv epyaoiav avayKaiojs, ovk dSr^Xov. €;;^et Se Stac/iopa? to rcov dppevcov opyavov Kara ras rod Gcofjuarog Sta^opa?. ov yap oixoiojs ajTavra vevpcoSr] ttjv (f)VOLV eoriv, €Tt 8e fiovov rovro rcuv [jLoplcov avev vooepds /xera^oXrjs av^TjGLv e;^et /cat TaTreivcooiv rovrcov yap to jLtev -^piqoLpiOV Trpos tov Gvvhvaopiov, to Se Trpo? tt^v Tou aAAou Ga>ixaros ;\;/3etav aet yap opLoicos ^'x°^
TO,

,

^

,

/

,

^

,

/

30

eVeTToStJev dV. GVvearrjKe 8e t')7v (j)voiv roiovrcov ro fiopLov rovro ware Suvao^at ravr dfKJjorepa GVix^alvetv ro /xev yap €X€L vevpcohes TO 8e ;!^ot'SpaiSes', hcorrep ovvUvai re hvvarat /cat eKraoLV e;^etv /cat TTvevfxaros ian heKriKov. rd
TttAAa^
€.K

689 b

ovv d-qXea rcov rerpaTTohojv Trdvr^ eunv oiriaOovprjrLKd Std ro rrpos rrjv 6-)^eiav ovrcos etrat auTOt? ^(prjGifir^v rrjv deoLV, rcov 8* dppevojv oXtya eGrlv oTTLGdovpTjrLKa, olov Xvy^, Xecov, /ca/xr^Ao?, 8ao-u770u?' iX(x)VV)(OV 8' ouScV €Griv oTTiGSovpririKov. To. 8' oTTLGOev /cat TO, 77€pt TO, gkIXtj rols dvdpco/xev
7T0LS lSlojs e;^et Trpos"

rd rerpdiToSa.

KepKov

8'

e;)^et

iravra a^^ehov, ov fxovov rd i^woroKa dXXd /cat to. woTOKa- /cat ydp dv fir] fxeyeOos avrols €xov Tvxif
6

rovro rd fiopiov, dXXd
riva GroXov.
lG)(La 8' e;(et,

Grjixelov^

y

eVe/cev

e^pvGi

dvOpcoTTO? aKepKov fxev eGriv, rdJv 8e rerparroScov ovhlv. en he /cat

6

8'

TO GKeXr] 6 fJiev dvOpcxJiros GapKcoSi] /cat p.rjpov'^ /cat KV'qixaSy*' rd 8' d'AAa iravr dWp/ca €;)^et, ou jjlovov rd ^cporoKa dXX* oXojg ooa GKeXrj e\'et ra>v t^wwv
10

vevpcoSr]

ydp
8'
^

e;)(et

K'at

OGrwSrj

/cat

dKavdojSrj.

Tovrojv

atVta /xta Tt? eoTtv co? elTreZv diravrajv,
exov TciXXa
2

Peck

:

Tuxs Kackhaiii

exovra vulg. ^ vulg.
:

384

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
Generation.'^

IV.

x.

Still, it is clear that the actual forms of determined of necessity by the function they have to perform. The male organ, however,

these parts

is

body some

exhibits differences corresponding to those of the as a whole, for some animals are more sinewy,
less.

Further, this organ

is

the only one which

increases and subsides apart from any change due to disease. Its increasing in size is useful for copulation, its contraction for the employment of the rest of the body, since it would be a nuisance to the other parts if it were always extended. And so it is composed of substances which make both conditions possible it contains both sinew and cartilage ; and so it can contract and expand and admits air into itself. All female quadrupeds discharge the urine backwards, as this arrangement is useful to them for copulation. few males do this (among them are the lynx, the lion, the camel, and the hare), but no solid-hoofed animal does so. The rear parts and the parts around the legs are Rear peculiar in man compared with the quadrupeds, nearly all of which (Ovipara as well as Vivipara) have a tail, which even if it is not of any great size, still is present for a token as a sort of stump. Man has no tail, but he has buttocks, which no quadruped possesses.^ In man, the legs, both in thighs and calves, are fleshy in all other animals that have them (not only Vivipara) the legs are fleshless, being sinewy, bony and spinous. One might say that there is a single explanation which covers them all, which is, that man is
:

A

parta.

:

«
''

At 716 a 2—721 a

29.

There seems to be something wrong with this statement, but perhaps when taken in conjunction with the whole of the argument which follows, it may appear less unjustifiable.
ofiiKpov vulg.
* KVT^fias] TTobas

Y.

385

ARISTOTLE
689 b

Slotl fjiovov iuTLv opdov rtxiv

t,a)(jjv

dvOpcoiTos.

tv*

paSicos rdvco Kov(f)a ovra, d^eXovaa to GOJfiaTOjSeg dno rcov dvoj rrpos ra Kara) to ^dpog

ovv
rj

<f>^P'[}

(j)VULS

TrpooedriKev'

S Loire p

rd

LGXiOL

aapKwh'q
a/xa he

15

iTTOLTjae

Kal

fjLr]pou?

kclI

yaGTpoKvrjfilag.

Kal irpos ra? dvairavGeLs direScjJKe xp^jf^^f^ov rols picv ydp rerpdiroGiv dKOirov TO eGrdvai, kol ov KajJivovGi rovro TToiovvra gvvKaraKeipieva hiareXeZ vtto{a)G7T6p ydp €xdJ9 Keipievcov Terrdpcxjv epeiGpaTcov), toI? 8' dvOpcjirois
T-qv re rcov Ig-x^lojv (f)VGLV
20

25

ov pdhiov opdojs eGr(x)GL hiapLeveiv y aAAa heZrai to 6 /xev ovv dvcrcajLta dvaTra-UGecDS kol KadeSpag. dpojTTOS LGxicL T ex^t Kal rd GKeXr) GapKCx)Sr} Sta TTjV elprjp.ev'qv alriav, Kal hid ravra dKepKov [tj re ydp eKecGe^ rpocjir] TTopevofievrj et? ravra dvaXiGKerai, Kal Sid ro e;>^etv to-;^ta d(f>'^pr]rai rj rrjs ovpds dvayKaia XPV^^^)> '''^ ^^ rerpdnoha Kal TaAAa ^oja e^ evavrlag- vavcoSeGL ydp ovgl TTpos ro dvoj ro pdpog Kal ro Gojjiarcbhes eVt/cetTat Trdv,
d(j)r]prjp.evov drro

rojv Kdrcodev SioTrep dvLGX^o^

f<al

30

GKXrjpd rd GKeXrj exovGiv. OTrajg S' iv (f)vXaK7J Kal GKeTTTj fj ro Xeirovpyovv pLopiov rrjv e^ohov rod TrepLrrdjjJLaros, rrjv KaXovpevr^v ovpdv Kal KepKov

avrolg aTrehcoKev

rj

<J)Vgls,

dcf^eXojJLevrj

rrjg

els

rd

GKeXrj yiyvopievrjs rpocf)rjg. ('0 Se TTiOrjKos hid ro rrjv popcfyrjv inajJicfyorepL^eLV

690 a

Kal jxrjherepcov r elvai Kal dpL(f)orepojv , Sta tout' out' ovpdv e;\;et ovr lgx^ol, (Lg fiev Slttovs d)V ovpdv, CO? 8e rerpaTTOVs lgx^cl.) Td)v 8e KaXovjievcov KepKcov hia^opai r et'at
^

eVeiae

Peck

:

eVei vulg.

386

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
so as to

IV.

x.

Hence, Nature, the only animal that stands upright. make the upper parts light and easy to carry, took off the corporeal matter from the top and transand that is how she ferred the weight down below came to make the buttocks and the thighs and the At the same time, in calves of the legs fleshy. making the buttocks fleshy, Nature made them useful Quadrupeds find it no trouble for resting the body. to remain standing, and do not get tired if they remain continually on their feet the time is as good as spent lying down, because they have four supports
;

underneath them.
;

But human beings cannot remain the body standing upright continually with ease That, then, is why it must be seated. needs rest man has buttocks and fleshy legs, and for the same the nourishment gets used up reason he has no tail for the benefit of the buttocks and legs before it can get as far as the place for the tail. Besides, the possession of buttocks takes away the need and But in quadrupeds and other necessity of a tail. animals it is the opposite they are dwarf-like, which means that their heavy corporeal substance is in the upper part of them and does not come into the lower and as a result they have no buttocks and their parts Yet to ensure that the part which legs are hard. serves them for the discharge of the residue shall be guarded and covered over, Nature has assigned to them tails or scuts by taking off somewhat of the nourishment which would otherwise go into the legs. (The Ape is, in form, intermediate between the two, man and quadruped, and belongs to neither, or to both, and consequently he has no tail, qua biped, and no buttocks, qua quadruped.) There are numerous differences in the various tails,
;
: :

;

n2

387

ARISTOTLE
690 a
^

TrXeiovs kol
Tixiv,

r)

<j)VOi£

TrapaKaTa)(prJTaL Kal inl rov-

ov fiovov TTpos

cf>vXaKr]v

Kal GKeTrrjv ttjs eSpas,

5

dXXa Kal TTpos dj(j)e\eLav Kal )(prioiv rols exovcrtv. Ot Se TToSe? rots' jJ-€V rerparrooi StacfiepovoLV' ra fxev yap p.a)VV)(a avrcov iaru ra 8e St^T^Aa to, 8e
TToXvaxi'^'^ , picovvxcL /xev oool<; Sta fJLeyedos Kal

to

TToXv yettjSes" ep^etv dvrl Kepdrajv Kal oSovtcdv et?
Trjv

rod ovv^os

cf)VGLV

to tolovtov pLopiov eXa^ev

aTTOKpiGiv , Kal hid TrXrjdog dvrt TrXeiovojv ovvx^j^^
10

Kal doTpdyaXov Se Sta 6LS ovv^ Tj ottXtj eoTiv. TOVTO OVK eXOVGLV COS ^TtI TO TToXv eLTTelv, Kal Sid^

TO SvGKLVrjTOTepaV etvai

TT^V KafJLTTTjV TOV OTTLGdeV GKeXovs dGTpaydXov evovTOS' BaTTOV ydp dvotyeTau Kal AcAeterat ra piiav exovTa yajvlav tj TrXeiovs, 6 8' doTpdyaXos yopicfios cciv ojoTi^p dAAorptov kGjXov

15

ipLpe^XrjTai tols bvGL,
8'

^dpos

/xev Trapexov, ttoiovv

dG(j)aXeGT€pav ttjv ^aGLV.

ToZs epiTTpoGdiois OVK ^xovGLV

ydp tovto Kal iv aGTpdyaXov Td exovTa
Sid

aGTpdyaXov, dXX ev rot? oTTiGdev, otl hel iXacf)pd elvai Td -qyovfjieva Kal evKafXTTTa, to 8' dcr^aAes' Kal
TTjv
20

TaGiv iv
OTTiodev

rots' oiriGOev.

€tl Se irpos to d/ivve-

Td 8e rotaura Aa^rt^oyra to Xvttovv. Td 8e Slx'^Xa e^et dar/odyaAov {Kov^oTepa ydp Td OTTLGdev), Kal hid to ^x^i'V doTpdyaXov Kal ov
Gdai ijjL^pLOeGTepav
7tol€l ttjv nX'qyrjV'
rots'
;^p7'5rat K'tuAots",

jJLCOVVxd

IgTIV,
^

COS'

TO

eKXelTTOV
:

OGTCJheS
vulg.

eK tov

Kal 8td
in the

S\JZ Ogle
Greek
is

Slol

"

The word used
*

See Introd. See Introduction, pp. 38-39.

" part."

p. 28.

388

a

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
using

IV. x.

which provide another example of Nature's habit of an organ for secondary purposes, for she employs the tail not only as a guard and covering for the fundament but also in other serviceable ways. There are differences too in the feet of quadrupeds. Some have a solid hoof, some a cloven hoof others have a foot that is divided into several parts. Solid hoofs are present in those animals which are large and contain much earthy substance,*^ which instead of making horns and teeth forms an abscession^ so as to produce nail, and owing to the abundance of it, it produces not several separate nails but a single one, in other words, a hoof. Because of this, these animals in general have no hucklebone and also because the presence of a hucklebone makes it rather difficult to bend the hind leg freely, since a limb that has one angle can be bent to and fro more quickly than one that has several. It is a sort of
;

Hoofs, etc

;

connecting-rod, and therefore practically interpolates another bit of a limb between the two, thereby increasing the weight but it makes the animal's footing more reliable. This explains why, when hucklebones are present, they are present in the hind limbs only, never in the front the front limbs have to be light and flexible because they go first, while the hind limbs must be reliable and able to stretch. Further, a hucklebone puts more force into a blow useful point in self-defence and animals which have one use their hind limbs in this way if anything hurts them they kick out at it. Cloven-hoofed animals have a hucklebone, as their and that is the very hind limbs are on the light side the bony subreason why they are cloven-hoofed stance stays in the joint and therefore is deficient in
;
:

:

;

:

389

ARISTOTLE
690 a

77080? iv rfj
25

ra Se TToXvSaKTvXa KajjufjeL fievov. ovK €-)(€i aorpdyaXov ov yap av rjv TroXuSaKrvXa, dXXa TOGOVTOV i(j-)(Ll,€TO TO TrXoLTOS 600V iTTeyei 6 doTpdyaXos. Sio koX tG)v lyovTOJV avrov ra
Slx'^Xa.

TrXeiuj

*0 8' di'OpcoTTog 77oSa? pieyiarovs e;^et tojv t^cpojv cog Kara pLeyeOos, evXoyojs' pLovov yap €GTr]K€v
30

opdov, ix)GT€ Tov? jLteAAovTas" Su' ovrag e^eiv rrdv to Tov ocofiaros ^dpos Set pLrJKO? ex^iv /cat rrXdros. Kal TO rcov SaKTvXojv Srj pLeyedog ivavrloj? e;^et e77t T€ ToJv TToSojv Kal T(x)v x^Lpcov Kara Xoyov rojv
piev

690

b

puaKpovs XapL^dv€L
Trpos

yap to Xapu^dveiv epyov Kal Trtefetv, cooTe Set ex^i'V {ro) yap KapLTrropLevco jLtcpet nepLrj

X^^P)y '^^^ ^^

'^^

^e^r^Kevai

dacf)aX(jo?,

8e^

d.Gxi'CrTOv

^cXtlov
5

7)

rovTO 8et to pLopiov elvau pL€lt,ov^ to TOV TToSos TcDv SaKTvXojv. eox^^^^^ ^^ daxiCFTov elvai to eoxcLTOV aTrav yap av
rjv

GVpLTTadeg
8'

evos pLopLOV rrovqaavTOS ,

eCT;YiCTjLteVa>^

SaKTvXovg tovt ov uvii^aivei opioicxjs8e Kal ^pax€LS 6vt€s yJttov {av) ^XdrrToiVTO .^
els
77oAuo';^t8ets"

€tl

8to

10

tojv dvdpcoTTOJV, ov pLaKpoTO Se TOJV ovvxcov yivos Sta T9]v avTTjv alriav Kal €ttI twv jj^etpcDy exovaiv 8et yap GKeTTeaOaL tol dKpwrrjpLa pidXcGra Sid ttjv aGdeveiav. Yiepl pL€V OVV TOJV ivaipiOJV t,OJOJV Kal ^CpOTOKOJV Kal 7T€^djv e'iprjTaL gx^Sov vepl rrdvTOJV XI. tojv 8* ivalpLOJV ^cpojv OJOTOKOJV 8e to. piev Igtl TeTpdol Trohes

SdKTvXoL

8'

eiGLv.

^ *

TTpos hk Og-le

:

coCTTC
:

/xet^ov Piatt,

Th.

vo/xll^eiv
:

'

caxiofj-cuu)

Peek
:

:

-ov

PY

*

<ai> Piatt, Th.

^Xoltttolvto

Y

vulg. vulg. -cov vulg. -ov Ogle. : au/ijSAaTrroiVTO vulg.
:

:

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV. x.-xi.

the foot. The polydactylous animals have no hucklebone, otherwise they would not be polydactylous, and the divisions of the foot would cover only so much width as the hucklebone itself. So most of the animals which have a hucklebone are clovenhoofed. Man of all the animals has the largest feet for his size, and reasonably so, since he is the only one of
upright, and as the feet have to bear the whole weight of the body and there are only two of them, they must be both long and broad. Also the toes are short compared with the fingers, and this too is reasonable. The business of the hands is to take hold and to keep hold of things, and this is done by means of that part of the hands which bends ; therefore the fingers must be long. The business of

them that stands

and to the feet is to get a firm and reliable footing secure this the undivided part of the foot must be greater than the toes. And it is better to have the tip of the foot divided than not, for otherwise, if one part were affected the whole foot would suffer as well, whereas this is to some degree avoided by the diviAgain, short sion of the tip of the foot into toes. toes are less liable to injury than long ones would be. All this indicates why the human foot has toes and why they are short. There are nails on the toes for the same reason that there are nails on the fingers the extremities have but little strength and therefore specially need to be protected. We have now dealt with practically all the blooded animals that are viviparous and live on the land. XI. We now pass on to another class of blooded co Ovipara OO^^erpents animals, the oviparous, some of which have four feet,
;

:

QQj

quadrupeds.

ARISTOTLE
690 b
15

aTroSa. roiovrov 8' ev [xovov yivos €gtIv aTTovv, TO Tcov 6^€cov Tj 8' tttTta tt)? aTTohias avTcov eip-qrai iv rols nepl rrjg TTopelag tcov t,(jjcx)v

TToSa ra S'

SLcopLGfxevoLg.
[J.Op(f)rjV

TO.

8'

d'AAa TrapaTrXrjGLav e;(et Tr]v

Tols T€T pdlTOGl KOI (hoTOKOlS .^

*'E;(£t

8e

TO.

^a>a

raura

K€(f)aXrjV pLev /cat

ra ev

auTT^ pLopua Sea ra? ai^ras" atrta? rots' aAAot? rots'
20

ivaipiOLS t,(I)OLs, koI yXtoTTav iv tco GTop-aTL ttXtjv TOV TTOTapLLOV KpOKoSeiXoV OVTOS 8' OVK dv h6^€L€V
e;\;eiv,

aAAa

ttjv x<^p(^^ pLovov.

atrtov 8' ort TpoTTOv

25

kol evvhpos ioTLV 8ta pL€V ovv TO x^epoalos elvai ex€L ;\;a>pay yXcoTTt]?, 8ta 8e TO evvSpos dyXcoTTOs ol yap IxOve?, Kaddnep €Lpr]rat TTpoTepov, ol puev ov Sokovglv e;^etv, a;^ piTj o(j)6hpa dvaKXivrj rt?, ot 8' dSidpOpcoTov exovaiv. aiTiov 8' ort oXiyq tovtols XP^^^^ "^V^ yXwTTTjs 8ta to pLT) ivSex^dOat pLaodudai pLrjhe Trpoyeveodai, dXX iv ttj KaTaTToaei yiveodai ttjv atad'qaLV Kal ttjv tjSovtjv TTauL tovtols TTJs Tpo(f)rjg. 7} piiv yap yXcoTTa tCjv
pL€v TLva dpia -x^epuaZos
.

80

x^H'd)v 7TOL€L TTjv aiodiqoiv ,

Twv
/cat

he iSeGTcijv iv
tojv

Tjj

Kadohcp
Tojv

Tj

TjSovq' KaTaTnvopLevcov
/cat

yap atV^avovrat
dXXojv
tojv

XiTrapdjv

deppLCJov

ex^i pL€v OVV Kal ra ^cooro/ca TavTrjv TTJV aLGdrjGLv (/cat Gx^hdv tcov ttXclgtcov oipcov /cat

TOLOVTOJV.

691 a e8eCTrajv

iv ttj /caraTroaet ttj raaet tov OLGO(f)dyov
7]

ytverat
/cat

;)^apts" 8t6 ovx ot avTol rrepl ra nopiaTa Tovs x^P-ovg aKpaTels €lgi /cat ra oipa /cat Trjv
^

<1)Ot6kOLS

PUYZ
:

2

^v Totirois XPf'a

S

-^v

^WOTOKOIS vulg. ^v delevi. XP^'c tovtois vulg.
:
:

*

At De

inc. an.

708 a 9 ff see also infra, 696 a ^ At 660 b 13-25.
;

10.

392

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

xi.

and some no feet at all. Actually there is only one group that has no feet, the Serpents and the reason why they have none has been stated in my treatise on the Locomotion of Animals.'^ In other respects their conformation is similar to that of the oviparous quadrupeds. These animals have a head, and the parts that compose it, for the same reasons that other blooded creatures have one, and they have a tongue inside the mouth all except the river crocodile, which apparand the reason ently has none, but only a space for it is that in a way he is both a land-animal and a wateranimal. In virtue of being a land-animal, he has a space for a tongue as a water-animal, he is tongue;

;

;

less.

This agrees with our previous statement,^ that
fishes

some

appear to have no tongue unless you pull

the mouth very well open, others have one which is not distinctly articulated. The reason for this is that these creatures have not much need for a tongue because they cannot chew their food or even taste they can perceive the pleasantit before they eat it This ness of it only while they are swallowing it. is because the perception of juices is effected by the whereas the pleasantness of solid food is tongue perceived while it is passing down the gullet, and thus oily food and hot food and the like are perceived while they are being swallowed. Of course the Vivipara as well as these creatures have this power of perception (indeed, the enjoyment derived from practically all edible dainties takes place while they are being swallowed and is due to the distension of the oesophagus which is why intemperate appetite for edible dainties is not found in the same animals as intemperate appetite for drink and juices)
:

;

;

ARISTOTLE
691 a

iScoSrjv),
5

aAAa rot?

/tev

d'AAot?

fcoot? Kal

rj

Kara
dvev

TTjv

yevGiv

V7Tdpx€L

aLad-qai?,

€K€lvol5

8'

rchv he rerpaTToSajv /cat ravrris jjiovyf 7) irepa. cpOTOKCDv ol oavpoi, iiiOTTep Koi oi^ 6(f)€L£, SiKpoav

cxovGL

rrjv

yXdjTrav Kal

err*

aKpov

rpixojhr] TrdfXTraVf
/cat at </)tD/cat

Kaddnep

e'ip'qr at

rrporepov.

exovai 8e

10

SiKpoav Tr]v yXcorrav 8to /cat Xlxvcl^ irdvra rd ^oia ecrrt ravra. "Ectti he /cat Kap^o-pohovTa rd rerpdrroha rcov
tpOTOKOjv,
coGTTep

ol

Trdvra opolcos exovai
6a(f)prjG€ajs

rots'

rd 8' aloQiqr'qpia Ixdves dXXoig ^ojot?, olov rrjg
.

fJLVKrrjpas

/cat

oiJjecDS

6(f)6aXp.ovs

/cat

aKorj? wra, ttXt^v ovk eTraveGTTjKora,
ol dpvides,
15

KaOdnep ovh*

dXXd rov TTopov piovov airiov 8' dp<j)orov SeppLaros gkXt]p6t7]s' rd pev ydp TTTepojrd avrdjv eGn, ravra he rrdvra (j)oXihojrdy
repois
ecjTt
rj

8*

7]

(j)oXls

opioiov
8'

X^P^
eirl

XeTTiSog,

cf)VGeL

8e

aKXrjporepov,

SrjXol

rwv

;^eAajva;v

rovro

Kal inl rcjv peydXcov 6(f)eojv Kal rcjv TTorapLiOJV KpoKoheiXcov LGxvporepai ydp y ivovr ai rwv ocrraJv CO? oucrat roiavrai rrjv (f)VGLV.
20

Ovk exovGL 8e rd ^cpa ravra rrjv dvco j8Ae</)apt8a, WGTTep ovh^ ol opvideSy dXXd rfj Kara) pivovGi 8ta rcov pLev ovv rrjv air lav rr]v elpr]pevr]v eV eKelva>v. opvldcov evioi Kal GKaphapLvrrovGiv vpievi €/c rayv Kavddjv, ravra he rd ^a)a ov GKaphapLvrrec gkXtjpocfydaXpLorepa

25

ydp eGn rcov
Peck

opvldcov.

airiov 8'

on
:

eKelvoLS XPV^'-I^^'^^P'^ V o^vojjrla*^ TrrrjvoLS ovgl rrpog
^

8'

av€u TavTTjS
viilg.
;

fiovT)

:

S'

av

ij

warrep ^ovtj

Y

8'

wavcpavcl
2

plurima hie transposuit Ogle.
vulg.

Kal ol

Y

:

ol

391

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV. xi.

but whereas the rest of the animals have the power of perception b}^ taste as well, these are without it and possess the other one only. Among oviparous quadrupeds, lizards (and serpents too) have a twoforked tongue, the tips of which are as fine as hairs. (This has been stated earher.") Seals also have a forked tongue. This forked tongue explains why all these animals are so dainty in their food. The four-footed Ovipara also have sharp interfitting teeth, as Fishes have. Their sense-organs are all similar to those of other animals nostrils for smell, eyes for sight, and ears for hearing though their ears they are merely a duct, as in do not stand out birds and in both groups the cause is the same, viz. the hardness of their integument. Birds are covered with feathers, and these creatures are all covered with horny scales which correspond in position to the scales of fishes, but are harder in substance. This

:

:

;

clearly illustrated by the tortoises, the great snakes, and the river crocodiles, where the scales are made of the same material as the bones and actually grow
is

stronger than the bones. These animals, like birds, have no upper eyelid ; they close their eyes with the lower lid. The reason which was given ^ for birds applies to them too. Some birds can also blink by means of a membrane which comes out of the corner of the eye ; but these animals do not do this, since their eyes are harder than birds' eyes. The reason for this is that keen sight is of considerable use to birds in their daily
«•

At 660 b

9.

^

At 657 b 6

ff.

^ *

At'xva

Karsch

:

laxva vulg.
TTpo'CBe'iv

O^VCOTTLa Kal TO TTOppOJ

UY.
395

ARISTOTLE
691 a
^

rov ^lov, TOVTOig

^

^

S'

rJTrov rpajyXoSvra yap iravra
rrjg KecfyaXris,

^

ra roiavTo.

ioriv.

Et? hvo hk Sirjprjfjievrjs fjLopLov Kal rrjg aiayovos
/cat
80

rod re

avcxi
jLtev^

rrjg Karoj, dvdpcxJTTOs

ra t^cporoKa rcov rerpaTToSajv
TO,?

KLvovGL

oiayovas
/cat

lxdv€s
ets"

/cat

opvideg

/cat dvo) /cat Karoj to TrXdyiov, ol 8* ra woro/ca rtov rerpaTToSojv

/cat

els

TO aVoj

/cat /caroj fiovov.

atrLov S' ort

77

jLtev

691 b

TOiavTT] KLV7]aLs ^^p-quipLOS €L£ TO Sa/cetv /cat SteAetv,

6

10

15

TO TrActytov eVt to Xealveiv. roTs p-kv ovv r) els to irXdyiov Kivqais, rols Se pLi] exovGLv ovSev XP'^^^^-OS, hioTvep d(j)r]priTai TTavrcov rwv tolovtcov ouSev yap ttolel Trepiepyov rj rd jLtev ovv dXXa Travra KiveZ rrjv Giayova (f)VGLS. TTjv /caret), o 8e TTordpiios KpoKoheiXos fiovos ttjv dvoj. TOVTov S' atrtov ort Trpos ro Xa^elv /cat KaraGxelv dxp'^fJTOvs ex^i' Tovs TToSas' puKpol yap etVt Trdpurav. TTpos ovv ravras rds XP^^^^ ^^^^^ ttoScjv to cxro/xa Trpos Se to (f)VGLS ;\;/37]o-t/xov auroi erroirjGev. 7) KaraGx^iV rj Xa^eZvy onorepajdev dv fj rj TrXrjyrj iGXvporepa, ravrrj ;)^p7^CTt^ajTepa Kivovpevrj eGriv Tj he TrXrjyrj loxvporepa del dvcoOev 7) Kdrcodev eVet ovv dp.(j)OTepcov pLev Sia rod oroparos rj XP^^^^> ^^^^ Tov Xa^elv /cat rod Sa/cetv, dvayKaiorepa 8' rj rov KaraGX^Zv pufjre ;^etpas" exovri purjre TTohas ev(j)veZs, XP'^GLpidyrepov rrjv dvcoOev Kivelv Giayova rj ttjv Karojdev avroZs. 8ta to avTo he /cat ot KapKivoi TO dvcoOev rrjs XV^V^ klvovgl popiov, dAA* ov to KaTcoOev dvTL x^i-pos yap exovoi rds ^^Aas", coare rrpos TO Xa^elv dAA' ov rrpos to hieXelv p^/oi^ct/xov
7^

S' els

exovGi

yop,(f)LOVS XP'^^^H'OS

*

fikv

ovv vulg.

:

yikv

YZ.

396

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
life,

IV.

xi.

fly about but it would be very good to these creatures, because they all spend their time in holes and corners. Their head has two divisions the upper part, and the lower jaw. In man and in the viviparous quadrupeds the lower jaw moves from side to side as well as up and down in fishes, however, and birds and these oviparous quadrupeds it moves up and down only. The reason is that this vertical motion is useful for biting and cutting up food, while the sideways motion is useful for grinding the food down. Of course this sideways motion is useful to animals which possess grinder-teeth but it is of no use to those which lack grinders, and so not one of them has it. Nature never makes or does anything that is

because they

;

little

:

;

;

superfluous.

jaw with one exception, the river crocodile, which moves the upper jaw, and the reason for this is that his feet are no use for seizing and holding things they are too small altogether. So Nature has given him a mouth which he can use for these purposes instead of his feet. And when it comes to seizing things and holding them, the most useful direction for a blow to take is that which gives it the greatest strength. Now a blow from above is always stronger than one from below. And to an animal who has no hands and no proper feet, who has to use his mouth for seizing his food as well as for biting it, the power to seize it is the more necessary and therefore it is more useful to him to be able to move his upper jaw than his lower one. For the same reason crabs move the upper part of their claws and not the lower claws are their substitute for hands, so the claws have to be useful for seizing things (not for cutting them
:
;

All these animals, then,

move the lower

:

.

397

.

ARISTOTLE
691 b
liu

^

Set etvai rr]v

^

XV^W'

'^^

^^ hieXeZv

/cat Sa/cetv

ohov-

TCDV epyov ioriv.

aXXoLg
XrjifjLV

oGOig
Slol

roig fxev ouv KapKivois Kal toIs ivSex^rai axoXaiajg rroieZoBai ttjv
fii)

to

eV

vypco

etvat

t7]v

;Yp^crtv

rou
7}

aTOjjLaros, SLrjp-qraL, Kal Xapi^dvovGi {xev ;^epCTtv

TTOoi, hiaLpovoi Se roi CTTo/xart /cai SctKyofcrtv rots'
25

a/x^orepa xRV^^H-^v ro arofxa OiayOVCOV "E;^ouCTt he Kal au;)^eVa Travra to, roiavra Sta to TrXevpLova e;^etv 8e;YovTat yap to TTvevpia Sta t-^?
Se KpoKoheiXois
7T€7TOLrjK€V
7)

eir*

(fiVGL?, KLVOVpLeVCxJV OVTCl) TCJOV

apr-qpias

fJLrJKog

ixovarjg.
TCx)v

30

K€(f)aXfjs Kal c^fjLOJV KeKXr^Tat TOLOVTCov 6 6(f)Ls So^ctcv dv ex^iv avx^va, dXXa to dvdXoyov tco avx^vi, et ye Set rot? eipry/xeVot? ioxdTois Stopt^etv to fiopiov tStov Se 77/309 TCt ovyyevrj tcov t,a)Cx)v TOVTO.

^'ETTet Se

TO fxeTa^v

avx'ij^,

TjKiuTa

692 a VTrdpX^l

TOt? 6(f)€GL TO OTp€(f>€LV TrjV K€(f)aXrjV et? TOVTTLoBeV TjpepLOVVTOS TOV XoLTTOV CTOJ/XaTOS". atVtov
8*

OTt

Kaddirep
jLtev

to,

eVroju-a

eAtKTOV'

eoTiv,

wot€

evKdfJLTTTOVs ^X^^^ ^'^^ ;\;ovSp668ets"

tou?

ctttovSuAous".

5

10

ouv 8ta TavTr]v ttjv atTtav tovto TOV Se ^eXTiovos eVe/cev tt/jo? (f)vXaK7]v tcl)v oTnodev f^XaTTTovTWV fiaKpov yap ov Kal aTTovv dcf)ves eVrt 77^0? re tt^v GTpo(l)rjv Kal irpos Trjv TCOV oTTiGBev T-qpriGiv' ovhev yap o^eXos atpeiv pL€v, GTpe^eiv 8e fxr] SvvaGdai Tr)v K€<^aXrjV. cxovGi 8e TO, ToiavTa Kal to) GTrjdei avaAoyov pLopiov. fiaGTovs 8' ovK exovGLV ovT ivTavda ovt iv tco
e^ ayay/c'/y?
GVfji^€^rjK€v avTolg,

dXXo)
ovheis.
^

GcofJiaTi,

oixoLOjg

8'

oOS'

opvLs,

ovh^

Ix^vs

atVtov

Se

to

fJtrjSe

ydXa ex^cv
;

to-utcjv

hinc usque ad 695 a 22 varia codd.

text. vulg. exhibui.

398

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
up
:

IV.

xi.

this, and biting, is the business of the teeth). In crabs, then, and in other creatures which, because their mouth does not come into action while under water, can take their time about seizing their food, the labour is divided they seize their food with their hands or feet, and cut it up and bite it with the mouth. For the crocodile, however, by making the jaws move as I have described, Nature has constructed a mouth which can be used for both these purposes. this is because All these animals have also a neck they have a lung and there is a long windpipe through Vvhich they admit the breath to it. Since the neck is the name given to the part of the body between the head and the shoulders, the serpent would appear to be the very last of these creatures to possess one at any rate, if the neck is to be defined by the limits mentioned above, he has merely something analogous to a neck. Compared with kindred animals, serpents have this peculiarity they can turn their heads backwards while the rest of the body remains still. The reason is that their body (like an insect's) can roll up the vertebrae are cartilaginous and flexible. This, then, is the necessary cause why they have this ability; but it serves a gooc? purpose too, for it enables them to guard against attacks from the rear, and with their long bodies devoid of feet they are ill adapted for turning themselves round to keep watch over the rear. To be able to raise the head and yet unable to turn it round would be useless. These animals have also a part which is a counterpart to the breast. But they have no mammae either here or elsewhere nor have any of the birds or fishes. This is because the mammae are receptacles, vessels,
:

;

:

:

;

;

399

ARISTOTLE
692 a
fjir]d€V'

icTTL

6 Be fiauTO? vttoSox'T] Kal woirep ayyeZov ydXaKTO?. ydXa 8' ovk ex^t ovre ravra ovr* dXXo ovSev TOJV fjLrj I^ojotokovvtcov iv avrots, Slotl

rot?
15

(hoTOKOVGLV, €V §€ Tcp (hcj 7] rpo(l)rj iyyiverai iv cra^et^iporoKOis yaXaKTcoSrj? vrrdpxovoa. orrepov 8e Trepl avrojv XexO'qo-erai iv rot? nepl Trepl he rrj? tcov OKeXcjv^ Kdpujjecos iv yeveaeojs.
rols rrepl rropeias Trporepov iTTeaKeTTrai Koivfj Trepl

TrdvTwv.^

"Kxovai Se Kal KepKov rd roLavra, ra fxev /xet^co rd S' iXdrrco, VTrep ov rrfv alriav KaOoXov Trporepov
elpi^Kafiev.
20

^luxvoTaros
8'

S'

o x^H'^^^^^'^ "^^^ cootokojv Kal

TTe^ojv icTTLV oXiyaipLOTaTov

ydp ian Trdvrojv. ravro atnov rod rrj? ipvx'^s yjdovg iorl rod t,a)ov^ ttoXv{xop(f)ov ydp yiverai hid rov (f)6^ov, 6 he cf)6^og
Kardifjv^LS St' oXiyaifjiorrjrd
rrjros.

ion

Kal evheiav depfio-

692 b

5

He pi pev ovv rdjv ivaipcov t,a)ajv rcov re dTTohojv Kal rerpaTTohojv, daa popia rd iKros ex^i Kal hid rivas air lag, elp-qrai ox^hov. XII. 'Ev 8c rolg dpviGiv T) TTpo? dXXrjXa Sta^opa iv rfj rcov popla>v iorlv vTrepoxfj Kal iXXelipet Kal Kard rd pidXXov Kal rjrrov. elal ydp avrojv ol p,ev fxaKpoGKeXels ol he ^paxvoKeXelg, Kal rrjv yXcbrrav ol jjiev TrXareZav exovaiv ol he arev^v o/xotcas" he Ihia he fiopca oXiya Kal eTTt TCOV dXXwv pLopiiov.
KafjLTTvXcov vulg. fortasse secludenda. correxit Peck, cf. 667 all seqq. ; tovtov S' aiTLou to ^dos axTiov 8e to t^? 4'^XV^ -^Oos €cttiv Tov Ccoov TO T7y? ^vx^js vulg. sed fortasse haec verba secludenda. auTou PS
^
:

OKeXwv PZ, Ogle
Trepl Se
.
.

KaiiTTvXojv okcXcou

Y

:

2

.

ttolvtcdv

'

:

UZ

:

400

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV. xi.-xii.

as it were, for the milk, and none of these creatures has any milk. Neither has any of the other animals that are not internally viviparous the reason is that as they produce eggs the milky nutriment which they contain goes into these eggs. A more detailed account of these matters \W11 be given in the treatise on Generatio7i.^ With regard to the way in which they bend their legs, a general account, including all animals, has already been given in the treatise on the Locomotion of Ariimals.^ These creatures have a tail, some a large one, some a small one. We have already given the reason for this as generally applicable.^ Among the oviparous land-animals, the chameleon has the least flesh on him this is because he has least blood, and the same reason is at the root of the animal's habit of soul he is subject to fear (to which his many changes in appearance are due), and fear is a process of cooling produced through scantiness of blood and insufficiency of heat.'^ This fairly concludes our account of the external parts of the blooded animals both footless and fourfooted, and of the reasons thereof. XII. We now pass on to Birds. As among them- (ii.) selves, they differ in their parts in respect of the more and less, and excess and defect^ e.g., some of them have loner leo-s, some short ones some have a broad tongue, some a narrow one and similarly with the other parts. Thus, as among themselves
; ;

Birds.

;

;

"
"

At 752 b At 712 a

16
1

fF.

ff.

See also below, 693 b

3,

and additional

note on that passage, p. 433.
<=

^
*

At 689 b 1 ff. Compare the passages at 650 b 27 and 667 a 1 1 See 644 a 19, and introductory note on p. 19.

fF.

401

ARISTOTLE
692 b

Sta^e/Dovra exovacv dXXrjXcjov irpos he

to.

ctAAa

t,<2)a

Koi
10 [jL€v

rfj ijLop(f)fj

Tcov fjiopiojv Sta^epouatv.
/cat

Trrepcorol

ovv airavTes eloLV,

rovr^ Ihiov cxovai rcov
^cpojv

dXXcxJV.

rd yap
/cat

/xopta
to,

rwv

rd

fiev T/3t;)(ajTa

ioTL rd Se ^oAtScora
TTrepojTOL.

8e XemScord, ol 8' dpvides
/cat

to irrepov a)(iGTdv

rep

etSet

rot? oXorrrepois' rcov puev

ovx o/jlolov ydp du-x^LOTOv

TCOV 8e (Jxi'CrTov
15 e^^et

icm,

/cat

to

/xey

a/cauAoy, to 8'

/cauAov.
tStov TT^v

/cat
fjuev

exovac Se /cat ev Tov pvyxovs (f)V(JLV TTpo? rdXXa' roXs
jjlvkttjp

Try KecfiaXfj TrepLrrrjv

ydp

eXecfyaaiv o
Tj

ivTopLCov evLOLS
8'

dvrl x^^pd^^> '^^^ ^' yXiorra dvrl arofJLarog, ro'urois

dvTt ohovrojv
8'

7T€pl
20

/cat ;!^€tAcur ro p-uyxos oonvov 6v.^ 8e rdjv aloOiqr'iqpiOJv etprjraL Tvporepov.
e;\;et

Avx^voL

rerafievov

rfj

</)i;CTet,

/cat

8ta rr^v

avTTjv air lav rjvTrep /cat TaAAa* /cat rovrov rd fxev

693 a

^paxvv rd 8e piaKpov, /cat o-;^^^^^ d/coAov^ov TOt? GKcXeGL rd TrAetCTTa. to, /xev ydp pLaKpoGKeXrj IxaKpov Ta 8e ^paxvGKeXrj ^paxvv e;\;et rov avx^va, XiJ^pl? TCOV oreyavoTTohcxyv rd piev ydp et etx^ ^P^~ x^'^ ^77^ (JKeXeai piaKpols, ovk dv VTrrjperei avroZs 6
avx'TjV

rrpog
rjv

r7]v

ajro

rrj?

yrjg

vopLrjv,

roZs

8'

el

jxaKpo?
6 ydp

eVt ^paxeoLV.
-^v^

en

8e^ Tot? Kpeco^dyoLS

avrojv vrrevavriov dv
5

ro pcrJKo? TTpos rov ^lov
8'

/xa/c/)o?

avx^v daOeviqs, rols

d ^to?

e/c

Tou Kparelv eariv. hioirep ovhev rcov yapii/jcovvxcov Ta 8e o-Teyai'd77o8a /cat IxaKpov ex^i rov aup^eVa. ^Ta)* hirjpripievovs piev exovra rovs rroSas GecnpLCo^

6v

Y, Ogle

:

cm. vulg.

402

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
But

IV.

xii.

they have few parts which differ from one to another. as compared with other animals, they differ in One pecuHarity respect of the form of their parts. of the birds is that they all have feathers, whereas in other animals the parts are covered with hair, or

horny plates. bird's feather is split, and therefore different in form from the wing of certain as well as having a shaft, insects, which is undivided whereas the insects have none. Another peculiarity of birds is the beak, an extraordinary appendage to the head. It is made of bone, and serves them instead of teeth and lips, just as the elephant's trunk takes the place of hands, and the tongue of certain insects replaces a mouth. have spoken already of the sense-organs.^ Birds have a neck which sticks up, and for the same reason that other creatures have one. Some have a long neck, some a short one in most of them it corresponds in length fairly closely to the legs, so that the long-legged birds have a long neck and the shortlegged birds a short neck (web-footed birds excepted.) WTiat assistance in getting food out of the ground would a short neck be to a bird on long legs, or a long neck to a bird on short legs ? Furthermore, the carnivorous birds would find a long neck a real disadvantage in their daily life. These birds depend for their livelihood on superior strength, and length of neck means lack of strength so no crook-taloned bird has a long neck. Web-footed birds, however, together with others in the same class whose
scales, or
;

A

We

:

;

°

In

Book
:

II.

chh. 12
:

fF.

2

Se
^

Langkavel ye Y6 om. vu\g. av ^v PY6, Ogle om. vulg.
:

*

<Ta> Ogle.

403

ARISTOTLE
693 a

fji€Vovs

Se Kal^ ev tco avraj yevei ovra rot? areyavorov fikv avx^vo. fjLaKpov €)(ovglv {xpijoifjio? ycip TOLOVTO£ a)v TTpos TTjv rpocpT^v rrjv €K rod
TTOGL,
TO, Se GKeXrj rrpog ttjv v€vglv j^pax^a. Aia</)opdv S' €X€L Kal ra pvyx'f] Kara rovs ^iovs. ra [lev yap evOv e^et ra 8e yapupov, evdv fiev OGa

10

vypov),

rpo(f)rj?

€V€K€V, yapupov Se ra chpio^dya- xPV^f-f^ov yap npog ro Kparelv ro roLovrov, rrjv Se rpocfir^v avayKalov arro ^ctjcov 7Topil,€Gdai, Kal ra ttoXXol
ogcxjv 8' eXeuos 6 ^los Kal rroo(jidyos, irXarv ro pvyxos exovGiv irpog re yap rrjv opv^tv XpriGipiov ro roiovrov Kal irpos rr^v rrjs rpO(f>r\s

\'>

jSua^ofxevoL?.

GTTaGLV Kal Kovpdv,

eVia Se

/cat

p.aKpov

e;^et

to

pvyxos rojv roLovrwv, wGjrep Kal rov au;^eVa, Slol ro XafJL^dveLV rrjv rpo(f)r]v €K rov ^dOovs. Kal ra
TToXXd
20 cxTrAajS"

rcov
rj

roiovrcov

Kal

raJv

Gr€yavoTr6Sa>v
l^fj

rj

Kard^ pLopuov^ drjpevovra

rcjv iv rep

jxev

vypcp cVta ^cpSaplcov Kal yiver at roXg roiovroLS 6 avx'Tjv Kaddrrep dAteurat? d^ /cdAa^os", ro he

25

pvyxos olov rf oppid Kal ro dyKLGrpov. Yd Se TTpavrj rod Gcofiaros Kal ra VTrria, Kal ra rod KaXovjxevov daypaKos eVt rcov rerpanoScov, 6Xo(f)vrjs 6 r OTTOS errl rcov opvldcov eGriv Kal exovGLV
aTT'qprrjpLevas dvrl rcov

^paxidvcov Kal rwv GKeXwv
'Ihiov
errl

693 b TcDv

TTpoGdicDV^

TO.?

TTrepvyas,

n

fiopiov,

hiorrep dvrl cofjLOTrXdrrjs

ra reXevrala
dvOpojiros

rod vcorov
KeKafjijieva

rcov nrepvycov exovGLV.

^KeXt]
^
2 ^

be

Kaddrrep
:

hvo,

Y6, Oprle (Ls vulg. Kara Y, Ogle Kara to vulg. post fxopiov habct ravTO vulg.
Kal
:

:

ravTO.

S

:

ravra

P

:

tovtois

coni. Ogle.

404

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
feet

IV.

xii.

a snub-nose"

though divided into toes yet are fashioned hke these have long necks, because a long

them for getting food out of the Their feet, on the contrary, are short so that they can swim. Birds' beaks also differ according to their different habits of life. Some beaks are straight, some curved ; straight if they are used simply for feeding, curved if the bird eats raw meat, because a curved beak is useful for overpowering their prey, and such birds have to get their food from animals, most often by force. Those whose life is spent in swamps and are herbivorous have broad beaks, which are useful for digging and pulling up their food and for cropping plants. Some of them, however, have a long beak and a long neck as well, because they get their food from some depth. Practically all these birds and the completely or partially web-footed ones live by preying upon certain of the tiny water-animals, and their neck is to these birds what his fishing-rod is to an angler, while their beak is like a line and hook. The under and the upper sides of the body (i.e. of what is called the trunk in quadrupeds) are in birds one uninterrupted whole. Instead of arms and forelegs they have wings attached to this part (wings are another peculiarity), and hence, instead of having the shoulder-blade on their back they have the ends of the wings there. Birds, like men, have two legs, which are bent inneck
is

useful to

water.

" According to Ogle, this means that the main stem of the toe corresponds to the ridge of the nose, and the lobes on either side of it to the flattened nostrils.
* ^ *

dAteuTat? o
7)

PQSU
:

:

aXievriKos 6
avrl et

Y6

:

clXuvtikos Z, vulg.

Yb

sic

om. vulg. Y6, Ogle aTrqpr. yap
:

mox

exovai post vpoadLcov

vulg.

405

ARISTOTLE
693 b
5 TTos"

etaco, /cat ovx cjOTrep dvdpcorag Se Trrepvyas, cus" rd TrpoaOia OKeXr] rojv rerparrohcjVy irti rd nepLcfiepes. Slttovv S' ef dvdyKTjs iariv rwv ydp ivalficov r) rod opvidos

Kaddnep rd TerpdrroSa
^ico'

ovoiay

d'/xa

Kivelrai TrXetoatv
d7Tr]pTrjjJL€va
776 ^ot?

Se kol rrrepvycoros, rd S' eyatjua oi) rj rerrapcrt orjixeLOL?. rd p,ev ovv
.

10

15

20

jxopia rlrrapa, (jjarrep rols d'AAot? KOI rols TTopevrLKoZs, eon kol rots opviOLV dAAd rot? pikv ^paxioveg /cat gkcXtj, rols 8e rerpdrrooL^ GKeXrj rerrapa V7rdp)(^ei, rols S' dpviOLV dvrl roL)v TTpoodiojv GKeXcov rj ^paxidvcov Trrepvyes TO lBlov ear IV /card ravros ydp rovLKoi^ eloi, rep 8' opvidi €v rfj ovGia rd TTrrjTLKov eGriv. ojGre AetVerat azJrot? e|- dvdyKr\s Slttoglv etvat* ovrco ydp rerrapGL Gruxeiois KivrjGovrai p^erd rcov nrepvyajv. ILrrjOos S' €XovGLV drravres o^v /cat GapKcoSes, o^v p,€v rrpds rrjv TTTrJGLV {rd ydp rrXarea ttoXvv dipa (hdovvra BvGKLvrjrd eGri), o-ap/ctoSe? 8e, Stdrt rd o^v doOeves jjirj ttoXXtjv exov GKerrrjv. 'IVd Se rd GrijOos KoiXia /xe;^pt Trpdg rrjv e^oSov rov Trepirrcoparos /cat rrjv roJv GKeXojv KapurriVy KadaTTep rols rerpdrroGL /cat rot? dvdpwTTois. jLtera^u p.ev ovv rcov Trrepvycov /cat rcov GKeXcbv ravra
rots'

rd popid eartr.
'0/x^aAdv
^ ^

8'

iv
:

jjLev

rfj

yeveoei

dnavra
om.
vulp;.

e^et

sic

PY6, Ogle

okcXt], toIs hk TCTp.
;

TTTTjTiKOL coiiieci

idem Th.

{volatiles Gaza).

" For an explanation of Aristotle's terminology on this subject see additional note on p. 433. ^ The chief difficulty in translating this passage is due to the word tovlkoi, a jargon-adjective in -lkos, which seems to have been suggested to Aristotle's mind by the similar adjec-

406

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
The

IV. xii.

wards as in the quadrupeds, not outwards as in man." win_<TS are bent with the convex side outwards, like the forelegs of quadrupeds. It is inevitable that a bird should have two feet, for (a) it belongs essentially to the blooded creatures and (b) it is winged, and (c) four is the greatest number of motionpoints which a blooded creature can have. So there are four parts (or limbs) attached to a bird's body, and this corresponds exactly with the other blooded
creatures, viz. those that live

and move upon the
is

that whereas the have two arms and two legs (or, if they are quadrupeds, four legs), the peculiarity of birds is that they have wings instead of arms (or forelegs).

ground.
latter

The only

difference

very essence includes the power to fly, a it can stretch out, and wings provide this.^ So it remains that of necessity a bird shall have two feet these with the two wings bring up the number of its motion-points

As

its

bird

must have something which

:

to four. All birds

have a sharp-edged, fleshy breast sharp-edged, for flying (a wide surface displaces so much air that it impedes its own motion) fleshy, because a sharp-edged thing is weak unless it has
:

;

a good covering. Below the breast is the stomach, which extends (as in the quadrupeds and in man) as far as the residual vent and the point where the legs join the body. Those are the parts, then,w^hich have their situation between the wings and the legs. Birds, in common with all animals which are protive 7tt7)tlk6v in the

" for

and

next line. Literally, the passage reads at these [viz. the wings] that birds are stretchable flight-ability is included in the essence of a bird."
it is

:

;

407

.

'

ARISTOTLE
693 b

oaaTTep t^cooTOKelrai
av^rjOevTCOv dSrjXo?.
25

rj

cooro/cetrat, raJv 8' opviBojv
r)

8*

air la

StJXtj

iv roT? nepl

yeveaLV etV yap to evrepov r) (TVfJL(f)vaLS ylverai, Kal ovx cjoTTcp ToZs t^cporoKOLS Tcov </>Ae^cDv Tt fiopLov
iuTLV.

"Ert Tcov opvlOajv ol
694 a

piev tttt^tlkol

Kal rag irrepvyas

peydXas exovGL Kal laxvpds, olov ol yapn/jcjvvx^S Kal d)pLO(f)dyoL- dvdyKrj yap tttt^tlkov?^ etvat Sid rov
^loVy u)a6^ eVe/ca tovtov Kal TrXrjOog exovoL nrepajv eon 8' ov piovov rd Kal rds TTTepvyas pLeydXag.

5

yapipcuvvxoL dXXd Kal

dXXa yevq opviOtov

TTTTjTiKd,

OGOLS r] GixiTi^pia iv rfj raxvrrJTL rrjs 'rmqaeajs r^ €VLa 8' OV TTTrjTLKd TCOV iKTOTTLGTLKOg 6 ^LOS opviOojv iarlv dXXd papea, oh 6 ^log eVtyeto? Kal euTL Kap7TO(f)dya rj rrXcord Kal nepl vhojp ^lorevoveari 8e rd piev tcov yapufjojvvxojv awpiaTa OLV. pLLKpd dvev^ TCOV 7TT€pvya)v Sid to els raura?^ dva10

15

ra oVAa Kal ttjv TovvavTiov ra ocopLaTa oyKcoSr], Sto ^apea iarlv. exovgl 8' cvlol rcjv ^apecov ^OT^Oetav dvrl rcov Trrepvycov rd KaXova/xa 8' ol avrol pL€va^ TrXrJKrpa inl rot? OKiXecnv. ylvovr at TrXrJKrpa exovres Kal yapuipcovvx^S 01) alnov 8' on ovSev rj (/)vaLS rroieZ rrepUpyov. eon 8e roZs piiv yajxifjajvuxois Kal TTrrjriKoZs dxprjcrra rd
XioKeudai
TTjv Tpocfirjv
pLrj

{/cat)'*

etV

^o'TjOetav TOLS Se

7TTr]TiKoZs

^

TTTTjTLKovs P,
^

Rackham

:

ttttjtlko.

Y6

:

vttjtlkoIs

Z, vulg.

*

post dvev habent tcov Trrepcov Kal Y6. ivravda Vulg:. €ts ravras 5 desinit Z. <Kal> Ogle.
^

QSUZ

:

° This passage must lie supplemented by reference to others (such as Degen. an. 758 b iiO ff., and Hist. An. 561 b), in which Aristotle speaks of txco umbilici or umbilical cords— j..?. he recognized the allantois as well as the umbilical vesicle. He

408^

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
duced

IV.

xii.

alive or out of eggs, have an umbilicus while they are developing, but when they are more fully grown it ceases to be visible. The reason for this is clear from what happens during their development the umbilical cord grows on to the intestine and unites with it, and does not form a part of the system of blood-vessels, as it does in the Vivipara." The good fliers have big strong wings, e.g. the birds which have crooked talons and feed on raw meat these must be good fliers owing to their habits of life, and so they have an abundance of feathers and big wings. But there are other sorts of birds which are birds whose safety lies in good fliers beside these and migrants. Some birds are their speed of flight poor fliers heavy birds, which spend their time on or birds that live on the ground and feed on fruits and around the water. The crook-taloned birds, leaving out of account their wings, have small bodies, because the nutriment is used up to produce the wings and weapons of offence and defensive armour. The poor fliers, on the contrary, have bulky, and therefore heavy, bodies. Some of these instead of wings have The as a means of defence " spurs " on their legs. same bird never possesses both spurs and talons, and the reason is that Nature never makes anything that is superfluous or needless. Spurs are of no use to a
:

:

:

;

:

;

.states

that in the bird's egg, as the embryo grows, the allantois (the " second umbilicus ") collapses first and then the " first

umbilicus " {De gen. an. 754 a 9). Actually the reverse order is the correct one, but the interval is comparatively short. The umbilical vesicle in mammals, which shrivels very early in the process of development, escaped the notice of Aristotle, who supposed their allantois to be comparable to The umbilical the umbilical vesicle of reptiles and birds. vesicle of mammals was discovered by Needham in 1667. (See Ogle's note ad loc.)

409

ARISTOTLE
694 a

nXrJKTpa- xp"^^^!^^ Y^P ecrrtv iv rat?
8to

TT-efat? fxdxcLf'?,

vnapx^L

evLois

rcov

^apecov

tovtols

8'

ov

fjLOVOv dxpT^crroL

dXXa Kal jSAa^epot

ol yafiipol ovvx^S

to) ejjLTnjyvvadaL VTrevavrloi Trpo? rrjv Trope tav ovres.
20

hio

Kal

Kal rd yapujjcovvxo. Trdvra <j>avX(x><s TTopeverai €771 TTerpais ov KaOit^dvovdiv VTrevavria yap
diJL(J)6r€pa
rj

avrols TTpos

tcjv ovvx^iv ^vois.

'Ef dvdyK7]<^ 8e tovto irepl rr^v yeveaiv av/ji^e^rjK€V. TO yap yccuSe? iv rco crcojaart i^op/JLcopLevov^ XprjcTLiJia /JLopta yiver at irpo? rrjv dXKijv dvo)
fiev
25

dv 8e Karoj
Tojv
TToScov

pvev pvyxovs erroi7]0€ aKX-qpoTT^ra t) fjLeyedo?, pvfj, TrXrJKTpa iv rot? OKeXeoiv t) eVt
a/xa 8' ovvxcov [xiyeOos Kal lax^v. Kal dXXoBi eAcacrra tovtojv ov Trotet' 8ta-

dXXoOi

aTTOJixevr]

yap dodevrjs ytVerat

7]

(jivais

rovrov tov
firj-

TrepLTTCofjiaTOS.
694 b KOS".

tol? 8e GKeXojv KaraoK^vdl^ei

ivLois 8' dvrl tovtojv GVfJLirX'qpoZ to /xera^u

Tcbv 7Toho)V'
T(2)v

Kal 8ia tovto dvayKaioj? ol 7rXa>Tol

opvlOcov OL fiev drrXajg elal GTeyavoTToSeg , ol 8e

SLfip'qfJLevrjv fiev
5

Xa)V

(f)VGLV,

TTpos

exovGL ttjv Kad^ e/cacrra TCJbv SaKTVeKdoTCp 8' aVTWV TTpOGTT€(f)VKeV

olov TrXdTiq Kad^ dXov ovvex'r]S.

'Ef dvdyKYjs fiev ovv TavTa cru/x/SatVet 8ta raura? aWias' a>? 8e 8ta to ^cXtiov ixovoL tolovtovs Tovs TToSag tov ^lov x^P^^> ^^^ t,o)VT€s iv vypo) Kal tCl)v TTTepvyoiv^ dxpeLa>v ovtojv tovs TTohas XPV^^'
ras"
fjLOVS exojcrt' Trpds ttjv

vevaLV.

yivovTai yap ojoTrep
to.
to..

^

Langkavel
^

Peck Kal e^opfMOV eV tovtov fortasse i^opfi.dTai Kal eV tovtov TiTcpwv vulg. TTTcpvycov Y6, Ogle
i^opixcoixevov
;
: :

Y6

:

e^O) pvev

410

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
for fights

IV.
:

xii.

bird that has talons and can fly well spurs are useful on the ground, and that is why certain of the heavy birds possess them, while talons would not be merely useless to them but a real disadvantage ° : they would stick in the ground and impede the birds when walking. And in fact all crook-taloned birds do walk badly, and they never perch upon rocks ; in both instances the nature of their claws is the

impediment."
This state of affairs is the necessary result of the process of their development. There is earthy substance in the bird's body which courses along and issues out and turns into parts that are useful for weapons of offence. When it courses upwards it produces a good hard beak, or a large one if it courses downwards it produces spurs on the legs or makes the claws on the feet large and strong. But it does not produce spurs and large claws simultaneously, for this residual substance would be weakened if it were scattered about. Again, sometimes this substance makes the legs long and in some birds, instead of that, it fills in the spaces between the toes. Thus it is of necessity that waterbirds either are web-footed, simply, or (if they have separate toes) they have a continuous fan or blade, as it were, running the whole length of each toe and of a piece with it. From the reasons just stated it is clear that feet of this sort are the result of necessity, it is true but they conduce to a good end and are meant to assist the birds in their daily life, for these birds live in the water, and while their wings are useless to them, these feet are useful and help them to swim. They
; ; ;

"

See above, note on 648 a

16.

o

411

ARISTOTLE
694 b
10

at KcoTTaL rots TrXeovai

KaV

to.

Trrepvyia roZs IxOv-

Sto KOI iav rajv yikv to. Tnepvyia u<f)aXfi, rcjv 8e TO fiera^v tojv ttoScov, ovKeri viovcnv.
"EiViOL Se /jLaKpoGKeXels tojv opvidcxjv elaiv.
8*

GLV

atriov

on

6 ^los rojv tolovtojv e'Aeios"
r)

TTpos TO epyov
lo

^vois

TToieZ,

opyava aXX ov ro epyov npos

ra

8*

8ia fiev ovv ro fJLrj TrXcora etvat ov crreyavoTToSa ian, Slol 8e ro ev VTvetKovrL etvat rov ^Lov fiaKpouKeXrj kol fiaKpoSaKrvXa, /cat ras" KafjLTTOis

ra opyava.

20

25

695 a

exovGi ttXclov? iv roL£ SaKTvXoL? ol TToXXol €77et 8' ov TTrrjruKa fiev, ck ttJs" 8' avrrjs vX7]s iarl rrdvra, rj et? ro ovponvyiov avroZs rpo<fyr] els ra GKeXrj KaravaXLOKOfxevr] ravra rfv^iqaev. 8t6 /cat ev rfj Trr-qoei dvr* ovpoTTvyiov xP^Jv'^oll aurots" TTerovrai yap OLTTorcLvovres et? to OTnodev ovro) yap avroL? ;^p?]crt/xa ra OKeXr], dXXcj? 8' ep^rrohit^OLev dv. Ta 8e ^paxvGKeXrj {ra) UKeXrf rrpos rfj yaorpl €XOvra TTerovrai' rois fJLev yap avrcJov ovk epTroSt^ovGLV ol TToSes ovroj rols he yapipd)vv^L rial npo epyov elol npog rrjv dpTrayqv. Tojv 8' exovrcov opvlBojv rov au;^eVa paKpov ol pev TTaxvrepov exovres TTerovrai eKrerapevco rep avx^vi', ol he XeTrrorepov^ ovyKeKappevcp- CTTiTreropevois yap hid rr]v OKeTTiqv -^rrov evdpvTrrov eariv. laxlov 8' exovoi pev ol opvides Trdvres fj ovk dv ho^aiev ex^iv, dXXd hvo prjpovg hid ro rov lax^ov prJKos' VTTorerarai yap pexpi pear]? rrj? yacrrpos. atriov 8' on hirrovv eori rovro ro l,a)ov ovk opOov
avrcjv.
,

^

KOL \l>.

Ogle

:

oin. vulg.

^ ra 8e ^paxvoK^Xi) kavel> oK€\-q vulg.

PY6
:

;

correxi

:

Ivia hk jSpaxea

<Td Lang-

^

AeTTTOTepov

Peck

Actttov koL fiaKpov vulg.

:

[kol fiaKpov]

seel.

Rackham.

412

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
are like oars to a sailor or fins to a

IV.
fish.
;

xii.

A

fish

that

can no longer swim nor can a bird whose webs have been destroyed. Some birds have long legs, owing to their living in marshes for Nature makes the organs to suit the work they have to do, not the work to suit the organ. And these birds have no webs in their feet because they are not water birds, but because they live on ground that gives under them they have long legs and long toes, and most of them have additional joints Furthermore, though these birds are in their toes. not great fliers, they are composed of the same materials as the rest, and thus the nutriment which in the others goes to produce the tail feathers, in these is used up on the legs and makes them grow longer, and when in flight these birds stretch them out behind and use them in place of the missing tail feathers placed thus, the legs are useful to them otherwise they would get in the way. Short-legged birds keep their legs up against the belly while they are flying, because if the feet are there they are out of the way the crook-taloned birds do it for an additional reason the feet are convenient for seizing prey. When a bird has a long neck, this is either thick and is held stretched out during flight ; or it is slender and is bent up during flight, because being protected in this way it is less easily broken if the bird flies into anything. All birds have an ischium, but in such a way that they would not appear to have one it is so long that it reaches to the middle of the belly and looks more like a second thigh-bone. The reason for this is that a bird, although a biped, does not stand
has lost
its fins
;
:

;

;

:

;

413

ARISTOTLE
695 a

{6V)/
5

COS et

ye

ers^e,
oltto

TOL9 rerpaTTooLv,

KadaTrep iv rotg dvOpcoTTots ^ rrjs eSpas f^po-x^ 'T'o lgx^ov

Kal TO

a/ceAos"

€v9vs ixopLevov, rjSvvdreL dv oXcos^

iordvai.
orai.
etvau
10

6 fiev yap dvOpcoTTog opdov, tol9 Se t€TpdnooL TTpos TO ^dpos CKeXr] efXTrpoadia VTTeprjp^iOL S' opviOes
rrjv
cf)vaiv,

ovk opOol
8'

fikv 8id

ro vavcjheis

GKeXrj

ifiTrpoodta

ovk e^ou-

GLV Std TO TTTepuya? ^X^^^^ ^^'^^ avrcjv. dvrl he rovTov [xaKpov rj <f)vuLS ro lax^ov rroLiqaaaa ctV

fieaov TTpoarjpeLoev evrevSev 8' V7Ti9r]K€ rd OKeXr],
OTTOJs looppoTTov

ovTOS Tov ^dpovs evOcv Kal evOev
hi
tjv

7rop€V€o9aL SvvrjraL Kal pLevetv*

fiev

ovv

air Lav hiTTovv eorlv ovk opddv 6v, etprjrat' rod S*

doapKa rd
15

GKeXr) elvau
Tys"

rj

avrrj alria Kal inl rdjv

rerparrohajv, VTrep

Kal irpoodev eLprjTat.

TerpahaKrvXoi 8' etcrt rravreg ol opvideg 6pLoicx)s ol oreyavoTTohes tol? GX^'^dTTOGLV [rrcpl ydp rod arpov6ov rod Al^vkov vorepov hiopiovpiev, on htxp^Xos,
dfjba

rot? XoLTTolg ivavrLOjjJiaGLV ols

e;^et

rrpds rd rdJv
epLTTpo-

opvidojv yevos).

rovrcov

8'

ol

fiev

rpelg

adev, 6 8' els oTTiodev npos dcr^dActav dvrl Trrepvrjs'
20 /cat

rojv puaKpoaKeXajv AetVet rovro /card fxeyedos,

ovfJif3€^7]K€v ivl rTjS KpeKOS' rrXeiovs 8' ovk kxovGi haKTvXovs .^ irrl fxev ovv rdJv dXXojv ovrojs deois, rj 8' 'Ivy^ hvo jxovov 7) rdJv haKrvXcov ex^i

olov

ex^t,
^

rovs ejXTTpooOev Kal hvo rovs oTnaOev^'

a'iriov

<ov>

Rackham,

cf.
:

1.

14 infra.

^

oXws

PQU,

Og-Ie

ofyQov vulj^.

^ correxi ; exovaiv Sia rovro rrrepvyas exovoiv vulg. {mipuya?, 8e altero ix°^^^^ omisso, Y, Ogle, qui post 8ia touto

interpungit).

414

.

^

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
;

IV.

xii.

and if it had an ischium which extended upright only a short way from the fundament and was followed immediately by the leg (as in man and the quadrupeds), it would be unable to stand up at all. Man can stand upright, and quadrupeds have forebirds, howlegs to support their forward weight ever, neither stand upright (because they are dwarflike), nor have forelegs (because they have wings inBy way of compensation, Nature has made stead). the ischium long, reaching to the middle of the body, and has fixed it fast, while beneath it she has placed the legs, so that the weight may be equally distributed on either side and the bird enabled to walk and to stand still. This shows why birds are bipeds although they are unable to stand upright. The reason why their legs are lacking in flesh is the same as for all quadrupeds and has been stated already.^ All birds, web-footed or not, have four toes on each (The Libyan ostrich will be dealt with later, foot. and its cloven hoof and other inconsistencies with the tribe of birds will be discussed.) Of these four toes, three are in front, and the fourth is at the back inIn the long-legged stead of a heel, for stability. birds this toe is deficient in length, as for instance in the Crex. Still, the number of toes does not exceed four. This arrangement of the toes holds good generally, but the A\Tyneck is an exception, for it has only two toes in front and two at the back. This is because
;

**

"

<=

At
*

See above, 693 b 3 ff * See 689 b 10 ff. the end of the book.
ixevetv

Y6

:

fievrj

vulg.

'
'

Sia TTjv orevoTT^ra rod (jkcXovs add.
. . .

PY6.

efjLTTpoadev

oniadev

Karsch

:

OTnadev

.

.

.

efXTrpoodev vulg.

415

ARISTOTLE
25

O OTt TjTTOV €GTLV aVTrjS TO OOJfXa 7Tp07T€Te£ €771 TO rrpoodev rj to tcov d'AAcov. "Opx^'-S" ^' exovGL jjLev Trdvres ol opvides, ivros
8*

e^ovGiv

7]

8'

alria iv roXg Trepl ras yeviueis
fjLopia

Xe-)(B'qG€Tai rcov l,cocjv.
695 b

Td

fiev

ovv Tcbv opviOojv

rov rpo-nov exei

TOVTOV. XIII.

Td

jScoTat TCOV

8e Tcov IxOvojv yevos eVt piaXXov k€koX6ovtc yap GKeXrj ovTe e/cTo? popicuv.

X^lpas OVT6 TTTepvyas exovGLV {e'lprjTaL 8e Trepl tovbTOJV 7] atVta TTpoTepov), dAA' d'Aov airo ttj? K€(f)aXrj? TO KVTog Gvvex^s Igtl P-^xp^ Trjs ovpas- TavTrjv 8' ovx opolav exovGL TrdvTes, dXXd tol pcev TTapa-nXrjTj

10

CTtW/ Tcjv 8e TrXaTeajv eVta aKavdcJoSrj /cat p,aKpdv eKeWev yap av^rjGLS yiveTai els to ttAcitos", olov €GTL vdpKais Kal rpvyoGL /cat et Tt toiovtov d'AAo tcov pLev ovv tolovtojv aKavOojhes creAa^^^ds" eGTiv. Kal p.aKp6v TO ovpalov eGTLv, eviojv he GapKchhes pev

^paxv he hid

16

Trjv avTrjv acTLav 8t' jjvTrep Tat? vdpKais- hia^epei yap ovhev, iq ^P^'Xp H-^^ GapKOJheGTepov he, rj pLaKpov p,ev aGapKOTepov 8' etvat. 'E77t he T(x)v ^aTpdxcov to evavTLOv Gvpi^e^-qKev 8td yap TO pLTj GapKOjhes etvat to TiAaTOS" avTcov TO epLTTpoGOiov, oGov d(j)fi py]T ai GapKOjhes, irpos to OTTLGdev avTOJV^ edrjKev rj <f)VGLS Kal ttjv ovpav. OvK exovGL 8' aTTTjpTripLeva KCJoXa ol Ixdveg hid to vevGTLKYjv etvat ttjv <^uCTtv avTwv KaTa tov ttjs ovGtas Adyov, evret ol;t£ irepiepyov ovhev ovTe pidTr]v
^
fjL€v

irrepvylois)
*

aAAa TT. P : fiev afir) it. Piatt Ogle, similia voluit Thurot. avTo vulg. avTwv U
: :

fiev TTapanX-^oia

<.toIs

«

See Degen. an. 714 b 4

fF.,

719 b

11.

416

;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV. xii.-xiii.

the weight of its body tends forward less than that of other birds. All birds have testicles, but they are inside the body. The reason for this will be stated in the treatise on the different methods of generation among animals.^ This concludes our description of the parts of Birds, (iii.) Fishes XIII. In the tribe of Fishes the external parts Fishes have neither legs, are still further stunted. hands, nor wings (the reason has been stated earlier), but the whole trunk has an uninterrupted line from head to tail. Not all fishes' tails are alike but the Tail, general run of them have similar tails, though some of the flat-fish have a long, spiny one, because the material for the tail's growth goes into the width this happens in the torpedo-fishes, of the fiat body in the Trygons, and any other Selachians of the same These have long, spiny tails. Others have sort. short, fleshy ones, and for the selfsame reason it comes to the same thing whether the tail is short and has a good deal of flesh or long with little flesh. In the fishing-frog ^ the opposite has taken place. Here, the wide, flat part of the body in front is not Nature has taken the fleshy material away fleshy from the front and added an equivalent amount at the back in the tail. Fishes have no separate limbs attached to the body. (a) This is because Nature never makes anything that is superfluous or needless, and by their essence and constitution^ fishes are naturally swimmers and so
;
:

:

;

^ Lophius piscatorius, known as the " goosefish " in U.S.A., erroneously inchided by Aristotle {De gen. an. 754 a 25) with the Selachia, though he observed that it diflFered in many important points. " Logos see Introduction, pp. 2Q f.
:

417

ARISTOTLE
695 b
^

20 Tj

inel 8* evai/xa eart Kraro, rrjv (jyvois TTOiet. ovoiav, hia iiev to vevoTiKo. elvai m^pvyia ex^L, Sta Se TO firj ne^eveiv ovk e;^et TroSa?* t^ ycip rcov ttoScov TTpOodeULg 77/30? TT^V €7TL TO) TTehicp KLVqOLV ;)^pT^atjLto? ianv. dfia Se Trrepvy la rerrapa kol irohas ovx
OLOV

r

e;)(etv,

ovh^

aAAo

/ccoAov

roiovrov ou3ev

25

evaifia yap.

exovGiv
[lavcnSr]

ol 8e KopSuAot Ppdyxio, exovreg TToSa? TTrepvy la yap ovk e;)(;oi;CTtv, aAAo, tt^v oupav

696 a

Kal irXaTelav. Se Tcov IxOvojv ogol jjltj TrXarelg, KaOdnep ^dro? Kal rpvycov, rerrapa Trrepvyca, Svo ptev ev Tot? TTpaveai, Bvo S* iv TOts" VTTTLOLS' ttXelcx) Se rovTCov ouSetS", dvaipLoi yap dv rjoav. rovra)v 8e tcx
''E;)(0UCTt
jLtev

Tot? VTTTLOLS
I

eV to) Trpavel gx^^ov Trdvres exovon, rd 8* eV €i'LOi Tcov jjLaKpwv Kal vdxog eXOVTOJV
ocra 8' iarl

OVK exovGLV, OLOV iyx^Xvg Kal yoyypos Kal Keorpeojv
Tt yevos TO ev rfj Xipvrj rfj iv Stoats',

pLaKpo(f)V€aT€pa Kal

6<f)Ld>hri

p^aXXov, olov op.vpaiva,

ovhkv exovGL 7TT€pvyLov

aTrAcus', aAAo, rals /ca/XTrat? KLVOVvrai, p^pdS/xevat ro) vypqj ajGirep ol 6(jieis rfj

yfj'

Tov avTov^ yap ol
epTTovGiv.
lxOvcx)v

6<^€L£ rpoirov^ viovGiv ovirep

10 cttI TTJs yrjs

alria 8e rod
TTTepvyia,

[xr]

6(f)icoSeLs
6(f)€a>v

TCOV

TJnep

^x^lv tovs Kal tojv

rod diroSa?

elvai.

to

8'

acTiov ev TOtg irepl
t)

rropeias Kal Kivrjoeois tojv ^coojv e'iprjTai.

ydp

KaKcog dv eKivovvTO, TeTTapot
^
:

Gr]p,eLOL? KLvovpceva

tovtov vulg. TOV avTov Peck TOV delevi: Ol o<f)€is TOV rpoTTOv Y6: vulg»
2

tov Tpoirov ol

o</)eis

<» The Cordylus was probably the larval form of some triton or ne%vt, such as Triton alpestris or Salamandra atra, which retains its gills till it is well grown (D'Arcy Thompson). " i.e. pectoral. • i.e. ventral,

418

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

xiii.

need no such limbs. But also (6) they are essentiallyblooded creatures, which means that if they have four fins they cannot have any legs or any other limbs of the sort so they have the fins because they are swimmers and do not have the feet because they are not walkers (when an animal has feet it has them because they are useful for moving about on land). The Cordylus,^ however, has feet in addition to its gills, since it has no fins, but only a scraggy flattenedout tail. Excluding flat-fish (like the Batos and Trygon), fish Fins, two on their under and tw^o on their have four fins upper surface, never more, for then they would be Almost all fishes have the two bloodless animals. upper ^ fins, but some of the large, thick-bodied fishes lack the under ^ two as for instance the eel and the conger, and a sort of Cestreus that is found in the lake Fishes that have even longer bodies than at Siphae.'^ these, and are really more like serpents (as the Smyraena^), have no fins at all, and move along by that is, they use the bending themselves about water just as serpents use the ground. And in fact serpents swim in exactly the same way as they creep on the ground. The reason why these serpent-like fishes have no fins and the reason why serpents have no feet are the same, and this has been stated in the treatises on the Locomotion and Movement of Animals. f {a) If they had four motion-points, their movement would be poor, because the fins would
; :

:

In Boeotia, on the south coast near Thespiae now Tipha. Aristotle refers to this Cestreus of Siphae again, De incessu an. 708 a 5. Cf. also Hist. An. 504 b 33. * Probably Muraena Helena. ' See Be incessu an. 709 b 7 perhaps the other passage which Aristotle has in mind is 690 b 16, in this book.
<*

;

;

0-1

419

ARISTOTLE
696 a
^^

(etVe
15

yap crvveyyvs etxov ra Tnepvyia,
TToppco,

^

^

T

/xoyt?

o-v

eKivovvTO, eire

8ta ro rroXv

pLera^v)'

el
t^v.

8e TxAeto)
7^

TO. KLVTjTLKCi CTT^jLteta erj^oi^, ciVat/xa

av

S*

aiJTT)

alria

/cat

eVt

rcov

Suo

piovov

i^ov-

rojv TTTepvyia
pLrjKearepa,
TTTepvyicov.
20

l)(^9v(jov

ocjyiojh'q

yap eon Kal eudvrl rcov hvo

Kal )(prjTai

rfj

Kapupei

Sto Kal ev rep ir^po) epTTOvai Kal t^coat
,

TToXvV XPOVOV, Kal TO, pL€V OVK €1)6 V
TTJs Tre^r]?

TO.

S'

OLKela

ovra

(j)VO€a)s tjttov aorrapit^ei.

AvTOJV Se Tcov TTrepvyicov ra ev rols Trpaveaiv ex^i ra Svo e^ovra TrrepvyLa ptovov, ocra pirj KOjXverai Sta TO TiXdros' ra S' e^ovra irpos rfj Ke(f)aXfj ex^t
Sta ro
25
pLT)

ex^^y pLjJKOs ev rep roircp,
errl

a>

dvrl rovra>v

KLVTjGeraL'

yap

rrjv

ovpdv

TrpopLrjKes

ro rcov

roiovrcjv eorlv IxOva^v ocbpLa.

ol he ^droi Kal

ra

roiavra dvrl rojv Trrepvyiojv rep eoxdrcp irXdrei
veovoLv.

rd

8*
7)^

rjrrov

exovra TrXdros nrepvy ta

80

ra (^pi^vY ev nXdros rcov dvoj, rd S* ev rots virrioig Trpds rfj Ke^aXfj [ov ydp KOjXveL KiveZcr^at rd TrXdros) aAA' dvrl rod dvco eXdrro) ravra rdv kv rep npaveX ^x^'" V ^^ vdpKrj irpos rfj ovpa ex^t. rd hvo Trrepvyua- dvrl he rcov hvo rep nXdrei
exovGLV, otov
vdpKTj Kal 6 ^drpaxos,
rep TTpavel Kdrco hid rd
'

XP'TJr at ex)?

hval nrepvyioLS eKarepep rep rjpLLKVKXiep.
rfj KeefyaXfj pLopleov

He pi
^

he rcov ev

Kal

alcjdr]r7]-

piejjv etprfr ai

Trporepov.
. . .

TO. S' -^TTov

olov

rj

V

:

tj

be

tantum vulg.

2

<[x(v>

Langkavel.

420

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

xiii.

either be very close together, or else a long way apart, and in either case would not move easily. (6) On the other hand, if they had more than four motion-points they would be bloodless creatures. The same reason holds good for those fishes that have only two fins. These also are serpent-like and fairly long, and they

use their power of bending instead of the two missing fins. And this enables them besides to crawl about and and to live a good length of time on dry land it is some while before they begin to gasp indeed, those which are akin to the land-animals are affected even less than the others. Except for those whose width and flatness prevents * it, all fishes that have only two fins have the upper ones and these fins are by the head, because there is no length of body just there which they could use instead of fins for propulsion length such as fish of this sort have towards their tail-end. The Batoi and such fishes swim by means of the edge of their Fish flat surface Mhich they use instead of fins. which are not so flat, such as the torpedo-fish and the fishing-frog, possess fins, but they have their upper fins toward their tail-end owing to the flatness of the forepart, and their under fins near the head (since the flatness of the fish does not prevent its motion) ; but the under ones are smaller than the upper ones, The torpedoto make up for being placed forward. and instead of fish has two of his fins by his tail these two he uses the wide piece on each of his semicircles ^ as though it were a fin. have already spoken of the parts in the head and of the sense-organs.
; ;

;

;

We

" i.e.
*

Cf.

De

pectoral. incessu an. 709 b 17,

421

ARISTOTLE
696 a
^

"IStor 8*
696 b eVat/xa

ex^i^

t,o}a

ttjv

TO Tcov IxOvojv ylvog TTpos raAAa ra rcov ^payxiojv cf)V(JLV 8t* t^v 8'
.

alriav, eipr^rai Iv roXs irepl dvaTTVoi^s
TO.

/cat

l^et 8e
rots'

e^ovTa ^pdyxi'<^

to,

juey

e77t/<:aAi;/.tjLtaTa

5

10

15

^payxiOL?, rd 8e aeXax^] rrdvra} dKdXvnra. airiov 8' ort ot jLtev d/cav^ojSets' etcrt, to 8' eTrt/caAujLt/xa d/cav^a>8es", rd 8e aeAd;)^!^ Trdvra x^v^pdKavBa. ert 8' 9^ KLV7]GLg Tojv fjL€V vcoOpd" 8td TO jLtT^ aKavBajhr] elvai pLrjSe vevpajSr], rcov 8' aKavOcoScov rax^tCL' tov 8* eTTt/caAJ/u/xaros" Ta;)(etav 8et yiveoOai rrjv Kivqaiv wGTTep ydp TTpos eKTrvo-qv rj rcov Ppayx^(J^v iorl 8td TOVTO ToZs o-eAa;^tu8eo-t /cat avrcDv rcDy (j)VOis. TTOpojv 7) Gvvaycoyr] yiverai rwv ^payx^ajv, /cat ov Set eVt/caAujLtjLtaros', ottojs" yivrjTai rax^la. Ot jLtev ouv auTo);^ exovoi ttoAAo, ^pdyx^cL ol 8' oAtya, /cat ot /xev 8i77Aa ot 8' ctTrAa* to 8' eoxoLTOv 8' d/cptj8etav €/c tcDv drrXovv ol TrAetorot. (t'57v dvaropLUJV irepl rovrcov /cat eV Tat? loropiais Tats" alriov 8e tou ttXtjOovs Trept TO, ^a>a Set Oecopelv.) /cat TTys" oAtyoTT^TO? TO Tou ev T7y /capSta depfjLov ttXtjOos /cat oAiyoTT^s" Odrroj ydp /cat loxvpoTepav
Trjv KLVTjoiv 8et etvat TOts" TrXeioj 'ixovoi depiJLorrjra.
TCt

8e TrAeio)

/cat StTrAa
rcx)v

^pdy;^ta roLavrrjv ex^L Tr)v
8t6 /cat

20 (f)vaLV

pidXXov

aTrXcov /cat cAaTTOvojv.
^T^y

25

Suyarat ttoAliv ;!^povov, rcDv ixdvTOJV iXdrroj /cat '^ttov iyKparrj rd ^pdyxt'O-, olov iyx^Xvs /cat ooa ScfiLcoSrj- ov ydp ttoXXtj? Seovrai Karaipv^ecns. rd [xev "EiX^t, 8e /cat Trept to oropia hia^opds. yd/) /car' dvTLKpv e;)^et to aTo/xa /cat ets" to irpoadev,
eVta auTtoi/ e^o)
^

^

17

KivTjQis

(xoiSpoLKaiOa yap) post Travra vulg., om. P. . . vcodpa : ai KivT^acts . . . vwOpal Vulg. .

Y

422

;

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

xiii.
GiUiu

The peculiarity whicli marks oft' fishes from the other blooded animals is the possession of gills. It has been explained in the treatise on Respiration ° why they have them. All fishes have coverings over their gills, except the Selachia, none of which have them. This is because their bones are cartilaginous, whereas other fishes' bones are of fish-spine, and this is the substance out of which the coverings are made. And again, the Selachia move sluggishly owing to their and of sinews while the spinous lack of fish-spine fishes move quickly, and the movement of the covering must be a quick one, for gills are a medium for expiration of a sort. On this account in the selachian group of fishes the passages of the gills can close up by themselves, and no covering is needed to make sure

they close quickly. Now some fish have many gills, some have few ; some have double ones, some single. The last one (For precise details is nearly always a single one. consult the Anatomical treatises and the Researches upon Animals.^) The number of gills depends upon the amount of heat in the heart. The more heat an animal has, the quicker and stronger must be the movement of its gills and if the gills are numerous and double they are better adapted for this than if they are few^ and single. And on this account, some fishes (e.g. the eels and the serpentine fishes) which need but little cooling, as is shown by their having only a few weakish gills, can live a long time out of
;

water. Fish differ also with regard to the mouth. Some Mouth, have their mouth right at the tip, straight in front

At 476 a 1 ff., 480 b 13 ^ At 504 b 28 ff.

flf.

423

.

,

ARISTOTLE
696 b
^

ra

^

S*

ev roZs vtttlols, olov ot re SeXcfylves^ koI tol

^

^

^

^

aeXaxcoBr]' Sto /cat virria
rpocjy-qv.

gtpec/to fxeva
(jyvais

Aa/xjSavet rr^v

(^atVerat 8'

rj

ov

(jlovov

oojTqpias
TTJ

€V€K€V TTOLTJuaL TOVTO TCOV (xAAcuy ^OJCOV {iv yOLp
aTp€i/j€L

80

Gw^erai rdAAa ^pahwovrtov Trdvra yap ra roiavra ^a)ocf)dya eoriv), dWd /cat Trpos ro fir] OLKoXovOetv rfj Xaifiapyla rfj nepl Tr]V Tpo(f)TJv' paov

yap Xajx^dvovra
rax€a>s.
Trpos
ttjv

hi€(j>d€ip€T*

av Sta

rr^v rrX'^paxjiv
/cat

Se

tovtols Trept^epTj
(j>VGiv

XeTTrrjv

exovra

rov pvyxovs

ovx olov t

€V-

hiaiperov €X€LV.

"Ert Se
697 a

/cat

rcov dva> to arojita Ixovtojv

ra

fiev
fiev

dveppcoyos

e;)(et

to GTOfia ra Se fivovpov, OGa

GapKO(f)dya, dv€pp(x)y6s, oiGirep rd KapxapdSovra

Sid TO iv Toj GTopiari elvat roXg tolovtols ttjv Igxvv,

OGa 8e

fjLT]

GapKO(f)dya, pLvovpov.
{r}

To
6

Se SepfjLa ol fxkv Xemhajrov exovGiv avrojv

Sc

AeTTts"

Std XafjL7Tp6r7)Ta
,

/cat

XeTrronqra rov gcLpivt] /cat jSaro?

[laros
/cat Tct

d^tWarat)

ot 8e

rpaxv, olov

roiavra' iXdxtorra Se rd Aeta.

rd 8e

oreAd;;^T7

rpax^a 8' eart 8td ro x^^^pdKavda clvac ro ydp yecohes eKeWev rj (f)VGis els ro Sepfia
dAe7rtSa>Ta /xev

KaraviqXojKev
10

"Opx^^s

8*

ouSet?

e;)(et

Ix^^^ ovr c/crd? ovr* ivros

^ SeA<^tve? non probant Frantzius, Ogle; similia Hist. An. 591 b 26 secludunt Aubert et Wimmer.

"

an. 591 b 26,

This statement about dolphins, though repeated at Hist, is incorrect, and as Aristotle was familiar with

424

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

xiii.

others have it underneath {e.g. the dolphin and the selachians) and that is why they turn on to their backs to get their food. It looks as if Nature made them do this partly to preserve other animals from them, for they all prey on living things, and while they are losing time turning on to their backs the other things but she did it also to prevent them get away safely from giving way too much to their gluttonous craving for food, since if they could get it more easily they would presently be destroyed through repletion. Another reason is that their snout is round and small and therefore cannot have much of an opening in it. There are differences too among those that have their mouth above. With some it is a great wide opening (these are the flesh-eaters, as e.g. those mth sharp interfitting teeth, whose strength is in their mouth) with others (the non-flesh-eaters) it is on a tapering snout. As for the skin some have a scaly skin (these scales are shiny and thin and therefore easily come loose from the body) others have a rough skin, e.g. the Rhine and the Batos and such. Those with smooth skins are the fewest. Selachia have skins which are scaleless but rough, owing to their bones being cartilaginous instead of using the earthy matter on the bones Nature has used it for the skin. No fish has testicles ^ either without or within. Nor
'^

;

;

:

Skin,

;

;

Testicles.

the creature, some editors consider this reference to be an interpolation. ^ By this Aristotle does not mean that fish have no organ for the secretion of sperm, but that they have no organ similar in shape and consistency to those of mammaha, etc. He calls the corresponding organs in fish not testes, but tubes, or roe. Aristotle's statement does not, of course, include the Selachia,

which have compact, oval

testes.

425

ARISTOTLE
697 a

(ouS*

aXXo
he

Tt Tcov OLTToScxJV ovSev, 8to ot)S' ol 6(j)€is),

16

rod TrepiTTcofiaTog Kal rcov Trepl rrjv yiveoiv rov avTOV, KaOaTvep /cat raAAa cootoko} TTOLvra Kai^ rerpoLTroSa, 8ta ro (jltj €)(€lv kvotlv firjhe ylveaOat Treptrrco^' aurot? vypov. To pev ovv rcov 1-)(6vcl>v ylvos Trpos raAAa ^oia raura? e;)^et ras" Sta^opa?, ot Se heXcjuves Kal at (fioXaivai Kal iravra ra roiavra rcov ktjtcjv ^pdy)(La fjL€V ovK exovaiv, avXov he hia to TTvevpiova e-x^eiv he-)(opieva yap Kara to oro/xa rrjv ddXarrav d(f)idaL dvdyKrj puev yap he^aadai to Kara rov avXoi^.
TTopov

20

vypov hid TO Xap^dveiv rrjV rpocfirjv ev ro) vypcp' he^dpieva 8' d<^teVat dvayKalov. ra piev ovv ^pdytjv S* Xi'd eoTL xPV^f-f^^ '^OLS pLTj dvaTTveovoiv hi air lav, eiprjrai ev Tots" Trepl dvaTTVorjs' dhvvarov yap dpia TO avro dvarrvelv Kal ^pdyxi'OL €;^etv aAAa npos Keirai 3' rrjv d(f)eaiv rod vharos exovai rov avXov.
avroZs ovrog rrpo rov eyKe(/)dXov' hieXdp^ave yap atriov he rod nvevpLova rrjs pdx^cos avrov. ravr e^etv Acat dvairvelv, on ra pieydXa rcjjv t^wcxjv

25

dv aTTO

80

%^ h

heZrai Oepp^orrjros Iva Kivrjrai- hio 6 eyKeirai avrols Oepp^orr^ros a)V rrXrip'qg eon he ravra rponov rivd (^Kai)^ Tre^d aifiariKrjg Kal evvhpa- rov pev yap depa hex^rai cos" Tre^a, drroha 8' ecTt Kal Xapi^dvei eK rov vypov rr)v Kal at ^to/cat he Kal Tpo(f)rjv WGTTep ra evvhpa. at vvKrepihes hid ro e-napKJiorepit.eiv at piev rois ivvhpois Kal Tre^ot?, at he rois Trrrjvois Kal Trefots", Std Tovro dpi(j)orepcov re pierexovai Kal ovherepojv,
rrXeiovos
TTvevpiojv
.

1

Co^oTO/ca
(/cai)

PSUY.

*

KOI (StTToSa Kai) Ogle.
^

Rackham.

426

:

PARTS OF ANIMALS,
serpents.

IV.

xiii.

have any other footless animals, and this includes the In fish the passage for the residue and for and the generative secretion is one and the same
;

this is so in all

ones included.

other oviparous animals, four-footed This is because they have no bladder
inter-

and produce no liquid residue. Thus we have seen what are the differences to be noticed in fish as a group as compared wdth other Dolphins and whales and all such Cetacea, animals. however, have no gills, but they have a blowhole because they have a lung. They cannot help letting
the sea-water enter the mouth because they feed in the water, and once it has got in they must get it out again, and they do so through the blowhole. Gills, of course, are of service herein to those creatures that do not breathe. The reason for this has been given no creature can breathe in my book on Respiration'^ and at the same time have gills instead, these Cetacea have a blowhole for getting rid of the water. It is placed in front of the brain, otherwise it would separate the brain from the spine. The reason why these creatures have a lung and breathe is that large animals need more heat than others to enable them to move consequently they have a lung inside them full of heat derived from the blood. They are, in a way, land-animals as well as water-animals they inhale the air, hke land-animals, but they have no feet and they get their food from the water as wateranimals do. Similarly, seals and bats are in an intermediate position. Seals are between land-animals and water-animals, bats between land-animals and fliers thus they belong to both classes or to neither.
'.

"Ltures
^'•)

Cetacea.

;

;

^

:

(ii.)

Seaia

^""^ ^****

:

"

References given above, see on 696 b 2,

427

ARISTOTLE
697 b
5

^

at re

yap

(fiajKai cos /xev

evvSpoc 7708a? exovcnv, (Ls

he Trejat nrepvyia^ [rovs yap oiriaQev TTohas l^BvcoSet? exovGL 7ra/x7ray, ert 8e rou? oSovras" Trdvras

Kapxapohovras Kal

o^els)' /cat at vvKrepihes OJS

fJiev

TTTTjva exovcTL TToSag,

wg

Se rerpoLTToSa ovk exovai,
jJLev

Kal ovT€ KepKov exovcriv ovr^ ovpoTTvyiov, 8ta
10

TO

TTTiqva elvai

KepKOV, Sta he ro
8'

rret,a

ovponvyLOV.

uvfx^e^rjKe 8' avrals rovr
hepjJLOTTTepoL,

e^ dvdyKrjs' etVt yap

ovhev

e;\;et

ovporrvyiov

fxr]

o-;)(tJo-

TTTepov eK TOLOvrov yap irrepov yiverai to ovpoTTvyiov.
Tj

he KepKos Kal efjiTTohiog dv

rjv

virdpxovaa

iv rols TTTepoZg.

15

rd

Tov auTov he rpoTTOV Kal 6 arpovdos 6 Al^vkos' ixev yap opviOos ^x^c, rd he ^cpov Terpdnohog. <Ls fiev ydp ovk u)v rerpdirovs Trrepd €X€i, d)s 8'
a)V dpvLS

OVK

ovre Trirarai fJuerecopL^oixevos , Kal rd

Trrepd ov XPV^^I^^ irpos TrrrjaLv dXXd rpix^hr]' ere 8e CO? fJiev rerpdnovs cjv pXecfiaplhag ex^L rds

dvojOev Kal
20

xjjiXos

eon rd

dvo) rod avx^voSy

jSAe^aptSas,

cos"

8'

irepl rrjv Ke(f)aXr)v Kal rd wore rpix^oheorepas ^x^i'V rdg opvLs cov rd Kdrcodev eirrepoiraL'

Kal huTTOVS
rerpdirovs
'

fiev

eoriv

d>s

dpvis,

hixciXos

8*

(hs

ov ydp haKrvXovs

e;^et

aAAa XV^^^'

Tovrov

25

atrtov ort to {jueyedos ovk opvidos e;;^et dAAa rerpdiTohos' eAa;^toTov ydp dvayKalov elvau ro jJLeyeOos cos" KadoXov etVetv ro rojv opvidajv ov ydp pdhiov TToXvv oyKOV Kivelodai oaj/xaro? jxereajpov,
^

8'

TTTcpvyia

Ogle

:

TTTcpuyas vulg.

428


PARTS OF ANIMALS,
having feet
fins
;

IV.

xiii.

Seals, if regarded as water-animals, are
if

anomalous in regarded as land-animals, in having

hind feet are altogether Hke those of and all their teeth too are sharp and interlocking). Bats, too, if regarded as birds, are anomalous in having feet*^ if regarded as quadrupeds, in not having feet ^ furthermore, they have neither a quadruped's tail (because they are fliers) nor a bird's tail (because they are land-animals). This their lack of a tail like a bird's is a necessary consequence, since they have membranous wings, and no creature has a tail of this sort unless it has barbed feathers such tails are always made out of barbed feathers And a tail of the other sort grovving among feathers would be a definite impediment. After the same style is the Libyan ostrich: in (iiiO.The some points it resembles a bird, in others a quadruped. ^ "° As not being a quadruped, it has feathers as not being a bird, it cannot rise up and fly, and it has
(their
i.e.

fishes

fins

;

;

;

:

*

;

feathers that are like hairs and useless for flight. Again, as being a quadruped, it has upper eyelashes, and it is bald in the head and the upper part of the neck, as a result of which its eyelashes are hairier than they would otherwise be as being a Also, as bird, it is feathered on its lower parts. a bird, it has two feet but, as a quadruped, it has cloven hoofs (it has hoofs and not toes). The reason is that it has the size not of a bird but of a quadruped. Speaking generally, a bird has to be very small in size, because it is difficult for a body of large bulk to move off the ground.
;
;

«

That

is,

of the sort that birds ought not to have, viz. on

their winofs.
*

That

is,

of the sort that quadrupeds ought to have.

429

ARISTOTLE
Yiepl jikv ovv Tcbv fiopicDVy Sid riv

atrtav eKaarov
raJv ^ojcov
i(f)e^rjs eori,

ioTLV iv roZs
30

t,woi<s, elpiqTai Trepl ttolvtojv

Kad^ eKaarov tovtcjv 8e hiojpi(jp,iv(jJv ra 7T€pl ras yevioeis avrcjv SieXOelv}
^

TovTcov

.

.

.

SicA^etv

om.

Yft, et statim incipiunt

librum

ds incessu.

430

PARTS OF ANIMALS,

IV.

xiii.

We have now spoken severally of all the animals we have described their parts, and stated the reason why each is present in them. Now that this is
concluded, the next thing
is

:

Conclusion.

to describe the various

ways

in

which animals are generated.

431

ARISTOTLE
Additional Note on 684 b 21-29
Commentators agree that no satisfactory sense can be obtained from the first three Hnes of this passage as it stands in Bekker's edition. None has so far produced a remedy ; but an examination of the Arabic translation (or of Michael Scot's Latin translation made from the Arabic) shows plainly what has happened. In neither of these two translations is there any reference whatever to a diagram until 685 a 2. Thus the ms. from which our present Greek text is derived had been corrupted through the efforts of someone who tried to improve the text of 684 b 2-2-21 by inserting references to a diagram here also and the result is that these references have caused the complete loss of one important phrase (b 22) and serious corruption of another (b 24-25). Some dislocation has also been caused in the lines following, up to line 29. The two diagrams given in the ms. Z are obviously constructed to suit the interpolated text. One of the mss. (Merton 278) of Michael Scot's version has an entirely different diagram the three mss. of Scot at Cambridge have no diagram at all, nor has the Arabic ms. B.M. Add. 7511. I give below the passage as it appears in Michael Scot's
;

;

version.

Natura ergo istorum dvorum modorum est sicut diximus ; propter hoc ambulant nniformiter'^ sicut accidit animalibus quadrupedihus et hominibus etiam. homo vero habet os in
et

capite, scilicet in parte superiori corporis ; deinde habet stomachtcm, deinde ventrem, et post ventrem intestinum perveniens ad locum exitus superjluitatis. iste ergo res in animalibus habentibus sanguinem sunt secundum hanc dispositionem^ et post caput est clibanus, scilicet pectus^ et quod vicinatur ei. alia vero membra sunt propter ista, etc. I am much indebted to Dr. R. Levy for his kindness in reading this passage for me in the Arabic in Brit. Mus. ms. Add. 7511.

*

inuniformiter Caius 109
et

& Camb.

U.L.

II.

3.

16;

fortasse igitur

Bcribendum uniformiter

non inuniformiter.

432

PARTS OF ANIMALS
Additional Note on 693 b 3
Explanation of Aristotle's terminology for describing the bending of limbs. When Aristotle is speaking about the bending of limbs, hackicards and foricards are relative to the direction in which the whole animal moves inwards and outwards are relative to the bulk of the body
;

itself.

points

Thus, backwards means that the angle of the bent joint backwards inwards means that the extremity of the limb is brought inv.-ards towards the body, that is, the angle of the bent jomi points away from the main bulk of the body. (" Inward " and "outward " bending thus have no connotation of " bandy-legs " and " knock-knees.")
;

All four legs bend imcards

;

Example

(1)

y^

'K^\

The forelegs hen^ forwards The hindlegs bend backwards.
:

r, Example
1

/r^\

(2)

f

r

v/ 3/

The

leg bends inwards,

and

backwards.

(See

Be

incess. an.

711 a 8

ff.,

Hist.

An. 498 a 3

ff.)

433

ARISTOTLE
Additional Note on the
ms.

Z

The following portions of the text of tained in the Oxford ms. Z (see p. 50)
:

De

partibus are con/xe'xpi

fol. 60^, fol. 61',

60^.

I.

639 b 29 to 640 b 24.
inclusive. 644 a 25 to clusive.

to fiaXXov av
(^y in-

6 P.

I.

645 a

17.

KadoXov to rot?

Between these two folios it has apparently lost four folios, as well as one at the beginning of Book I and another at the end.
fol. lf-19'. fol.

19^-36'.

Book Book

II.

but the words ou ttoXv to cvpvxdipovs inclusive (675 a 30-b 27) are omitted, with no indication by the original scribe that anything has been omitted this
III,
:

passage has been supplied by a later hand in the margins of fol. 35'^ and 36' and

on

36^.

Book IV is written by yet another (later) hand, and this Book occupies fol. 37'"-59v, at the end of which folio it breaks off at the words ra KoXovixiva (694 a 13). The rest of Book IV is lost.
In the apparatus
in quoting this ms.
:

I

have used the following abbreviations

Z
Z^

Z^

Z
I

Books I, II and most of III (first hand, c. a.d. 1000). indicates the reading of the first hand where this has been altered by another. indicates later correctors of Z^. indicates the readings of the ms. in Book IV.

have collated from photostats the whole of the portion by the first hand, and the readings of Z quoted have been confirmed by reference to the photostats. I have used the symbol E when quoting the readings of E from 680 b 36 onwards, as this part of the ms. is written in a later hand.
written

434

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS

INTRODUCTION
That the De
is a genuine work of been disputed. The De motu animalium has been regarded by many critics as a spurious work, though recent opinion has favoured its genuineness. Brandis, Rose and Zeller all condemn it, but its Aristotelian authorship has been upheld by Werner Jaeger {Hermes, xlviii. pp. 31 ff.), who makes out a very strong case in its favour, and by the Oxford translator, Mr. A. S. L. Farquharson. Those who deny its authenticity rely mainly on the supposi-

incessu animalium

Aristotle himself has never

tion that there is a reference in 703 a 10-1 1 to the De This treatise is generally admitted to be unspiritu. Aristotelian, but the reference, as Mr. Farquharson has pointed out, might relate equally well to numerous

other passages in the Aristotelian corpus ; Michael Ephesius refers it to a treatise Tlepl Tpo(f>yj<i, not otherwise known. In style, vocabulary and syntax the De motu animalium is entirely Aristotelian, and its doctrine corresponds with that set forth in Aristotle's genuine works. Each treatise has its proper place in the scheme of Both are theoretical, Aristotle's biological works. the De incessu animalium, like the De partihus animalium, dealing with the material side of living things, and the De motu animalium, like the De generatione animalium, dealing with their consequential properties.

436

MOVEMENT & PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS
De motu animalium are E, Y, these E, one of the most famous of AristoteUan mss., is the oldest Y is closely related P and S are similarly related and form a second to E. group. Of the De incessu animalium the principal mss. are Z, Y, U, S and P.« Of these Z is the oldest, and is closely related to it, while the other three mss. form another group. A full account of these mss. and their relations to one another will be found in the Introduction (pp. iv. ff.) of W. W. Jaeger's text (Teubner, 1913). The text used for the present translation is based on that of I. Bekker, all divergences from which are noted and the authority given for the reading adopted. Jaeger's text and apparatus criticus have been consulted throughout. The Commentary of Michael Ephesius (Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca, xxii. 2, Hayduck, 1904?) has been of some assistance both for the text and for the interpretation, and the Latin version of Nicholaus Leonicus (died 1599)> printed in the Berlin Aristotle, Vol. Ill, has been constantly consulted. The two treatises have been translated into French by J. Barthelemy-Saint-Hilaire, and into English by Mr. A. S. L. Farquharson in the Oxford translation This translation with its ample explanatory (1912). notes constitutes much the most serious attempt that has been made to interpret these two treatises, and anyone who follows in Mr. Farquharson 's footsteps must necessarily be heavily indebted to him. E. S. F.
The
chief mss. of the
S."

P and

Of

;

Y

*•

For the meanings of these symbols see pp. 439 and 483. 437

ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS
Chap. I. The origin of all movement must itself be unmoved. So if there is to be animal movement, something Hence joints are necessary. in the animal must be at rest. II. There must also be a resisting medium external to the moving animal. Illustration from the rowing of a boat. III. The nature of the " prime mover." The fable of
Atlas.

IV. The " prime mover " is of necessity outside the universe. The movement of inanimate things must originate from animate things. V. Alteration, growth, generation and corruption as forms of motion. VI. How does the soul move the body ? Animal movement lies in the sphere of action. Its limitation in comparison with eternal movement. VII. Animal movement the result of the syllogism of action, not of the speculative syllogism. Animal movement compared with that of automatic toys. VIII. ITie psychology of animal movement and the

organic changes which accompany it. The cause of movement must be situated in a definite origin. IX. The two sides of the body are similar and can move simultaneously both are moved by the soul. X. The motive power is " innate spirit." Comparison between the animal organism and a well-ordered civic
:

community.
XI. Involuntary and non-voluntary movements.
clusion.

Con-

438

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE APPARATUS
CRITICUS

E= Codex Parisinus Regius Y= Codex Vaticanus 261. P= Codex Vaticanus 1339.

1853.

S = Codex Laurentianus 81. 1. Leon. = Latin translation of Nicolaus Leonicus. Mich. = Greek commentary of Michael Ephesiug.

439

nEPI Zi2U2N KINHSEQS
3a
I.

Uepl Se
TTepl

KLVi^creojs

rrjg

rcov

t,(Lcx)v,

ocra filv

avTcov

eKaarov

SiacfiopaL, /cat

yivos» kol rives rtVes" alriai tojv KaO^ eKaarov cru/x-

vnapx^L

^e^-qKOTWv avTOLs, irreuK€TTTai
5

rrepl

airavrtov

iv

irepoLS- oAcos" §€ Trepl rrjs Koivrjs alrias rod kl-

velaOai KLvrjaLV oTTOuavovv (ra puev yap Trrrjciei klveiraL ra 8e vevorei ra Se iropeia rcov ^cpcov, ra 8e
/car'

dXXovs rponovg roLovrovs) imaKeTrreov vvv.

avro
10

fiev ovv dpx'^ "^^jv dXXcov Kivquecov ro iavro klvovv, rovrov^ 8e to oLKLvrjrov, /cat on ro irpajrov klvovv dvayKolov aKLvqrov elvai, hicxipiorai nporepoVy orerrep /cat Trepl klvqcreojs dtStou, TTorepov eanv tj ovk eon, /cat el ean, ris eGnv. Set he rovro firj jjlovov ro) Xoycp KadoXov Xa^elvy dXXd /cat eirl rcbv /ca^' e/caara /cat rcLiV alad-qrcov, 8t* dnep /cat rovs KadoXov ^rjrovfiev Xoyovs, /cat e^' wv e(l)apjji6rreiv olop^eOa

"On

15 Seti^

avrovs.

cjyavepov

yap

/cat

eVt

rovrojv

on

dSvvarov Kivelddai
fjiev

pLTjSevos

rjpefxovvros,

Trpcorov

iv avroLS roZs Jcoot?.

8et yap, dv KLvrjrai

n

rd)V jJLOpLCOV, ripepLelv
^

rr

/cat

8td rovro at KajXTral
TOVTO S.

TOVTOV

EPY

:

440

ON THE MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS
of of the various kinds of animals, the differences between these movements, and the causes of the characteristics which each exhibit we must now inquire generally into the common cause of animal movement of whatever kind for some animals
I.

We have inquired elsewhere ° into the details
;

the

movement

move by

flight,

some by swimming, some by walking,

and others by other such methods.

Now that the origin of all the other movements is that which moves itself, and that the origin of this is the immovable, and that the prime mover must necessarily be immovable, has already been determined when we were investigating ^ whether or not eternal movement exists, and if it does exist what it is. And this we must apprehend not merely in theory as a general principle but also in its individual manifestations and in the objects of sense-perception, on the basis of which we search for general theories and with which we hold that these theories ought to agree. For it is clear also in the objects of senseperception that movement is impossible if there is nothing in a state of rest, and above all in the animals themselves. For if any one of their parts moves, another part must necessarily be at rest and
;

*

In the De partibus animalium. ^ Physics viii. 258 b 4-9.

441

ARISTOTLE
8a

rot?

^coots'

eloiv.
/cat

wGirep

yap

Kevrpco

;^/3ajvTat
cL
r)

rat? KafiTTalg,
20 KaiXTTTj,

yiverai to oXov fiipos, iv

Kal €V Kal SvO, Kal €v6v Kal

K€KaiJLjJL€VOV,

Ixera^dXXoi' hvvdfxei Kal ivepyeia Sid ttjv KapLTT-qv.
KapLTTTopievov
(jr}pL€Lov

8e

/cat

KLVovpiivov

to

/xev

/ctvetrai

TO 8e

piivei rcbv iv Tat? KapLiraZs, ojairep
rj

av

€L rrjs

hiapbirpov

puev
rj

A

/cat

t^

A

pLevoi,

rj

8e

B
25

KLVotro, /cat yivoiro

AT.

aAA' ivravda puev
eti^at

8o/cet
(/cat

navra rporrov dStatpeTov
yd/)

to Kevrpov
iir

TO Kiveladai, cog
ov

(jyaai,

rrXdrrovaiv

avrcov
ovSdv),
8b

yap
piev
r)

Kivelodai}

rwv

pLaOrjpariKcov
/cat

rd

8' iv

rats KapiTratg hvvdpiei
ev

ivepyeia
dAA'

ylverai
del
Tj

ore

ore

he

hiaiperd.

ovv

dpxr]

TTpds o, ff dpx'ij, ripepieZ Kivovpievov

rod pLopLOV rod Kdrcudev, olov rov piev ^pa^iovos Kivovpievov TO wXeKpavov, oXov he tov kwXov 6 (LpLOSi Kal Trjs p^ev Kv^pLTjs TO yovv, oXov he tov
8

GKeXovs TO

loxtov.

OTL

pLev

ovv Kal ev avTO)
o9ev
rj

eKaGTov

TL

heX

€;\;etv

'qpepiovv,

dpx^)

TOV Kivovpievov
*

ecTTai,
/cu'etrat
:

Kal rrpog o aTrepeiSopievov
P.
rj

KivetaOai
T)

ESY

:

5 Jaeger (om. altero apxri) P.
*

Trph$ 6,

t?

irpos 8

EY

:

ij

irpd^TT]

^ S:

i]

irpbaw

• e.g. the the elbow.
"

arm

as an

arm

is

one, but

is

divided into two at
treatise,
is

is

The term apxrj', which occurs frequently in this It difficult to render in English by a single word.

some-

times used generally of the " origin " of movement {e.g. 701 b33), but more often of a localized "origin" of movement,

442


MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,
it is
i.

on this account that animals have joints. For they use their joints as a centre, and the whole part in which the joint is situated is both one and two," both straight and bent, changing potentially and And when the part actually because of the joint. is being bent and moved, one of the points in the joint moves and one remains at rest, just as would happen if A and D in the diameter of a circle were to remain still while B moved, and the radius AC were formed. (In geometrical figures, however, the centre is considered to be in every respect indivisible for movement, too, in such figures is a figment, so they
say,

since

in

mathematics

nothing actually moves, whereas the centres in the
joints
are, potentially actually, sometimes one

and and

sometimes divided.) Be that as it may, the origin ^ to which the movement can be traced, qua origin, is always at rest while the part below it is in motion the elbow-joint, for instance, when the forearm is in motion, the shoulder when the whole arm is moved, the knee when the shin is moved, and the hip when the whole leg is moved. It is obvious, then, that every animal too must have in itself something that is at rest, in order to provide that which is moved with the origin of its movement, supported

whether, as here, in a single member, or at the centre of the body, viz. the heart (701 b 25, 29), where a further idea of " ruling " seems to be implied {e.g. 703 a 37). It is also used sometimes in the literal sense of " beginning," and this and the meaning of " origin " of motion may occur in the same passage and cause confusion {e.g. 702 a 36-b 2).

P

443

ARISTOTLE
698b

Kat

.

oAov

..

aopoov

,n

r

KLvrjorjaerai

n.

>

/<at

Kara

^

.

fjuepog,

(jyavepov.
II.

'AAAa ndaa
TL e^coOev
8'

tj

iv

avrw

rjpejjLLa ojjlcos

aicvpos,

av
10

pLTj

fj

0,77X0)9 rjpepiovv

/cat

oLKLvrjrov.

a^Lov

iTTLGrrjCjavTas

iTncjKeipaaOai

Trepl

rod

Aep^^eVros"
C77t

€X€i

yap
/cat

ri^v
,

deojpiav ov fxovov ooov

ra

1,0)0

avvreivovaav
aKiviqrov

aAAa
el

/cat 77pos" rr]v

rod
iv

iravros

KLvrjGLv

(f)opdv.

cjoirep

yap

/cat

avrcp 8et
ovrcos
15

n

etvai,

fxeXXec

KLveladat,

ert

OLKLvrjrov,

ixevov.

et

[xdXXov efco Set rt etvat rov t,a)OV npos o aTrepeiSofievov KLvelrai ro klvovyap VTroScoGeL del, olov rots [xvol^ rots
rj

iv rij yfj^

rols ev

rfj

ajxp^o)

TTOpevofievois,
el
per) tj
rj

ov

TrpoeicjLVy oz58' ecrrat

ovre TTopela,
pLT)

yrj fxevoL,

ovre

TTrrJGLg

7]

vevcng, el

6 drjp

rj

dvrepeihoi.

dvdyKrj

Se

rovro

erepov

elvai

OdXarra rod

20

KLvovfJievov, /cat oXov oXov, kol [xopLov fXTjSev elvau rov KLVovpbevov ro ovrws dKLvrjrov el 8e pLij, ov KLvrjdi^GeraL. p^aprvpiov he rovrov ro dnopovfjievov, Sta Tt TTore ro ttXolov e^a>9ev puev, av rt? (LOfj ro) Kovrcp rov LGrov jj ri dXXo npoG^dXXojv

pLoptov,
irXoicp

KiveZ pahiojs, edv 8'

ev avraj ris cov ro)

25

rovro Treipdrai irpdrreiv, ovk av KivrjGeiev ovr^ av 6 Tirvos ov6^ 6 Bopea? rrvecov eGCodev e/c Tov ttXolov, el rvypi Txveoiv rov rporrov rovrov 6v^

fivfflv libri

:

ifivat.

coni. Diels.

'

7^

libri: fet^ coni.

Farquharson.

" It

is

doubtful whether the ms. reading will bear this

interpretation,

and

4p ttj 777 is

probably corrupt.

It is

more

444

MOVEMENT OF ANIMAES,
upon which it will move both and in its several parts.
II.

i.-ii.

as

an integral whole

quality of rest, however, in an animal is of is something outside it which is absolutely at rest and immovable. And it is worth while to stop and consider this dictum for the reflection which it involves applies not merely to animals, but also to the motion and progression of the universe. For just as in the animal there must be something which is immovable if it is to have any motion, so a fortiori there must be something which is immovable outside the animal, supported upon which that which is moved moves. For if that which supports the animal is to be always giving way (as it does when mice walk upon loose soil " and when persons walk on sand), there will be no progress, that is, no walking, unless the ground were to remain still, and no flying or swimming unless the air or sea were to offer resistance. And that which offers resistance must be other than that which is moved, the whole other than the whole, and that which is thus immovable must form no part of that which is moved otherwise the latter

Any

no

effect unless there

;

;

This contention is supported by the problem Why can a man easily move a boat from outside if he thrusts it along with a pole by pushing against the mast or some other part of the boat, but if he tries to do this when he is in the boat itself, Tityus could not move it nor Boreas by blowing from inside it, if he really blew as the artists
will

not move.
:

than likely that the comparison is with a mouse trying to walk upon a heap of corn. Farquharson emends iv ttj yy to eV Trj ^€1$, which would bear this meaning:. (The form ^erj, cp. Petrie Pap. ii. p. 69 (3rd cent, b.c), would be nearer to the MS. reading.) Diels' suggestion of fiu'>aiv for fivatu is ingenious, but does not give the required sense.
41.5

ARISTOTLE
698 b

699a

6

TT€p ol ypa(j)€.Zs TTOiovoiv e^ avrov yap ro TTvevfxa d^teVra ypd(f)OVGLV. edv re ydp T]pe/xa piTrrfj ro TTvevfid Tis idv r* Icrxvpoj? ovrcus war dvefiou TToielv Tov fxiyiarov, Idv re d'AAo rt fj ro piTrrovfjLevov ^ (Ldovfievov, dvdyKT^ npajrov fiev rrpos rCjv avrov jiopiwv drrepeLSoixevov dtOeZv, ripepiodv etra TrdXiv rovro ro jxopiov, r^ avro tj oS rvy^dvei

n

jiopiov ov,
jjieveiv.

aTTOcrri^pit^oiievov rrpos rajv e^coOev 6 Se ro ttXolov wOajv iv ra> ttXoloj avros

n

10

wv Kal aTTOGriqpil^opiGvos Trpos to ttXoIov evXoyojs ov KLvel ro rrXolov hid ro dvayKalov etvai Trpos o aTToarrjpL^erac fievGLv avfi^atveL 8* avrw ro avro o r€ KLveZ Kal Trpos o aTTOGriqpit^^rai. e^codev 8* (h9a)v Tj eXkcov KLvei- ovOev ydp [xepos r) yrj rod
ttXolov.
III.

^A.TToprjGeie

8'

dv
re

ris,

dp*

et

rt

KiveZ rdv

oXov ovpavov,
fjLTjOev

etvai

Set

aKLvqrov rovro

KaV"

15

20

ovpavov pLopiov fJ-rjS^ iv ro) ovpavaj. e'lre ydp avro KLVovjjievov KLveZ avrov, dvdyKrj rivos aKLV-qrov diyydvov KtveZv, Kal rovro purjhkv elvai piopiov rov klvovvtos' ecr^ evGvs dKLV7]r6v iari ro klvovv, 6poia>s ovhev eWat^ rod klvovjjLevov pLopiov. Kal rovro y' opBcos Xeyovcnv ol Xiyovres on kvkXo) cfyepofjievr]? rrjs G(f)aLpas ovS' ortovv fievei popiov ri ydp dv dXr]V dvayKaZov rjv hiaoTTaodaL ro ovvex^s avrrjs. dAA' fji€V€LV, TJ on rovs ttoXovs oiovrai nva hvvap.iv €;)(6tv, ovOev
elvai

rov

^ •

TovTo Kal scrips!

:

Kai tovto libri.
Whr'i.

(fcrrat

Jaeger (cum Leon.): iveadai

" Just as Odysseus' companions while seated in the ship open the bags containing the winds, and the ship is blown out of its course (Homer, Od. x. 46 ff.).

446

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,
paint

ii.-iii.

him
his

'^

;

for

they

make him emit

the breath

hps. For whether one emits the breath gently or so strongly as to create the greatest gale (and the same is true if that which is thrown or pushed is something other than breath), it is necessary, first, that one should be supported upon one of one's own members, which is at rest, when one pushes, and secondly, that either this member itself or that of which it forms part, should remain still, resting upon something which is external to it. Now the man who tries to push the boat while he himself is in it and leaning upon it, naturally does not move the boat, because it is essential that that against wliich he is leaning should remain still ; but in this case that which he is trying to move and that against which he is leaning, is identical. If, on the other hand, he pushes or drags the boat from outside, he can move it ; for the ground is no part of the boat. III. The difficulty may be raised, whether, if some-

from

own

thing moves the whole heaven, this motive power must be unmoved and be no part of the heaven nor in the heaven. For if it is moved itself and moves the heaven, it can only move it by being itself in contact with something that is immovable, and this can be no
part of that which causes the movement or else, if that which causes the movement is from the first immovable, it will be equally no part of that which is moved. And on this point at any rate they are quite right who say that, when the sphere is moved in a for circle, no part of it whatsoever remains still either the whole of it must remain still, or its continuThey are not right, howity must be rent asunder. ever, in holding that the poles possess a kind of force,
; ;

447

ARISTOTLE
9a

exovrag fieyedo? aAA' ovras eaxdra kol arty/xas', ov KaXcos. npog yap rco fn^hefxtav ovoiav elvai
rcov

^

TOLOVTOJV
VTTO

firjSevos,

/cat

KLvelaOai

rrju

fxlav

KLVTjGLV
25

SuoXl^

dSvvaTOV TOVS §€ TToXoVS SvO
e;)^et

TTOiovGiv.
(j)VOLV

OTL fiev ovv
rj

re Kal Trpos

rrji^

oXr]v

ovTOJS cjGTrep
8t'

yrj
e/c

npo?
rcov

to.

^a>a

/cat

ra
rt?

KLVov/xeva
TTOLOVvres

avrcov,
ol

roiovrcuv

av

Zia7TopriG€i€v.

80

jxvOlkcjs tov "ArXavra e^ovra rovs irohas So^auev av OLTTO StavoLag elpr^Kevai rov fxvdov, co? rovrov warrep hidpLerpov ovra /cat (JTpe(f)ovTa rov ovpavov rrepl rovs ttoXovs' rovro 8' av avfi^atvoL Kara Xoyov Sid ro rrjv yrjv jxeveiv. dXXd rocs ravra XeyovGLV dvayKalov (f)dvaL /xr^Sev etvat fiopLov avrrjv rov iravros. Trpos Se rovrois Set rr^v laxvv lad^eLV rov Kivovvros /cat rrjV rov fievovros. eon

3e

irrl rijg

yrjg

ydp
85

ri ttXtjSos lo^vos /cat Swdfieajs /ca^' -^v fxevei rd fX€vov, wGTTep /cat /ca^' rjv klv€l ro klvovv /cat ecrrt ris dvaXoyla e^ dvdyK7]s, cjarrep rcov ivavricov
KLV-qaecov,

ovrco
vtt*

/cat

rcov

rjpefJLLcov.

/cat

at

fiev

'^'J

5

Kparovvrai Se Kara StoTrep etr' "ArXas €Lre ri rotovrov rrjv VTrepox'^jV. ioriv erepov ro klvovv rcov ivros, ovSev jidXXov dvrepeiheiv Set rrjs piovrjs rjv rj yrj rvyxdvet fievovaa' KivrjO-qaeraL r) yrj 0,770 rov fieoov Kal e/c rov 'q avrrjs rorrov. cLs ydp rd ihdovv (hdel, ovrco rd
taat

dTTadels

dXX-qXcov,

(hdovfJLevov (hOelraiy Kal dfiOLcos
*
i.e.

Kar

lgxvv,

klv€l
5t'

their limbs.

We

should, however, perhaps read

"the things which move of themselves": Leon, renders "ea quae per se moventur." 448
avTuJi/

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,
since they

iii.

have no magnitude and are only exFor besides the fact that tremities and points. nothing of this kind has any substance, it is also impossible for a single movement to be started by a dual agency and they represent the poles as two. From these considerations one may hazard the suggestion that there is something which stands in the same relation to Nature as a whole as the earth stands to the animals and the things which are moved through
;

them.«

Now those who in the fable represent Atlas as having his feet planted upon the earth would seem to have shown sense in the story which they tell, since they make him as it were a radius, twisting the heaven about the poles it would be a logical account, since the earth remains still. But those who hold this view must declare that the earth is no part of the universe and, further, the force of that which causes the motion and the force of that which remains still must be equal. For there must be a certain amount of force and strength in virtue of which that which remains still remains still, just as there is a force in virtue of which that which causes motion causes motion and there is of necessity a similar proportion between absences of motion as there is between opposite motions, and equal forces are unaffected by one another, but are overmastered by a superiority. Therefore Atlas, or whatever else it is of like kind within that causes motion, must not exert any pressure which is too strong for the equihbrium of the earth or else the earth will be moved away from the centre and her proper place. For as that which pushes pushes, so that which is pushed is pushed, and in exact proportion to the force exerted but it creates
; ;
;

;

;

449

ARISTOTLE
699 b

Se TO rjpefiovv rrpajrov, cjore ixdXXov
rj

/cat

TrXeLCOV

LG^vs

rj

ofjLOLa

/cat

tcrr]

rrjg rjpejjLLas.
/xeV,
{jltj

(LoravTOJS

Se

/cat TTJs^

rod Ktvovfievov
hei'^aei

klvovvtos Se.
etvat
tt^s"

rocravT-qp

ovv

rrjv

BvvajJLLV
TTO-S

yrj?

10

OVpaVOS ^X^^ '^^^ ro KLvovv avTOv. el Se rovro dSvparoVy dbvyarov /cat TO KLveLGdat rov ovpavov vtto tlvos tolovtov
iv TO)
rjp€fJL€LV

6uT]V

6 T€

ra>v ivTos.

IV. "Eo"Tt Se

TtS"

OLTTOpLa TTepl TOLS KLVT^(7€LS
rjv

TWV

rod ovpavov
PdXXj)
15

pLopLcov,

cLs

elprjpilvois eTTiGKe^aLT
rfj

dv

rig.

ovaav ot/cetav rot? idv yap rts" vneprrjv rrjs

Svvdfxei

rrjs

KLVijcrecog

yrjs

Type/xtW, SrjXov
/cat
rj

on

KivrjoeL avrrjv 0,770

LGXvs 8' d(/)' rjg avrrj rj dneLpos, (fyavepov ovhk yap r] yrj drreipoSy ojor ovhe TO ^dpos avrrj?. irrel Se ro dSvvarov Xlyerai
TrXeovaxdj? {ov
(jyajxev
20 v(f)*

rov fieaov. Svvapag, on ovk

yap (haavrws
/cat

rrjv

re ^ojvrjv d^vvarov
eirl

elvai

opadrjvat
fiev

rovs

rrjs

aeXrjvrjs
7re<^u/c6s

rjjiajv

ro

yap e^ dvdyKrjs, ro Se
,

opdadai OVK ocfyOrjoerai) rov S' ovpavov d(f)daprov etvau /cat dStaAurov olojxeOa jxkv e^ dvdyKrjs etvaL, GVfjL^aiveL Se /card rovrov rov Aoyov ovk e^ dvdyKrjS'
7Te(f)VKe
/cat
25
d</>'

yap
rjs

/cat

evSex^rai
rj

etvau
d(^'

Kivrjoriv
rjs

fiel^oj

rjpefiel

yrj

/cat

Kivovvrat ro

TTvp /cat TO dvoj crajjia. el fiev ovv elalv at vrrepexovaai KLvrjoeis, hiaXvdrjoerai ravra vn dXXrjXcov.
1

T^j

PS:

7?

Y: aJE.

*
^

i.e. its
i.e.

central position in the universe. the region between the air and the

moon

(Meteor.

340 b 6

if.).

450

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,

iii.-iv.

motion in that which is first at rest, so that the force exerted is greater than the immobility rather than similar and equal to it, and likewise greater than the force of that which is moved but does not create movement. Therefore the power of the earth in its immobility will necessarily be as great as that possessed by the whole heaven and that which sets it in motion. If, however, this is impossible, the movement of the heaven by any such force within it is also
impossible. IV. problem also arises about the movements of the parts of the heaven, which might well be discussed, since it is closely connected with what has been said above. If one were to overmaster the immobihty of the earth by the power of motion, one will obviously move it away from the centre. ° Moreover it is clear that the force from which this power is derived is not infinite ; for the earth is not infinite, and so its weight is not infinite either. Now^ the w^ord " impossible " is used in several senses (we are using it in different senses when we say that it is impossible to see a sound, and when we say that it is impossible for us to see the men in the moon for the former is of necessity invisible, the latter are of such a nature as to be seen but will never be seen by us), but w^e hold that the heaven is of necessity impossible to destroy and dissolve, whereas according to our present argument it is not necessarily so for it is within the nature of things and the bounds of possibility that a motive force should exist greater both than that which causes the earth to be at rest and than that which causes the fire and upper body ^ to move. If, therefore, the overpowering motive forces exist, these will be dissolved by one another; but if they

A

;

;

p2

451

;

ARISTOTLE
699 b

el 8e

fJLTj

elal /xeV, ivSex^rai 8' elvai [aTreipov

yap

ovK
TL

evSe;^eTat

8ta

ro

fi-qSev
av'

crco/xa

eVSe;^ea^at

a7T€Lpov elvai), eVSe;^otr*
'^*^

ScaXvOrjvaL rov ovpavov.

yap KUjXvei tovto avjJL^rjvai, etVep jjlt] dSuvarov ravriKeiiievov dvayKalov. OVK dSvvarov 8e, et dXXd 776/36 /xev TTjs diTopias ravrrjs 'irepog eurcu
jLt')7

Xoyos.

*Apa he Set aKLvqrov n etvai /cat rfpefjiovv e^co rov KLvovjievov, pLrjSev ov eKeivov pLopioVy t) ov ; /cat TOVTO TTOTepOV /cat C77t TOU TraVTOS" OVTOJS taajs yap dv So^eiev aToirov VTToipx^i'^ dvayKalov;
35

elvaiy el

rq

dpxr] ttjs Kivqaeajs ivTos.

8to So^eiev
'Ofi-qpo)'

av ToZs ovTCDS VTToXafjL^dvovaLV ev elprjod ai

700a

dXX* OVK dv epvuaiT ef ovpavoOev TreStovSe TjTJV^ VTTaTOV TTaVTCOV , OuS' €t /XaAa TToXXd KafJLOLTe' iravTes 8' e^aTTTeode deol TTauai re ^eatvat.

TO

ydp

oXcos

dKiv7]Tov

VTT*

ovhevos
tJ

ivSex^Tat
Ae;^^eto-a

KLVTjdrjvai.

66 ev

Auerat

/cat

TraAat

5

evSex^rai rj ovk evhex^rai 8taXvdrjvai Trjv tov ovpavov GvaTaauv, el ef dKivrjrov
dTTOpia,

TTOTepov

rjprrjTaL dpX'rjS'

*E7rt 8e TCtJv

l,a)<jjv

ov

jjlovov

to

ovtcjos dKcvrjTOV

Set VTTapx^i^v,

dXXd

/cat

ev avTols toXs KLVovfievois

* direipoi'] sc. Klvrjcriv.

The argument

is

as follows: these

overpowering motive forces might exist and be dissolved by one another, because if they can be dissolved, they are not infinite, and the reason why they are not infinite is that they act upon what is finite, and the infinite cannot act on the finite (7> caelo, 274 b 23 flF.).
•'

It is

discussed in the Physics and

De

caelo.

^52

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,
do not really
sible
it

iv.

exist,

their existing (for

an

infinite

but there is a possibility of motive force " is impos-

because an infinite body is also impossible), would be possible for the heaven to be dissolved. For what is there to prevent this happening if it

is not impossible ? And it is not impossible, unless the opposite proposition is inevitable. But let us leave the discussion of this question for another

occasion.^

Must there, then, or must there not, be something immovable and at rest outside that which is moved and forming no part of it ? And must this be true also of the universe ? For it would perhaps seem strange if the origin of motion were inside. And so to those who hold this view Homer's words w^ould seem appropriate Nay, ye could never pull down to the earth from the
:

summit of heaven, Zeus, the highest of all, no, not
the hawsers.*

if

Come, ye gods and ye goddesses

ye toiled to the utmost. all, set your hands to

immovable cannot be here that we must look for the solution of the problem stated some time ago, namely, whether it is possible or impossible for the composition of the heaven to be dissolved, seeing that it depends upon an origin which is immovable. Now in the animals there must exist not only that which is immovable in this sense,** but there must also be something immovable in the actual things which move from place to place and which themselves
For that which
is

entirely

moved by anything.

And

it is

order and the

20-22. The lines are quoted in the wrong receptus reads iJ.-qaTwp' for Travruv. ^ i.e. something immovable and at rest which is outside that which is moved and forms no part of it (c/. 699 b 32).
<=

Iliad

viii.

textits

453

ARISTOTLE
Kara
TO
-0

tottov

oaa

klv€l

avra avra.
KLvrj(j€Tai,

Set

yap avrov
av tl
KLvfj

fjLev

rjpejielv

ro 8e KLvetaOai, rrpog o (XTrcpetSoolov

puevov

TO

KLvovpiei'OV

ra)v

pLOpLOJV

aTrepetSerat
rrepl

pLevov OaTepov.
OiTTO pi] (J€i€v

yap OaTCpov ojg irpos Se tcov difivxcov oaa KLvetTac
e;)(€t

av

Tig, TTorepov airavr^

iv iavTols
rrpos

/cat

TO
Tt
7)

rjpepLovv

Kal

to

klvovv,

Kal

tcov

e^O)

rjpepiovvTOJV

dTrepeiSeadaL
tj

dvdyKrj
t]

Kal

ravra,
16 Tt,

dhvvaTOV, otov TTvp
(Lv

yrjv

tojv difivx^iv

dAA'^ u^'
V7T*

TavTa KiveiTai
dipyxct-,

TrpcjTCjjv.

Trdvra

yap

dXkov KiveiTai Ta
KLVovpievojv

dpx^j Sc TrdvTcov

TOJV ovTOJS

TCJV Se TOLOVTOJV TTepl pL€V TCOV

rd aura aura KivovvTa, t,<X>OJV etpTjTaL' Ta
iv

yap ToiavTa Trdvra dvdyKJ) Kal
20

avToZs ^X^^^
el

TO TjpepLovv, Kal e^oj rrpog o o-TrepetaeTat.
Tt

Se

iarlv

dvojTepco

Kal
irepl

tt/jcutw?
ttJs"

klvovv,

dSrjXov,
'^d

Kal
Se

aAAos"

Xoyos

ToiavTJ^s
Trpos

dpx^jS'
e^o)

^cpa

ocra KLveiTai, Trdvra

rd

dnep-

etSd/xeva KivelraL, Kal dvaTTveovra Kal eKTTveovra.

ovSev yap hia^epei piiya pZipai ^dpos
OTT€p TTOLOVGIV ol TTTVOVTeS
25

tj

puKpov,

Kal ^rjrrovT€s Kai OL

€LGTTV€OVT€g Kal iKTTV€OVT€S.

V. Tlorepov

S' iv rep
7]

avro klvovvtl Kara tottov

fxovcp Set Tt p,€V€Lv,
V(f)*

Kal iv

Tw

dWoiovpiivcp avrcp
rrepl

avrov Kal av^avopiivcp ;
1

Se yeviaeojs
el

TTJs

ii dpxrjs Kal cjydopdg aAAo? Xoyog'
dXX'

ydp

icrriv

Jaeger

:

dXXa

P

:

AXX'

ESY.

454.

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,
move
must be

iv.-v.

themselves. For while one part of the animal in motion, another part must be at rest, supported upon which that will be moved which is moved, if, for example, it moves one of its parts ; for one part rests on another part in virtue of the fact that the latter is at rest. But regarding inanimate things which are moved, one might raise the question whether they all possess in themselves both that wliich is at rest and that which creates movement, and whether they too must be supported by something external which is at rest. Or is this impossible for example, in the case of fire or earth or any inanimate thing but motion is due to the primary causes by which these are moved ? For all inanimate things are moved by something else, and the origin of all the things that are thus moved is the things that move themselves. Among things of this class we have already dealt \\'ith animals for all such things must necessarily have within themselves that which is at rest and something outside them on which they are to support themselves. But whether there is something higher and primary which moves them is uncertain, and the question of such an origin of movement is a matter for separate discussion. But animals which move all do so supported upon things outside themselves, as also when they draw their breath in and out. For it makes no difference whether the}" propel a great or a small weight, as those do who spit and cough, and breathe in and out. V. But is it only in that which moves itself in respect of place that something must remain at rest, or is this also true of that in which alteration is caused by its own agency and in that which grows ? The question of original coming into being and

;

455

ARISTOTLE
7]V7T€p (pafiev TTpcoTT] Kivif]GLs,
30

yeveaeojs
/cat

/cat

(puopas
^cp(p
/cat

avTT] air La av
TraGOJV.
KLvrjois

eirj, /cat

rcbv dXXcov 8e KLVi^aeajv taojs
rco
oXco,

a)G7r€p

8'

iv

eV

rep

TTpwrrj

avrrj,

orav

reXecodfj-

ware

av^-qaeojs, eu ttote ytVerat, avro avrcp oltlov /cat
dXXoLojoreojg, el Se
av^T^creLS
35 8t*
fJLij,

/cat

dAAotcoaets'

ovk dvdyKTj. at Sc Trpcurat i57r' aAAou yivovrai /cat
/cat cf)6opds ovSajuLcos

erepojv yeveaecog 8e

oTov

700

br€ auTO atrtor eti^at avrcp ovSev. Trpovirdpx^^v yap Set ro kivovv rov KLvovfievov /cat ro yevvcjv rod yevvajfievov avro 8' avrov rrporepov ovhiv
ear IV.
VI.
5

Hept

/Ltev

ouv

ifjvxrj?,

etre

KiveZrai

ri

fjut],

/cat

el Kivelraiy ttcj?

Kivelrai, rrporepov etpiqrai ev

iirel 8e rd dipvxa Tois SicopLGfievoL? rrepl avrr^s. rrdvra KiveZrai vcf)* irepov, rrepl 8e^ rod rrpwrov

KLVovfievov /cat aet Kivovjxivov, riva rpoirov Kivelraiy /cat Traps' KiveZ ro rrpcorov klvovv, hiaypLorai rrporepov iv rots rrepl rrjg TrpcLrrj^
10

(/)LXoGO(f)Las,

Xolttov

8*

ip^XV Kivei ro acofia, /cat rts dpx^] rrjs rod t,cpov KLvijoecog. rwv yap dXXa>v TTapd rrjv rov oXov klvt^glv rd efjiifjvxci atria rrjg

iarl BeojprjGai nco?

rj

KLvqGeoJS,

oGa

fir]

Kivelrai
Sto

ott^

TTpoGKOTTreiv

dXXriXoi£.

/cat

dXXrjXwv 8ta ro iripas exovoiv

15

avrojv Trdaai at KLvt]G€Ls' /cat yap /cat at rcjv rrdvra ydp rd ^wa /cat KLveZ /cat ipufjvxcDV. KLveZrac evcKd nvos, coore rovr^ eanv avroZs TrdGrjs rrjs Kivrjoeajs nepas, ro ov eveKa. opdjjjiev
1

5^

ES

:

fJLiv

Y.
tl

* tovt4(Xtiv

.

.

.

OVK

6.va.yK7j

elvai

tCjv

dWoiovfi^yuv Kal

av^avofiiviov
*

i.e.

avrdv -fipe/iovv (Mich.). the Metaphysics.
v(f>

456

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,
corruption
assert, a
;

v.-vi.

is a different one for if there is, as we primary movement, this would be the cause of coming into being and wasting away, and perhaps of all the other movements as well. And as in the universe, so in the animal, this is primary motion, when the animal comes to perfection so that it is itself the cause of its own growth, if this ever takes place, and of any alteration which occurs otherwise it is not necessary that something should remain at But the first growth and alteration occur rest." through another's agency and by other means, and nothing can in any way be itself the cause of its own coming into being and wasting away for that \vhich moves must be prior to that which is moved, and that which begets to that which is begotten, and nothing
; ;

;

is

prior to itself.

Now whether soul is moved or not, and if moved, how it is moved, has already been discussed in our treatise On Soul. But since all inanimate things are moved by something else and how that which is primarily and eternally moved is moved, and how the prime mover moves it, has been already set forth in our work on First Philosophy ^ it remains to inquire how the soul moves the body and what is the origin of movement in an animal.
VI.
is

it

For,

if

we

exclude the

movement

of the universe,

animate things are the cause of movement in everything else, except in things which are moved by one another through coming into coUision with one another. Therefore all their movements have a for the movements of animate things have a limit limit. For all animals move and are moved with some object, and so this, namely their object, is the
;

limit of all their

movement.

Now we

see that the

457

ARISTOTLE
700
b

Se

ra Kivovvra to
/cat

t,coov

hidvoiav
/cat

/cat

<f)avTaalav

Kal TrpoalpecTLv
20

^ovXiquiv

/cat €7TLdv[iiav.

Se TTOLvra avdyerai els vovv
7)

ope^iv.

/cat

ravra yap

(f)avraaLa /cat

rj

aladrjcns ttjv avrrjv rep vcp

x^P^^

€Xov(JLV KpiTLKa ydp Trdvra, hia^ipovGi 8e Kara rds elprjfievas ev aAAotj hiacjiopds. ^ovXtjols Se
/cat

dvpLOs /cat eVt^u/xta Trdvra ope^Ls,
/cotvor

rj

Se vrpo-

atpeorts"

Stavotas"

/cat

ope^eojs'

cjare KtveZ

25

ro opeKrov /cat to Stai'OT^Toi^. ou Trav TO StaroT^Tov, aAAa to tojv TrpaKrcov reXos. 8to ro roiovrov ian rwv dyaOojv ro klvovv, dAA* ov rrav ro KaXov rj ydp eVe/ca rovrov d'AAo, /cat ^ riXos icrrl tcuv dAAou Ttyos" eve/ca ovrcoVy ravrrj KLV€L. Set Se ridevai /cat to (j^aivopievov dyadov
TrpaJTOv

Se

dyadov
80

eonv dyadov.
/cat

)(ojp^^ '^X^^^> ^'^^ '^^ 'J^Su* <j)aiv6p.€vov ydp ojare SrjXov on eon fiev fj opLoicJs

KLveXrai ro del klvovjjl€vov vtto rod del KLVovvros
rojv t,a)0)v eKaorov,
/xei^

eon

8'
fj

dXXojs, 8to
Kiviqais

/cat
€;\;et

rd

det Kivelrai,

r)

8e tcov
/caAdi^,

t^cpojv

Tvepas.
rrpajrojs
86

ro 8e

dt8toP'
/cat

/cat

to dAT^^dis
TTore

/cat
jlitJ,

dyadov

jLt'37

ttotc
r)

fxev

Se

deiorepov

/cat rijxicorepov

6oo"t* etP'at

Tvporepov^ n"^.
/ctvet,
t^

To
701 a

jLtev

ow

rrpcorov ov

Kivovp,evov

8'

ope^Ls Kal ro opeKriKov Kivovpievov Kivel. reXevraZov rcov KLvovjJLevcDV ovk dvdyKTj ovbev.
(f)av€p6v
^

ro he
Kivelv

8'

e/c

toutoji^
:

/cat

OTt
P.

evXoyws

irpbrepop
2

ESY

irphs ^repov

Ti

add. Jaeger.

"

De anima,

iii.

427 b 14

flF.

458

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,
tilings

vi.

which move the animal are
wish and appetite.

intellect,

imagina-

these can be referred to mind and desire. For imagination and sensation cover the same ground as the mind (since they all exercise judgement) though they differ in certain aspects as has been defined elseBut will, temper, and appetite are all where.** forms of desire, while purpose partakes both of intellect and of desire. So the objects of desire and
all

tion, purpose,

Now

intellect first set

up movement

—not, however, every

object of intellect, but only the end in the sphere of action. So amongst good things it is the good in the sphere of action that sets up movement, and not any and every good for it sets up movement only in so far as it is the motive of something else or the end of something which has something else as its object. And we must lay dow^n the principle that the apparent good can take the place of a real good, and so can the pleasant, for it is an apparent good. So that it is clear that in one respect that which is eternally moved by the eternal mover, and the individual animal, are moved in a similar manner, but that in another respect they are moved differently and so, while other things move eternally, animal movement has a limit. Now the eternally beautiful and that which is truly and primarily good, and not at one moment good and at another not good, is too divine and precious to have anything prior to it. The prime mover, then, moves without itself being moved, but desire and the desiderative faculty set up movement while being themselves moved. But it is not necessary that the last of a series of things and from which are moved should move anything this it is clear that it is only reasonable that pro;
;

;

459

.

ARISTOTLE
-^

(popa TeAeurata

row
/cat

ytvofievcov

ev tols klvov-

fievoLS^
5 7)

KLvelTat

yap

TropGveraL to t,a)ov ope^et

7rpoaLpe(T€L,
T]

dXXoLCoOevros nvos

Kara

t7]v

at-

oQrjGLV

Tr]v

^avraaiav
Se vocjv ore fikv TrpdrreL ore 8' ov ov KiveZrai; eot/ce
Trepl
.

VII.

ricDs"

TTpoLTrei, Kol KLveirai, ore 8' irapaTrX-qaicos cru/x^atVetv kol

rcov aKLvqrajv

SiavoovfievoLS Kal <jvX\oyLl,o[Ji€VOLS
10

aAA'

e/cet fxev

16

to reAo? (orav yap rds Svo TTpordoeis vo^GT], TO o-u,(X7repaCT/xa ivorjae Kal avvedrjKev), ivTavOa 8* iK rcov Svo TTpoTacrecov to orufjiTTepacFfia ylveTai rj irpd^is, olov oTav vo-qarj ort Travrl ^aStcrreov dvOpcoTTO), avros 8' avSpcmros, ^a8t^et €vde(i)s, oiv 8' OTL ovSevl ^aSiGTeov vvv dvdpcona), avros 8* dvOpcjTTOS evOvs T^pe/xet* Kal TavTa a/x^a>
Oecoprjfxa
,

7TpdrT€L, dv
fjLoi

iiTj

TL KcoXvYj

Tj

dvayKdl,r].

TTOirfTeov

20

dyaOov, oiKia 8' dyadov 7tol€l OLKiav evOvs. aKendafiaTOs 8eo/xat, Ifidrtov Se GKeTracrfxa' L/xarLov ov 8eo jitat, TTOir^Teov Ifjiariov 8eo/xaf 8eo/xat. Kal to crvpLTTepacxjjLa, to IfidTiov Ij^idTiov 7TOL7]reov.
Trpd^is
ioTiv.

TTOLTjTeoVy

TTpaTTei

8'

0,77'

dpxrj?.

el IfidTLOV ecrrat,

dvdyKT] To8e irpchTOV, el he To8e,
irpdrTei

Tohe'

Kal Tovro

evdv?.

otl

p,ev

ovv

r]

TTpd^LS TO GVfxnepaoiJLa, (jyavepov at 8e TrpordaeLg

at 7TOL7]TtKal Sid Svo elSwv yivovTai, 8ta re tov
25

dyadov Kal hid tov hvvaTOV.
"Q.airep he tojv epcorcovTOJV evioi, ovra> rrfv erepav
^ Kivovfi^pois

Jaeger:

7t7J'OAi^»'ois libri.

« i.e.

the objects of science

;

cf.

An. Post. 71 b 18

ff.

460

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,

vi.-vii.

gression should be the last thing to happen in things that are moved, since the animal is moved and walks from desire or purpose, when some alteration has been caused as the result of sensation or imagination. VII. But why is it that thought sometimes results in action and sometimes does not, sometimes in movement and sometimes not ? Apparently the same kind of thing happens as when one thinks and forms an inference about immovable objects. But in the latter case, the end is speculation (for when you have conceived the two premisses, you immediately conceive and infer the conclusion) but in the former case the conclusion drawn from the two premisses becomes the action. For example, when you conceive that every man ought to walk and you yourself are a man, you immediately walk or if you conceive that on a particular occasion no man ought to walk, and you yourself are a man, you immediately remain at rest. In both instances action follows unless there is some hindrance or compulsion. Again, I ought to create a good, and a house is a good, I immediately create a house. Again, I need a covering, and a cloak is a covering, I need a cloak. \Miat I need I ought to make ; I need a cloak, I ought to make a cloak. And the conclusion " I ought to make a cloak " is an action. The action results from the beginning of the train of thought. If there is to be a cloak, such and such a thing is necessary, if this thing then something else ; and one immediately acts accordingly. That the action is the conclusion is quite clear but the premisses which lead to the doing of something are of two kinds, through the good and through the possible. And as those sometimes do who are eliciting con<*
; ;

;

461

ARISTOTLE
irporaoiv rrjv hrjXrjv ouS'

ovSdv olov

€L

tj Sidvoia i(f)Lard(ja GKOTreZ TO ^aoit^etv dyaOov dvOpojirco, on

avTos dvdpojTTos, ovK ivhiarpl^eL.
XoyLodfjuevoL TTpdrro}xeVy
ivepyrjGr)
30
t)
t)

rfj

^i6 /cat oaa fxrj raxv TTpdrropLev. orav yap alodria<Ei npos to ov ere/ca rj rfj

^avraoia
Ipyeia.
Tj

rep vo),

ov opeyerau, evOvs
r]

ttoleX'

dvr*

epcoT'-qaeco?

yap

rj

vo-rjoecos
rj

TToriov fiot,
rj rj

dpe^eojs yiverai ivemOvpiia Xeyec- roSl Se ttotov,
rrjs

alcrOrjGis elrrev

ovrcxjs P'€v ovi^ eTTL
t,cx)a

opfjLcoGL, Trjs

rj 6 vovs' evOvs Trivei. TO Kivelodai /cat 77parrety to, fJi€v iaxdTrjs atrta? tov KiveladaL

(fiavraoia

35

ope^ecos ovorjs, TavTrjs Se yivopievrjs rj St* alodrjueajs rj Sta <f)avTaGLa? /cat vo-qcrecos. twv S* opeyopblvcov TrpdTT€Lv ra fxev St' emdvpLLav r) Ovjjlov to. Se St*

701 b

ope^iv

t)

"Q.G-nep Se

^ovXrjULV Ta fxev ttolovgl, Ta Se rrpdTTOvcriv. ra avTopLaTa /ctvetrat jiiKpds Kivrjoeajg

yivojxevrjs, Xvofievcov tcov

dAATJAas"
b

[ra?
KLveiTai

OTpe^Xas],^
tco

UTpe^Xcov /cat Kpovovcrojv^ /cat to d/xaftov, orrep
el?

(roy
kvkXco
iv

6)(ovp.evov

avTO Kivei

evdv,

/cat

TrdXiv

dvlaovs ^X^^^ tovs Tpoxovs (d yap iXdTTOJv oioirep KevTpov ytVerat, Kaddnep
TOLs
/cuAtVSpots"),

ovTOJ

/cat

TO.

^(pa KivelTai.
rcov

ex^f'
(f)VGLV
^

ydp opyava
/cat

rotaOra

Tiqv

re
fiev

vevpcov

Trjv

tCjv

ogtc^v, to,

ws

eKeZ

tcl

Kpovova-Qv scrips! (Leon, renders laxatis seque
:

mutuo im-

pellentihus vertehris) Kpovbvrwv rds crrp^/SXas seclusi.
*
*

libri.
^

rh addidi.

this technical use of ipwrav cf. An. Prior. 24- a 24. the removal of the pejrs {^u\a), cf. below, 701 b 9, 10. * The context seems to show that the toy-carriage was on an axle which coupled two wheels of unequal diameter. There is, however, no evidence for the existence of such toycarriages in antiquity.

For

By

462

MO\^MENT OF ANIMALS,

vii.

elusions by questioning," so here the mind does not stop and consider at all one of the two premisses, namely, the obvious one for example, if walking is good for a man, one does not waste time over the premiss " I am myself a man." Hence such things as we
;

do without calculation,

Ave

do quickly.

For when a

man

acts for the object which he has in view from either perception or imagination or thought, he
;

the carrying out of his desire takes the place of inquiry or thought. appetite says, I must drink this is drink, says sensation or imagination or thought, and one immediately drinks. It is in this manner that animals are impelled to move and act, the final cause of their

immediately does what he desires

My

;

movement being

desire and this comes into being through either sensation or imagination and thought. And things which desire to act, at one time create something, and at another act, by reason either of appetite or of passion, or else through desire or wish. The movement of animals resembles that of marionettes which move as the result of a small movement, when the strings are released ^ and strike one another or a toy-carriage which the child that is riding upon it himself sets in motion in a straight direction, and which afterwards moves in a circle because its wheels are unequal, for the smaller wheel acts as a centre," as happens also in the cylinders.'* Animals have similar parts in their organs, namely, the growth of their sinews and bones, the latter corresponding to the pegs in the marionettes and the
; ;

The marionettes seem to have been worked by means of cylinders round which weighted strings were wound, the cylinders being set in motion by the removal of pegs.
<*

463

ARISTOTLE
10 c5v

15

ra 8e vevpa a>s" at orpi^Xai' Kal avi€jiivojv Kivovvrai. iv fxev ovv rots' avTOfxarois Kal rot? djjLa^LOLs ovk eariv dXXoicooLs, incl el iyivovTO iXdrrovs ol ivrog rpoxol Kal rrdXiv pieLt,ovs, Kav kvkXco to avro iKiveiTO' iv Se rep ^coco Swarat to avro Kal fjieX^ov Kal eXarrov yiveoOai Kal ra G)(rjp,aTa pcera^dXXeiv, av^avopevojv rcov pLopiojv hid deppLorrjTa Kal TTaXiv (jvGreXXopiivojv hid ifjv^iv Kal dXXoiovfuAa Kal 6
uihiipos,

XvofievcDv

pievajv.

diXXoiovcn 8' at ^avraoiai /cat at alodrjueis

20

Kal at evvoiai. at /xe^' ydp aludiqueis evOvs vttdpxovGiv dXXoiojGeig riveg ovcrai, rj he ^avraoia /cat 7] voTjOis TTjv rcov TTpaypidrojv exovcri hvvapiiv rpoTTov ydp TLva TO ethos to voovfievov ro rod OeppLov ipvxpov ^ 'qheos ^ (fyo^epov roiovrov rvyxdvei 7] ov oiov nep Kal rwv rrpaypidrajv eKaarov, hio Kal (f>piTTovcn Kal (f)o^ovi'Tai voTjoravres p.6vov. ravra he Trdvra TrdOrj Kal dXXoicoaeis eluiv. dXXoiovfxevcov 8' iv rep GojpLari rd pev piei^co rd 8* iXdrrcj
yiverai.

25

on

he puKpd piera^oXr] yivoptevr] iv dpxfj

pieydXas Kal TToXXdg TToiel hia<j)opds diroOev, ovk dhrjXov oiov rod o'iaKos aKapiaZov ri piediGrapLevov ttoXXt] Tj rrjg TTpcopas yiverai pierdaraGis. en he Kard Oeppiorrjra -^ i/jv^iv t) /car* aAAo roiovrov TTados orav yevrjrai aXXoiwuig Trepl rr]v Kaphiav,

n

80 /cat

iv ravrrj
TTOiei

Kard pieyedos
rod acopiaros

iv dvaiaO-qrcp piopicp,
hia(f)opdv
ipvdr^piaori

TToXXrjv

Kal (hxpdrrjGi Kal (f)piKais Kal rpopiois Kal rot? rovrojv ivavrioig. VIII. *Apxr) piev ovv, elp-qrai, axJTTep rrjs
"

The

reference

is

probably to some part of the toy-

carriage.

464


MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,
iron,**

vii.-viii.

while the sinews correspond to the strings, the and loosening of which causes the movement. In the marionettes and the toy-carriages no alteration takes place, though, if the inner wheels were to become smaller and then again larger, the same circular movement would take place. In the animal, however, the same part can become both greater and smaller and change its form, the members increasing through heat and contracting again through cold and thus altering. Alteration is caused by imagination and sensations and thoughts. For sensations are from the first a kind of alteration, and imagination and thought have the effect of the objects which they present for in a way the idea conceived of hot or cold or pleasant or terrible is really of the same kind as an object possessing one of these qualities, and so we shudder and feel fear simply by conceiving an idea and all these affections are alterations, and when an alteration takes place in the body some parts become larger, others smaller. Now it is clear that a small change taking place in an origin of movement ^ causes great and numerous changes at a distance just as, if the rudder of a boat is moved to an infinitesimal extent, the change resulting in the position of the bows is considerable. Furthermore, when, owing to heat or cold or a similar affection, an alteration is caused in the region of the heart and even in an imperceptibly small part of it it gives rise to a considerable change in the body, causing blushing or pallor or shuddering or trembling or the opposites of these. VIII. The origin, then, of movement, as has already
setting free

;

;

;

"

i.e.

here, the heart, cf. below, 701

b 30

;

see also note on

698 bl.

465

ARISTOTLE
701b

35

KlVTjGeWS TO €V TCp TTpaKTCO OlCOKTOV Kai (peVKTOV i^ OLvdyKT]? 8' oLKoXovdeX rfj voTJcrec /cat rfj (f)avra<jla avTOJV OepfJLOT'qg Kal ipv^ig. ro fxev yap Xvirrfpov
(fyevKTOv,
TO,

,

,

,

.

.

<.

,

.

,

TO

8'

rjSu

Slojktov (aAAa Xavddvei nepl
eCTTL

piLKpd TOVTO

GVpL^OLVOv) ,
cr;^e8ov

8e

TO.

Xv7Tr]pd
/cat

702 a

Kal Tjhea Trdvra
depjioT'qTOS.

jLtera

ifjv^eco?

Ttvog

TOVTO 8e hr\Xov eK rajv

TraOrj jiaT cov.

ddpprj

yap

/cat cf)6^oL /cat dcfypoSiGtacriiol /cat

rdXXa

TO, CTo^/xart/ca XvTTiqpd /cat 9^8ea
{jLeTOL
^

ra

pikv /caret fxopiov

OeppiOTTfTos

ri

i/jv^ecjg Igti, to,

TO Gcbfxa'
Xp(JOpL€VaL

fJLvrjp^ai

Se

/cat

iXTrlSes,

pidXXov
r\hy]

atrtat

Tols TOiOVTOLS, 6t€ fieV TCJov avTOJV elalv. ooot

Se /ca^* oXov elSwXoL? TjTTOV 6t€ 8e
olov
euAoya>s"

87^/xtoupyetTat

ra Ivtos

/cat

ra

rcepX
e/c

Tas dpyas
TreTrrjyoTOJv
/cat

Tojv opyavLKcov pLopiajv /xera^aAAoyra
10 z5y/oa

/cat

c^

vypojv
dXXTJXojv.

TreTrr^yora

/cat

/xaAa/cd

15

20

tovtojv 8e crvfxpaLvovTOJV TOV TOVTOV, Kal €TL TOV TTaOrjTLKOV Kal rroirfTLKOv TOLavTTjv e^ovTcuv ttjv (jivaiv olav ttoXXa^ov elpiJKafxev, orroTav Gvp,^fi coot^ elvai to fXeV TTOLTJTiKOV TO Se TTaQ'qTlKOV, Kal fJLTjSeV aTToXiTTr] avTCJv eKdTepov tcov ev rw Xoycp, ev9vs to fiev TTOtet TO 8e Trdax^i" Sta tovto 8' dfia ojs etTretv i^oet OTL TTopevTeov Kal Tropeuerat, av fJL'^ tl ipLttoSl^tj €Tepov. TO, fiev yap opyaviKa p-^pr] irapaGK€vd^€i iTTLTT^SeLcog TO, TrdOrj , rj 8' ope^Lg to. Trddrjy rrjv 8' ope^Lv tj (f^avrauia' avTTj Se ytVerat dp,a Se /cat raxv iq Sta vorjoeojs q St' alad-qaeojs Sta TO (roy^ TTOLTjTLKOV Kal TTaOrjTLKOV TCOV TTpOS dXXrjXa elvat ttjv (jiVGiv.
(jKXrjpd

i^ TpOTTOV

.

^

rh add. Bonitz.

^6Q

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,
been

viii.

said, is the object of pursuit or avoidance in the sphere of action, and heat and cold necessarily follow the thought and imagination of these objects. For what is painful is avoided, and what is pleasant is pursued. We do not, it is true, notice the effect of but practically this in the minute parts of the body anything painful or pleasant is accompanied by some degree of chilling or heating. This is clear from the effects produced. Reckless daring, terrors, sexual emotions and the other bodily affections, both painful and pleasant, are accompanied by heating or Rechilling, either local or throughout the body. collections too and anticipations, employing, as it were, the images of such feelings, are to a greater or So it is less degree the cause of the same effects. w^th good reason that the inner portions of the body and those which are situated near the origins of the motion of the organic parts are created as they are, changing as they do from solid to liquid and from liquid to solid and from soft to hard and vice versa. Since, then, these processes occur in this way, and since, moreover, the passive and the active principles have the nature which we have frequently ascribed to them, whenever it so happens that the one is active and the other passive and neither fails to fulfil its definition, immediately the one acts and the other is acted upon. So a man thinks he ought to go, and goes, practically at the same time, unless something else hinders him. For the affections fittingly prepare the organic parts, the desire prepares the affections, and the imagination prepares the desire, while the imagination is due to thought or sensation. The process is simultaneous and quick, because the active and the passive are by nature closely interrelated.
;

467

ARISTOTLE
702a
1

o oe KLVovv -npajTov to L,ojov avayKJ) euvat ev rivi

^

^

,

..

,

,

-,

V

o-PXfiV ^^ KafjLTTrj he reAeuT-)], eiprjrai.

on

fxev icrrt rov fiev dpxr) rov 8to kol ecrrt /xev co? eVt, eart

8* o)? Sucre ;^p7^Tat
25

7^

(f)vuis avrfj.

orav yap Kivrjrai

ivrevdev, avdyKiq ro fiev rjpefjieLV rcbv arjfieLCJV ra>v iaxoLTCov, TO Se KLveTadai' otl yap jrpos -qpe/xovu 8et

dTTepeiheudai to klvovv, eipiqTai rrpoTepov.
fxev

KLveZTai

30

35

702 b

ov Ktvel to eaxoLTOV tov ^pax^ovog, ttjs S' ev Tip (hXeKpdvo) Kajjufjecus to fxev KLveiTai to eV auroj T(p oXcp Kivovfievcp, dvdyKrj 8' elvai tl Kal dKivrjTOv, o hrj (jyafxev hvvdpiei fxev ev elvai G7)pielov, evepyeia he ylveudai hvo' ojgt el to t^wov rjv ^paxiO)v, ivTavd^ dv 7TOV rjv rj dpx'rj ttjs i/jvxt]? y) KLVovora. 67761 8' evSex^Tai Kal Trpo? rrjv x^^P^ ^X^^^ '^^ OVTCOg TUJV dl/jVXCOV, OLOV el KLVOLTJ TTjV ^aKTTjpLaV ev Tjj x^^P^y (jyavepov otl ovk dv etr) ev ovSeTepco ^vx^] Twv eoxdTOiv, ovT^ ev Tw iaxdTCp tov 7) KivovfJLevov ovT^ ev ttj eTepa dpxfjkolI ydp to ^vXov ex^L Kal dpxr]v Kal TeXog npog ttjv x^^P^oidTe Sta ye tovto, el fii] ev ttj ^aKTiqpia rj Kivovoa
/cat

ovv

diTO

TTJs

opLolojg

^^XV^ ^PXV iv^fynv, ouS' ev ttj X^^P^' ydp ex^^ Kal to aKpov ttjs x^^P^^ rrpos tov
hiacj^epei

Kaprrov, Kal tovto to jJiepog Trpog to (LXeKpavov.
5

ovSev

ydp

ra

TrpodTrecfiVKOTa

tcov

fxiq

relation as the forearm has to the elbow, * i.e. the end of the stick where it meets the hand. * i.e. the origin of the movement of the hand which is situated in the wrist. ** It is impossible to find a word in English which covers the double meaning given to apxn here and in the previous line (see note on 698 b 1). The sentence /cat 70,^x6^1^X01' x"/"^ explains why the apxh Kivrjaecos of the hand is called rj " beoiPXVi viz. that there is another dpxv (in the sense of
. .
.

" i.e. the

same

Mpa

ginning") in the

stick,

namely, the point nearest the hand.

468

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,

viii.

Now that which first causes movement in the animal must be situated in a definite beginning. Now it has already been stated that the joint is the beginning of one thing and the end of another wherefore nature employs it sometimes as one and sometimes as two. For when movement is being originated from it, one of its extreme points must be at for we have already rest, while the other must move said that what causes movement must be supported on something which is at rest. The extremity, therefore, of the forearm is moved and does not cause movement, but in the elbow-joint one part, namely that which is situated in the actual whole which is in motion, is moved, but there must also be something which is unmoved and this is what we mean when we say that a point is potentially one but becomes So if the forearm were a living creature, actually two. it is somewhere near this point that the origin of movement set in motion by the soul would be situated. Since, however, it is possible for an inanimate object to bear this same relation to the hand,° for instance if one moves a stick in one's hand, it is clear that the soul could not be situated in either of the extremities, neither in the extremity of that which is moved ^ nor in the other origin of movement (apX'D ^ ^^^ ^^^ stick has an end and a beginning (opxv) ^ hi relation to the hand. So, for this reason, if the origin of movement set up by the soul is not situated in the stick, it is not for the extremity of the situated in the hand either hand * bears the same relation to the wrist as the For there is no difference latter does to the elbow. between what is attached by growth and what is not
;
;

;

;

• i.e.

the point where the hand joins the stick.

469

ARISTOTLE
yiverai yap ojoirep d(f)aip€T6v [xepos rj PaKrrjpla. avdyKT) dpa ev /xT^Se/xta etvat dpxfj, t] icrnv aAAou
reXevrij, /xr^Se et rt iarlv erepov eKelvov i^wrepo),

OLOV rod fiev rrjg ^aKrrjpLag iaxd-rov eV rfj X^'-P'^ €L Se /XT]S' iv rfj oLpxTj, TovTov S' €v KapTTCp 7)
.

10

x^i-Ph

on

dvcoTepco 'in,

rj

dpx^

oi;S'

yap rod ojXeKpdvov fievovros Kdroj Gwex^S'

KLveiraL

ivravda' ert drrav ro

J

5

IX. 'Ettci S* oixoiojs ex^i aTTO tu)V dpiarepajv Kal 0,770 rdJv Se^Lcov, Kal a/xa rdvavria /ctvetrat, cl)ot€ fjLT) elvai ro) rjpepLelv to Se^iov KLveZudai to dpiOTepov fiTjh^ ai) tw tovto eKelvo, del 8' iv to) dvojTipw dii(j)OTipa>v tj dpx'ij, dv'dyKrj iv to) fiiao)
etvai TTjv dpx^i^ Trjs ijjvxrjS ttj? KLVovar)S' dix(f)OTipujv

yap

Tihv aKpcov to fxicrov 'ioxo^Tov.

opLoioJS 8'

€;)^ei

20

25

TOVTO Kal rd? aTTO Tov dvco Kal KdTO), OLOV Tas drro ttjs K€(^aXrjg KaV' Tag dno rrj? Kal evX6ya>s Se tovto pdx^(JL>£ ToZs ixovGL pdxt-v. avfx^i^r^Kev Kal yap to aladr^TLKov ivTavda etval (JiapLCV, cocrr' dXXoiovjjiivov Std ttjv auerd-qcnv tov TOTTOV tov TTepl TTjV dpX'TjV Kal jXeTa^dXXoVTOS TOL ixdfJLeva GVfJLfieTa^dXXei iKTeivopievd re Kal avvayofxeva rd /jLopia, cocrr' i^ dvdyK-qs 8td raura yiveaOai TT^v KLvqoLv Tols l,cx)ois. TO he fiiaov TOV crco/xaros"
TTpos

Tas

KLVTjCjeLs

*

Kal scrips!

:

irpos libri.

The

is simply a restatement of the doctrine of 702 b 1-4. true dpxv is not situated in the extremitj^ of the stick nearest to the hand (which is an dpxv as being the place where the stick begins in relation to the hand), nor yet in any other member, such as the wrist, which is still farther away from the stick and is an apxv as being the origin of motion in the hand. The wrist, elbow, and shoulder are all of them
*•

This

470

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,
so attached
;

viii.-ix.

for the stick

becomes a kind of detached

member.

origin of movement, therefore, cannot be situated in any origin which is the termination of something else, nor in any other part which is farther from it ; for example, the origin of movement of the

The

extremity of the stick is in the hand, but the origin of the movement of the hand is in the wrist." And so if the origin of movement is not in the hand, because it is still higher up,* neither is it in this higher position for, again, if the elbow is at rest, the continuous part below it can be set in motion as a whole. IX. Now since there is similarity in the left and the right sides of the body, and the opposite parts can be moved simultaneously, so that it is impossible for the right side to move just because the left is at rest or vice versa, and the origin of movement must be in that which lies above both sides, it necessarily follows that the origin of movement in the moving soul must be between them for the middle is the Hmit of both extremes. And it stands in the same relation to the movements above as to those below, to those, for example, which proceed from the head and to those which proceed from the spine in animals which have a spine. And there is good reason for this for we say that the organ of sensation is also situated in the centre of the body and so if the region round about the origin of movement is altered by senseperception and undergoes change, the parts which are attached to it change with it by extension or contraction, so that in this way movement necessarily takes place in animals. And the central part of the
; ; ; ;

dpxai in relation to the parts below them, but the true apx-n is situated in the soul, which lies in the centre of the body. * i.e. the wrist.

471

ARISTOTLE
702
b
^

[lepos Svi'dfiei [xev eV, evepyeia 8* dvayKj] ytveadaL
TrXeico'
dp)(rjs,

Kol yap dfxa KLvelrai rd KcbXa diro rrjs

Kol darepov TjpepiOVVTOS Odrepov KiveiTai.
8'

Xiycxj

olov

eTTL

rrjs

ABF

to

B
ev

Kivelrai, Kivel

Se TO
80

A.

aAAa

piriv

Set ye tl 'qpe/JLelv, el /xeAAet

TO TO

ixev KLveiGOai

rd 8e KiveZv.

dpa Swdfia oV
jjltj

A

evepyeia Suo eurai, toar
tl etvai.

dvdyKT]
pLrjv

OTiyiJLrjv

dXXd pLeyeOos
dpLa TO)

dXXd

ivSex^Tat to

T

B

KLveloOai, oj<jt
iv TO)

dvdyKrj dpL(f)0T€pas Tds

dpxds Tds
85

€LvaL TTapd
pL€POV.

A KLvovfjLeuas Kivelv. 8et tl dpa raura? eTepov to klvovv Kal pbrj klvovaTTepelSoLVTo pL€v ydp dv TO, a/cpa Kal at
iv TO)

dpXOil
703 a

OLL

A

TTpOS aAArJAtt? KLVOVpiivCOV, a)G7T€p

dv

et

TLveg

ra vwTa dvTepelhovTes klvoI^v Td
dpL(f)Oj

OKeXrj.
8'

dXXd TO KLVOVV
ioTLV
Tj

dvayKalov

elvaL.

tovto

eTepov fxev ovaa tov pieyedovs tov TOLovTov, ev TovTcp 8' ovoa. X. Kara piev ovv tov Xoyov tov XeyovTa ttjv
i/jvx'q,
6

aLTLav TTJs KLvqoeojs eoTLV
TL €LVaL od)pLa TOLOVTOV.
pLev
pLTj

Tj

dpe^LS TO pLecrov, o

KLvel KLvovpievov ev he tols ipupvxoLs aco/xaat Set

TO pLeV OVV KLVOVpLCVOV

rrecfyvKos

Se KLveZv SuVarat 77aa;^ety /car'

10

dXXoTpiav hvvapLLV to Se klvovv dvayKalov e;3^ety irdvTa 8e ^atVerat ra TLvd SvvapLLV Kal LGXvv. t,a)a Kal exovTa irvevpLa GvpL(f)VTOV Kal LOXvovTa TOVTOJ, {tLS pev ovv Tj OCJOTTlpia TOV GVp(f)VTOV
TTvevpLaTOS,
TTjv

eLpr]TaL

iv

aAAotS".)

tovto

Se

Trpog

dpx^v

Trjv i/jvx^'KTjv eoLKev opLOLOJS ^X^^^ cooTrep

""See Introd. p. 436.

472

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,
;

ix.-x.

body is potentially one, but actually must necessarily for the limbs are set in become more than one motion simultaneously from the origin of movement, and when one is at rest the other is in motion. For there example, in ABC, B is moved and A moves it
;

. must, however, be something at rest if one thing is to be moved and another is to move it. So A, though potentially one, will be actually two, so that it must be not a point but a magnitude. Again, C may be moved simultaneously with B, so that both the origins in A must cause movement by being moved there must, therefore, be something other than these origins which causes movement without being itself moved. Otherwise, when movement took place, the extremities, or origins, in A would rest upon one another, like men standing back to back and mo\dng their limbs. There must be something which moves them both, namely the soul, other than such a magnitude as we have described but situated in it. X. In accordance with the definition which defines the cause of motion, desire is the central origin, which moves by being itself moved but in animate bodies there must be some bodily substance which has these That, then, which is moved but does characteristics. not possess the natural quality of setting up movement may be affected by a power external to it, and that which causes movement must possess some power and strength. Now all animals clearly both possess an innate spirit and exercise their strength (WTiat it is that conserves the innate in virtue of it. This spirit spirit has been explained elsewhere. <*) seems to bear the same relation to the origin in the
; ;

473

ARISTOTLE
to kwovv Kai kwov TO OLKLVrjTOV. €7761 8' T] apX^ ''^Ot? /xei' ep' rfj KapSia TOt? 8' ei^ tco dvdXoyov, 8td rovro Kal TO TTvevfia to <JVjj.ff)VTOv ivTavOa (j)aiveTai 6v. TTOTepov jxev ovv TavTOv Igtl to TTvevfia del yiveTai del eTepov, eoTCo d'AAos" Adyo? (d avTOS yap idTL Kal rrepl tcov dXXcov iiopicov)' (jyaiveTai 8' ev^vojs ^X^^ TTpog to kivtjtikov elvai Kal rrapey^eiv Igxvv. Ta 8* epya ttjs KivrjGeios (Lais Kal eX^cg, ojCTTe Set TO opyavov av^dvecrOai t€ 8waa^at Kal avGTeXXeoOai. TOiavTi] 8' eo-Ttv rj tov irvevpiaTos Kal yap d^iauTos avoTeXXofjievr], Kal (j)VGLS' ^LaaTLKT] Kal waTLKT] 8td TT^v ai)Tr]v atTtar, /cat ex^^ Kal ^dpos TTpog Ta TTvpwSr] Kal Kov^oTiqTa hel 8e to fieXXov Kivelv (jltj TTpos TOL evavTia. dAAotcoo-et TOiovTOV elvai' KpaTei yap KaTa ttjv vnepox'^v TO, (fiVcriKa GcofxaTa dAATJAojv, to ^xev Kovcj)ov KaTOj VTTO TOV ^apVTepov diToviKcoixevoVy to he ^apv dva> vtto tov Kov^OTepov. "^0.1 jjiev ovv Kivel KLVovy^evco {JLOpio) rj j/fup^rJ^etpi^Tat, Kal 8t* "rjv aiTiav VTToXrjTTTeov 8e GweoTavaL to

TO ev rats
fJLGVOVy

/ca/xTrat? (jr]iJL€LOv,

TrpOS

15

-r)

20

25

80 t,ipov

ojGTtep ttoXlv evvoiiovfjievrjv.
-q

ev t€

yap

ttj TToXei

OTav dVaf gvgttj^
fjiovdpxov,
yivofjievojv,

Ta^is, ovSev Bel Kex^p^crp-^^ov

(vs

ov Set Trapelvai Trap* eKaGTOV twv dAA' auTO? eKaGTOS TTOiel to, avTov TeTaKTai, Kal yiveTai ToBe pueTCL ToSe 8td
1

(rvarfi

P

:

arfj

ESY.

Tim. 61 a. The action of the wev/jLa is represented as resembling that of the breath in the lungs ; when the breath contracts it lacks force and the lungs collapse, when it expands it thrusts outwards and exercises force.
"

For

this

meaning of

d^iiaaTos cf. Plato,

''

Namely, expansion.

474

MO\T.MENT OF ANIMALS,
soul as the point in the joints, which

x.

moved, bears to that which

is

moves and is unmoved. Now since

the origin is in some animals situated in the heart, in others in what corresponds to the heart, it is therefore clear that the innate spirit also is situated there. Whether the spirit is always the same or is always changing must be discussed elsewhere (for the same question arises about the other parts of the body) at any rate it is clearly well adapted by nature to be Now the a motive power and to exercise strength. functions of movement are thrusting and pulling, so that the organ of movement must be able to increase and contract. And the nature of spirit has these quahties for when it contracts it is without force," and one and the same cause ^ gives it force and enables it to thrust, and it possesses weight as compared with the fiery element, and lightness as compared with the contrary elements,'' Now that which is to create movement without causing alteration must be of this kind for the natural bodies ^ overcome one another according as one of them prevails, the light being conquered and borne down by the heavier and
; ; ;

the heavy borne up by the lighter. We have now stated what is the part by the movement of w^hich the soul creates movement and for what reason. The constitution of an animal must be regarded as resembling that of a well-governed citystate. For when order is once established in a city there is no need of a special ruler with arbitrary powers to be present at every activity, but each individual performs his own task as he is ordered, and one act succeeds another because of custom. And in the
"

The contrary of fire is water, c/. Be gen. et corrupt. 331 a
^ i.e.

1.

the elements.

Q

475

ARISTOTLE
TO evos' €v re
35 <f)V(nv

rots' icoois to avTO tovto Ota ttjv yiv€Tai /cat to) 7re^u/<eVat eKaoTOV ovtco avGTOLVTOJv rroielv to avTov epyov, oj(jt€ firjSev 8etv iv eKOLGTW etpat ijjvx'^v, aAA' eV rtvt dpxfj '''ov

703 b CTctj/xaros" ovgtjs

rdAAa

l^rjv

fiev toj 7Tpocr7T€(f)VKevaL,

TToieiv he

TO epyov to avTcov 8td ttjv (J)volv. XI. Hios /xev ovv KLveiTai tcls eKovdias /ctvTJoet? TO, t,ipa, /cat 8td rtVa? atrtas", etpT^rat* /ct^etrat 8e
Ttvas"
/cat

5

OLKOVGLOvs

eVta
/Cat

TrAetora? ou;^ eKovalovg.
OLOV TT]v TTJs KapStas T€

[Jiepojv, tols 8e rcDi^ Xeyco 8* (xkovglov? fiev TT^v Tou alSoLOV {noXXaKLs

10

1^

ou /xeVrot /ceAeucrai^ros' tol> VOL? KLVOVVTai), OVX eKOVdLOVS 8' OtOV V7TVOV Kol iyp-qyopaiv /cat dyaTTVOTjy, /cat oorat d'AAat rotaurai elcTLV. ovOevos yap tovtcov Kvpia airXix)? icrTLV ov6* 7) (f)avTaala ovO^ rj ope^is, dAA* evethr] dvdyKr] dXXoLovodai TOL l,ci)a (jiVGLKrjv olXXolcoglv, dAAotou/xeVcov 8e TcDv fioptcov to. fiev auf eo^at rd 8e c/idiveLV, coctt' '^'817 KiveloOai /cat fxeTa^aXXetv rds" Tre^u/cutas" rcDv 8e ex^oOaL fieTa^oXas dAAT^Aoji^ (atrtat KLvqaeojv OepfjLOTrjTes re /cat ipv^eis, at t€ dvpadev /cat at ei^rds" VTrdpxovaai (fyvcnKai), /cat at irapd Tov Adyov 817 yivofxevai KLvrjoeis tcjv prjdevTCOv
(f)av€VTOs
rtvos",
fjiopLOJv

yap

dAAottuoeco? GvpLTreoovorjs yivovTai.
17

r]

voriGLS /cat

</)avTaota, oyartep elpryrai npoTepoVy

yap to

TTOnqTiKa ToyvnadrifxdTCJV 7TpoG(f)epovGLV rd
20

ydp
8e

et87]

TCUV

TTOLTJTLKcbv

7TpOU(j)epOVGLV

.

jJidXlGTa

TcDv
^(Sop'

fjLopLOJV

TavTa

TToiet eTTih-qXcDS

8td rd cooTrep
pLopiajv
[•

Kex^JoptGfjLevov

eKdTepov elvai rcDv

tovtov

*

" See note on 698 b 1. Viz. the heart and the privy member. " 701 b 18 ff.

476

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,

x.-xi.

animals the same process goes on because of nature, and because each part of them, since they are so constituted, is naturally suited to perform its own so that there is no need of soul in each function part, but since it is situated in a central origin of authority over the body," the other parts live by
;

their structural

attachment to

it

and perform their

functions in the course of nature. have now discussed the manner of the XL voluntary movements of animals, and the cause of them. Some of their parts, however, undergo certain involuntary movements, though most of these are By involuntary I mean such really non-voluntary. movements as those of the heart and of the privy member, which are often moved by the presentation of some image and not at the bidding of reason. By non- voluntary I mean sleeping and waking and respiration and the like. For neither imagination nor desire is strictly speaking responsible for any of these movements but, since animals must necessarily undergo physical alteration, and, when their parts undergo alteration, some increase and others decrease, and so their bodies immediately move and undergo the natural sequence of changes (the causes of their movements being the natural heatings and chillings, both external and internal), the movements too of the above-mentioned parts ^ which occur contrary to reason are due to the occurrence of a change. For thought and imagination, as has already been said,*

own

We

;

induce the states which cause the affections for they present the images of the things which cause them. Now these parts act in this way much more conspicuously than any others, because each is as it were a separate vital organism[, the reason being that
;

477

ARISTOTLE
703 b

t^curiK-qv]} rj fxkv ovv alriav ras y^p^ apxa^ e;^et rojv alodiquecov to 8e piopiov to yevvqTiKov otl

8' aiTLOV OTL

exovGLV vyporrjTa

Kaphia

(f>av€p6v St' rjv

25tolovt6v

ioTiy

GTjiielov
tl
tj

avTOV

axjTTep

t^toov

Kal yap i^ep^eTai i^ tov GirepixaTO? Sura/xt?.
^'^^ '^^^ fJLoplcov Kal evXoyojs ovpi^aivovGi,

at Se KLvqaecg ttj re apXT?
rots' fiopioig
OLTTO
rr^s"

o.pxrJ9

Kal
30

TTpos

dAArjAa?

ovtcxjs

acjuKvovvTai.

Set

yap

vorjaaL to

A

dpx^^.

at ouu KLvrjaeLS Kad* e/caaroy

GTOLX^iov Tcov imyeypajjifievcov irrl ttjv dpx^^ d(j)iKvovvTai, Kal (xtto ttjs dpxrj? Kivovfievrjs Kal //era^aXXovG-qg, eTreiSr] 77oAAa hvvdfx€i ecrrtV, -q fiev tov B dpx'^ ^'^l '^o B, Tj Se TOV r errl to T, rj S' dfX(f)OLV €77* dfjicjia). diTo he tov B eVt to V to)^ dno [xev tov 35 B iirl TO iXdelv wg err* dpx^jvy diro he tov eVt TO r CO? avr' dpxyj?- otl Be OTe fxkv raura* vorjodvTojv ytVerat o^ KLvrjGig r) Trapd tov Xoyov ev rot? lO^A pLopioLs, 6t€ S' ol>, atrtop' to ore /xev vrrapx^LV ttjv TTaO-qTLKrjv vXtjv 6t6 8e /xi) ToaavTr^v rj ToiavTiqv. Ylepl pLev ovv tcov pLoplcov eKdoTov tcov [,cpcov, 704 b Kal irepl ipvxTJS, €tl Se nepl alGdrjG€oos Kal vttvov Kai pLV-qpi-qs Kal Trjg kolvtjs KLvrjuecos, elpiqKapiev ret? atrta?* Aot77oy Se irepl yeveoecos elireZv.

A

A

*

TovTov

,

,

.

i^cjTLKrjv

3

* ravTo.

ut interpolamentum del. Jaeger. 2 yap cm. EY. Tw EP ry 0^ Y t6 5^ S. Jaeger to, avTO. P raOra ESY.
: : : :

These words are probably an interpolated gloss

;

they

478

MOVEMENT OF ANIMALS,

xi.

each contains vital moisture]. ° The reason for this as regards the heart is plain, for it contains the origins of the senses. That the generative organ is of the same nature is shown by the fact that the seminal force comes forth from it, being as it were a living thing. Now it is only in accordance with reason that movements are set up both in the central origin by the parts and in the parts by the central origin, and thus reach one another. Let A be the central the movements at each letter in the diagram origin drawn above ^ reach the central origin, and from the central origin, w^hen it is moved or undergoes change (for it is potentially many), the origin of movement in B goes to B, and the origin of movement is C to C, and of both to both but from B to C it travels by as to a central origin, and from going from B to A to C as from a central origin. Movement, however, contrary to reason, sometimes takes place and sometimes does not take place in the organs as the result of the same thoughts, the reason being that the
;

;

A

matter which

is

liable to

be affected

is

sometimes

present and sometimes not present in the proper quantity and quality. We have now dealt Nvith the reasons for the parts of each animal, the soul, and also sense-perception, sleep, memory, and general movement. It remains to deal with the generation of animals.
are unnecessary in view of the following sentences tradictory in doctrine to them. See figure on p. 473.
''

and con-

479

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS

ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS
Introduction. Problems which arise about Chap. I. Different number of limbs and animal locomotion. different modes of bending them found in different animals. II. Assumption of generally-accepted principles and
definitions.
III. Animal movement requires (1) a resisting surface against which the limbs can press, (2) a distinction of active and passive parts in the animal. Superior and IV. ITie dimensions of living bodies. inferior determined by function and not by position. Plants and animals compared. Distinction of front and back, right and left. The right, as the source of movement, superior to the left. Man the most highly differentiated of the animals. V. Bipeds, quadrupeds, polypods and footless ammals distinguished. Quadrupeds inferior to bipeds. Man the highest form of biped, being the most " natural." VI. All movement in the animal must originate in a common centre, equidistant from the centres of movement in the limbs. VII. Red-blooded animals move at four points such animals are a continuous whole, while bloodless animals and polypods are composed of a number of separate Even limbless red-blooded animals move at entities. four points. VIII. Reason for the absence of limbs in snakes. Limbs
:

necessarily even in number. IX. Flexion necessary to movement, even in limbless Illustrations from Its mechanism explained. animals. leaping, flying, and swinuning animals. X. Movement of birds. Use of the tail to guide flight,

482

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS
XI. Man, the only erect animal, compared with the
birds.

Winged human beings an impossible invention of the artists. XII. Differences of flexion in the limbs of man and of the quadrupeds explained. XIII. The different modes of flexion enumerated and
illustrated

by diagrams. XIV. " Diagonal " movement of the

legs of quadrupeds.

The structure of the legs of birds. Oblique attachment of wings and The structure of oviparous quadrupeds. fins. XVI. Movement of bloodless animals. The peculiar movement of the crab. XVII. Crabs, lobsters, flat-fish, and web-footed birds. XVIII. ^^lly birds have feet, while fishes have not. Fins and wings compared. XIX. The movement of testaceans. Conclusion,

Movement of crabs. XV. Birds and quadrupeds compared.

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE APPARATUS CRITICUS
Z = Codex Oxoniensis
2.7.
Collegii Corporis Christi

W.A.

U = Codex Vaticanus 260. S = Codex Laurentianus 81. 1. P = Codex Vaticanus 1339. Y = Codex Vaticanus 261. Leon. = Latin translation of Nicholas Leonicus. Mich. = Greek commentary of Michael Ephesiug.

q2

483

nEPI nOPEIAS
704 a
I.
5

Zi2Ii2N

Ilepl

Se

T<JL)V

TTpos TTjV KLvrjULv TTjv

XPV'^^H'^^ fiopLCov rots ^ojols Kara TOTTOV €TnaK€TTriov Sta
avrtjjv /cat rivos

TtV alriav tolovtov iariv eKaarov
€V€K€V
VTTOLpX^l'

aVTOlS , €TL Se 7T€pl TCJbv Siat^OpOJV TOiV re TTpos dXXr]Xa roXs rod avrov /cat ivos (^a)ov ixopiois, Koi TTpos TO. T(x)v aXkojv rcjv Tip yivei 8ta(f)6p(X)V.

TTpcJOTOV

Se

Xd^a>fJL€V

TTepl

OGCOV

eTTt-

OKeTTriov.
10

"Ecrrt Se TTpchrov /xev ttogols iXax^crroLs

rd foJa
eVat/xa

KLveZrai

ariii€iois,

eVetra Sta rt rd

fiev

rerrapcn rd

8* dvatfxa TxAetoCTt, /cat

/ca^oAou 8e Sta

TtV alriav rd fiev dnoSa rd 8e StVoSa rd 8e rerpaTToSa rd 8e 77oAu7ro8a rcov ^cocov icrrl, /cat
15

dprlovs e%€t rous' TroSas", ooarrep e;^et TToSa? auToiv oAo;? 8' ot? KLveZrai oiqixeiois, dpria
8ta Tt TTavr

ravr

iariv,
rtV* alriav dvdpojTTOs [xev /cat opi'ts/cat

"Ert hk 8ta

SIttovs, ol 8' IxOves aTToSes eluiv

ra?

Kapufjeis

o re dvdpcDTTOs /cat o opvis SiTToSes ovres ivavrias

exovGL rwv gkcXcov.
20 rrjv

TT€pL(f)€p€Lav

KafiTTreL
/cat

eVt
484.

TO

kolXov.

6 ptev ydp dv9p<x)TTos CTit ro a/ceAo?, o 8' opi^ts" o dvdpojTTOS avros avrca

;

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS
I.

We must next discuss the parts which
movement from

are useful

to animals for their

place to place,

and consider why each part is of the nature which it is, and why they possess them, and further the differences in the various parts of one and the same animal and in those of animals of different species compared with one another. We must first decide what questions we have to discuss. One question is, what is the smallest number of points at which animals move the next is, why red;

blooded animals move at four points, while bloodless animals move at more than four and, in general, why some animals are without feet, others biped, others quadrupeds, and others polypods, and why all that have feet at all have an even number of feet and, in general, why the points at which movement is made are even in number. We must further consider why a man and a bird are bipeds, while fishes are without feet and why a man and a bird, being both bipeds, have opposite bendings of the legs. For a man bends his legs in a convex direction, a bird in a concave direction ; and a man
;
;

485

ARISTOTLE
ivavrlcos

yap
rots'

iirl

ra OKeXiq /cat tovs ^paxiovag- rovs /xev to koIXov, ra 8e yovara cttl rriv irepi/cat

(jiepeiav Kdjirrrei.

t'

av6pcx)rrois

evavriojs

ra rerpoLTToSa ra Jojoro/ca KapnTrci /cat aura

auTots"*
704 b
6
rrj<s

ra

fX€v

7T€pi(f)€p€Las

yap rrpoaO la GKeXrj em ro Kvprov /ca/XTrret, ra S' orriuOia irrl ro
fjurj

KoZXov.

en

Se ra)v rerpaTTohojv ocra
8ta

l,cporoKel

aXX
Trpo?

ojoroKeZ, tStoj? /cat els ro TrXdytov /ca/XTrret.

8e

rovroLs

rtV

alriav

rd rerpdrroha

Kivelrai
/cat oo-a

Kara
fxev

Sidpierpov.

Trepl Srj irdi^rajv rovrojv,

d'AAa Gvyyevrj rovrois, ra? air las Oecop-q-

reov.
10 rrjs

on

yap ovrco ravra
Se
rrjs

GvpL^alvei, SrjXov

ei<

Lcrroplas rrjs (f)VGLKrjSy Stort Se, vui' GKenreov.
'Ap)(r)
GKeijjeojs

II.

elojQapLev
rrjv
15 8'

XPV^^^^ TroAAa/cts" irpos Xa^ovres rd rovrov (f)vaLKTJv,
ttolgl
jLteV

vnoOepLevoLS ols rrjv jxedohov

exovra
TTOiet

rov

rpoTTOV ev
ev

roZs rrjs cfyvaews epyois.
rj

rovrcov
fidrrjv,

eanv on

(f)VGLs

ovOev

aAA' del

yevos
ovrcos

rcov ev'^exopievcov rfj ovala rrepl eKaarov t,(pov ro dpiurov hioirep el ^eXnov coSl,
e/c

/cat

ex^c
elal

Kara

(f)vcnv.

en rds

SiaardaeLs

rod
20

fjueyeOovs, TToaai /cat iTolai ttolols VTrdpxovau,

Set Xa^elv.

yap StaGrdaeis
/cat

liev ef , Gvl,vyiai

he rpels, [xia fiev ro dvoj

rd
/cat

efjLTTpoGOev /cat

ro dpiGrepov

.

ro Kdrco, Sevrepa Se ro oTTLGOev, rplrrj Se ro Se^Lov rrpds Se rovrois on rwv KLvrjGewv
dpxoil
cLgls
/cat

rcJov

Kara
fiev

ronov

eX^ts.

Kad

avrds

ow

avrai, Kara GviJi^e^rjKos Se Kivel-

* i.e. the front rijsrht foot with the left back foot, and the left ^ The Iflstoria Aniynalium. front with the right back. " Leon, renders eodeni . . . modo which seems to imply that he was translating rbf avrbv IxoJ'T'a Tpbirov.

486

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,

i.-ii.

himself bends his legs and his arms in opposite directions, the arms concavely and the knees convexly. And viviparous quadrupeds bend their limbs in the opposite way to a man's and in opposite ways to one another for they bend their front legs convexly and their back legs concavely. Further, quadrupeds which are not viviparous but oviparous have the peculiarity of bending their legs sideways. A further question is why do quadrupeds move their
;

legs diagonally. **

We
causes.
II.

must examine the reasons of
;

all

similar facts

that they are facts

is

clear

these and from our

Natural History,^ and

we have now

to

examine their

We

must begin our inquu-y by assuming the

which we are frequently accustomed to namely, by accepting as true what occurs in accordance with these principles in all the works of nature. One of these principles is that nature never creates anything without a purpose, but always what is best in view of the possibilities allowed by the essence of each kind of animal therefore, if it is better to do a thing in a particular manner, it is also in accordance with
principles

employ

in natural investigation,

*^

;

magnitude

Further, we must accept the dimensions of in the size and quahty in which they are present in various objects. For there are six dimensions grouped in three pairs, the first being the superior and the inferior, the second the front and the back, and the third the right and the left. must further postulate that the origins of movement from place to place are thrusting and pulling. These are movements per se ; that which is carried by
nature.

We

487

ARISTOTLE
705 a KLvelv

rat TO cpepofxevov vtt aAAov ov yap avro ooKei avro dAA* utt* aXXov KLveloOai ro vtto rivog
<f)€p6fJi€VOV.

6

ra rovrcov /xera^aAAet Kara roTTOv, ra fxev adpoco Travrl rep crcu/xart /xera^aAAet, KaOdirep ra aX\6p.€va, ra 8e /caret p,epos^ Kaddrrep ru)v TTopevofxevojv €Kaorov. iv dfjL,(f)or€paLS 8e rals
III.

TovTCOv 8e
Tcov

hicjpi(jp,ivcov Xeyajfiev
l,a)Ojv

i(j)e^rj?.

Sr]

ocra

Ixera^oXals ravrats del fxera^aXXei ro KLVovpLevov

10

15

npos ro VTroKeifievov avrw. idv re V7TO(f)epr)raL rovro ddrrov rj cocrr €^€LV dTTepeLdaadaL ro TTOLOvfievov ctt' avrov rrjv KLvr](jLU, edv 6* oXa)S ixrjSepLiav exjj rots KivovfidvoLs dvrepeioiv , ovdev ctt' avrov hvvarai Kiveiv eavro. /cat yap ro aXXofievov /cat Trpo? avro^ dnepecSopLevov ro dvoj /cat Trpos" to vtto rovs vroSas" TTOieZrai rrjv dXoLV e)(€L ydp riva dvrepeLcriv vpos dX\r]\a TO, jLtopta iv rals KapLTrals, /cat oAoj? ro iTiet^ov TTpos ro TTue^o/JLevov. 8to /cat ot TrivradXoi dXXovrai TrXeXov €.)(ovres rovs dXrrjpas t) fJirj exovres, /cat ot diovres Odrrov diovoi rrapaaeLovreg rds ;\;etpa9*
d7Toarripit,6pi€vov

BiOTTep

y Lver ai ydp
'-'0

ris dTripeiois ev rfj Staracret Trpos

ras

Xelpas /cat rovs Kapnovs. del Se ro KLvovfievov hvalv iXaxicrroLS XP^P'^^^^ opyavLKoZs jxepecrL
TTOielrai rrjv fiera^oXijv, rep p,ev (hoirepavel OXi^ovrLy

ra> he dXi^ofxevu).
^

ro Z
:

puev
n.ipei

ydp
S
:

fjuevov

dXi^erai hid

Kara
a

ixipo$

rot j fioplois cet.

avTb

PUY:

avrb S: iavrb Z.

"

in the air to

Special weights {aXrTjpes) or sometimes stones were held hands and thrown backwards by jumpers while in the

add

to their impetus

;

cf.

Norman

Gardiner, Greek

488

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,
is

ii.-iii.

something else is only moved accidentally, for what carried by something else is regarded not as moving itself but as being moved by something else. III. These points having been decided, let us proceed to the considerations which follow from them. Of the animals, then, which change their local position, some do so with their whole body at the same time, for instance those which jump others move part by part, for example those that walk. In both these changes the animal that moves makes its change of position by pressing against that which and so, if the latter slips away too is beneath it quickly to allow that which is setting itself in motion upon it to press against it, or if it offers no resistance at all to that which is moving, the animal cannot move itself at all upon it. For that which jumps performs that movement by pressing both on its own upper part and on that which is beneath its feet for the parts in a way lean upon one another at their joints, and, in general, that which presses leans on that which is pressed. Hence athletes jump farther if they have the weights in their hands than if they have not," and runners run faster if they swing their arms ^ for in the extension of the arms there is a kind of leaning upon the hands and wrists. Now that which moves always makes its change of place by the employment of at least two organic parts, one as it were compressing and the other being compressed. For the part which remains still is compressed by
; ;

;

;

Athletic Sports and Festivals, pp. 298 if., who proves byexperiment the truth of the statement made in the present passage. On the importance attached by the Greeks to armaction in running, especially in short races, cf. N. Gardiner, op. cit. p. 282.
''

489

ARISTOTLE
705 a
,

TO TO
25

,

<f>€p€Lv,

TO

8'

alpofxevov reLverau rep
e;\;et

(jyipovri

<j)opTLOv.

hioirep a/xepe? ovhkv ovtcjo KLvrjOrjvai
rrjv

SvvaTOV ov yap
TTOLrjaovTog iv

tov

TTeicropievov

koI tov

avrw^

SidXTjipLV.

IV. 'ETret

8'

eldlv

at

hiaordueis tov dpidpiov

€^, at? 6pii,€a6ai TT€(f)VK€ TOL ^a>a/ to re aVco /cat KOLTOJ Kal TO ejjLTTpoadev /cat OTTLodev, ert 8€ 86^101^
/cat dpiGTepov, to pikv avco /cat /caro; fiopLov iravT ex^i TOL t^oyvTa. ov jjlovov yap iv tols 1,(x)ols €OtI TO dvoj /cat Kara), dAAa /cat eV rots' (f)VTOLs. 8t80 elXrjTTTaL
Ti7t'

705

b

6

ou Oecrei piovov ttj Trpos re odev /xev yap 1^ tt]? Tpo(f)7Js SidSoGLs /cat 7^ av^TjGis iKaoTois, dvoj tovt cgtIv' TTpos o 8* eaxoLTOV avTTj Trepalvei, tovto Kdrco. TO pi€V yap dpx'ij Tts", to 8e Tripas' dpx^ 8e ro avco. KaiTOi S6^€L€V dv TOL? (j)VTol? OLKeloV elvai TO Kdroj pidXXov ovx dpLOLOis yap ex^i Tjj decret to avco /cat Kdrco TOVTOLs Kal Tot? t,a)OLS. ^X^'' ^^ Trpos p.ev TO dXov ovx op-OLCos, Kara 8e to epyov opLolcos. at yap pt^at etat to avco toIs ^vtoZs' eKeWev yap Tj Tpo(f>r) 8ta8tSoTat Tots <j)Vopiivois, /cat Xapi^dveu ravTais avTriv, Kaddnep Ta t,a)a T0X9 GTopaavv.
/cat

8' epyco,

yTyv /cat

TOV ovpavov.

''Oo'a 8e

p,r]

pLovov

l,fj

dXXd

/cat

t^cod

ecTt, TOt?

TOtouTOts" VTrdpx^i' TO T€ epLTTpoodev Kal TO oTTLodev.
10

aiddrjCTLV

yap
rj

e;\;et

TauTa TrdvTa,

6pil,eTai 8e /caTO.

ravTTjv TO
p,ev
1

yap
avT(^

Kal to oTnoOev icj)* o a'tudrjais 7Te<^VKe Kal dOev IgtIv eKdoTOiSt
T€ epLTTpooOev
:

Jaeger

avrt^ libri.

^

^<^a

Y

:

^Cbvra ceteri,

• Cf,

above, 704 b 19
*

ff.

^

Cf.

De

caelo,

294 b

17.

More

literally

' Cf.

De

vit. long, et

"personal." brev. 467 b 2 ; Phys. 199 a 28.

490

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,

iii.-iv.

having to carry the weight, and the part which is raised is extended by that wliich carries the weight. And so nothing that is without parts can move in
this

distinction
is

manner for it does not contain in itself the between what is to be passive and what
;

dimensions by which animals are naturally bounded are six in number, namely, superior and inferior, front and back, and also right and left." Now all living things have a superior and an inferior part ; for the superior and the inferior is found not only in the animals but also in plants.^ The distinction is one of function and not merely of position in relation to the earth and heavens. For the part from which is derived the distribution of nutriment and the growth in any particular thing is the superior the part to which the growth extends
;

to be active. IV. Now the

which it finally ends is the inferior. The one is a kind of origin, the other a termination and it is the superior which is an origin. It might, however,

and

in

;

seem that
part
;

in plants the inferior

is

the more essential

®

for the superior

and the

inferior are not in the

same position in them as in the animals. Though in relation to the universe they have not the same position, they are similarly situated as regards function.
For in plants the roots are the superior part ^ for it from them that the nutriment is distributed to the parts that grow, and it is from their roots that plants receive it, as do animals from their mouths. Things which not only live but are also animals have both a front and a back. For all animals have senseperception, and it is on account of sense-perception that the front and the back are distinguished for the parts in which the sense-perception is implanted
;

is

;

491

ARISTOTLE
efjLTTpoGuev

ravT

eon, ra o
/jltj

avriKeifxeva tovtols

OTTLddeV.

"Ocra 8e
16

rcJov ^djcor

jjiovov alaS-qGecos KOivcovel,

dAAa Svvarai rroieiGOai ttjv Kara tottov fiera^oX-qv avra St* avTwv, iv tovtols St)^ hicopiGTai
TTpos Tots" Ae;^^etcrt to t' dptGrepov /cat to Se^LoVy
ofJLOLCOs

rot? TTporepov elprjyilvois €pya)

nvl

/cat

ov

6eG€L SLCjupLGfievov eKOLTepov aijTajv' odev jxev yap €GTL rod Gcofxaros rj rrjs /caret tottov jJueTa^oXi^s OLPXV
20 (j)VG€Ly

TOVTO fxev Se^Lov iKaGTO), TO 8' avTiKeipievov TOVTiO 7T€(f)VK6s OLKoXovdelv dpLGT€p6v. TOVTO oGa fieu Se hnqpOpajTai fxaXXov eTepois eTepcov. yap opyaviKols /xepeat ;)(paj/xep'a [Xeycx) 8* olov ttogIv rj TTTepv^iv rj tlvi aAAoj toiovtco) ttjv elpr]/cat

[xevTjV
25

fji€Ta^oXr]V

Trotetrat,

Trepl

jxev

tol

TOiavTa

ixdXXov hiiqpdpojTaL to Xe-)(div' ocra 8e pirj tolovtois jjLopLOLg, avTcp 8e to) GcoixaTL ScaX-qifjeis noLovfieva TTpoepx^Tai, KaOdrrep evia tojv dTroSojv, otov ot T€ 6(j)€ts Kal TO TOJV KajjLTTCov ylvos y /Cat rrpos tovtols d KaXovGi yrjg eVrepa, vrrapx^^ p-^^ f<al iv tovtols

TO XexOeVy ov pL7]v Stao-ecra^i^rat y' opioicos. "Ort 8' e/c Ta)V Se^Lcov r) dpx^j ttjs klvt^gccvs eGTL, GTjpLelov /cat TO (j)€peLV Ta (jiopTLa rrdvTas eVt Tots" dpLGTepoLS' ovTCxJs ydp evSex^TaL KLveZodaL to (fyepov, XeXvpuevov tov klv/jgovtos- (8to /cat do'/ccoAta^ouo't paov iiTL TOt? dpiGTepols' KLvelv ydp 7T€.(j)VKe to 706a Se^toVj KLveLGOaL he to dpLGTepov.) a)GT€ /cat to <f)OpTLOV OVK eVt TO) KLV^GOVTL ClAA' cVt TO) KLVrjGO"
80
^
8t]

Jaeger

:

5^ libri.

"

*

Viz. superior and inferior. i.e. from place to place.

492

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,

iv.

and whence every kind of creature derives it are at the front, and the opposite parts to these are at the
back.

Those animals which not only partake of senseperception but can also of themselves make the change from place to place, in addition to the distinctions already mentioned," have a further distinction of left and right, these being each, like the above, For the distinctions of function and not of position. part of the body where the origin of change from place to place naturally arises is the right in each kind of animal, while the part which is opposed to this and naturally follows its lead is the left. There is a greater differentiation between right and left in some animals than in others. All animals which make the above-mentioned change ^ by the use of instrumental parts for example, feet or wings or the like show a greater differentiation between right and left in such parts ; those, on the other hand, that progress not by means of such parts but by moving the body itself in sections like some of the footless animals, such as snakes and the caterpillars,

and

also

earthworms
it is

—possess,
;

it is

true, this differ-

not nearly so clearly defined. That the origin of movement is from the right side is shown by the fact that men always carry burdens on the left shoulder for then it is possible for that which bears the weight to be set in motion, that which is to initiate the movement being free. (For for this reason, too, it is easier to hop on the left leg it is natural to the right leg to initiate movement, and to the left to be set in motion.) The burden, therefore, must rest not on the part which is to initiate movement, but on that which is to be set in
;

entiation, but

4.93

ARISTOTLE
fievo) dec

eTriKeiouaf ear o

ern rco klvovvti

/cat rr]

6

dpxfj TTJs KLvy]G€iDS imTeOfj, i^roi oXojs ov Kivqaerai r) ary/xetov 8' on arro rcov Se^Lcbv -x^aXeTTCoTepov.
Tj

apx^]

Trjs

Kiv-qoecxis

Kal

at

Trpo^oXar Trdvres

yap rd dpLcrrepd Trpo^dXXovrai, Kal ecrr cures' Trpo^e^XijKaai'' rd dpiarepd fiaXXov, dv fXTj dno rvx^S ov ydp rep Trpo^ep-qKon Kivovvrai, dXXd crvfji^f].
10

dTTo^e^rjKOTL/cat dpLvvovrat rols Seftotj. Sta ravTTjv 8e rrjv alriav Kal rd Se^ta raura ecrrt
rep TTdvTCOv.

66 €v pikv ydp r) apx^) rrj? Ktvijcrecos, rd avTO rrdoi Kal iv rep avroj ttjv QeoLV ex^t, /cara cf)vo-LV Se^LOV S' eorlv dOev r) dpx'r] ttjs KLV^oecos ianv, Kal Sid TOVTO rd OTpopL^coSTj Tix)V oGrpaKoSepficov

15

20

25

Se^id iravT* iariv. ov ydp inl rrjv iXiKiqv /ctvetrat, dXX iirl TO KaravTLKpv ndvra Trpoepx^Tat, otov KLVOVp,€VCJ0V OVV TTaVTCOV 7TOp(f)Vpai Kal KTjpVKeS. diTO rajv Se^Lcov, KaKeivojv inl ravrd KLvovpievojv iavTols, dvdyKrj iravra Sefta eti^at opLolcos. dnoAeAu/xeVa S' exovcrt rd dpiarepd rcov t^cpcov p.dAtcrra dvdpcxjTTOi Sta rd /cara (pvacv ex^^v /xaAtcrra ra)v t,a)OJV' (f)vaeL Se ^eXriov re rd he^idv rod dpiorepov Kal Kex(^p^crp.evov. 8to /cat rd Se^td iv rois dvdpcoTTOi? /xaAtcrra 8e^ia icrnv. Stcupta/xevojv Se rcov Se^ttDv evXoycos rd dpiarepd aKivrjrorepd eari, Kal aTToXeXvjjieva pidXiara iv rovrois. Kal at aAAat 8' dpxol pidXiara /cara (f)vaiv Stcopia^ievai iv ro) dvdpajTTCp VTrdpxovai, ro t' dvo) Kal rd ejjLTTpoadev.
^

TTpo^e^X-qKacri.

PSU

:

Trpo^e^rjKacn

YZ.

"

i.e.

in the sense that

man

is

right-handed.

494

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,
;

iv.

motion and if it be placed on that which causes and is the origin of movement, it will either not be

moved
in

at

all

which we step out
is

movement
left foot

The manner or with greater difficulty. also shows that the origin of for all men put the in the right side
;

standing, preferably place the left foot in front, unless they do otherwise For they are moved, not by the foot accidentally. which they put in front, but by that with which they step off; also they defend themselves with their Therefore the right is the same in all ; right limb>. for that from which the oria;in of movement is derived is the same in all and has its position by nature in the same place, and it is from the right that the origin of movement is derived. For this reason, too, the stromboid testaceans all have their shells on the right for they all move not in the direction of the spiral but in the opposite direction, the purple-fish, Since, then, for example, and the trumpet-shell. movement in all animals starts from the right, and the right moves in the same direction as the animal

foremost, and,

when

;

they must all alike be right-sided." Now man more than any other animal has his left limbs deitself,

tached, because of all animals he is most in accordance with nature, and the right is naturally better than the left and separated from it. Therefore the And since the right right is most right-sided in man. is differentiated, it is only reasonable that the left is

motion and most detached in man. Moreover the other principles,^ the superior and the front, are in man most in accord with nature and most
less easily set in

differentiated.
*

The

dpxai here are the dLaardaeis of 701 b 19, 705 a 26,
position.

from the point of view of function rather than

495

ARISTOTLE
706 a

V. OtS"
(hpiaraiy

/xei^

ovv TO

di'oj

Kal ro efjLTTpoadev 8t-

Kaddnep rots

dvdpojTTOis Kal roXg opvLcn,

ravra
80
.

jxev SliToSa

[rcov he rerrdpajv

rd Svo

orjfxeia

TOLS fi€V TTTepvyes ToZs 8e X^^P^^ '^^^ ^paxioves elcriv) oaa 8' eVt ro avro ro TrpoaOev e;!^et Kal

706 b

6

10

ro dvoj, rerpdrroha Kal TToXviroha Kal diroSa. KaXd) yap TToha jxepos inl Gruxeico Tre^co KivqrLKcp Kara roirov Kal yap ro 6Vo/xa eoiKauiv elXrj(f)€vai, eVta S' eVt ro avro aTTO rod irdSov ol noSes. ex^L TO rrpoadiov Kal ro ottlgOlov, olov rd re /xaAciKrta Kal rd arpoi^L^wSr] rtov oarpaKoBepfiajv etp-qrai 8e Trepl avrdyv nporepov iv erepous. TpLwv 8* ovrcov roTTOJV, rod dvoj Kal jxeaov Kal Kdrco, rd jxev 8t7rc8a ro dvoj irpos ro rod oXov dvco ^x^i', Td Se rroXviroha tj dnoSa rrpos ro fxeoov, rd he (f)vrd npos ro Kdroj. a'inov 8' on rd fiev aKivqra, Tipos rrjv rpo(f>r)v Se ro dvoj, to. Se rerpdrroha enl Tj Se rpo(f)rj eK rrjg y^?. ro [Meaov, Kal rd TToXviroha Kal djToha, hid ro pLTj opOd elvai. rd he hiTToha Trpo? ro dvo) hid ro opSd elvai, fidXiora 8' o dv9pa>7TOS' /xaAtcrra ydp Kard ^volv earl hiTTOV?. evXoycos he Kal at dpxdi eloiv aTTO rovrwv rcov jxopicjjv rj jxev ydp dpx'^ TLiJLLOV, ro 8' dvo) rod Kara) Kal ro npoadev rod omoOev Kal ro he^iov rod dpiGrepod rijJLicorepov. KaXojs 8' ex€L Kal ro avdnaXiv Xeyeiv Trepl avrojv,
<» The whole of man is " front," and his " front " is divided into superior and inferior ; in a quadruped only that part is " front " which is superior in man.

H.A. 523 b 21 ff. ff. *Apxv has here the double meaning of "starting-point" and "centre of authority"; see note on De mot, anim,
"
"

P.J. 681b

U

;

698b 496

1.

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,
differentiated,

v.

V. Animals in which the superior and the front are man, for example, and the birds, are bipeds (two of the four points being wings in birds, and hands and arms in man). But the animals in which the superior and the front are in the same position " are four-footed (quadrupeds), many-footed (polypods), and footless. By " foot " I mean the part that is at a point which has connexion with the ground and gives movement from place to place for the feet (TToSes) seem to have derived their name from the ground (-eSov). Some animals have their front and their back in the same position, for example the molluscs and the stromboid testaceans ; with these we have already dealt elsewhere.^ Now since there are three regions, the superior, the middle, and the inferior, bipeds have their superior part in a position corresponding to the superior region of the universe, polypods and footless animals in a position corresponding to the middle region, and plants in a position corresponding to the inferior region. The reason is that plants lack movement, and the superior part is situated with a view to nutriment, and their nutriment comes from Quadrupeds, polypods, and footless the earth. animals have their superior part in a position corresponding to the middle region because they are not bipeds have it in a position corresponding to erect the superior region because they are erect, especially man, the biped most in accordance with nature. And should come it is only reasonable that the origins for the origin is honourable, and from these parts the superior is more honourable than the inferior, and the front than the back, and the right than the left. It is also true if we reverse the proposition and assert
; ;
<'

;

497

ARISTOTLE
15

COS

Ota

TO

rag
fxev

apxa?

ev

rovrois

etvat

Tavra

TLfJLLCOTepa TOJV aVTlK€Lyi€VCOV flOplcOV eGTLV.

VI.
icTTLv

"On
apx'rjy

(jiavepov

ovu eK rcjv he^icov rj rrj? KLvqaecLs eK rwv elpr^pidvajv. eVet 8*

20

avdyKT] TTavTOS avvexovs, ov to [xev KivelTai TO 8' r]p€fji€Lj oXov hvvapiivov KiveZoOai iaTCOTOs daTepov, fj dpicfja) KiveiTai ivavTias Kiv^creigy etval
TL

Koivov Kad^ o KavTavO^ VTrdpx^LV
KLvriG€cx)s

Gvvex'Tj
ti]v

raur'
Se
/cat

eVrtv

aWrjXoiSy
ardaeajg),

apx^v

rrjs

eKarepov tcov
Trjg

ixepchv

{ofjLOLOjg

SrjXov QTiy^ KaO"
tSta
25

OGas tcov XexOeiacov dvTiOeaecov
tcjv
dvTiKeipievcov
dpx'rjv
e;^et

KLv-qGLS

VTTapx^i

jxepajv

eKaTepo), rrdvTa Tavra

kolvtjv

Kara?

TTjv rcjjv elprjjjLevcjov jxepcov uvix^vgiv, Xdyco 8e rajv

T€ Se^Lcbv Kal dpiarepojv
/cat

/cat

rcov dvoj /cat /carco

30

707 a

Kara jxkv ovv to OTTiuOev StdXrjifjLS ovk ean TOiavrrj rrepl to kivovv eavro, Sta to purjOevl (f>VGiKrjv VTrdpx^LV Kiviqoiv elg to OTTLcrdev, jLti^Se hiopiGpLOV e;^€tv to Kivovjievov Ka9* ov rrjv i(f>^ eKdrepa rovrcov fjiera^oXrjv TTOielraL' Kara he ro Se^LOV ye /cat dpiorrepov /cat to dvo) /cat ro Kdro) ecTTLV. 8to TOJV t^cpcxjv oua jiepeaiv dpyaviKols XP^P-^^^ Trpoepx^raiy rfj fiev rod efnrpocrOev /cat OTTiadev Sta(f)opa ovk e;\;et SiajpLGfieva ravra, ralg
TOJV epLTTpoodev /cat rcbv
/cat

omadev.

to efXTTpoaOev

8e AotTTat?, dpLcfjorepais

p-^v,

Tjporepa 8e

rfj

Kara

TO Se^Lov Kal dpiGrepov
* drjXov 6ti

SLopL(l,ovarj,
:

8ta to ttjv
drfKovbri libri.

(Leon, manifestum est quod, etc.) 2 Kara P Leon. : cm. ceteri.

" i.e.

the three pairs of " dimensions " (704 b 19).

498

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,

v.-vi.

that, because the origins are situated in these parts,

they are therefore more honourable than the opposite
parts.

VI. It is clear, then, from what has been said that the origin of movement is on the right. Now in anything continuous of which part is in motion and part at rest (the whole being able to move while one part stands still), there must be, at the point where both parts move in opposite movements, something common to both which makes these parts continuous with one another (and at this point must be situated the origin of the movement of each of these parts, and likewise also of their immobility) it is evident, therefore, that in respect of whichever of the abovementioned contraries" the individual movement of each of the opposite parts takes place, there is in all these cases a common origin of movement by reason of the interconnexion of the said parts, namely, of the right and the left, the superior and the inferior, the front and the back. The differentiation according to front and back is not one which applies to that which moves itself, because nothing possesses a natural movement backwards nor has the moving animal any distinction in accordance with which it can make a change from place to place in each of these two directions ^ but there is a differentiation All animals, of right and left, superior and inferior. therefore, which progress by the employment of instrumental parts have these parts differentiated, not by the distinction between front and back, but by the other two pairs, first, by the distinction of right and left (for this must immediately exist where there are
: ;

^

parts,

In other words an animal cannot divide itself into two one of which goes forwards and the other backwards.

499

ARISTOTLE
/xev
5

€v TOLs ovoLu €V0€aj£ avayKaiov elvai vttdpx^iVy rrjv S' iv rots TerrapciL Trpojrois. 'E77-et OVV TO T€ CLVOJ Kal /CCtTCO Kal TO he^Lov Kal

dpLGTepov

avrd
8' TTjv
10

rfj avrfj dpxfj Kal KOLvfj (jvv^prrjrai TTpos [Xiyoj Se ravriqv rr]v rrjs KLvrjaeajs Kvptav), Set

iv aTTavTi ro) piiWovTi
d(j)^

Kara rpoirov

TTOLelcrOaL

xdoLL

rerddTTOGrdaeoL rals irpos rds p-qOetoas dpxds, rds re avrioroixovs Kal rag (TUGtolxovs Tcov iv rot? fiepeGL tovtols, to tcov Ae;^^etcrajv
KiviqGiv ojpta^at ttojs Kal

eKdarov

rals

15

8' iorlv dcji" rjs TC TOV Se^iOV Kal dpXT]? KOLV7J9 dpLGT€pov KLvrjcrlg ioriv, opioiiDS 8e Kal r) rod dvoj Kal Kdrcx)), ravT-qv 8'^ ^X^'-^ eKdoro) fj irapaTrXiqGLOJS €X^l'^ TTpos €KduTr]V TCOV iv Tols pTjOeiGL jji€p€GiV dpxcJf^v, VII. SrjXov OVV (hg 7] piovois ri pLdXicrra

KLv-qaecov

diracrajv

atriov

(avrr]
Tj

TWV

€V TOJ ^COCU

20

25

TOVTOLs VTrdpx^f' Tchv t,a)cov T] Kara tottov KLvrjons, d hvulv t) rerrapGi rroielrai Grjfielois ttjv Kara OJGT eTTel Gx^Sov TOLS ivaip^oLs TOTTOV pb€TafioXriv TOVTO pidXiGTa GV/ji^e^-qKe , (jyavepov otl TrXeioGi T€ GrjjJLeiOLS T€TTdpa)V OvdeV OLOV T€ KLV€LGdaL TCOV ivalfiajv t,a)cov, Kal et tl TeTTapGi Gr]iJL€iOLS KLvelGdai Tii^vKe jjLovov, dvayKalov tovt elvai evaip,ov. 'OpLoXoyel 8e toIs Aex^etcrt /cat to. Gvp^^alvovTa tcov jikv yap ivaipLcuv ovhev els rrepl Ta ^wa. TrXeio) hiaipovfJLevov hvvaTai i,rjv ovOeva ;)(/3ovov
.

1

5'

PUZ

:

om. SY.

a

^^ft

z

:

om.

cet.

the distinction of superior and inferior. in the heart (Mich.). * The lef^s move in pairs, either the front and back legs on the same side together, or the front leg on one side with the back leg on the other (c/. 704 b 7).

i.e.

^

Namely, the soul situated

500

°

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,

vi.-vii.

two things), and, secondly, by the distinction which must arise as soon as there are four things. Since, then, the superior and the inferior, and the right and the left are connected with one another by the same common origin (and by this I mean that which controls their movement ^), and since in anything which is to carry out the movement of each
part properly the cause of all the said movements must be somehow defined and arranged at the right distance in relation to the said origins, namely,* those in the limbs, which are in pairs opposite or diagonal to one another,*' (and the cause of their movement is the common origin from which the movement of left and right and likewise of superior and inferior in the animal's limbs is derived), and since this origin must in each animal be at a point where it is in more or less the same relation to each of the origins in the said parts,*^ O'^-''^-'--) it is, therefore, clear that movement from place to place belongs either solely or chiefly to those animals which make their change of place by means of two or four points. And so, since this condition occurs almost exclusively in red-blooded animals, it is clear that no red-blooded animal can move by means of more than four points, and if an animal is so constituted by nature as to move by means of four points only, it must necessarily be red-blooded. What actually occurs in animals is also in agreement with the above statement. For no red-blooded

animal can
**

live for

any time worth mentioning

if it

be

There are two kinds of dpxai in, e.g., a quadruped, (a) those in each of the four legs and (6) the central dpxv in the heart the former must each be approximately equidistant from the latter.
;

501

ARISTOTLE
707a
,

re Kara rorrov Kivqueois , Kau rjv eKLvelro cruvep^e? oV /cat /xi^ dujpiqjxivov, ov hvvarai KOLVCoveiv rojv 8* dvaLfiajv re Kal ttoXvttoScdv evia
COS"

,

.

_

,

,

€L7T€iV,

rr]g

p

rt

80

Svvarai t,rjv ttoXvv xP^'^^^ eKaarcp Kal KtveZadai rrjv avrr)V TJvnep Kal TTplv SiaipeOrjvai Kcvrjcnv, olov at re KaXovfievat GKoXoTTevhpai Kal d'AAa rwv evrojicov Kal TrpofjirjKOJv' TTOLvrajv yap rovrcov Kal ro oTnadev fiepos inl
Siaipovfieva

rwv

pLepojv,

107

b

ravro rroieZrai rrjV rropeiav rep epLTrpoodev. atriov he rod SLaipovfieva l,rjv on, KaOdirep dv el ri
avvexes eK noXXcnv etrj t,ojojv GvyKeiiJievov, ovrcog <^avep6v he rovro eK eKaarov avrcov ovvecrri^Kev rcov TTporepov elprjpievcov, Stort rovrov ex^c rov
.

5

rpOTTOV.

Aval yap

t)

rerrapui

(j-qp^eiois 7Te(f)VKe

KtveiGdaL

rd

fJidXicrra

crvveariqKora

10

15

Kal oaa rojv evaipiojv rerrapGi GrjjiieLOi?, 8t' wv rrjv klvtjglv hvul ydp ;\;pc(j/xera Trpoepxerat KajxTTOielr ai. TTals' ro ydp he^Lov Kal dpiarepov Kal ro TTpoaBiov Kal ottlgOlov ev ro) TrXdrei eGrlv ev eKarepa rfj avrols, ev p.ev rep rrpos rrjv Ke<f)aXr]v KafjLTrfj ro Trpoodiov Giqp.elov he^iov re Kal dpifjLepei Grepov, ev he rep Trpos rrjv ovpdv rd OTTLGdca Giqp.eZa. hoKeZ he hvoZv G-q/jLeloLV KLveZGOai, rfj r' epLTTpoGOev d(f)fj Kal rfj varepov. acrtov 8' on Grevov Kard TrXdros eGrlv, eirel Kal ev rovroig ro he^Lov rjyeZraL, Kal dvra7Tohiha)GL Kard ro OTTiGdev, rdJv he Kai^ixjjeojv ojGTtep ev roZs rerpdnoGiv. alnov ro (irJKOs- wGrrep ydp ol fxaKpol rwv dvdpcoTTOJv Xophol ^ahi^ovGi, Kal rod he^iov Wfiov
Kivelrai

Kard cfyvGiv, o/xotws" he dnohd ecrnv. Kal ydp ravra

"

Centipedes.

502

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,

vii.

divided into several parts, and can no longer partake of the motion from place to place whereby it moved while it was still continuous and undivided. On the other hand, some of the bloodless animals and polypods can, when they are divided, live in each of these parts for a considerable time and move with the same motion as before they were divided, the socalled scolopendrae,"for example, and other elongated insects for the hinder part of all these continues to progress in the same direction as the fore-part. The reason why they live when they are divided is that each of them consists as it were of a continuous body made up of many animals. And the reason why they are of this kind is clear from what has been said above. Animals which are constituted most in accordance with nature naturally move by means of two or four points, and likewise also those among the red-blooded for they too move at four animals which are footless For they progress points and so effect locomotion. by means of two bends for in each of their bends there is a right and a left, a front and a back in their breadth a front point on the right and another on the left in the part towards the head, and the two hinder points in the part towards the tail. They appear to move at two points only, namely, the points of contact with the ground in front and behind. The reason for this is that they are narrow in breadth ; for in these animals too, as in the quadrupeds, the right leads the way and sets up a corresponding movement behind. The reason of their bendings is their length; for just as tall men walk with their backs hollowed ^ and, while their right shoulder leads the
; ; ;

*

Xopoos

is

the opposite of

kv(I>6s^

hunchbacked (Hippocr.

Fract. 763).

503

ARISTOTLE
707b
20

25

30

TO TTpoaUev riyoviievov to apiOTepov La)(Lov et? TOVTTLodeV fxdXXoV OLTTOKXlveLy /Cttt TO flCGOV KOiXoV yiveTai koI XopSov, ovtoj SeX voetv Kal tovs 6(f)€Ls KLVovfievovs errt ttj yfj AopSou?. o-qfielov 8' otl €v fMcpet yap oiJLOLWS KivovvTai Tols TeTpoLTTOGLv oTav fX€Ta^dXXovai to koIXov Kal to KvpTov. yap TToXiv TO apiOTepov tcjjv rrpooOiajv rjyi^oyjTai, e^ evavTias ttoXlv to koZXov ytVerat- to yap he^iov arj/jLeXov Se^iov Trpoodiov evTOS TToXiv yiveTai. €(/)' ov A, apiGTepov icf)^ ov B, ottloOlov Se^Lov icj)* ov r, apiGTepov i(f)^ ov A. OvTCo 8e KLvovvTai TcJou fi€v ;)(ep(7accov ol o^eis, Tchv S' ivvSpcov at iyx^Xeis Kal ol yoyypoi Kal at fJivpaivaL, Kal tcjv d'AAcuv ooa e;^et Tr]v iJLop(f)rjP
€L5
'

,

,

'

n

(

/

V

'

X

-,

,

»

6(f)LajS€(JT€pav.

ttXtjv
€X^f'

708 a

TOLOVTWV ovSev aAAa XPV'^^^ '^fi

evia fxev tojv ivvSpa>v tcjv TTTepvyiov , olov at pLvpaivai,

6

Go-XaTTTj axjTrep ol o^eLs ttj yfj Kal TTJ daXaTTT) [veovui yap ol oc^eig o/xotcus" Kal OTav KLvcjVTai inl ttjs y^s)' to, 8e 8u' ex^t TTTepvyia pLovov, olov ol t€ yoyypoi Kal at iyXeXeig Kal ylvos tl KeGTpeo)v, 6i yivovTai iv Kal Sta tovto Tals iv Stoats'. XifJivrj TTJ TTJ KapiTTals iXoLTTOOL KiVOVVTai iv Tip VypO) 7) iv TTJ iv Tfj yfj, KadaTrep to tojv yfj TO, t,rjv elojOoTa iyxiXecov yevos. ol 8e Svo TTTcpvy la exovTes tcov K^GTpioJV Tfj KapLvfj OLVLad^OVOLV iv TO) VypO) TO,

rerrapa
10 0,7708 ta?

orjpieZa.

VI 11. rot?
TTjV
(f)VGLV

8'

6cf)€GLV

aiTLov ttjs
/XClTT^l',

TO

T€

piTjOiv

TTOielv

"

On
i.e.

the Boeotian coast of the Corinthian Gulf, the Tipha
ix. 8i>. 3.

of Pans.
''

two of its "points" are made by bends.

fins

and the other two are

501

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,
way

vii.-viii.

forward, their left hip indines towards the rear

and the middle of the body becomes concave and hollow, so we must suppose that snakes too move upon the ground with their backs hollowed. And that they move in the same manner as quadrupeds is shown by the fact that they change the concave into the convex and the convex into the concave. For when the left forward point is again leading the way, the concavity comes in turn on the other Let side, for the right again becomes the inner. the front point on the right be A, and that on the

left

B, and the rear point on the right C, and that on the left D. This is the way that snakes move as land-animals, and eels, conger-eels and lampreys and all the Some other snake-like creatures as water-animals. water-animals, however, of this class, lampreys for example, have no fin and use the sea as snakes for snakes swim in use both the sea and the land just the same manner as when they move on land. Others have two fins only, conger-eels for example, and ordinary eels and a species of mullet which occurs in the lake at Siphae." For this reason too those which are accustomed to live on land, the eels for example, move with fewer bends in the water than on dry land. The kind of mullet which has only two fins makes up the number of four points in the water by its bends. ^ VIII. The reason why snakes are footless is, first, that nature creates nothing without
;

505

ARISTOTLE
708a

aAAa rraura

,>,.

^

,

Trpos ro apiorov aTTopAeTrovGav eKaorcp

,

^

V

'

nw

rcbv ivScxofiei'ojv, hiaaaj^ovuav

iKaarov

rrjv ISiav

15

20

cvuiav Kal ro ri rjv avrco ctvaf en Se kol to irporepov rjpLiv elpripLevov , to tcov ivaipicov pLrfOkv olov r' elvai mXeiooi KiveZuBaL OTjixeioig t] Terrapcrtv. eK TOVTCDV yap (f>av€p6v otl tojv evaipicov ooa Kara to fjirJKOs aavixpLerpd eVrt TTpos ttjv dXXrjv rod a(x)}jiaros (f)V(JLV, Kaddnep ol 6<j)€is, ovOev avrcov OLOV 6^ VTTOTTovv etvai. irXeiovs fikv yap rerrdpcov ovx olov re avrd TroSa? ^x^tv (dvaL[jLa yap dv '^v), exovra §€ Suo TTohas rj rerrapas ox^^ov rjv dv aKLvrjTa TrdpLTrav ovro) ^pahelav dvayKalov etvai Kal dvcix^eXrj rrfv Kiviqcjiv. ^Arrav he ro VTronovv e^ dvdyK7]s dpriovs e;\;ei Tov? TToSas" ocra piev yap dXoet ;YPc6/xeva jjlovov TToielrai ttjv Kara tottov jjiera^oXrjv , ovOev ttoScov
TTpos

y€

rrjV

roiavT'qv

heZrai

KLvrjOLV

doa

he

25

Xpy]Tai piev dXaei, prnj eon 8' avroZs avrdpKrjs avTT] rj KLvrjGis dXXd Kal Trope lag Trpocrheovrai, hij-

Xov d)S roXg piev ^eXrtov roZs S' (dXXojs^ oAcos" dhdvarov^ TTopeveoOai. [Stort irdv t,a)OV dvayKaZov rrjg dpriovs ^X^^^ rovs TroSa?.]* ovarjg yap
roLavr7]£ piera^oXrjs
80

Kara

piepos, oAA'

rravrl rep (JcopLart KaOdrrep rrjs aXoreajg,

ovk ddpocp dvayKaZov

ian

roZs he KLveZodaiy
TToieZv
6771
*

roZs piev pieveiv piera^aXXovrcov rcov TTohwv Kal roZg dvriKeipievoLs rovrcov

eKdrepov, piera^dXXov

0,77-0

rcbv KcvovpLevcuv

rd pLevovra ro ^dpos.
.

hiOTrep ovre rpial ptev
<(!i\Xws>

<(!i\Xws> SXcjs dovparov]
di6Tt
"
.
.

oXws ddouaTou

Farquharson.
del.

TTudas

om. PwSU: tanquam glossema
is

Jaeger.

Mich.'s explanation of this passage pods, which can walk with an uneven

that certain polynumber of legs (c/.

506

PROGRESSION OF ANIiMALS,

viii.

a purpose but always with a view to what is best for each thing within the bounds of possibiHty, preservand, ing the particular essence and purpose of each secondly, as we have already said, because no redblooded animal can move by means of more than four points. It is clear from this that all red-blooded animals whose length is out of proportion to the rest of their bodily constitution, like the snakes, can none of them have feet for they cannot have more than four feet (for if they had, they would be bloodless), whereas, if they had two or four feet, they would be practically incapable of any movement at all, so slow
; ;

and useless would their movement necessarily be. Every animal which has feet must necessarily have an even number of feet for those which move from place to place by jumping only do not require feet (at least not for this movement), while those which jump but do not find this mode of locomotion sufficient by itself and need to walk also, must clearly either progress better with an even number of legs For since or else cannot otherwise progress at all.^ this kind of change from place to place is carried out by a part and not, like jumping, with the whole of the body at once, some of the feet during the change of position must remain at rest while others are in motion, and the animal must rest and move ^^'ith opposite legs, transferring the weight from the legs in motion to those at rest. Hence no animal can
;

708b 5 ff.), would walk better with an even number; quadrupeds and bipeds, on the other hand, cannot walk at all with an uneven number of legs. Farquharson's insertion of dXXws seems therefore a certain emendation the omission of ctWws, however, in our mss. would be better accounted for if it is inserted before 6'Xws rather than before iropeveadai.
:

R

507

ARISTOTLE
708 h

ovOev oud^ eVt^ xpcofieuov ^ahit^eiv olov re* to fxev yap ovOev oXcos VTToarrjpia e;^et e^* a> ro rod awfxarog e^et ^dpos, ro Se Kara tyjv irlpav avrlOeaiv fxovrjv, cxidr dvayKolov avro ovrojs
eTTLX^ipovv

KLveioOai niTTreiv.

oaa 8e

ttoAuttoSci

6

eoTLv, OLOV at cr/<:oAo77ei'Spat, tovtols Svvarov fxev Kai arro TTepcrrajv ttoScqv TTopelav yivecrdai, Kaddirep
(f)aLV€TaL
TT'qpCOOrj

TTOLovfieva
T(JL)V

Kal

vvv,

dv

ns
TCJJV

avrajv

eva

TTohcbv, hid

TO

TTyP'

dvTlOToi')(WV

TToScuv
i(j)^

e/carepa

KoXo^axJLV Idodai rat Xoltto) ttXtJOcl tojv ttoScov ytVerat yap rovroi? olov

10 e(f>eX^Ls

rod

TreTT-qpojiJievov

piopLov

rolg

dXXoLs,

15

20

25

ov ^dhiGLs. OX) pLTjv dXXd (f^avepov otl ^IXtlov dv Kal ravra ttololto ttjv pLera^oXrjV dprtov? exovra rovs TToSag, /cat pLrjdevos iXXeiTTovTOS} aAA' avTiGToixovs e^ovra rovs nohas' ovtoj yap (dv^^ avrcJov dvLord^etv re SvvaLTO^ ro ^dpo? Kal pLTj raXavreveiv iirl Odrepa pidXXoVy el dvriorotxo. epeicr/xar' €';^ot Kal pirj Kevrjv rrjv irepav x^P^^ rojv* dvTLK€Lp,€va)v. 7Tpo^aLV€L 8* d^' eKarepov TOJV piepcbv ivaXXd^ ro TTopevopbevov ovrco yap ets" ravro rep i^ oiPXV^ o)(ripiarL y ever at rj KardGraois. "On puev ovv dprcovs e^et rovs vroSa? Trdvra, Kal Std TtV air lav, e'lprjrai' IX. ort 8' el pLr]6ev 'qv rjpepLOVV, ovk dv rjv Kdpujjis oi3S' evOuvcns, eK rcbvSe SijXov. eon ydp Kdpufji? ptev rj e^ evdeos t] els TTeptcfjepe? t) els ycovlav piera^oXrj, evdwcrts 8' Tj eK darepov rovrojv els ev6u. ev aTrdoais 8e rat? elp-qpLevats piera^oXaZs avdyKt] irpos €v oiqpielov
^

dXX

oUre

Tpicrl fi^u

rpicrl fi^v

ovdev ovd' ivl ovdkv ovdevl libri.

Jaeger: ovo^ (ovd^ om. PYZ) ^ hv add. Jaeger.

508

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,
;

viii.-ix.

walk using either three legs or one leg for if it uses one leg it has absolutely no support on which it is to rest the weight of the body, and if it uses three it will rest it on a pair of opposite legs, so that, if it attempts Polypods, however, to move thus, it necessarily falls. for instance the scolopendrae, can achieve progression with an odd number of legs, as they can be immediately seen to do if you mutilate one of their feet, because the maiming of some of the feet in the opposing rows is compensated by the greater number of feet still remaining on either side the result is that the maimed leg is as it were dragged along by the others, and the animal does not walk properly. How^ever, it is clear that these maimed animals would achieve the change of position better if they had an even number of feet, that is, if none were lacking and they had all the feet in the corresponding rows for then they would be able to distribute their weight evenly and would not sway to one side, if they had corresponding supports on each side and had not one space in the opposite rows devoid of a leg. An animal, then, when it walks progresses by means of each of
; ;

limbs alternately for thus its state is restored so be identical with its original form. It has now been established that all animals have an even number of feet, and the reason for this has been stated. IX. That, if nothing were at rest, there could be no bending or straightening is clear from the following considerations. Bending is the change from what is straight to what is curved or angular; straightening is the change of either of these to what is straight. In all the above changes the bending or straightening
its
;

as to

8vuaLTo scripsi
* Tr]v

:

5iVarat
runf

Z

:

dvi/aLUTo ceteri.

ante

add. Z.

509

ARISTOTLE
Kaynjjeajs ye jLti^ ovar}? ovr av iropela ovre vevais TO, [xev yoLp VTTOTToSa eTTeihr] eV ovT€ TTTTJGLg tJv eKarepcp rcbv dvrLK€LfjL€vojv crKeXcbv iv fxepei tararat Kal TO ^dpos Igx^l, dvayKolov daripov npotea re yap 30 ^alvovTOS Oarepov TTOieladaL KaiJLifjLV. 7re(f)VKev e^^iv toj fjnqKei to. dvTLGroL)(a Ka)Xa, Kal opdov Set elvai to v^€Gt6s rep ^dp€L, olov Kdderov orav he rrpo^aivr], yiverai r) 77/30? rr]v yrjv. 709 a vTroreivovGa Kal hwafievr] ro pievov pieyedos Kal i-TTel 8' Lcra rd /ccoAa, dvdyKY] Kdpbipai TTjv pLera^v. TO piivov, t) €V TO) yovari t) iv rfj Kdpupei, olov
.

et
5

TL

ort

dyovarov ovr cog '^X^^'
r)

etrj

rcov ^ahit^ovrcov.

GrjpieZov

8'

^^

7^9

'^^^

^^ yfi^

/SaSi^ot

irapd

TOLXpv, Sid ro

10

eorai ovk evdela dXXd GKoAta, KdpnTrovros yiveoOai rrjv ypa^oix€vr]v, pLel^co 8' lorapievov Kal l^aipovros. 'Ei'8e;^eTat piivroi KLveladaL Kal pLrj exovros /ca/xKal TTrjv rod OKeXovg, coCTTrep rd Traihia eprrovuLV. TTepl rojv iXecfidi'raji' 6 TraAatos" 17^' Aoyo? roiovros, Kiveirai 8e Kal rd roiavra OVK dXr]Orjg div. Kdpupeojg yivopLevrjs iv ralg (hpLOTrXdrais 7) rols lax^oig. aAA' opdov ovhev hvvair* dv TTopevdyjvaL GVV€xd)9 Kal dG(f)aXa)s, Kiviqdeiy] 8' dv olov iv rals TTaXaiorpais ol 8ta rr^? Kovea^s rrpo'Covres irrl ttoXv ydp rd dvco piipog, ojore rcbv yovdrcov.
ypa(f)opL6vrj

iXdrroj

puev

1

ej/

777 libri

:

locus corruptus et lacuna mutilatus,

does not actually do so because it is not long enough and so, as is explained below, the other to reach the ground leg must be bent to enable it to do so. Ai'i'afXLs in mathematics is used of a "power," generally similarly in the second power, i.e. the square of a number geometry duvafiis and bvvaimi are used of the figure which
«»

It

:

*"

:

510

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,

ix.

must necessarily be relative to a single point. Further, if there were no bending, there would be no walking For since animals with feet or swimming or flying. stand and rest their weight alternately on each of their two opposite legs, as one leg advances the other must necessarily be bent. For the corresponding legs on either side are naturally equal in length, and the leg which supports the weight must be straight, But when at right angles, as it were, to the ground.
a leg advances, it is assuming the position of the side subtending a right angle, ° the square upon which equals the squares ^ on the side which is at rest and but since the legs the hne between the two legs are equal, the leg which is at rest must bend either at the knee or, in any kneeless animal that walks, at the joint. That this is so is shown by the fact that if a man were to walk on the ground alongside a wall [with a reed dipped in ink attached to his head],^ the Hne traced [by the reed] would not be straight but zigzag, because it goes lower when he bends and higher when he stands upright and raises himself. It is possible, however, to move even if the leg has no bend in it, as happens when children crawl. (The old account attributed such motion to elephants, but it is untrue.) Movement of this kind takes place through a bending in the shoulders or hips. But no creature could walk erect in this way continuously and safely, but could only move like those who drag themselves forward through the dust in the wrestlingschool on their knees. For the upper portion of the
;

can be formed by constructing squares on the side
triangle.
*

of, e.g.

a

The text here is corrupt and something has fallen out in our Mss. the words here bracketed are supplied from the explanation given by Mich.
all
:

511

.

ARISTOTLE
709 a
16

Set

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elvau.
eirel

el

he rovro,
rrpos

KoifiipLV

dvayKOLOV
16 b et
Tj

yap earrjKe

opO'qv,

aKapLTTTOV eorai ro Ktvovpievov et? to irpoadev^
,

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OoLTepov ecrrat 7Tpo^e^r]K6s, p^ell^ov ecrrat, lgov
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6v

20

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.

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25

80

Ta piev KvpiaivovTa TTpoepxeTau Slttw^ GvpL^aivei' to. p^ev yap eirl TTJg yTJs", Kaddirep ol 6<j>eis, rds KapLirdg TToieZrat, TO. 8' els to avco, u)GTTep at KapLTrat), rj 8e KVpiaVGlS KapLTT-q eGTlV TO, 8' IXvGTTaGeL xp^H-^^OL, KaOdirep Ta KaXovpieva yrjs evTepa Kal ^ScAAat. TavTa yap to) piev rjyoupieva) TrpoepxeTac, to 8e XoLTTOv crdjpia Trdv rrpos tovto Gvvdyovai, Kal tovTOV TOV TpOTTOV els TOTTOV €AC TOTTOV pLeTa^dXXoVGLV (f>avep6v 8' OTt et pirj at Svo ttjs pads pLel^ovs rjGav,
To,

8'

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{tovto

8e

^

el

dKa/xTTTOu
:

Bekker

e^

iarai t6 Kivov/xefov et irpbadev om. Z.
<•

els

t6 irpbcrdev

om.

PSU

Let

AB

be the stationary leg and

AC

the advanced \tg^

which

are

by

hypothesis of equal length.

If the rightits

angled triangle

ABD

is

constructed

hypotenuse

AD

must be longer than

AC.

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS,
body is
large,
if this is so,

ix.

and For since a standing position is perpendicular, the leg which is moved forward, if it is to be unbent, will either fall as the ritcht ano-le becomes less, or else it will not adand therefore the leg must be long
;

there must necessarily be a bending.

vance at
at the

all

;

for

if,

while one leg

is

at right angles, the

other is advanced, the advanced leg will be greater and

same time equal for it will be equal to the leg is at rest and also to the side subtending the The advancinfj leff must therefore be riffht ang-le.^ bent, and the animal, as it bends it, must at the same time stretch the other leg and lean forward and make a stride and remain in the perpendicular for the legs form an isosceles triangle and the head becomes
;

which

;

lower

when

it

is

perpendicular to the base of the

triangle.^

Of animals which are footless, some advance with an undulating motion this can be of two kinds, for some animals, for example snakes, make their bends on the ground, while others, for instance caterpillars, make them upwards and undulation is bending. Others move by crawling, like the earthworms and leeches ; for these advance ^\^th one part leading the way, and then draw up all the rest of their body to it, and in this manner make the change from place to place. It is plain that, if the two lines which they

^ the stride has been completed the result is an isosceles triangle formed by the two legs and the ground ; the head, which is necessarily lower than when the legs were

When

together,

is

perpendicularly above the base.

513

;

ARISTOTLE
709 b oi)K

av

iSvvavro
iKradeiorj?

KiveLodai

ra

Kvyiaivovra
KafiTrrj?,
el

tojv
L<jr]v

L,a)Cx)v.

yap

rij^

KareXx^v, ovdev av Trpoj^eo-av vvv 8' virep^aXXei iKTaOelaay Kal rjpefjLTJGavros tovtov CTrayet to
XoLTTOV.

6 fjuevov

'Ev TTaoais he rat? XexOeicrais pLera^oXalsro klvovore jxev eKTewojjLevov els evdv TTpoepx^rai, ore 8e avyKajJLTrrofievov, rot? jjiev 'qyovpievois [xepecrw evdv yivofievoVy roZs 8* erropLevoLS orvy

10

ra aWopieva Trdvra rod crwpiaros, Kal rovrov rov rporrov e^ovra aXXerai. Kal ra TTeropLeva 8e Kal ra veovra, ra pikv ras Trrepvyas evOvvovra Kal KapLTrrovra Trerarat, ra Se rot? TTrepvyiois, Kal rovrcov ra piev rerrapat ra he
KapLTTrov.
Kapufjiv

TTOielraL

8e

/cat

ev raj

vrroKeipieva)

pLepei

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rcov eyx^Xeojv yevos' rrjv 8e Xoltttjv Kivqoiv avrl
rcjv hvo TTrepvyicov ra> Xoittw rod Gojpiaros KapLTrropieva vet, KadaTrep eipr^rai nporepov.
15

ol he rrXareZs

TcDv IxOvcov
TTapiTTav

rfj puev ro)

TrXdrei xpoJ^TOLi rod crco/xaro?

he Trrepvyiois hvuiv. ra he KadaTrep 6 ^dros, avroZs rots Trrepvyiois Kal rats euxdrais rod acopiaros irepi(f)epeLaLs evOvvovra Kal Kdpiirrovra TTOieZrai rrjv

avrl