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Edilia a doua revizuitd

Consultant: Jim Moore, Liverpool Hope University College, UK Project Manager: Ruxandra Popovici, British Council, Romania The authors would like to thank: . Jim Moore, Liverpool University UK, for invaluable support and professional guidance throughout the Project . ilt tne teachers and students who piloted their materials and sent very useful comments and suggestions

Coperta:Torok Emese
Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Nalionale a Rom6niei Geoprofiles / Rodica Maria Rogoz, I1dik6 Krisztina Dobolyi, Florina P[unescu, Doina Miloq - E d. a 2-a SfdntuGheorghe; Charta,2005 rsBN 973-8326-17-6

I. Rogoz, Rodica Maria IL Dobolyi Ildik6 Krisztina

III. P5unescu, Florina

IV. Milog, Doina et3(420)(07 s.3s) 9 1 3(73(075.35)

The following diagrams, graphs, maps and photographs are reproduced or adapted from the sources mentioned below:
Fig.1.2, 1.3-FocusonBritainToday,ClareLavery,Macmillan,

1993, f19.1.6, 11.4-ExploringSeasideTowns,




WaylandPubllshers,Ltd.lggT; fig.3.'1-AGeographyofBritain,byA.R.TolsonandM.G.Johnstone,Oxford,l9T0; fig.3.4,4,7,5.1,5.4, 8.1,8.2 - Geographyfor GCSE, Vincent Bunce, Longman;fig.3.7 -Aspects of Britain and the USA, Ch.Garwood, G,Gardani, E.Peris,Oxford,2001;fi9.7.5, fig.10.2 -The British lsles by David Waugh; fig.10.7 - Key Geography - Foundations, David Waugh, Tony Bushell, 1991, Nelson Thornes fig.1; fig.12.3 -; fig.'12.6 -; 1i9.12.7; fig.13.1 -; fi9.13.4 -; fig.13.11 - Geog 1'1989; fig,15.8,16.1- The R. Gallagher, R. Parish, J. Williamson, Oxford, 2001 ; fi9.14.7 - World Geography, Glencoe, United States by R. Crickner; fig.19.6 - Portrait of the USA, United States lnformation Agency, 1997; fi1.19.2 -

i\;fig.; fi9.19.9'19.10

www.grandcanyonexcursions.comJig. 20,2 -; fig. 20.3 -; fi1.20.4'; fig.20,7 - 1999, fig.20,9 -; fig.20.11 -; fig. 19.3, '19.4, 20.12,21.3,21.4, - Michelin Travel Publication, USAEast,2000;f]g.21.9 ;21.10 www.usahosts,com;!ig.22.2 - Classroom Atlas - Rand McNally, '1990; fig.22.3 -, fig. 22.4 - An American Portfolio USIA;;fi9.22.6 -; fi9.22.7

The publisher and authors would like to express their thanks for the kind permission to adapt and use the above mentioned copyright material.

Every effort has been made to trace all the owners of copyright and to settle permission to reproduce text and illustration, but the publishers will be glad to put right any omissions at the first

CopyrightO 2005 by Charta

Copyright@ 2005 by British Council

Tipdrit la S.C. Charta S.R.L. 520008 Sf. Gheorghe; Str. G6bor Aron 14 Tel. 0267-31 5279; E-mail:



Lesson/ Topic


Geographical and Cognitive Skills Identifying places

Using maps

Main Language Aspects

Vocabulary related to location, types of coastline, physical
processes Ways of expressing location Defining geographical terms Speaking


l. Here are the

British Isles

Name and location of the

British Isles Coasts of Britain


- types

Drawing maps
Interpreting geographical relationships Analysing geographical

Environment- Global warming

Reading for specific information

Linking and developing ideas

Problem-solving Summarizing information


Forms of

2. The Relief of the


Identiffing physical geography

features on the map Drawing maps

Vocabulary related to physical


British Isles

Physical features Rock structure Environment- Tourism

Organizing information in a chart

form Drawing diagrams

Completing information gaps Ordering in logical sequence Analysing and comparing

Reading for gist Translating Writing descriptive paragraphs Cross-curricular transfer from literature

information Identifying causes of phenomena


Difference between weather and climate Factors affecting climate

3. Weather and


Precipitation Case study: London's microclimate Environment: Fog/smog

Interpreting maps Interpreting isotherms Interpreting graphs Drawing graphs Organizing information Identiffing causes and effects of
phenomena Giving reasons

Vocabulary related to weather and climate Speaking - Describing graphs Reading for gist Reading for specific information
Ways of expressing information on types ofweather




Lakes Water problems Case study: The Lake

4. The Waters

the British Isles

Interpreting maps Completing information gap

Vocabulary related to rivers and

Interpreting diagrams

Environment: pollution the river Thames


Interpreting pictures Applying generalizations to solve geographical problems Applying information to chart Transferring graphic information into text Synthesising information

- Describing shapes Reading for specific information Writing a newspaper article

Iakes Speaking





Lesson/ Topic
5. Population


Geographical and Cognitive Skills

Interpreting maps and graphs
Processing information

Main Language Aspects

Vocabulary related to population, population changes and population
structure Speaking Ways of drawing conclusions and making generalizations Reading




Population distribution Density and conurbations Population change

Population structure Environment: The impacl of migration

Transferring figures to charl Creating a flow-chart Making logical connections Transfering graphic information into text Identifying cause and effect


Pattems and land use Spatial pattems of economic and social

6. Settlements

Interpreting diagrams

Vocabulary related to types

lransferring infomation to

of settlements Speaking Explaining

phenomena Reading for gist

Urban settlements The rural-urban fringe Case study: London Environment: Greenwich

Analysing the intelrelationship between communities and


Reading for specific

Comparing spatial patterns Creating diagrams Analysing points of view



Types ofenergy Traditional and altemative energy resources

7. Energy


Environment: Sustaining our future

Interpreting graphs Creating pie charls Transferring graphic information into text Analysing information
energy resources

Vocabulary related to types of

energy resources Speaking: Expressing opinions Reading for gist

Reading for specific



Classifi cation of industry

\\ \


Location ofindustry Industriai change Case study: South Wales Environment: pollution

Analysing industrial factors Interpreting maps

Vocabulary related to industry

Speaking -defining terms Ways of organizing ideas, expressing personal opinion both in oral and wrinen form

Inferring causes and effects

of economic phenomena

Linking a categorv to its



Reading for gist Reading for specific

Identifying reasons
Cornparing and contrasting Problem solving

Summarizing information

Writing paragraphs


Factors influencing


Types of faming Recent changes in

Interpreting maps Analysing factors influencing

Transferring information to

farming Farming systems Case study: The removal ofhedgerows Environment: Effects of farming

Vocabulary related to farming Speaking - Explaining phenomena Reading for gist Writing letters

Creating a flowchart Dehning activities

Page 4O



Knowledge and Understandino

Features of transport in

Geographical and Cognitive Skills

Main LanguageAspects
Vocabulary related to transport Reading for gist Reading for specific


Identiffing advantages and

disadvantages of transport modes Interpreting maps and charts

Types oftransport Traffic aspects
Case study: The Channel

Summarizing information Writing - complex sentences

Applyrng information to solve


Tunnel Environment: Effects transport


Giving reasons
Explaining phenomena


Types ofrecreational

11. Recreation and

Interpreting charts

Tourism in the

activities Changing pattems in the British tourist industry National Parks in the UK Case study: Snowdonia Environment: Ecotourism

Classiffing information Defining goreral terms Applying information to tables

Comparing features of national parks

Vocabulary related to tourism and recreation Speaking - Describing traditions Reading for specific

Reading for gist Summarizing information







Project work -

Tiavelling in the



Country Fact



Location of the USA Time zones in the USA USA administrative structure American Celebrations
Reading maps Locating borders

12. Welcome to

the USA

Vocabulary related to location,' time zorie and administrative

Establishing geo graphical


Ways of speaking about

Identifuing time zones on the

map Transferring infonnation to table Applying information to solve geographical problems

location Reading for specific

Summarizing information


Types of r_elief in the USA Fonnation oflandscape Features ofmountain ranges Case study: Deserts

13. The Face

the l,.and

Reading maps Transferring information fr om map to text Completing charts

Vocabulary related to relief, landscape origin, types of relief, natural hazards Ways of describing landscape
and natural phenomena

Environment: Mt.

Reading for specific

Summarising information



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Lesson/ Topic
14. Climate and


Geographical and Cognitive Skills

Reading maps Completing maps

Main Language AsPects

Vocabulary related to climate and weather, climate hazards Reading for specific information

Understanding Weather
Climate types in the USA The weather Severe weather conditions Climate hazards Case study: El Niflo Environment: Drought

Decision-making by applying information on climate and weather Drawing parallels Problem-solving

Writing paragraphs Writing weather forecasts

Ways of presenting geograPhical

information in written form


The rivers The lakes
Geysers Case study: The Colorado Reading maps Deciding on different sources

15. The waters

of the USA


Organising information Classifying lakes and rivers Analysing the uses ofnatural

Environment: The

Vocabulary related to rivers, lakes. floods Reading for gist Reading for specific information Rearranging information logically Ways of summarizing and presenting information orallY

Natural environment in the USA

Identifying the causes and

consequences of natural disasters


Features of a region Types of geography and

The regions of the USA

their areas ofinterest

Reading maps Defining a geographical region Analysing geographical features Synthesising geographical aspects Rearranging information logically

Vocabulary related to tyPes of geography and their area of interest

Speaking Reading for specific information



,i l:

I !


''Boswash" Megalopolis: physical features, economy, population New England: physical
features, economy,

17. The

population New York Washington D.C. Environment: NewYork


Reading maps Interpreting maps Applying information to table Applying information to maP Summarizing information to present New York

Vocabulary related to physical features, economy, population,

urban development,
Speaking -Interviewing

Reading for gist Reading for specific information Summarizing Presenting information in written


18. The



The Central Plain The Great Plains Physical features

Industry Urban areas and population Fact file on Chicago Case study : Boom and Bust in the Great Lakes States

lnterpreting maps Finding evidence to support opinions Applying information to table Identifuing reasons for farming location Identifying reasons for industry location

Vocabulary related to physical features, agriculture, economy, mineral resources, urban develoPment Speaking - giving reasons

Reading for gist Reading for specific information Summarizing

Thinking critically





Lesson/ Topic
19. The Rocky


Geographical and Cognitive Skills

Reading maps

Main Language Aspects

Vocabulary related to physical features, human and economic factors, tourism, geological structure

Understandins Mountains
Region Introduction to the region The Rocky Mountains The Intermontane Plateaus Basin Physical features Human and economic factors Culture and tourism National Parks Case study: The Grand Canyon Interpreting pictures

IdentiSing the effects of natural


Identifying relationship between

location and settlements

Reading for gist Reading for specific information


Introduction to the region Physical features Human aspects Economic aspects
Reading maps

20. The Pacific Coast Area

Case study : The Central

Discriminating between related notions Creating time lines Interpreting illustrations Synthesising information

Vocabulary related to physical features, economy, region development Speaking -describing illustrations Reading for gist Reading for specific information



Introduction to the region Physical features: The Atlantic Coastal Plain, the Gulf Plain, The Appalachian Highlands Human and Economic
Aspects Reading maps

21. The South

Vocabulary related to physical

features, economy, coastal ecological management Speaking -expressing personal

The Southern Coastline Case study: Wetland Protection in Louisiana Environment: Coastal
Resources Texas Page

Organising information Analysing geographical features of a region Identifying relationship between physical features and economic development Finding reasons for ecological

opinion Reading for gist Reading for specific information

Alaska Physical features Hawaii - Introduction Physical features Alaska -Human Aspects Economic aspects Hawaii - Human aspects Economic Aspects

22.The Newest

- Introduction

Reading maps Giving reasons Connecting related ideas

Vocabulary related to physical

features, human aspects and

Speaking -making oral presentations

Synthesising information Applying information to compare and contrast

Reading for gist Reading for specific information Superlatives




- UK



Project work Travelling in the USA Page lOO

State Flags of the USA Page




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A, Discussion points
Why do you think the key terms and ideas mentioned above are important to the topic of the lesson? What other things come to your mind when you think of Britain ?


The British Isles. Name and Location

1. Read the text below and identify the places

mentioned on the map.
The British /s/es are situated off the north west coast of
Europe. They are represented by a large island called Great Britain and a smaller island called /reland (whose Southern part is politically independent).The British lsles also include a few hundred small islands, lying at varying distances from the coasts in the surrounding waters.

Fig. 1.1. Britain's location in Europe

2" a. Work in pairs to fill in the table on the right with the latitude and the longitude of the two main islands
mentioned above.
Notice the O0 longitude (Zero Meridian or Prime Meridian) which passes through the lnternational Time Measure of Greenwich, east of London.The local time is the standard time for Britain, from which most other world times are calculated.



Give the boundaries of the British lsles. Fill in the table below.






Great Britain is the name of the island, padt of the British lsles, which is made up of
and \

3. Match the description of the two maps with their appropriate names Take into consideration the

The term "Britain" is normally used to ddscribe the whole country. Britain's full title for constitutional and international affairs is THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND (the UK).
It is part of the British lsles. The countries belong to the same kingdom and the people's nationality is British

Fig 1.2 The United Kingdom

Fig.1.3 Great Britain



C. The Coasts of Britain - Types and processes

4. Read the following text to find out the main types of coasfline in

Britain's coastline is very irregular. There are many indentations around the British coastline. The most typical types of coasUines are:
Es.tya.ry = a funnel-shaped river mouth which results from flooding of



tidal areas. Some of them contain ports such as London, Liverpool and


Firth fiord) = a drowned glaciated valley formed mosfly in Scofland after

the lce Age. Ria = a river valley drowned by the postglacial rise in sea-level. Peninsula = a tract of land, large or small, projecting into a body of water, having water on three sides. They are common in Cornwall, Devon and Wales, Sfraifs and Channels = narrow stretches of water, which separate two bodies of land (e.9. the Strait of Dover, the English Channel). The seas around the coasts are quite shallow because Britain lies on the Continental Shelf.
5. What processes affect the coasts of the UK?

The coastline is constantly changing because of the work of the Some parts are eroding to form cliffs while others are building up to form beaches. Consequently, most places in Britain are less than 75 miles (120 km) from the sea,


Fig.1'4. Types of coastlines in the UK

The sea-level around the coast is always changing for another reason. The rise and fall of the sea produces the tides. There are hightides and lowtides every twelve and half hours. This is due to the attraction of the Moon on the Earth.

6. Using an atlas

map of Britain: a) ldentify and name the types of coast located at the letters from A to F on the map from fig. 1.4. b) Name the islands numbered from 1 to 5 on the outline map above using

the information from fig. 1.1.

7. Match the names of the places mentioned below with their respective locations The is an inret situated on the western coast of scoiland

. . .


Strait of

wash Dover

St. George's


is an island situated in the lrish Sea is a bay in the North-East of Wales is a stretch of water separating Britain from France is a channel that separates Wales from lreland is a bay situated on the east Coast of Britain is a peninsula situated in the South-West of England

Liverpool Bay lsle of Man Firth of Clyde

Cornwall Devon

Fill in the gaps in the passage below to summarise the lesson.

The British lsles is the geographical name of called Great Britain, lreland and a multitude of other smaller islands " (the lsle of Man, the Orkneys etc.). The passes through ihe eastern part of London. Britain,s indented, varied and under constant change due to its geogiaphical

the .



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1. Work in pairs to make a list of the things you have learned about Britain. Start by filling in the gapped text below
The British /s/es are The or which is now one of London's suburbs. Great Britain The whole name of the country is:


situated ................ includes

.......coasl of Europe.
Meridianpasses through .........

............... and


.................... like:

Read the following statements. Some of them contain errors. Rewrite them to make correct statements.

1. The British lsles are situated off the north-west coast of mainland Europe. 2. Great Britain also includes Northern lreland. 3. The North Sea and the lrish Sea are very deep along Britain's coast.

4. 3.

5. The Scottish firths are narrow channels

The English Channel borders England to the South. of the sea.

Define the following terms: rndenta tion, ctiff


shatlow . Use the

terms in sentences to describe types of coasts found

of your own.

4. a. Write the word family of 'coast'and include

each of the words in sentences Using the glossary tell the difference between 'bay', 'firth', 'estuary,. c. Choose the correct form in the context (check with the glossary):
1. The British lsles (lay/lie) off the coast of Europe. 2. St. George's (Channel/canal) separates Wales from lreland. 3. The (lsland/lsle) of Man is a member of the Commonwealth. 4. The (StraiUStraight) of Dover is only 30 km wide.

d. Replace the underlined words with. a suitable synonym,

1. Northern lreland is situated North of the Republic of lreland. 2. The border between England and Wales is very regular. 3. The Greenwich Meridian is the Prime Meridian of the Earth,




5. .Work on the World map (in your Atlas). Find which major cities mentioned below are close to the same line of latitude as London: Buchare'st, Paris, Warsaw, Prague, Bertin, New York, Calcutta, Vancouver.

Knowing that Great Britain is 500 km wide and nearly 1,000 km long how long would it take a plane, travelling at 750 kilometres per hour, to fly over Great Britain from the far north (John O,Groats) to the south coast (Land's End) ?

Fill in the chart with the missing information to find out information on the UK.

Fi9.1.5. Land's End - Cornwall

The UK
England Scotland Wales

Area (

Population (thousands)
49,1 81


2.903 13,576 1,689

Edinburgh Cardiff

Northern lreland
Source: Office for National Statistics, 2002





' '

The term Great Britain is used to differentiate Britain from Brittany ( French for Bretagne). The word Great
helps to distinguish between the two: Grande Bretagne = Great Britain, Bretagne = Brittany.

lslands like the lsle of Man in the lrish Sea and the Channel lslands off the French Coast are not part of the UK although theyaremembersofihe Commonwealth.Theyareself-governingCrowndependenc1eswithacommon
historical relationship but with different legal, legislative and adminisirative systems. HoweverQhe British G.overnment is responsible for their defence and international relations.


The lce Age - already mentioned when presenting the formation of firths in Scotland - was a prolonged period of colder climatic conditions, during which snow and ice covered large areas of the Earth, including Briiain. There have been several ice ages in the past, the most recent began about 2 million years ago, often referred to as the
lce Age.

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The UK's coastline is 12,430 km long. The British people can own land along the coasi but not under the sea.


5,530 km.

belonging to the UK.

Scientists predict that sea levels will rise as the burning of fossil fuels (wood, coal, oil) warms up the atmosphere. The process is known under the name of global warming. This could lead to the melting of the polar ice caps and a gradual rise in the sea level - a rise of up to one metre in the next 100 years is predicted. As a result, many coastal beaches and estuaries around the world would be drowned.

a. Describe b. Describe

the effects of global warming on British coasts. the effects of global warming on the Romanian Black sea


Fig.1.6. Fighting Erosion





highland eroded mountains lowland glacaers rock type :

A. Discussion points:

what terms denoting forms of relief do you know? complete the mind map opposite which colours are used in maps and atlases to depict the various forms of relief?


B. Physicalfeatures:
1. Read the text below and identify the places mentioned on the map.
ln Britain the traditional terms used for describing landscapes are highland and lowland. Great Britain can be divrded into twr main areas, each with very different geography, climate and economic activities. By drawing an imaginary oblique lrne from the southwest (point A on the map) to the northeast(point B), you can divide Britain into the two types oilandicape.

2. Study the map below

and the accompanying texts. Link the texts with the corresponding areas on the map in

fig. 2.1 by drawing lines.

The Scottish Highlands comprise the Nofth-West Highlands and the Grampians, which display some of the most dramatic mountain scenery in Britain, This is due to a combination of high mountains and glacial valleys.


Highlands Lowlands

The Central Lowland is a large rift

valley lying between the Highlands and the Southern Uplands. The Southern Uplands are lower, more rounded and eroded than the Highlands.
A typical feature of Scotland's relief is the presence of fault lines.
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High coasts

Southern limit of glaciation


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Northern lreland is a predominantly low area with a depression at its centre containing Lough Neagh and the Bann Valley. This depression is surrounded by higher areas formed of old, eroded mountains and plateaux. The North Coast is made up of spectacular basalt
cliffs, the Giant's Causeway.
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The Cambrian Mountains or the Welsh Massif occupy most of the Welsh Peninsula and form an area of high peaks and moorlands. The only Iowland area is found along ihe coasts.

Fig.2.1 Forms of relief in the United Kingdom.


_--3 a)

The Pennines are called the "Backbone of England" and extend down the middle of the country from the Cheviot Hills to the Midlands. On the flanks of the Pennines there are areas of fertile

Using the chart below, organise the information presented on the previous page into a classification of forms of relief in Britain: Name Pennines

Form of relief mountains


Attttude (hiqhest or lowest)



893 m

The Cumbrian Mountains in north-west England are a dome of ancient rocks deeply eroded by glaciers. They are also called the Lake District, an area famous for its lakes and scenic beauty.

East Anglia is a low almost completely flat area where only a few areas rise above the general level of the plain. The western part is called The Fens and contains land reclaimed from marshes. This is'composed of peat in the south and silt in the north.

The Scarplands are alternating hills and vales, which extend from Yorkshire in the north to Devon in the south. The hills are also called escarpments. They form the landscape of most of south and east England.

C. The rock structure of Britain

4. Read the text below and put the paragraphs into a logical order.

a) The sedimentary rocks are also hard and resistant and include sandstones,
and coal measures. They were formed about 250 million years ago and are found in the Pennines, South Wales and Central Scotland. They include extensive plateaux and hilly land above 300m. b) The land which makes up the uK is the result of a long geological history and it contains a great variety oflrocks, which were formed ai oitrerent geologiial times. c) Much of eastern and southern Britain is made of "newe/, sedime-ntaryiocks formed about 100 million years ago. These are softer and form low hills (lower than 300 m) and vales. limestones

The South.West comprises a series of low granite plateaux, fringed by lowlands of sedimentary rock. They end abruptly in cliffs along the coast. The granite moorlands rise to over 600m in Dartmoor and become lower towards Land's End.


The hardest rocks are the igneous rocks and are found in the north and west. They were formed more than 400 million years ago. They are now mosfly upland areas (1200m).

5. Fill in the text below with the appropriate words from the box to show how
glaciation affected Britain,s relief.

Britain's landscape is divided into highland and lowland. The mountains are old and eroded. The plains are flat and they are interrupted by hilly regions. There are many signs of

i kilometre spectacular
There have been of the earth's -----..

Wales f,ords

northern \laciers landmaSs -------:




sheet surface




-__ forming:

five (1) aijes, during which thick ice sheets covered one third (2). During the last lce Age an (3) more than one -(6) scenery scotland, (7) and northern England owe their existence to tre wo* Liic". of - __
(8) are powerful moving machines that dramatically change the (10), U shaped 1ti;, tarns.




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1. The map infig.2.2 shows Britain's mountains.
Using appropriate crayons, draw on the other main forms of relief and label all of them.

2. The paragraphs below contain short descriptions

of five different areas of Britain. Using the clues from the lesson, match the names of each area with a suitable description and write the correct name in each gap:



Northern lreland , The Pennines . East Anglia , The Downs , Cornwall

...............,.,.are a series of horseshoeshaped chalk hills

located south of London. Their southern side reaches the sea in many places and forms the famous white cliffs of the South Coast. They were the reason why the Romans named the country Albion.

..........., a flat, wind-blown area in the east of England,

criss-crossed by large slow rivers and canals. lts soil is very fertile, suitable for cereals, flowers and vegetables. The .................. peninsr,la, with its rocky coast, numerous small bays and wild moorlands such as Dartmoor and Exmoor, is one of the most popular holiday destinations in Britain.
. .. . stretch for some 240km from north to south and form the backbone of the country. They are made up of flat plateaux with average altitudes of 600-800m.

Fig.2.2 The Outline of Britain's Mountains

Language check
Draw the diagram of a mountain and write around it allthe words you know that are connected with a mountain.


State the difference between lowland, plain and fielc

...... displays an interior plain scattered with isolated hills and lakes, the largest lake being found in its centre and is surrounded by a ring of low mountains


ldentify equivalent terms for valley, plain and hfl as they appeared in the lesson.

Using the Venn diagram below, compare the relief of Britain (i.e, forms of relief and their characteristics) with that oi your country. The common features are to be written in the

middle.>g I


5, Describe the relief of your country by using some of the words from this lesson,
harmonious, concentric, balanced combination,

etc.FKl I

as well as words like:




A unique form of relief on the northern coast of Northern lreland is Ihe Granf's Causeway. (Fig. 2.3) lt is made up of some

b. Although Scotland is made up of 3 distinct regions, each

blessed with its special beauty; the Highlands are the most impressive region of all. Read the following lines by Robert

40,000 basalt columns and it resembles a group of steppingstones leading to the sea. The symmetrical columns have 6-8 sides and the tallest is 12 m in height. The legend explaining the formation of the stones says that the giant Finn McCool fell in love with a lady giant from the Scottish coast and to bring her to lreland he built the Giant's Causeway.

Burns, the national poet. List the main features of the Highlands' landscape that appear in the poem:
" My heart's in

the Highlands, my heart is not here; My heart's in the Highlands a-chasing the deer; Chasing the wild deer, and following the roe, My heart's in the Highlands wherever I g0... Farewell to the mountains, high covered with snow;
Farewell to the straths and green valleys bellow; Farewell to the forests and wide-hanging woods; Farewell to the torrents and loud-pouring floods."


Read the paragraph below, which contains a prose description of the Highlands. Translate it into Romanian using a dictionary if necessary.

Fig. 2.3 The Giant's Causeway, lreland

"lt is an area of scenic grandeur, consisting of parallel chains of mountains, rugged and barren, broken by deep valleys. lts beauty comes from ihe combination of precipitous cliffs,
moorland plateaus covered in heather, swift-flowing streams and glistening lochs with crystal-clear waters"

a. The Fens is the lowest area in the country (4m below sea level) and also the most fertile. To discover some of the activities carried out here and the products obtained or typical of this area, search horizontally and vertically in the word square below. You should find 10 words (some compound ones). Circle them like in the model and then compare your findings with your

d. Which of the elements in the paragraph above do you

find in the picture below?


































Dr R G C









Due to its natural and cultural wealth, Scotland is a major tourist destination. Tourism can be both beneficial as well as destructive for an area. ln time, several environmental organisations focused their activities on this area, trying to protect it. Column A lists the tourist attractions of the area, while column B lists the harmful impact of tourlsm

Scenic beauty Unspoilt nature Rare birds/plants


Wildlife destruction


Canoeing, Fishing Playing golf

Pollution of rivers/lakes/land Footpath erosion Building tourist facilities

Study the flow chart above and write down some solutions meant to reduce the damaging impact of tourism on Highlands' environment.




---4 u,.., ..





precipitation weather


A. Discussion points:

,ra. Why



is the weather a favourite topic of discussion in Britain? Unjumble the words on the right in order to find out which are the elements of weather..

B. Climate and weather

1. Read the two definitions below and decide which refers to
climate and which lo weather.

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The average state of the meteorological elements for a small area (e.9. town/city) over a short period of time \) (e.9. a couple of days,


The average state of the meteorological elements for a large area (e.9. counhies, continents) over a number of years.

C. Factors affecting climate




The following factors affect the climate of an area. Match the terms with their definition. Warm ocean currents like the North Aflantic Drift warm up coastal locations, even in high latitudes The greater the altitude, the colder, windier and wetter it is likely to be. (The temperature usually falls by about 1"C for every 200



Places further away from the Equator receive less energy from the sun. Therefore the higher the latitude (the nearer the North or South Pole) the colder it is likely to be.

sea takes longer to heat up in summer so the sea is colder than the land. ln winter it takes' longer for the sea to cool down, so the sea is


warmer than the land. Consequently coastal areas are often warmer in winter but cooler in summer than places inland.

masses are bring the weather of the place from which they come to Britain. Some winds like the westerly winds in the northern are called winds"
2. b. Which of the factors mentioned


above apply to Britain?

0 o 0

Britain is affected by the following air masses: - polar maritime (mP) - polar continental (cP)
- tropical maritime(mT) - tropical continental (cT)


wel l- cold ll

- prevailing westerly winds (wW) 3.

I t



0n the map in fig.3.1 write the initiats mB cE mB cT and wW beside each

arrow. Discuss their effects on the weather in Britain.


4. Based on all the factors studied so far choose the best alternative in order to define the climate type found in Britain. Give reasons for your choice.
Britain's climate is.

Fig. 3.1 Air streais r"lri"f, affect Britain. The width of the arrows indicates approximately how frequently the different air streams

a) temperate continental b) subtropical

c)temperate maritime




D. Temperature
Temperature shows how warm the air

is. lt can be measured in degrees celsius or Fahrenheit. The conversion formulae 'C = 5/9 x ("F-32) or


lsotherms are lines joining places with equat whole country.


#'rL fl.li3 show average temperature conditions over the

Or,s 6"C 5"C-61C


OYe 10.

!.lry 3lc

3'C - 4'C



- 15- C 15. C

13L 14'C EGlow 13'C

Fig. 3.2 lsotherms for January 5. Study the maps above and answer the following questions:

Fig. 3.3 lsotherms for July

b) c) d) e)

Which are the coldest and warmest areas in summer and winter? the table below warmest area coldest area summer winter Why are the southwest anO What are the factors which determine the location of the lowest temperature in Scoland in winter? Why is the southeast warmer than the southwest in summer? Using fi9. 3.3, explain why the southeast coast is cooler than the area around London?

E. Precipitation
The term precipitation refers to rain, snow, hail and sleet and is measured in mm/year. The map below shows the annual distribution of precipitation for the United Kingdom.

study it carefully and

entences to expresi your conclusion.


a) The wettest parts in Britain are


- of the proximity of big bodies of water

b) The driest part of Britain


under 650


- it is in the rain shadot

650.1500 mm

The climate in Britain is variable i.e. it changes from day to 9rV. tlis also equable i.e. there are no extremes of heit, cold, drought or prolonged rainfall. The wettest part is northwest Scotland. The driest is southeast England'


. 3.4 UK-average annual rainfall





ln the climate graph for London below, the line shc, the average temperatures and the bars the averag precipitation for each month.

Choose words from the box to complete the following text describing the climate of the UK.

Describe orally what you see in the graph



(ftaritime equable


"Britain's climate is more or less similar to that of the north-western parts of Europe, llowever, due to its being an island, Britain suffers (1 )................,,..infl uences, which vary with location.: the further west you go, the (2) gets. Winters are(3)....,.,.,..,..,....., somehow colder in the east than in the (a)....................and snow is a regularfeature ofthe (5)....................areas only (eg. the Grampians in the Scottish Highlands). All in allthis climate is (6) it displays a lack of extremes but at the same time it can be very(7).................., which gave it its bad reputation.

2. Complete the following sentences with information from

the lesson:

1. The general effect of the westerly winds on Britain bring....,........

is that they

Fig. 3.5 The Climate of London

b. Draw a similar graph for lnverness using the following data (the given values are for

2. The

North Atlantic Drift


.and its effect

is. ..... ;. ... ... ...

3. The south of the UK is warmer than the north because

4. The east of the UK is drier than the west because


.lllatch the climate descriptions below with areas B, C and D from the map in fig. 3.6 and write the key words in the correct sector. Area A has already been done for you.


winters, cool summers, quite dry


cold winters, warm summers, dry mild winters, warm summers, quite wet mild winters, wet


+. of the two weather forecasts A or B below matches

the weather map fig. 3.7 below?

Fig.3.6 Weather Regions


of the country will be

bploud altemating


sunnyspells. There will be littlg rain

in the south-east but heavyTffi-arq will extend from the north-west through western areas of Scotland and Northern lreland. Northern Scotland may expect temperatures of minimum 7 degrees Celsius, quite mild for January, while south-eaStEngland may enjoy a maximum of 11 degees Celsius. Another feature of the weather will be the strong westerly wind with gales ii'-the ftrlouih-west.

B. The forecast predicts a bright, chilly but showery day across mar parts otthe British lsles. The shou. will be heaviest and niost persiste: in the N and W, with sleet and perhaps snow overthe Scottish hi , Temperatures here will be of arour: 5-6oC and a N-W fresh wind will bl:

The eastern and southern areas w be brighter, with only isolated showers and temperature of goC. Low cloud and fog could linger ove' the N-E in the morning, but will disperse later.



Weather forecast


) )

The British say they don't have climate but weather. Due to the low pressure air fronts which constantly sweep the country from west io east, you can sometimes experience four seasons in a day. Although the British climate is generally equable, temperature extremes do occasionally occur. The highest temperature recorded in recent decades was 38oC (August 2003, London) and the lowest was -270C (January '1982, the Grampians)

ln general the climate patterns of a country tend to be affected by local factors such as altitude, sheltered position, pollution, or how bullt up a place is. Thus, microclimates appear. ln the case of big cities, like London, this microcfimate is called an urban climate. lts main feature is the urban heat island effect, which means that its temperature is a few degrees higher than that of the surrounding area. (Fig. 3.8)

Fog is a climate element typical of Britain, lt represents the condensation of water particles at ground level. Fog tends to be thicker in built up areas. The combination of fog and smoke is smog, Smog appears when warm air loaded with fumes from cars and factories rises rapidly until it reaches a ceiling of warm air. There, it cannot rise anymore and it spreads, forming a blanket of smoke and dirt over the city. Although British cities and particularly London, suffered because of smog in the past and many people even died because of it, it is no longer a problem. 1. Try to think why smog is a thing of the past for Britain, 2. ls smog a problem in the area where you live? CLIMATE CHANGES IN THE UK

10 km



According to a 2002 government report, there are four future climate scenarios for the UK. They take into account possible changes in technology and lifestyle over the next 100 years. They are called: "Low Emissions", "Medium-Low Emissions"

"High Emissions"
(the emissions are, of course, the pollutants released into the atmosphere both privately and industrially). The

Fig. 3.8 London's microclimate

predictions are:
Here are a few factors, which affect the London weather:

1. The great number of buildings acts as a wind-break.

However, very tall buildings, like the skyscrapers, may have the opposite effect as they create true "canyons" along which the wind funnels. Green areas have been built over with impermeable


surfaces such as asphalt or concrete.

in the atmosphere due to the domestic heating and the burning of fossil fuels by cars and industry. Task: After you have read the characteristics listed above, suggesf their effects on London's microclimate. Add them to the list started below: a. London receives less snow and it melts faster (e.9. the average snow days per year for London - 5 days, for Scotland - 30 days)

3. There are more water vapour and dust particles

Temperature oC 1. an expected rise by 2-3.5 ofthe annual average values by the year 2080 oC) 2. the highest rise (5 will affect the S and E 3. most of the warming will affect the summers and autumns Precipitation f . increased values with at least 10Yo-200/o for winter 2. drier summers with a precipitation decrease of up

to 50%
3. largest changes in the S and E of England, smallest

in Scotland will fall with 60-90% less than at present Wind 1. will have higher speed, especially in summer when severe gales and sea surges may be expected
4. snow


11-20 kmlhr

Moderate gale 50-60 km/hr

Fig. 3.9 Wind types and the Beaufort wind scale



wumts @ ffiiB Emmils[fl mgs

watershed confluence drainage basin reservolr

A. Discussion points:
What types of water do You know?

B. The Rivers 1. Read the text below to find out information about parts of the river. Use the underlined words to
complete fig. 4. 1.
Rivers are natural drains. Most of the rain that falls on the land drains into a river. The origin of a river is called the source. As the river flows, other smaller rivers or streams may join it. These are called tributaries and the point where they meet is their confluence. Further on the point where the main river flows into a sea or ocean is called the

The area drained by a river is known as a drainage basin' Mountains and hills often form a watershed, which separates two drainage basins. A typical drainage pattern looks like a tree, with the river as the tree trunk and the hibutaries as its branches.

Fig. 4.1 A river drainage basin

2, Fill

parts of a river. Use the map fig 4.2 on in the blanks with the missing information referring to the different


left below to help you.

a. The mouth

(A) of the river Severn

the Bristol Channel.

b, c.


covers most of the Midlands. The drainage basins of the rivers Trer and Mersey are seParated bY a The Clyde has



(B) in the

Southern Uplands. e. The point where the Severn and its (C), the Avon meet is call:-


3. Study the map of UK fig. 4.2. What i: the main characteristic of rivers in Britain? Read the text below to chec your answers. ' Britain has a great number of rivers walthough short, have a steady high let. of flow because they are fed by abunc,rainfall. They remain ice free in winter which means that those, which are navigable, can be used all year round Almost all of them end in estuaries, wr provide good sheltered locations for p: Liverpool (Mersey) and Glasg: such as (Clyde). Canals built in the past conne: most of the British rivers, Their role is .facilitate transPort bY water. The Pennines is the main watershed f--which the rivers flow west to the lrish ;or east to the North Sea. Rivers and streams flowing westward down from: highlands tend to be short, swift and turbulent. Those flowing longer with slowlY

f!$'1.,1-r'zo"' {, " \*^

Fig.4.2 Rivers and lakes in the U. K'


4' Why are the rivers flowing to the west swift and turbulent and those flowing to the east long and genge?


in Britain. River

the map in fig. 4.2 and an atlas, complete the table below to organise information about the most ifiportant rive

England Wales/England

Cotswold Hills

330 km

North Sea

Cities on river

Th Severn Mersey Humber Tyne


336 km
110 km

lrish Sea lrish Sea

60 km 48 km
l' ", {

188 km 77 kn

lrish Sea


Northern lreland

C. Lakes
Most of the natural lakes in the United Kingdom are located in the upland areas of Scotland, Wales and Northern

and are of glacial origin. ln Scotland lakes are called "lochs". The largest of them is Loch Lomond on the south-western side of the Grampian Mountains. Loch Ness lies in a long, faulted valley called the Great Glen (or Glen More) and is of tectonic origin. ln north-west England the Lake District contains many tarns and ribbon lakes famous for their clean water such as Windermere, Ullswater, Grasmere etc. The same types of lakes are also found in Wales, the largest ofthem being Lake Bala. Many ofthem have been turned into multi-purpose reseruoirs The largest lake in the UK is Lough Neagh (396 sq,km), in Northern lreland.


6. Using figure

4.3 describe the shape of Loch Schiel.

D. Water Problems
ln Britain the amount of precipitation is higher than the amount of water needed but it does not always fall where and when it is needed. ln order to balance supply and demand, reservoirs had to be created to store water in areas with surplus water and to transfer it to those places which need it. Most reseryoirs are artificial lakes created on rivers by the building of dams, which hold back water, which is then released at a steady rate and transferred through the river channel.


a) Name those parts of Britain which have a surplus of water and those with deficit. b) why is the demand for water greater than the supply in south.east England? Reservoirs are multi-purpose schemes, which serve different uses:

Britain has a great number of rivers with a steady flow. Its lakes are either natural (glacial and tectonic) or artificial (reservoirs).

. '. .

to store water, to prevent flooding, to encourage fisheries, to provide recreational facilities.



1. Towns and villages are often located in the vicinity of rivers because rivers are beneficial to human

settlements. Besides their

numerous uses, rivers can also be misused.

Study the diagram below and list the uses and misuses of rivers under the following headings:




{,. \., \ ,\ -.\ \







-.6i t

wasteand ffistic sewage 1&' J

Fig. 4.5 The uses and misuses of rivers



Rivers are not just life givers; sometimes they can be life destroyers. One way in which they do that is by flooding. Combine the information from column A with that in column B and write a short newspaper article on the Thames Barrier called "Ihe Eighth Wonder of theWorld". A. - built in 1982 by British and Dutch specialists - cost

t500 million

- world's largest movable flood barrier

- spans 520m across the river Thames - consists of 10 separate movable steel gates - each of the 4 main gates is as high as a S-storey building when raised and weighs 3,700 tonnes

- rises whenever there is a risk of flooding, i.e a few times each year

- in the last decades the global climatic changes have led to a steady rise in sea level - England's south-eastern area has been sinking steadily for a long time. - of London, including some central pa(s, which are the location of many important headquarters of banks and firms, as well as the homes of over 750,000 Londoners, lie below high tide level.



B:",.,"T a. arrange the events presented in them in chronotogical order:

[:H ll,Siflij,";:Jij

Having been used for centuries, the Thames becalg so badly polluted by the 1g60s that it was considered biologically dead' Ai present, trowever, it is consioLieo to oe dne or ilrl J"rn".t metroporitan of the sarmon, ,li.rii",o,s oecuus" iin?"0,



cr"an w"tei




_t rrom"trre mel"rreG taren to crean _t the _t _t up Thames-

J._J _! _!_t

a. '1989- building of tfre vessetTfre Thames Bubbler designed to injecl into the water at critical times

b. Before the First World War new sewers were built but were partly destroyed in the war.

from power stations and gas works produced a river that was virtually dead.

1950- combined effect of sew-ge andindustrial discharge, plus thermal [ollution

c. People whose latrines empGffi the River had to pay 2 shillings for its cleaning (Parliament actl 383).

9.1844- By taw ail new buitdingihad toG connected to the common sewer from which
all domestic waste went untreated into the
Thames. Factories built along the banks also

d. 1535- Partiamenl
it illegal to the river with rubbish.

h. 1990- launching ot a GconOlesG]Er oxygen injection (constant monitoring of parameters indicated when need


newspaper excerpts and rist the negative effects of tourism on irri.

a. "l dipped my oars into the silent lake. I rose upon the stroke, my boat

Famous for its attractive scenery combining lakes, mountains, woodland, farms and unspoilt countryside, the Lake District is prime tourist destination However, just a likjin scoirano


i, noin'n.n.t.ialand detrtme.trr. -




What heaving through the water like a swan: When from behind that craggy steep...a huje cliff As if with voluntary power initinct, Upreared its head... lf Wordsworth, who wrote the lines above, had had his way, the sightseeing hordes from the indushiar north wourd have been denied access to his beloved Lake Distril. He even opposed the buirding of a rairway rine. The rine was buirt, but closed in the early 1g70s, a victim of the new age of "people car-based tourism. At present, about j2 million visit the Lake Diskict every year, 90% of whom .o16 Oy .rr.,, b. "Plt off by stories of fells and dales being flooded by crowds of summer visitors, I decided to exptore ine ia[e country on horseback."


Fig.4.7 The Lake District


NlZ E\-Sl

itl':1r'l$1|1 ::i1lt1, "l opted for a cruise on board of The Tarn, said to have been sailing the waters of Windermere Lake since iA'90. Wnlte rlre most famous in tn. UK is Loch Ness. Located in seagulls were screaming piercingly above our heads, I was Scotland, it is said to be inhabited Uy, ,onrt.r.rlt.O surprised to see water_skiers, smajt hovercraft and hundreds Nessie. Whether it is a rotting tree tiunk, a f<ifier. wnafe of Japanese tourists, mosfly women, cris._crossing the lake in somehow got into the lake befoie iiwas hired paddte-boats, narrowiy avoided separateo l!1lT: sea, a relic plesiosaurus, Oy oriin,p. f Ut., rrom the a giant eel or iust a discovered that there are alio some tZ,OOO boais registered to floatng mat of vegetation, it is a constant use Lake Wlndermere.,' source of interest and a huge attraction for tourists.

', :l.*



population density A. Discussion Points

growth rate

population pyramid




a. There are about 59 million people

in the UK. How is Britain's population distributed? B. ln pairs, share ideas on the word population in order to complete the spider diagram (check the key-words and ideas above)

B. Population distribution and density 1.

Read the text below, which describes the difference between population distribution and population density. KEY
Peopl pcr sq. km

Distribution describes the way in which people are spread out across Britain.tThis distribution is uneven and changes over time It is usually shown on a map by means of areas or dots. Thus there are more or less crowded areas. Density describes the number of people living in a given area,
usually a square kilometre. lt is worked out by dividing the total population by the total area. According to the Census in 2001, the population density in Britain is 244 inhabitants per sq. km as compared with 94 for Romania and 29 for the USA. Places that are crowded are said to be dense/y p opulated and to have a high population density. Places wfth few people are said to be sparsely populated and to have a low population

" '.. : ov6r

150 (high

11 - 150

0 - 10

dnsity) (irtennediai den6ity) {low dnsily)







Liveroool ' .E





2, Study the a)

map on the right (Fi9.5.1). ldentify and name the areas with high and low density.
Use the factors previously discussed in physical geography to explain the reasons why the areas marked 1,2,3,4 are densely or sparsely populated. e.g. Central Scotland ('l) sparsely populated because of relief (high, steep slopes) and climate (wet and cold).

London . gistot


UK Population Density


Based on your knowledge of geography, what human and economic factors might have influenced the population density in the four countries in the U.K.? Use as reference Fig.5.2 below

Enqland Wales Scotland Northern lreland

Population Density

Letter on the map

Name of conurbation



(conurb ationl

65 125
(UK yearbook2o02)

Clvdeside Tvneside

Glasqow Newcastle Leeds Manchester Liveroool Birminoham London Bristol Edinburqh Cardiff Belfast

579 300

West Yorkshire Greater Manchester Mersevside West Midlands London


Fi9.5.2. Population Density in the UK

439 977 7,000 376 449 305 277

High-density areas are usually associated with cities. Wh_el_ -. merged, they form a large continuous buillup-area, which is called a Conurbation. There are seven such areas in Britain. 3. a) ldentify the conurbations on the map (Fig.S.1) by frlli4:-" the missing letters in the table on the right. (Fig.5.3). b) Compare London with the other cities.


<E[SJ.3 Conurbations and cities of the




C. Population change 4. Read the following texts on the processes undergone by the population in Britain.
Population change may mean an increase or a decrease in tne number of people living in an area. lt is normally assumed to mean population groMh, but it is not always the case. Fill in the blanks in the passage below using the g words, which follow to explain population change in Britain.
ln general, population increases peopte


(thepercentage of the totalpoputation tiving in citiesl. tn Aritain both are quitb higfr, especially in the urban poputation (92%). is another very important factor, which contributes through its double route of an area) and (moving into a new area) to the population change.

between these demographic indicators) is positive. ln Britain, thls diiference is so smalithat the population rs inanging very slowly or is stagnant. lt means there is a slow

when (the number of live births plr tOfio .-(thenumbersofdeathspertr000pe_opleperyear).Therefore,wesaythe ,.

peiyear) is greater than




l------l -dp;;nr;i'.ilh

2;;ir-';fi-r.*-'.i.tiiiiilii---- -------e ffih;;r;-----a 6i-,t-h;i;-------l ';t. i______!_it!3!!_oly9li9, 6. migration expectancy 8. emigration g. immigration
@ternal) or from one country to another (internationat). There are three main types of migration within the UK: 1. Rural to urban 2. Re'gional 3.Counturbanisation (movement away from


ilffi;- ; il ;;;ffi :; ;;;il;; place one country

within to things that

il;; il


ffi;,;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;# ;; ;;;; ;; ;; ; ;;

want to teave where they tive


(push factors)


peotpte(pul tacrors) and things peopte

6. Read the reasons for internal migration within the

UK and divide them

into push and pullfactors. Discuss your choice.

Reasons for internal migration within the UK

Rural Work needed in Growing industrial Peace and

More job



ports towns quiet

lmproved living conditions Family links Decliie of older industries More cultural and social amenities

D. Population Structure
lnformation about the characteristics of a population such as age and sex is also recorded in a census. This is known as the population structure, which is shown in a graphic form as a population pyramid; the graph shows the population divided into five-year age groups and also into males and females. The pyramid is typical for a developed country such as the UK with low birth rate, low death rate, longer life expectancy and also high dependency ratio namely, the ratio between people of working age (1 6-64) and those of non-working age (children under 16 and adults over 65). According to thii, an important problem in the UK nowadays is the ageing population, which leads to an increase in the demands of the elderly people and a decrease in the economically active age group who support them.




70*74 65*89




4$--44 35-"3S




7. ldentify in the graph (Fi9.5.4) the elements of the

population pyramid mentioned above Summary
Population density is a measure of how crowded an area is. ln Bitain there are densely and sparsely populated areas because of physical and human factors affecting its distibution. The UK has a slow growth rate and an ageing population. Migration ls sf/ an active process.

H 8 6 .4 2 0 ,


percent of total population


2 4 0



Fig.5.4 Population pyramid of the UK





1...What is meant by the following terms? . Density. Natural increase . Population growth rate. Use them to describe the demographic situation in


2. Look at the map. (Fig.5.5) a) Name the areas labeled A, B, C. b) Describe the factors that explain why they are densely c)
or sparsely populated. Follow the migration arrows and give two reasons for the push and pull factors of internal migration.

3. Bearing in mind what

a population pyramid is: a) Study the table below and say which groups make up the dependent population and why? b) Make your own pyramid using the data presented in the table below and compare it with the one in your country.

Fig.5.5 Migration map

o = o o f
o/ /0


x o at)



64 (r)

65 and over



s c!

o c\l
4.9 4.8

o) c! Lr) c\
3.9 4.0

$ cr) O



.if s



O $




o LO


I lr)

s (o
o (o


(o Lr) (o
0.8 1.3

+ f-o f.04



6.4 6.9


5.2 5.8




0.2 0.9









4. WhaI is meant by the term conurbation?

are found inside these conurbations?

Name three British conurbations. Explain why high densities of population


Read the information on international migration presented below: lmagine you are an immigrant into the United Kingdom. Choose your own nationality and explain why you decided to live in the United Kingdom. state the push and pull factors that influenced your decision. Although the great maiorfi of the people in the British /s/es are descended from early Cettic and lberian people and later invaders, since 1950 the ethnic diversity of Britain's main clfres has been increased 6y the immigration of peopte from South Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. Many other ethnic groups have settted in the country, including Chine-se, Eastern and Southern Europeans and Vietnamese. ln 2000 an estimated 183,000 more people migiatted to thi tLKthan'emigrated from the rJK, almost double the figure for 1977.

6. Using the clues given below, complete the crossword,

group of people of a different race, nationality, language and religion from the main group in a country 2. the rate at which population changes 3. a demographic indicator showing how many people live on a square kilometre 4. a graph showing the age/sex composition 5. a region where very few people live.


6. the spread of population over a territory 7. increase or decrease in population 8. movement of people from one area to another. 9. a demographic indicator showing the number of live births per 1000 people in a year 10. the biggest city in the UK 11. the population living in towns or cities


NZ H\\l

'((The British commonwealth is a collection of 54 independent countries, allequalin status. since the second world war, independence
has been granted to almost all British overseas territories. lt has been called the most peaceful break-up of an empire known in history. This voluntary association of sovereign nations, relations with Britain tnrough the Foreign and commonwealth office in London and the secretariat established in 1g65 to provide information of common concern to member countries and to encourage trade. The Commonwealth has no official policy makinj nooy nritn. member governments have consultations during periodic meetings of their Prime Ministers. The eueen is the Head of the Commonwealth.

(( Population censuses have been held in the UK every decade since 1801. The 1gg1 census was the first to include question

on ethnic origin, The 2001 census showed ihat more than g2% of the population belonged to the ,,white group,,. Of the 7 5% who described themselves as another ethnic group; 2.1% were black, 1.7%were lndian, 1.2% ' Pakistani and 0,3% chinese. The rest were of otherAsian orAfrican ori!in..


Members of the minority ethnic groups live mainly in the urban industrial areas of Britain. ln 2oo1lo2,g7% of people from minority ethnic groups in the UK lived in England, with relatively small numbers in Scofland, Wales and Northern lreland. 38% of the total minority ethnic population lived in Greater London, where they comprised za'2, ortne population. However, the extent to which individual ethnic groups were concentrated in London varied considerably, for example 76% of people r r of Black African origin lived in the capital compared with 20% of people of pakistani origin.


Bearing in mind the impact of ethnic minorities on the population of British origin, complete the following flow-chart. Offer at least two solutions to the consequences mentioned.

A study made by the Commis]lion.on.Global Ageing in 200'l (Ageing poputace is killing economy, says Jonathan watts in Tokvo' 30August, 2001, The Guardian) warned igain; flre oeveropei *olJ woutd tead the stobat economy towards the edge of a demographic abyis, ttris process ii ado associateo witt tarrinj Bv 2010 there will be reweivoung peopte to woii anJ tXi,e'artln anc pension insurance







bfi;ri.;;;d *rglif;"""'

one of the solutions offered by the commission was that of.imrnigration. lt seems that the UK population will increase mainly due to immigration, accoroinoio t ny tne orice toririnnrr rtrtistics. (tmmigianisio r-oorr uK poputation


rise, staff and agencies, November 15,2g01,Ure



*- -

Out of a population of 59.2 million in the UK : 11 million are under the age of 25

. '. o o .

0n average over half the population of Great Britain aged 16 and over is married there are four times as many widows as widowers there are approximately 16,000 cases of Aids there are approximately 33,g00 cases of HIV on average 450 children (under 16s) take up smoking each day
source: A snapshot of the worrd today, pubtished in The Guardian on the January 1, 2000:



i settlement

rural/ urban




A. Discussion points
a. What
is a settlement? easy to defend


Complete the spider diagram on the right to show the factors you may consider when choosing a site for a settlement.
near water?

B. Classification of settlements
A settlement is a place where people live and work. Settlements which are small and located in the countryside ( are provide services for the areas a Large settlements, which them, are urban. We can rank settlements in order of size. A ranking like this is called a hierarchy. The function of a settlement is the main employment activity that goes on there such as: - commerce - recreation - industry - residence - administration



Fig. 6.1 shows the classification of settlements in order of size. Complete the boxes beside the pyramid by adding a suitable word from below. Check your answers against the table fig. 6.2

town Settlement
capital city city reoional centre industrial town small market town village hamlet isolated farm

Area serued
whole country larqe area around it its own reqion local area around it small local area onlv the farms outside the villaoe

government, headquarters of companies, big shops, finance, tourists
industrv, offices, shops headquarters of local companies, shops, offices, industry industry, shops shops and local services basic services: church, shoo. oub no servtces n0 serytces

Fig. 6.2 Table to show the functions of settlements

C. Patterns and land use

By a settlement pattern we mean the shape of the settlement. The shape of early villages and towns was usually influenced by the surrounding area. Rural settlements htVe devetopedlhee_[q! patterns depending on the landscape they are situated a) dispersed (often found in upland areas, with large areas of farmland separating the houses) b) nucleated (in flatter, lowland parts of Britain, all the houses are grouped together) c) linear (because of steep hillsides, houses are built in a line along the gentler slopes of the valley)




Fig. 6.3 presents different rural settlements. Mark them as a, b, or c according to their pattern.


ll. Urban settlements

Urban land use includes shops, offices, factories, transport, recreation and wasteland. However, the land use, which covers the largest area of land in a setflement is housing. Various urban models have been devised to shoiv the general arrangement of land use zones. The most well known are: the Burgess model (fig. 6.aA) which shows a circular pattern of land

the Hoyt model (fig. 6.48) which uses the circles of the Burgess moder as its base but then adds sectors to show that simirar rand uses are concentrated in certain parts of urban area. For example factories are concentrated in the industriar zone whereas there may be a high-class residential area along a main road. the multiple nuclei modet (fig. 6,aC) wh'ich shows that beside the CBD (Cenhal Business Oistricg there are other points that act as secondary centres which are surrounded by some of the same sectors as the CBD ln most British cities it is possible to recognize three urban zones oased upon location and land uses. These are: the CBD the lnner city (atso cailed Twitilht zone) the Residential suburbs

lake fig. 6.4A into consideration. Fill in the missing


in the table


including skyscrapers with offices - high building density with little open space unattractive, run-down appearance (old buildings made worse by vandalism and graffiti)

- tall buildings

- company offices, banks and building - places of entertainment

old factories and warehouses

old buildings (cathedral, casfle) many shops of different types including department stores


- residential (terraced houses and high_rise.flats) - universities and hospitals - inner ring roads
- residential (pleasant, Oig comfoEble houseg - small shopping centres selling everyday

generally smarter some areas ofopen space


Fig' 6'5 Table to show the urban zones of the Burgess urban model

.D. The rural.urban fringe

The area around the edge of a city is known as the rurar-urban fringe. rt is where the green fields and open spaces of the- couhtryside meet the continuousry buirt-up areas of the city. More recently.large groups of (marnry wearthy) p.opie nare moreo ouiirom tne citv into the surrounding villages. This has led to a crrange in the characte, of ,r.r, ,.ttt.r.nt..

Settlements can be rural or


ln the boxes betow rist the factors that cause the peopring of the rurar. urban fringe.

All settlements have functions which represent the main activity carried on in the settlement. The most important urban zones are: the CBD, the inner city and the residential suburbs. More recently people move out from the city centres into the rural-urban fringe.

City - push factors

Rural-urban fringe - pull factors


Urbanisation means the increase in the number of people living in towns or cities. The pie charts below show the levels of urbanisation for Britain at different times. (Key: blue = urban population, red = rural populaiion)

f. close to the CBD, so suitable for pensioners, youths g. usually far from the CBD and work place
h. high accessibility due to good kansport links i. no space for gardens or garages due to tightly packed hou\es j. low rent k. not enough shopping and entertainment facilities l. low quality environment with high crime rates m. crowding and pollution

e ffi ffi
1801 1901


ln many British cities, inner city locations may have older areas with decaying houses and an unsafe urban environment.


Fill in the gaps in the text below with the words given in order to find out how inner city centres may be changed:

Fig.6.6 Growth in Urbanisation

environment derelict criminality gentrification

redeveloped residents demolition
"Trying to improve the quality of life in many inner city areas,

Study the charts above and say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). Make the false statements true by interpreting the pie charts:
The most rapid urbanisation was experienced after '1901. Urbanisation slowed down after 1901. ln the 1900's Britain's population was mainly rural Today most British people live in towns or cities.

areas in several.British cities..This process, also known as (2), cohsists in either renovation of


......(3)housesortheir ,.....'..'....,,..,..,....-..,-...........(4)followedbythebuildingof


ln the last 50 years British towns have experienced two

A. growth - 4B. limitation of growth *[_

Which of the phenomena described below best represent tendency A and which tendency B? Write the corresponding number next to A or B respectively:

contradictory tendencies:

new ones, The purpose is to create a safe, pleasant and civilised living (5). This, in turn, attracts richer .....................,........(6) who can afford to maintain their houses and who do not contribute 10..............................(7).'


5. ln the'1960s,

British town planners tried to solve the housing problem by demolishing existing slums and moving people into high-rise blocks of flats.

Working in groups, discuss and suggest what each of the following people might have said about the construction Urban sprawl = the spreading of a iown into the neighbouring of high-rise blocks of flats:

countryside Green belt= area around town where building is forbidden by law, the greenspace being left for recreation 3. New towns (or satellite towns) = towns built on to relieve overcrowding in large cities 4. Conurbation = very large urban area formed when two neighbouring towns merge together.



3. All towns tend to contain areas called:

. . .


lnner City Residential Suburbs

From the list below, choose the correct features for each
area and include them in the following table:

CBD Advantaqes Disadvantaoes


lnner citv


buildings here are often in a state of disrepair a quiet area with little traffic or pollution c. large space for gardens, garages etc. d. high cost of land e. a high density of shops, banks, offices, leisure facilities

Draw a diagram of the town in which you live using the most suitable of the 3 urban models presented in the lesson. Give named examples for each of the land use

7. Say

which towns in Romania and

and differences between




. , ,

London has been a setflement since Celtic times. The reasons for this choice of location are: the river Thames (source of water, navigation) and the presence of a ford across the Thames in this area

Towns nowadays are far from being perfect living environments. One reason for this is the high leriel of pollution and waste. ln London, Greenwich is an example of area redeveloped in while the area around was marshy (because of river flooding), 2000 in a way that allowed susfainable /ivrng, i.e. living the island on which London was located was dry and easy t6' without harming the environment or wasting t[e resources. defend Here are some of the solutions adopted: abundant underground water existed and could be reached Savlng water by collecting the rain water falling on the through wells roof of The Millennium Dome or of the supermirket in the forests (for building material) along the Thames valley area ln time, London has grown (see fig. 6.7) and its funcfrons Saving energy have developed:

' . . . / / . . .



the supermarket with banks of earth on the sides to prevent heat loss insulating the houses well providing glass roofs to let more light in

Reducing traffic good bus service and a tube station in the area many cycle lanes o internet Green trees planted here large areas of park and lakes that attract wildlife


of non-polluting technotogy

all household have computers recycling schemes

2, political 3. industrial 4. commercial 5. touristic 6. recreational 7. educational 8. transport



How can the area you live in be changed to allow a more s.ustainable way of living? What can you personatty do to live in such a way?
One of the town's main functions is a commerciat or retaiting one. A relatively new tendency is the increase of out-of-towi

Read the features of London described below as developed over the centuries and write next to the number of the function(s) Iisted above it illustra tr The large estuary allowed the building of a port. can sail up the Thames. D The port allowed easy import of the raw materials for the industries that were created here. Also, the industrial products could be exported easily. _ E Surrounded by areas good forfaiming, London became a market town.

Not only are more and more shopping centres being built out of town, but their size and complexiiy ii also growing. These out of town slE:lrnO centres frequently contain s upers to4por -ltf -e s to r e s. f, r


The laigest out-of-town retail centre in Britain and Europe is Bluewater (in Kent), which cost t350 million to build. lts features are: lover 320 high-quality shops under one roof
of shoppers arrives every minute

and a 13-screen cinema

E Ever since Roman times it has been the country's capital, tr lt is the seat of the British monarchy, parliameni and




government. lts museums, art galleries, parks and historic buildings have become tourist attractions. London has a good network of transportand ls itself a hub of transport routes. Various places of ente(ainment exist in London (theatres, cinemas, concert halls, pubs, restaurants, etc.) Many educational institutions are located here (schools, universities, libraries)





i t----------oo*"r station


--------i (non-)renewable sources of

energy sustainability

A.Discussion Points
An energy resource can make a country wealthy but at the same time it can create many problems. Britain is such an example. Name some of the resources that can be used to produce energy. Complete the spider web below. Look at the key words above and say what they


--/ \ ,/ -.l1. Read the following texts to find out about the different types of energy used in Britain. " lf\ The UK is rich in eiergy ,esorrces both on land and in the sea. lt is able to supply its own lcoat
energy needs and even export energy. Nevertheless, concern over Britain's energy supplies is constant with arguments about the uses of various power sources and the amount of energy needed. Britain relies heavily upon four main types of energy: oil, coal, gas and nuclear power. Except for the hydro-electricity, which accounts for less lhan 20/o of the production of Britain's electricity, most electricity is produced as a secondary source of energy in thermal and nuclear power stations.




2 a. Study figures 7.1 and 7.2 below and answer the following quqqtions' alwfiatwisarilainis main source of energy in fi;i960;t iUI'- ;

i) nj Wnicfr source of energy increased rapidly between 1955 and 1 975? d W c) What percentage of Britain's energy comes from nuclear power? L0'( d) Which form of energy has not changed in importance since 1965?

2 b. The latest changes that have affected the UK's electricity industry
include privatisation, less dependency on electricity generated in conventional power stations and more use of alternative sources.
E Coal


Fi1.7.2. presents the pie chart for 2000. Construct a pie chart using the statistics for year 2010 presented in the table below Discuss the changes in energy consumption visible in the two charts.







2010 % nrndiclcd 25


Natural Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric

90,4 9.2
0 0

76.4 22.7

50.6 43.0 2.8


+0.2 0.6



34.2 43.3 22.9 5.8 0.5

32.8 33.9
24.1 7.5

32.0 31.0




consumption \ r\ -\ C. Traditional and alternative energy resources 1iqt ' ,\

Fig.7.1 UK energy

Fig.7.2 Energy consumption in the UK

for 2000

fossil fuels

such as coal, oil and gas have been exploited in'gritlin for many years. They are classified as non.renewable resources. Once used up they cannot be replaced. Renewable resources of energy are newer and can be used over and over again. They include the use of the water, wind and the sun as well as geothermal energy and biogas. They represent an alternative to haditional fuels, as they are cleaner and abundant. They are often sustainable (used in such a manner that they do not destroy the environment) and they are likely to play an increasingly more important role in the future. Still, there are specific locational requirements concerning their conditions of exploitation and use.


Read the information on nuclear energy and express your opinion on nuclear energy by answering the following questions:
To which category of energy resources does nuclear energy belong?

Are the advantages of using nuclear energy more important than the disadvantages? Few energy resources have created such heated debates as the nuclear power. The power producers as wel/ as the ordinary consumers want to know more about it, asking questions such as: 1. ls nuclear energy necessary? 2. How safe is it?





the high cost of building nuclear stations, the resultant power is quite cheap and ptentifut. legOite Only yerylilti.tgd raw materials are needed, e.g. i}tons of l)raiium/year are needed ,o,iprrri coal-fired statlons. Nuclear uvaste rs limited in amount and can be stored underground but it remains



540t coat/hour needed in

are health isks when accidents occur; e.g. the high icidence or


radioactive for many years.

'-""'"t '


4' Study the map below


(Fig.7'3), which shows various types of energy resources and their characteristics. Fill in the blank rubrics with information taken from the map.

O Coallleld

t I



.A oiltield
,-a \-/

gaslield hrdro-etecrric

Hydro-electric power

f solar energy


nuqlear energy


Electricity very clean, water supply abundant, provide water in time of shortage, located in remote areas, risk of flooding, lakes silt up




Electricity very clean, no air pollution wind speed over 60km/h, unpredictable, noisy, visual pollution

#m4 xRr
Location , i.i"..,1 Conditions


Oil and gas

electricity, heating, fuel, oils, fertilisers, good quality and efficient, danger of spills,

quite easy to transport by pipeline

risk of explosion

Electricity clean, very expensive, affects coastal ecosystems, few suitable sites, barrage can protect coasts from erosion



electricity, heating, widely available, uses waste products,

can be expensive to
set up,

el, :ctricity,
hir ;h

some pollution

uses solar panels, direct heating, electricity, up to 2,000 hrs insolation/year, quite expensive but clean


mechanisation lffiodern mines, dit ficult and dangerous to exploit, V ry polluting, br lky to transport

heat for electricity, materials are radioactive, very efficient and relatively clean, epensive to construct, danger of radiation leaks and accidents, problems over long term

Geothermal Elechicity, direct heating, expensive, disposalof waste maintenance problenis, few potential siter

Fig.7.3 Distribution of energy resources in the UK

Enerqv resource

Use Heating

Relativelv clean

Bulky to transport

Tidal enerov



The electricity industry in the.UK is changing. lt is based on conventional power statrons fired by non-renewable sources of energy. Fossil fuels and nuclear energy still play an important role but concern over environmental issues is more important. Renewable energy is seen as the way forward.


1. What is the difference between a renewable resource, a non-renewable resource a) List two disadvantages of burning fossil fuel. b) Give two advantages of using hydro-electricity and nuclear energy.

and fossilfuel? Provide examples.

2. Circle i, ii, or iii in the sentences below to correctly complete the information a) Britain's most recent discovery is: i) coal in Northern England .ii) oil in the North iii) nuclear energy b) The cleanest resource of energy is:


i) wind ii) iii) biogas c) Which fuel makes the biggest contribution to Britain's energy consumption?


i)Coal ii)Gas


d) The cheapest form of energy is:


ii) natural


iii) wave.

3. Describe the photograph below by completing the text with the missing words.

How Solar Heating Works? The sun gives us more e than we need. Although exploited in many parts of Britain, it doesn't cover much of the country's One method of is with the help of solar

p_is s_ p--ing scollectors.



panels, which allow to pass through the glass and to be trapped inside the box-like apparatus.

These are



4. lmagine the following situation. ln a month's time, theAnnual Environmental Conference will be taking place in your

town.Theoccasionwillbe"EarthDay"on April22'o.YourschoolEco-Clubhasinitiatedanexhibitionof
use of renewable energy resources. Prepare and present your own poster to the class. 5. Read the


text and the comments below:




ln the following table, place each letter corresponding to a comment under the appropriate column heading. Some comments may go under several column headings

b) Compare your choices with your colleagues. Present them to the whole class, supported by arguments. Economic profit
F Coal was Britain's main source of energy until mid 1960's when oil and natural gas were discovered in the North Sea. These fuels proved to be clean, efficient and of high quality and their exploitation and use grew rapidly. The financial cost of exploitation was huge and so were the proflts. There have been human costs in the form of deaths and injuries among oil workers. The following comments reflect the view of people involved in the development of North Sea oil and gas.



Environmental benefit

Environmental Damaqe

Social benefit

Social damage

Oil is a non-renewable resource. lt will never be replaced. We should not have sold it to foreigners but saved it for ourselves.

New airports have been built on the East coast of Scotland which now link up remote areas

Many sea birds have died from oil pollution around the Shetland and Orkney lslands.

0ur traditional
Scottish industries such as fishing have declined as people have left for betterpaid jobs in the oil

New shops, schools and health clinics have been built in parts of Scotland with the money from oil and gas.

Fig.7.5 Oil terminal at Brent

It was ok until recently, when they stopped building new rigs. So, me and my mates are threatened.

We no longer depend on imports as we have now our own supplies in


<< Wind power has a significant role to play in helping the UK to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to combat climate change. Total UK wind generating capacity now stands at 500 MW, and wind power provides 0.37 per cent of the UK's electricity demand. lt has vast potential.

<( Tidal power in Britain has great potential, being able to provide
tidal range is about 6 metres and there are two electric plants


of its electricity needs. Wales is a good example as its


Britain's coastal waters offer the potential of an abundant supply of wind power, if it can be harnessed effectively and efficiently, The UK's first offshore wind farm, off the Northumberland coast at Blyth, consists of two 2 MW turbines and began generating power in 2000. A major step has been the announcement of 18 potential sites for leases from the Crown Estates, which could result in a maximum of 540 turbines if all were to go ahead.
The world's first commercial wave power station unit has been commissioned on the coast of lslay, Scotland. This is the Land lnstalled Marine Powered Energy Transformer (LIMPEI), which has been developed by Wavegen and Queen's University Belfast with EU support. lt harnesses an oscillating water column technology to provide 500 kW for the national grid.


,(( Geothermal energy Britain has limited potential but

geothermal energy has been developed at Marchwood, near Southampton. There is a reservoir of hot water at 5,500 feet.

Britain's largest gas.from-garbage project was given the approval at the end of the 1980's.The site chosen was in the West Midlands at Meriden, where 4,000 Uday of domestic and industrial waste is disposed of in a 152ha controlled land fill site. lt produces methane and other gases from natural microbial processes. The methane is collected, cleaned and used directly for energy production.

2002 marks the tenth anniversary of the UN Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro. The conference, known as the "Earth Summit" focused on the links between environmental problems, economic conditions and socialjustice. From it emerged a commitment to the concept widely known as "sustainable development',. The Earth Summit brought together policy-makers, diplomats, scientists and media and non-governmental representatives from 179 countries to discuss how environmental protection and the management of naiural resources could be integrated with socio-economic issues of poverty and under-development. These goals can be achieved by: E encouraging economic development, including the technology thit is appropriate to the sftills, wealth and needs of local

Sustainable development needs careful planning and co-operation to encourage conservation. (protection from destructive infl uences). \n2002, the second Earth Summit, organised in Johannesburg, South Africa reinforced the global importance of sustainable development.

_ tr

using fewer and long-lasting natural resources without spoiling the environment.

Theamountof energyused perperson inthe UKis5,100 Kwh/yascomparedto 120Kwh/yin Kenyaand 11,600kwh/y

in the USA! The UK pumps more than 160 million tonnes of COr,2 million tonnes SO, and 300 tonnes of soot into the air each year by burning fossil fuels.




i t--------___

employment structure transnational companies assisted areas footloose industries science parks

A. Discussion points
Give examples of industries. b. What are the raw materials used by some of them?

Primary industries: the extraction of raw

materials directly from the earth or seas

Secondary industries: the processing and

manufacture using these primary products

B. Glassification of industry
The word 'industry' covers a number of activities which involve the making, supplying or delivering of goods and services to the population of a country. These activities can be grouped into three main categories according to the types ofjobs people do. They include:

Tertiary industries: the provision of services Quaternary industries: the provision of research,
information and expertise

primary, secondary

education, health, office work, local and national government, etc. micro-chip, microelectronics, research, design engineering and biotechnology, high technology steelworks, shipbuilding, furniture-making and car manufacture fishing, farming, forestry, mining and quarrying

industries. This is called the employment structure of a country. More recently a fourth category quaternary has appeared due to the changes in technology.

1. The four groups of activities mentioned above are listed above and are numbered 1-4. Match them with the types of activities marked a.d in the second box and write them into your copybook.

G. Location of lndustry
lndustry is not evenly spread around the United Kingdom. Some areas have a high concentration of industry and others have few industries. Their location is determined by various locational factors.

2. Brainstorm and list the factors which you

think might influence the location of a factory?
Different industries have very specific needs, which influence their locations. ln order to establish location we have to differentiate between:;um[
HEh.|cln*gr rFrf,oilcl

mmttst fi*reSS


heavy industries are usually old established industries
that rely on bulky raw materials and tend to be found close to raw materials sources. Why do you think this is the case? Today there has been a decline in heavy industries in Britain, such as shipbuilding and iron-and-steel,




rm.*a c*dE rrgl**,




so{,lil Htl.ts


light industries are less tied to a particular location

as they use small lightweight raw materials and


components to produce small, mostly high value goods.


3. Fig. 8.1 shows the industrial areas in

the UK. Draw lines to link the industrial names with a suitable location on the map.


lait*Elo0f ee.#o.ric.

sptr chsftatr

tffi ho.t

Fig. 8.1 lndustrial areas in the UK



The table below shows the factors which influence the location of heavy industry and light industries. Give reasons why the different industries are located in the places strown in fig. g.1.

Location factors
Raw materials Transport Power supply Markets bulky, heavy

Heavy industries small, light often of other indushies.

inelr rclriao


mainly by rail, ship or canal. Distance affects costs coal or water in the past, now electricity oil and gas closeness to customers reduces transport costs but closeness to raw materials more important large numbers of mostly unskilled manual labour extensive area of flat land situated near a city or on the coast
erecrnctry whtch is easy to hansport

products or sensitive to fashion changes

Labour supply Site


needed due to mechanisation or automation

D. lndustrial Change


Large sections of heavy industry in the North oiBritain have deilined since the second world war.

Read the following text to see what changes have taken place in the industrial structure of the U.K.

6. What do you think were the causes and effects of

industrial decline in the UK? List them in your
ln regions which have lost industries or where unemployment is high, governments have provided money or other forms of help to attract new investment. These are the so-called assisted areas where help comes in the form of: rent-free periods, grants and loans an improved infrastructure such as roads, water supplies and eleckicity retraining schemes to provide skilled labour force enterprise zones which make it easier for firms to set up in

. . . .

ihner city areas.

This assistance has attracted a lot of foreign firms or transnational companies, These are companies which operate in many different countries. The headquarters of transnational companies are usually located in developed countries and the 'branch'factories are in developing countries. A good example is the investment by foreign transnational companies in'Silicon Glen' in Central Siofland. This was a former traditional industrial area, but with the exhaustion of coal, heavy manufacturing induskies have declined. The establishment of the microelectronics industry (Philips, Siemens, lBM, Motorola, Hewlett packard, Nippon etc.) here has gone some way to solving one of the greatest problems of the region: unemployment. With the development of transport, industry does not have to be tied to a certain location, Many products are not tied to a certain location so many products are made on new industrial estates built on former greenfield sites on the edges of towns and cities, where the price of land is cheaper or along major motonvays. These industries are called foofloose industries. They have a relatrvely free choice of location. Many of them provide services for people and are therefore market oriented. The most recently developed foofloose industry is information technology (lT), which is a rapidty growing new high{ech industry. Firms which make or use lT equipment (computers, processors, fax-machines, etc.) often group together on pleasanl, newly developed science parks. Science parks usually have direct links with a university.

Fig. 8.2 Assisted areas in the UK

The employment structure of a country consists of ' primary secondary and tertiary industries. Heavy indushies tend to be found close to the raw materials whereas light indushies are closer to the markets. To stop decline and growing unemployment development schemes were launched to attract modern firms to regions that have lost industries.







Name three industries found in your home area. For



Eg I

A. has been there a long time or not B, is located near to raw materials or near to a large market a) ln order to show the changes in manufacturing

industry group the ideas below under the

A)19'h century industry


Some traditional industries have been modernised. Match the name of the industry with the products

B)Late 20* century industry 1. Situated mainly in old inner city areas.

End product often small and easy to transport. Employing often a female and small labour force. Often created air and noise pollution. Built near to main roads for more flexible transport. Needed large tonnage of raw materials. Located on or near coalfields or at ports. B. End product often bulky, difficult to move, 9. Market orientated as it supplies goods and services. 10. Found near to early canals and railways for bulk transport 11. Little air or noise pollution. 12. Employed mainly a male and large labour force. 13. Raw materials often from other factories. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A

Products . computer-controlled tractors . combined grass mower/drier

Ceramics and glass

. high-speed computerized knitting


. specialized alloys for hi-tech


Chemical industrv lron-andsteel

. industrial ceramics withstanding ultrahigh temperatures

. enerqv-savinq window qlass

. biodegradable detergents . biodegradable plastic

. qeneticallv-enqineered oesticides
9, Although the

Mechanical engineering

textile industry

traditional British

Write two paragraphs, one presenting 19'n century industry and another presenting late 20'n century industry. Which sectors of economy do the following belong to?

industry is very well developed, cotton production has been in decline for a long time, Can you think why?
10. Look at the map fig. 8.3 below and explain why there has been a migration of jobs towards the southeast?

A. Alpha OilRig
B. lmperialTobacco C. Coats Viyella D. British Aerospace E. British Ainrvays F. British Gas Distribution G. British Telecom H. Barclays Bank l. Safeway Supermarket J. London Stock Exchange Define the terms: footloose industry transnationalcompany science park assisted area

o ca

. . . .

a. What is information technology?


Name three ways in which you might use lT in a school.

Name two ways in which a government, local authority or development agency can encourage a footloose industry to set up in a particular location.

Why is an attractive countryside location an important factor in the location of modern industry?

Fig.8.3 Migration of jobs in the UK



The British pharmaceutical industry is the world's third biggest exporter of medicines, accounting for around 10 per cent of the world market. British firms discovered and developed five of the world's 20 beslselling

Britain's aerospace industry, the biggest aerospace industry in Europe, is one of only three in the world with complete capability across the whole spectrum of aerospace. The leading companies are: British Aerospace (BAe), Rolls-Royce GEC-Marconi.

Fig. 8.4 Pollution of the Environment

' lndustry creates waste and damages the environment. Look at the cartoon above and name the 5 types of pollution shown on it. lmagine that you lived or worked in this area. which two types of pollution would you dislike the most. Give reasons for your answer. How can industrial pollution be reduced?

At the turn of the century South Wales was an important industrial area with a quarter of a million coal miners, Coal was a major source of fuel and South Wales also had the raw

materials needed to make steel: limestone, iron ore and coal. At that time Britain still had an empire, which was a ready market for coal and steel. ln the past few years most coalmines have closed for several competition from other countries (Poland and South Africa) Britain lost some of its export markets for coal Most ofthe easily worked coal seams have been exhausted the development of alternative sources of fuel(oil and gas) This has led to a high rate of unemployment, which is well above the national average. The problem has been partly solved. The Welsh development

. . . .


Agency(WDA) was set up to help attract investment to Wales, which means that new companies locating in the area do not have to pay local taxes. As a result many large industrial estates have been set up and this, combined with a pool of skilled workers, acted as a magnet for foreign firms like Sony, Bosch and Toyota. ln Newport in South Wales a science park named lmperial Park was opened in 1994 offering: A - excellent road and rail-links B - a spacious parkland setting C - more than 9000m, office space available D - close ties with the lmperial College of Science and Technology E - purpose built accommodation F - support from Newport Borough council and the WDA
(Adapted from "Geography for GCSE")


,' i

arable pastoral pesticide fertiliser





A. Discussion points:
Farming is one of the most important human activities. Can you say why? b. Although half of the world's population is involved in farming, in Britain only 1 . 1 % of the workforce is employed in this field of activity. Despite this, British farming is one of the most developed in the world. Can you explain why British farmers are so productive?

B. Factors influencing farming

Farming decisions are affected by a variety of factors ranging from the physical features of the area in which the farm is situated to the farmers' skill, financial resources and even preferences.

1. List all the factors influencing farming given below

under two headings: Physical and Human Factors.
- rainfall, wind, temperature
- capital

- availability of transport and markets

- soil type
- technology (machinery) and expertise

- relief - farm ownership and size

Fig. 9.1 Types of farming

C. Types of farming a. rearing

The factors listed above have created a variety of farming types or patterns, which include:
of sheep

b. a combination of field crops and animal rearing



Pastoral or hill tarmins

Arable farmins

Market sardenine

growing of grain crops or cereals (wheat, barley, oats) and root or field crops (potatoes, turnips, sugar beet, hops, oilseed rape, etc.) in ploughed up land d. intensive cultivation of salad vegetables, fruit and flowers e. rearing dairy cattle mainly in the vicinity of urban areas

Match each of the farming types mentioned above with its correct definition from the riEht and write them in your

copybooks. Using the map Fig, 9.1 and your previous knowledge of farming types, relief and climate, fill in the table below:
Farminq type
Arable farming

Anglia) sheep beef cattle oios. ooultrv

- east of the UK (mainly East

Whv there?
deep, fertile soil

mountain areas oood orass (oastures)

Mixed farming
- dairy cattle

- between the drier east and

wetter west
- western paft of the UK

- fairly good soil - climate neither too dry nor too wet

- in the vicinitv of towns Market gardening

- south and east of England

- near big towns

fertile soil good climate and relief near urban markets

Fig. 9.2 Table showing different types of farming


D. Recent changes
ln the last few decades, British farming has suffered a continuous process of modernisation, mainly due to the discoveries in science and technology. Some other changes include: 1. Political inteference 2. Changes triggered by changing eating habits 3. Diversification of farming activities 4. Change in farm size and tenure (ownership)


Match each ofthe changes listed above with the right paragraph describing the change:

1_ 2_ 3_ 4_

a. As the expense of running a modern farm grows, many owners of small farms sell them to wealthier ones. Sometimes farms
are bought by food processing companies, which usually remove the hedges separating the smaller fields in order to practice an intensive farming..They run and manage these farms like factories and this is called agribusrness, b. ln the past, British farmers were encouraged by the government to produce more food and the government gave them grants, subsidies and guaranteed prices. ln more recent times they have sometimes been paid for not producing (policy called "set-aside" land) or for producing certain crops (e.9. oilseed rape). This is to control the overproduction of beef, butter and grain within the European Union (of which Britain is a member). The Common Agricultural Policy sets the price, type and amount of output as well as the quotas and subsidies. As a result of this policy, many British farmers have been forced out of business.
c, The political pressure often led to changes like: many of the fields set aside were turned into golf courses, many farms now

offer Bed and Breakfast (B&B) facilities or opportunities for pony trekking and rural tourism. However, the farmers who coulc not diversify or manage the changes, usually gave up farming, fact which led to the depopulation of British villages.


lt is the public demand which dictates what and how much food is to be produced. Recent changes include an increased demand for frozen, tinned and convenience foods, a desire for fresh fruit and vegetables throughout the year and concern with a healthy eating style. Also, many young people are vegetarians.

Organic farming is another recent change which appeared when people started to worry less about the quantity of food
produced for their consumption as about its quality. The food thus produced is called organic food.


Read the following text and in each case, circle the correct word or phrase:

"Concern about conventional farming methods has led people to demand food that is safe to eat, This can be obtained through organic farming which is an alternative/modern way of producing food. lt uses chemical/natural fertilizers and monoculture/crop rotation. lt is often more/less intensive and usually causes less/more damage to the environment. Organic farms are more/less likely to be mixed/arable farms since animals are used to provide manure for fertilising the soil. Another aspect of it is animal welfare: animals are usually kept indoors/outdoors where they move freely. However, crop and animal yields are higher/lower and normally look more/less attractive than those produced by using chemicals. The smaller/higher yield and greater/smaller amount of work involved, plus the consumers' willingness to pay more/less, make organic food more/less expensive,"


List the advantages and disadvantages of conventional and organic farming in the table below:
Conventional Farmino Oroanic Farmino



SUMMARY British farming is efficient due to the application of science and technology. Due to the diversity of soil, relief and favourable climate, plus the numerous human factors that affect it farming is also very varied. ln recent years, it has undergone a number of changes due to changes in society, politics and discoveries in the field of science and technology.



1. 0n
a simple level, the east, centre and west of Britain are each dominated by one type of farming. Draw the simplified map of farming from Fig. 9.3 in your notebook. Then decide what type of farming is practised in



B and C.
Less sunshine Lower temperatures

High rainfall Thin soil

Land is High value crops

does not allow do not allow allow(s)


crops grass

to grow. to ripen.

away from close to small laroe allows more

urban markets. atea. machinery to be used. animals to oraze it. inputs and machinery.

exnensive can be grown on a

land need helps help

Low-value orass
Flat Steeo Crops

More sunshine High temperatures Deeo soil


to grow. to ripen.

For area A and C choose suitable statements from the substitution table given above and list them under the headings:

Physical Faetors

Human Factors

Area B shares features of A and C, so it will combine the factors influencing the other two.


One of the most important changes experienced by the British farming in the last 40 years has been its conversion into an industry, Can you say in what respects farming is an industry? (Clues: buildings, technology, and management). Like any industry, farming has inputs, processes and outputs. The diagram below presents the farming system based on a mixed farm:


PROCESSES r ploughing r planting . fertilising


o straw

. relief . soil . climate



. . .

. spraying pesticides . harvesting . feeding/grazing . grass cultivation/silage . animal caring . calving/lambing

o milking

. silage . calves . bulls . lambs . manure . milk



machinery o buildings
land o seeds, livestock


fertilisers o pesticides
o government policies

flooding or drought

. market demand . kansport cost . new technologies

. .


Fig 9.4 Diagram of the farming system: a mixed farm


Now it is your turn to draw a diagram of the farming system based on a farm which specialises Use the words in the box to help you:


market gardening

fertilising, flowers, seeds, sunshine, market, crop spraying, Iabour, rain, celery, harvesting, Iand, pesticides, greenhouses, planting, cucumber, bulbs, hail, frost

The most widespread single crop in Britain is grass, out of the 150 varieties of grass growing, about 20 have commercial agricultural importance' They are turned into hay or silage (fermented grass, pickled in theibsence of air by wrapping it in plastic sheets), used as animal feed in winter, the rest being used for rough grazi-ng. (Siudy the pnotoi ln fig 9.5).

Farming can have beneficial as weli as harmful effects on the environment. Name the ways in which farming may affect the environment and suggest a suitable solution for each. Now read the following texts and check your predictions. While reading, underline the environmental damage produced by some farming methods.

are usually washed into lakes and rivers poisoning them. ln addition, fertilisers encourage the growth of water plants (tike algae), ;hich use up allthe oxygen in the water, thus leading to the death of fish and other organisms. Smallamounts of these chemicals can also build up in the crops themselves and thus enter the consumers, bodies,,

"Chemicalfertilisers are used to help crops to grow and pesficides are used to kill off insects and other pests. These chemicals

"Cutting down forests, also called deforestation. Trees are cut for the timber or to make space for agriculture or urban development. Trees, however,.provide shelter for many forms of wildlife and produce much oxygen. When trees are removed, the soil is easily eroded and landslides may occur, or the area can be turned into a desert or into marsh, if it is wet.,,

or hedgerows are fences of bushes and low lrees planted by British farmers hundreds years of ago to mark field boundaries and stop livestock from wandering. After the 1950s, howevei tn. h.og., started to be in the way of mechanised farming and in order to increase the size of their fields, farmers started to remove them. Thousands of kilometres trive oeen dug up so far and this worries the conservationists a lot. Study the arguments brought by farmers and conservationists in the debate about the hedgerow removal. Which of the points below might be put fonrvard by each of the two sides?
The hedges

Hedge trimming takes

up a lot of time

Hedges can't be moved easily but fences can

Hedges provide shelter from rain and wind for cattle and sheep Hedge cutting machinery is expensive

Hedges provide shelter for small animals and birds They take up land that could be farmed Hedges make the corners and edges of fields difficult to farm Hedges act as wind barriers and prevent soil erosion lnsects and animals in the hedgerows may damage the crops and weeds from hedge may spread into field

Fig. 9.6 Hedge Trimming

Write two short lefters to a farming magazine. ln one explain the point of view of the farmer who wants to dig up some of his hedges, while in the other you are a conseruationisi trying to persuade farmers not to remove more hedges.



tidalflow scheme

A. Discussion points
Using a word web, brainstorm the word transport:

Passenger Transport in Great Britain by Mode




-E ooo

B. General Features of British transport
Over the last fifty years, British transport has changed a lot, as shown in fig.'10.1 on the right. 1. To understand why the pattern oftransport has


E +oo o



.9 200




changed in Britain, compare the main advantages and disadvantages of each mode of transport by filling in the gaps in the table below. Some answers have been completed for you.



Bus and




Fig. 10.1 Passenger transport in Britain




fast (over short

distances) cheap
\ i.-i-

RAIL fast (over long

distances) ouite exoensive




Cost Safetv Convenience Number of routes Gomfort Pollution Congestion

Weather Passenoers


]A-,'?.-\ nl.n.Si:'o







verv hiqh

doorto-dooI oo,rrlccLtb.t' not very high (especially for


.,\l- r-.r- :l-\-Y not too flexible (decreasing)

the hiqhest i'or rr'."*c..\ -tl+ * 0.,< poor a few airports only

\alo q3+'.
{ {1rr-\;r

qrr.'\g $U


good (except for airsickness)


1r"r,- (rrii,,.,.1i,':. , (3i

virtually none
very little

limited (noise) little track conqestion virtually unaffected

little affected (ice and foo) light goods of high value

g'is.o\' r \,r.\ro,r
'\A i1.rQ.\='


Mainlv ferries



Fig. 10.2: Types of transport Advantages and Disadvantages 2. Analysing fig. 10.1 and fig. 10.2, decide which are the most important modes of transport in Britain and suggest reasons why ?

C. Road Transport
Apart from the evidence suggested in fig. 1 0.1 , the importance of road kansport in the UK is shown by the following statistical

69% ofall households have the use ofone car and 24 per cent have two or more cars. lorries carry over 80% of the freight (or goods) there are 400,000 km of trunk roads (A roads) in Britain 1 and 3000 km ofmotoruuays (M although motoruvays represent only 1% of the total length of roads, they carry some 20% of the traffic.


Fi9.10.3: Motorway in Britain

Perq\.,c^tnn !; (,:pr.





. . . . .

Examine fig. 10.3 and describe the advantages of motorways over other types of roads. What is the purpose of the hard sho ulder\l)? How many /anes (2) are there in each direction of driving? What is the role of the separafln g barrier (3)?

4. Considerthe advantages described above and compare

them against the disadvantages listed below:
take up large areas of land congestion at peak hours serious pile-ups (large scale accidents) monotonous restrictions of building too close to urban or highland areas

ln your notebooks, list all the above.mentioned advantages and disadvantages of motonuays, plus others you can think of.
10.4 concentrated

6. Why is the motorway network in fig.

in southern and central Britain?

7. Which are the main areas in Romania that would

D. RailTransport

benefit from the building of motorways? Why is the building of M-ways so slow in Romania as compared

Fig. 10.4

The motorway network in the UK


Railways were pioneered in Britain, the first line being opened in 1825, towards the end of the lndustrial Revolution. A vast network developed during the 19'n century and the railways were nationalised in 1948. After 1965, a serious decline began.

This is due to measures like: a. re-privatisation of railways in 1997 b. modernisation of trains, tracks and signalling systems c. creation of specialised trains (Freightliners for goods equipped with specialist wagons, lnter-City trains for passengers, combining speed with increased comfort) d. attractive prices for off-peak hours and off-season periods, plus advanced bookings



8. Can you explain why rail transport developed so rapidly

in the 19'h century and declined after 1965? At present, after years of decline, rail transport is on the verge of a renaissance. lt has increasedby 20k since 2000.

9. Study the measures taken to improve rail transport

and say which problem each improvement has tried to solve.

E. Water




ntern al Water Tran sport


iv, cargo loading and unloading is done now by new bulk

handling methods replacing the costly traditional methods, which needed a very large labour force.

After a peak period of canal building and use in the 18'n and centuries, inland water transport in the UK has declined. At present very few of the canals and watenruays in the UK are used for transport, e.g. the Thames carries 50% of all water traffic. The Forth, Humber and Mersey are also important.

11.Which of the following examples of modernisation (a-d)can be linked to the problems experienced by water transport in the UK (i.iv) and could represent a solution for them?
After having been the world's leading shipping nation, Britain's fleet is now much smaller. b. Deeper water ports, which handle special goods have developed (e.9. Felixstowe-containers, Milford Haven-oil, Port Talbot-iron ore, etc.) c. Development of ro-ro (roll-on roll-off) facilities, which allow lorries with containers to drive straight into ships and drive off at the end of the voyage. (e.9. Dover Calais, Holyhead Dublin) d. Most of the docks in Liverpool, once the main port in Britain, have closed and have been replaced by a large container dock, which handles the same volume of cargo but with a very small labour force. lts pr6sperity depended on trade with America but now much of Britain's trade is with Europe, which favours east coast ports like Felixstowe.


10.Why has inland water transport generally declined so much and why did canals

the 19" century?

Offsh ore W{6i tr a nsport This continues to carry some g5% of all the goods transported overseas, yet it has also experienced a general decrease. The changes experienced by the British offshore water transport are
due to:

i. world recession and a decline in trade ii. increase in ship size which needed deeper and

wider harbours iii. changing of overseas markets and trade routes



Air Transport

Air Transport has not developed on a large scale within Britain because of the country's relatively small size; however, British overseas air transport is on the increase (see fig. 10.5). For example, London alone is served by four airports.
12. Study fi9.10,5 and

fig. 10.6 which shows the volume of passenger traffic at the United Kingdom's main airports. Which of these airports serve London? (Clue: they are located closest to the capital),

Heathrow Gatwick

990 1995 1998 1999 2000 42.6 54.1 60.4 62.0 64.6 21.0 22.4 29.0 30.4 32.0
10.1 1.2

Manchester Stansted Sirminoham Glasqow Luton




11 .B

3.5 4.3 2.7

3.9 5.2 5.4


6.8 6.6 6.5


9.4 6.9 6.8 5.3

7.5 6.9

Fig. 10.5 United Kingdom's main airports (millions of passengers per year)


Traffic problems such as: pollution, congestion, speed, parking have increased and will probably continue to do so,
especially in towns.

Study the measures listed below which are used to reduce traffic problems in Britain. What problem does each of the measures a-j try to solve?
a. Bus lanes aimed at separating cars from buses and give priority to buses.

Fig 10.6 lnternational and Regional Airports in Britain

f. Sleeping policemen are humps in the road meant to slow

traffic down in residential areas

b. Cycle lanes meant to encourage cycling in towns g. Wheel clamping is applied for illegal parking; the motorist

c. Multi-storey or underground car parks

d. Park and ride schemes which try to limit the number of cars entering the town centre by providing relatively cheap parking space at ihe edge of town and then running low cost buses from there into the town centre

has to pay a large fee for his car to be freed.

h.. One-way streets

i. Ecological cars/engines and other forms of "green

transport'encouraged by the government. Most car engines now run on leadJree petrol. The biogas driven and electric car may be the vehicles of the future.

e. Tidal flow schemes in which a S-lane urban motonray is

provided with traffic lights at shorl distances along its length. ln the morning 3 lanes are open to traffic going into town and in the evening the traffic leaving town has more space.

j. Diversion of heavy traffic

and by-passes)

oul of town (using ring roads

Road safety in Britain is said to be one of the highest in the European Union. Road safety measures involve the cooperation of many organisations and groups such as: vehicle drivers, motorcycle riders, pedestrians, vehicle manufacturers, local authori road builders, police forces, law makers and schools. ln pairs, make a list of measures that each of the above groups can take to increase road safety. You might need words like: improve, enhance, enforce, increase, decrease, introduce. e.g. police - introduced automatic speed cameras law makers - made seaf be/fs compulsory for all the car seafs.

Summary: British transport is diversified. The most widely used mode of transp'ort is the road. The ones in greatest decline are rail and water.

"t +,
r I0

Transport affects the environment in various ways. Column A lists the detrimental effects of transport on the environment, while column B lists some ways of protecting the environment. a. Match the items in the two columns, bearing in mind that one protection measure may have beneficial etfects on more than one item in column A. b' Write in your notebooks full sentences connectinE the two items, as in the model: ,,The use of electric cars means a smaller consumption of fossil fuels. lt will lead both to the conservation of the resources and to a reduced pollution.',

t,l. l. l'

Column A - Problems
pollution (visual, noise, air, water) fuel consumption dangerous for pedestrians destruction of old buildings (through vibrations from vehicles, fumes) car parks and motonivays take up a lot of land
a a

Column B - Solutions
electric cars unleaded petrol cheaper than leaded petrol development of public transport (bus lanes in towns, subsidies for some bus services) cycle lanes pedestrian areas


Fig. 10.7 Diagram of the Channel Tunnel

The Channel Tunnel was begun in 1987 by an Anglo-French company and is also known as Eurotunnel, the Chunnel or the Trans.Manche link. lt was finished in 1994. It is made up of three tunnels, two for passenger and freight trains, including special shuttle trains transporting cars and lorries, and a smaller service tunnel (see fig. 10.7). Eurotunnel is 50 km long, 37km of this under the water. It connects terminals near Folkstone and Calais (fig. 10.S). The journey of the Eurostar train through the tunnel takes only about 20 minutes, but there are also trains that start from London and go to Paris or Brussels. These journeys last for about 3 hours.

ln pairs, draw up a list of advantages and disadvantages of the Eurotunnel, Use information from fig. 10.8 and from the text box next to it, plus your own knowledge.
Add the following points to your list:


of Britain and Europe have been joined trade and industry has been helped
road and rail networks

job losses in ports and ferry companies animals may get through tunnel and bring such diseases as rabies (non-existent in the UK)




Britain's 200-year old canal system has been proposed as a UNESCO Heritage Site to rank alongside the Great Wall of China, the Acropolis and the Taj Mahal. Being the first netvyork of transport in the rlorld's first industrial revolution. it is considered suitable to meet the UNESCO requirements of "masterpiece of human creative genius". lt was started in the 17'n century. Canal building reached its peak at the climax of the lndustrialRevolution, in the 18'n-i9'n centuries.3000 miles of canals were built. They were particularly suitable for the transport of heavy, bulky goods such as coal and stone. They also solved the problem of making Britain's short and Fig. 10.9 A canal lock shallow rivers navigable. However, the network linking England's main rivers fell into decline with the ascent of the railway. Nowadays they are experiencing a revival. Using figure 10.9, suggest what canals are used for today.



rlrl.rcremrnffire[! ANE Ro[mrcM

i---------l-eisure I


ffiG [trs
parks ecotourism




holidays/ honey pots national


A. Discussion Points a. How important is free time to you? b. How much free time do you have? c. Makealistofthings/activitiesyouassociatewithyourfreetime.e.g.dancing,watchingtelevision,hikingetc.
d. What
is tourism? Brainstorm the word


.&Types of recreational activities in the United Kingdom

1. a) Study the tree map below, which shows some of the leisure activities in Britain. Give suitable examples of the
activities in the boxes in the tree map below.

/information that you already

know more about

b.) Read the text below and mark in the margin different kinds of information using the following code: + new information ? confusing information or something you would like to


ln recent years, Britain has been described as "a leisure society". This is because there is a great variety of leisure pursuits and people have more time and money to spend on relaxation. Some recreational activities refer to indoor activities, others to outdoor sporting activities such as water sports, golf, etc.

This latter category is not always beneficial to the natural environment and even puts places located near lakes and the coast at risk. Tourism has recently become an important business and the fastest growing industry in the world. This tertiary activity is concerned with providing services to people who wish to spend more time away from home, usually on holidays (defined as spending four or more nights away from home, as opposed to day outings). ln Britain there has been an increase in "active" holidays and in self-catering, as well as a greater awareness of providing
sustainable tourism.

G. Changing patterns in the British

tourist industry

ln the last hundred years, the annual period of holiday has become a defining part of the British way of life with increasing numbers of families travelling abroad or taking more than one holiday per year. Such countries as Spain ( 28%), France (220/o\ but also the USA (7.5%) are holiday Factors influencing Specific examples Examples of areas destinations for the British residents in 2000. Most tourism of them take more than one holiday per year

practising different forms of tourism: day trips, cultural, historic, educational and recreational. Recent trends in tourism and the changing demands made especially in the kinds of holidays people now take and where they take them, have sprung from a wide range of factors such as: scenery, weather, hansport, more leisure time, amenities, a.s.o. Some of the factors influence the location of the holiday industry. (Fig.11.1) Other factors such as greater affluence, greater mobility, and more leisure time reflect the new trends that have changed the face of British tourism


Sandv coasts


Weather Transport

Sunshine Snow
Water transport Car and couch Plane


Channel lslands



Hotels and B&B resorts Caravan parks and campsites Cultural and historical olace Active amenities
Package tours

NationalParks York Kielder (reservoir)

2. Complete the blanks

in the table (Fig. 11.1)

with appropriate information

Advertising and TV 0r00rammes

Fig. 11.1 Tourism in the UK



LD. National Parks in the UK

National parks are defined by Act of Parliament (1949) as "areas of great natural beauty giving opportunity to open air recreation, established so that natural beauty can be preserved and enhanced, and so that the enjoyment of the scenery by the public can be promoted." According to the definition above, national parks in the UK are of great importance. The facts listed below show evidence of this:

o Britain's first national parks set up in the 1950s; o 11 national parks in England ano Wales today; o some of the most spectacular upland scenery; o only one coastal national park Wales , Pembrokeshire; o mainly in private ownership (farmers) - BlYo - although
bodies such as the National Trust, the Forestry Commission, the WaterAuthorities are important landowners;

o o

supportive to local population who are dependent on primary and tertiary forms of employment, although sometimes conflicts may arise; many of the nation's "honeypots" areas of attractive scenery or of historic/cultural interest; many opportunities for outdoor activities (riding, walking, fishing) and specialist attractions (caving, gorge walking. etc.)

3. ldentify the national parks according to the number

is situated.
Key to the map

on the map (Fig. 11.2). Name the region in which the national park

Name of National Park

1, Northumberland


Day Trip Resort Long Stay Resorts


I f

2. North York Moors 3. Lake District 4, Yorkshire Dales 5. Peak District

6. Snowdonia 7 The Broads B. Pembrokeshire Coast CulturavHistoric




951 951

1 1


1 1 1

9. Brecon Beacons 10.Exmoor

11. Dartmoor

957 954

12 New Forest


Planned park for the South Downs, not yet decided


Fi9.11.2 Location of holiday resorts and national parks in the UK

Britain is considered nowadays a'leisure society'as people have more time, money and oppoftunities to relax. There are many indoor and outdoor recreafional activities connected with holidays. Tourism is a fast-growing industry and an important factor in Britain's economy. New frends have appeared recently according to changing lifestyles. National Parks are important tourist aftractions although conflicts over their use lead to the susfainable tourism debate.

Geoprofilos 4.

' -t>


1. a. Thefollowingdefinitionsrefertorecreation,leisure,holidaysandtourism.Saywhichsentencebelowdefineseach
term mentioned:
1. time when you are not working or studying and you do things you enjoy 2. the business of providing things for people to do and places to stay in their free time 3. activiiies you do for pleasure or amusement as a pastime or hobby

4. spending at least 4 nights away from home to relax

b. Give 5 reasons why Britain is considered nowadays a "leisure society".

to: computer

Here are some tips of what the term refers games / indoor pools / Friday nights go out to disco or pub / Sundays a day to rest

c. According to statistics, in 2001, British Ainrvays London

Eye was at the top of UK tourist attractions charging admission. Other attractions in the list were Madame Tussaud's in London, Canterbury Cathedral and Windsor Castle. On the other hand, Blackpool Pleasure Beach was at the top of UK free tourist attractions, followed by the British Museum, the National Gallery and the Tate Gallery in London. Classify each tourist attraction as belonging to one of the types of tourism: cultural tourism (CT); recreation tourism (RT)

2. Using the description of Hogmanay in Scotland, choose

st. The

one specific Romanian holiday to describe.

)Nfl I

OHogmanay is the celebration of the NewYear in Scotland. lts official date

until the morning of the

is the 31'' December, which lasts through the night

first footing, which starts after midnight. This involves being the first person to cross the threshold of a friend or neighbour and often involves the giving of symbolic such as coal, money or shortbread, intended to bring different kinds of luck to the householder.

most widespread national custom is the praciice of


Read the information below. Discuss the possible differences that exist between theme parks and country parks. As traditional holiday patterns have been changing, the demands placed on the countryside have also changed. More people are seeking outdoor recreation, some of the most popular being: visits to theme parks, visits to a zoo, picnics, walks in a country park, swimming, angling, horse riding, observing wildlife.

Theme parks > very popularfor day-outings > provide activities for the whole family


not usually found within towns

Country parks
> created in the 1970's to avoid

environmental damage and erosion > Vary in size and attractions

> problems arising from overcrowding

on lakes
> disturbance to wildlife reseryes > few parking areas



Each year, the Queen and other members of the Royal Family attend the Trooping of the Colour ceremony on Horse t^l,lo: jl L-ylon The Queen attends the ceremonyio take the salutefro; thousands ot guaiJsmen who parade the 9::l1t colour (or flag). Queen's

O British bank holidays O C

have been recognized since 1871. The name Bank Holiday comes from the time when Banks were shut and so no trading could take place. one type- of activity holiday much appreciated by the British is the so-called "murder weekend"during which you can find yourself living out the plot of a detective story.
The father of modern mass tourism was Thomas Co-ok who, on July 5,1841,organised the firsi package tour in history. He took a group of teetotalers from Leicester to a rally in Loughborough, some twenty miles away. Cook immediately siw the potential for business development in the sector, and became the world's first tour operator

As tourism has now become the world's greatest industry, ecotourism represents a very powerful means to ddvelop biodiversity. The principal objective of ecological tourism is to benefit from nature, landscapes or specific species by promoting environmental responsible travel to relatively undisturbed areas in order to enjoy and appreciate nature and accompanying culturalfeatures and become aware of the need for preserving natural capital and cultural capital. There is a strong relationship between ecotourism and conservation, sustainability and biodiversity, a relationship which meets the interests of many international organisations.
(Ad a pted fro m wi ki pedi

a' R9a.{ the case study on Snowdonia. Compare this national park with a national park in Romania and identify two similarities and two differences between them. Make up the profile of the Romanian park according to the model


' ' '

' ' '


Snowdonia is a region of North Wales and a National Park, the second largest in England and Wales. The area is renowned for its spectacular mountainous and coastal scenery, containing glaciated eltuaries aid valleys, broad-leaved woodlands, rugged mountains with alpine flora, sandy bays and large sand dune systems. The area is named after Snowdon (in Welsh Yr Wyddfa) also containi an unusual variety of wildlife habitats. Therefore it is very popular with tourists. The park is governed by the Snowdonia National Park Authority, which is made up of local government and Welsh national representatives. Snowdonia is made up of both public and private lands under a central pla-nning authority. The 6 million annual visitors are bound to cause problems, both to the environment and io the pirk's residents. These problems include, among others, traffic pollution, footpath erosion, conflicts between farmers and tourists as well as between park residents and holiday house owners. Snowdonia's culture is intertwined with the Welsh langrage, which is spoken by much of the population as Gwynedd was the stronghold of the Welsh princes whose people were of Celtic origin. The park is renowned for its wealth of archaeological remains sliowing how people have inhabited the area over the last 6,000 years. There are many buildings of archaelogical and historical importance including casfles built by Welsh princes and Edward l's fortress at Harlech. There are other special attractions as well, such as Greenwood Centre a forest park that provides opportunities for family , adventure or the Labyrinth where Welsh tales of King Arthur are retold in dramatic undergiound settinis. (lnformation adapted from the Snowdonia National park site)
3'o National park In England and Wales Area: 2, (213,200 ha) Highest Point: Mt Snowdon, 1,085 m Land use: unenclosed mountain/moorland, deciduous woodlands, water and buillup areas, agricultural land, forest areas Scenery 37 km ofcoasfline 1 5 peaks over 1 ,000 m over 100 lakes Population: living withln the park: 26,250 Welsh speakers (1999): 70% Age (18-64) 15,400 Visitor days per year: 6.6 million

Designated: 1951 , as the




C. '% r.+

Complete the following map of the UK by writing in the names of islands, seas. Show the boundaries between the countries belonging to the UK.

q\fi ii

CC\P \. b"rc.t


itr tr




,.fr. ]J

I *r\ ,7













Make a short description of the relief in Britain by filling in the gaps in the below. lntermsof landscapetherearetwomain areasinBritain: .......:.--:-.................. and.....ll) . ............. whose boundary can be roughly defined by an imaginary oblique line.

..ri>*,, ... .ir ( m)situated in the .............:'.::":::.......... .. .. . Mts in ScotlanMhe lowland area is mainly situated inthe .....*..-..........1:;.. partof the country and aroundthe . .....**..1.:.... Except forthe areascalled

... .. ..


3. 4.

of .......i,.,.......(also called escarpmp(s), valleys and plains. Enumerate the elements of weathe[g).Give the definitions of the weather and of the climate

b) Which are the factors affecting climate? How do they act? Characterize the rivers in Britain Which are the most important rivers flowing into the Norlh Sea and which are those that flow into the lrish Sea_and the Atlantic Ocean respectively?

5. What is a)density (b)migration c)green belt d)urban sprawl 6. Which are the energy resources? How can you group them? ., 7. Give the classification of industry: a) \.b)


of farming do you know?

8, What physical factors and what human factors influence farming? How many types
Which are they?




Choose the correct answer. There may be 2 possible solutions.

6. The wettest part of


Which sea separates Britain from lreland?

a) North


b) lrish


c) Celtic Sea



Britain is:



c) south-west

2. Which is the narrow channel between Great Britain and

7. Where are most of

Britain's oil rigs?

mainland Europe?
a) British Channel b) Pentland

a) English Channel b)Atlantic


c) North Sea


c) Strait of Dover

3. Mt. Snowdon is the highest peak in: a) b) England and Wales c) Scotland


8.The most eitensive farming type in Britain is?: a).[ill farming b) market gardening c) crofting is the most developed economic section:

4. ln which country is Loch Ness? a) Scotland b) Republic of lreland c). Wales S.What is the climate in Britain like?







first N'ational Park established in the UK was: District b) Snowdonia c) Lake District




Here are some superlatives of UK. Write the correct ideas, places, names, and figures 01. Official name of the country
02. Type of country

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern

2. lnsular country

03. Largest country (in area 04. Largest city 05. Highest peak 06. Longest river 07. Largest lake 08. Lowest area
09. Wettest areas 10. Warmest areas

5. 6. 7. 8.


11. Highest temperature recorded 12. Lowest temperature recorded


13. Largest group of islands

14. Most densely populated 15. Most sparsely populated



14. 't5.


w{ cilA jrrr"t:l

Now it is time to travel around the UK. Choose a region from the map (Fig.1). ln your groups make a poster to present the region. Focus on the notions already covered in the book' The following guidelines might help you organize your work:


Which part of ihe country?



forms of relief (best solution a map of the region)


: :

- average temperature for summer (July) and

winter (January) (Fig, 3.2 and 3,3)

- amounts of precipitation (Fig.3.a)


- rivers and lakes in the region




- population distribution (Fi9.5.1), migration

rj f "rf'rl

-". .,

- is the region mainly rural or urban - most important cities



What energy resources can be found in the region? Fig.

B. INDUSTRY :What is produced in the region? (Fi9.8.1)

1 Regions of the


9. AGRICULTURE : What type of farming is to be found in


the region? (Fig.9.1)


. . .

- density of motonruay network - airports (Fig.10.2) (- don't forget the tunnel)

nationalflag (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern lreland) national symbols pictures and other info: httpl/ and other related sites on the internet



famous sights (preferably pictures)

To make your proiect more interesting you can add a cultural side to it by including in it element such as:

personalities connected to it

short descriptions of famous sights

hrstorical information

recipes/dishes typical for area

animals, plants, typical for area traditional customs music, dances, sports, products (if any)
maps, diagrams, icons

literary works connected to it


north less than '1,000 km from the south coast (Lizard Point, cornwall, England) to the extreme (Duinet Head, north-east Scotland) and under 500 km across at the widest poinis. Length and width of the


Name of country Area Pooulation Caoital citv Hiqhest peak Lonqest/main river Lanouaqe spoken Pooulation densitY Name of country Area Pooulation Capital citv Hiohest oeak Lonqest/main river Lanquaqe spoken Pooulation densitv

130.433 50 million London Scafell Pike (978 m) The Severn (322km)



377 inhabitants/sq km Scotland 78.822 5 million

Edinburqh Ben Nevis (1343 m) The Tav (193km) Scottish Gaelic (English) 64 inhabitants/sq krtl

Wales 20.778 3 million Cardiff Snowdon (10E5 m The Severn (5zzKm Welsh (Enqlish 140 inhabitants/sq Km

Northern lreland
13,576 2 million Belfast Slieve Donard (853m; '' The Bann (a4km) lrish (Enqlish) 124 inhabitants/sq km




lr't-'i:rtl.i. tit+;;tti r,, l

The Union Jack

Symbols of the four countries

EIIZ zzlrN





,' i


points time-zones outlying areas contiguous dependent territories

between the following terms:


A. Discussion points: a. Do you know the difference



9,629,091 km' (total) 9,158,960 km' Land 470,131 km' Water 19,924km' Coastline 1,717,854km' Alaska -(largest state) Rhode lsland - (smallest state) 4,002 km'
US area

North America, Anglo-America and the Americas? Can you say to which of the above-mentioned groups

does the USA belong? How does the USA differ from the other countries in the region from the geographical point of view?

B. Location of the United States of America

1. Read the

following texts to find out about the location

of the US.
The United States of America, the fourth largest country in the world covers an area of 9,629,091km'z. Most of the country is in the central part of North America. lt is bordered by Canada in the North and Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico in the South. The Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans wash its western and eastern shores. There is a great deal of physical variety within the USA. lt is also one of the most populous countries in the Western Hemisphere 275,562,673 million inhabitants - (2000 census)

Find the approximate latitude and longitude of the American territory the mainland of which includes the contiguous 48 states. Take into consideration the extreme points (Fig.1 2.1 ).

Fig.12.1 Extreme points of the USA

3. ldentify and locate

on the map (Fig.12.2) the peninsulas, islands and gulfs which are part of the USA. They reflect the complexity of the coastli with varying characteristics: deep, meandering estuaries on the eastern coast and high and rocky cliffs on the western coast, The Gulf of Mexico is low, sandy, with a delta.

Fi9.12.2 Location of the USA


C. Time Zones in the USA

4. Read the text and find the states which are located in each time zone. Because of its large extension from Norlh to South and from East to West, there are four time zones in the USA:

Eastern, Central, Mountain and Pacific.

When midnight comes to New York, it is 11 p.m. in Chicago, 10 p.m. in Denver and only 9 p.m. in Los Angeles. This
means that if you travel from the East to the West, you must set your watch back one hour when entering a new zone. lf

you travel from the West to the East, you set your watch ahead one hour at each time zone.






Administrative Structure of the United States

of America

Fig. 12.3 Time zones in the USA

The United States of America has a complex administrative structure with 50 states, one Federal District and several dependent territories.
5. Study the map below and fill in the blank spaces with suitable words. Choose the words from the box below. :The U.S. is one of the (2)qf the slates are enclosed in the within one othertwo no* !h. far NW part of North America and li(6) lying in the Pacific Ocean. There is also onelirderal District (District of Columbia)wherethecapital (7)issituated.TheNorthernbo6derwithrlrp,*cd-O\ (8) is tl is situated. The Northern bo[der with {]r (8)isthe longest continuous frontier in the world. 6,000 km long and passes through tour lA,_IZJ (9). The USA lA,_l/-i) possesses some (10) territoriei in Central Americian'd .uch as Puerto'Rico and the Virgin

common inrl^^^.- i3[he




\jl:) D?-,. z-(7)

*,+$+ui[+)S-tesg'..,,=$+\4-(5111 }-^^cr,(O\ *--four






.onrltgrors, Alaska, washington D.c., cqnada,

-lr!!g!, Hawaii,


The USA is a huge country in North America consisting of 50 states and one Federal District. The long coastline shapes the inland territory and its economic activities. Alaska and Hawaii were the last states admitted in the Union. They are separated from the mainland just like the other dependent territories.



1. Let's play the game "free association"
starting with the words "The USA".
ln turns, each student makes associations to the previous word. e.g. the USA New York East Coast Washington D.C.- the capital etc.

2 . Use the map of the USA to locate the following cities on the map, according

to their latitude and longitude.

. Atlanta, Georgia, 340N., 84oW . Boston, Massachusetts, 430N.,710W . Seattle, Washington, 480N.,1 22oW . Las Vegas, Nevada,36oN.,11sow.

Norfolk, Virginia, 360N., 760W.,

3. Explain what a time zone is. Give

some examples of the problems that can result from the existence of a time zone.

Fig. 12.5 Location of the USA


Give the antonyms of: contiguous, easternmost, meandering. Use the

words in sentences to iescribe your country.

>|fl I

5. Choose the correct form in the context:

a) The USA is/are part of North America. b) The largest gulf along the Pacific Ocean is Alaska's
Gulf/ the Gulf of Alaska.


The Hawaiian islands/archipelago has/have a subtropical


There is much/many physical variety in America.


Unscramble the following anagrams to give the name

of three types of gulfs along the American coastline:

b) Link


by arrows the names description on the right San Francisco Mexico Chesapeake Gulf of

ratusey on the left with the deep, meanderrng , elongated low, with lagoons, sandY long, narrow steep-sided inlet tectonic, deep-water gulf

Bay Gulf Bay Alaska

7. The table below is an extract from a US train timetable showing time of arrival (hour, day) in various places on
the route from New York to Los Angeles passing through Chicago, route that is passing through the four time
zones. a) Locate the places on a map. b) Why is the journey from New York to Los Angeles shorter than that from Los Angeles to New York?

From New York-Penn Station, NEW Y0RK to Los Angeles Union Station, CALIFORNIA

From New York Chicago,lllinois

Los Angeles

To Chicago,lllinois
Los Angeles

Chicago, lllinois
New York

Chicago, lllinois

Departs 2:50 pm o3t29l04 3:15 pm 03t30t04 6:45 pm 04to2l04 7:00 pm 04l04lo4

9:20am 03t30t04 8:15 am 04to1t04 3:20 pm 04t04lo4 1:50 pm 04lo5lo4

Remember : The American wav of writing the date is month/day/year way



The geographical centre of the 48 contiguous states is located at Lebanon in Kansas, the geographical centre of the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii) is in Butte County, South Dakota at 44"58' N, 103"46',W. the geographical centre of North America is in North Dakota, a few miles west of Devils Lake, at 48"10'N,

a car trip from the Pacific Coast to the Atlantic Coast typically takes a minimum of five days with almost no stops to look around. the gap between the warmest and coldest high temperatures on a given day in the United States could reach 70 'Fahrenheit (about 40 'Celsius) the north-south distance, from Canada in the north to Mexico in the south is over 1,500 miles (2,500 kilometres)

the full width of North America, from the Atlantic Ocean on the east to the Pacific Ocean on the west is over 2,800 miles (over 4, 500 kilometres).

American Celebrations
Flag Day on June 14 is among the national celebrations celebrated in the USA. ln the 20'n century this has become an important issue. lncluded in the code of ethics are such rules, as the national flag cannot be used for advertising. It cannot cover a monument or any ceilings. lt must not be folded while being displayed. No one should write on an American flag. Ships can lower their flags slightly in greeting each other, but othenivise should not be dipped for any other object or person. The first flag, called the Grand Union, was first flown at the headquarters of the Continental Army on January 1,1776.

Thanksgiving Day is the fourth Thursday in November. The holiday dates back lo 1621, the year after the Puritans
arrived in Massachusetts. After a hard winter, in which about half of them died, their neighbours, the lndians taught them how to plant corn and other crops. The next fall the rich harvest inspired the Pilgrims to give thanks by holding a feast. To this day, fhanksgiving dinner almost always includes some of the food served at the first feast: roast turkey, cranberry sauce, potatoes, and pumpkin pie.

The Fourth of July or lndependence Day honours the nation's birthday the signing of the Declaration of lndependence
on July


Martin Luther King Day is the third Monday in January. The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., an African-American
clergyman, is considered a great American as he fought to secure civil rights for all people through non-violent means. Since his assassination in 1968, memorial services have marked his birthday.

Memorial Day - the last Monday in May. lt commemorates the national heroes buried in Arlington. Arlington National
Cemetery in Virginia is the nation's largest national cemetery. Not only are members of the armed forces buried here, astronauts, explorers and other distinguished Americans have all been honoured with a special place. President John Kennedy is buried in a spot overlooking Washington D.C. On Memorial Day, the President or Vice President of the United States gives a speech and lays a wreath on the tombs. Members of the armed forces shoot a rifle salute in the air.

Veterans'Day -Novemberll.lnlglB,ontheeleventhhourof


rejoiced and celebrated. After four years of bitter war, an armistice was signed. The "war to end all wars" was over. Nowadays, Americans give thanks for peace on Veterans' Day. There are ceremonies and speeches aRd at 11 :00 in the morning, most Americans observe a moment of silence, remembering those who fought for peace.





rolling foothills






A. Discussion points
Look at the physical map of the US fig. 13.2. Do you find any similarities in terms of relief between Britain and the US?

B. The types of relief

1. Read the

following passages to find out about the types of relief found in the USA. Using mapfig.13.2 fill inthe gaps.

According to age the mountains in the USA are grouped into two categories: Mountains. They are like a Old:long wall, almost parallel with the eastern coastline. The highest peak is Mt. Mitchell 2037m. where the Coastal Plains and the Central Plains meet.

tVew; the west-coast mountains, which are part of the Cordilleras and form two disiinct ranges:



, the eastern range, bordered bY the Great Plains in the east and by the intermontane Basins in the West. They are characterised by a complex system oftroughs and ridges.

of the USA are high and situated west of the Rockies. They are also known as lntermontane Basins and consist of three subdivisions: - the the norih in the middle - the - the in the south

- the

again of two tyPes:

along the eastern and southern coasts and gradually widen from north to south. - the situated south of the Great Lakes region, stretch from the western slopes of the Appalachians to the Great Plains. The land is mostly level with some gently rolling hills. b) High plains: - the a vast area that stretches from Canada in the north to Mexico in the South. The Rocky Mountains are the western boundary of thts region.

b) The Pacific Coastal mountain ranges consist of two

parallel chains: in the north with Mt Rainier it (4392 m) as its highest peak. , which contains the highest peak of the contiguous USA: Mt. Whitney 4418 m lies the Central Valley a long and '- and west of it b'road trough that separates the Si6rra Nevada from the Coast Ranges which run along the west ii) cobst from the Canadian border to Mexico.

-run -


. : sddfllfliE

c, o ()


y: tlh ploins ond Plsteaus (undcf zs{x, m}


r lxlfffff,r.c'fr'r
Fig. 13.2 The relief and drainage of the United States


E :



How was the landscape created?

The major forces that were responsible for shaping and moulding the landscape both in the past and at present are volcanoes, earth movements, ice, rivers, wind, temperature etc.

2. Here is a brief presentation

of some of these forces and the way they have altered the relief of the USA. Match the paragraphs labeld a-e with the headings labeld 1-5. Gomplete the answer grid at the bottom of the page as shown:

a. Volcanoes have played an important part in shaping the



Many of the largest mountains within the Western Cordillera (Mt Rainier, Mt Shasta) are volcanoes, but for many years they have remained inactive and may have become extinct. ln some cases their cones blew apart or collapsed making calderas, which later filled with water to form lakes or in others lava poured over the land in great floods to build the Columbia Plateau.

b. The lce affected the highland and lowland regions in

different ways. ln the highlands, ice ground down and eroded the mountains and valleys, producing steep-side, flatbottomed trenches. Lowland areas were covered by a thick coat of a mixture of sand, gravel and clay called till or drift. These deposits were carried by glacial ice, which scraped the surface over which it advanced. When the ice melted the material was dumped forming a mass of hills and hollows. The Central Plains offers good examples of glacial deposition.

Relief is also shaped by wind action. ln arid lands there is little binding action by grass or tree roots and loose particles of soil are blown around by the wind. Sand-laden winds erode the rocks into strange shapes. Less resistant layers are worn away, leaving the more resistant rocks clearly etched. Wind action is strongest near the ground, where the heaviest particles are blown or rolled along, cutting the cliffs in odd shapes. Under certain conditions, sand worn away from rocks is deposited in the forms of dunes, which are then further shaped by the wind. Once, both the Rockies and theAppalachians were low flat lands covered by ancient seas, which, disappeared when forces from below the earth's crust uplifted the land into chains of mountains. The Appalachians were created much earlier than the Rockies; consequently their altitude is lower due to longer exposure to erosion. The Rockies are relatively "young", with many peaks over 4000m.



Rivers are the most constant and powerful of all thd forces that wear down the land. Given time, the highest mountain can be worn down until its peaks turn into lonely stumps sticking up out of a plain. The Rockies, which are young mountains, contain many fast-flowing rivers, which have cut deep, narrow gorges along their courses. The Mississippi (Old Man Rlver), on the other hand, flows slowly over its flood plain carrying large amounts of silt.

1 When the earth moves 2 Volcanoes create a new landscape 3 Land shaped by ice 4 Wind-erodedlandscape 5 Rivers


Variety is the main feature of the relief in the USA. The mountains are either old and eroded or young and rugged. There are large areas of high or low plains.

lce, volcanic activity and rivers have altered the face of the land in many ways resulting spectacular landscapes

'1r I''ijv



( - lp.t'nacrr CE AND GONSOLIDATION \---/

l\ 1. Comptete the missing W

' .) t/1 ,_---< /-


names on the cross-section of relief below using the information from the lesson:





Fig. 13.5 Cross-section through the Rocky Cordillera

2. Using words from the list given

relief in the




in the gaps in the following text that offers a general description of the


I decrease east . sandy"'

, 1 massive


,ldisplays ,,West, height

' canyons wide {ses ...,coastal

rrocky , plain

320km inland.lts shores are mostly marshy o(2)..................,, with some good beaches south of NewYork. North of NewYork, however, the relief is mountainous and the coastline (3).,... ....,........... lnland from the eastern coastal (4)................and parallelto it is the Fall Line, where rivers flowing to theAtlantic drop over waterfalls. To the (5)....................its elevation increases to about 2000m in theAppalachian Mountains.

Tothewestof theApplachians,theheights(6)..............,...againintoaplateau.Furtherwest,theyextendasfaras1600km.
These are the (7).........,.........p|ains and the Great Plains. They stretch from Canada in the north to the Gulf Coast in the south, but to the west the land (8)....................a9ain, reaching elevations of around 2000m. Parallelto the Great Plains are the Rocky Mountains, the most impressive and (9).,.....,..........0f the mountain ranges in the contiguous USA. They are made up of some 39 named mountains. Their (10) only surpassed by the Sierra Nevada mountains which, together with the (11).....................Cascade Mountains enclose within their "stone walls" high plateaux broken by deep (12).....................cut by rivers. On the western side of the Sierras, a (13)......................basin contains the CentralValley of California witch continues northwards to the Willamette Valley. .... plain like The Pacific coast (14).......................the Coast Ranges (2000m average height). There is no inland in the east and south but mostly rocky cliffs ending abruptly in the ocean.


3. The Rockies and the Appalachians, depicted in figures 1 3.6 and 13.7 , are the main mountain ranges in the USA. Which of the features given in the text box below describe the Rocky Mts. in fig. 13.6? Underline the correct word(s)from each given pair, as in the model. lf you solve the task correctly, you will obtain a set of features, which also describe the Appalachian Mts.

The Rockies are:. young /

old rugged / eroded forested / !gr9 high / medium height rich in coal and iron Eteh iAcopper and other non-ferr{us-mietals


a.,,. ::;,::al:,,,,,

) . ) )

Technically speaking, Hawaii's Mauna Kea is the world's largest mountain. lt begins on the sea floor and rises for 10,044m to sea level. lts peak reaches 4,205m above sea level giving a total height of j4,24gm. Many forms of relief in the USA have names that include coiours in them, but the Appalachians seem to lead with the White Mts., the Green Mts, and the Blue Ridge Mts.- allof them being included in nationalparks. The mostvisited National park is the Great Smokey Mts. National Park. Covered by a dense blanket of forest, which gives off moisture, this mountain is permanently enveloped by a bluish-grey haze that gives its name. Many features of USA relief are considered to be natural wonders. President Theodore Roosevelt appreciated their special

character and promoted the first laws for the creation of national parks in the early 1900s, in an attempt to save the country's natural resources and areas of outstanding beauty from destruction,


interior southwestern part of the USA is an extremely arid area. Here are located s6me of the world's well-known deserts: Death Valleyis located some 160 km east of Mt. Whitney and is the lowest point in the entire western hemisphere (86m below sea level). lt 225km long and 6-26km wide and is the hottest place in the USAwith a highest recorded temperature of 56.70 Celsius. The desert got its name from the numerous gold seekerswho losttheirlives here in the Gold Rush of 1849. Nowadays, mostof the gold has been mined, but Death Valley still has large quantities of borax. The Mojave Deserf is in southern California and covers 38, and has large deposits of iron ore and borax. The Arizona Desert is located in the Colorado Plateau and was brought to life by the Colorado River CentralArizona Canal, which is a system of dams, canals and tunnels that store and take water to the Arizona area. Opened in

l992,theprojectturnedthedesertintoahighlyproductivefarmland. Themaincropshereareirrigatedcotton,wheatandalfalfa.
lmperial Valleyis a former desert in SE California, on the border with Mexico. Ever since the Colorado River wa{e; qas brought here-to irrigate crops inJ940, this area has become one of the richestfarming areas. Besides truckfarming and dairying, the
chief crops include melons, lgtlUge, citps fruit and cotton.

Although most of the mouptains in the USA are fold mountains, the Cascade Mts. in norlhwestern USA are 'uolcanic. Despite this well-known fact, everyone was surprised when in 1980 Mt. St. Helens erupted. The following events were experienced: volcanic ash darkened the sky, hot ash destroyed forests and over 7-0 pgople were killed. Can you name other environmental effects of the eruption? Study the photos of Sl. Helens above for clues

The Pacific coast of the USA is prone to earthquakes because of the location of the St. Andreas fault line in California, fig. 13.11). Naturally, the places at greatest risk are the largest urban settlements such as San Francisco (SF) and Los Angeles (LA). Over the course of time, both cities have suffered earthquake destruction. The most devastating earthquake to strike the contiguous USAwas the one in 1906 in San Francisco. lt lasted less than a minute and measured 7.8 on the Richter scale. lt caused damage of $524 million. The human death toll alone was in excess of 3000 people. ln an eadhquake people die as much from collapsed buildings as from fires started by broken gas pipes and electrical systems. Broken water mains and tsunami waves cause floodings. -

Fig.1 3.11 American Plates


63 \r







A. Discussion points
a. What do you think the key terms in the above box refer to? b. Which are the factors that influence the climate of a region?

B. Climate types in the USA. 1.

Read the information below and identify the climate types on the map and put the appropriate numbers into the boxes in fig. 14.1. Glimate subtvpe 1. Deserts and semi deserts

Glimate type SUBTROPICAL

- Western part of

high day-time (50"C) and low nighltime (OoC) temperatures caused by the absence of clouds less than 25 cm of rain per year


- South-west USA


Wet subtropical (also called lradewrnd coasts)

South-eastern USA

hiqh rate of evaporation temperatures very warm throughout the year trade-winds give heavy rainfall hurricanes hot, dry summers warm, wet winters mild winters cool summers annualfange of temperatures small variations in temperature due to altitude abundant orecipitation high annual range of temperature(35-400C): dry and hot summers very cold winters light amounts of precipitation (50cm a year) which decreases towards the west there are oeriods of lonq drouqhts winters are extremely long and cold temperatures fall to -400C annuallprecipitation 10 - 20 cm





California (between 300 and 400 lat. N) North-west USA (0regon, Washington)




Central areas of the USA (Great Plains)



Arctic climate

ln Alaska

(beyond 600 lat. N)

the long, continuous frost causes the ground to be permanentlv frozen up to 300m in depth


I climate

1t/*,,,*, I

M*ntains over 2ooo m


I I I I I I I I I I I I I |

I altitude have a climate of I their own. The difference I in altitude causes rapid I modification of
I temperature, precipitation,

I Pressure and wind. I Temperatures decrease




for every 200 metres of height butihe amount o precipltation increases witl the altitude. The windward side receives much more precipitation than the leeward side, which is in tne rain-snauow
10 C

Fi1.14.2 Climate types in the USA




C, The weather
There are 5 air masses responsible for the weather in the USA. a) Continentalpolar (cP) centred in Canada, this air mass brings cool, clear weather in summer and cold, frosty weather in

b) Maritime polar (mP) - forms over the Norlhern Atlantic and the Northern Pacific and affects the Norlheast and the Northwest.
They are cool and moist, usually bring cloudy, damp weather. They are not as cold as continental polar air masses,

c) Maritime tropical (mT) - most common across eastern USA. lt formsaver the warm waters of Southern Atlantic Ocean and the
Gulf of Mexico. lt is most prevalent in summer bringing hot, humid weather.

d) Continentaltropical(cT) usuallyforms overthe Deserl Southwest and Northern Mexico during summer. lt brings record heat
to the Plains and the Mississippi Valley during summer.

e) Arctic (A) - a cold dry air mass from Arctic Canada

2. lnsert cB mB mT or cT in the boxes next to the ariows representing air masses

in lig. 14.2

D. Severe weather

N A.

Read the following paragraphs and fill in the gaps with one of the words given below.


.::8 t

\\ rE t





Droughts Blizzards Chinook Hurricanes


lCI$a Fig. 14.2 Air masses affecting the USA




b) .-


are strong tropical cyclones which bring high winds and tonential rain. They occur in late summer and early autumn. These storms develop over the warm tropical seas and move rapidly onshore on unpredictable courses. They affect the Southeast and the East coasts of the USA. also called'twisters'result from the mixing of cold Arctic air and warm Gulf air sweeping into the interior of the continent. The wind can reach speeds of 300 km/hour. They may travel only a shorl distance and last only a couple of hours, but in that time destroy anything in their path, are snow storms resulting from high winds and low temperatures. They occur usually in the mountainous regions.


Fig. 14.3 The formation of the Chinook


is a warm, dry wind which blows down the easiern side of the Rockies. lt usually occurs suddenly, accompanied by a rapid rise in temperature. lts drying effect can cause avalanches and forest fires.

ln the USA there are seven types of climates with big varlations from region to region. High mountains parallel to the West coast prevent the penetration of moist air from the Pacific, hence less precipitation falls on the Great Plains. The air masses with a strong influence on the weather are: the continental polar and maritime koprcal.


are common in the lntermontane Basins

and the western side of the Great Plains.

are associated with hurricanes, (Southeast) periods of prolonged rain (Noflheast) and with the sudden melting of snow in the mountains (norlhwest USA).





1. Where in the
USA would you like to spend your summer and winter holiday respectively? Make your choice by taking into account the relief and climate for each area. The map from ti1.14.4 can help you decide as it gives the average temperatures in degrees Celsius for winter (W) and summer (S) as well as the precipitation (P) in cm/year. The average precipitation value is S0cm/year.

T;* F;Ftr,I p lttirolt:

Fig14.4 Climate map

2. As you can see in the lesson, the USA experiences a great variety of weather conditions, some of which are extreme. The text boxes below give you clues about the climatic hazards from various parts of the USA.
ln groups, write weather forecasts for each ofthe affected areas, including in them hazard warnings for the population. The climatic hazard map from fig. 14.5 will help you locate the hazard.





Fig 14.5 Climate hazards map BLIZARDS

are accompanied by sustained winds with frequent gusts of over 55 km/h. Visibility will frequently be reduced to less than 500m and temperatures will remain extremely low. There is also heavy snow, which exceeds 1Scm in 12 hours. Occasionally ice accumulation may be experienced too. FOG forms on cool mornings when the vapour condenses near the eadh's surface. lt also forms over the sea or in the vicinity of the sea in conditions of high pressure when the damp sea air cools during the night and then condenses. Fog is a common occurrence off the coast of New England and along the North-eastern coast as far south as Boston, where the cold Labrador current meets the warm Gulf Stream.

IORIVADOES generally occur in the central and southern areas of the USA, usually in spring and summer but odd tornadoes can form as early as February. They are produced over land when warm air masses rise quickly to be replaced by cold air. The fact that conditions are suitable for a tornado can be predicted a short while in advance, but ihe tornado path is difficult to predict. Even if the destruction it causes is limited to a narrow path, the damage can be enormous.

HURRICAIVES strike the South-eastern coast of the USA, and especially the areas near the Gulf of Mexico. The winds and rains of a hurricane combine with the forces of the sea to produce huge sea waves (sea surges). When they strike the land, they are very destructive. Besides the raging winds and heavy rains, floods are also likely to appear.



,i*'&'{" .
ln the last few decades, strange weather changes have occurred in the USA and around the world. The blame for these is laid on El Nino


The term was originally used to describe the warm southward current that appears off the western coasts of Peru and Ecuador every year around Christmas time (hence the name - e/nino means chrid in Spanish and refers to Jesus Christ). Every three to seven years, however, the current becomes exceptionally intense and can last up to 1B-24 months, affecting the global climate in various ways. For the USAthese changes involve: iryr*qq!-Jemp.eratures in winter in the North Central States and lower tem in the SE and SW wetter seasons and flooding in the western and south-eastern pafis of the USA, leading to landslides and erosion droughts in the south-west tornadoes (in Florida) and wild storms (in Gulf Coast states) an increase in ocean level that also causes flooding the changed water temperature leads to the fall in the quantity of plankton, which in turn affects sea-bird and fish numbers.


Fig.14.7 El Nifio

FEATURES - ongtn

- over the Atlantic ocean, when the water

- dry, light air crosses the Rocky Mts. and

- USA area affected




temperature surpasses 27 oC, in latitudes between 50-200 North. They then travel northeast towards 300 North - the Gulf of Mexico and the east coast (they advance inland until thev run out of enerqv) - doughnut (100-2000 km rn diameter, with a centralarea of calm, called an "eye",12-100 km in diameter) - '120km/h - 200km/h or more - up to a couple of davs (on land) - heavy rainfall and flooding - intense winds, thunderstorms
- sea surges of 12m in height that cause

reaches the Great Plains where it clashes with

wet, warm air coming from the south - particularly central and southern Oklahoma (an

area called Tornado Allev) - funnel (with a diameter of 5-35 m)

- 120km/h - 510km/h (in the vortex) - 16-B0km/h in straiqht line

- from a few minutes to 2 hours

- duration

- associated with

- destructive power

flooding - verv low air oressure destroy much in their path uproot trees, break power lines drown people and animals leave behind huge deposits of silt and sand

heavy rainfall, thunder and lightening high wind speed dense, dark clouds an intensely low pressure system
- rip up road surfaces - lift any sort of debris in the air (cars, house parts, cows, horses, etc.) and by whirling these have the effect of a huge circular saw that cuts everything in its path - make breathing difficult (due to the debris and low air oressure)

Persistent drought, caused by prolonged lack of rain often leads to forest fires. These may be started deliberately or by accident. ln either case, the long-term moisture shortage in areas such as the Rockies or the southern and western parts of the Great Lakes is increased by several weeks without precipitation.



What measures can be taken to avoid or diminish the environmental etfects of forest fires?

El Nino has a cold counterpart called La Nina (or La Villeja). lt appears in the years following an El Nino and has opposite effects. Tornadoes may appear anywhere in the world, but 3 out of 4 hit the USA The USAexperiences about 1000 tornadoes a year. On May 3, 1999, Oklahoma was hit by one of the worst tornadoes ever, an F5 one (510 km/h in the vortex). Only 22 people died, but 0ver.40,000 cars and 8,000 houses were destroyed. 35% of the world population is exposed to hurricanes. ln the USA many thousands of people are at risk. The worst hunicane to strike the USA so far was called Katrina(2005) and it caused damage worth more than $100 billion plus the death of more

than 1000 people.



volcanic/trough lakes

A. Discussion points
Look at the map in fig. '15.1. What is the main characterrstic of rivers in the USA? How do they differ from British rivers?

B. The rivers 1, Read the text below and fill in the gaps with

a suitable phrase from the column on the right.

The crest of the Rocky Mountains acts as a watershed, known as the which separates two major drainage areas: the eastern and the
Western USA, The rivers

which then flow into the Pacific Ocean flows 6,400 km that spring gathers its waters from two- thirds the lighter pafiicles of silt Continental Divide one of the youngest the Missouri

by the Mississippi through its western tributary directly into the Gulf of Mexico e.g. the Rio Grande.

from the eastern slopes of the Rockies are collected or they flow

Those that flow from the western slopes of the Rockies are collecied by the Columbia or its tributary the Snake River or the Colorado Many of the rivers that originate from the Appalachians flow directly into the Atlantic

of the United States and from its northern sources to its mouth. Where the river reaches the sea it slows down and dumps its load. The heavier coarse particles are dropped first while

are carried farther out. This forces the river to divide into a number of smaller streams called distributaries forming a delta, which has the appearance of a bird's foot. The Mississippi delta is pads of the continent. New delta land is being created by the river at a rate of 300 feet each year.

2. Fig. 15.1 below shows the rivers and lakes of the

write in the names of the rivers and lakes.

USA. Consult your atlases and


u{ ot

^q Qr

Gulf of
Fig. 15.1 The rivers and lakes in the USA



C. The lakes
The lakes in the USA have various origins. Some of them are glacial, others volcanic whilst others are tectonic lakes. Some lakes are man-made. 3. Read the captions below and match them with the appropriate figure. A) The Great Lakes

- Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario and their connecting channels form

the largest fresh surface water system on Earth. Covering more than 243,460square km and draining more than twice as much land. The water from the Great Lakes flows through the St Lawrence River to the Atlantic Ocean, about 1,600km away. These lakes were formed when the ice sheets from the last glaciation flowed across the land towards the ocean in the north. Where they encountered more resistant rock they stopped and later on they melted.

. . . . .

D) Reservoirs can be found on rivers like Tennessee, Colorado and Columbia. T are multi-purpose schemes serving a variety of uses: irrigation, storing water, hydroelectric power, flood control leisure.

Lal(e, a remnant a prehistoric freshwater lake, is the largest lake west of the Mlssissippi River. lt covers an area of 4,403 square km and is situated on a shallow playa. lts water is 3 to 5 times saltier than the ocean.

c)'Itr,Gralt Sdt

B) Crater Lake was formed after the collapse of an ancient volcano named Mount Mazama about 7,700 years ago, lt measures more than five miles (B km) in diameter. Crater Lake at 1,958 feet (597m) deep is the seventh deepest lake in the world and the deepest in ihe USA.

4. Complete the chart below to construct a classification

of lakes in the USA according to origin. Give examples for each type.


lrf &


Fig.15.4 The Great Lakes

D. Geysers

Geysers are hoi springs from which jets of hot water and steam erupt into the air at regular or irregulaq intervals. Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming contains 60% of the world's geysers. Hot magma heats the overlying rock and the reservoirs of water lying 3-4 km below the surface. This heated water is forced upwards through fissures in the surface rocks. The most famous,gf Jhe American geysers is the 0lOFdithful, which erupts on average every 88 minutes. The eruption lasts from 1.5 to 5 minutes, reaching a height of up to 60 metres. The important rivers in the USA are long. They either flow into the Pacific or into the Atlantic Ocean. The Mississippi, the fourth longest river in the world (6,400km), flows into the Gulf of Mexico. The lakes are either natural lakes (glacial, volcanic or tectonic) or reservoirs built on rivers. There are a great number of geysers.



1. Fill in the gaps of the chart below with information about the main rivers in the USA. You may need an atlas for this
task: River Mississippi Missouri Rio Grande Colorado Columbia Hudson Potomac Lenqth
3779 3969 3034 2334
km km km km

Lake ltasca

Gulf of Mexico

lmportant cities passed


2005 km 507 km 460 km

2, Match the sentence halves givel below in order to find out what the main ways are, in which the Americans use the
Great Lakes: 1c

; 2_; 3_;

a {,

; 5_

1. The presence of the Great Lakes in this area made possible... 2. The Great Lakes, which are connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the St. Lawrence Seaway... 3. West and south of the lakes lie the most important grain-producing area of the USA... 4. With rich iron ores found west of Lake Superior and coal deposits in the Appalachians... 5. The lakes act as the nation's largesi and most popular recreation area...

a. . ..the lakes acted as transport link and made possible the development around their shores of several industries,
particularly that of steel and automobiles, b. ..-form the world's greatest watenruay, carrying a volume of commerce about equal to the entire US foreign kade. c. 7.the development of great cities like Chicago, Toledo, Buffalo, Cleveland, Milwaukee. d. . .. but without the cheap transportation from the lakes the farmers here could not face the foreign competition. e. ...tvhere tourists find places of outstanding natural beauty and opportunities for sailing, fishing, camping, sunbathing and nbird watching. {- , lr,,Lt C,l' qr'r'a 3. Ldoking back on the completed sentences above a. decide which of the lakes' uses are mentioned in each and list them. b. which oroblems might affect the lakes. Make a separate list: e.g. uses: - water and electricity supply for induskial and domestic uses problems: - shore erosion and flooding caused by waves and rising lake level


Read the paragraphs below, which describe the worst flooding of the Mississippi so far. Sort the information into:



The Mississippi floods of 1993 are considered to be the second costliest hazard ever recorded in the history of the USA. When the river burst its banks in June, it covered an area the size of England, killed 50 people, drove 26,000 people from their homes and caused damage worth more than $10-12 billion. lndirect losses from lost wages lost production, disrupted transport and especially emotional damage cannot even be calculated. The Mississippi is the most engineered river system in the USA, having along its course dams, which hold back the water at times of peak flow and embankments, which raise the riverbanks artificially. ln addition, the river and its tributaries have been '.*-altered over time by the draining of riverine wetlands, which became farmland or were used fo; ur[an settlements. The cgUrS,v





These measures, however, proved insufficient when in the first half of J!93\the rainfall was 11 times that of a normal yearwhile the ground was already saturated with water because of the cooler than normal temperature conditions



.,, '' ,, 'r, . ' cr, (.r\. .".<g.**-



When do floods occur in Romania and with what consequences? Complete the mind map on the right with the flood causes in Romania.


cutting down trees



(Z-----\.-.rlooo )

Called Niagara by the local lndians, Niagara means "thunder of waters", this cataract represents one of America's most attractive naturalwonders. Situated on the Niagara River which connects Lakes Erie and Ontario, Niagara Falls is made up of two parts: the Ary:rican Falls (55m high/328m wide) and the Horsesho, Falls, belonging to Canada (54m high/640m wide anplcarrying g times morq water) ;:+f divided by @t lsland. iQ n'U VX They were formed about 12,00d yiiars a jb when the glaciers reYreated northwards. The waterfall has since then been slowly eroded back about 11 km upstream. Despite consolidation work carried out in 1969 when the American Falls were shut off for several months, the erosion process continues at a rate of 1.5 cm/year. Hydroef,ectric power stations have been built on both sides of the waterfalls.

- qn




Fig.15.6 Niagara Falls

Occupying the southern end of the Florida Peninsula, the Everglades is a vast complex of swamps, saw grass and water. ln fact, over a third of the Everglades is neither land nor water, but something in between. There are a few higher areas which are dry all year round. The average height of the area is not more than 2.5 m above sea level. Because these dry spots have rich fertile soil, men have tried to drain the Everglades or to clear it by burning the vegetation.
ln order to protect this unique area, considered to be the one of the largest swamps in the world, some 1.5 million acres have been turned into a Nationalparkwhere there are numerous species of birds, some very rare, fish, small aquatic mammals and lots of alligators. The flora includes various water plants and mangrove forests. However, because of man's intervention here, dramatic changes have taken place, putting the environment at risk. J ".

a. Can you suggest what environmental damage has been caused?

b. Why is it necessary to protect

an ecosystem like the Everglades?

Fig. 15.7 The Everglades

Once wild and powerful enough to carve the Grand Canyon, the Colorado River has been harnessed by man. Starting in the 1930s, several dams were built on this river, the largest being the Hoover Dam.

- control over the river especially at flood time - cheap electricity - water supply to fast growing cities (Phoenix, Las Vegas) and their industries (aerospace, computers, engineering) - irrigation water that allows 2 or 3 crops of vegetables per year and fruit in the hot desert climate - leisure facilities along the river, which also created thousands of jobs

only '1% of the Colorado's water reaches the Gulf of California as too much of it is abstracted upstream. Because of this, Mexico has very little water left for irrigation - growing cities demand more waterthus leading to the fall of the watertable in the area, since the Colorado has no more water to spare - water is wasted through evaporation from reservoirs and canals


state's total area. Alaska, however, has more than 3 million lakes. accelerated the development of both the Midwest and New York. Nowadays it is still a significant means of transport in the New York State Barge Canal System.


Compare the natural vegetation map with the map of climate regions and say in what way climate affeits the vegetation of a region. 3. At the beginning of European settlement in 1607, half of the USA territory was covered in forests. Today, only some 32% of the country's land is still forest covered. A similar decrease happened to grassland and other natural vegetatron. Can you say why? 4. Although not all the plants listed below are typical of the USA only, they do live here too. What regions of the USA can you associate with the following groups? a, magnolia, pecan, mangrove, cypress, saw grass b. tall prairie grass c. spruce, Douglas fir-tree, redwood, sequoia d. sagebrush, juniper, yucca, cactus "foresis"


ru&Yffiffi&$- ffiffiWH*q#F*ffiffift$"fl HF# TFHffi [J]Lf'lixt, . Looking at the vegetation map present on this page, say which are the five largest areas of natural vegetation?


ffi I *l

tundrq coniferous tcrart



Mixed f,orest SubtropicotForest Mountoin Vegetotion

Sond ond Rock Desart

I l-l

I I oroselond f l remperole Deciduous Mr W Forest



Fig. 15.8 USA - Map of natural vegetation

5.From the list of North American animals below, tick those that live only in the USA and not in Europe:

r o o r r I o o

caribou elk m00se

black bear grizzly bear deer


mountain goat

r o o r r o o o


squirrel pelican

bald eagle


r o t r r o r a

alligator rattlesnake water moccasin

bison coyote

prairie dog


6. Match the animals from activity 5 with the vegetation region they live in. Make use of the map from fig. 15.8



What is a region?
A region is an area which has certain features in common. There can be all kinds of regions depending on the point of view from

which the particular areas are analysed,

1. Make logical sentences from the table below.

Physical geography deals with areas where people earn their living in similar ways, where certain types of industries are located. For example: the Copper Belt where copper is mined and processed, the Cotton Belt, or the Wheat Belt

where most of the farmers grow cotton or wheat.

Cultural geography

governments are similar. (A political map of the USA is a map, which shows the states.)
the land features are alike i.e, a mountainous region or a plateau region.

Economic geography

Political geography

the people are alike or similar, share a common

language or a common religion.

The map below shows the regions chosen by the authors of this book to present the USA. They include a mixture of physical, cultural, political and economic aspects. The units that follow will discuss'them separately.

!. Sludy the map and name the regions which

3. What is missing?

are determined by the physical aspect of the area.

5 o






Fig. 16.1 The Regions of the USA


"Boswash" Megalopolis
New York City

Washington DC

table crop


A. Discussion point
a. b.
Look at the map on the right and describe the location of this region.

Describe the physical features (relief, waters, climate) of the Northeast.

B. Subdivision
The Northeast consists of two sub-regions very different in landscape and economic activities. These are: The "Boswash"' Megalopolis New England

Fig. 17.1 The North East USA

1. Work in pairs. Student A reads text a, The 'Boswash' Megalopolis, and Student B reads text b, New England. Complete the appropriate column in the table on the next page with essential information. An example is given for
each of you.
a) The

"Boswash" Megalopolis

The region known as the "Boswash" Megalopolis is a heavily populated area extending more than 800km along a northeastsouthwest axis from Boston in Massachusetts to Washington DC. lts population adds up to more than 45 million (17% of the total US population). lt contains the world's greatest concentration of urban areas, which have merged to form this "megalopolis", which besides the two cities mentioned also includes: New York, Philadelphia and

* i"li: r _tal

i,..::; . i::i_,







This region has three characteristics: high population density major urban centres growing towards each other a large demand for primary goods that are brought here from other



-$ s

#}*fiiun t *l;ltq



ftAi ?lr!,{fl** S



',jt'A$Hll{#T*n* ffiC Physical background

Megalopolis rests on a coastal plain flattened by glaciers. The rivers in the area are fairly shortand therefore only navigable on iertain sections Good transport. and accessibility is offered by canals such as the Erie Canal, which links the Hudson River in New York to Lake Erie. The natural vegetation-tends to be a mixture of trees and low bush and the soils tend to be thin and infertile.



.2 The Boswash Megalopolis

The presence of the sea has always played an important role irt the region's economy. Today service industries are the main economic activity such as retailing, publishing, etc. lndustry is still important and one of the world's largest steel plants is located at Sparrow's Point near Baltimore. Chemicals and petrochemicals are located around Delaware Bay. Agriculture_is important and meets the demand for food from this large urban area. Farmers on the coastal plain specialise in "tiuck farming,;;Ihat is market gardening. Truck farming products are high-priced and perishable therefore transport is a key factor. Dairy products, lettuce, tomatoes, apples and a variety of other intensively produced "table crops" dominate farm production. Most truck farms

aresmall. Commercialfishinghasdeclined,thoughtheregionstillaccountsforaboutone-quarteroftheU.S.catch. Tourismis

also very important, New York City being the top tourist atkaction for international tourists. The almost continuous lorig sandy beaches attract summer visitors.

Megalopolis was the first region of the country to be settled by immigrants and provided a gateway for thousands of people who came here to live. As a result, the populatign has a remarkable ethnic and racial mix. This region is highly urbanised and more than 90% of the population lives in urban areas. Sevenal very large metropolitan areas dominate the region: New York City (8-6 million), Philadelphia (4.9 million), Washington D.C. (4.6 million), Boston (5.8 million). The population density is more than 350 per sq. km, and the population growth rate is also high.


b) New England

New England is mainly rural in characier and includes the less-populated and less-developed areas north of Megalopolis.

Physical features
It is a land of low mountain ridges, rolling hills, bare ropk, thin soils, rugged coasflines



and swift streams. The climate is harsh, seldom hot, often cold, and usually damp. The landscape is covered with a relatively dense mixed forest of coniferous and deciduous irees of secondary growih as the original trees were cut down fotilumber, shipbuilding and fuel.



New England is a region with limited resources, poor soils and a location distant from Megalopolis, the main centre of the U.s. commercial activity. The only worthwhile resources are those of building stone especially marble from Vermont, the leading marble-producing state in the USA. Fig. 17.3 New England The induskial activities of the region are: machine tools, electronic equipment, shoes, plastics, paper and newsprint. The timber industry is a shadow of what it used to be. Commercial fishing has declined in recent years due to overfishing. Cod and lobster are the most important catches. ln recent decades, new industries such as light and high tec. induskies have come to this region. This is due firsfly to the "brainpower" centres like the universities of Harvard, Yale and MIT (Massachusetts lnstitutiof Technology) located in the region and secondly because they find the smalltown and rural environment a good place to live. Agriculture is influenced by the harsh climaie and thin soils and consists of growing potatoes, vegetables and fruit, products that can be rushed fresh to the city nearby. The main rural economy depends on Oairy iarmlng and pduftry. A traditionai activity is tapping the maple trees to make maple syrup and sugar. Tourism has become very important with areas of true wilderness in the northern part Maine.

Except for Boston, which historically belongs to this region and Worcester (700,000) there are no large cities in the region. Almost 2/3 of the populaiion lives in a few moderately sized towns, such as Burlingion and Lewiston"each with anout IO,0OO residents. The typical settlements are the villages and small hamlets. New England has one of the slowest population growths in the nation. The overall population density was less than 4 persons/sq. km (tbgz).

2.ln pairs interview each other to complete the missing information in the table below Megalopotis
Relief Climate
Waters Vegetation Population Coastal plain flattened by glaciers

New Enqland Low mountain ridges, rolling hills, rugged coasf/rnes

lndustry Agriculture


The Northeast includes two v9ry different regions: Megalopolis, a highly indushialised urban region and New England, a mainly rural region with agriculture as the main activity.



3. The Northeast includes 11 states plus the District of Columbia.


Write the names of the states on the map on the right. (Fig. 17.a) Use a map of the USA and the table below to help you. b. The table also contains the capitals but they are not in their right places. Put them in the correct order.
State Canital


Connecticut Delaware
District of Columbia Mdine Maryland

Washinqton Albanv Auqusta



d e, f,

Hartford Harrisburo

7. 8. 9.

Massachusetts New Hamoshire New Jersev

New York


Trenton Concord


Pennsvlvania Rhode lsland Vermont


Dover Montoelier

Fig- 17.4 Northeast USA

New York, New York


Here are some facts about New York City. Read them and expand them into a two-paragraph presentation entitled: New York, Past and Present


Brief history: 1626 - Dutch settlers bought Manhattan

lsland from the lndians for $24 worth of cloth and kinkets and named it New Amsterdam b) 1664 the British captured the settlement, which had only 100 settlers and renamed it New York. c) 1789-1790 first capital ofthe lndependent USA d) 1825 the building of the Erie Canal made the city the leading port on the Atlantic coast, e) After 1840 - New York (Ellis lsland) served as a gateway for millions of emigrants.

Fill in the gaps in the sentences and tables below.

a) New York

hasfboroughs most of which are situated on islands with the exception of the Bronx.
us census


i"New York

g,oog,27g 1,332,650 2,268,297


- -'r.:-10N Q ___





oersons/so. km

in central areas 22,660

d)Ihe .:lji-UL-of


. ',.1i :,,i - ,. -i \r: \ r r-*1 Fig. 17.6 The map of New York City

New York is 800.17 sq. km. e) Commerce and tourism are the main . activities as industry has been pushed to the hinterland. f) New York is the of the U.S, but the financial and commercial centre of the world. g) The most recent are the fashion and the "ready-made" clothes' industryr



Washington DC
6. Read the following text. Some of the lines have been omitted. Choose from the lines below the text the ones that best fit the

blank spaces.
Founded in '179Q, Washington was the first American city . .. to be a beautiful city with wide streets and many trees. lt is situaied between ..)a............ .on the Potomac River. The city is named after George Washington the first president of the United States and DC after Christopher Columbus. Washington DC is unique in that it functions as a state, county and city all in one. lt is governed by a Mayor and 8 Council members,....,.....,9i,........... The population numbers 563,384 of which 32.8 % are European Americans, 60.0 % African Americans and7.20k other races, according to the 2000 US Census. The city's business is centred around the


government, ....................4
Many unions, business, professional and non-profit making organisations have their headquarters there,

a) who are elected by the citizens of

Washington DC

c) tourism is the other most important branch of economy b) Virginia and Maryland, (bofh states donated land)
d) planned

a specific purpose

, F
G* -2 )r


:i 'l

Rhode lsland is the smallest state rn the USA Basketball was invented in Massachusetts in 1891. New York is the USA's largest po(, trade centre and the financial centre of the world. New York's Wall Street is named after the protective wall built by Dutch colonists in '1653 There are more than 102,576km of streets in New York City and over 931km of waterfront. lvy League is ihe name of a group of old and respected universities, which include Harvard, Yale, Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Princeton and MlT.

NewYork has always had problems with refuse collection and disposal. ln the '1840s, thousands of piqs roamed Wall Street to consume garbage as an early sanitation system. Garbage was then dumped into the ocean until '1935 when a successful federal lawsuit forced the city to end ocean dumping. By the 1960s, the city was burning almost a third of its trash in its municipal incinerators. Eventually these were closed down to reduce air pollution. The only alternative remained Fresh Kills Landfill situated on the western shore of Staten lsland, where garbage arrives after a long trip by truck and barge. Fresh Kills Landfill



space. The problem of refuse is still not solved as the landfill leaches toxic chemicals and heavy metals not to mention that it is predicted to fill up by 2005.


1'1 ,000 tons of garbage produced each day in New York is the consequence of the evolution of global "throwaway economy". For cities like New York, the challenge is not so much what to do with the garbage, as it is how to avoid producing

it in the first place.

Breadbasket of the USA Chipitts alfalfa Manufacturing Belt

A. Discussion points

a. Another
name for this area is the Heartland of the


you say whY? U. Wnat are the main physical features of thrs area?


B. Subdivisions

Fig. 18.1 The location of the lnterior Plains

As you can see on the map, there are two areas that make up the plains in the interior USA: - the Central Plain (also known as the Midwest) - the GreatPlains (called also the High Plains) A third area having slightly higher relief and a distinct economic profile is that immediately south of the Great Lakes, sometimes called the Water Belt.

D. Agriculture
The lnterior Plains are often referred to as the Breadhasket of the nation, the most important cereal and livestock producing area in the country. Although very fertile, because of the nature of the clrmate, the Great Plains could not be cultivated in the traditional ways brought from Europe by the first settlers of this area. Gradually theyiearned to apply new techniques, better suited to the land'

C. Physicalfeatures


Read the tist of features below and explain which


economic activity is most suited to the lnterior Plains


Read about the farming methods typical of the Great Plains below. Match the terms with their correct


. the relief here is mostly

flat or gently rolling lowland in the gradually rising to about 1500m - 1800m to Central Plain area, meet the Rockies (area called the Great Plains)

1_ 2-; 3-', 41. dry farming 2. contour Ploughing 3. inigation 4. feedlots

the region has a temperate continental climate, with over 750mm precipitation per year (more in thesouth, less towards the west) and average temperatures of - 4'C in winter and 24oC in summer

a. . .. additional supply of water to fields in areas of unreliable rainfall (brought by canal or sprinklers),

. occasional summer thunderstorms, damaging hail and high winds (often turning into tornadoes). There are more dramatic variations of climate, which include violent storms in summer, blizzards in winter and constant winds in the Great Plains. . the soils are good and fertile in the Central Plain but
much more fertile in the Great Plains

b. .. .a piece of land growing animal feed meant to support the

livestock in areas of poor pastures' c. ... a method of farming in which water is kept in the soil by ploughing large, rough furrows, by cultivating plants that need less water (sorghum, alfalfa, wheat) and by leaving each field uncultivated for 2-3 years so that the soil moisture is built up, Weed control is also very important for diminishing water losses.

the lnterior Plains are drained by the Upper Mississippi River and its tributaries (Ohio, Arkansas and Missouri). These rivers, together with a variety of canals, locks and dams, built to im-prove navigation and generate electricity, form an extensive waterway system.

d. .. .a method of ploughing in which the land is ploughed in

winding furrows that follow the contours of the slopes rather than forming square or rectangular fields that allow soil erosion and water flow from the soil in case of heavy

2. Find arguments

in the texts above to support your


answerfrom Point



Read the information in the boxes surrounding the map on fi9.18.2. Explain the reasons for the location of each farming product in the areas shown on the map.

Soybean Wheat
- winter wheat planted in

autumn and germinates before snow sets - spring wheat: planted in spring, ripens later in summer than winter variety - needs much sunshine and less water than corn - flat land for mechanised work

- good alternative to corn in crop rotation - needs enough water - acts as soil reconditioner (nitrogen) - good for human consumption (protein),

t *,i:"

animal feed and industrial

uses (oil)

Alfalfa, Sorghum Corn

- fedile, humid soils

- varieties of grass thal have low water

- long, hot summers - abundant rainfall in growing season - suitable for human consumption, animal feed and industrial uses

s$s Gulf of Mexico


requirements - good alternatives to wheat in crop rotation - used as animal feed


Dry fanning


, '-

Cotton belt

Mixed -*--l Dairy l';t'i iiry Market



Sorghum Tobacco


Fig. 18.2 Farming in the lnterior Plains

The great agricultural output of this area is due not only to favourablerphysical conditions but also to human factors as well.

E. lndustry
Although all the cities scattered in the lnterior Plains have industries, the main Manufacturing Belf is located south of the Great Lakes. With the exception of footloose industries such as the manufacturing of computers, spacecraft and surgical instruments in Minnesota or airplanes in Kansas, the location of most of the other industries in this area is linked to specific resources or is triggered by specific needs.


Read the paragraphs below and say which factor is presented in each.
has created a great variety of plants and animals. Learning from nature,

a. Through accidental genetic mutations, nature

American scientists developed a variety of hybrid corn better adapted to the soil and climate of the lnterior Plains.

f\\ \ 6.'Jh the chart below, complete the right hand column
the resources needed the resources shown in the map fig. 18.3: lndust


ln cereal growing, machines are used for every operation along the farming process. Livestock rearing is highly automated in its turn. Due to specific historical conditions, the first settlers did not create villages after the European pattern. Each family was trying to work independently clearing the land first, then cultivating it. This resulted in scattered farms each with the farmer's house on it. Nowadays, because of the need for high yields, the size of farms has increased (agribusrness). For a long time, the farmers of the lnterior Plains practiced

by each of the -with the information acquired on this area industries. Use so far and

Resources / Reasons


oil and nalu{Alggg extracticin oil refininq chemical oroducts energy production food orocessino aoricultural machinerv iron and steel cars rubber

- coal bil. Ml1


monoculture. Distinct areas were dominated by one plant or animal only (e.9. corn belt, wheat belt, dar4r belf). In time they learned that the land benefited from crop rotation and the introduction of a greater variety of plants or the use of a combination of plant growing and livestock rearing.

- coal, iron ores/ car ind.

- urban areas








'ffio !r
tl1 I

Fig. 18.3 Location of mineral resources in the USA
F. Urban areas and

CHICAGO Fact fita.,-,12


7. Read the following texts and answer the questions

referring to them:
The population in this area benefited from the contribution of foreign-born migrant's,. most of whom came from northwestern Europe in late '19'n century. ln recent times there has been a population declinelor at best stagnation.

. 3'o city in the USA (2,896,000 people in2000WO . a great vanety of ethnic mix (a mifqr:-of American


'160km long urban continuum on the shores of Lake

What might have caused this decline /stagnation?
At the time of the arrival of the white colonists, the Great Plains were dominated by the Sioux lndians and other related Native-American tribes. They used to have a nomadic life, migrating in search of food, especially the buffalo herds. From your knowledge, what happened to the Native Americans living here and why? The Central Plains area is small-town and rural, but there are a few cities scattered across the plains and a greater concentration of urban settlements on or near the shores of the Great Lakes, such as: Milwaukee, Detroit, Cleveland, Cincinnafi , lndianapolis. ln the Great Plains affigJqrgp, pities are peripheral: Kansas
City, Mi

. . . O'Hare ailport (2" largest in the USA) serves Chicago. . extremely varied and vital economy dominated by machinery
manufacturing (agricultural tools, Pullman carriages), meaipacking, plastic production, rubber goods, printing, paper products and services.

Michigan the greatest density of banks, shops, offices, institutions in the area called The toop I hometown of the skyscraper, it h5s the tbllest building in the USA: Sears Tower city of culture and education 35 railway routes focus on Chicago


Fillin the gaps with the wgrds below; ,, ,olput agricultural rqlal degdity

nneapolrs-ShQu/ Dlilhs-f ort Worth,

an Antonio.

However, the metropolis'of the Plains is Chicago. ln fact,

I a-sthe targest proouctive/cuS$r\N$hno tne

second taigesi industriat aieEtltne usAjhe Hearttand contains the,larges(population of any region of the nation. ries from less than areas to more than 4,600 in downtowrl Chicago. The area also has the largest economic of any USA region.

entire urban area

For most of these cities, the reasons for the location of the settlement can be found in the physical features of the area. Study the location of each and explain it.



Mount Rushmore Monument

The Great Lakes area became an imporlant centre of steel making, coal mining and engineering in the '19'n century, forming together with the industrial northeast fhe
20'n century, the car and steel industries developed here, bringing prosperity to the area, However, in the 1970s and 1980s factories started to close, people lost their jobs and the area was called lhe Rust Be/t, from the numerous derelict factory buildings, Some of the reasons for decline were: outdated equipment in the car and steel plants rising land costs and an expensive labour force made new firms look elsewhere for their location competition from cheap foreign cars and steel. ln the 1990s the region started to recover. The US car industry has revived. Hitech firms producing computers and medical instruments came in, Banking and insurance firms were attracted to this area and even foreign companies like the Japanese car firm Honda has built assembly plants here.

Manufacturing Be/f. ln the

. .

The Badlands
Located near the Black Hills of South Dakota, The Badlands represents an area of 610 square km which includes some of

Located in the centre of the Black Hills area is Mount Rushmore (1,860m), Between 1927-1941 the Congress allocated $250,000 and hired the sculptor Gutzon Borglum to carve into the side of the granite mountain the faces of four presidents: Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt. Their size is so big that a man could sit comfortably in Lincoln's eye, for example. The monument is known as the Shrine of Democracy. Another huge sculpture found in the same area is the Crazy Horse Monument. Started in 1947, it shows the famous Sioux lndian leader on horseback. Symbolically, the two monuments are tributes to heroes representing the two cultures that clashed on the North American continent.

covered by a continuous tall-grass prairie 30cm to lm in height, very difficult to plough because of a tangl0d root

continent in average annual hail frequency.

Fig. 18.6 Badlands National Park

the most spectacular examples of the erosion effects of weather to be found anywhere: remarkable saw{oothed ridges, pinnacles, steep-walled canyons, gullies, pyramids and knobs. The range of colour is varied and includes iinted rocks or layers of grey or white. Several tens of millions of years ago this was a marshy plain, a home for many mammals now extinct that have left their bones here. As time passed, streams deposited layer after layer of sediment and volcanic dust was blown here from the west. The climate also changed becoming drier and grassland replaced the marshes. Water, wind, heat and frost carved this land and continue to do so. The whole area has now become a national

between 1867-1885 when cowboys used to lead catfle herds north across the prairie to towns where the animals were either slaughtered or shipped by rail to other more distant markets. Cattle ranching is still widespread in the western Great Plains area,

in this area. lt was the famous Dust Bowl of the 1g30s. A succession of drought years turned some of the rich

wheat areas of the Great Plains into deserts, driving away hundreds of thousands of farmers from Oklahoma after thick layers of dust covered the land and killed all plants. This"natural" hazard taught the inhabitants that new farming techniques had to be used here.

-res 6,


{ 9. mG reGmz roNmams mEsre[r

Four Corners region A.Discussion Points
a. What do you
know about the Rocky Mountains? What is this region famous for? b. Study the physical map of the USA and identify the 'intermontane' region. Between which mountains does it

lntermontane area

National parks

B. lntroduction to the Rocky Mountains Region

The greater part of this region came under the sovereignty of the USA in the 1840's when, for the first trme, the new republic stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific Coast. Much of the initial impetus for settlement came from the notion that the Rocky Mountains and the plateaus contained great mineral wealth. Pioneers interested in farming soon followed the mining prospectors. This is the most extensive region of the country with 8 states occupying a large sparsely populated area. The',ftocky Mountains region comprises two physical regions:

Fig.19.1 The Rocky Mountains Region

'The Rocky Vountains The lnterhontane Plateaus Basins. General lnformation

The States: Montana, ldaho, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada Total Population: 3% of the US population Total Area : 18% of the USA area. Highest elevation: Mt. Elbeft - 4400 m Largest city: Denver - 2.3 million inhabitants

C. Physical Features


Read the texts below about the two physical regions and fill in the gaps with the suitable key words listed in the middle.

The Rockies form an abrupt




Great Plains to the east and the Pacific Coastal region to the west. This huge region is approximately 1,000 miles long


The term intermontane refers to an area of plateaux and basins that lies between the Rockies and the mountain



ranges along the Pacific Coast. This area is long and , stretching from Washington State to the border


and is variable in width from 200-600 km, lt is


bro:d '
rugced ''

with Mexico.
This intermontane area comprises three smaller regions: a) the Great Basin, an Utah, has a hostile environment;
b) the Colorado Plateau

3 parts, North, Central and South, the first named extending Wyoming to include the Canadian Rockies, They are much more


ariri I 'r
rain-shadowr higner

- a series of plateaus

covering deeply


than the Appalachians



with many peaks over 3,600 m high.

These towering snow-covered peaks separate plateau areas and form


canyons by the river Colorado. c)the Columbia Plateau - a vast plateau with wide Most of the area lies in the Pacific Mountains. Except for the Colorado and Columbia rivers and their tributaries, the region has interior

The temperate,





the continental divide between the two draihage systems flowing into the Atlantic or into the Pacific

drainage i


_7 _climate



into land-locked lakes. Some

this area with hot summers and cold winters. deciduous trees are found at lower elevations

continue then to the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of California. Some of the most beautiful


higher up.

Mountaintops not covered by snow are capped by

the country are found in the region: the Grand Canyon, the Mojave Desert, the Great Salt Lake, the Death


and mosses.



2. What is the rain.shadow effect? Which are the climatic results? 3. ldentify on the map the tributaries of the
Columbia and the Colorado Rivers.

D. Human and Economic Factors


Read the texts and underline the main economic activities of the area:

The most striking feature of this region is its small popplation compared with other regions of the USA. Large parts of the region have few or no people. The major cities are Denver and Phoenix with approximately 2 million people in the metropolitan

They have grown with the shift of population towards the warmer climates of southern USA. lt has been shown that within the mountain, basin and plateau region, there is great variety within the rural economy. Farms in the dry areas of the region are along watenruays or where irrigation is available. Major crops . grown are cotton, potatoes, hay, barley and sugar beet. Due to the scarcity of water, many people find ii more profitable to raise livestock, many of the ranches being as large as 900ha. On the

otherhand,thelandoftheRockyMountainsisrichinmineralandenergyresources. Gold,silver,copper,mercury,aswellas coal,ironoreandoilareexploitedinArizona,ColoradoandUtah.ltisbelievedthatundermuchofWyoming andColoradothere

are large deposits of oil shale, petroleum bearing rocks from which oil can be distilled while the Powder River Basin of Wyoming is rich in coal. The city economies are based on federal government services. They are also imporlant producers of electronic products, aluminum, chemicals, food products and transportation equipment.

5, Why is the population of the region so sparse?

. .

E. Culture and tourism

penver the gateway to the Rockies is also called the 'The

Mile High City' as its elevation is exactly 1 mile (1,609Km) above sea level. the Rocky Mountain States and Colorado in particulai, are home to the country's most popular downhill skiing and snowboarding destinations with such well-known resorts asAspen, Vail, Jackson Hole and Big Sl0. Lake Tahoe is the major ski deslination in the Sierra Nevada, doubling as a summertime water-sports playground. There has been growing interest in Cultural Geography as geographers are also interested in the distribution of various groups of people and their distinctive cultural traits such as their customs, attitudes and beliefs that make them unique. One example of cultural geography is the interest in the way of life of the Mormons. This was a religious organisation formed in 1830 in the USA by Joseph Smith who settled in Northern Utah and founded Salt Lake City in the Great Basin. lt became their centre and 400k of the Mormons in the USA live there. They were avoiding religious persecution and looking for a place where they could practice their faith in peace as they have strict moral rules and do not drink alcohol or coffee. Many people associate polygamy with the Mormons although most of them no longer practise this. The Basins and River Valleys in the region have been transformed as a result of irrigation projects. The lmperial and Hoover Dams on the River Colorado and Grand Coulee Dam on the River Columbia built more than 50 years ago have been the key to the irrigation of these basins and valleys. They also remove flood risk and produce electricity

. .

forSouthernCaliforniaandthestatesof Washington,Oregonandldaho.Manyoftheselandscapeareoutstanding for their scenic beauty. This has made the region a focal point for tourism. To preserve these areas of outstanding natural
of volcanic, desefi, semi-desert beauty, a system of National Parks has been established most of which are located in the western states. They include areas and glaciated scenery.



There is a region in the USA called 'The Four Corners Region'where four states meet: Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico. lt is called that because it is the only place in the USAwhere a person can stand in four states at ihe same time. Much of the land in this region, which has high mountains and wide-open spaces, belongs to the Federal Government (66% of Utah, 44% of Arizona, 36% of Colorado and 33% of New Mexico). Some of the United States of America's most beautiful national parks are locaied in these four states, such as the Grand Canyon NP, the Rocky Mountains NP, the Carlsbad Caverns NB

the Zion NP and Bryce Canyon NP, which are visited by millions of tourists every year. There are also many Native American lndian reservations in the Four Corners Region. The Navajo Reservation covers

an area of about three-quarters of the size of the New England states. Here many families live as their ancestors did, raising sheep, weaving rugs and making beautiful silver jewelry. Snake River Valley-lava plain with deep canyons Hells Canyon, the deepest in North America

(1872); in an ancient collapsed volcanic caldera; the largest free-roaming wildlife population in the world; greatest concentration of thermal features -10,000

lLrii [: t-:


Craters of the Moon N.P (1924)- a volcanic

landscape, Astronauts were trained here for lunar landings.

Verde-the first NP(1906)to preserve the works of, with five major cliff dwellings displaying primitive construction methods used by between 750

Bryce Canyon NP - an
enchanting array of rock spires, pinnacles that reflect 60 million years of the effects of wind and water on the layers of limestone. colorful concentration of petrified wood and fossils more than 225 million vears old

300 AD

The Four Corners

Santa Fe
- home to Pueblo lndians for more than 1,000 years

Fig. 19.5 The Rocky Mountain States

UNESCO World Heritage Sites The following locations in the western United States have been designated by the UNESCO as "World Heritage Sites" for their outstanding natural or cultural significance:

Carlsbad Caverns National Park - New Mexico Grand Cinyon National Park -Arizona Mesa Verde Nalional Park - Colorado Pueblo de Taos - New Mexico Yel lowstone ltational Park - Wyoming/Montana/l daho



Nature's greatest example of sculpture, the Grand Canyon is the most spectacular canyon in the world. This enormous gorge was formed over millions of years by the eroding action of the Colorado River which cut through the high, arid plateau and which still flows in the bottom of the canyon. Other factors have also played a part: the Kaibab Plateau which forms the northern rim of the canyon is about 365feet higher than the Coconino Plateau, which forms the southern rim. Water from the Nofthern side flows into the canyon forming tributary valleys while the streams of the southern plateau flow away in a southerly direction without carving valleys in the canyon

Geoprofile of the Grand Canyon Location: North Arizona Depth: 1,609 km Length:446 km Width: varying between 8- 29 km
Age: approx. 2 billion years Grand Canyon National Park (1919):493,000 ha Average Temp: (July)460 Celsius ( 115 0.F.)
The layers of the rock in the canyon walls tell a story of environmental change going back 2 billion years and no other place on Earth can compare with,this. The climate of the plateau region is severe with extremes of heat and cold. lt is mostly forested with willow trees and cottonwoods at the bottom and evergreen trees on the north rim where the soil is moist and deep. There are also drought-resistant plants such as cacti and many squirrels, coyotes, foxes, bobcats and kangaroo rats.

The Canyon follows a winding course from the mouth of the Paria River, near the northern border of Arizona, to Grand Wash Cliffs, near the Nevada line. Within the walls of the Canyon stand imposing peaks, buttes and ravines.

Fi9.19.8 Geological Layers

of the Grand Canyon

)> The first Europeans to see the canyon were a group of

soldiers led by Garcia Lopez de Cordenas in 1540. They were members of a party led by the Spanish explorer Vasquez de Coronado.

) ) )
Fig. 19.10 Tourists in the Grand Canyon

As access to the canyon was difficult, it was not fully explored until 300 years later.

ln 1869 geologist John Wesley Powell and ten companions made the journey through the length of the gorge in 4 rowing boats.
The Grand Canyon has been inhabited for at least 4,000 years, as evidenced by small hunting fetishes of the Desert Archaic culture, found hidden in niches in the canyon walls,

Hualapai lndian Reservation the Hualapai controla portion of the South Rim. The tribe operates bus tours
and one or two-day rafting trips on the Colorado River.

E: E


Coastal range A. Discussion Points
a. Refer to
Fig. 20.1 to discoverthe location of the Pacific Coast Area. What are the states that make up this sub-region? What are the main physical features of the area? (see the physical map of the USA) b. List 5 things you know about the Pacific States.


California Dream

Silicon Valley


s r


* *

B. lntroduction

Read the following text on the Pacific Coast Area and check your predictions from A. The most westerly of the physical regions of the United States is made up of the Pacific Coast Mountain Ranges, lt is an extensive area about 322km wide from the east to the west. lt has some of the highest mountains as well as some of the richest farmland in the US. This area also coJrtains some of the largest cifles in the country with a very developed economic and cultural life. This whole area can be divided into North and South Pacific Cordilleia Regions. The most amazing thing about the West Coast is the speed with which it has developed. lt was not until mid 19'" century that the key historical events took place, which gave the USA possession of the Pacific Coast and this removed the British and Mexican influence from the area. Another important event was the Gold Rush of 1849 that stimulated immigration and growth.

Fig. 20.1 The Pacific Coast

Facts and Figures States: Washington, Oregon, California

Total Area: aprox.22% of the USA area Total Population: aprox.40% of the USA population Highestelevation: Mt Whitney 4,418 n Lo.ivest elevation: Death Valley 86 m below sea level Largest city: Los Angeles 14 million inhabitants

C. Physical Features
The Pacific Cordilleran Region of the United Sta{es is a southward extension of a similar Canadian region to the north. It contains a variety of relief with hrgh mountains, flat plains, deep valleys, arid deserts and long sandy coastal beaches.


Read the following notes about the lanclscape of the area and make the correct choices from the alternatives suggested. The physical map might help you. The interior ranges include the Cascade Mountains in Wxhiagton an! Oregon/California and the Sierra Nevada in Washington and OregonlCalifornig with two important peaks, Mt. Rainier and Mt, Whitney, both over 4,000m high. Also in the Cascades there are active/dormanf volcanic peaks. Mt St Helens has erupted several times in recent yilars. Closer to the Pacific Coast is a second range of mountains, stretching from Washington to California, ln general there are few good natural lartificral harbours along the west coast, among which Puget Sound, San Francisco and San Diego Bay are the most important. Bltween the Pacific mountain ranges are hills, lower mountains and valleys. The Puget Trough runs northlsoqtfifrom Puget Sound to Oregon. The Willamette River Valley is part of the trough. ln Central California, another trough known as the Central Valley extends south into PeninsulalMexigp. All of these valleys have fertile soils and are important farm areas. The Pacific Coast experiences mostly moist, mild climates of two kinds: Oceanic marine climate with warm winds in lhe northlsouth Mediterranean climate in the norfhlse(S* Abundant rainfall and warm winds allow a growing season of about 6-7 months in the northern area, while the southern part of the CoastalArea has a major tourist season.

. .

3 a). What is a


b). ldentify the regions in the north and south climatic areas c). Why does the Mediterranean climate favour tourism?



D. Human Aspects
The States in the Pacific region share a common historical and cultural background as well as economic characteristics. However, the distinction between Norlh and south region is still maintained.


Read the following text and underline the key-words and dates connected with the historical development of the Northwest Pacific. Draw the time line of the events mentioned in the text. When the Americans began to move to the Far West, before any gold discoveries in the region, the entire pacific Coast was attractive for its space, free life and perhaps you could make a fortune. Long before the first setlers reached the Far West, New England sea captains and merchants had explored the Pacific Coasiand built trading posts. lt was a long voyage from the rest of the nation but those who risked the journey grew rich and with their weaitfr, tf,ey brought baci tales of fertile soil, giant forests and more fish than anyone had ever , Two such explorers, Lewis and Clark made their famous journey up the Missouri River and across the mountains in


' ' ' ' ' '



people could cross. But there was no great movement westward overland until 1843 when the great migration began along the Oregon Trail, which had been followed by traders and missionaries. The trail began on the luissouri River. By 1 850 there were about 10,000 people living in Oregon when in 1 846, under ihe Oregon Treaty Great Britain and USA agreed on the 49* parallel as the boundary between Canada and the United States. The 19'n century development of the Pacific NorthWest was fairly rapid. Oregon became a state in 1859 and within a year, mail communication was established with California. The first mining claims were staked in 1860 and then gold and oiher precious minerals such as silver, copper and zinc drew thousands of people from the east. Mining also stimulated the development of transportation, agriculture and settlement.

Later in 1826, a hunter led the first party through "South Path", the only gap in the Rockies where wagons, catle and

Between 1BB0-l9l0arailwayboomstimulatedrapidgrowthinpopulation,improvedcommunicationandaraillinkto
San Francisco was built. As a result, the region's greatest resource, timber was developed and by 1910 Washington

$tate was already the leading US producer of sawn lumber. Other economic activities included farming, salmoniishing and
irrigated farming,

G filf in the table below with the required information: v' Fact File


Washinqton Olympia


Main cities

California Sacramento

Tourist attractions
E. Economic Aspects

Seattle Mt. St. Helens

Hells Canvon

6. The Pacific Region is the USA's second most important economic region and makes a major contribution to the

California ll tne ltrst tn uarlornta is the first in terms of cash value. T most importayt ol The (t,,rl *hr.trl- otl , annhnrrrr lr , t t (l anchovy, +r t u Ct;utcl cncacfgai+\ 2. California also leads the Pacific States in , mosfly done in the Central Valley. lt is the country's leading gldwer of_ ? rrr vrsUvr rorlu Washington, ln Oregon and vvdJlllrlVlull, the Cascade Mountains divide Ine SIaIeS Int0 .r tllu udsuaue lvloutllalns alvl0e the states'into \1./ difforont farminn zones. Tha rlnr eastern zone i^ ^,,i+^Ll^ {^different farming znnac The dry nao+a.^ =a^r is suitable for :..f._-,,;t-r-\ Ji\\) --is' 'l,., ri\ J"ru West of the mountains, Oregon's Willamette Valley, regular rainfall and maritime temperate climate allow good yields of crop like fglt____..:-, l. ,' Both states are among the most important sources in the USA.


r\a-utl,t'*, iK,-:_--".*.1:1.




Clues: they influence the southern part of the state; some of them belong to other states.
in the Sierra Nevada. Here you can find the largest living thing on earth, the General

of 102.6ft (30.6m)and a height of 275ft(82,50m)

Shermaniree with a circumference



here we come!

7. choose from the list below the adjectives you would use to describe california:


fast -growing - peaceful


8. Look

at the pictures below showing different features in California Can you make any associations between the words you chose and the pictures you see?

Fig. 20.6 Death Valley

California is a state of many contrasts. Physically speaking, there are four natural regions with distinct characteristics varying the coastal uplands to lower California.
It has both the highest and the lowest elevation of the 48 contiguous states and of course, various climatic conditions, which include Death Valley with a highest, recorded temperature of 56.7'C, which is close to the world record. The main rivers that drain the Great Central Valley and the lakes in California represent another contrasting factor as well as the huge diversity of vegetation. Approximately 40% of species found naturaily in the US are indigenous to California. There are also the droughtresistant species in the desert..

ffieanlq1"rl+ ,t*
. 't. r {":{::{liti1



1.. .i,r $fll.l!





Saq{dnot{o. i;-tiii@r+ 'cALlfOItilt.[

LI '': iq*a, +


\".,r* &:'.-.;,F,:Cry.a.ill



From what you have studied so far, what are the most

*:il: str ffii il,*


important contrasts in California with respect to relief, climate, vegetation and land use?


-4":1M& tsrdsdE sJ . -..*"..t""-7





California's population of more than 30 million inhabitants makes it the most populous American state. lt is also very Fig.20.7 The State of California diverse ethnically and groups include European, African American and Hispanic mainly Mexican. Economically, California is frequently compared with nations rather than states. California is dominant in aerospace, agriculture, winemaking and the film industry. lts main cash prodLrcts are cattle, milk, cotton and grapes. lt also produces one third of the nation's canned and frozen vegetables and fruits. Petroleum and natural gas are the ieading minerai resources. Construction and autornobile industries are also very important.
'10' Some of

'. .,,i{licn---"

the main attractions of California can be seen in the following pictures. Match them to the corresponding descriptions

a. The Santa Clara Valley, south of San Francisco, was famous for its acres of prunes (dried plums). ln '1939, two young engineers Bill Hewlett and David Packard went to work in a garage in the Santa Clara Valley. Their first product was a precision audio oscillator used by Disney, for generating sound effects in the movie Faniasia, Today the Santa Clara Valley is the most important centre in America for the computer and electronics industry and Hewlett-Packard is one of irc major firms. rhis valley is referred to know to by its i:ickname Silicon Valley



b. lt was once farmland. By 1g10 however, film makers began moving here. The Southern California cfimaie was perfect for shooting movies all year round. The area had mountains, deserts and the ocean. Soon, Hollywood came to mean "the American film industry,'. Today, of the major studios, only paramount is still in Hollywood. ln Hollywood you can see two greattheatres where many films premiered, pantages Theatre and Mann's Chinese. The latter is famoui for its cement courtyard with footprints and handprints of many stars.

c. California earns more from grapes than from any other crop. Many, of tl9 gf1p.!_ grown are for wine. The vineyards extend the length of California down to San Diego. But the traditional and most importarit area for wines lijs to the north of San Francisco in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The.area with its genfle hills covered with vineyards often remind people of Mediterranean Europe. Many wineries and fine small restaurants are in the old stone buildings. Most wineries give tourists tours and free tasting.

It seldom rains in southern california but it is still one of the most productive areas of the USA. How can a desert turn into a fertile agricultural region? Much of california has a Mediterranean crimate ,ini.r, , is a rong sy.TT., drouglrt during which ritfle can grow. Farmers in the region with two specific problems:


the rivers Sacramento and San Joaquin did not suppry enough water to irrigate the land 2. most of the rain feil in the northern part of the vailey, whire the most fertire land is in the South. The solution: The centrar Vailey project was deveroped to herp distribute water ln California more effectively.


- The state motto "Eureka" is a Greek word meaning ,'r ) 420 public beaches lie along California's coasfline. have found it?,,
Yosemite Nationar park has more than 700 mires of hiking hairs.

Golden Gate National Recreation Area, embracing 114 square miles on both sides of the Gate Bridge, is the rargest urban park in tire worto, and the mosifoputar in tne 9o-ld:l U.S. National park system.

) The world's first raser was successfuily operated by its inventor, Theodore
- The Frisbee i Y.'iqg'at was invented in California. in Maribu in the spring .i 1960. ) The first television was invented by philo T. Farnsworth, and transmitted lts first
Hughes Research Laboratories successful electronic image in San Francisco on September 7, 1927. California was the site of the first radio broadcast. Fashion Fair Mail, in Fresno, was the nation's first encrosed shopping mail. The first node of the tnternet (then known as ARpANET) i* University of carifornia, Los Angeres (ucLA) in september 1g6g. The firsi host'to'host message was sen[one month rater from UCLA to stanford Research lnstitute.

California Firsts



Fig. 20.12 Californian Beach




Gulf Coastal

l---l t---______-_

Plain Appalachia

The Everglades Colonial Heritage Subtropical environment


A. Discussion Points
Look at the map fig.21.1on the right. You can identify the South as a large and complex region extending on all sides.

b. c.

Write down all the words you can think of related to ihe South Briefly describe the geographical features of the region and identify the sub-divisions according to the physical economic-cultural aspects. What is the most famous place you know about in the South?

B. lntroduction
1. Read the text and check your answers from A (predictions). The terrain of the region is very complex, ranging from rugged

Fi1.21.1 The South

Fact File The States: South East: North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi South Central: Arkansas, Oklahoma, Louisiana,

mountains to plateaux, lowland valleys and marshy coastal plains. No other region of the USA has such heavy rainfall and such a long growing season over its whole extent. -The South is also known for having some of the most severe natural hazards in America. Traditionally, the Southeast has been considered mainly as a rural area, its economy being associated with plantation crops such as cotton and tobacco. Recently there has been an upsurge of industrial development with big resources discovered both on land and offshore. lt is also a major tourist area as recreation and retirement are major industries. The region still maintains a Colonial heritage from the earliest European colonisation, which developed a unique culture after the War of lndependence. The Southeast was once the cenke of the Confederate States of America that fought the Civil War.

Area: approx. 3 million km'(28%) Population: 50 million people (1/6) Largest city:Atlanta Highest point: Mt. Mitchell (2,037m) Lowest point: The Gulf Coast 100m


The following pictures show some representative physical, economic and cultural features of the region. Group them according to these aspects.



C. Physical Features
urE euur'rrelrl regl' s--rievrr/' the southern region COmpfiSeS t\rvo sr hron i^^. :omprises tWO SUbfeqiOnS. l.les.e are the Coastal plains of th"e A,aniin .hd Gutf Coa-st , Atlantic and n,,rr i^^-^r and .

From the physical perspecr tY::^'^n*i,'ohy,

- t[ril,#i.


. . .

Read the two texts,,which refer to the subregions -- "'Y vvv'iE! mentioned and mark

the ideas already known to you with 7 rne ones that are new with a the ones that need clarification with a ?

The Aflantic Coastat plain follows the coasfline from Cape Cod in Massachusetts in the North to the Florida Peninsula in the South *f,er. it OroaO"enrio oi., SOOk, in width.

There are few natural harbours, many sandy beaches and offshore ista nds (from vi,gin il io itoi,i,jri r.i,rrrto the maintand by marshesl pamfico-is a |au[*jnr., of ,n. sea, which iles .along the coast .f frf .rtf] Mixed forests of coniferous and broadleaf deciduous are the natural vesetation of the south is mainly coniferous.


c. TheAppalachian Hiohlands


Marshes are common and there are slow-flowing rivers rhe Southern ptains. tts .rt .ouii, incruo.. :::^r:.ilg


b. The.Gulf plain is a much wider

gen,y ro,ing hi,s. It varies,in *loin rro, iib and extends inland where the Ohio iir., n.vv, "'g,i, tn. Mississippi. The Mississippi flo*. inio tn. 6rji.i'n).ri* - --" v' ', in.Southern Louisiana through a delta. With the exception of southe"rn ff oi,Oa lwf,icn has a tropical moist ctimate with over zo,c in winieia';l ,*.n, s9a9on), most of the South_east of ile Ui; """ " h0,., winter climate with hot and ' humid sum;;.

band of flat land and





towards the eastern eooe wlicrr This is a tow ptateau ZS"O_SOOm ' rb;;; The.mountains are made up of many irrO.Jp.rf,, ctustered into ranqes inctuding th; [,r"o1itrinr, '"'"", which extends from pennsyivinta to Ceoigi;: Other parts of the mountain,r.1l.tT are tfrE Rttegheny Mountains in the Centre ,no ti.r" Ci*is'",ri.Jiln,r, along the border between r.rn.r.u.-uro iuirnn EI.,,r, ln between the different mountain ranges there is an, area sometimes caled the Great " Vailey, Shenandoah in Virginia ,no crrl,.iirrj'in There is a moist coid winter crimate in ihe ;r.r,"iirr,rr.n of the hrghrand remains covered by trees, coniferous as well as broadleaf trees.

which l?l:".^ toAtabama i?i: fi. rl,[. mhr;; ta s wh ich exte d from Maine They ; N;;_lr.ill.l,iil*.r, 'n,tit.i.jf direction varying in attitude fr., fr,fi iz,Oifrf
o un

is a physical region
n n

;liil;;r[."il.oront. ;;;;;t '


k;;;';; #



Now read the text again and complete the table berow with the missing information, work in pairs.


in this region can be grouped accordinq to the comm0n economic and cutturat . The three subregions

Tiere are shong differences witnin tne,iouth. The states

D. Human and Economic Aspects



irrr".t.iirti.i ii.,,nr".

The Cenrrat Sourh is tow poputarion density and urban concentrations,include il.,gl?, yill tn"polifi.. oi rorro,t, Charleston, Savannah or"

T.?ll Kurat-urban




a. Appalachia is rural with a high population density based on

e.g. Richmond and Augusta. migration increased rjpiOty


;il'offi;;:'Bi.,. rr.n or Appalachia, farmino,s chret partner

bituminous) esp.cillty in the Ailegheny ptaieau, *hi.h h., tarse reserves tt is mined Jn.iir,n,ng and surface or strip mining. rrre oir su,[pr[;l; tffih Pennsytvania discovered i, r asg, ;;'i;n qrr,l,rl',..t rp,, another important eneror
is coal (anthracite and

# [ ff[.lT iff [,.tr];tH ilitrtrfl [[?',ffiland zinc in rilislouri cdahj*o



50,000 peopte. Agriculture is diversified and mechanized with important ' crops of tobacco, sugarcane
rmportant cash crop in this region Uri relatively.

lgleJooment rhere are es townslnl


wlth the economic





Cotio, i, ,[i,


or the Appa


ti, L


;!ffi; ;." ill'J,.j|"te

la ch ia n

s' Atla n ta

The traditional induskies of steel and textiles are now less dominant in the reqion as other f,irO..irrnrf*iriirg activity have growi such as synthetic textires, cnemicar industries, wood processing piants, etc.


c. Southern Coastlines:

the subtropical environment of this region has had a major impact on human activity. The most important benefit of this climate is the production of specialty crops such as citrus fruits, especially oranges and grapefruit with over 10 million tons/year harvested. Sugarcane requires warmth and humidity and is grown in Louisiana and Florida. Rice and vegetable production are important for urban

The Gulf Coast's oil and natural gas deposits were brought into production at the beginning of the 20'' century, generating urban and induskial growth. The city of Houston has grown to nearly 2 million people in 80 years has a major port nearby at Galveston. The process of oil exploration and drilling requires specialised and expensive equipment. Two additional minerals of economic value derived from the oil bearing structures of the Texas and Louisiana coasflands are sulphur and rock salt. Tourism is also a major industry with Miami as the main centre.


Based on the natural resources listed below, complete the table using the information from the above text. Natural resources What? (economic activity) Where? (location.state) How? (processing)

Coal Wood cotton
Soil Fish


6' Sort out the following "heads and tails" to make true statements about the following urban centres.
1. Miami a. tourist function b. trading centre, accessible to ocean-going ships c. a major oil centre in Texas d. the largest city in the Appalachian and the Gate City of the

2. Houston
3. Atlanta

4. New Orleans


A world famous atkaction west of Miami is the Everglades

National Park, a swamp area that is home to a fantastic variety ' of semitropical plant and animal life. lt was founded in jg47 and it covers over 600,000ha from Everglades City to the Florida Keys, and includes Cape Sable, the southernmost point of USA mainland. The forest contains over 120 species of palm trees as well as mangroves and cypresses. Wildflowers like orchids, water lilies and giant ferns together with numerous species of birds add to the beauty of the region. ln 1947 a federal flood-control project drained parts ofthe area to create farmland and provide water for neighbouring communities. The action intenupted the flow of the natural water system and adversely affected the ecosystem. ln 1976, the US government declared the Everglades a National Reserve and in 2000, Congress passed the Everglades Restoration Act, This aims to restore the natural flow of water through the marshes. UNESCO designatedthe Everglades an lnternational Biosphere Reserve as well as a World Heritage Site.


Coastal Resources and the Need for Management Managing coastal resources wisely means making use of coastal lands and waters in a way that protects resources for future generations while allowing coastal communities and economies to thrive. Developed barriei islands and their surrounding waters and wetlands are the focus of coastal management schemes in the United States. Coastal areas require management because of the richness, diversity and sometimes scarcity of resources. Environments include wetlands, beaches, sand dunes, barrier islands, estuaries and coastal waters, coral reefs, ,rngrr. forests and other living marine resources, They are also of great economic importance to the nation. The coast is home to over half the nation'Jpopulation (Culliton, l!os) is u poprrur vacation destination, provides key transportation routes for over 90% of U.S. international trade (NoAA,'i9g5j, and provides over 956 billion in commercial and recreational fishing each year (NOAA, 1994a). Major uses subjectto management include: . residential, commercial, recreational and industrial development; harbour development and maintenance, such as channel . mineral extraction for oil, natural gas and hard minerals; dredging and the disposal of dredged maierial; erection of structures to "control" shoreline erosion; and commercial and recreational fishing


The Problem. Large oil and gas resources lie beneath Louisiana's coastalweflands. Historically, the oil and gas industry has dredged lengthy access canals and slips through vegetated wetlands for well drilling platforms to reach these resources. These actions have caused a significant loss of wetland and altered the natural hydrotogylnd salinity of these sites.


2.9 acres in '1989. Reference: National oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration (NOAA). 'lg9B (on-line)."Managing Coastal Resources,, by John McDonough, John Paul rolson and David stad.. iioAA', state oi tn-e coast Report. sitver Spring,

Solution' Louisiana instituted a geological review process to evaluate industrial proposals for less damaging alternatives to the traditional access canals and slips. By using such alternatives as drilling new wells from existing sites, laying removable wooden board roads for access, moving well siteito less damaging locations"and drilling wells at an angle from less damaging locations, the industry has reduced the average area of vegetatJd iletlands affected per well from 5.2 acres in 19g2 to



Fact file

- Total



678,907 km, 17,333 km'

- Land - Water

- % water


F.Texas is probably the most self-conscious of all the Arnerican states. lt is the only state that had a separate existence

between 1836-1845 under its own flag before joining the Union. lt gained ceriain privileges such as ownership of its public lands, which were not extended to other westein parts of the nationl The state motto is both "The Lone Star State" and the "Friendship State". The people of Texas are debating which motto best represents them but "The Lone Star State" seems to be the most commonly used today. Texas is the second largest state in size afterAlaska and has historically been porlrayed as largerthan life, especially in cowboy films andthe oil industry.


Florida is considered to have the oldest European settlement in North America, north of the Rio Grande. ln .1565 the Spaniards established St. Augustine as a military and mission post.



non'contiguous r-------___l-l






northern/ southern most





A. Discussion Points a. Study the map on the opposite

page and identify the non-contiguous states of the USA. Locate these states according to the major geographic lines and the proximity of the US.


b. These states are called the newest because they were the last to
join the Union in1959. Do you know anything about the historical context of their discovery and annexation? c. The game on the right gives you key ideas about the newest states (physical and human). lf you cannot work it out now, come back after you have covered the information in the lesson,

E------HAWAII -E------ s---T------


--T----E-oil----S ---

B. ALASKA - lntroduction
Alaska is the largest state of the USA in area. lt is also the northernmost state and much of its territory lies north of the Arctic Circle. About 800 km of Canadian territory separates it from the state of Washington. The Alaskan mainland's most westerly point is only 82 km from Russia. No oiher parl of North America is closer to Asia. Today Alaska is often called "The Last Frontier" because much of the state is not fully settled.

. a. Note the area of Alaska. How large is it in proportion to the area of the mainland US? b' Comment on the proximity of Alaska to Russia. Which narrow strait separates them? Which large bodies

of water does this strait connect? Note the location of each of these features of Alaska: Gulf of Alaska, Seward peniniula, Beauforl Sea and Kodiak lsland.

C. ALASKA - Physical Features

Both Alaska and Hawaii have a great physical variety. The text below presents the most striking features that make up Alaska's landscape.


2 a. Read the text below and fill in the gaps with the key.words

The Central Uplands and up the largest land region in Alaska. This region lies between the Alaska Range to the south and the Range to the north. lt extends westwards from the Canadian border and it includes the seward the Kuskowim River area of southwestern Alaska. The Brooks Range and its foothills'Effiart of the Rocky Mountain System with steep that rise 2,700m in the east. The Alaska Range contains Mt. McKinley, the highest peak in the USA. Stretching to the southwest are the About one-third of Alaska's area is covered with ice. There are overl50 glaciers among which the Malaspina glacier is the third largest in the world. Volcanic activity is also an important phenomenon. The Arctic Coastal Plain is the most lt . rises gradually from the Arctic Ocean to a height of 180m in the south. Alaska's extreme no(hern location makes the hours very short in winter and very long in the summer. ln some places the sun never completely sets for a few days during the summer. The Yukon River, Alaska's chief flows 3,185km through Alaska and parls of Canada. From June to October the river is Forests cover a third of Alaska and there are many wild flowers on the


in the box.

_peaks -and

Statehood: Jan.3,1959, the 49'n state State Motto: North to the future Nickname: "The Last Frontief' Area: 1.5' Coastline: 10,600 km long Highest elevation: Mt. McKinley-6,194 m Population: 560,000 inhabitants Density: 0.36 Capital: Juneau



b. Answer the

of climate, vegetation and soil ?

1) What are the climatic conditions like in Alaska? Explain them. 2) Where else (otherAmerican regions) did you meet similar conditions


Hawaii is the only state in the USA that does not lie on the mainland of North America.,, rt is which extend over2'450km.nearthe made up of over 100 vorcanic ttnt.. oiir,r-rtrorft,.rn pu.iri.b;.;;.;ith. isrands. southeastern end of the chain, main islands' among which.Hr*uii, there rie the 8 rvuri, orrr, ,ni r<rrri ti'. l.rrining 4, Honoruru, the state capitar .r ir,. Ls and the ,i,.0 5::','r'.'lYJir:,tTjI:,:ly#ir'J state joinins the Union in re5e, Hawaii is


a..h* [.i;;i# iltest



Nickname: "The Aloha State" Area: 16,800 km, Coastline: 1,200 km lono

GENERAL INFORMATION ON HAWAII " Statehood: Aug.21,1 959, the 50 state State Motto: Ua man ke ea aina I ka pono (The life of the land is oerpetuated in righteousness)

HAWAII - physical features

the text that follows oresents the most skiking features of the Hawaiian landscape.
3 a. Read the text and

from the box.

fill in the gaps with the key-words

The eight main Hawaiian lslands are the tips of one or more

Population: 1,115,000 inhabitants Density: 65 Capital: Honolulu

Higtest.elevation: 4,205 m (Mauna Kea)

11. ___________. _istand, H.awaii, is"tl'; ffi,red from five votcanoes: Mauna Kea. rrlauna't_oa, irZrrriri,iJ',rta and Kitauea. The first two as well ,. rcrrr.u u-r."____ very nign, over 4,200m above sea tevel. rtm other American states to the votcanoes p"#'L'sie







smarrest used for military purposes.

Honolulu, on the island of Oahu lies on a olain at the southeastern end. Kauai lslanO has spectrJrlr-. its norrhwest coast, the famoui rrrrii,l[Jiprrii.asr, as wetJ as a number of inland Molokai .omprireiipatea, o, the west and mountains on the east. Lanai.conlains ir*uii,s f*g;t p,r,.appf. ptantation. Kahoo is tre


iJ;r; lij;;ffiJJut.o


Hawaii's climate is trooical and throughout the year, which.allows


qrglant .rlmrt; I5*:'itf:*1 every year il'#tnifiN"g' millions of tourists

small variations a growing season of ,12 months.



Fi1.22.3 Mauna Loa erupting

b. What

makes Hawaii different from the other 49 states?



Alaska has a complex human geography with regard to population distribution, ethnicity and religion. Read the following statements about the population of Alaska. Using the information in the table (Fig.22.5) Continue these ideas to form a short presentation of various aspects of population in Alaska.

Co Us

Alaska is a land of contrasts. Most of the state is still wilderness and sparsely inhabited, while part of the country, along "the Panhandle" has high density. About a third of Alaska's people were born in Alaska among whom there are about 75,000 Native Americans
Rank (American States'l

P d L


Population lncrease in a decade (1990-2000)

Largest cities

- 228,000 - 33.000
Fi1.22.4 Eskimo or lnuit people

Fairbanks 65%

Urban/Rural oooulation ratio

Native Americans

Eskimos (Aleuts and lnuits) - 50,000 lndian (Athabaskan in the South

central part and Tlingit and Haida in the Southeast) - 25,000



0ther ethnic qroups


Fi1.22.5 Alaska population data


ALASKA Economic Geography

4. Read the following text in order to find out about the main economic activities in Alaska. Underline the key.words, which

show the chief products and activities.

Oil from Prudhoe Bay, which is transported via the Trans-Alaska pipeline, opened

in 1977 and natural gas are by farAlaska's most important mineral resources. 0thers include copper, gold, coal, sand, gravel, stone and clay. Forestry and fishing are also important to the economy but Alaska is no longer dependent on them or on gold as it was once. Sitka spruce, cedar and western hemlock are used for timber and paper-making. Salmon also accounts for a malor share of the value of annual fish catch. Farming accounts for less lhan 1.10/o of the GDP (mainly dairy products, potatoes, and cattle). The leadlng manufacturing industries are food (fish) processing, timber products, printing, and publishing.
5. Alaska is a land of contrasts and superlatives at the same time. Can you identify the superlatives ? The following key aspects may be of help: location, size, coastline, relief, distribution resources.

. the Panhandle: a complicated network of land and water stretching north 400km from Misty Fiords National Monument to the Malaspina Glacier. The Panhandle extends like an appendage from the main body of Alaska towards the lower 48 states, separating Canada from the Gulf of Alaska. The largest US national forest, the Tongass covers more than 75 percent of the Panhandle 's land area.

. Dogsled Racing: a team of huskies "mushing" across

frozen tundra is a quintessentialimage of Alaska. For millennia, working sled dogs provided travel and communication in the far north. . Arctic Wildlife: among large mammals, the semi-aquatic

polar bear is one of the most elusive. Unlike polar bears, grizzly bears will eat food other than meat, often grazing
on blueberries. Re-introduced to the Arctic, musk oxen are ly adapted to extreme cold. (Michelin



Continue these two ideas about Hawaii to make a short presentation about the various aspects of population in Hawaii. Use the information in the table below and the general information on the previous page.

a. b.

The state of Hawaii has many nationalities and ethnic groups. More than four-fifths of the people in Hawaii live in urban areas.

Rank (American States ) Population lncrease in a decade (1990-2000) Largest cities

Honolulu Hilo


40,000 Kailua - 38,000

Urban/Rural 88%

Natives (thousands)

Polvnesian descent 15 %

34(the smallest proportion of

anv state) Chinese, Philippines, Japanese,

Other ethnic groups

I. HAWAII Economic Geography


Read the following text in order to find out about the main economic activities in Hawaii. Underline the key-words, which detail the chief products and activities. Stone is Hawaii's principal mineral deposit although cement, gravel, sand and pumice are also produced. Farming and fishing are minor industries. Tuna represents a major proportion of the fishing catch. Leading crops include sugarcane, pineapple, coffee, and papaya. The principal manufacturing industries include: food processing (raw sugar, canned fruit and juice); the manufacture of clothing, textile products; printing and publishing. The main industry and source of income is tourism, which produces more than $10 billion for the state economy.

7. COMPARE AND CONTRAST ALASKAAND HAWA|l. Refer to physical, human and economic features. Use the two following maps to present your conclusions to your classmates.


tp**:^ '=tf$----o:
i +,, '''' ' q' I F' .1ffi-


otFl n'*

[" t a&


\l .\51'.;\



)There are only 2 highways from the US mainland and within Alaska. Roads and railways are relatively limited although


nearly every town has its own aidield. Planes fly passengers, mail and freight to the most distant "villages". Eskimos call themselves "lnuit" (the people) but the Cree lndians of Canada call them "Eskimos" (eaters of raw meat).


Eskimo is now an outdated term. Hawaiian alphabet has only 12 letters: a, e, h, l, k, l, m, n, o, p, u and w. Every Hawaiian word ends in a vowel. E.g. ae = yes / aole= no/ aloha= welcome, love / kokua = help / mahalo= thank you/ huhu= angry/ wikiwiki = quickl! Every Hawaiian island has a nickname: Lanai = the lsle of Pines Kauai = the Garden lsle Hawaii = the Big lsland Kahoolawe = the Empty lsle Molokai = An lsland few people know Maui =The Valley


3:oprofrles 7



A. For each of the questions below, circle the correct answer:

'1. The Appalachians are lower than the Rockies because they are a.
11 .




c. shorter

2. The Grand Canyon has been carved by the action of a. water b. wind and temperature c. all 3. The rivers rising west of the Continental Divide flow into a, the Atlantic 0cean b. the Pacific Ocean c. both 4, The Mississippi River

c. glacial lake 12, ln its middle course the Colorado River is a. fast, dangerous, carries a lot of water b. slow, majestic, carries a lot of water c. fast, navigable, carries little water 13. The Mississippigathers its waters from a..112 b.314

Salt Lake rs an example of a. tectonic lake b. volcanic


c.213 of the USAtenitory.


a. is the longest river in the USA b. has the largest drainage basin in the USA c. both The Mississippi has about 250 tributaries and actuaily drains waters fron2l3 of the USA. Which one of the following rivers is NOT a tributary of the Mississippi?
a, the of the

14. The highest mountain peak of the contiguous USA is found in: a. The Rocky Mountains
b. The Sierra Nevada Mountains

c, The Cascade Range

15. Niagara falls are found between lakes: a. Erie-Ontario b. Erie-Michigan c. 0ntario-Superior
16. Which of the forms of relief from below is not really a plateau: a. Colorado Plateau

Arkansas b. the Potomac c. the Tennessee

6. The Columbra Plateau appeared as a result of the action

a. glaciers b. volcanoes c. rivers
7. Which is the highest mountain peak east of the Mississippi?

b. Great Basin c. Ozark Plateau

17. The highest American mountain peak is of over

a. Mithchell b. Whitney c. McKintey 8. Which are the only volcanic mountains in the USA?

a.2000m b.4000m c.6000m

18. The Pacific Coast is affected by

a.Ozark b. Cascade Range c. Coast

9. Which


pa( of the USA has no coastal plain?


a. volcanism c. earthquakes c. both 19. The area which has hot and dry summers and warm, wet winters is: a, the northern half of the Pacific coast b. the southern half of the Pacific coast
c. the southern half of the Atlantic coast 20. The Great Lakes contain



south c. east

10. The area of the USAwhich has hot, dry summers, very cold winters with occasional blizzards and a light to

average amount of precipitation is: a. The lntermontane Basins

b. the Great Plains


c. the South-east

c. 1/3 of all the freshwater in the world

B' ln the table below, match each of the USA region from the middle column with the climate type (left column) and hazard (right column) corresponding to it. Remember that several hazards may manifest themselves in one single area
and several areas may display the same hazard.
Climate tvoe
semidesert Mediterranean dry temperate continental subtropical temperate maritime temperate continental mountain climate Gulf Coast Plain Colorado Plateau

chinook flooding

Climate hazard
(occasional) drouoht

the Rocky Mountains

Great Valley of California Central Plains Northern Half of Pacific Coast the Great Plarns

tornadoes hurricanes blizzards dust storms


on the USA map given below label each of the following landforms by number:

The Atlantic Coastal Plains

2. The Great Plains 3. The Appalachian Mountains 4. The Central Plains (Lowlands) 5. The Columbia Plateau 6. The Great Valley 7. The Great Basin

8. The Sierra Nevada Mountains 9. The Rocky Mountains

10. The Cascade Range

The Ozark Plateau (Mountains) Ihe Colorado Plateau 13. The Coast Ranges 14. The Gulf Coastal Plain


Draw and label the rivers that you have learnt.




.aH /aa ta



i1 1a

la a


a a a

att \

D.USA SUPERLATIVES. Give short answers to the following questions:

l.Which is the word's largest marsh located in the USA? 2.What canal located south of Chicago joins one of the tributaries of the Mississippi River to the Great Lakes, making it one of the world's largest inland water transportation routes? 3.Name the river that connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean, thus creating a 3,861km long inland waterway? 4.Many geographical names from the USA have Native American names? How are called the oneJwhose translation is "thunder of wate/' and "father of waters" respectively? S.Which is the highest point in the entire USA? 6.Which is the lowest point in the USA and in the entire western hemisphere? How far away are from each other the highest and lowest points in the contiguous USA? J S.Which is the world's largest mountain located in the USA? 9,Which are the only volcanic mountains in the contiguous USA? 10.What mountain from the above mentioned range erupted in jgB0?
.Which was the biggest earthquake experienced so far in the contiguous USA and where was it felt? 12.Which is the largest fresh water lake in the USA and in the world? '!! Wnlcn is the only lake of the five Great Lakes which is located entirely on the USA territory? 14.Which is the largest state in the USA? 1S.Which is the largest state in the contiguous USA? 16.Which is the smallest state in the USA? 17.Which is the most populous state of the entire USA? 18.Which is the sparsest populated state in the USA? l9.which state is nicknamed the state with 10,000 lakes? How many does it have in fact? 20.Which state has the greatest number of lakes? 21.Which 3 states have the shortest names? 22.Which of the 50 states was the last to jcrn the union? 23.How many islands does Hawaii include and which are the biggest of these? 24.Whal was "Seward's Fol ly"? 25.Which state borders only one other state? 26.Which state borders most of the others? 27.Which state has the longest coastline? 28.What is Mount Rushmore famous for? 29.Why are the graves in Louisiana above the ground? 30.Where is the Midwest and how did it get its name? 31.The first crop that brought cash to the first white settlers in North America was tobacco. Where is it still grown?


Read the information on Amtrak and some of the routes that cross the United States of America. choose one route. For your route create a poster highlighting the following aspects:





. states crossed . physical features of the area . main attractions . cities For your project you can research in groups and bring any sort of information available (books, magazines, internet). Don't forget to mention the sources. Amtrak facts The name Amtrak is the combination of the words "American" and "Track", The railroad's official name is the National Railroad
Passenger Corporation. Amtrak began service on May 1 , 1 97'1 when Clocker No. 235 departed from New York Penn Station at 12:05 a.m. bound for Philadelphia. ln 1971, Amtrak announced a schedule of 184 trains, serving 314 destinations. When service began on May 1,1971, Amtrak had 25 employees. Today, the company employs 22,000 people. Since the beginning, even-numbered trains have traveled north and east. Odd-numbered trains travel south and west.













The American Rail Network

Train travel is easy, but nothing compares with traveling on board the Amtrak. lt is the experience of a lifetime. A list of travel tips might contribute to the enjoyment of the journey.

Arrive early. lt's a good idea to arrive at the station at least 30 minutes before your train is due to depart.
Pack wisely. Remember that once you check in your large bags, you won't have access to them until your trip is over. Be sure to pack all medication and special snacks in one of your carry-on bags. Be prepared. There's nothing like watching the countryside roll by outside your window. Bring a camera with high-speed film to record some of the views. We keep our lounge cars cool to provide maximum comfort for all our passengers, so you may want to bring an extra sweater. Our coach cars offer comfortable reclining seats. For maximum comfort, dress in layers and bring a pillow with you on board or stuff a small duffel bag with sweaters or sweatshirts


Empire Builder
It takes you on an exciting adventure through majestic wilderness, following in the footsteps of Lewis and Clark. From Chicago, you'll have magnificent views of the Mississippi and see the glowing night skyline of Minneapolis and St. Paul. Awake the next morntng as you cross the vast North Dakota plains and cross over the spectacular Gassman Coulee Trestle. As you skirt the upper Missouri, you'll cross into the wide open spaces of the "Big Sky Country" in Montana. Nature continues heiperformance in Glacier National Park. From Spokane, you can coniinue on to Seattle or pick up the Lewis and Clark trail again, heading down the mighty Columbia River to Portland for spectacular views of Mt. Hood and Beacon Rock. On the Empire Builder, you'llfeel like a pampered explorer.

Texas Eagle
Ready for a real adventure? Spend some time on the route that runs between the skyscrapers of Chicago and the historical echoes of the Alamo. The Texas Eagle, now offering daily service between Chicago and San Antonio, can take you to 40 cities from the Midwest to the South Travel through the "Land of Lincoln," cross the Mississippi, wind through the bzarks to Little Rock, Arkansas and through the Piney Woods of East Texas to colorJul, cosmopolitan Dallas while watching the plains turn to pine forests then to cattle country.

Southwest Chief
Amtrak's Southwest Chief takes you through the heart of cowboy country. We'll take you across the mighty Mississippi and whisk you through eight states, past wheat fields, ranches, missions, pueblos, mountains and deserts. Zlpping along tiriough canyons that are sometimes only a few feet wider than the train or through ihe sun-drenched landscape, you'll feel the presence of the ancient tribes who found splritual meaning in the rocky cliffs and canyons. You'll remember the Spanish conquistadors whose mission was to conquer the land and the people. This is a journey to be savoured from moment to moment. Aboard Amtrak's Southwest Chief, time takes on a new quality.

The City of New Orleans

This goodtime route between the Windy City and the Big Easy is ruled by more than g00 miles of fun. your journey on the City of New Orleans will take you through some of the region's most musical cities, from the world-class Chicago Symphony, to the Blues of Beale Street in Memphis, to the distinctive Dixieland jazz of New Orleans. Amtrak's philosophyl tet tfre gooO times rolll

The Lake Shore Limited

Amtrak's Lake Shore Limited takes you along some of the country's prettiest shorelines. you'll pass through New york's beautiful Finger Lakes region, following a famous Native American highway along Lake Michigan and tire Mohawk River. Travelthrough the Berkshires and stop in Pittsfield to take a tour of the house where Herman Melville wrote Moby Dick. Visit the Berkshire Museum ihe oldest in the country or get tickets to an opera, a symphony, or a play. ln Boston make connections to Providence and Mystic Seaport on Regional. You can do what you wan[in between stops. Once you get going on yourAmtrak adveniure, you won't want to stop. Silver Service / The Palmetto routes travel between the big cities of the Northeast and the tropical playgrounds of Florida, passing through historic Virginia, the pine forests of the Carolinas and the elegance of old Savannah. ltb an easygoing ride, with lots of lively company and friendly service.

J l-\







Little Rock







E@ H

Des Mornes













Baton Rouge





St. Paul


Jefferson City


F :





Carson City

NewHampshire NewJersey



New Mexico
Sanfa Fe

New York Albany

North Carolina

North Dakota



Oklahoma City



Rhode lsland

South Carolina

@ rcUE@@
South Dakota


Texas Austin

Salt Lake City





West Virginia




Ageing population = a population with an increasing proportion of people over 65 Alloy = metal that consists of two or more metals mixed together (Rom: aliaj)
B&B (bed and breakfast) = s type of holiday accommodation usually found in a private house, offering a bed for the night and breakfast in the morning (Rom: pensiune) Badlands = area of over 600 located near the Black Hills of South Dakota. (also in Nebraska)
The landforms have variety of colours and are spectacular examples of rock erosion

Basalt = a fine-grained black or dark grey igneous (Rom: vulcanic) rock Bay = a broad curved indentation in a coastline made by the sea

Biogas = a gas (CHo produced by decaying organic waste) which can be used as a source of energy Birth rate = the number of live births per 1000 people per year, Blustery = very windy Break of bulk = the unloading of cargoes from ships to land by using cranes etc BulkY = having great size By'pass = road passing around town or its centre to provide an alternative rouie for through traffic Caldera = a volcanic crater formed by blowing the top off of a crater Calving = birth of calves. Also used for blocks of ice falling off the end of a glacier into the sea. Canyon = deeP valley with very steep sides, often with a stream flowing in the bottom Cargo = goods carried by ship, aircraft or motor vehicle Census = an official process of counting a country's population and finding out about the people Ceramics = the making of pots, pipes, tiles by shaping pieces of clay and baking them until they are hard Chalk = soft, white, friable, fine-grained limestone (Rom: creta) Channel = a wide or narrow waterway separating two land areas or linking two seas Chinook = warm, dry wi$ similar to the fohn which blows down the eastern side of the Rocky Mts. Chippitts = megalopolis or urban conurbation stretching from Chicago to Pittsburg Clay = finetextured sedimentary rock (Rom: argila) Gliff = high, steep or perpendicular face of rock e.g. along sea coast (Rom: falezd) ' Coal seam a band of coal between other rocks = Coal'fired power station = a thermal power station in which coal is burnt to produce electricity Coastline = the edge of the land coke = a light black substance produced from coal and burnt to provide heat Commonwealth (British) = an organisation of 54 independent states most of which were once part of the
British Empire

Continental Divide = main water parting in a continent Contour farming = farming practice of cutting furrows across a hill slope, following the contours of land
rather than ploughing up and down the slope

Conurbation = a large built-up area with a high population density where several towns and cities have joined up Counter'urbanisation = the movement of people and employment away from large cities to smaller
settlements in rural areas Death rate = the number of deaths per 1000 people per year. Deforestation = permanent removal of forest and its undergrowth (Rom: defrigare) Densely populated area = an area with many people in it. Density of population = the number of people living in a given area usually in a square kilometre Dependency ratio = the ratio between people of working age/economically active ige (15 - 64) and non-working ageinon-economically active age (children under 15 and people over 64; _ Distributary = branch of a river that flows away from the main stream in a delta (Rom: bra!de delta) Distribution of population = the way in which people are spread out across a qertain area


Dome = an upfolded mass of rock Domestic waste = household waste and waste drainage water Down, downs, downland = an open expense of gently undulating elevated land, usually made of chalk
(Rom; zona colinard)

Drain (to) = to make water flow awaY Drainage = the ability of water to flow away

Drift = slow movement of surface waters in the ocean under the influence of prevailing winds (Rom: curent
de suprafa[d)

Drizzle = light form of rain consisting of very small droplets (Rom: burni!d) Drought = prolonged, continuous period of dry weather (Rom: secetd)

Dry-farming = farming practice that involves special treatment of the land to overcome shortage of water Dust Bowl = semi-arid tract of land from which the top soil, exposed through careless ploughing has been
removed by the wind

Earthquake = shaking of the ground caused by deep-seated fault movement (Rom: cutremur)

Emigration = moving out of an area (about people) Enterprise zone = a poor area in Britain in which the government tries to encourage new businesses by
offering financial support Equable = a climate which lacks great extremes (even and regular) (Rom: uniform) Escarpment = a steep slope or scarp on one side of a hill with a gentle slope on the other (Rom: povarnig) Estuary = the funnel-shaped mouth of a river where tidal effects can be seen Ethnic group = a group of people with common characteristics related to race, nationality, language, r'eligion or culture Fault (geology) = fracture or break in a series of rocks along which there has been vertical or lateral movement (Rom:falie ) pertiliser substance containing one or chemical compounds to improve the yield of crops = Fiord = a narrow inlet of the sea formed by glacial erosion, Firth = Scottish for fiord plood an overflowing of water from a river or the sea (Rom: inunda[ie) = Fodder = any food for livestock as cattle, sheep, and horses (Rom: nutre!) Fold(ed\ mountains = mountain resu\t\ngirom the to\drng of the ea(h (Rom: mun$ de \ncretue\ Ford = a place in a river where the water is not deep and can be crossed on foot (Rom: vad) Forestry = an industry in which trees are cut down Fossil fuel = a traditional, conventional form of energy, such as oil, coal or gas produced by the slow decay of plants or animals f reight = goods carried by a vessel or vehicle Fringe = the part farthest from the centre, edge (Rom: zona preordgeneasca) Fringed = bordered by Gale = very strong winds (Rom: vijelie) Gentrification = the process by which a street or area formerly lived by poor people is changed by people with more money who move into and live there Geothermal energy = renewable resource of energy using the heat inside the Earth's crust to produce steam and generate energy Glacier = a mass of ice moving down a valley, glacial adj Gorge = a'rocky-walled, steep-sided, deep, narrow valley (Rom: chei) Gravel = loose, water-worn sediment in which small rounded stones predominate (Rom: pietrig) Hail = a small piece of ice falling from cumulonimbus clouds (Rom: grindina) Hamlet = a small settlement with a few houses and no facilities. (Rom: cdtun)

I ; I , I , , I





strip of land beside motonrvavrorvehicres to reave road in case oremersency

Headquarters = the main central office of a company where the decisions are made


a continuous

tiles torminb

t L o',,oarv

ora n.rJ


g,ro viul
area (Rom: carotd


oii* of considerabte thickness and covering a large

lgneous = of deep volcanic origin lmmigration = moving.into.n ir., (about peopre)especiary a country lndentation = irregurarity of coasttine (iom: larm danterat, crestat) lndustriar dischaige = industriar warte ieteased into the atmosphere or water lntet = A prace wheie the sea the rand. tnor, nirj de mare) tnsurate (to) = 1s cover somethins so il ;.ttins out lsle = svnonvm for island but rrt., .rrrro"i'r!4i names (tste of Man) or in poetry Lambing = birth rlll,T!. *licr,r ,srJfv occurs in the spring Landfill = act of burying waste under the soir, prace where the waste is buried Landmass = a very-lar6 e areaof .ontin.ntrl dyrt 110r, ,rprrfrp de uscat) Lane of road = a slngte stiip-;;.;; fr;ingte tine or tHom: bandd de circutafie) tlillJli]r= the removaroimine'ati r'r, it.


* ;;r;;;iil;;;;,il




and dissorvins


se scurse, a

sheltered side, the side opposite to that against which the wind btows (Rom: versant

carciurncarbonate (Rom: carcar) Littering = refuse, paper wrapping etc teit oerrino Loch = rake in scoirand; tougtr'in iri.r.,. 6or. scottish ,rri*]nr.t, are cailed rochs Lumbering = fellinq and sar'iing oitro.,. uro removrng th. area (Rom: exproatarea remnurui) Manufacturing Beit name given = to the area located iouilr or steel making, coalmining, .rgr..iing "' irre Great Lakes an important cenhe for ' in tf.,. fg;C.njrry Manure = animal dung used toitertitisirig the soif lffi,ijr.grO Microclimate = the climate ,f , ,rriirrla e,g. garoen, district Migration = the movement of people eiirrer wittrin a country or between countries Millstone grit = a hard, coarse-A;i;r;;;" sandstone (Rom: varietate de gresie) Monoculture = cultivation in *r'.,i.[

Life expectancy = 16t average number of years a person born in a country is expected to Limestone = a sedimentary [ct live maoe


mainry of




crop prodominates and is pranted successivery on the same

unenclosed land, senerallv elevated, with acid peaty soit (not sood pasture) often Motonrvay (Br'E) road specially = constructed for fast, direct motor Naturalefficiencv cnanoe'ifiilffirn rate acloroing to ihe traffic (Rom: autostradS) = 19 difference between birth and organic farming'= agriculture"p;ffiffithout death rate the r;;;ir"rf,ilial chemical fertirisers 0utput = the amount or a proouc.J or pesticides rir, or factory Outskirts = the outer,area1 a town iRr;, periferie) 9f Peak = the more or ress point.o summit of a mountain (Rom: v6rf) Peat = a deposit of dead veget.dr. ,rit.ionry partiarrt (Rom: turbd) Pesticide = chemicar substJnce ,r.olo tirirn,mar, oi irr.ct, as harmfur to crops t,u1ffi'#1111;r$;i!!,?f;Hl





,". or rand wrricn is"rairry naianJ 0,,,0 on on. or more



PIaya = a flat basin in an arid land which may become covered with water periodically (a salt lake forms there)

Pony trekking = leisure time activity in which people ride ponies

Population pyramid = the age-sex composition of a population shown as a pyramid graph Prairie = extensive area of extensive grassland occurring in mid-latitudes in North America (French for

Precipice = a dangerously steep slope of a high rock, mountain, cliff (Rom: pripastie) Push.pull factors = physical and/or human factors that attract or drive people from/ towards an area Quarry = a place from which stone, sand, etc. are dug out (Rom: cariera) Rain shadow = an area with a relatively low rainfall occurring on the lee side of hill or mountain (Rom:
effect orografic)

Renewable resource of energy = an alternative, non-polluting resource of energy such as solar energy
or water power which can be used over and over again Reservoir = an lake used to store water, usually an artificial lake. (Rom: lac de acumulare) Retailing = the sale of goods in shops to customers (Rom: vdnzare cu amdnuntul) Ria = a drowned river valley in a hilly landscape

Ribbon lake = long, thin lakes of glacial origin Ridge = long, narrow hill, such as the top of a range of mountains. crest (Rom: creastd) Rift valley = a long, flat-floored valley with steep sides, where a faulted block has dropped down between
two faults

Ring road = road encircling a built-up area or town, often used as a by-pass (Rom: gosea de centura)

Ro'ro (roll'on roll-off) = facilities which allow lorries with containers to drive straight onto ships and drive
off at the end of the voyage

Rugged = having a rough, uneven surface (Rom: colturos) Rust Belt = name given to the decaying industrial area located south of the Great Lakes and names after
the derelict, rusting


Sandstone = a sedimentary rock made up of coarse quartz grains Rom: varietate de gresie Scarpland = a region of steep slopes, escarpments sewage = the waste material and water carried in sewers (Rom: ape reziduale) Sewer = artificial passage or a large pipe underground for carrying away sewage (Rom: sistem de

Shallow = not deep (about water) Shower = a brief fall of rain, hail, sleet or snow (Rom: aversa)

Silt = fine padicles, carried or deposited by water (Rom: aluviuni) Sleeping policeman = bumps built in the road to slow down traffic at in residential or other sensitive areas Sleet = precipitation consisting of snow and rain mixed (Rom: lapovila) Slums = a city area with poor living conditions (Rom: mahala) Smog = a mixture of smoke and fog Solar collectors = glass-covered panels attracting sun light into a small machine that transforms it into

sparsely populated area = an area with a few people distributed over it. Strait = a narrow watenruay linking two larger bodies of water or separating two land areas (Rom: strAmtoare) Strath = broad mountain valley in Scotland Sustainable development = a way of improving people's life without wasting resources or harming the
environment Sw3mp = wet, spongy land saturated with water most of the time and its associated vegetation (Rom: mlagtind)




nom: Tonnage=agreatamount Trade'wind = constant wind which blows from the tropical high pressure belts towards the Equatorial low (Rom:alizeu) Trench/hough = long, narrow vailey between two mountain ranges e'road =importanl main road (ilom: drum U shaped valley = a glaciated valley, which in .roir-r..tion has the shape of U. Glacial hough is commonly

Till= materials, such as rock and clay carried ano olposi[J uvic.

Tidal energy = a form of energy prod-uced by the power Tide = the periodic rise and tatt oi tne sea czused

system of troughs and ridges a system of erongated = vaileys and crests Tarn = small, circular lake found in a graciarcirque [nom irc d.,irc glaciar)

oitn. tii.,

by the puil exerteo on the Earth by the sun and the Moon




- apelor) wind power

warehouse = a large buirding for storing goods that are to be sord Waste = residues, refuse, gaibage, littei iubbish disposal = removaiof industrial or domestic wastes -w.aste watershed = the high ground which forms the dividing

line between two river basins (Rom: cumpina vqerr re \I \r

windward = the side of a mo.untain dtc. againit wnicrr

Yield = result, output, product, amount of firoduct

= a form of energy using turbine generators to produce electricity n. *ino nrows (Rom: versant expus)



Bunce, Vincent(editor) (1997): Geography for GCSE, Addison Wesley Longman Ltd.; Crickner, Robin and Hildebrand William: The United Sfafes, Holt, Rineheart and Winston of Canada, Montreal, 1g72 Flint Corrin & David (1989): Brlflsh /ssues in Geography, Collins Educational; Gallagher Rosemdrie, Parish Richard, Williamson Janet (2000, 2001,2002)'. Geog. 1, 2, 3 - Geography for key sfage 3, Oxford University Press;

Glencoe: World Geography, California, 1989 Hatier: Geographie du C/asse Terminale, Paris, 1983
Dr. Mittleman, Earl N.: An Outline of American Geography, United States lnformationAgency Punnet, Neil & Webber, Peter (198a): The British /s/es, Basil Blackwell Ltd.; Prevot, V.: Geographie du monde contemporaine, Belin, Paris, 1966 Seath, Jonathan, Sheerin, Susan, White, Gillian(1991): Spotlight on Britain,2nd.edition, Oxford University Press; Tolson, A.R. and Johnstone, M.E : A Geography of Britain,Oxford University Press

Waugh, David (1984): North and South America, Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd. Waugh, David(1990): The British /s/es, 2nd edition, Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd. Waugh, David; Bushell, Tony (1991): The British /s/es- Question Book, Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd. Waugh, David; Bushell, Tony (1991 , 1992, 1993). Key Geography 1 , 2
Stanley Thornes Ltd(publisher); Zelley, Milbrey (1988): Geography of the United Sfafes, AGS American Guidance Service, lnc. Tomkins, S. George; Hills, Theo;Weir, R.;Thomas(1991): ARegionalGeography of North Amerca, Gage Educational Publishing Limited,.

,3 -

Foundations, Connections,lnteraction,


PHILIP'S GEOGRAPHY DICTIONARY(1995): Reed lnternational Books Ltd. The Penguin Dictionary of Geography,2'o edition(1998), Penguin Books byAudrey N.CLARK Philip's Foundation Aflas, ('1989): Heinemann -Philip Atlases, Heinemann Educational Rand Mc. Nally Classroom Atlas, ('1990), Rand Mc. Nally.Co. The Oxford Schoo/Aflas(1997), Oxford University Press





Geoprofiles is an integrated programme for bnguage learning for r secondary students. linked with General geographical a of the geogrdphy of Great Britain and

work for the sy//abus is a y-related edge and sk of skr//s and language aspecfu. *e Rars\ng sfudenfs'awar{ness of en aspecfs --r----'-\-.''----' attitude developed throu



textboak. \\ Ihe sfu{e nts are encouraged to compat aspecfs of ttlp geography of Great Britain ar that of the UNed Sfafes with aspbcts of the geography of \omania. Tie iexiobot<\p cludes' a g/ossarlo f relevS





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