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Eenadu Pratibha 1 10

Eenadu Pratibha 1 10

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Published by sv swamy
spoken english course lessons 1 to 10
spoken english course lessons 1 to 10

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Published by: sv swamy on Feb 01, 2009
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08/27/2015

Kavita : How did you do in yesterday's

exam?
·¸ .. ,. .. ..‹.··
Suji : Well, I think. How did you do ?
. ..‹  .. . ¸ .¸.
..‹.··
Kavita: Not bad. I could have done better.
..¸ .. ... . .‡ ...
..Ÿ¸·
Suji: What group are going to study in
Inter?
..... . _œ. · .. . ¸.··
Kavita : MPC. What about you ?
...ˆˆ .¸·
Suji : Not sure yet, though dad wants me
to do MPC.
... .: . ... . ¸
...ˆˆ . ... ¸.·
Kavita : Which college? . ...··
Suji : No idea as yet. What's going to be
your college?
.: . ... .¸·
Kavita : Same here. Not decided yet.
... ... .. . ...·
Supriya : Hi, Suneetha, What a relief! The
final degree exams are over. But
What next for you?
..¸.Ÿ¸ .. , . . .Ÿ. ·.
.Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .. ..·
Suneetha : Not yet decided. What are your
plans?
... .. . ... · .œ
...··
Supriya : Well, You know I've taken the
CAT for joining in IIM. Waiting for
the results. If I make it, I'll join
one of the IIMs. Hope I shall be
fortunate.
.. ... ... .. . ·. .¸.
..‹ . . . t  .. . .
.Ÿ¸ .. . . .. .¸·
Suneetha : I wish I had appeared for CAT
too. It's too late now. I think I'll
do MCA. I am preparing for the
entrance tests of all MCA
courses. I may also take PG
entrance tests and do MSc
Computers or Electronics.
.‡ ... .œ. .. ....
..¸. . .•· .. ...·
..‡. . .‡. _...Œ .. ,.
.. ..Ÿ .· ... ..¸ˆ¸
...·¸ ..¸ .. .. . ·.¸ .·

÷ .... -..¸ œ. .... ..
Spoken English. Grammar . .. .
... .. .. .... Grammar .t‡ ..Ÿ
._. English . ..... .. .  .
... .. .. ..  .. .· grammar .. 
 ..t ....
VOCABULARY
Vocabulary ... ... ... ...·¸
Spoken English. ..  . . ... . 
¸. .. . .: .·. .· .. ... ..Ÿ
... .¸ ... ... ...  ... ... .
.. ... .. :. ..... .. .... ..
.. š.. š.. ... .... .· :¸:¸
:. .Ÿ .. ... ... .. ... .t .Ÿ.
..· Listening ..Ÿ .. ... English
... ..œ .œ.. :·. .. daily life. . 
. .. .. ... .. Pronunciation ..
..  ..t
· ..¸. .. . t. .Ÿ..…
1. Vijayawada is on the banks of the Krishna
:. .Ÿ .. .¸. .. ...·
2. They do not speak English
..Œ‰ ... .. ..·
3. Where is Ramesh?
... ..,.··
4. How beautiful the Taj is!
.. . .. ...Ÿ .... ...·
š. Sentences. _.::
.. .. :. .Ÿ·¸ œ..:
. .  ... . .. .
Sentence
'Vijayawada' ·....
'They' ....
'Ramesh' ..
'Taj' œ..: . .  .Ÿ 
¸.. .. Sentence
. ›.¸ :.   .Ÿ·¸ .·
'Subject' .... ... .... Sentence
Subject Vijayawada, ·... ..¸. Subject
They, ... ..¸. Subject Ramesh .
..¸. Subject The Taj.
..· _.: Sentence. 'Subject'
œ..: .›.¸ .œ. ... .... .· œ. ·..
.... š. 1st sentence.'.... is on the
banks of the Krishna' . Sentence subject
:..Ÿ .. œ..: .....
'She sings well'
· Sentence. 'She' Subject 'Sings well'
.. Subject She œ..: .›.¸ .œ. 'sings
well'. 'sings' .... sentence .. (She
well - ... ... .. Sentence ..· ...
'She sings well' - · sentence. Subject
'She' .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ 'Sings' . .. Sentence.
.. ...¸. .... .. 'VERB' ....
Subject, Verb .. .... .....¸.
... .... .:¸ .œ Sentences. Verbs
.Ÿ..
Sentence-1. verb is, Sentence-2 .
verb 'do speak', Sentence-3, 4 .. 'is'.
Spoken English. .. Sentence Subject,
Verb œ.. .Ÿœ.œ.. .. .. .. ..·
œ.› :œ ..·¸ .. ...
a) Andhra Pradesh is the biggest state in
South India
b) The Eenadu was published first from
Vizag.
· ·... Sentences .. :. .Ÿ·¸ .›.¸:
... Statements .¸..
c) Is AP the biggest state in South India?
d) Was the Eenadu first published from
Vizag?
(c), (d). Questions .. (a), (b) .. (c),
(d) .. .. .Ÿ..
English. (a), (b).... Statements.
(c), (d).... Questions. _.. . ..
..¸ ·.¸.. (sentence structure). .....
(sentence structure ... . .. .... .
.. .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ . ....·
Statement : AP is the
:· Structure ) Subject + Verb
biggest state in south India.
Question : Is AP the biggest
Verb + Subject
state in South India!
Statement. Subject .... Verb .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ
...Question. :·. .¸: ·. .. verb
.... subject .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .¸.. .. English
. .. _..  . ..
Statement : The Eenadu was published first
structure : Subject + Verb
from Vizag.
Question : Was the Eenadu published first
structure : Verb + Subject ( Verb)
from Vizag?
· ... Statements quesitons ..¸
practice ..Ÿ..…
Statements Questions
a) (Yes), They are students -----?
b) (Yes), Rani is the leader -----?
c) (No), I am not happy -----?
d) (Yes), He was here last night -----?
e) (No), She is not hungry ? -----?
I
I
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
M. SURESAN
t·-· .- ·Ÿer.·
t·-· .-+Ÿ +t.‡.·
t·e· .-+Ÿe ...-¸- e.·¸
t· :·-. ...·
t· ¸.a.c· .c-· -œ·o-··e.·¸
t· c¸- -œ+Ÿ rc -· e.·
c·¯- r.-Ÿ· r-™ .- »-..·
t·-· t·-·-· ·..¸ -·.·t
»-¸š..‡.-· e-.·t
»-¸e .‡--· ·.·¸t
»-¸. ---œ.o e·c- »c .--
»-.·-· :-¸-. »-r.
.-c --Ÿ..-
. .,¸. . .. .. ..¸ ...·.
‘÷. .– _. :.’ .. ..…: ..
....˜.. .¸·.. ....
.¸... ..:..:
÷.. .:... iz .. z::s
#ìo #ìoN êµLóŸª¸Ú #ÚÛª\õª! #ìo #ìoN êµLóŸª¸Ú #ÚÛª\õª! #ìo #ìoN êµLóŸª¸Ú #ÚÛª\õª!
#ìo #ìoN êµLóŸª¸Ú #ÚÛª\õª!
II
Spoken English. Conversational English »e -».· »-e·-·
c·-e Career -·-· -·. r.·¸ -· e- . o- »c . - .·c
Communications Skillse· c.e¸ .·c .·-œ- Spoken English.
c·-e e.·¸-·e· -·-·¸e· ¸.. -‹e- e-¸ .‡·-· Interviews, group
discussions, presentations, self sketches e· re-Ÿ·- :·e- ·· 
e-e Spoken English t·. .e· »c .--
1
÷..
I
...œ.Œ... i: .. z:::
PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
❐ English pronunciation confusion .
.... .·. .,.. ·... .·.¸. .Œ. ..
.·. .Ÿ. .....
.. Car . c-. centre . c-
❐ .·. .Œ. ·. ·... .·.¸. ., .. ....
.. centre - c ..,. sentry - s ..,.
·
.e· .e -·t·
English ... ..,. ... .. ...
:. . . .. ... .Œ.. ..,. Pen - š.
Book- .. Watch - .. Phone - . Take
- ... .... ... :.. .. ..
.t.. .œ.... š.¸ .., .: .
.. .. English. .. . ..¸. ..
:.. ... ... .. .t. . ....
»e c.e¸-
... ... :.. 'r' .... .. ...
Doctor ..· car .· for .· paper
š...·
. .. :.. 'r' .¸ .·¸ ... ... ..
. ... ,. 'r' silent . ... .. ¸.
... a, e, i, o, u.. .· .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ 'r' .:¸
.. silent. .·¸ .... .· .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ a, e, i, o,
u, .. .. .› .Ÿ.¸
.. form ..·; Card ..·; Fur .·; sir
·, her .· information . . . 
. .·
»t »c.-.·
:. ...
Conversation. .. 
. . .•·¸ ...
..  .... ....
parts of the human
body- .Œ.. ...
.. . ...
.Ÿ.. head, face,
eyes, ears, neck,
shoulder, hand,
legs, fingers ...
... ... .....
.. thumb ..
  . .·, forefinger
.Ÿ. . ..· middle
finger .. ¸. .·
ring finger (..œ . .
. .·, little finger
:. ·. ..· toe
.t  . .· big toe
.t .. ..· nail .· waist . .·
wrist .. ..· arm .. .. .: ...
...· forearm .. .. .: ....
(elbow) ...· back arm (elbow .: ...
...· buttocks .‡...· Knee ...·
Knee .: ... ... .t ..... .œ.
shin, .t. . .œ. calf ..· .t. .. ·.
..¸ joint ..·– ankle, ... ..œ–Sole,
.‡.… .t– fist, .. ...– Palm, ....– eye-
brows, .. – forehead. cheeks - ..,.Œ‰
pupil - ... .. eyelid- . ·..¸ nostril-
..., .._.. gums - ... :œ.Œ‰ skull-._·.
scalp- .. ... .Ÿ.š. .œ.
VERBS
Kranthi: Was anything special in the sun-
day Eenadu?
..... ‘·.’. .. _..¸ ..Ÿ ...··
Karuna: Yes. There was the first lesson in
Spoken English.
.. ¸·. ... .... ... ...·
Kranthi: Was anything important in it?
.... .. _..¸ ..Ÿ ...··
Karuna: Yes. Very important point was
there- the difference between the
statement structure and question
structure.
.. .. ...¸ . :..Ÿ.
›. ... .¸ .. .•.˜¸ .¸ .. ..
..¸.·
Kranthi: Is it so important?
.. ...Ÿ ...¸.··
Karuna: Very. The statement has the sub-
ject first, and the verb next. The
question has verb first and the
subject next.
.. ›. ... .... .. .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ
..¸ ..... .· .•.˜¸ . .... ..¸
.Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .. .....·
· .... .Ÿ.‹. .. .... _..: .·¸
_..Œ¸. .. ..·¸ ›. ...
· ..¸. œ. ·. .Ÿ..…
I am here- verb: 'am'
You are in class- verb: 'are'
My pen is in my pocket-
verb: 'is'
š. sentences. .¸ Verbs
'am', 'is', 'are. :. .. .
‘.....’ . .·. ... .. :
: · ... ..œ _..Œ¸.
Statements English. prac-
tice ..Ÿ..…
i .. ¸. · :. .. ,.
.¸.·
English: Where are you?
z .. ¸. · . .

––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
s ..¸.· ..Œ‰ ....
.¸.
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
: ..¸.· :. ... . .¸.·
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
: ..¸.· :. ..,. ... . ¸.·
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
s ..¸.· ..Œ‰ . .Ÿ..
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Answers:
2. I am in class
3. They are happy
4. Are you happy?
5. Why are you here?
6. They are our relatives
am, is, are ..¸. (now) ... _..Ÿ.
(present) ... .·¸ .t.Ÿ . .. ... ..–
am, is, are regular ... .·¸ .t.Ÿ . .Ÿ . 
·. .. . . ... .. ..,. _...
.Ÿ . ¸  . .. ...   .·¸ . . am, is, are
...... ... sentences practice
..Ÿ..…
: . . .¸.· _.: .. – .. regular)
When are your classes every day?
..,. 'are' .... .. .Ÿ¸.· .. _.:
.. _... .Ÿ.¸· :..Ÿ. ...
.. .Ÿ...…
1st show ..¸.·
1st show ..¸. .·. ... ..... ..·
... regular ..... ... is ....
.·..
When is the first show?
:·. .¸ .. .. College. _.: ..·
.. .. 'regular' ...
When are you at college (every day)?
..,. every day .. . .. .. ...
... ... 'are' ... regular ..... ...
..· ‘ .Ÿ. _.. ... ...’
... ..·
'I am at home in the evenings'.
Evenings ... _.: evening- regular.
... regular states of being _... .Ÿ.¸
... .....· ..¸. ·. am, is, are ....
.·.. · ... ... English ..¸..… prac-
tice ..Ÿ..…
i · ... ..¸. :·.. . .. .. .,.·
(Regular ..··
Answer: Why are you here at this time
every day?
z : ¸ . ..ˆ . ..¸ .. ..·
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
s ..… š. ..¸. ..… ... .....
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
: .. : .Ÿ. œ .Ÿ. ..¸.·
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
: . .Ÿ. œ .Ÿ. .. | .: i ...
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
s :. .. .. .. ..¸ .. ..·
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
t .. .... | .: i ... ....·
––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Answers:
2. When is your father at office?
3. His pen is always in his pocket.
4. When are your classes (every day)?
5. Our classes are from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.
6. When are you at college (every day)?
7. We are at college from 10 to 4 (every
day)?
6, 7..¸. every
day .. .. .. (are
... ·.œ¸  .  .
.....·
VOCABULARY
.  ¸  . .  . 
¸. ... ... .. :
... ..  ....–
| ...– Cold. 2. .œ Cough ..· .
.Ÿ..¸– Sneeze ˆ¸.– ‘.’ size. :..
.Œ... ...t· i :...– blow the nose.
.·. ..., – running nose. •.‡¸ – ache
...· .. – pain, suffering;
.. ... .•. ¸. .. .•.‡¸ .Ÿ.•.‡¸
..•.‡¸ :.. . .. ›.. .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ 'ache'
....pain ...
stomach ache- stomach pain ..
head ache, back ache etc.
.¸.. (fever) ..¸. .:¸ . 'feel' ....
'feeling feverish'.
... itch ..· ... scratch _,.·
•..Ÿ •.‡¸ – sore throat; ... .. ...
groan; ..t. .Ÿ.. yawn, .. – swelling,
... .. – inflammation. ..·¸ practice .‡
.. . ..¸. ....…
. .Ÿ.•.‡¸ ...
I have a head ache.
. ..¸. ...
My mother has a cold.
... .: ...•·¸ practice ..Ÿ..…
PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
... Consonant ending .Œ.. ..,.
.¸ .. ... ... :.. ... .Œ..
..,. :.. ... .. .  ...t
.. book, .. .., ..
š. š.¸ .. Tub - .. ..¸ ..
Hotel- ... ‘.’ •.,..…· mag-
azine- .. :.. 'ine', 'ile' ...
· ·.. ...t Magazine -
.œ . . ..,. easy. :.. .Œ.. 
.. ..· Automobile- .. .. :.
intestine ›.œ· ... ‡ etc.
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
M. SURESAN
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.a...¸ o.·.·
:-c»e-œ». š.·.-·.·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net
c·c- -·¬ c»e·. ---œ- .-c. »e.‡-e.· -»e--.--· ·Ÿ»›.
+Ÿ..¸e· e-Ÿ·e..+·-. rc¸.· .-c.e .·r-·· .-.·.-e·
e.-»r:·- ---· -·.· »e -e·e-e c»e·.- -·t ce·-œ·-·
c»e·.e..¸.· :·.¸.·c-+Ÿ c·-e .·. »c.-- c·c-· +t.‡-.
--- »c·-·-e +e·.·-·c.·e- ..e:·. ..…ce
.... R .œ...Ÿ .... R .œ...Ÿ
.... R .œ...Ÿ
2
WAS, WERE
Ram: Were you there yesterday?
·¸ .¸ ..,. .¸.··
Raghav: I was there, of course.
.. ..,. .¸·
Ram: When were you there?
..¸ . ¸.··
Raghav: I was there exactly at 6 when the
function began.
. ... ... . œ....
..,. .¸·
Ram: Who else was there yesterday?
·¸ ... .. . ¸.··
Raghav: Anil, and Sunil were also there.
.·. ·. .. ..,. .¸.·
· .... œ. ·. .Ÿ..… Ram, Raghav ·¸
... œ.Ÿ.. ... .·¸ was, were. ..¸. 
¸. English . .... Verb forms
...Ÿ ..... ..¸. ..¸. .Ÿ. .Ÿ ...
.·¸ am, is, are. .... ..· œ.Ÿ.. .¸
..· ..¸. was, were.. ....
was- singular
were- plural
1. ..¸. ·.,. .¸
I am here
2. ·¸ ..,. .¸
I was here yesterday
3. :. ·¸ ..,. .¸.· .. Question.
... verb .... ..t
Were you here yesterday?
4. ·¸ .. ., . ¸.· (Question)
Where was he yesterday?
5. .. .Ÿ ..Œ. _:.. ... ....
India was under British rule.
6. 1947 ... . .... (rulers) ...·
Who were our rulers till 1947?
.. .. .. .t.Ÿ .› ... ... .: .. 
.Ÿ¸.. . .. ..¸. sentence :..
...t
7. ·¸ .¸ ..,. ....¸.·
Why were you here yesterday?
8. . ›¸.‡.Ÿ. œ.Ÿ ..... ..,. .¸.
My friend was here last Sunday.
... œ.Ÿ. (past). ... :. .Ÿ.
..¸. was, were.. ....
... sentences english. practice ..Ÿ..…
1. Praveen: :. ·¸ ... .¸.·
2. Pranav: .. ... .¸
3. Praveen: : .¸ .. ... .¸.·
4. Pranav: ..
5. Praveen: ·¸ :. ..,. ¸.·
6. Pranav: .. .. .¸
7. Praveen: _.: .. · ... .. ..
....· (Regular)
8. Pranav: ..
9. Praveen: :. .... ... ..¸.. 
..·
10. Pranav: .Ÿ._.. ... ... ·¸
.Ÿ._.Ÿ. ._.Ÿ. ... .
11. Praveen: .·. .,.¸.·
12. Pranav: :.. .
Answers:
1. Were you at home yesterday?
2. Yes, I was at home.
3. Was your brother too/also at home?
4. No, he was not at home.
... .. No, he wasn't. .· .›..·
(wasn't = was not)
5. Where were you?
6. I was at College.
7. Are you at college at this time every day?
8. Yes, I am (at college... every day - conver-
sation. · .œ. ... .Ÿ ..Ÿ¸·
9. When are you at home usually? ...
. ... 'are')
10. I am at home in the evenings (Regular,
therefore, am) but I was not (wasn't) at
home last evening.
·¸ .Ÿ._.Ÿ. ·¸ ._: – last evening,
last night).
11. Where else were you? ·¸ ...·
12. I was at a meeting.
➠ · .... :. : friend.· :
... .. . .· practice ..Ÿ..…
➠ .... :. practice .‡ .Ÿ.¸. answers
.Ÿ...…
➠ ..¸. .Ÿ.‹.· .., am, is, are, was,
were.. ...Ÿ English .. . ..¸·
PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
..   . . pure sounds . ..  .. ...
..,. 'a' .,..–
➠ bake, cake, case, date, face, game, hate,
lane ... ... .:¸  .¸. .·¸ ‘..’
...t
bake- ...
cake- ·...
case- ·..
face- š..
game- ·..
hate- š...
lane- ..
date- ...
(I hate you- ..
š... .Ÿ.·
..· :œ. .... ..–
tale, tail pronunciation ..,. – ...
➠ ..¸. 'a', ..¸. 'an' .. š.. _..™¸
'a, e, i o, u.. _..... ..¸ ... ....
'an' .· :œ. .. .... 'a' .· .... 
.. .· .. ..¸. .·.. .. a univer-
sity, a European ...... .. .·..
'the' . ‘:’ e. .. ¸. ‘.’ e. .. ¸.
....·
. . . · . · . . . . . :– · ..œ
.Œ. .. _..... ..¸ English ... ....
'an' ..t · .Œ.. .... ..¸ 'the'· ‘.’
...t :œ. .Œ. .. _......¸ ...
.... 'a' ..t
..· 'the'· ‘.’ ...t
a University ‘.Ÿ.’. _..... ... 'a')
an example ‘.’. _..... ... 'an')
the egg ..,. ‘.’ egg, 'a'. _.....
...·
the tree ‘.’ _. ..,. ‘.’ .: ‘:’ ...
... .Œ. .. _..... ... ...·
➠ Communications/information.
... .. : · ... .Ÿ...…
. ..Ÿ..– phone, ringup, give a ring,
call- :. ·¸ .. ..¸. . .. .. .¸ ..
'call', phone to a person, phone a person
.·. ..Ÿ ..… . .Ÿ.. ring up, give a ring
... .. .. .¸..
1) :. .. . ..Ÿ..…
Please call me.
Please give me a ring.
Please ring me up.
.Ÿ.¸... .
I will certainly call you.
Sure, I will call you.
.. :. . .
I will get back to you.
2) . :..Ÿ. .–. ... ..Ÿ..…
Please mail me the matter.
Please mail the matter to me at
yours@yahoo.com
3) .•..Ÿ. .¸. .....…
Send it by courier.
4) .... . .¸. .....…
Post it.
Send it by ordinary post.
Sent it by snail mail.
'snail mail' ... .Ÿ. .. ..¸.
..™ post .· ...
c·oe¸ c»ee·
chew .Ÿ¸· - ....
swallow ¸.·- :.œ..
swallow in a gulp - .. œ.,. :.œ..
trim _..·(mustache, beard)
- :. œ..· .:..: ...Ÿ..
clench ·..·- :. .Ÿ.. .‡.… .t – fist)
injure ...· - .Ÿ....
injury ...·- .Ÿ.
twist .¸·the arm - ... .t: .¸..
snap the fingers - :.. ..Ÿ..
shatter ›...·- ... .•...
swelling š¸t.·- ..
inflammation .....·- ... ..
fracture_..¸·- .... :. œ..
sprain_š¸.·- ...
itch..·- ... scratch_,.·- ...
abscess ..š·- ... :...·
boil ...·- œ.
pimple .‡...·- ....
scar ,·- .Ÿ. .. ..Ÿ¸
pus .·- :.. blister :·-...
c·e Verbs: _..Ÿ. ..¸. ... .·¸ .›.¸:–
am, is, are. œ.Ÿ.. ... .·¸ .›.¸:– was,
were. .: .¸ .Ÿ. ... .·¸ .›.¸:– shall be,
will be
·..  .,. ...
I shall be/will be there tomorrow.
.. ..... ... ....
We shall be/we will be in Vizag on Sunday.
..Ÿ.…· .Ÿ... . ....
I shall be happy to see him.
·.. ..Ÿ ..,. ....
He will be here tomorrow.
÷..
I
œ.... is .. z::s
the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’? the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’? the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’? the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’? the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’?
the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’?
M. SURESAN
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.a...¸ o.·.·
:-c»e-œ». š.·.-·.·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
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---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
3
... 'd :. ¸. had . .. ..
would . .. .. .... ..,. had ..,.
would .. .. .¸·¸ .. ._.Ÿ. ..¸ .
œ..
A) He'd gone before I saw him.
..,. He'd = He had
... ... 'gone' ... past participles
.... would ..¸. .. had ._.Ÿ.
...
B) I thought he'd do it.
..,. 'd .Ÿ. ..Ÿ past participle .. ...
would . ... . ..t .. :..Ÿ. œ.š.
. ..t Past participles .... 'been'
.Ÿ.¸.Ÿ ing form .:¸  .¸. :. .... 'd
..¸. had ...Ÿ.. Do, go, come ...
verb forms .... be + ing .... 'd ..¸.
would ...Ÿ..
Example: They'd done it.
(done past participle ... 'd = had)
They'd been doing it. ..,. been + ing
.... ... 'd = had).
She'd marry him. 'd .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ marry .· .:¸..
... 'd = would
She'd be going. ..,. be + ing form ....
... 'd = would.
Have been + ing .... .. 'd = would.
¸.-Œ¸ Had, would ·...….. short forms ... I had/would - I'd
.. We had/would -We'd :. .·.. .¸.. I'd ..
We'd .Ÿ‡ .. .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ had ... would ... ..
..  ..t·
– ... e..Ÿ .. . .•..
. ..- .-¸. ...¸.· .e· .e-·e· »e· .t-+. .·. :--œ.·-·
e-e·-e +t.ˆ +t-Ÿ·e ¸.-»-·e· ..·e .·oe »-»c·-Ÿ·-e·-
.e-Ÿ·c·Ÿ·¸ e.· r.·-œ· -tr-·Ÿc·Ÿ·¸ c»+Ÿ¡.·. e··¸--+·.
---·e¸ .e-.- -».· -•-+Ÿ -¡+Ÿ---· e-e·-e »-.·¯- c·c-
.-·¸-·. .·.e·e ..·e.·c ..+Ÿ·ec· »c·.o-·Ÿ.- »c.--
÷..
I
.Œ.... is .. z::s
+e·-œ· .·-¸ e-·¸-·e¸ -Ÿ·.·+Ÿ.--· »c¸-..» ---œ- c»e·..-
:·.¸- -·.· --.…-e .·¸---·e» .»o-· .-·.-· --.· .·.e-»
c·-t---· ec¸ +.·e· +e·.·-·-e +e·-œ·+· .c»c--· »-r.e
.-.·.‡-·Ÿ.- š.. -..·c .e -».· -·.· »-.·e· c.e¸--· -·e-
-œ·o-e ·Ÿ»›. ---œ-e· -·e·e- .-e-e-ec ..·e· ec-¸ c:·-.
SHALL BE, WILL BE
Kiran: Will you be here tomorrow?
·.. .¸ ..,. ... ¸.·
Kranthi: What for?
....·
Kiran: All our friends will be here tomor-
row. Will you not be (won't you be).
. ›¸.‡.Ÿ .. .. ·.. ..,.. . 
¸. .. .¸...·
Kranti: I shall be very happy to be with all of
you. What will be the programme?
: ... . . ..... . ..
.. _._. ...·
Kiran: Let's decide when we meet.
.. .t.‹. ·. ....
· .... œ. ·. .. .. ·.. ... :.
.Ÿ·¸ œ..: .. . .. . ¸. will be, shall
be ... ..
I shall be there tomorrow.
·..  .,. ...·
He will be a graduate soon.
.Ÿ¸.. ..Ÿ. _.¸ .. .. ..·
The train will be here in five min-
utes.
... .... ·:.. ·..
..,.…. ...·
How long will you be here?
.¸ .. ,. ...Ÿ   ›.
....··
shall be, will be ... .: 
.¸ .Ÿ. ..... (A future
state of being)
.. œ. .¸: ·. .. 'Time words'
... ..·¸ .t.Ÿ .› ... English.
sentence :.. .....
eg: He will be here tomorrow.
They were here yesterday.
The meeting will begin at 6 this
evening.
Order: time, day, date, month, year
eg: The meeting will be at 6 PM (Time)
on Monday (day), the 28th (date)
May (month) 2005 (year)
.. English. .. ...¸.
.. Question order œ. .  .Ÿ  ...… –
Vb+Sub/1st Word of the Verb+Sub+the other
words of the verb.)
· ... ..· English. practice ..Ÿ..…
| ..Ÿ ..,. ..¸ .. ..·
. :. š.. .... .·¸.. .. ..·
. . ... ·.. : .œ .. ...·
i ·.,. ..,. ›. ...
... ... ·.. š.. .... ....
· ..… ... ·... .. .. ...
. .. ·: . .. .. ... ...
· · .Ÿ.¸: .Ÿ.¸ .:.·(next step)
· ·.. ..,. ... ....
| .. ..,. ...Ÿ › .. ...·
Answers:
1. When will he be here?
2. How long will you be in Hyderabad?
3. Will the book be with you tomorrow?
4. I shall not be here for long?
5. We shall all be in Hyderabad tomorrow.
6. It will be hot for another two days.
7. I will be in the theatre in another 10 min-
utes.
8. What will be your next step?
9. Nobody will be here tomorrow.
10. How long will she be here?
VOCABULARY
._.Ÿ– dish .….·, bowl ..·
... ._.Ÿ. – Vessels (. . ¸·,
utensils .Ÿ.. ·¸.¸·
... – ewer (.Ÿ..·
– tumbler (...·
...Ÿ – lid t.·
š..– pan .·
œ..Œ. – cauldron (.. _.·
.. . .Ÿ..– boil ...·
...– fry (¸š.·
..¸.. :. ..· = bake (...·
..¸. ... .•·¸ 'be' forms ... ... .·¸
.t›. Verbs):
can be - ...œ.œ.. ..¸. .: .¸ .Ÿ.·
could be - ...œœ... œ.Ÿ..·
may be - ... ..Ÿ¸ ..¸. .: .¸ .Ÿ.·
might be - .....Ÿ¸ œ.Ÿ..·
should be, must be = ...t
1. He can be here in five minutes.
..Ÿ. ..,. .... ·: .. ... œ ..
2. She could be the Prime Minister.
.. _.. · ... œ t..
3. She may be there now.
.. ... ..,. .....Ÿ¸
....··
4. They might be happy.
..Œ‰ .... ...… ... ..Ÿ¸ œ.Ÿ..·
5. You should be here at 10 a.m.
.¸ ...Ÿ. ... ..
..,. ...t
6. Ravi must be in office
from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.
.: ...Ÿ. | .:
.Ÿ._.Ÿ. ... ..ˆ
. ...t
...Ÿ . .. · 'be' forms
... .·¸ .t›. 'verb-
s' .Ÿ.‹.
· ... ..¸ . .... practice ..Ÿ..…
| :¸ .,. ...Ÿ ›. ... œ ..·
. ·¸ ..Œ‰ ..,. ..¸. .¸.·
. ·.. ..,. .•..Ÿ ..¸.. ... ..Ÿ¸
i . ..¸. ... ..·
..,. .. .·¸. .. ...t·
..Ÿ. ·¸ ..,. ... œ t.
. .. .. .. ...¸ .. _: ... œ t.
... ... ..Ÿ .. ...
· ..,. .. ... ...Ÿ›š. ... œ
.
· ·¸ .. .Ÿ. ...
| :. ..,. ...Ÿ ›. .....Ÿ¸·
Answers:
.. .. ...Ÿ ›.– How long?
...Ÿ ... – How far? .·¸. – How often?
1. How long can you be here?
2. When could they be here yesterday?
3. There may be some trouble there tomor-
row.
4. Can't you be patient? (Can you not = Can't
you)
5. When should we be there?
6. He could be here yesterday itself ·¸·
7. NT Ramarao could be the CM because he
was an actor.
8. If it is comfortable here, I can be here for
as long as possible.
9. It was very cool yesterday.
Yesterday was very cool.
10. How long can you be here?
'Be' forms ... am, is, are, was, were,
shall be, should be . 'be' :.. ... ...
'been' :.. ..¸: – have been, has been,
had been, should have been ...:· .....
. ... ..¸ Verbs. .: .... .·· .t›.
... .. Verbs. ... A . .:¸ ..· B
. .:¸ ... ..¸..…
A
I am a teacher .¸·
She is a player player ...·
They are singers.
B
I teach .·
She plays .. .Ÿ..·
They sing .. ..·
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
4
M. SURESAN
î¦ÚÛuÙ #÷¸ô Ú¥õÙ! î¦ÚÛuÙ #÷¸ô Ú¥õÙ! î¦ÚÛuÙ #÷¸ô Ú¥õÙ! î¦ÚÛuÙ #÷¸ô Ú¥õÙ!
î¦ÚÛuÙ #÷¸ô Ú¥õÙ!
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.a...¸ o.·.·
:-c»e-œ». š.·.-·.·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
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¸.-Œ¸ The machine is out of service.
The machine has out of service.
š. ... ·.. ..· ..¸.. has
.› ... .. ...· has ....
.. ...·
India won the match.
India has won the match.
.. has ..› ... .. ...
·›› .... ... ...·
– ... š.....
e.·e·
The machine is out of service. . ..¸.
correct.
The machine has out of service ..
English ..
Has .Ÿ. ..Ÿ ..¸. out ... prepositions
..
India won the match. · .. .¸.. . 
.. ... ... ·t: ..· .:· .›.¸.
... won correct.
India won the match last week. .. .·..
... ... last week .· .. .. .Ÿ¸.
...
India ·t:..· ..¸. ·t:.. .. ..¸
... ...› India has won the match ..
correct. · ... ..¸. .Ÿ...…
A. He has gone out.
..¸. ...: .. ..¸.. .. ...
has + past participle correct.
B. He went out this morning.
..,. ..¸. ..Ÿ .. ...: this morn-
ing .· .. ...Ÿ¸. ... past
simple tense correct.
C. She has bought a car.
has + past participle .. ..¸.. ..
...·
D. She bought it yesterday.
(bought - past simple- yesterday .·
.. .. .Ÿ¸. ...·
She is a player.
She plays.
÷..
I
..... z: .. z::s
..·e .·.·-e· .·e¸+Ÿ.·c +.· +t-Ÿ·- .-:.- :e .-·¸:·o :·c
.-e·.= e-- :»¯- ¸.:».- o-e ee- :»+Ÿ¡e·. ¸.e·:- -».·
-·-=- -·:·Ÿ·¸ .¯- ..·e¸ .-·¸··e .-·¸ r.--· .·.·t¸ o-e·-e
.e .-¸. .e· ¸.-»r-··e· +e·.·-·-e :·c- :»e·. e·.
..·e.·oe --e·-·-e·-e
Ram: Where is your brother?
: . .. ..,. .¸.·
Raghav: He is watching the t.v. at home
..Ÿ ... .: .Ÿ ¸.
Ram: Where does he study?
..Ÿ ..,. .Ÿ...Ÿ¸.·
Raghav: He is a student of Learn well school
..Ÿ ..¸.. ,. :.¸.
Ram: Which class is he in?
..Ÿ _..Ÿ. .¸ .Ÿ. œ: .Ÿ. .
.Ÿ ¸.·
Raghav: He is doing the 8th class
.· :. .Ÿ. œ: .Ÿ. . .Ÿ ¸.
Ram: What games does he play?
..Ÿ .. ... .. ..·
Raghav: He plays cricket and hockey.
_.·.. .„. .. ..
š. ... . œ. ·. .Ÿ..…
is verb .·¸ .. ... .·¸ .. .Ÿ.. is
watching, does study ( = studies), is doing,
(does play = plays) plays ..·¸ .. ..Ÿ .
(actions) .t›. Verbs.
A
The teacher is in class.
..Ÿ. .. ...·
He was on the playground.
(Play ground. .¸. œ.Ÿ..·
B
The teacher is teaching (Verb)
.. ..·
He was playing
.. .Ÿ ¸. œ.Ÿ..·
B ... verbs .·¸ ..Ÿ. (Actions) .t›.
Verbs.
A ... verbs ... .·¸ .. .... · ..Ÿ
. .›.¸ verbs, action words.
eg: go, come, eat, talk, run, sleep, read,
dance.
1. The boys are playing
2. The girl is reading
3. These students talk in class
4. The cheetah runs fast
5. A dog barks
.. œ. English . .¸ .. .... œ. 
·. .Ÿ..…
. ... ... :. ...
The book is on the table.
.. ‘:.’ ... .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .... .. ..
:. . .... on 'table' .... ....
.·¸ :. .Ÿ .. ...
from school - ,. .:
at home - ....
In the bag - .:.
to Guntur - œ.. ..
· :..Ÿ.. .. .... .. . . .¸.
._œ .Ÿ. .t ... verbs .. .Ÿ...…
A B
come comes
go goes
write writes
take takes
sing sings
teach teaches
speak speaks
A ... ... B ... ... ... ... .·
I, We, You, They . A ... ..· .. . .
He, she, it . B ... ..· ....
I/We/You/Andhras (they) speak Telugu
My father (he)
My Mother (she)
}
speaks Telugu
This class (it)
I/We/you/these trains (they) go there
My mother (she)
My friend (he/she)
}
goes there every day
This train
Fans (they) give air
A Fan (it) gives air
Dogs (they) bark
A dog (it) barks
.: :. .·.. practice ..Ÿ..…
(Brackets. .¸ verb. .·. ..Ÿ..…·
1) Wrist watches --- the time
A Wrist watch --- the time (show)
2) A doctor --- patients
Doctors --- patients (treat)
3) A lawyer --- cases
Lawyers --- cases (argue)
4) Pens ---
A pen --- (Write)
5) A cricketer --- cricket
Cricketers --- cricket
(Play)
Answers:
1) Wrist watches
(They) show the
time
A Wrist Watch (It)
shows the time
2) A doctor (He/She) treats patients
Doctors (They) treat patients
3) A lawyer (He/She) argues cases
Lawyers (They) argue cases
4) Pens (They) write
A pen (It) writes
5) A cricketer (He/She) plays cricket
Cricketers (They) play cricket
· .... ... verbs, _... .Ÿ.¸... ..·
. .. .... ... regular actions.
..¸. ..· . .. .. :.· .. . .
I go to college at 10 AM _.: ..·
My mother cooks for me ..¸.·
.. :. .. .•·¸ sentences ..Ÿ..…
.., ..,. .Ÿ...…
(I) am; (he, she, it) is; they (are).
..,. am, is, are ... ..¸. ..... ..¸.
..... ..· was, were- œ.Ÿ.. .....
shall be / will be future. .....
I. I am in class
..¸. .. .¸·
My friend (he/she) is in the next room
. friend, . . , œ .. .¸  . /  ...
–..¸.·
My parents (they- ..Œ‰· are at home
... .¸.– ..¸.·
... am, is, are ... ..¸. .....
II. I was/he was here yesterday.
..,. .¸– .¸. – ·¸·
My friends were in Hyderabad last week
›¸.‡   .Ÿ. š. .   .  .. . .¸.
œ.Ÿ...· -was, were, œ.Ÿ.. .....
III. Shall be/will be- future .: .¸ .. .....·
1. India will be a great country by 2010
.| .. .Ÿ¸ .·. ... •.¸ ..Œ.
.....·
2. Anil will be here next week
..¸ ... .·. ..,. ....·
---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.=
5
M. SURESAN
e-- .-e -·t e-- .-e -·t e-- .-e -·t e-- .-e -·t
e-- .-e -·t
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.ae..¸ o.·.·
:-:»e-œ». š.·.-·e·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net
¸.«Œ¸ have .., had .. ..¸.. .. . 
. .Ÿ ..¸· .. .› . ..¸. ...
.:.· .. . tense ...Ÿ..· ..·
..¸.. had .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .., .. had
...· .· ... .:.·
– .Ÿ.Ÿ. ... ..¸ .•..
e.·e· 'have' .., 'had'___ have had_ ..
present perfect tense of have. present perfect
. verbform: have/has + past participle (pp);
eg: have seen, have gone etc.
Present perfect tense ...¸. .t›.. ..¸.
. .. ..  .· :·. for the past, for the last,
since ...
a) I have studied (have+ pp of study) here for
the past two years- ·.,. ..¸. . ..
·....Œ‰ .Ÿ..
b) He has worked (has + pp of work)
here since 2004 = 2004 .: ..¸. . ..
..Ÿ ..,. .·. .‹.
..¸. . .. ... .· ..¸...–
I have a car .... ·... .Œ‰ . · ..
... .· .... 'have' . present perfect
tense, ... have + past participle of have
(=had) ..t .. ..¸. ....·
I have had this car for the past two years
.... have + had (pp of 'have'_ .t
.¸· .· She has had (has + pp of 'have')
this job for the last one year.
.. .Ÿ¸ .. .: .. ..¸œ. ...·
They have had two cups of coffee so far.
..¸. . .. ·... ..¸. ..ˆ ..·
Present perfect tense œ.Ÿ.. ..  .·
..¸. . .. . .: . ..· .. .: ..¸.
.. ....
I have had my lunch. . .. ... . ....·
★ had had- .. past perfect tense of 'have'.
Past perfect . verb form: had + past par-
ticiple
Past perfect ...¸. .t›.. œ.Ÿ.. .. 
·... .. ... . . ··
He told me that he had passed
(had + pp of pass)
. .Ÿ¸ · . ..¸.
pass .... ..¸.. ·... œ.Ÿ.. ..
pass .... .... ..¸.. .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ ....
'pass' .... ... had passed .· past per-
fect ....
· .. .•. .... ..Ÿ ·. ,.. ....
..,. ·... past actions. ,.. .....
..... past action. ‘,.. .....’ ...
'have a scooter.' ... past perfect of have =
had + past partciple of have (=had) = had
had.
He had had a scooter before he bought the
car.
.. .• .... ..Ÿ ·. ,.. ....·
★ He had had his breakfast when his friend
came in.
..Œ _š... ..¸..¸.. ..Ÿ· breakfast
... . ....·
★ She had had the information before I told
her of it.
.›.¸ .... .. .œ. . . ... ...·
The girl is
reading
÷..
I
Pooja: Are you happy?
.... .¸.··
Durga: Certainly I am.
..·
Pooja: Why are you happy?
.... .... .¸.··
Durga: My cousin Saraswathi is here for
vacation. We shall be happy in each
other's company.
(. .. . ¸: š.... ..,.….
.:¸.. .. ..... .. .. ...
.... .....·
Pooja: What will be your plan?
· . .:.··
Druga: Come home tomorrow. You will know.
·.. .... . ··. .. ..·
· .... .Ÿ.‹. ..–
am, is, are; was, were; shall be, will be .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ
happy, plan ... . ... .. ..Ÿ¸ ·
. .. .. · .. . .Ÿ practice . .Ÿ..…
Blanks Brackets . .:¸ ..  ..
·....…
I am ________
: ›.. ..¸..… .. I am Pavan)
I am _____
He is _______
They are ________
My friends will be ______
š. .:¸: sample ._.Ÿ.
... ...¸ ..œ .. .. ¸.
.... / ... ..Ÿ œ. _.. . ..:
.. .. .Ÿ.. ... œ. ..¸ œ. .t .
.t: .· .œ. ..... œ. ·..Ÿ· œ.
·..Ÿ· .· .¸.œ .¸.·– · ....
... :. ..¸œ. .... ·. English ..
. ..Ÿ..… am, is, are; was, were; shall be,
will be .., ..· ..¸ .. ...…
š. .... ... ...–
tall, short, fat, slim, happy, sad/sorrowful,
kind, cruel, good, bad, lazy, active, patient,
clever/intelligent/wise, foolish, talkative,
reserved, honest, dishonest, reliable, unreli-
able
a--· »-«Œ-
. . ,  š.  .   .  . · English . countables
....
.. man, book, student, pen, town, village
etc.
:.. singular, plural ..... .... :.
singular .... ..¸. 'a' .· 'an' .·
.... œ.. .Ÿ ..t
I am a student.
He is an engineer.
She is a doctor.
She is an eye surgeon.
He is an uncle of mine.
It is an ox. etc.
· ... .... Questions .. prac-
tice ..Ÿ..…
eg: Is he happy?
Are they clever? etc.
š. ..‡¸ ...·¸... English ..
.. question practice ..Ÿ..…
Question structure œ... ..·
a) vb+Sub [Are (verb) you (sub) happy?]
b) first word of the verb + sub + other words
of the verb.
[Has (first word of the verb) he (sub) been helping
(other words of the verb) you?]
| ..Ÿ. . ..·
. .. .... .....·
. .. .... .....· (future.·
i ..Œ‰ ·..Ÿ· ... ..‹· (past)
5. ..˜.¸. ..,. ....··
·.. :·. .,. ....·
. .. ·. .Ÿ· œ.. .· :. .¸..
...·
· ..Ÿ . ._œ   .Ÿ ....·
(future.··
· :. .... ... ..‹·
| .. .¸. .. .. ....·
Answers:
1) Is he very tall?
2) Is she beautiful?
3) Will she be happy?
4) Were they honest?
5) Where are they now?
6) Where will you be tomorrow?
7) Are you sure that he is honest?
8) Will he be careful?
9) Were you happy?
10) Was she fat once?
.... œ.Ÿ.. ... was, were.
..¸. ... am, is, are œ.Ÿ. .:
..¸. ... .· ... .· ....·¸
..¸. ·. have been, has been ....
I, we, you, they .... have; he, she, it
.... has ....
| ..Ÿ. .·.Œ _..Ÿ. ..,. .¸.
He was here four years ago.
. ..Ÿ. ..¸ .… .,. .¸.
He is here.
. ..Ÿ. . ·.Œ‰ ..,. .¸.
He has been here for the past four years.
i ·... .. . . ... ...
It has been very hot for the past two days.
... |·i. .: ¸.Ÿ. _.Ÿ. ...
India has been independent since
1947 (for the past 57 years)
.. .. .Œ‰ š.. .... .¸.
We have been in Hyderabad for the
past ten years (since 1995)
. ...Ÿ ›.· .., . ¸.·
Where have you been all this time?
· :. ...Ÿ . .. ..,. ¸.·
How long have you been here?
· .·. ...Ÿ... .., ...·
Where has Pooja been all these days?
.. .. have been / has been . ..
_....¸. ... œ.Ÿ.. .. .¸. .: ..¸.
... · ...· .. ÑÙç¶ . ... .·¸ I,
We, you and they.
.... 'have been'. ·
he, she, it . .... 'has
been' .· :.
...: ..Ÿ.
œ.Ÿ .•·¸ .. ./ .•·¸
œ.../ .•·¸ ../
.•·¸ .. .Ÿ¸ .. ... for
the past (The last)... days/
... hours/ ... months / ...
years ... ...
œ... .. .. .Ÿ¸ .. ..¸·
eg: for the past (The last) 2 days / 2 hours/ 2
months / 2 years
.. for 2 days / hours / months / years
now ....
.. ../ œ../ ./ .. .Ÿ¸.. .:
. . ·. since ....
✫ I have been here for the past (last) two
years.
I have been here since 2003
✫ She has been here for the (last) past two
months.
She has been here since February end.
✫ India has been independent for the past
(last) 57 years.
India has been independent since 1947.
· for the past (last). since . .. ..
...¸. · ... ..¸. .Ÿ...…
.. ·¸ ..,. ...
Durga was here yesterday.
.. ..¸. ..,. ...
Durga is here.
.. ·¸. .: ..,. ...
Durga has been here since yesterday.
..Œ‰ ..¸ ..,.¸.·
Where were they the day before?
..Œ‰, ..¸ ..,.¸.·
Where are they?
..Œ‰ ..¸. .: .., . ¸.·
Where have they been since the day
before?
... ..¸ .. :.. English practice ..Ÿ..…
| :·...Ÿ ... .., . ¸.·
. ... .,. ...Ÿ ... _.·. .. .¸.·
. ..Ÿ .| .: .. . . .¸.
(since, for the past ·... ..   .   .:
..¸..…·
i ..Ÿ .| .: .. ... ..,. ..Ÿ .
.¸.
..... .…: ...….Ÿ. ...· ...
·... .. . ..Ÿ ·. . .¸.
·...– Weak)
. :. ... .. . :. .¸.·
· ..Ÿ ...Ÿ ... ..¸. .¸.· ..¸–
ill/sick)
· ...Ÿ ... .. ...¸ .._: .¸.·
| :. .. ... .., . ¸.·
Answers:
1. How long have you been here?
2. How long has Tendulkar been a cricketer?
3. He has been a collector since 2001/ for the
past (last) 4 Years.
4. He was a teacher here from 2001 to 2003.
5. Delhi has been the capital of India for a
long time.
6. He has been weak for two days now (for
the past/ for the last two days)
7. Have you been busy for the past (last) one
week?
8. How long has he been ill?
9. How long has YS been the Chief Minister?
10. Have you been here for long?
š. Sentences. have been/ has been
.... œ. ·..Ÿ..… .•..Ÿ ... _..Ÿ. .: ..¸.
... · ...· ÑÙè[ è¯Eo have been/ has
been .t.Ÿ . .. Question structure
..¸. verb + subject · verb . ·... 
... .. ... Ist word of the verb +
Subject + other words of the verb ·
.....
---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.-
6
M. SURESAN
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.ae..¸ o.·.·
:-:»e-œ». š.·.-·e·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
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..... zz .. z::s
¸.«Œ¸ . . . ‘..¸ . .’ – ‘..Ÿ . .’ –
‘.¸. .Ÿ ..’ . .. .¸. verb v3 ·
.... .. .  .· .. . . ..–
Milk 'sold' here; Job work 'done' here;
'Spoken' English Institute - .. verb
v1 .... v3 · .... .. . 
¸. :. .. .Ÿ œ ..
– ·..¸ .....
e.·e·
i verb v3 ... past participle: done, spo-
ken, seen etc.
passive form . verb ..¸. 'be' form +
past participle.
'Milk sold here' .. 'Milk is sold here'
. short form.
..,. verb 'is (be form) + sold (past par-
ticiple of sell)' . ...– ..¸ . . .Ÿ..
..· 'Job work done here' ... 'Job
work is done here' .· ... is done,
(passive) ... ..Ÿ . . .· (is - be
form + done - past participle).
2. past participle (p.p.) . ... ... ‘..…’
‘..’ .·
eg: The man seen here every day - ..,.
.Ÿ. .. .¸. torn paper - :.. ..…
..Ÿ. ..· spoken english ...
.. . .. ... .· ...
...¸. .. .. ... .. œ.
passive voice ...
‘..¸ .¸. ... ..…..·’ .. ..
..· ‘:.. .. ..Ÿ.’ .· .. ..
‘:· ..Ÿ.’ ....
I am a student
-.·e c·-a
o.·e .·-·
-.·e c·-a
o.·e .·-·
-.·e c·-a
o.·e .·-·
-.·e c·-a
o.·e .·-·
-.·e c·-a
o.·e .·-·
÷..
I
Sudha: I meet Padmaja here everyday. I
miss her today.
.. ..,. ..¸. ..  ·
.. .·.‡. .Ÿ ..·
Valli: Yes. She comes here everyday. I
too see that.
.. .. ..,.. ...
.. .Ÿ.‹ _.: ..··
Sudha: I remember now. Today is Sunday.
She does not come here on sun-
day.
. œ.•.. · .. .....
.. ..... ..,.. ..·
Valli: I do not know that.
. .t.Ÿ.·
Sudha: She goes to her aunt's place every
sunday. I too visit my cousin every
sunday evening.
.. ..... ..Œ ..Ÿ.Ÿ¸ ....
. .Œ‰  .Ÿ.. . . ..  .. .
.Ÿ._.Ÿ. . .. .... ..Œ .·
be forms . ... .·¸ ..... .... š.
..¸.· meet, comes, remember, does
come, goes, visit ... . . .t.Ÿ .
..
. . .t›. · ... ... .Ÿ...…
I Regular Doing II Regular Doing
Words Words
A B
eat eats (eat+s)
take takes (take+s)
give gives (give+s)
wash washes (Wash+es)
like likes (like+s)
sing sings (Sing+s)
dance dances (dance+s)
go goes (go+es)
'A' ... ... I Regular Doing Words, B
... ... II Regular Doing Words ....
I Regular Doing Words . (A ... ....·
's' .· 'es' .· ..› II Regular doing words
...
A ... ... [I Regular Doing Words
(I RDWs)], I, We, you and they . .... B
... .. . [II Regular Doing Words
(II RDWs)] He, She, it. ....
I
We
You
}
like milk
My parents
(They)
My father (he)
My mother (she)
}
likes milk
The Cat (it)
š. .Ÿ.‡ :.. A group . .. Verbs, B
group . .. verbs ..¸..…
eg: .œ..
I He
We
}
drink coffee She
}
drinks coffee
You It
They
..· · ... ... ..¸ :.. ...
..¸..…
..Ÿ.. .... .... .. ·.Ÿ.. .....
_›.:. .Ÿ.. ·_.. .Ÿ.. .¸. ..Ÿ.. .. . . 
.Ÿ.. œ...Ÿ.... ..:. ...– ... :.
.·¸ .. ... ..¸œ t. .·¸.. prac-
tice ..Ÿ..…
Answers :
I write sleep
We play waste
You walk use
The boys
}
run remember
(They) cook forget
love
Hemant (he) writes cooks uses
Sarala (she)
}
plays loves remembers
It ... walks sleeps forgets
. . . .· runs wastes
:.· .. . t. .Ÿ..…
a) Pens (They) write.
A pen (It) writes.
b) Wrist watches (They) show the time.
A wrist watch (It)
shows the time.
c) Doctors (They) treat
patients.
A doctor (He/She)
treats patients.
d) Fans (They) give air.
A fan gives air.
e) Teachers (They)
teach.
A Teacher (He/She) teaches. .. .·¸
verbs . practice ..Ÿ..…
COUNTABLES, UNCOUNTABLES
a) countables ... .., š..:
book, pen, teacher, boy, dog etc.
b) uncountables ... ..,š...·:
milk, sugar, rice, water etc.
c) countables . ._.Ÿ. singular ...·
plural ... ... ..,.· .....
book (singular) books (plural)
pen (singular) pens (plural)
teacher (singular) teachers (plural)
boy (singular) boys (plural)
d) uncountables . plural .... milks, sug-
ars, rices ..
e) Very Important: countable singulars
... ..,š..:– .. .·¸ ...· œ..:
.›.¸ . .¸.· .... ..¸. 'a' .·
'an' .· ..t¸..
eg:
1) A doctor treats patients (doctor -
countable, singular).
2) I have an idea (idea - countable, singular).
3) An umbrella is useful in rain (umbrella-
countable, singular).
4) A pen is for writing (pen- countable, singu-
lar)
'a' ..¸.· 'an' ..¸.·
. . . · . · . . . . :– · ..œ
.Œ... _... ...¸ .. .... 'an' ..t
:œ. ... .... 'a' .. . . .t
an umbrella .._.. – ... an)
an hour ... – an)
an honour .. – an)
an idea ..….Ÿ – an)
an owl :. –an)
an egg . – an)
· _.Ÿ. ..› a, an :. .Ÿ..con-
fusion ....
:œ. .Œ.. ...... a ....…
countable singular ..,. .:¸ .· .... a
.· an .· ... t¸..
Mother loves her child (wrong)
A Mother (countable singular) loves her child.
f) Uncountable .... a .· an .· ..¸.
..
.. .. . 1st RDW (1st Regular doing
word ... come, go, walk), 2nd RDW (2nd
Regular doing word ... comes, goes,
walks) . .. . t..
I, We, you, they .... 1st RDW;
he, she, it .... 2nd RDW ..t
· ·... Regular doing words _... .Ÿ.¸
... ·.Ÿ¸. ..· ... ....– ...
Regular actions . ..¸. ..· . ..
.. :. ....
i· .. ... .. ·_. .
.. regular action. ... I get up at 6 a.m.
..,. every day .· ..‡¸ ..¸. . ..
... get . 1st RDW . regular ..
.. . ..Ÿ..
z· .. .•:¸.. .. ..‹.‹.. ..Ÿ.. ...
We start for college at 9 a.m.
(Regular action - start - 1st RDW)
s· . ›¸.‡.Ÿ. . ....
.. regular action.
Our friends (They) play well.
:· :·. .¸. ..¸. ..
..¸. .. ·.··
You always come late.
s· . ¸. ...Ÿ. ·. ..ˆ. ..Ÿ . . .
.. (Regular- _.: ..·
My father (He) starts for office at 9 a.m.
(everyday .· ..¸t¸ .. .. ..
starts ... regular)
s· . ..¸ ... .Ÿ.. ..¸.·
My mother (She) cooks for us.
t· 1st show ... ... _..... ...Ÿ..
.. ..·
The 1st show (It) starts at 6.15 p.m.
... regular actions English . ..¸..…
i ... · _. .. ...(like ....…·
z .. ‘·.’ .Ÿ. ..
s . .Ÿ. œ .Ÿ. ...Ÿ. ..œ. ... _.....
.....
: . ..¸ .: ˆ. .Ÿ.¸ .Ÿ..
watch - ˆ. .Ÿ.¸ ‡·.. .Ÿ...·
s . ¸. .. ... .. .... :. . 
. (return, come back; ....– 'home')
s _.: .. ...Ÿ. œ..›. .Ÿ. ..
(study; for an hour, every morning)
t . ..¸ ..ˆ .œ .Ÿ..
_.: .. – .... – regular)
Answers:
1. She likes this dress.
2. I read the Eenadu (every day).
3. Our classes (They) begin / start at 10 a.m.
4. My mother (She) watches TV serials.
5. My father (He) returns / comes back home
at 6 a.m.
6. I study for an hour every morning.
7. My mother (She) takes coffee (every day).
M. SURESAN
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.ae..¸ o.·.·
:-:»e-œ». š.·.-·e·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net
.Œ‰_.... z: .. z::s
¸.«Œ¸ Oxford advanced dictionary . word
.., .¸ pronunciation. letters
.•·¸ ... .•·¸ .Ÿ... . . ...
.. ..· :.· .. ..Ÿ¸ .. .t·
...   ·.  . ·.Ÿ  .  ..  ..Ÿ·
Dictionary page bottom line ... ..
..· ..... :. œ..: .t.Ÿ .
.Ÿ..…
– ..- .. š.. . ..
e.·e· .. . .· ., .. (alphabet), ...
..¸ . .. ..¸ .Œ. .·¸. .. . .. ... 
.. pronunciation. ...Ÿ confusion. .¸
., .. .·¸ .Œ. . :. .Ÿ . ·. . ..
... .Ÿ... . . ... .¸ ., ..
.•·¸ .Œ.. .. .. .. .. ... ., ..
.•·¸ .Œ. .. œ..
'v'· very. ‘.’ .Œ. ·. .. .. .Ÿ... . .
.¸ v = ‘∧’ · but, shut, cut ... ...
..¸ ‘.’ .Œ. ·. .. .. but- :· pronunci-
ation, dictionary . .. ..... b

t; cut =
k

t etc. .…. _·. key to Pronunciation .
.Ÿ› . œ. . .Œ. ·. .. :. ..
..... ..   .  .. pronunciation
casettes, CDs .. . œ . . ...
¸.«Œ¸ ‘..¸. .› .. :. ... ...
.. .Ÿ..’ .· ..¸. ·. .. .. .  
. proverb ... .t.Ÿ . .Ÿ..…
– .. .-.. .. ..¸ .•..
e.·e· :. ¸. ·. .  . proverb .:
English. ..
---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.-
7
A, AN...
.-.·-· -œ-.--·.Œ-·
A, AN...
.-.·-· -œ-.--·.Œ-·
A, AN...
.-.·-· -œ-.--·.Œ-·
A, AN...
.-.·-· -œ-.--·.Œ-·
A, AN...
.-.·-· -œ-.--·.Œ-·
÷..
I
Ramu: Do you know Mr. venu?
·. .. ..··
Vasu: Of course, I know him.
.. . ..·
Ramu: How do you know him?
..Ÿ ·. .. ..··
Vasu: We work in the same department.
But he works in another section.
.. .·. .…. . ... .., .¸.
.· ..Ÿ .·. š. .·. .·
Ramu: Which section does he work in?
..Ÿ . š. .· ..··
Vasu: Why do you want to know all this?
.¸ · :. .. .... ..  ..
. .. . ¸.··
š. .... œ. ·. .Ÿ..… Question .. do,
does .¸.. :. .... ..  ....
English. .. ...¸.
Regular doing words (1st RDW, 2nd RDW)
- come, comes; go, goes- ... .: not .
question . .. ..¸. .. ._œ .Ÿ ...t
.. ...š. .. ... .. . :..Ÿ.
.... ... .. ..
. ..‹.. _. : .. .. .Ÿ.
.•:¸.... ..Œ.
I go to college at 9 AM.
...Ÿ. .•:¸.... ..Œ– ....
I do not (don't) go to college at 9 AM.
_.: .. ..Œ‰ ¸ .. .. ..
They meet me every day.
..Œ‰ ..  ..
They do not meet
me every day.
'not' ..…  .¸. .¸: 
·.  . . . . ¸  .  ·. ·
question ..…·..¸.
1st RDW (come, go
... :·. 'do'
...
.•.¸ .... ..¸.–
1) I go there every Sunday.
a) I do not go there every Sunday.
b) Do I go there every Sunday?
2) They speak Telugu.
a) They do not speak Telugu.
b) Do they speak Telugu?
|· . go not . ..…  .¸. 1 (a) . do
go ...Ÿ.. Question 1 (b). .. do
go .....
..· .·. Speak not. ..…  .¸.
2(a). question 2(b). do speak ..
...
3) We like mangoes
a) We do not like mangoes
b) Do we like mangoes?
..,. .. like not. .· question.
.· ..…  .¸. do like .... œ. ·. 
.Ÿ..…
... 1 RDW + not/?= do + 1st RDW.
...1st Regular Doing Words (come,
go ... :·· not . question. ..…  
.¸. do + 1st RDW ...Ÿ..
· ...... not . .¸: ·... questions
practice ..Ÿ..… .•·¸ .. ....
1. ..Œ. ... ..
They know English.
..Œ. ... .t.Ÿ.
They do not know English.
..Œ. ... ..·
Do they know English?
(Question Structure œ... .. – 'verb'
..¸. ....·
2. .¸ .. ..¸. ..
You always come late.
.¸ .¸. ..¸. .. (not)
You do not come late.
.¸ .. ..¸. ..·
Do you always come late?
3. ..Ÿ.… ›¸.‡.Ÿ. ..Ÿ .…. .Ÿ. ..
His friends help him.
..Ÿ.… ›¸.‡.Ÿ. ..Ÿ .…. .Ÿ. ..Ÿ.
His friends do not help him.
..Ÿ.… ›¸.‡.Ÿ. ..Ÿ .…. .Ÿ. ..·
Do his friends help him?
know = do know
come = do come
help = do help
.... š. ..¸. œ. ·. .Ÿ..…
· ... ..œ ..¸. English. practice
..Ÿ..…
i .. .,.…. .. ..
...,.…. .. ..
.. .,.…. .. ..·
z .¸ ..…· .. .. .. ..
.¸ ..…· .. ..  ..
.¸ ..…· .. ..  .. ..·
s .. . ....
.. . ...
.. . .. ..·
: . ... ..
. ... .t.Ÿ.
:. ... ..·
s · ..Ÿ. . .. .
· ..Ÿ. . ... .Ÿ.
· ..Ÿ. . .. .·
s .. ... ‡·.. .Ÿ.
.. ... ‡·.. .Ÿ..
:. ... ‡·.. .Ÿ.·
t ..,. ... . ..¸. ..
..¸. ..Ÿ.. treat)
..,. ... . ..¸. ..Ÿ.
..,. ... . ..¸. ..·
s ..Œ‰ . . .
..Œ‰ . .. .Ÿ.
..Œ‰ . . .·
Answers:
1. They come here daily.
They do not come here daily.
Do they come here daily?
2. You meet him every day.
You do not meet him every day.
Do you meet him everyday?
3. We sing well.
We do not sing well.
Do we sing well?
4. I know English.
I do not know English.
Do you know English?
5. These teachers teach well.
These teachers do not teach well.
Do these teachers teach well?
6. We watch English movies.
We do not watch English movies.
Do you watch English movies?
7. The doctors here treat well.
The doctors here do not treat well.
Do the doctors here treat well?
8. They act well.
They do not act well.
Do they act well?
English. what, where, when, which,
whose, whom and why. .. questions
.. œ.. ..· :.· 'wh' words ....
:.. ..…· questions 'wh' questions. ·
'wh' .... ... 'wh' questions. .. 1
st RDW. do + 1 st RDW ...
1. :·.. ..·
What do you know?
2. :·. ., .. ..·
Where do you live?
3. ..˜. ....·
How do they sing? (How = ..··
Ans: . ....
They sing well
4. :·.. .. ..¸. ..¸. ..·
Why do you always come late?
Ans: I miss the bus.
5. :. ..‹.‹.. ..¸. ..Ÿ....·
..·
When do you start for college? (every
day)
Ans: I start at 9 AM.
6. .... .. . ..·
Why do you waste time?
Ans: . . ..Ÿ .. ..
I do not waste time.
· ... questions English . practice
..Ÿ..…
i ..Œ‰ .. ..,.…. .... ..·
z :. .·¸ ‡·. .. .. .Ÿ.·
s :. .... ... .,. .•...·
: ..Œ‰ . ._:. .Ÿ. ...·
s ..¸. .: : š...·
s :·...Ÿ .. ..·
t ..Œ‰ .. ..,.…. ..¸.•.·
s _.: ..... .¸ . .· .. .. ..·
- .... ‡·.. ·...·
i: :. ... . .. .... ..,.
.•...·
š. questions . _.: . ·. . . . ..
..Ÿ..…
Answers:
1. Why do they come here every day?
Ans: They come here to see me.
2. Why do you watch so many movies?
Ans: I watch them because I like them.
3. Where do you buy books usually?
Ans: I buy them at that stall.
4. What newspaper do they read?
Ans: They read the Eenadu.
5. When do your holidays begin?
Ans: They usually begin in April 3rd week.
6. How much do you earn?
Ans: Why do you want to know?
:·.. .. ..  ... .. . ¸.··
7. When do they come here every day?
Ans: They come here at 7 PM
8. Whom do you meet every sunday?
Ans: I meet my friend.
9. What kind of movies do you like?
Ans: I like suspense movies.
10. Where do you buy provisions usually?
Ans: I buy them at that shop.
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
8
M. SURESAN
.:... zs .. z::s
¸.-Œ¸ standard .… . _·· .. .. .
..Ÿt· .. .. Word .Ÿ¸.
.:.š.. .‹ˆ.Ÿ..: .t.Ÿ . .Ÿ..…
..· Key to dictionary entries
... .:.·
– .˜.. .:..œ.
e.·e· . Standard dictionary .
... .. Word .:. š.. ..: ...
.. Alphabetical order . refer ..Ÿ..
.t refer ..Ÿ ... · ... ...‹.
..  ..t
➻ English alphabet. .,. _... a-z
... .t.Ÿt
➻ .:·. ... Spelling .. .:¸ .Ÿ.
.t‡ ...t .. ..Œ . š¸t. .Ÿ.¸
... ... .•. .. ... . .¸. _..¸ 
.¸.Ÿ Spellings ·.‡..Ÿ.•· ..Ÿ
.t existence . ... spelling
.. .. . . existance ..·
.: .. · ... Dictionary . .•. ..
... . .¸. a ... e _..¸ .¸
.Ÿ.. ..Ÿ ... .Ÿ. .: ..Œ
➻Word .: . š.. .‹ˆ.Ÿ ..: ...
.. .,._... œ.. . .·¸ ..
.Ÿ ¸. . . . .•.   . . . ..   .   . .…
.....
➻ .... _.: ›..š. .¸ Lead Word
.Ÿ . .t
➻ ..Spelling .. ..Ÿ .t
Key to dictionary entries ... ...
.…._·. ..¸ ... ... .. : :. 
.. .:–
★ . .. Pronunciation
★ parts of speech
★ .. parts of speech . .. .. .
Print . ., .. Type . ...
★ .. ..Œ Parts of speech Noun, Verb .
.... ... . ..·¸ .. :..
★ .. ... ..¸ Idiom. ..¸ œ.
.. . Synonyms, antonyms ..
.t..
.Ÿ..Ÿ.. :.· Key to dictionary
entries :. . ..
· :.. .…._· :·. ·¸ ..Ÿ¸..Ÿ .
.Œ .Ÿ.. ...
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.a...¸ o.·.·
:-c»e-œ». š.·.-·.·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net
í£åªd êµL›í í£ë¯õª!
÷..
I
Raghu: Does your friend meet you regular-
ly?
: _š... ·¸ ·.œ¸ .. .. .··
Ramu: Which friend? . _š...··
Raghu: Seshu .™.·
Ramu: Yes, he meets me regularly. But
he does not meet me on sundays.
.. ·.œ¸ .. .. . .·
..... ._.Ÿ. ....·
Raghu: Why does he not (doesn't he) meet
you on sundays?
..... .... ....··
Ramu: He does not move out of home on
sunday.
..Ÿ ..... .. .. ..·
š. .... .Ÿ.‹. .. 2nd RDW meets
question . not . does meet .....
..· does move ... moves (not . .:¸ 
 .¸.·
Come, go, Walk ... 1st RDWs
(Regular Doing Words) not.
questions. ..…     . ¸. do . .  . ·
...¸.
eg:
1) They come here everyday.
a) they do not come here every day.
b) Do they come here every day?
2) You come here often.
a) You do not come here often.
b) Do you come here often?
..· ..¸. 2nd Regular Doing Words-
comes, goes, walks, talks ... verbs not
..· question ..· ..….¸. 'does'
... 2nd RDWs- he, she, it . ....
... 'does' .. he, she, it. .. . . 
.t
1) Sunita (She) sings well.
2nd RDW
a) Sunita does not sing well.
2nd RDW
..,. verb 'does sing' - not .
b) Does Sunita sing well?
..,. .. verb 'does sing' - question .
... ..,. sings + not/?
= does sing
sings not . .·
question . .· ..…  
. ¸. 'does sing'
.....
2) Kumar (he) knows
English.
a) Kumar does not
know English.
b) Does Kumar know English?
œ. ·. .. .. knows + not/? = does know)
3) Hari likes music.
a) Hari does not like music.
b) Does Hari like music?
.. 'not' . questions. .. .•·¸ 2nd RDWs
... .Ÿ...…
1) works (+ not) = does not work;
Q: Does (he) work?
2) takes (+ not) = does not take;
Q: Does (she) take?
3) finds (+ not) = does not find;
Q: Does (Sunil) find?
4) goes (+ not) = does not go;
Q: Does (Sita) go?
.. œ.. .Ÿ ...…
takes = does take (with not/?)
comes = does come (with not/?)
writes = does write (with not/?)
..¸. · ... ..· practice ..Ÿ..…
.: 1st RDW, 2nd RDW ·...…... ... .. :
: ... .•·¸ ...¸. 'do', .. .•·¸
...¸. 'does' ..t¸ ..... ._œ .Ÿ
œ. ·.: practice ..Ÿ..…
eg:
1. a) || .‡.. . .. .. .
I go to bed at 11 PM.
b) || .‡.. . .. .
I do not go to bed at 11 PM.
c) :·. ·¸. .. .. .. ..·
When do you go to bed?
2. a) .. . .. .Ÿ..
Usha plays well.
b) .. . ...
Usha does not play well.
c) .. . .. .Ÿ..·
Does Usha play well?
· ... ..¸ . _.. ..Ÿ..…
1. a) .. . .. . .. .
b) .. . .. . ... .Ÿ.
c) .. . .. . .. .·
2. a) ..Œ‰ ..Ÿ . .. .„.Ÿ. ..
b) ..Œ‰ ..Ÿ . .. .„.Ÿ. ..Ÿ.
c) ..Œ‰ ..Ÿ . .. .„.Ÿ. ..·
3 a) ... ..,.…. .. ..
b) ... ..,.…. .. ..
c) ... ..,.…. .. ..·
4. a) .. ...Ÿ. .. œ.. .: .Ÿ.
b) .. ...Ÿ. .. œ.. .: .Ÿ..
c) :. .. .: ..¸. .Ÿ.·
5 a) .. ...Ÿ. œ.... ›... ...
b) .. ...Ÿ. œ.... ›... ..
c) .. .·¸. .. ›... ...·
6. a) ..Œ. ..Ÿ .. . .....Ÿ..
b) ..Œ. ..Ÿ .. . ... ..
c) ..Π. ..٠. . ...٠.
.....Ÿ..·
7. a) :. .. ›... .Ÿ. ...
b) :. .. ›... .Ÿ. ..
c) :. .. . ›... .Ÿ. ...·
8. a) .. ..  .  .. ..Œ _š. .. ¸ ... .
..Œ‰.Ÿ..
b) .. ..... ..Œ _š...¸ .... ..Œ.
c) .. ..Œ _š...¸ .... ...Ÿ .Ÿ. .Ÿ ..Œ‰ 
.Ÿ..·
9. a) ... ..Ÿ .. ...
b) ... ..Ÿ .. ... ..
c) ... ..Ÿ .. ... ...Ÿ ...·
10. a) ..Ÿ _.: ... .. ..Œ..
b) ..Ÿ _.: ... .. ..Œ.
c) ..Ÿ _.: ... .. .... ..Œ..·
11. a) .. ..ˆ · ....
b) .. ..ˆ ·..
c) :·.. ·.. .. ..ˆ.Ÿ ..Ÿ·
ANSWERS:
1. a) Mr Ananda Rao teaches well.
b) Mr Ananda Rao does not teach well.
c) How does Mr Ananda Rao teach?
2. a) They help others.
b) They do not help others.
c) Do they help others?
3. a) Mr Rao comes here every day.
b) Mr Rao does not come here every day.
c) Does Mr Rao come here every day?
4. a) We watch the TV for an hour every
morning.
b) We do not watch TV for an hour every
morning.
c) When do you watch the TV every day?
5. a) The paper comes every day at 6 AM.
b) The paper does not come here at 6
AM.
c) When does the paper come?
5. a) We get the paper at 6 AM
b) We do not get the paper at 6 AM
c) When do you get the paper?
6. a) They understand his teaching well.
b) They do not understand his teaching
well.
c) How well do they understand his teach-
ing?
7. a) You read the paper every day.
b) You do not read the paper everyday.
c) What paper do you read everyday?
8. a) She goes to her friends' on Sundays.
b) She does not go to her friends' on
Sundays.
c) How often does she go to her friends'?
9. a) She likes him.
b) She does not like him.
c) Why does she like him so much?
10. a) He goes to Vizag every week.
b) He does not go to Vizag every week.
c) Why does he go to Vizag every week?
11. a) We take coffee.
b) We do not take coffee.
c) What do you take, coffee or tea?
---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.=
M. SURESAN
..œ.Œ... zs .. z::s
9
e.·e· I know you have stolen my book
:· ...– .¸ ... .•.œ t. ..·
. ..
.... .•.t. :.. œ.Ÿ.. ... .t‡..
..¸.
I knew you had stolen my book.
·. ... .•.t. ..· . ..
..,. .•.t. .Ÿ ... œ.Ÿ. .t.Ÿ ...
œ.Ÿ.
I Knew you stole my book.
.. .. .. .¸·¸ .. :·. ... .. .¸.
.· .... .... · ..¸. .Ÿ.¸ ·
..¸·¸ .. ..Ÿ ..Ÿ¸–
I knew you had stolen my book.
..,. ·... .. past . ... ....
.... .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .. .. ... knew, had
stolen ..t
Simple Present, Present perfect combina-
tion ·. . :. .‡ .... ..¸. ..
I Know (simple present) you've stolen
(present perfect).
simple past, past perfect combination .¸
·... .... ..¸. .·..
. ..¸. .. ·. .
eg:
I have just noticed that he has not attend-
ed class for the past two days.
have noticed, have attended ·... pres-
ent perfect . .. .. ·... ..•.Ÿ¸
:.¸. .¸ ..t¸ .:¸  .¸. ....
._œ .Ÿ. · ..t
1. I know you've stolen my book.
.. ..¸·¸ .. ..Ÿ ..¸·
2. I knew you had stolen my book.
3. I Knew you stole my book
4. I have just Know (that) you've stolen
my book.
5. I know (that) you stolen my book
yesterday.
6. I knew that you had stolen my book
yesterday.
š. ..¸. . .. .¸.. ..t ·
..¸. ·. . ..·
simple present . present perfect
combination ·.  .· ..· simple
past . past perfect ·.  .·
simple past. simple past ·. .· just
... recent actions. present perfect +
present perfect ·. . :. .. .Ÿ œ ..
– .Ÿ. ..., .·.¸.. ..-¸.
¸.«Œ¸
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.ae..¸ o.·.·
:-:»e-œ». š.·.-·e·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net
He does not
move out of home
on sunday.
Does ...¸.•.·-e· Does ...¸.•.·-e· Does ...¸.•.·-e· Does ...¸.•.·-e· Does ...¸.•.·-e·
Does ...¸.•.·-e·
÷..
I
.. .Ÿ.¸... ..· .› . .. 1st
RDW (Regular Doing Words- come, go)
... : 2nd RDW (Regular Doing
Words- comes, goes) ...: .... 1st
RDW 'not' . · question. · ..….
'do', 2nd RDW 'not' .· question .·
..…. 'does' ... .· .. .¸.
Ravi: Hello Ramana when did you return
from Vizag?
... .. .: ..¸. :. •
.¸.··
Ramana: I returned yesterday.
·¸ :. •.¸·
Ravi: Why did you go to Vizag?
.. .... ..‹.··
Ramana: I went there to attend a marriage
the day before.
.. š... .„.. .¸. .. ..¸
..,.…. ..‹·
Ravi: How did the marriage go off?
š.. .. .. ..··
Ramana: Oh, it went off very well.
š.. .. . .. ..·
š. .... œ. ·. .Ÿ..… return (yester-
day), went (day before), went (also day
before) ..·¸ .. œ.Ÿ.. ..  ..
..¸. (yesterday, day before) ... ..
.. ..
past actions . œ.Ÿ.. .. . .. . .. .
.. . . . .. .Ÿ¸.. .· .:¸.Ÿ. .t‡  
.¸.· .. verb - past doing word. · ...
..¸. .Ÿ...…
A
1) He comes here every day.
_.: ..· regular action
2) I go to movies every sunday.
.. regular ... 'go'
B
1) He came here yesterday.
..Ÿ ·¸ ..¸.·
(past action .. ·¸ ...· ·¸ .· ..
.. ...Ÿ¸. ... came)
2) He went to a movie last night.
.. ·¸ ._: ... œ.Ÿ.. . .. ...
.. . .· ...Ÿ¸. ... went.
· ... ... .Ÿ...…
Regular actions
_... .Ÿ.¸... .. ·:·
Regular Doing Words
I RDW II RDW
(I, We, You & they) (He, She & It)
go goes
see sees
come comes
know knows
tell tells
teach teaches
write writes
sing sings
keep keeps
learn learns
walk walks
Past actions, Time stated
œ.Ÿ.. . ... .. :·
Past Doing Words
went saw
came knew
told taught
wrote sang
kept learnt
walked
..· · ... ... ..¸ English verbs .
Regular Doing Words, Past Doing Words
practice ..Ÿ..…
eg: :.. – eat (I RDW), eats (II RDW), ate
(Past Doing Word- PDW).
..¸ ... ·..... ·_.. .Ÿ.. ..œ .. ...
. .  .. . .•. . . .. . ‡ .   .   . . .
..Ÿ¸.... .¸. ..Ÿ.. .. .Ÿ.. ....
:_.‹.: ·.... .·..Ÿ.. .¸. ..Ÿ..
.... .. ..Ÿ.. .... ·. ‡. .Ÿ..
..Ÿ...
.- +e· .· -·.·¸-·
Let's go over what we've learnt so far.
...Ÿ . .. .¸ . ¸. .. .Ÿ..
am, is, are; was, were; have/has been; shall
be/will be;1st Regular Doing Words (go,
come, walk ... verbs), 2nd Regular Doing
Words (goes, comes, walks ... verbs)
:.. 'not' . question . do, does ....
..  .¸.
..¸. :.· œ. ·. .Ÿ..…
.. ./ .. .. whose
.. . ·/ .. .. whom
a) Whose book is this?
.. ... ...·
b) Whose is this book?
· ... .. ..·
c) .¸ .. .· ..,. .. . . ..·A B ·
Whom do you like more, A or B?
d) .¸ .. .. .„.Ÿ .
. ..·
Whom do you help?
e) ... ... ..·
Whom does she know?
...– my- mine- .
a) .. ...
This is my pen.
b) · ... .
This pen is mine.
our - . ours - ..
your- ·/:
yours- ·./:.
This is my book; Where is yours?
.. ... ·. .,.··
his- ..Ÿ ·/ . .Ÿ ·.
her- .. ...,
hers- ...
her ... .. .· .. ... ...
This is Ramesh's shirt.
.. ... .•., ... .. .. .. .. ...
.· . t.Ÿ  .   .Ÿ  .  ·. 's (Apostrophe- s)
....
. ¸ . ..
My father's cloths.
. ..¸ œ.
My mother's jewels
... .· · .. .. ... .· · ..¸. ·.
English . 's (apostrophe- s) .... ....
_... .· .. .Ÿ  . ... ‘...’ . . ·. 's
... .· ... 'of' ....
. ... ›...
The pages of the book (book's- .. . ..·
... ..Œ‰
legs of the table (table's .Ÿ.¸·
... .Ÿ. ..– Doors of the house.
.. .Ÿ _..– Wheels of the car.
..¸. · .. .. .Ÿ...…
Ramu: I went to my uncle's place last
evening.
·¸ .Ÿ._.Ÿ. . ...Ÿ¸ ....
..‹·
Raghu: What was the matter?
....··
Ramu: My cousin returned from the states
the day before. He wanted to see
me.
..¸ ..Œ .¸.. .. .. .:
:. •.¸. ..Ÿ ¸ .... . 
¸.·
Raghu: I tried to get you over phone this
morning; but your people told me
you were out.
· .. .. .. : ..
. ..‹ .· : ..Œ‰ ..·
..¸.·
Ramu: Yes, I spent the whole of last night
at my uncle's.
.. ·¸ ._.Ÿ.. . ...Ÿ¸
..Œ . .¸·
· .... .. . t› œ.Ÿ.. ... .t‡
. .Ÿ.. ..  .. . . œ..: .. .…
. .. .. . verbs: went (last evening),
returned (the day before), wanted (after he
came), tried (this morning), told (this morn-
ing). went, returned, wanted, tried, told - :.·
.... past tense .... .... past
verbs- .. Past Doing Words ....
:.· ...¸. œ.Ÿ.. ..  .. . ..
. .. .Ÿ¸.. . ... .· .t‡  .¸.
....
I met him yesterday.
·¸ ..Ÿ.…· ..  . ¸·
They lost a lot of money last year.
... .. .Ÿ¸.. ..Œ‰ .. ..¸ .•.
.¸.·
... .. .t‡ past actions œ.Ÿ.. .. 
. .· past doing words . (past sim-
ple .) .t.Ÿ . .Ÿt past doing words (past
simple) .. .. ..–
go - went
see - saw
write - wrote
come - came
like - liked
talk - talked
smell - smelt
kill - killed
etc.
:.· .. .t‡ past actions . ....
..¸. .Ÿ...…
1) He comes on time everyday, but he came
late yesterday.
_.:.. ... .. ·¸ ..¸.
..¸. – yesterday - came)
2) My mother goes to bed early (regular-
goes). She went late to bed yesterday
(yesterday .· .. ...Ÿ¸. ... –
went).
3) India became independent in 1947.
... |·i.. ¸.Ÿ._.Ÿ ..Œ. ...¸..·
4) The movie flopped on the first day of its
release last week (flopped - last week).
5) She passed Intermediate 2 years ago.
· ... .:¸ I & II Regular Doing Words
. past forms ..¸..…
eg: buy/buys (regular) - bought (past- .•..
.. . ....·
sing/sings (regular) - sang (past- ....
... . ....·
:.· _.. ..Ÿ..…
:.. (Regular), .•.., . ... .¸ ....
..Ÿ.. ..... ..... ..... ....
.œ.. ..... ....
Answers:
eat/eats - ate;
buy/buys - bought;
walk/walks - walked;
learn/ learns - learnt;
write/writes - wrote;
talk/talks - talked;
shout/shouts - shouted;
weep/weeps - wept;
build/builds - built;
drink/drinks - drank;
move/moves - moved;
change/changes - changed.
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
M. SURESAN
10
œ.... s: .. z::s
Íà¶êŸû¦õÚÛª of
vÚÛ
¸.-Œ¸ present tense, past tense, future
tense . . :.. .. ... ..
. . .. :. .. .Ÿ œ ..
– .‡ .. ... .-.
e.·e· ... .. .. .. tenses ›.. .. 
 ..t¸ .. .. .. Time of action .·
..· ...· .. .. t¸ verb ... (verb
form) ..  ... .. ..¸.... · .. ..
.:¸ ...‹.·¸ tense . ... .. :. ..·
_.. ..Ÿ..…
.. ..œ .Œ.. . . .·· Q&A .
_. .Ÿ..: _. .Œ¸. · . .. ¸.
·.. .. . ..¸. .. ...t–
I have known (that) you've stolen my
book.

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