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38 Chapter 2 Information Systems: Concepts and Management

What We Learned from This Case
What We Learned from This Case

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40 Chapter 2 Information Systems: Concepts and Management

Hardware is a device such as the processor, monitor, keyboard, and printer. Together these devices accept data and information, process it, and display it.

Software is a program or collection of programs that enables the hardware to process data.

• A database is a collection of related files or tables containing data.

• A network is a connecting system (wireline or wireless) that permits different computers to share resources.

Procedures are the set of instructions about how to combine the above components in order

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to process information and generate the desired output.

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People are those individuals who use the hardware and software, interface with it, or use its

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Searching

output.

Result 00 of 00

Computer-based information systems have many capabilities. Table 2.1 summarizes the most

important ones.

00 results for result for

the most important ones. 00 results for result for p. TABLE 2.1 Major Capabilities of Information

p.

TABLE 2.1 Major Capabilities of Information Systems

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Perform high-speed, high-volume numerical

computations

Provide fast, accurate communication and collaboration

within and among organizations

Store huge amounts of information in a small, easy-to- access space

Allow quick and inexpensive access to vast amounts of information worldwide

Interpret vast amounts of data quickly and efficiently

Increase the effectiveness and efficiency of people working in groups in one place or in several locations anywhere

Automate both semiautomatic business processes and

manual tasks

Application Programs

An application program is a computer program designed to support a specific task or business process. Each functional area or department within a business organization uses dozens of appli- cation programs. Note that application programs are synonymous with applications. For instance, the human resources department sometimes uses one application for screening job applicants and another for monitoring employee turnover. The collection of application programs in a single department is usually referred to as a departmental information system. For example, the collec- tion of application programs in the human resources area is called the human resources informa- tion system (HRIS). We can see in Figure 2.1 that there are collections of application programs—that is, computer-based information systems—in the other functional areas as well, such as accounting and finance. IT’s About Business 2.1 shows how a variety of applications enable the National Foot- ball League to successfully serve its customers.

IT’s About Business 2.1 Information Technology and the National Football League The National Football League
IT’s About Business
2.1 Information Technology and the National Football League
The National Football League (NFLwww.nfl.com)
is a multi-billion-dollar entertainment-based busi-
ness, driven by broadcasts, merchandise sales,
box-office revenue, marketing, and event plan-
ning and execution. Key information technologies
are in place to support the various functions of

2.1 Types of Information Systems

41

America’s favorite sport, including global posi- tioning systems (GPS), electronic commerce, wired and wireless
America’s favorite sport, including global posi-
tioning systems (GPS), electronic commerce,
wired and wireless networking, voice over Inter-
net Protocol (VoIP), data security, storage, and
project management. These technologies help
the NFL effectively manage the areas of logistics,
customer relationship management, and the
secure storage of team- and media-related data.
Let’s look at two examples.
Gameday staff members now know when the
stadium is ready to accept a bus or limo, and
they can see how many minutes away each vehi-
cle is from the stadium. They stagger all arrivals
to minimize potential confusion, ensuring, for
example, that buses for opposing teams do not
arrive at the same time.
The Results
Behind the Scenes at the Super Bowl
Thanks to Gameday’s use of information technol-
ogy, the Super Bowl (and other large events) func-
The Business Problem
tions seamlessly, an operation that no one notices.
That is just the way that Gameday wants it.
The Gameday Management Group (www.game-
daymanagement.com) has a great deal of expe-
rience with large crowds. In addition to working
10 Super Bowls, Gameday has experience with
the Olympics and has overseen such events as
Pope Benedict XVI’s visit to America. Behind the
scenes at the Super Bowl, the prospects for suc-
cess or failure for the bi ame rest heavil with
Improving the Fan Experience at the University
of Phoenix Stadium
The Business Problem
Traditionally, stadiums implemented separate pro-
prietary networks to operate building systems,
video surveillance, ticket sales, merchandise

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Introduction to Information Systems 3rd

y Gameday. The business problem for the com- pany is ensuring that the buses and limos trans-

porting NFL team members, pro football executives, celebrity performers, corporate VIPs, and other constituent groups to the event are operating in perfect synchronization with the perfectly tuned Super Bowl schedule.

The IT Solution

In the past, the 100-plus Gameday employees working the game had to stay close to their walkie-talkies to keep on top of ever-shifting transportation dynamics. Gameday used to employ radios to communicate with police, enter- tainment representatives, team officials, and cor- porate personnel. Now they use a solution from U.S. Fleet Tracking, enabled by information tech- nology from KORE Telematics (www.koretelemat- ics.com). The KORE solution combines online map technology with GPS sensors, allowing Gameday staff members to receive real-time information on their laptops concerning the loca- tion of every key vehicle as it makes its way to and from the stadium. An animated map flashes on each screen, pinpointing every bus and limo en route. This satellite-based technology improves the timeliness and precision of the infor- mation flow to Gameday employees.

g g

sales, and other needs. This situation did not opti- mize stadium operations or stadium security.

Most fan experience importantly, at however, events. it did The not University optimize the of

Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona, uses infor- mation technology to solve these problems.

The IT Solution

The University of Phoenix Stadium deployed technology from Cisco’s Connected Sports solu-

video, wireless, and social networking to create

a single, secure network that serves every

stadium-related function. These functions include watching for potential terrorist threats, scouting opposing teams’ game films, selling tickets, and marketing fan experience items. The technology applies across all types of events. The stadium is a multi-event facility that hosts concerts, sporting events other than pro- fessional football, car shows, food shows, and

all types of expos. Anyone who visits the sta-

dium can use the Cisco network connection on

the floor or anywhere else in the facility.

The Results

Fans with Cisco IP (Internet Protocol) phones can now touch their screens to get league-wide

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Certain information systems support parts of organizations, others support entire organizations, and still others support groups of organizations. We discuss each of these types of systems in this section. As we have seen, each department or functional area within an organization has its own col- lection of application programs, or information systems. These functional area information systems are located at the top of Figure 2.1. Each information system supports a particular functional area in the organization. Examples are accounting IS, finance IS, production/operations management (POM) IS, marketing IS, and human resources IS.

Just below the functional area IS are two information systems that support the entire organi- zation: enterprise resource planning systems and transaction processing systems. Enterprise resource

planning (ERP) systems are designed to correct a lack of communication among the functional area ISs. ERP systems were an important innovation because the various functional area ISs were often developed as stand-alone systems and did not communicate effectively (if at all) with one another. ERP systems resolve this problem by tightly integrating the functional area ISs via a common data- base. In doing so, they enhance communications among the functional areas of an organization. For this reason, experts credit ERP systems with greatly increasing organizational productivity. Nearly all ERP systems are transaction processing systems (which we discuss next), but transaction pro- cessing systems are not all ERP systems.

, WS: OT: AWMPORSPAETTMOI TbTWEN (2 / 1) supports the monitoring, collection, storage, and pro-

cessing of data from the organization’s basic business transactions, each of which generates data. For

example, when you are checking out of Wal-Mart, each time the cashier swipes an item across the

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