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29641694 Shakespeare at Work

29641694 Shakespeare at Work

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SHAKESPEARE AT WORK 1592-1603 BY G. HARRISON With a New Preface by the Author ANN ARBOR PAPERBACKS THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PRESS . B.

First edition as an Ann Arbor Paperback 1958 Copyright with the 1933 by the University of Michigan title Shakespeare Under Elizabeth 1958 by the University of Michigan New material copyright To HARLEY GRANVILLE-BARKER .

PREFACE TO THE ANN ARBOR PAPERBACKS EDITION

THE

present reprint of Shakespeare at Work 1592-1603

has been

made

photographically, and therefore with-

out alteration, from the original edition of 1933.

The

burgeoning of the new criticism and the innumerable studies of Shakein 1931, before the

book was written

speare's images

and patterns which have appeared
of the opinions modify or expand; but in

during the
in this
I

last twenty-five years.
I

Some

book

would now

general

believe that this account of the Elizabethan

world in which Shakespeare lived and worked is still valid. Whatever the wider cosmic, psychological, theological, or ethical significances
distill

which modern

critics

from Shakespeare's plays, it is still an elemay mentary fact that he wrote plays (and not metaphysical
poetical dramas) to interest
poraries;

and entertain
is

his

contemreflect?

and a playwright

successful as

he

the immediate interests of his audience.
Shakespeare at

To some extent
as

Work covers much the same ground

Elizabethan Plays and Players (also reprinted in the

Ann

Arbor Paperbacks), but the intention of that book was
different.

G. B. HARRISON

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

THIS

a sequel to the three volumes of my Elizabethan Journal, wherein were recorded those events,
is

book

books, ideas

and emotions which were uppermost
last
I

in

the minds of Englishmen in the

twelve years of the

reign of Queen Elizabeth. In Shakespeare at Work
tried, so far as
is

have

now

possible, to

against the background of his
his

show Shakespeare times, which included
is

own world

of the theatre. It

a personal interpre-

tation, a conjectural reconstruction built

fragments as remain.

Much

of the

up from such book is, and must

be, sheer guesswork; but, since the

dences for the

life

documentary eviof Shakespeare and the history of the

stage are easily available in well-known works of reference, I have chosen the

form of plain narrative, unqualified by "doubtless," "probably," "we may be sure that" and other phrases expressing scholarly diffidence.
All

who

are familiar with Shakespeare's

work and

times create their

own Imaginary

Portrait of the

Author:

this

is

mine.

G. B. H.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.

THE UPSTART CROW

....
.

1

II.

EDUCATION OF A DRAMATIST

.

28 5$

III.

EXPERIMENTS

IV.

THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE
MATURITY

.

.

82
Ill

V.
VI.
VII.

THE NEW COMEDY

....
.
.

139

THE GLOBE THE LOST LEADER

VIII.

IX.

TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES
THE TRAGEDY OF HAMLET
END OF AN EPOCH

.

229
262

X.
XI.

....

.

.

.

279

COMMENTARY
INDEX

35
319

I

THE UPSTART CROW
were three playhouses in London in the winter of the year 1591 ; the Theatre and the Curtain to the north of the City in Shoreditch; and south of the Thames, not far from London Bridge,

A

stood the Rose, The Rose Theatre was the property of one Philip Henslowe. It had been built some four and a half years and now needed renovation.

Accordingly, in January 1592, Henslowe called in the workmen; and being a good man of
business,

he was exact in

his accounts.

He

deter-

mined to keep a separate account for his theatre property, and having by him an old vellum-bound manuscript book that had belonged to his brother he turned it about, and opening at a clean page, he wrote at its head the word "Jesus." He added the
date, "1592."

Then he
upon

set

down

in detail the charges laid out

his playhouse; they

amounted to over a hun-

dred pounds. There were wages, lime, sand, boards, nails innumerable; a new mast, which cost 12s.;

two dozen turned balusters at 2%d. each, and a further two dozen, but he paid only 2d. apiece for those. With a new thatch, fresh plaster in the

SHAKESPEARE AT WORK
Lord's room and the room over the tiring house, the stage repainted, the house was now ready.

A

few days

later

Henslowe turned over

three

pages in his ledger book and began a new account with the words "In the name of God" ; for although
a pawnbroker and a landlord of brothels, Henslowe was a pious man, and the coming of the Lord Strange' s players to play at his theatre was an event

fraught with possibility. The company of players that looked to the Lord Strange as their protector were greatly distinguishing themselves this winter.

Whilst other companies had appeared at Court once
only, they played four times in the Christmas holi-

days ; and

moned

again this Shrovetide they were sumtwice. They were an experienced and com-

now

petent company, but their present success was due
to their leader,

Edward

Alleyn.

Alleyn was twenty-five and he had been an actor for nine years. He was moreover a great man of business

who knew

ised that if

a good part when he saw it, and realhe was to get the fullest effects from his

and great voice he needed a good poet, someone more talented than himself or his fellow actors. He was not above asking the help of these young men from the Universities on reasonable terms. There was no rarer sight than to see him as Tamburlane the Great, bending his brows and fetching his stations up and down the stage with furious gestures, or whipping his team of pampered
fine presence

own

jades of Asia, or wooing his Zenocrate with high

[2]

at his first coming he would surfeit and riot with roist- [3] . those actors of antiquity whose fame still survived from before Christ's birth. Saturday afternoon the igth February the Rose Theatre was reopened with a performance of Friar Bacon.THE UPSTART CROW And Marlowe had cent lines. and though Alleyn still served the Lord Admiral he could not play the Scythian tyrant so long as he was with Strangers men. new Doctor Everyone in London knew Robin Greene and talked of his dissolute and licentious living. astounding terms or raging against Death himself. Unfortunately Tarnburlane was the property of the Admiral's men. could perform more than Ned Alleyn. his horrible oaths and profanation of sacred texts. but they had other good plays. His manners were scandalous. Marlowe's Tragical History of Faustus. not even Roscius or j3sop. uncut and hanging down in a long point. and he dressed like a scholar but for a trick of wearing his red beard overlong. who could turn his poorest play into a rare work of art. On and provided the Lord Strange's men with something that could rival the attraction of the Admiral's play. The play was Robert Greene's work. and well proportioned. his vain flaunting of his Master of Arts degree of both Universities. He was a handsome man. provided him with some magnifi- Alleyn was a very great man. He was forever shifting his lodgings.

When pressed for to work and in a day and a night he could yark up a book. who was the mother of his bastard son For- tunatus. filling the mouth like the daring God out of Heaven with that atheist Tarn"jet burlane. and any printer would gladly pay him dear for the very dregs of his wits. either it an English blank was the humour of a novice that tickled them with self-love. He kept Ball's sister as his mistress. but no one dared arrest him. wax and all. Yet he had his money he settled good qualities. for he employed a ruffian called Cutting Ball to guard him with his men. priding himself on his style. He was well known on the Bankside. and in Shoreditch. Once in a tavern he made an apparitor eat up his own citation. When they taunted him for holding aloof from play writing. very handsomely served between two dishes." in As for those that set the end of scholarism verse. and scorning those scholars who wrote for the stage. a sorry ragged quean. every word faburden of Bow Bell. he answered that he disdained to make his verses upon the stage in tragical buskins.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK erly acquaintances. but he would slip away like a beggar leaving the score unpaid. or too [4] . He made times. A few years ago Greene wrote only for gentlemen readers. He no account of winning credit by his works. his only care was to have a spell in his purse to conjure up a good cup of wine at all was not proud.

he up his debit account with his Maker and turn over a new leaf whereon to record his repentance as a credit. He was very conscious of the wickedness around him and knew from inside how merwould cast simple folk were fleeced of their goods. Instead of a tale conveyhe wrote a pamphlet called A Notable Disance. "and rounded it. . In the Notable Discovery he exposed card sharpers and crossbiters that preyed on men wantonly given who cilessly were enticed into brothels. "I Solomon. to merchants." he said. apcontrary new book was farmers and plain countrymen.THE UPSTART CROW much frequenting the hot house that had sweat out the greatest part of their wits. Omnia sub sole vanitas" Greene indeed was sickening of chronic excess. and when in bodily distress or maudlin drunk. They the pamphlet eagerly and other things too bought prentices. and I cry out with at the wantonness of his younger years. This last winter Greene suddenly developed a conscience and a new style of writing. Nevertheless at last he too prostituted his Muse to writing stage plays. covery of Cosenage^ for he was filled with remorse full of eloquent phrases and fine figurative have seen the world. and in Alphonsus of Arragon and Orlando Furioso he created heroes who outranted even Tamburlane in his rages. being greatly importuned thereto by the players themselves. though not with travel yet with experience. Greene was ing a new public and this now exploit- dedicated. to his previous custom.

SHAKESPEARE AT WORK that Greene wrote. so that his virtue brought him and seeing that there was an appetite for tales of the wicked. but the Jew's more sordid lust for power through money was nearer to common reality as understood in the city of London. Tamburlane's ambition to be a King and ride in triumph through Persepolis was lofty and picturesque. and though there was nothing to equal the high poetry. Marlowe brought on the spirit of Machiavel to act as admiring prologue to his play. Their first successful afternoon was on Saturday the 26th when Marlowe's Jew of Malta drew a good house. Then he opened [6] . Greene set about a Second fart of Connycatching. and a Jew. The Spanish Comedy of Don Horatio^ Sir John Mandeville and Harry of Cornwall. amongst whom was a young man from Stratford who had not yet attracted much notice. Barabas too was the embodiment of the most terrifying of Elizabethan bogeys. The Jew of Malta was one of Alleyn's more notable parts. highly regarded by his fellow actors and followers. there was a greater dramatic power in the situations and speeches. Both books were immediate profit. season at the Rose opened quietly. It was a far better play than Tamburlane. At Friar Bacon on igth February the house was half empty. he was the incarnate spirit of Machiavel. weeks of 1592. selling well in these early The In the following week the company played Muly Mulocco^ Greene's Orlando Furioso.

my fortune. he hugs them passionately as he cries out : O my girl.THE UPSTART CROW the scene with Barabas in his counting house. what a trouble 'tis to count this trash ! no mere usurer to weary his fingers with reckoning coins. brood- ing over his wealth : So that of thus much that return was made : And of the third part of the Persian ships. There was the venture summed and satisfied. As for those Samnites. That bought my Spanish oils and wines of Greece Here have I purs'd their paltry silverlings. my felicity Strength to 1 my soul. he persuades his daughter to pretend Christianity and so be admitted to the house. and the men of Uz. My gold. Their means of from the vulgar room* as their wealth increaseth. In the The Jew had two turn him night he waits under the balcony for her to come out and when the bags are thrown down to him. When the Christians of Malta convert his house to a nunnery and out. so inclose Infinite riches in a little a passions besides his wealth daughter and a hate for Christians. death to mine enemy ! [7] . he deals rather in seldseen costly stones of such a price that one of them might serve to ransom great Kings from captivity: For this is Jew This is the ware wherein consists my wealth . And And thus methinks should traffic men of judgment frame trade. Fie .

On the Friday following. It was called Harry the Sixth and dealt with that patch of the history of England and France between the death of Harry the Fifth and the wedding of the boy king with Margaret of Anjou. our synagogue. except for a few Italianate politicians. And the audience of London citizens shuddered with satisfaction at the thought that Englishmen were not tainted either with Judaism or Machiavellianism. the first new play of the season was put on. Abigail. We Jews can fawn like spaniels when we please : And when we grin we bite . [8] . to me. with the added zest of intensified hatred for all Christians : and a passion for vengeance 1 am not of the tribe of Levi. he proceeds to rebuild his fortunes. 3rd March. That can so soon forget an injury. And Or else be gather'd for in That.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Welcome O the first beginner of my bliss ! thee here too! Abigail. duck as low as any barefoot friar . yet are our looks As innocent and harmless as a lamb's. I. Hoping to see them starve upon a stall. that I had desires Then my But girl ! were fully ! satisfied : I will practise thy enlargement thence : O gold O beauty O my bliss ! ! Thus armed again with an the means of power. when they call me dog. I learned in Florence Heave up my shoulders how to kiss my hand. when the offering-basin comes Even for charity I may spit into't.

000 in gold and a force of 5.000.THE UPSTART CROW Anglo-French history was for at this time affairs in France were opportune occupying general attention. A second expedition was despatched to France. the war with Spain dragged on without any decisive result. and they rebelled against his successor who was a Protestant. and they so often deceived the English in money matters that when they beguiled simple- minded creditors of their own they would derisively mock them as "Englishmen !" On the other hand the Spaniards had now reached Brittany. In the next year Henri was forced back to the north and the Spaniards pressed nearer to the Paris. The Queen aided him royally with 22. and with a base on the English Channel they could assemble a fleet and invade England at their own good time. and in April 1591 Sir Roger Williams with 600 men entered Dieppe in Normandy. the theatre of war had shifted from the seas to France where A play concerned with Henri of Navarre was fighting for the throne of France against the Catholic League who were opposing him. There was indeed no great zest at first to help the French. In 1589. For the last three and a half years since the great Armada was shattered in the August of '88. and to allay any [9] . for who could trust a Frenchman? They murdered their late King who was a Catholic. The English army was withdrawn and English Channel. but though he won a victory at Arques he was unable to take the entered France as allies to the Spaniards League.

drew round Rouen and settled down to a siege. The English won glory in both provinces. Williams with 300 English and 400 French after a long night march fell upon the Leaguers' garrison at Cinqsens at noon. and then were away back to Dieppe before the enemy could come after them. Queen agreed to augment the Normandy force to 4. Norris took Guincamp. As autumn came on. supported by the English. After two hours* fight the barricades were forced and every man within slain. Early in May.000. This Welshman was a great soldier. as well as the gentlemen who served in his special regiment of cavalry. and the Earl of Essex (who was now aged 26) was sent over to take command. They paused but to thank God on their knees and to sing a psalm. Once more the French wars were in every Londoner's mind.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK doubts as to the legality of the war. and that any Englishman who succoured his enemies was a traitor to his Queen. the King's army. a proclamation was issued declaring that Henri of Navarre was justly entitled Henri the Fourth of France. Englishmen again were fighting At Midsummer the over the ground familiar to their ancestors in the [10] . and the author of a text book on war too. Another force under Sir John soldiers Norris entered Brittany. The Earl was accompanied by a volunteer company of gentlemen. and the English claimed the honours of the day.

warning the people of the preparations that were being made against the realm by the King of Spain. The Duke of Parma was at the head of a well-trained. The Council were perturbed and in November 1591 a new and stern proclamation had been set forth. The Earl of Essex issued romantic challenges to the Governor within. mariners or merchants. and the command was resumed by Sir Roger Williams. this time [in . Henri asked for more English soldiers. sickness or desertion. some as soldiers. some as gentlemen or gallants. or even as ruffians whom no one would suspect of any holy calling. as well as bitterness against the enemy. Essex by had returned to England. and the Queen after some change of mind agreed to send a further 1. Commissions were everywhere set up to collect the names of those suspected of recusancy and to warn them. Of late years the Pope was sending over more and more Jesuits and seminaries. and Harry the Moreover national feeling was growing. and the English fugitives beyond seas. but by the end of the year two thirds of the army had melted away by death. advancing to relieve Rouen. who went about in disguise. the Pope.600. raids and sorties were made by either party. At Rouen the siege dragged on indeterminately. Fifth. In the spring of 1592 the fortunes of the French King were ebbing.THE UPSTART CROW great days of the third Edward. efficient Spanish army.

until Joan Duke of Burgundy to desert the English. The quarrels between the English nobles increase. The scene then shifts to France to show the coming of Joan La Pucelle to the French Court. and is supported by Warwick. Plantagenet plucks a white rose. The wars in France go on with varying fortune. the corona- Dauphin in Rheims. but Talbot reasserts his old valour and puts to flight the Dauphin and Joan. and the capture of John Talbot. In France Joan and the French prevail and the valiant old Salisbury is slain. Young Henry is crowned King of France.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK The play of Harry funerals of King the Sixth began with the Harry the Fifth. and the beginning of the ambition of the young Earl of Somerset is shown in an episode in the Temple Garden where he quarrels with Richard Plantagenet. but the controversy of the Temple Garden is renewed and again quieted by the young King. The nobles im- mediately reveal their self-seeking ambitions. breaks out into open riot. Winchester and Gloucester quarrel in presence of the King. general outward reconciliation follows and Plantagenet is created Duke of York. Lord Protector. and the coffin has not been carried off the stage before the news comes of the revolt of France. [12] . Somerset plucks a red and is supported by Suffolk. In London the hatred between the Duke of Gloucester. Plantagenet urges his rights. who puts on persuades the a red rose and so appears to favour Somerset's party. Bishop tion of the Sir of Winchester. and Beaufort.

fail to give him support. she conjures up her fiends but they can only give silent forewarning that infernal powers have forsaken her. As did the youthful Paris once to Greece . [13] .THE UPSTART CROW The war continues. especially when Somerset and York. and rule the king . A little herd of England's timorous deer. so that both Talbot and his son are overcome in battle and die valiantly. Suffolk captures Margaret. Joan is led off cursing. and the English take her. and especially at the end when he saw that escape was impossible : How are we park'd and bounded in a pale. whose single-minded patriotism was so notably in contrast to the crooked greed of the other noblemen. and particularly at the heroic speeches of brave Talbot. falls in love with her but woos her for the King. Margaret shall now be queen. But prosper better than the Trojan did. and realm. Suffolk came forward alone to declare : Thus Suffolk hath prevaiFd . who suspect each other. the odds now being heavily against Talbot. The Rose playhouse was crowded and the audi- ence enthusiastic. to whet the appetite for further instalments. Gloucester now works for peace. to be burnt as a witch and a strumpet. and thus he goes. after which. The play ended with King Henry's promise to marry Margaret. With hope to find the like event in love. The Pucelle's power wanes. the king. But I will rule both her. daughter of Reignier (King of Naples and Duke of Anjou).

my friends. But rather moody-mad and desperate stage. Prosper our colours in this dangerous fight ! new play were the best of the season. and though well liked by his neighbours he had dropped out of public life. others that his youth was lively and [14] . His name was speeches that Shakespeare. And make the cowards stand aloof at bay ! If : Sell every man his life as dear as mine. and the Lord Strange's men realised that they had found a new playwright who could write The takings at the would draw an audience as well as Marlowe and better than Greene. There were some conflicting tales of his youth. And they shall find dear deer of us. a person of importance in the town. Talbot and England's right. Not rascal-like. and then married her. Some said that he had been a schoolmaster. He was not one of the the Universities young recently monopolised play writing. be then in blood .SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Maz'd with a yelping kennel of French curs we be English deer. God and Saint George. he was. He had got with child a woman men from who had of the neighbourhood before he was nineteen. to fall down with a pinch. however. knew much about the new playwright. apparently. William Shakespeare was now in his twentyeighth year. a recusant. Turn on the bloody hounds with heads of steel. He had been born and bred at Stratford upon Avon where his father at the time was a man of some substance. No one.

Who calls Hieronimo ? Speak. most popular of all tragedies. marshal of Spain. particularly in the scene where Hieronimo roused from sleep by shrieks in his arbour comes out to find the corpse of his son: at last of the ghastly vengeance What outcries pluck me from my naked bed. was the best drama although that had yet been seen on English stages. was revenge. of which Elizabethan audiences seemed never to tire. a great man of those parts. his son. Alleyn took the part of old Hieronimo. and how the father found out the murderers. fear. He was now an actor of no great distinction. The Spanish Tragedy four years old or more. hangings and stabbings and passionate excesses. .THE UPSTART CROW spoke of trouble over some deer stealing connected with Sir Thomas Lucy. The play which followed was full of exciting episodes of courts and policy. There were some fine speeches too. here I am. Alleyn's greatest success was as Hieronimo in Kyd's play The Spanish Tragedy the '. and to watch him at closest quarters. Its motive '. It began with the appearance of the Ghost of Don Andrea accompanied by Revenge to demand his rights upon his slayers. was cruelly murdered. . was a liberal education for Shakespeare to serve under Alleyn. midnight murder. and the story told how Horatio. It After Tamburlane. of secret love. And chill my throbbing heart with trembling Which never danger yet could daunt before? . and flicted which he inon them.

but fountains fraught with tears O life no life. Not seeming that I know their villainies. to patience. [16] . This therefore will I rest me in unrest. Dissembling quiet in unquietness. yet a certain mean. best. and thy tongue To milder Thy heart speeches than thy spirit affords. Will bear me down with their nobility. ! . But in extremes advantage hath no time . and thy hands to rest. and well they know Remedium malorum iners est. maddened with grief but as yet ignorant of the murderers. ! Confus'd and fill'd with murder and misdeeds ! Step by step the old man was led on to the discovery of the murderers and his own plan for revenge. Nor ought avails it me to menace them : Who. but lively form of death O world no world but mass of public wrongs. Which "under kindship will be cloaked Wise men will take their opportunity. No. ! . as a wintry storm upon a plain. And therefore all times fit not for revenge. With open but inevitable ills As by a secret.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Equally effective was Hieronimo's next outburst as the distraught father. I wot. That my simplicity may make them think That ignorantly I will let all slip For ignorance. he broke out: when O eyes no eyes. no. Closely and safely fitting things to time. a revenge not as the vulgar wits of men. Hieronimo thou must enjoin Thine eyes to observation.

a play within a play. a public hanging. and nauseating sportive imagination. pathos. play with a quick succession of murders and suicides. bugs and tortures dwell. One of his earliest tasks was in outdo the horrors of The Spanish Tragedy in a drama called Titus Andronicus. and climax. surprise of character. when.THE UPSTART CROW Thy cap to courtesy. satisfied at goes off with Revenge who promises: last. furies. where and how. and some mad scenes. He had too some sense In such a school of drama and acting Shakespeare first learned his art. severed heads falsely executed for fratricide. brothers murdered sons served mother to feed beyond even Kyd's it upon. was the whole essence of that type of revenge tragedy which Kyd made popular in the this speech And English theatre. and thy knee to bow. [17] . with the added attractions of rape an effort to and mutilation. Where none but This hand shall hale them down to deepest hell. packed The Spanish Tragedy with incidental horrors. all debts of blood were fully his Kyd ended paid and the ghost of Don Andrea. and in some of the speeches there was music and a vigour new to the English stage. villainies Of its own bloody kind. up in a pasty for their unwitting and hands. Its motive also was revenge. Till to revenge thou know. suspense. but he had hit upon such funda- Kyd mental principles of tragic drama as irony. was a good stage play.

For why my bowels cannot hide her woes. With all his threatening band of Typhon's brood. [18] . Or Aaron's Now. the weeping welkin. Expecting ever when some envious surge Will in his brinish bowels swallow him. Or: If there were reason for these miseries. doth not the sea wax mad. But like a drunkard must I vomit them. I the earth . Then give me leave. I tell you. for losers will have leave To ease their stomachs with their bitter tongues.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK particularly in the utterances of old Titus Moor Aaron. When heaven doth weep. Who marks the waxing tide grow wave by wave. by spirited defence of his black bastard : Stay. Then into limits could I bind iny woes. dies upon my scimitar's sharp point That touches this my first-born son and heir. must my sea be moved with her sighs . murderous villains ! will you kill your brother? the burning tapers of the sky. sighs do blow . Threatening the welkin with his big-swoln face? And wilt I am the She is thou have a reason for sea this coil ? Then Then must my . doth not the earth o'erflow? If the winds rage. He That shone so brightly when this boy was got. not Enceladus. as in Titus' lament: and the For now I stand as one upon a rock Environed with a wilderness of sea. overflow'd and drown'd . ! hark how her earth with her continual tears Become a deluge. younglings.

but on nth June they were unwittingly implicated in a fierce riot in Southwark. Fie. The playhouse was [19] . Tell the empress from me. I am of age To keep mine own. nor the god of war. arrested the servant of a feltmaker and thrust him into the Marshalsea. Of that self blood that first gave life to you And from that womb where you imprisoned were He is Nay. lords. As who should say. In that it scorns to bear another hue For all the water in the ocean Can never turn the swan's black legs to white. which concluded with a jig by Kemp. Shall seize this prey out of his father's hands. he enfranchised and come to light : is your brother by the surer side. That afternoon there was a new play at the Rose called A Knack to know a Knave. . men enjoyed an unbroken and success- ful run of plays throughout the spring and early summer. in a very high- handed and objectionable manner. What.' He is your brother. shallow-hearted boys ! Ye white-lim'd walls is ! ye alehouse painted signs ! Coal-black better than another hue. what. Although she lave them hourly in the flood. I am thine own. sensibly fed . Why. . It arose because the Knight Marshal's men.THE UPSTART CROW Nor great Alcides. Although Strange' s my seal be stamped in his face. . ye sanguine. excuse it how she can. there's the privilege your beauty bears. treacherous hue ! that will betray with blushing and counsels of the heart : Here's a young lad f ram'd of another leer : The close enacts Look how the black slave smiles upon the father. 'Old lad.

whilst masters were made responsible for their servants. Early in August the Court went on progress. they had acted on 105 days out of 125. Greene's plays. the players moved off for the country. For the next few days in the City. The City was deserted. and then drew their swords. The activities of the Lord Strange's men were thus brought to an abrupt end. for the ap- prentices threatened trouble on Midsummer Eve. It was also or- dered that no plays should be shown from henceforth until Michaelmas. and plague broke out. and when the play was over they marched in a body on the Marshalsea and demanded the prisoner. insomuch that the Council gave special orders that an extra watch should be set for three nights composed of householders and masters of families. As there was no further profit to be made in London. a traditional night of disorder. The vogue for connycatching pamphlets was [20] . Since their opening in February. The summer was hot and rainless. The Marshal's men emerged. Throughout this year Greene had been doing well.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK crowded with apprentices. They were only rescued from the angry his there Lord Mayor and was an uneasy feeling mob by the arrival of the men. belaboured all and sundry. Harry the Sixth continued to be a most popular play and it was estimated that at least ten thousand spectators had thrilled to the eloquence of brave Talbot. failed to draw full houses. armed with daggers and cudgels. however.

which was in fact a re- He vival of a mediaeval mode. the opportunity was too good to lose. as ever. The first part only was complete. The dropsy increased daily but Greene at first was not unduly alarmed. so Greene slipped in a paragraph about the Harvey family. the Cambridge scholar. sensed the changing tried his hand at a new feelings of his readers. an invalid with diseased kidneys. The book gave him a chance of passing in review a number of different kinds of persons. Gabriel Harvey. Writing grew more difficult. He called it for an Upstart Courtier or A dialogue between Cloth Breeches and Velvet Breeches the old A Quip theme that ancient yeomanry is better than newfangled gentility. When the book appeared in print the passage was uncomfortably prominent. the allegorical satire on different types in the Commonwealth. it was still unfinished. It was a worrying business. Harvey's father made ropes at Saffron Walden. a brief.THE UPSTART CROW passing off and Greene. Harvey was a vindictive man and might have influence with powerful per- Greene was pressed to withdraw it. but he had in hand for a short treatise of two connycatchers. [21] . He had promised to publish a Black Book of the rogues about London. and as he was at the moment at odds with Dr. hurried performance. and after a few copies had been sold the offending sheet was altered. Then there was a debauch with Nashe and a surfeit of pickled h^rill fare in a hot August rings and Rhenish wine sons. kind of social commentary.

and being an absolute Johannes is as well able to factotum.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK He sent it along to the printer as it was. He started a novel about himself in the old euphuistic strain. that with his Tiger's heart he wrapt in a player's hide* supposes bombast out a blank verse as the best of you. All who could had left London players to avoid the plague. trust them not: for there is an upstart crow. of pitiful warning against the ingratitude of players: "Yes. he wrote a few precepts warning young men against harlots. taverners and usurers. Then as despair settled in upon him. And so as a legacy tute. Greene now grew very lonely. they battened on the works of his brain and pestered him for plays. The try. O that I might intreat your rare wits [22] . Above all he was obsessed with the ingratitude of the professional players. beautified with our feathers. to his old friends that with him a letter had served the stage along Nashe and Lodge he wrote Marlowe. but there was this new upstart who was learning his trade by copying his betters. given him something on account. were in the counseemed to have deserted him. or even Everyone for charity. is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country. who might have Nashe had gone. He penned some pages of autobiography. for he needed money. and now that they were bloated and prosperous they left him to die desti- Not only that. and drawing crowds to his plays. but he laid it aside. and as his illness increased he began to feel bitter.

another of his friends. when he was dead. Harvey Greene's bond for ten pounds and besought him to read the writing beneath. to borrow her husband's shirt whilst his own was a washing. Mistress Isam. which was a letter to his abandoned wife. which was six shillings and fourpence . and there he had the luck to interview Greene's mistress. Mistress Isam crowned [23] . Dr. Mistress Isam was tearful and voluble." And further. and lousy he was. and Mistress Appleby. The news was soon abroad and scended." Greene died in the night of the 2nd September. he hurried down to Greene's lodging to gather details. and how deeply he was indebted to her poor husband. and never more acquaint them with your admired inventions. the cost of his winding sheet. his hostess. "for if he and his wife had not succoured me. As soon as he heard that his enemy was gone.THE UPSTART CROW to be employed in more profitable courses: and let those apes imitate your past excellence. and besides. and the charges of his burial in the new churchyard near Bedlam. and how his doublet how and hose and sword were sold for three shillings. She told how lamentably in his last days he begged for a penny pot of malmsey. Gabriel the vultures de- own Harvey was in town on his affairs and pondering upon ways of making Greene pay for the insult of Cloth Breeches. the poor soul. and how he was fain. which was four shillings. charging her by their former love to pay the debt. I had died in the streets. She showed Dr.

It and justifying plays against was [24] . playwright. a new version of the old allegory of the Seven Deadly Sins brought up to date. another of the scavenging printers. Harvey hurried back to his lodgand wrote a long letter to a friend in Saffron Walden. on the 6th October. which he turned over to Chettle to put together as quickly as possible into some sort of book. Burby entered The Repentance of Robert Greene. Master of Arts. It was similar in vein to Cloth Breeches. printer. This Chettle was a hack of several trades.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK him with a garland of bays for a tender farewell. Wright. his puffing man. She. for Greene's papers would be well worth the printing. Here lies the man. she that joyed to hear her nightingale's sweet praise. Others too came to pick over the scraps. attacking a number of recognisable worthies. Cuthbert Burby laid hands on the autobiography. a fat. pamphleteer. adding an extempore epitaph: ings. but including a fine praise of poets and playwrights. edition of Wit was ready for entry on 2oth September. and some oddments. their detractors. whom Mistress Isam crowned with bays . Wright's publication was Greene's Groatswortk of first. the farewell letter to his wife. Meanwhile Nashe's new book called Piers Penniless had been issued by Richard Jones. carried off the letter to the dramatists and the unfinished novel. Whereupon Dr.

raised a storm and all kinds of set going. Some said that Nashe had but this he indignantly denied in the preface to the new edition of Piers Penniless. or if I were any way proprivy to it the writing or penning of it. The Groatsworth of Wit was all Greene's. but as Greene's writing was none of the best he copied it. so he declared." he added.THE UPSTART CROW bought avidly and the hausted. "and with one of them I care not if I never be" for it was dangerous to be too friendly with that atheist [25] . for Marlowe the accusation of atheism so publicly made was embarrassing and dangerous. The Groatsworth rumours were written it. first edition was soon ex- of business. striking out certain passages which it would have been intolerable to print. and Chettle in the Epistle to the Gentlemen Readers took the opportunity of explaining the situation. and so united himself with the family and capital of the owner of the Rose Theatre. Henslowe's step-daughter. trivial." Both Shakespeare and Marlowe protested." "God never re- have care of nounce my my soul. Early in December Wright published his Ktndharfs Dream. lying pamphlet. call- ing it a "scald. "but utterly me if the least word or syllable in ceeded from pen. Chettle thought it necessary to offer an apology. In October Alleyn completed another good piece On the 22nd he married Joan Wood- ward. With neither of those that take offence was he acquainted.

that he did not use his discretion more freely. so that the theatres were obliged to close on the 2nd February. As for the other. town or corporation outside an area of seven miles from London or the travelling Court. Heminges. Kemp. In May they abandoned hope for the year. and a small company was formed by Alleyn. he had now met Shakespeare and was impressed by the charm of his manners and his easy good nature. Marlowe's Massacre at Paris and The Jealous Comedy. Phillips and Brian who secured a special licence from the Privy Council authorising them to play in any city. But the plague was still about." About three weeks later the Lord Strange's men from their country tour and uly Mulocco on the afternoon of the opened with December. divers of worship have reported his uprightness of dealing which argues his honesty. besides. giving the old favourites The Spanish Tragedy\ The Jew of Malta. he wrote. Friar Bacon. and two new plays. "because myself have seen his demeanour no less civil than he excellent in the quality he professes. Titus. Pope. Henry the Sixth. and his facetious grace in writing that approves his art.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Marlowe. and in a 3Oth came back to the Rose M month they played twenty-nine times. but the weekly returns of mortality still showed over thirty plague deaths a week. The company stayed on in London hoping for an improvement. that they might be in the better readiness hereafter for her Majesty's service whensoever they [26] . The season began well. He was sorry.

the accustomed times of divine prayers excepted. and calling upon all concerned to permit them to use their exercise at their most convenient times and places. [27] . Shakespeare did not go with them.THE UPSTART CROW should be thereunto called. he had found encouragement elsewhere.

[28] . ruthful. particularly the quarrel between Queen Margaret and the Duchess of Gloucester. Duke of York. The crown for himself. It than The firmer performance First Part: the characters had real life. In The Second Part of Henry the Sixth he began the story with the marriage of young. and admiring the greater playwrights of his time. jfjL Shakespeare had enlarged his experience in a number of plays. es- was a much king. no opportunity for history gave Shakespeare for the who was scheming passages of great depth or passion. and without undue bombast except for the incident of Suffolk's murder by There were some good episodes. and pious. He was still learning. and ineffective amidst his quarrelling nobility. and Richard Plantagenet. but the play was balanced and the scenes dramatic. and Mar- pecially the young garet his Queen whose impatience was gradually growing to fury.II EDUCATION OF A DRAMATIST AFTER the first success of the Talbot scenes. Two further instalments of Henry the Sixth appeared. Henry to Margaret of Anjou. and the series was completed by Richard the Third. the Duchess's sorcery. and writing with Alleyn's voice and person constantly in his mind. pirates.

being not took Before a true and lawful magistrate That hath authority over him that swears : Henry had none. Therefore. And all that poets feign of bliss and joy. seeing 'twas he that made you to depose. afterwards Duke of Gloucester. he argues him round : An oath is of no moment. In history down to The Second Part he brought the first battles of the Wars of the the Roses. Richard. Your oath. do but think How sweet a thing it is to wear a crown. [29] . but did usurp the place . In The Third Part Shakespeare traced the story through the complex issues and treacheries of the Wars of the Roses to the murder of King Henry in the Tower and the firm establishment of Edward the Fourth in his its upon the throne. was of the kind of person created by Marlowe. Richard of York. There was some change dramatic method. hesitates to break oath with King Henry. more some of the speeches he was more elaborately poetical. Cardinal Beaufort's delirium on his death-bed. Within whose circuit is Elysium. When his father. As the story drew towards and in conclusion. Then. and the rebellion of Jack Cade and the men of Kent. with the ambition of Tamburlane. to arms ! And. my lord. is vain and frivolous. the unscrupulousness of Barabas and the language of both.EDUCATION OF A DRAMATIST and penance. father. he treated certain of the characters fully.

set the murderous Machiavel to school. And Change shapes with Proteus for advantages..SHAKESPEARE AT WORK But the black depth of vealed till his nature is not truly re- play when Shakespeare elaborated the character in a soliloquy of over seventy later in the lines wherein he was made to brood admiringly upon the deformities of his body and soul. will and detail the steps by which he remove his brother from the way of his ambition: I have no brother. And Be this word 'love/ which greybeards call divine. the Queen. King Henry murdered. I'll pluck it down. 'Content/ to that which grieves my heart. I am like no brother one another . And. And wet my cheeks with artificial tears. I'll I'll drown more sailors than the mermaid slay more gazers than the basilisk . resident in men : like And not in me I am myself alone. I'll play the orator as well as Nestor. And frame my face to all occasions. whose strength of character [30] . shall. and cannot get a crown? Tut ! were it farther off. Deceive more slily than Ulysses could. and the ruthambition which will less hew him a way to the throne : Why. Can I do this. like a Sinon. I can add colours to the chameleon. take another Troy. I can smile* and murder while I smile. And cry. Parallel to Richard of Gloucester he set Maris garet. Shakespeare again made Richard delight in his own unparalleled villainy.

sit upon a hill. a competent. as I do now. She is shown at her worst in York at her mercy and torments him. carve out dials. So many hours must I contemplate . When known. Thereby How many make the hour full complete How many hours bring about the day How many days will finish up the year How many years a mortal man may live. So many hours must I sport myself. . . point by point. quaintly. from whose weakness most bles had origin. then to divide the times : So many hours must I tend my flock . to see the minutes how they run. So many years ere I shall shear the fleece . hours. this is [31] . days. The third character which Shakespeare selected for special emphasis was King Henry. some excuse for Margaret. giving him the napkin stained with his boy's blood to wipe away his tears and mocking him with a paper crown. So many weeks ere the poor fools will can . So many hours must I take my rest. So many days my ewes have been with young. So minutes. the scene she has Richard of when however. months and years. . be no better than a homely swain .EDUCATION OF A DRAMATIST acerbated into cruelty by her own woes and the actions of her enemies. There is. He drew the King with sympathy and stressed the pathos of the man with a gentle speech on the simple country contentments which Fate had denied him: saintly inof these trou- O God To To To ! methinks it were a happy life.

It was. and of trans- By muting narrative into drama. and at the back of their minds lurked perpetually the fear that at any time the crown of England would again be in bloody dispute. in a way. Several of the great houses of those times still flourished. Queen Elizabeth herself was but the second generation from Henry of Richmond. and the many curses that have been uttered so largely flutter home to roost. for in none of these plays were there any serious attempt to elevate the story into a theme or a problem. Ah what a life were this ! how sweet ! how lovely ! the time this trilogy of plays was finished Shakespeare had a very considerable experience of the practical problems of stagecraft. Villainy is punished.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Would ! Pass'd over to the end they were created. Nor in a drama of the Houses of York and Lancaster was it necessary. bring white hairs unto a quiet grave. there were still Percies of Northumberland and Stanleys of Derby. It was journeyman work for the most part. Shakespeare's last play in the series was Richard the Third. As a result the history became less dramatic and more symbolical. In truth the memory of the Wars of the Roses was deeply ingrained in Shakespeare's audience. a commentary on the whole story. for the Queen had no heir and the signs for the future were dark and uncertain. There were fewer scenes of [32] . perfidy rewarded. threatening turmoil and civil wars on her death. underlining its significances.

Shakespeare even brought her face to face with Richard to indulge in a cursing match. she reappears to gloat over the misfortunes of her old enemies. The device was rehe sacrificed the peated in a second wooing. and Richard had murdered both father and son. Richard persuaded the Anne has widow of Edward self. to claim her seniority in sorrow. when the women both of the White Rose and the Red have equal cause to hate Richard. the Lady Anne being the widow of Edward.EDUCATION OF A DRAMATIST rapid and noisy event. the late King's son. and them how to curse. as in Richard's amazing wooing of the Lady Anne at the funeral of Henry the Sixth. The tents of King Richard and of Henry of Richmond were pitched on either side of the stage. Later. who in defiance of historic fact or even possibility haunts her ancient enemies like a Fury to curse them. and in the recess between appeared in succession the ghosts of those [33] . when. the night before Bosworth Field. after been murdered. Again at the end. Shakespeare symbolto teach ised the moral issues of the drama. Instead Shakespeare concentrated his attention on certain long passages wherein drama of clamorous incident to a dialogue of verbal cleverness. the Fourth to match her daughter to him- of episodes which Shakespeare introduced rather for their verbal possibilities than for Another set any dramatic purpose was the appearance of old Queen Margaret.

repartee. Inestimable stones. As we pac'd along Upon Methought the giddy footing of the hatches. unvalued jewels. and. great anchors. heaps of pearl. that Gloucester stumbled . there were crept. As a contrast to this kind of writing he composed an elaborate piece of epic description in the recital of Clarence's dream: Methought that I had broken from the Tower. . Some lay in dead men's skulls and in those holes Where eyes did once inhabit. conceits.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK whom and to Richard had murdered to curse their slayer bless his enemy. Wedges of gold. As 'twere in scorn of eyes. [34] . Shakespeare was indeed finding his power over words and experimenting with the possibilities of dialogue. that thought to stay him. And cited up a thousand heavy times. That had befall'n us. reflecting gems. And was embark'd to cross to Burgundy And in my company my brother Gloucester. All scatter'd in the bottom of the . Who from my cabin tempted me to walk Upon the hatches thence we look'd toward England. Lord methought what pain it was to drown : What dreadful noise of water in mine ears ! ! What sights of I Methought saw a thousand that fishes ugly death within mine eyes fearful wracks . overboard. Lord. : During the wars of York and Lancaster. sea. in falling. ! A thousand men gnaw'd upon . and that form of irony which consists in so repeating a phrase that with the alteration of a single word it comes back upon the head of the first speaker. Struck me. Into the tumbling billows of the main.

Richard himself was like one of Marlowe's characters. of events. But Shakespeare reminded his audience how that they had their part in this history in a prayer that the past might not be repeated: Abate the edge of traitors. and cheated of feature by dissem- sent into the world scarce half made is up. the portrait of a man whom nature had formed with a misshapen body and a warped soul. he even now determined to prove a villain. That would with treason wound this fair land's peace ! Now civil wounds are stopp'd. That would reduce these bloody days again. And mock'd the dead bones that lay scattered by. and to descant on his own deformity. The story of Richard was thus is no longer merely a record. but who was for this very reason [35] . and Shakespeare opened the play as Shakespeare was thus forming a new Marlowe had opened The Jew. The play ended with the death of Richard the Third. bringing forward his villain-hero to soliloquise upon himself. using his story rather as an excuse for fine writing. gracious Lord. but a play on a theme. God say amen ! conception of historical drama. and to prois claim that since he bling nature. in dramatic form. and the long struggle was brought to an end. peace lives again : That she may long live here. and about it.EDUCATION OF That woo'd the slimy A DRAMATIST bottom of the deep. And make poor England weep in streams of blood! Let them not live to taste this land's increase.

and in the next he was inheriting the portion of Judas. Christopher Marlowe was a monster of depravity. He hath spoken unto me with a voice of thunthat can punish should thy excellent wit. the least of my demerits merit this miserable death. His Gift. who hath said with thee (like the fool in his heart). I Look but by him persuaded to that it and thou shalt find an infernal bondage. Greene in the notorious letter had pointedly urged him to amend his ways and repent: "Wonder not. brought no advantage in this world to its author.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK filled with a demoniac power because. the respectable and middle-aged. enemies. His hand lies heavy upon me. "And wilt thou. he went on. able to extirpate in small time the generation of mankind ?" Machiavellianism. know. but wilful striving against known truth ex- [36] . "thou famous gracer of tragedians." Greene continued. "be his disto me. like Barabas." he wrote. be so blinded that thou should'st give no glory to der. Shakespeare owed much to Marlowe. that Greene. he was entirely free from the moral scruples which clogged the actions of lesser villains. 'there is no God/ should now give glory unto His greatness : for penetrating is His power . and there To were many choice tales of his atheistical opinions and blasphemous conceits. I felt is and have He a God Why the Giver? Is it pestilent Machiavellian policy that thou hast studied? rules but O peevish folly! What are his mere confused mockeries. my friend. ciple? liberty.

George Chapman. Their it was said. for his hatred of the profes- [37] . the poet and formed a little clique. sions were even noted in print. and the scholars backwards. how in the end tkou shalt be visited" Marlowe was not greatly moved by this appeal thou from the grave. much suspected of being in discusleague with the Prince of Darkness. and Harriot. and sick men's fancies turn readily to the consolations of repentance. astrolkept a School of Atheism. notorious had some illustrious friends and Walter Ralegh. were ridiculed. where no small company noble young men were taught to jibe at the Old Law of Moses and the New Law of Christ. Sir berland. and the hope divinity. est till this last Defer not. Marlowe was no company for those with conventional minds: but men who refused to worship the Deity by law established in the Realm of England liked his company. sometimes strange truths are revealed to dying men. and were fascinated by the daring of his talk. the mathematician and geogothers* They rapher.EDUCATION OF A DRAMATIST ceedeth all the terrors of me. where the immortality of the soul. taught among other things to spell God of a future life To these ribaldries Marlowe made his own blas- phemous contribution. Ralegh. poor Greene was always a weakling at heart. with a conjuring of oger as schoolmaster. the Earl of Northumfor his interest He in suspected sciences. with point of extremity: for little know- my soul. patrons. Others shivered a little at the prophecy.

As for Moses. and his serious to atheism. allowed his reason full license. he answered that things supposed to be done by divine power might have as well been done by observation of men. At all times in table talk he would jest at the Scriptures. To men of orthodox views in Church and State matters no word could be too bad for such a reprobate. Marlowe himself whose admiration for male loveliness was at times excessive had ex- [38] . Sir Walter Ralegh's man.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK sionally religious was so bitter that he took all occasions to mock their holiest beliefs. besides Harriot. Those who knew him intimately were fond of the man. willing wit. with a few others of his generation. his fervour. could do better. In his more all the arts moments he would earnestly persuade men them not to be afeared of bugbears and hobgoblins. Narrative poems retelling some of the amorous Greek myths were coming into fashion. he was a juggler. admiring his poetry. He no secret of his opinions. two years ago Clapham told the story of Narcissus in Latin verse. and it led him to hate religion as mere political made cozenage to keep men in awe. who were a rude and gross people. Lodge had written Scilla's Metamorphosis four years earlier. Marlowe indeed. and strive in argument to frustrate and confute the writings of the prophets and fathers. jibe at prayers. When miracles were urged. it was an easy matter for one brought up in of the Egyptians to abuse the Jews.

as was his manner. Shakespeare already admired Marlowe to the point of close imitation. Marlowe. it was a story of the sudden. setting the first meeting of Leander and Hero in the temple of Venus all : [39] . now he ventured on rivalry. claim a place the poets. He too would style. He found write a poem in the same his theme in the embroidery of Hero's garments : a grove Her wide sleeves green. Of proud Adonis that before her story was not uncommon in his reading. carrying the narrative down point where Leander won his desire. and perhaps win the poet's reamongst ward in the patronage of some great Lord. He had seen it pictured. Now he began on a version of the story of Hero and Leander. He met it in Ovid's Metamorphoses^ together with a similar adventure of Venus with Salmacis. The poem was passed around and Shakespeare with others read it. The plague was so severe that there would be no market for plays for some time. Spenser The book of the Faery Queen.EDUCATION OF A DRAMATIST pressed it in Edward the Second. As he visualised the legend. spontaneous love of a youth for a maid. He wrote to the two sestiads. and bordered with Where Venus in her naked glory strove To please the careless and disdainful eyes lies. with Adonis painted by a runing brook and Venus spying on him from the sedges. made the tale gorretold it in the third geous with manner of verbal decoration.

. . His Venus wooed Adonis in the woods and he chose to decorate his poem not with jewels. but with little observations made with his own eyes. culled from books or a teeming imagination. [40] . in shade doth Long after fearing to creep forth again . being looked on. rapes. needlework or statuary. and overhead A lively vine of green sea agate spread . . by one hand. were some- what idealised. .SHAKESPEARE AT WORK So fair a church as this had Venus none . . incests. light headed Where. but preferred the more elaborate six line stanza used by Lodge. at the beginning. . The walls were of discoloured jasper stone Wherein was Proteus carved. wine from grapes out wrung. He set his story in the open air. or the long description of the hunted hare. whose tender horns being hit. Marlowe's lovers. ducks as quickly in. though the details of their union at the end were human enough.' There might you see the gods in sundry shapes. And with the other. . Nor did he attempt Marlowe's rhymed decasyllabic couplets. Bacchus hung.. creatures of art. But Shakespeare knew better than to try to rival Marlowe in such descriptions. . Or. And there all smother'd up. as the snail. such as the dive-dapper peering through a wave Who. sit. Committing heady riots. Of crystal shining fair the pavement was The town of Sestos call'd it 'Venus' glass. Shrinks backward in his shelly cave with pain.

Adonis was a youth whose passion was for hunting and manly sports. a French printer and a master of the craft. after the manner of good printing. married the widow and in fine succeeded to the business. Shakespeare carried the story through to the fatal end of the hunting. had no experience of deep sorfinished. it was printed by Richard Field. John Shakespeare was one of those appointed to make an the When poem was first inventory of his goods. two and a half years older than Shakespeare. and then with Thomas Vautrollier. for he was as yet in the virgin dawn of adolescence when love is still ideal. Vautrollier died in 1587. and then he grew less interested. Venus accosts him and pulls him from his horse. He specialised and in 1591 had brought out the memor- [41] . and bodily love repugnant and disgusting. as a whore in the Bankside suburbs might claw a shy and modest youth of decent breeding. and there was some friendship between the two families. and Field. He was himself a Stratford man.EDUCATION OF There was little A DRAMATIST of the myth about Shakespeare's poem. blushing. In the previous year when his father died. indignant and protesting. Field had been apprenticed with George Bishop. Venus was a woman in her prime of beauty and desire. artificial Shakespeare as yet and far-fetched after Venus' lust. apprentices. so that the description of Venus' lamentation was row.

where he remained till the summer of 1589 when he took his Master of Arts degree per gratiam. Earl of Southampton. and negotiations were opened Lady with the Countess of Southampton. succeeding to the the age of eight. He was a Catholic peer who had spent some time in the Tower for his sympathies with the Duke of Norfolk. showed Henry Wriothesly. CamSir William Cecil. bridge. now sought a patron for his work.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK able edition of Harington's translation of Orlando Furioso. the second Earl. Thence he was entered at Gray's Inn. John's College. who supervised his education. He was then sixteen. thus became according to custom a royal ward. after the manner of young gentlemen of means and birth. and it was the profitable duty and privilege of his guardian to provide him with a suitable wife. The poem Earl of Southampton was himself an Adonis young Shakespeare this For and his acceptance of Clapham's Narcissus that he enjoyed such a theme. Lord High Treasurer. the Elizabeth Vere. and of marriageable age. was now aged nineteen. one was conspicuously suitable. The young Earl. to complete his education in manners and the law. and passed under the care of title at Lord Burleigh. His father. had died in 1581. Lord Burleigh proposed his own granddaughter. At the age of twelve he was sent up to St. but when she therefore broached the matter to her son his answer was that he had no disposition to be tied yet and pleaded a [42] .

nor how the world will censure me my for choosing so strong a prop to support so only.EDUCATION OF A DRAMATIST respite of one year. I shall be sorry it had so noble a godfather. Right Honourable. and vow to take advantage of all idle hours. Lord Montacute of Beaulieu. Southampton's ambitions were elsewhere. and Baron of Tichfield. He had fallen under the glamour of the Earl of Essex and was hoping to go with him to France in the follow- ing spring. Essex. and was conspicuous amongst the courtiers for his beauty and learning. however. for fear yield me still and never after ear so bad a harvest. I account myself highly praised. if weak a burden : your honour seem but pleased. I know not how your lines to I shall offend in dedicating unpolished lordship. He was still a bachelor when Shakespeare first came before him. But if the first heir of my invention prove deformed. Earl of Southampton. it a land. till I have honoured you with some grave labour. In the summer the Queen in her progress visited his house at Tichfield. continued to press upon him the great advantage of such a match but he evaded a decision. A few weeks later he was one of the noblemen in the Court when the Queen made her brilliant state visit to Oxford in September 1592. did not sail until the autumn of 1591 and Southampton did not accompany him. His mother and his grandfather. so barren I leave it [43] . To Southampton accordingly Venus and Adonis was presented with the customary epistle: To THE RIGHT HONOURABLE HENRY WRIOTHESLY. to Lord Burleigh's surprise and irritation.

treated as an equal by his superiors and encouraged to display his talents. Southampton showed personal favour which was something more than patronage. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE. culand worldly wise after the man- ner of young gentlemen of wealth. and your honour to your heart's content. [44] . and promised advancement into the greater world. the Italian who acted as his secretary. It produced also in Shakespeare for a time that wild exhilaration which a clever young man feels into the brave when suddenly transplanted from school new world of an ancient University. intellectual by a society that was witty. was sensaquoted. Your honour's in all duty. With Shakespeare there was added that he was an older man. mixing where he is with younger.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK to your honourable survey. and by transported into a new this poem Shakespeare was world. amongst them John Florio. of better birth than himself. noted. it for general publication It on i8th April. The large household of an Elizabethan nobleman was in itself a little court. and soon imi- of literary art was one of the recognised means of bringing a young man of promise to the notice of great A piece men. accepted on his own merits tured. The poem was now ready and Field entered tated. which I wish may always answer your own wish and the world's hopeful expectation. tionally well received. and there were some notable persons about Southampton.

of the sonnet in the early 1590*5 was due to the unwarranted publication of Sir Philip Sidney's famous sequence called Astrophel The sudden and Stella. and these poems were obviously so much finer than any of their kind. some think that all poems. but he had something to say for him- self in addition: [45] . being short." In 1582 Thomas Watson published a sequence called Hecatompathia or Passionate Century of Love. of six lines. every line containing ten syllables. vogue. however. Anything that bore Sidney's name was sure of an honoured welcome. as indeed it is a diminutive word de- rived of sonare. staves of four lines The first twelve do rhyme in and the last by two rhyming together do conclude the whole. as all the rest. During the '8o's poets from time to time ventured to experisonnets. but I can best allow to call those sonnets which are of fourteen lines. Sidney. There are dizains and sixains which are of ten lines and cross metre. read.EDUCATION OF In his first A DRAMATIST ecstasy Shakespeare fell in with the new fashion of poets and turned sonneteer. commonly used by the French. saying. translated borrowed. with an impudent preface by Nashe. "Then have you sonnets. which some English writers do also term by the name of sonnetter. More illustrious persons included occasional sonnets in their writings. Gascoigne in ment with 1575 had briefly described the form. The explanation of their success was to be found in the first and sonnet. may be called sonnets.

Some of Daniel's had been included in the first printing of Astrophel. giving [46] . so unhappily mated with Lord Rich. reading might make her know. and though the adornings of his verse might be borrowed. might take some pleasure of my pain. dear She. wanting Invention's stay . Nature's child. Tool. and his Lord of Essex's sister. At the beginning of 1592 he published his own copy. great with child to speak.* And on they realised that these sonnets were indeed written from the heart.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK and fain my love in verse to show. for Sir Philip was not writing on abstract themes of Love. Invention. But words came halting forth. 'look in thy heart. fled step-dame Study's blows . Studying inventions her wits to entertain. she. and pity grace obtain. the Lady Penelope. Biting niy truant pen.' said my Muse to me. Loving in truth. its passion must first be felt. To star had been my make living poetry the poet needed a real mistress and not a feigned muse. Within a few months of the publication of Astrophel and Stella^ other poets were sending off their sonnets to the press. and write. Thus. and helpless in my throes. beating myself for spite . He himself was Astrophel. to paint the blackest face of woe fine. And other's feet still seem'd but strangers in my way. That Knowledge might I sought fit works pity win. Pleasure might cause her read. . Reason and Desire. Oft turning others' leaves to see if thence would flow Some fresh and fruitful showers upon my sun-burn'd brain. but was setting forth as his first readers read in incomparable verse the story of his own disastrous love for Stella.

and the young male. he was not yet interested in the love of woman. and Shakespeare in setting into verse the [47] . is one of the loveliest of God's creatures. and Drayton was immortalising his Idea. William Percy was puling sonnets to his fairest Ccelia. unlike most of the he expressed his affection not for a mistress but for the beautiful young noblemen whose affection he rest. Nevertheless English poets were learning through their sonnets to look own sensations. Constable was writing Diana. Shakespeare followed in the movement but. The interest in sonnet writing was keen. The next year was published Wat- volume called The tears of Fancy. the young man's refusal to fulfil the obligation of his rank and marry. His reluctance was genuine and notable. and their readers were to be found in the Court and gentle society. and there was much ransacking of Petrarch and Ronsard for fine conceits. had won. of pedigree stock. son's Others too were at work for the press. a topic much discussed in the Southampton household. but narrow. Barnabe Barnes' Partkenophil and Parthenope. The sonneteers were gentlemen or retainers in inwards and to explore their great men's houses. containing certain sonnets.EDUCATION OF A DRAMATIST it the title of Delia. He added also a narrative poem called The Complaint of Rosamund. Lodge's Phillis and Giles Fletcher's Licia or poems of love. Love was the commonest theme. The first group of seventeen were all on one theme.

urged him not to love but to preserve his beauty in posterity: When forty winters shall besiege thy brow. the two most prominent of the Puritan leaders. and dramatically* its main business being to provide for the growing expenses of the Spanish war.' ! Proving his beauty by succession thine This were to be new made when thou art old. 'This fair child of mine Shall sum my count. Where all the treasure of thy lusty days. were were arraigned and condemned to death as The condemnation was bitterly criticised in many places and for eleven days they were kept in [48] . within thine own deep-sunken eyes. Will be a tatter'd weed. and make my old excuse. that some sort of conspiracy was being hatched. To say. very disturbing to the Council. so gaz'd on now. Now there many signs. How much more praise deserv'd thy beauty's use. And see thy blood warm when thou feel'st it cold. A few Adonis^ weeks after the presentation of Venus and tragically Marlowe died Parliament had been assembled in February. If thou couldst answer.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK plea that he should marry. And dig deep trenches in thy Thy youth's proud livery. In the general persecution of recusants Puritans suffered as well as Catholics. Early in March a secret gathering of Barrowists was surprised at Islington. but there were other anxieties nearer home. beauty's field. of small worth held : Then being ask'd where all thy beauty lies. Were an all-eating shame and thriftless praise. On the 22nd Barrow and Greenwood. traitors.

Parliament dissolved on the loth but it was that the Council had not yet discovered the root of the trouble. Four days later a Bill against the Brownists was brought forward in Parliament at the promptings of Archbishop Whitgift. victims of the clear Archbishop's chagrin. it was severely attacked in the Lower House and rejected. In the night of 15th set May a threatening poem was Dutch churchyard. Lewd and mysterious libels were being circulated warning the Flemings in London to take themselves out of the country. The Commissioners were therefore urged to make even to apprehend greater efforts.EDUCATION OF suspense. for all the apprentices would rise and then "down with all Flemings and strangers. Early next morning. and if the suspected reluctant to give evidence they could be put to the torture as often as the Commissioners sary. to make search anywhere for up on the walls of the for the dispapers or writings that might give light were covery of the offenders." Special commissioners were appointed to search out the offenders. and given authority any suspected persons. and some arrests were made. deemed neces- [49] . A DRAMATIST On the 3ist May they were led out to but at the last moment respited and taken Tyburn back to prison. but the principal author was evidently still at large for the libels continued to be put abroad. Barrow and Greenwood were so malicious gossip said hanged.

but some portions of a disputation denying the divinity of Jesus Christ. and Nicholas Poley. Accordingly next It day Thomas Kyd was arrested and carried off to Bridewell whilst his papers were examined. Marlowe was now summoned to appear before the Council. whose names were Ingram Frizer. it was soon availcase. Skeres and Poley were sitting at the table with Frizer between them. snatched Frizer's dagthe sheath at his back and struck him on Marlowe by the wrist. Marlowe ger from the head. not a libel againsrthe Flemings.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK seemed likely that the offender would be found amongst the needy hack writers. and then about six in the evening they returned to the room. In the Marlowe suddenly wrested the dagger [50] . Marlowe was lying on a bed. He was left in his study by Marlowe two when they were working together. In the morning of Wednesday. Marlowe went to a house at Deptford Strand company with three men. and among them was found. Meanwhile the Lord lowe's activities about procuring further evidence of Marand opinions. set daily. He presented himself on the 2oth May and swered that it was ordered to attend Keeper able. was removed to a Higher Court. 3oth May. After dinner they strolled in the garden. when a quarrel began. Frizer seized struggle in rage sprang up. years before. all perin sons with a disreputable record. Kyd was asked to explain anthe existence of so damnable a document. Marlowe's however. Skeres.

and Southampton by the practical favours which he was in a position to bestow on his admirer. for he always yearned after those outward distinctions which take away a man's sense of inferiority amongst his fellows Let those who are in favour with their stars : Of public honour and proud titles boast.EDUCATION OF into his eye. an entrance into the larger social life. and that in his brain which had devised them ! Southampton's patronage of Shakespeare quickly developed into an intimacy which Shakespeare continued to express with zest in occasional sonnets. A new prospect now lay before Shakespeare. See. it was jabbed and after a few moments of screaming agony he was dead." Marlowe's friends said exultant and little. but the point being upwards. and the jury concluded that Frizer had acted "in the defence and saving of his own life. what a hook the Lord put in the nostrils of this barking dog! Herein did the justice of compelled his God most notably appear in that He own hand that had written those blas- phemies to be the instrument to punish him. they exclaimed. There was the usual inquest." Greene's warning was too soon fulfilled : "little knowest thou how in the end thou shalt be visited. A DRAMATIST away. [51] . The only direct testi- mony came from the three surviving companions who naturally protested their own innocence. retailed the story but the godly were with elevating com- ment.

and the zest still lives which he wrote whilst the memory was and untainted. and for comedy. Working dramatists were hired to purvey bombast for Alleyn.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Whilst I. Berowne. a fool. groans. Is from the book of honour razed quite. : And all the rest forgot for which he toil'd Then happy I. At the Rose the contrasts of drama were rough and noisy: shoutings. The painful warrior famoused for fight. After a thousand victories once foil'd. Not only had colour. the clashing of swords. that love and am belov'd. a cuckold and a cudgel. his wit his life and become suddenly full of intelligence were sharpened by contact. at a frown they in their glory die. whom fortune of such triumph bars. a knave. and bawdry for [52] . Unlook'd for joy in that I honour most. Longaville and Dumain in Love's Labour's Lost^ Valentine and Proteus. Shakespeare burgeoned during these months in the nobleman's household. bladders of calf s blood. Mercutio. Where I may not remove nor be remov'd. Tybalt and in the plays fresh Benvolio all bear traces of the young men of fashion that Shakespeare knew at this time. literary art. Great princes' favourites their fair leaves spread But as the marigold at the sun's eye. were the chief trappings of a tragedy. Gratiano and Bassanio. realising at first-hand that the tastes of gentlemen He learnt much of drama and and the appetities of groundlings were very diverse. in And For themselves their pride lies buried.

it A play needed a plot. and a comedy must deal of love. much to the amusement of the older man who had already trod that same path some years ahead. full of those subtleties which would tickle the fancy of those for whom it was written and yet be caviare to the general. However. Lyly wrote his plays in the '8o's for the children of the Chapel Royal and Paul's to perform before the Queen and private audiences. fashionable and topical. Gentlemen A DRAMATIST despised such crudity and preferred the lighter wit of the comedies which Lyly provided for them.EDUCATION OF Kemp. A king and three [53] . Labour's Lost. anyone could judge for himself the difference in standard Campaspe followed in between court drama and playhouse set stuff. gave him the germ of a play of Dan Cupid's revenge. When Galatea and Midas and further editions of 1592. Accordingly late in this year 1593 Shakespeare about a light comedy of his own to amuse Southhis friends. but most of them had remained unprinted until the end of 1591 when the widow Broom rather timidly published Endymion in the hope that it might appeal to the gentleman reader. He called it Love's So Shakespeare began with a theme much canvassed by some of his audience. It must be witty. But Southampton and his intimates affected to scorn love. Certain conditions ampton and must be observed.

This playwright and his audience had certain jests. most solof Night pompously would only show her secrets with invocation. Some of the more learned poets had of late come out as heavy champions of wit against barbarism. and for a real fourth Du Mayne. Daniel followed in Delia and Rosamund. The theme of love was one. Two of commanders were the Marshal Biron and the Due de Longueville good stage names. watching. He and to bend themselves to study for three set the story in France. with pain purchased doth inherit pain As. fasting.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK of his courtiers determined to shut out their lives women from years. all delights are vain . Navarre. Spenser began it in The Tears of the Muses. : To seek the light of truth . Chapman. for the king. and through the mouth of Berowne he championed both love and book ignorance: that many who Why. and learning another. The idea of these four cloistering themselves in amity and celibacy would itself raise a laugh at the very outset. for instance. while truth the while [54] . and the very sweat of the soul. Navarre's chief enemy among the Leaguers. it was a neat touch for the his Navarre was a notorious ladies' man. painfully to pore upon a book. and arguments in common. but that most vain Which. and these French wars furnished him with good names. The upstart crow thought otherwise. emnly of in The Shadow claimed that skill passed for learned knew nothing. and ideas. all.

In the summer of '92 he was recalled from the fleet which he was commanding and sent to the Tower. me how fixing By upon a so. Have no more profit of their shining nights Than those that walk and wot not what they are. And every godfather can give a name. for the Queen had learnt that the Captain of her personal Bodyguard had been intriguing with one of her own Maids of Honour. Moreover Marlowe's sensational death. it eyes. light that it was blinded by. These earthly godfathers of heaven's lights That give a name to every fixed star. and Harriot the figure caster. Southampton was not over fond of Sir Walter Ralegh. and Ralegh's own championship of the Brownists in the last Parliament had again drawn attention to the School of Atheism. will not be deep-search'd with saucy looks . For the rest he filled up his play with characters who were three parts fancy and one part caricature. and Ralegh these last two years had made himself notorious. Small have continual plodders ever won. Who dazzling give is like And Study him that eye shall be his heed. ere you find where light in darkness lies. That the heaven's glorious sun. fairer eye. Too much to know is to know nought but fame . There were little touches in some of the characters [55] . Save base authority from others' books.EDUCATION OF Doth A DRAMATIST : falsely blind the eyesight of his look : Light seeking light doth light of light beguile So. Your Study light grows dark by losing of your to please the eye indeed.

shapes. one who taught boys apprehenthe horn book. Meanwhile Shakespeare was writing another long poem. his extravagant letters. his gait majestical. without beginning. and his general behaviour vain. his discourse peremptory. It was published in May 1594. and Baron of Tichficld. Armado. love I dedicate to your lordship is without end. notions. for instance. ridicu- lous and thrasonical. with an acknowledgment of his favours of the past year: To THE RIGHT HONOURABLE HENRY WRIOTHESLY.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK which reminded the audience of Ralegh and his circle. and was even more popular than the former. backwards. The theme of Venus and Adonis was lust disdained. objects. b. sions. his eye ambitious. full of forms. with his melancholy. a foolish extravagant figures. the new poem was the old story of Lucrece^ or chastity forced. is but a super- The fluous moiety. The warrant I have of your honourable disposition. Earl of Southampton. his tongue filed. Holofernes ties had certain affini- with Harriot. his intrigues with the serving wench. Shakespeare profited not a little from the experiment. revolutions. to how Again Shakespeare dedicated his poem to the Earl of Southampton. spirit. he learnt draw from life and not from copies. There were many more butterfly quips born to die a few hours after their hatching. not the worth of my untutored lines. and his lofty humour. whereof this pamphlet. makes it as- [56] . ideas. but was nonplussed by Moth's request to spell a.

EDUCATION OF sured of acceptance. to bound whom wish Your lordship's in all duty. A DRAMATIST is have to do time. greater . [57] . as is yours. to lengthened with happiness. being part of all I have. devoted yours. still your lordship. what I yours . WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE. my duty would show it is. it is meanI long life. What I have done Were my worth greater.

the playhouses were closed. but in the late it began to decline and by December the danger was apparently over. Secretary Walsingham. On 26th December Sussex's men ventured to open at the Rose. was accused by the Earl of Essex of having convenanted with the Spaniards to poison tional the Queen. Dr. At the end of January it was learnt that Dr. one of the physicians at Court. He had also a knowledge of state secrets. however.Ill EXPERIMENTS AX still summer of 1593 the plague continued. Some years before Mr. Roderigo Lopez. but the Council grew apprehensive that the infection would break out again and on 3rd February. knowing of Lopez's [58] . In the spring of this year 1594 there was a sensa- autumn alarm at Court. They played for five weeks and were doing well. 1594. and throughout July and August it increased week by week. In September there were the hot over a thousand deaths a week. Lopez was a Portuguese Jew had come to England many years before and who now had a considerable practice amongst courtiers. playing was again sanctioned and the Rose was occupied for a few days by a combined company formed of the Queen's and Sussex's men. Early in April.

Lopez cepted a jewel of great value was arrested and lodged at Essex House whilst his were examined. Essex. who was beginning to regard himself as a statesman. proposed that Lopez should in future act as his agent and supply him with news. she rebuked him severely. who laughed at him for bringing stale news. and then went on to Essex. saying that she knew Lothe whole business was pez was innocent and that due to Essex's malice and nothing else. As a Essex became deeply incensed against Lopez. Further he said that Lopez had already acfrom the King. had been dispatched to win Lopez over to the Spanish King's service. From time to time he received information vately which he imparted to the Queen. the end of 1593 a mysterious stranger named At Tinoco told an English merchant at Calais that he result had strange closely revelations to make concerning the King of Spain's secretary. with another man called Ferrara. Essex hastened to Court to tell the Queen. employed him in receiving and forwarding information to his spies.EXPERIMENTS good connections in Portugal. When Walsingham died in 1590. It was said that on [59] . Essex was and so angry that he flung back to his chamber sulked there for two days. Rumours began to fly round. Nothing incriminating was England to papers found and when Essex came to report to the Queen. He was sent over to Court and examined when he declared that he. but pri- made a similar arrangement with the Queen herself. Lopez agreed.

and within the next month a very dark case was made out against the Doctor. affair The whole beginning to drift back to London. and at the gallows he declared that he loved the Queen as well as he loved Jesus Christ which. and ample evidence was produced by Sir Coke.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Lopez was found to be deeply and discovered to have been the King of implicated further examination Spain's pensioner for seven years. the three men were brought up before the King's Bench in Westminster Hall. but after nearly two years of forced ab- The players were now [60] . They were then taken back to the city and dragged thence on hurdles to Tyburn. the Attorney General. however. The Queen. to satisfy the jury that he was indeed guilty. Lopez protested his innocence at the passing of the sentence. and he was condemned to death. moved the crowd to confirmed the general prejudice against Machiavellians and Jews. where they were hanged and quartered. and there was considerable anxiety lest he should die before the sentence could be carried out. Lopez was arraigned at the Guildhall on 28th February. coining from a Jew. fortnight later Tinoco and Fer- Edward A rara were also condemned. for a long time was unwilling to agree to Lopez's death. At Court all access to the Queen was forbidden except to the Council and ladies on immediate attendance. where their sentence was pronounced. great laughter. Essex mean- while worked day and night in the attempt to vindicate himself. At last on the 7th June.

For a time the Chamberlain's men had no London theatre and were obliged to go on tour.EXPERIMENTS sence their affairs were in a poor way. Bellendon the Admiral's. new play of Hamlet and The Taming of a dissolved. They acted ten times. His actors found a new master in Henry Carey. Lord Hunsdon. General reorganisation followed. The alliance was soon Alleyn took the Admiral's men The best of the Chamberlain's 15th June back to the Rose. individuals with ambitions of their own had small chance against the financial strength of the Alleyn-Henslowe combine. On men did not fol- low him. twice each. his play to poor houses at the little theatre in Newington Butts. but for three days only. The players hitherto known as the Lord Strangers men had May changed their tide twice during the plague months. and on 3rd June they united with the Admiral's for a few days to illness. The Jew of Malta^ Titus Andronicus the Shrew. Alleyn re-formed the Admiral's company. but they [61] . Cutlack. had succeeded as Earl of Derby in the previous September but in April 1594 he died in great agony of a mysterious and there were many suspicious signs that end had been brought about by witchcraft. Ferdinando Stanley. their plays being Hester and Akasuerus. There was room only for one Tamburlane in Alleyn's company. and on 14th they played at the Rose. Lord Strange. The Lord Chamberlain's men also returned to London. Lord Chamberlain.

being suddenly fantastical fit. and instead of stopping the issue. In the 43rd Canto the writer left verse and continued in prose such a knew : Henrico Willobego. persuading him that he thought it a matter easy to be compassed. diligence and some cost in [62] .SHAKESPEARE AT WORK were back in London in October and found a home in the Theatre in Shoreditch. S. yet finding his friend let blood in the same vein. Italo-Hispalensis H. who not long be- fore had tried the courtesy of the like passion. The position of the player company was peculiar and caused some comment which was plainly reflected in a curiin the nobleman's ous poern that appeared in October 1594. and no doubt with pain. During these months Shakespeare's friendship with Southampton began to change. at length not able unto his familiar friend W. with the sharp razor of a willing conceit. he enlargeth the wound. for Adonis did not shun Venus for ever. W. pineth a while in se- any longer to endure the burnheat of so fervent a humour. bewrayeth the secrecy of ing his disease cret grief. and was now newly recovered of the like infection . he took pleasure for a time to see him bleed. Names and places were disguised but in called Willobie way that they were obvious to those who the real story. She was pestered by all kinds of gallants but rebuffed them sternly and remained constant to her husband. infected with the contagion of a at the first sight of A. It was His Avisa or The True picture of a modest maid and of a chaste and constant wife^ and purported to tell the story of an English country girl of great beauty who was the wife of an innkeeper.

that had given casion not long before unto others to laugh at his own. S. urged H. But at length this to a Comedy was like to have Tragedy by grown H. sibility of obtaining his purpose. either for that he would ocsecretly laugh at his friend's folly. he determined to see whether it would a happier end for this new actor than it did for the old player. He was obliged at last to decide whether he would or would not marry the Lady [63] . with the divers and sundry loose changes of affections and temptations.EXPERIMENTS time to be obtained. which Will set from Reason can devise. or now because he would see whether another could play his part better than himself. he had more than enough troubles of his own. efforts. if not to is the weak and feeble estate that heal. was not in a position to Southampton do very much for him. ing the reins to rove at liberty. by a desperate view of an imposand Necessity. and Avisa very decidedly repulsed Of course H. yet in part to ease his malady. W. nor W. W. Earl of Southampton. was brought unto. brought him to a plaster. Thus this miserable comforter comfort- ing his friend with an impossibility. S. but there of nobleman and player for the coincidence to be most embarrassing. to greater his offers. After this preface a series of twenty-one cantos followed in which W. till Time being his best physicians. be William Shakewas enough fact in the relationship speare. In all which discourse havlively represented the unruly rage of unbridled fancy. might not be Henry Wriothesly. Whatever hopes and promises Shakespeare may have received during the for the present last eighteen months. W. and in viewing afar off the course of this sort to loving Comedy.

Desiring this man's art. and Shakespeare continued to express his hopes and dis- As yet there was no break appointments in intimate sonnets. The penalty for disdaining Lord Burleigh's wishes was a payment of 5. look Like to the lark at break of day arising From sullen earth. and then my state. and for a time Shakespeare became her lover. trouble deaf heaven with my upon myself. his will led him to her. and he refused. in his friendship.000. sings hymns at heaven's gate . By ordinary standards the woman was not beautiful. Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising. like him with friends possessed. I all alone beweep my outcast state.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Elizabeth Vere. as he expressed it in a sonnet : was The expense of spirit in a waste of shame Is lust in action. notori- ous to fashionable young gentlemen of the Inns of Court who took their pleasures in Clerkenwell. Featur'd like him. The adventure stirred him profoundly. When And And in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes bootless cries. his reason revolted. yet irresistibly fascinating. lust [64] . Friendship was severely strained over the affair of the Black Woman. For thy sweet love remember'd such wealth brings That then I scorn to change my state with kings. and curse my fate. She was a courtesan. Haply I think on thee. and that man's scope. and till action. With what I most enjoy contented least. Wishing me like to one more rich in hope.

Savage. bloody. Mad in pursuit and in possession so. It was a galling situation. rude. and no sooner had Past reason hated as a swallow'd bait. in proof and proud and very woe. Past reason hunted. All this the world well knows yet none knows well. The woman however was after the highest game and when Southampton came her way she readily deserted Shakespeare. black wires grow on her head I have seen roses damask' d.EXPERIMENTS Is perjur'd. To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell. red. Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. for he could stand aside from himself and criticise both himself and her: My mistress Coral If is 9 far more eyes are nothing like the sun. He wanted his mistress again. That music hath a far more pleasing sound : : I grant I never saw a goddess go. cruel. Enjoy'd no sooner but despised straight. why then her breasts are dun If hairs be wires. But no such roses see I in her cheeks. And in some perfumes is there more delight. And yet by heaven I think my love as rare. mistress when she walks treads on the ground. and in quest to have extreme. Before a joy proposed behind a dream. yet well I know. red and white. : snow be white. not to trust. My As any she belied with false compare. extreme. having. full of blame. but not at the expense of [65] . murderous. I love to hear her speak. On purpose laid to make the taker mad. than her lips' red. Had. A bliss Nor was he blindly in love.

my . is of my wailing chief. both to each friend. To Southampton her. To win me soon to hell. And whether Suspect I I my angel be turn'd fiend but not directly tell . And Both friend hath found that loss losing her. my female evil Tempteth my better angel from my And would corrupt my saint to be a side. find each other. me more nearly. her . and all that friendship might still bring. And A loss in love that touches yet it may be said I lov'd her dearly . The worser spirit a woman. If I lose thee. To each of them he protested in a run of sonnets. Suffering my friend for my sake to approve her. my friend and I are one. To the woman: loves I have of comfort Two and despair. and tried to cover his dis- appointments with a half-hearted gesture of renunciation. my loss is my love's gain. devil. because thou know'st I love And for my sake even so doth she abuse me. But being both from me. that guess one angel in another's hell : [66] . so he made the best of it. Sweet then she loves but me alone. coloured ill. : Which like two spirits do suggest me still The better angel is a man right fair.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK friendship. may. thus I will excuse ye : Thou dost love her. Loving offenders. and I lose both twain. Wooing his purity with her foul pride. And both for my ! But here's the joy flattery sake lay on me this cross : . That she hath thee. it is he wrote not all : That thou hast my grief.

In the reorganisation of the Lord Chamberlain's company he was able to acquire a his place on player's share and henceforward took equal terms with the rest. a horse. destiny laid hold upon Shakespeare. In the autumn of 1594. a form of In his own pantomime more vigorous than chaste. however. and they possessed certain advantages over their rivals in that no individual was yet in a Their chief position to monopolise the good parts. mostly in minor parts. my kingdom for a horse" was almost as famous as self in the naked bed?" For clown they had the illustrious Will Kemp. now about twenty- playing. [67] .EXPERIMENTS Yet Till this shall I ne'er know. and not less way Kemp was as famous " popular. my bad angel fire my good one out. who had succeeded Tarlton as the most popular of comedians. five years old. tragedian was Richard Burbage. but live in doubt. so that the last scene with Richard calling "A horse. offered for extemporal merri- He was especially he used to dance after famous for the jigs which the play was over. Apart from Alleyn the Chamberlain's men were as good a company as could be found. Burbage learnt in the school of Alleyn and first made a name for him- who had been part of Richard the Third. for some ten years. He was a certain draw but not always an "Who calls Hieronimo from his for serious drama as entirely satisfactory partner he was apt to take his part a little light-heartedly when any opportunity ment. as Alleyn.

Burbage. The Chamberlain's men were at first at some dis- [68] . and beyond. So in 1576 Burbage acquired a piece of waste ground in Shoreditch on a twenty-one years' lease from a gentleman called Giles Alleyn and thereon erected a playhouse which he named the Theatre. for Burbage acted arbitrarily. who was always a was not so easily put down. The partnership led to endless trouble. playing could go on undisturbed. and as much as any one he had been ultimately responsible for the financial success of playing. But the building of the Theatre was a work of genius. Burbage liked everything about him to be handsome and he spent generously on his playhouse. fighter. with the widow. if not dishonestly. In the early 1570*5 there had been troublfc between the players and the Lord Mayor of London which resulted in galling restrictions on plays and ultimately in their banishment from the stubborn City. He had begun life as a joiner and later turned player with such success that he became leader of the great Earl of Leicester's company nearly thirty years ago. a wealthy grocer. whose name was John Brayne. The power of the Lord Mayor was limited to the boundaries of the City.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK The Theatre in Shoreditch where they now began to play was the property of James Burbage. but as he had little capital of his own he brought in his brother-in-law. in the suburbs. especially after Brayne's death. father to Richard. It gave the actors a permanent home.

One lived at num. each Antipholus being provided with a servant called Dromio. Comedy of Errors he deliberately imitated Plautus in a Latinised play of coincidences. There were twin brothers each named Menaechmus. but they had Shakespeare with them as a partner. Shakespeare altered the names. and thereby vastly increased the [69] . and dead. Menaechmi. wife and acquaintances confused the two his brothers Antipholus. the other at Syracuse. The play told of the complications which followed when servants. three other kinds of He attempted comedy. He also added another pair of twins. The Comedy of Errors was an adaptation of the story which Plautus contrived in the Menachmz. Mensechmus of Syracuse having undertaken to seek out his brother came at last to Epidamnum. In Love's Labour's Lost he tried a society play in the Lyly manner. Menaechmus of in the EpidamEpidam- num married a shrewish wife but loved elsewhere.EXPERIMENTS advantage compared with their rivals on the Bankside for their repertory contained fewer popular plays. exactly alike but long parted. Shakespeare had been experimenting with various types of drama. in Two Gentlemen of Verona he played with a romantic theme of friendship. calling and for Epidamnum he substituted Ephesus. and with the Taming of the Shrew he wrote a farce. Moreover both Greene and Marlowe were and Kyd died before the end of the year. there was no one else at the moment with any reputation as a playwright.

Farce of this kind depended for its success on rapidity. The father. Shakespeare. Why them departedst from thy native Thus encouraged. -^Egeon is arrested. and condemned to death. of over a hundred his autobiography lines speech. and indeed if once the characters were to become too human the spirit of would be abashed. and since the husbands of such seldom have a chance at home of farce [70] . almost wherein to relate and family history as prelude to the story. The twins according to his story were separated in infancy by shipwreck. the broadest of contrasts in characterisation only were necessary. And for what cause thou cam'st to Ephesus. decided He to effect the final recognition by producing the parents. and then the Duke observed : Well. Since Syracuse is at war with Ephesus. JEgeon of Syracuse. Shakespeare had not yet learnt how to contrive possibility for farce his opening scene. The exits and entrances were very adroitly managed. presented a close portrait of a jealous wife in Adriana who seemed to be drawn from the life. Their mother had become an abbess in Ephesus. however. Moreover. ^Egeon was given a continuous. Syracusian .SHAKESPEARE AT WORK and misunderstanding. but the language was wooden and over witty. It took Shakespeare twenty-seven lines to explain this fact. brought before the Duke. comes to look for his long lost family. say in brief the cause home.

his sleeps were hinder'd by thy railing. Thereof the raging fire of fever bred : And what's a fever but a fit of madness ? Thou say'st his sports were hinder'd by thy Sweet recreation barr'd. The Two Gentlemen the theme of Verona was an essay worn shiny of love and friendship. would mad or man or beast : The consequence is then. And at her heels a huge infectious troop Of pale distemperatures and foes to life? In food. and dull melancholy. In Milan Valentine falls in love with Silvia. in sport. and life-preserving rest To be disturbed. what doth ensue brawls : But moody moping. thy jealous fits Have scar'd thy husband from the use of wits. Proteus was in love with Julia. And thereof comes it that his head is light. the Duke's daughter. Valentine was fancy free. Kinsman to grim and comfortless despair. Thou say'st his meat was sauc'd with thy upbraidings : Unquiet meals make ill digestions . on There Valentine knowing that home-keeping youth hath ever homely wits goes travelling to Milan. It seems. Proteus stays behind. Proteus is attracted by Silvia and [71] .EXPERIMENTS fully stating their own side of the argument he put into the mouth of the abbess a severe homily on the disquiets wrought by jealousy: of a jealous The venom clamours woman Poison more deadly than a mad dog's tooth. were two friends Valentine and Proteus. Proteus' father sends to Milan and the two friends meet in him away Silvia's company.

The outlaws enter with the Duke and Thurio whom they have captured. The Duke encounters Valentine wearing a long cloak which he snatches aside and the ladder of cords is revealed. Silvia persuades a gentleman named Eglamour to help her to escape from Thurio whom her father would force upon her. Thurio forgoes is his claim on Silvia. Valentine is disconsolately to the banished and makes his way woods where the outlaws take him. At this moment. at which the Duke so disgusted that he gives her to Valen- [72] . Meanwhile Julia. Proteus with the disguised Julia follows to the wood where he finds Sir and rescues her from her guard. She also is taken by the outlaws in the wood. and finding him to be a presentable young gentleman make him their king. Proteus confesses his guilt and is sorry. He again makes love but when she repulses him he is about to Silvia force her. the She comes upon Proteus as he is serenading Silvia. unable to endure the absence of her Proteus. Valentine forgives him and relinquishes all claim to Silvia. Proteus discovers that Julia is fairer after all than Silvia and they are reconciled. Proteus is admitted to company of Silvia but she despises his infidelity. disguises herself as a page and follows. whereat Julia swoons and all is explained. Valentine slips out of the thicket. She takes service as Proteus' page and is sent for Silvia's picture.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK when he learns that Valentine is about to climb up to Silvia's chamber by night he tells the Duke.

sons of old Sir 'Two John Danvers. Shakespeare then wrote a tragedy on the love story of Romeo and Juliet. but he made the dialogue sparkle with abundant showers of puns. It Shakespeare set forth his story plainly. there existed a bitter feud.EXPERIMENTS tine. with murder countered by murder. everyone is pardoned. It came to a head when Sir John Danvers. and dramatised. Between their family and the Longs. after Lyly*s manner. Launce has a dog. was not a success. Sir Charles and Sir Henry. and his devotion to his beast is in laudable contrast to Proteus' inconstancy. and the lovers are hap- pily paired. Southampton's neighbours near Titchfield. He added. and it had been retold fourteeners by Arthur Brooke in 1562. Proteus' Launce and Valentine's Speed. It was one of the many in tales of star-crossed lovers which were familiar to ambling readers of novels. of Southampton's especial intimates were the brothers Danvers. and Shakespeare laid it aside. lover's complaints and sonneteer's conceits. a pair of comic servants. a very mongrel cur. The play. parts of it could be used again. Moreover this family feud. was a very familiar plot which in one form or another had been told many times. as magistrate. however. who follow on a lower level their masters' travails. To this poem Shakespeare turned. was a close parallel to a tragedy of a few weeks past in which Southampton and his household were still closely involved. com- [73] .

he would untie his points and whip his etc. some justices of the peace and other gentlemen in an ordinary at Cos- [74] . with a rod. Brawls followed. Sir John also committed another of Sir Walter's servants for a murder. Feeling grew bitterer. and a boy. a puppy. a glass of beer was thrown into his face. broke into the house of one of Sir John's tenants. and sending him word that wheresoever he met him. Hereupon Sir Charles was at last moved to great fury. Master Henry wrote bitter letters to Sir Charles Danvers giving him the lie direct. Still the Longs were unsatisfied. a fool.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK mitted one of Sir Walter Long's servants for a robbery. In retaliation Sir Walter and his brother Henry Long began to egg on their followers to behave insolently and to provoke quarrels with Sir John's household. and a servant of Sir John was killed and another dangerously wounded. Henry Long. Sir Walter by undue proceeding rescued his servant. and taking with him his brother and some seventeen of his men. The matter was carried to the Council and Sir Walter committed to the Fleet prison. for they wished to provoke the Danvers to open violence. and Sir John caused him to be severely rebuked by the Judge at the next Assizes. adding that he was an ass. he went after Long. Long was dining with Sir Walter Long. and Master Long cried out in derision that now they dubbed him knight. guarded by many of his servants. and when Sir John's principal officer protested.

passing from love in despair to love at first sight. Sir Charles entered. Signior Florio France/In played his part* Thus it came about that when Shakespeare began to write Romeo and Juliet* he used Brooke's names but again he borrowed from life. peopling his tragedy with those whom he knew. and though warrants were The Danvers soon out for their arrest he shielded them for some days. Sir Charles was getting the worst. and seeing his off.EXPERIMENTS ham. brother's danger discharged his pistol upon Long who fell mortally wounded. went up to Henry Long and struck him twice with a cudgel. but the door was now barred. He then made and Long turned on him with his sword. being wounded in seven places and beginning to faint for loss of blood. and striking upwards with his dagger accidentally gave Long a fatal wound. This was one account. The love story of Romeo and Juliet was a perfect sonnet sequence. At this moment Sir Henry Danvers and the others broke in. and their especially with the young men. until he had arranged for their escape to the melee which followed. tones and little mannerisms. catching phrases. thence to the ecstasy of troth [75] . and situations. party fled and took refuge with the Earl of Southampton. Another said that Sir Henry had thrust himself between Long and his brother as Long had raised his arm to kill.

black-brow'd night. come. But not possess'd it. Towards As Phaethon would whip you Phoebus* lodging. Romeo ! come. It best agrees Play'd for a pair of stainless maidenhoods Hood my unmanned blood. With thy black mantle . Take him and cut him out in little stars. and as prelude to love's consummation Shakespeare wrote an epithalamium. : Think true love acted simple modesty. And he will make the face of heaven so fine That all the world will be in love with night. loving. grown bold. and Romeo Leap to these arms. So tedious is this day As is the night before some festival To an impatient child that hath new robes And may not wear them* O ! [76] . with night. : in night ! Come. Whiter than new snow on a raven's back. love-performing night! That runaway's eyes may wink. you fiery-footed steeds. Spread thy close curtain. such a waggoner to the west. And learn me how to lose a winning match. thou day For thou wilt lie upon the wings of night. till strange love. night! come. and. if love be blind. Not yet enjoy'd. all in black. untalk'd of and unseen Lovers can see to ! do their amorous . rites By their own beauties or. which Juliet : pronounced as a soliloquy Gallop apace. gentle night. have bought the mansion of a love. when he shall die. civil night. Come. And bring in cloudy night immediately. Give me my Romeo and. I And pay no worship to the garish sun. though I am sold.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK plight. bating in my cheeks. Thou sober-suited matron. Come.

When Juliet about to drink the potion was filled with horrible imaginings. Her dainty tender parts gan shiver all for dread. upon her childish head. through her tender [77] . Right in the selfsame sort that she few days before (A Had And seen sore. that she there lived in. Shakespeare however the action and made the plot move more compressed rapidly. In Brooke's story Romeo and Juliet enjoyed little with very each other's love for a month or twain. Her golden hairs did stand Then pressed with the fear upright. to death eke wounded then That she again within herself had weigh'd quick she should be buried there. out of the hollow vault. for he had himself seen the same argument set forth on the stage. him in his blood embru'd. That she surmised she saw. All comfortless. the play was a gamut of five days. Brooke essayed to poetise them: And whilst she in these thoughts doth dwell somewhat too long. ice pierced A sweat as cold as mountain skin. and his narrative grouped itself into scenes rearrangement. upon Marlowe's theme Whoever lov'd that lov'd not at first sight. for she should living fere have none. Shakespeare took suggestions also from Brooke for some of the speeches. grizzly thing to look upon) the carcase of Tybalt . The force of her imagining anon did wax so strong.EXPERIMENTS Brooke was a most useful foundation. But many a rotten carcase and full many a naked bone . and by his side be when laid.

no . and in her heart her fear increased aye. withouten further And thought. Dreading Hinder the execution of the purposed enterprise. What if this mixture do not work at all ? Shall I be married then to-morrow morning ? No. into a trance did fall. should she do here? My dismal scene I needs must act alone. By that weakness might. I will not entertain so bad a thought. the moisture hath wet every part of hers : besides. little. she felt her strength began to wear away. What if it be a poison. it should not. her senses failing her. But when little and As she had And up Then on frantic been. wake before the time that Romeo comes? [78] . which the friar Subtly hath minister'd to have me dead. her breast she cross'd her armes long and small so. in haste the glass she cought. still if. How I when I am laid into the tomb. methinks. That almost freezes up the heat of life : 111 call them back again to comfort me : Nurse! What vial. Lest in this marriage he should be dishonour'd Because he married me before to Romeo? I fear it is : and yet. this shall forbid it : lie thou there.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK That with And more fears. For he hath been tried a holy man. or foolish cowardise. she drank the mixture quite. And lest they will dismember her she greatly stands in doubt. she vainly thinks whilst vainly thus she A thousand bodies dead have compassed her about. Shakespeare transmuted this jingle into a soliloquy: I have a faint cold fear thrills through my veins. Come.

as they say. At some hours in the night spirits resort : Alack. that did spit his body Upon a rapier's point. what with loathsome smells. stay ! Romeo. their tastes and wit. They constituted themselves a king- [79] . Where. was his most successful play hitherto. As with a ! club.EXPERIMENTS Or. alack ! is it not like that I. run mad : O if I wake. if I live. dash out my desperate brains? look methinks I see my cousin's ghost O. That living mortals. hearing them. their own society. firmly established Shakespeare's reputation with the young gentlemen of the Inns of Court. in this rage. Stay. And shrieks like mandrakes' torn out of the earth. Tybalt. for an ancient receptacle. So early waking. is it not very like. It was attuned to the present fashion for love poetry. Seeking out Romeo. where. the bones . reflected in the conversation of Romeo and his friends. Of all my buried ancestors are pack'd Where bloody Tybalt. ! And madly play with my forefathers' joints. I come ! this do I drink to thee. many hundred years. and they saw themselves. terror of the place. yet but green in earth. Lies festering in his shroud . with some great kinsman's bone. Environed with all these hideous fears. The As horrible conceit of death Together and night. with the these in a vault. In the winter of 1594 the junior members of Gray's Inn set about some revels on a lavish and Juliet Romeo and elaborate scale. and with the two poems. shall I not be distraught. And pluck the mangled Tybalt from his shroud? And.

The Ambassador for Templaria took offence and departed. and of the nobility the Earls of Shrewsbury. the Lord Keeper. The evening ended with a performance by the professional players of The Comedy of Errors. elected a Prince of Purpool and for some weeks kept up a solemn parody of the affairs and ceremonial of the English Court. The company was very distinguished. so that the Hall was too crowded for the actors to enter. The revels began with a symbolical piece of the restoration of amity between Graius and Templarius. to which they invited their neighbours of the Inner Temple to send an ambassador. elaborate inventions had been prepared but the crowd of guests was great.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK dom. 1595 the Revels were continued and special officers appointed to keep order. after which some sort of order was restored. and of uninvited when spectators far greater. and Sir Robert Cecil. The Revels began on 2oth December the Prince was solemnly installed. and the Articles of Order were designed not [80] . On the 28th. including Lord Burleigh. Then the Prince of Purpool held a Cumberland. most as the Six days later of the Privy Council were present. the Order of the Helmet. chapter of his order of knighthood. the Earl of Essex. was considered the crowning disinsomuch as the fiasco was known henceforth players "Night of Errors." on 3rd January. but the entertainment as a whole was a lamentable failure. Northumberland and Southampton. and to bring in common grace.

Gentlemen were already regarding the Theatre as the playhouse of distinction. and it was enjoined that they should frequent the Theatre and such like places of experience.EXPERIMENTS the foibles of only as a skit on graver and nobler bodies but of young gentlemen about town. amongst other commands [81] .

Entertainments specially intended for the Queen and her Court were usually of a set pattern. set amuse the courtiers. when pressed for delivery he took stock short notice.IV THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE 1595 the Chamber-/JL Iain's company was commanded to present a new play for the wedding of the young Earl of AT the beginning of the year to the Lady Elizabeth Vere. whose thwarted affections had been so costly to Southampton. The marriage was most royally kept at the Court at Greenwich on 26th January. and a few disclassical. These command performances were liable to creet topicalities to The time being limited Shakespeare had little opportunity for new experiment. the whole being something light and pleasing which would put everyone in good humour. and the complications which might arise if Robin [82] . Derby Shakespeare therefore began a play suitable for the occasion and audience. The Queen Mab speech in Romeo and Juliet suggested the theme of a dream of fairies. The story was mythological or out with compliments to the Queen. preferably on the theme of virginity. as most writers. and. of such incidents in his recent plays as could be re- worked quickly.

So Shakeresulting speare began to turn over his Chaucer and lighting upon the first of the Canterbury Tales he read: Whilom. pleased a similar audience. and the mistakes from the pook's pranks were easier to mathan exact likeness of twins. its rehearsal and performance. Moreover the company was to be augmented by children for the singing and dancing. The confusions caused by the similarity of twins could hardly be used again so soon. and one of its most successful incidents was the pag- eant of the Nine Worthies.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE Goodfellow went out looking for mischief. as it were. [83] . Ther was a due that hightc Theseus. and concerned with love. And as the main plot needed to be light. as oldc stories tellen us. especially since many of those who would be at Court had been present at the Gray's Inn Revels. a bergomask to the main plot. Such a play. what could be better than actors insisted who to rework the theme so successful in The Comedy of Errors of a pair of lovers who were continually mistaken by their mistresses. would be. children most obviously and suitably could present fairies. Love's Labour's Lost. acted by rude tradesmen. but any improbability was laudably natural when there the fairies were about. nipulate These threads needed to be united and preferably within some well-known tale of antiquity. Courtly audiences were always amused by parody of the amateur county on parading their musty fopperies whenever the Court went on progress. a year ago.

enough to fill up three acts. For the love story then there were two pairs of lovers. he began to work. And upon the conquered the wedding of the Duke Theseus with Amazon the other stories could appro- priately converge : it was a good pretext for the mechanics to present a play. but there were excuses. and a harsh old father. . his That with wysdom and He conquered al the regne of Femenye. each pair was happily coupled. and fairies and the pock were naturally connected. his contree .SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Atthenes he was lord and governour. . And in his tyme swich a conquerour. That whilom was y-cleped Scithia . all find their way to the some necessary entanglements. for good or ill. Shakespeare was using old work rather lavwoods where after ishly. his chivalrie many a riche contree hadde he wonne . As in that play. It mate. The scenes between the lovers were rather heavy. And broghte hire hoom with hym in With muchel glorie and greet solempnytee. Having elaborated the details. Of That Fill gretter was ther noon under the sonne. And weddede the Queene Ypolita. as Spenser mium which was manded his daughter to marry the bridegroom whom he had chosen but she was in love with another. with wed- had remembered in his Epithalajust come from the press. The father comdings. let true love To have its way the official suitor needed and she as yet doted on him in vain. [84] . was much the same as in The Two Gentlemen of his Verona.

Shakespeare irreverently mimicked some of the phrases which rolled so sonorously over Alleyn's tongue. Nick Bottom by name. but fountains filled with tears. but he that whilom was my son or that pathetic last speech of Tom Stukeley before he yielded up his groaning ghost on the sands of Barbary. better than blank verse. a weaver. something lofty. O no. mood These processes were very familiar. whatever it might be. such as : O eyes. and and most comedy in Ercles' vein. no eyes. took on something of the nature of the great Ned Alleyn. Alas. Or. . and the performance. as Shakespeare had observed him at the Rose listening to the synopsis of a new play as it was outlined by one of his poets. in writing The most lamentable cruel death of Pyramus and Thisby for Quince's company. but humour was for a tyrant. and especially since Shakespeare caused his mechanics to ape the methods of the professional actors. a burly fellow. the rehearsal. the casting. lyric poetry The episode of the play he divided into three scenes. so that their chief player.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE but the fairy suited his lyrics came pleasingly. Alleyn was his chief always for the chief part. In Quince's play Alleyn' s reverberating "eyes" were echoed by Bottom in: "OV and [85] . it is Horatio my sweet son.

poor knight. The ambitious pageant master had [86] . And. Eyes do you see ? How can it be? dainty duck ! O dear ! . and we ought to look to it. But stay. no.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK O grim-look'd night O night with hue so black O night which ever art when day is not O night! O night! alack. alack. is a most dreadful thing. . that lov'd. to bring in a lion among ladies. that look'd As he wrote Shakespeare was mindful of topical touches. A bolder joke lay in a remark of Bottom "Masters. Which That is Nature. The vile weather of the season was still a matter of talk. that lik'd. alack! ! ! ! Fear my Thisby's promise is forgot. for there is not a more fearful wildfowl than your lion living. ! What dreadful dole is here ! O Or." Those who had attended the Earl of Sussex when he represented the Queen at the baptism of the Prince Henry of Scotland in the late summer brought back amusing tales of the festivities at the Scottish Court. O spite But mark. and wove them into the dialogue. my dear? which was the fairest dame with cheer. . didst thou lions frame? Since lion vile hath here deflower'd no. liv'd. O wherefore. you ought to consider God shield us! with yourselves.

Moreover in the running at the ring and glove the King himself competed. It was no- tably parallel to the story of the second Edward which Marlowe had dramatised three years before. They rose and destroyed Gaveston. Edward so doted on Gaveston. having now taken Mortimer as her [87] . have the last with a fairy blessing of the bride bed.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE devised a triumphant chariot to be drawn in by a real lion. might forget himself or fright the apprehension ladies. whenas indeed his Majesty might have been better fitted with a hare. Shakespeare called his play A Midsummer Night* s Dream. but at the last moment there was some being unused to courtly entertainments. for he saw the story not as a series of scenes as a tragic from history but theme of fault and event. that he excluded the Queen from his love. and after all the entanglements were loosened and the lovers had gone bedward he let the children ended in word so that the play an atmosphere of dream and unreality. his Ganimede. and the King then chose Spenser to be his minion. choosing as the impresa or device on his shield a lion's head with open eyes to signify fortitude and vigilance. Marlowe's Edward the Second was a development in the writing of History Plays. insulted the nobles and ruined his kingdom. After this comedy Shakespeare returned to history in the story of Richard the Second. lest the lion. His Queen.

are you mov'd. He of you all that most desires my blood And Take will be called the murderer of a king. Continue ever thou celestial sun. And jointly both yield up their wished right. pity you me? [88] . Let never silent night possess this clime. That I may gaze upon this glittering crown. immediately causes Mortimer to be beheaded. Here receive my crown. it: what. and the play ends with the young king standing by the bier. Except for Gaveston's luscious de- wanton pleasures that he would prefor the King there were few lyrical speeches pare until near the end. So shall my eyes receive their last content. All times and seasons rest you at a stay. you watches of the element. these innocent hands of mine Shall not be guilty of so foul a crime. . . : .SHAKESPEARE AT WORK lover. when Edward defeated and description of the posed was given a long passage of woeful lamentation which stressed both his pathos and his weakness as he is reluctant to part with the crown: But stay awhile. And needs must I resign my wished crown. That Edward may be still fair England's king But day's bright beam doth vanish fast away. with the revolting nobles deposes the throne and he is brutally murdered. Stand still. let me be king till night. My head the latest honour due to it. him from Edward the third his son succeeds. In writing the play Marlowe had held his poetic fancies in check. Receive it? No. holding up Mortimer's head as a sacrifice to his father's murdered ghost.

the at Coventry. I do what I will. the revolts against King quarrels in Parliament. the Queen I do command. I seal. the quarrel between Norfolk and Bolingbroke. as Spencer's advice to the traitor Baldock to "cast the scholar off. the lists Henry. or Mortimer's boast: The prince I rule. proudest lords salute me as I pass . and another scene of rebuking the thriftless king.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE There were a few Machiavellian speeches. the murder of Richard and quies. But there was room for pause in the rush of events as incident was hustled after incident in the race to present within two hours the history of little twenty years. and learn to court it like a gentleman" . his solemn obse- The pageantry of the from a number a scene of speare added from his own imagination his banished parting between John of Gaunt and Gaunt on his death bed son. The incidents he took degave him not only an outline but some graphic tails which could be worked up into effective scenes. And The with a lowly conge to the ground. Richard's return from Ireland. in June 1593* that Shakespeare had the advantage of a pattern in Richard the print for his version of the story of from Holinshed who Second. deposition was compiled of scattered incidents and Shake- [89] . Marlowe's Edward the Second inally a play of Pembroke's men which was origwas entered for * printing shortly after his death. I cancel.

and he it in the reverted to the earlier poetising method. this seat of Mars. He had too something of Marlowe himself. Shakespeare revelled in the mere poetry of the speeches. This earth of majesty. a creature of exquisite sentimentality. The theme was similar and he treated same way. this scepter'd isle. indulging himself in fine writing and an enjoyment of phrase making. plot. this earth. Which serves Or as a moat This blessed it in the office of a wall. this little world. None of the characters in this story came near his own experience. and he ended his play with the bringing in of the bier of the murdered king and a curse upon the murderer. defensive to a house. This fortress built by Nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war. The opening scene of the quarrel be- tween the two peers and the pathetic deposition scene were full of quick and vivid emotional change. This happy breed of men. [90] . this realm. Lovers of poetry noted many things in this play. less Against the envy of happier lands. This other Eden. demi-paradise. combining a cynical disregard for ordinary morality with an intense beauty of fancy. This precious stone set in the silver sea. but at the same time he did not forget that fine writing by itself would never make a play. so that Richard was a sonneteer's king.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Shakespeare received many hints from Edward the Second. especially Gaunt's swelling praise of England : This royal throne of kings. this England.

this teeming womb of royal kings. it was the first serious attempt in English to enunciate any critical principles of drama. is sweetest last. For Christian service and true chivalry. Fear'd by their breed and famous by their birth. : As the last taste of sweets. they are seldom spent in vain. The breath of worldly men cannot depose The deputy elected by the Lord. Writ in remembrance more than things long past. Sidney wrote before Marlowe. there was published in April Sir Philip Sidney's Defence of Poesy\ which had been written fifteen years or so before. Yet the main [91] . For they breathe truth that breathe their words in pain. He that no more must say is listen'd more Than they whom youth and ease have taught to glose . and doubtless he might have modified his views if he had seen something better than Gorboduc. blessed Mary's Son : And: Not all the water hi the rough rude sea Can wash the balm from an anointed king .THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE This nurse. and music at the close. Renowned for their deeds as far from home. Whilst Shakespeare was at work on the play. Greene or Shakespeare had penned a play. More are men's ends mark'd than their lives before The setting sun. As Or is the sepulchre in stubborn Jewry the world's ransom. And: O ! but they say the tongues of dying like men Enforce attention Where deep harmony : words are scarce. Kyd.

because it lacked "that delightful teaching which is the end of Poesy." There was no obvious and immediate change in the practices of displaywrights. In June and July normal life in the City was gravely upset by a series of fierce riots. There was rioting two days later.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK heads of his criticism were as relevant as in 1580: drama was still "very defections in the circumstances. apiece. not because the matter so carrieth it. [92] . There was a riot on 5th June in the City and on the 13th the prentices forced the butter women. a and eggs to id. many plays "neither right tragedies nor right comedies mingling Kings and Clowns. The players. suffered. but the book was nevertheless cussed. By this time the price of butter had risen to yd. who were demanding 5d. The Council now took drastic action. and the playhouses were shut down on 26th June for two months. to sell at the stand- ard rate of 3d. a lb." Comedy too erred very grievously. as usual.. but thrust in clowns by head and shoulders to play a part in majestical matters with neither decency nor discretion. and again on the 23rd in Billingsgate and on the 29th on Tower Hill. faulty were still both in time and place" . In the bad summer of '94 the crops failed and food was now dear. Martial law was proclaimed on the 4th July three weeks later five of the prentices and who had been arrested on Tower Hill were condemned to death and quartered on the scene of their offence. lb.

in which month God [93] . By August it was realised that a new and greater Spanish As Armada was on sailed their last preparing. It discussed oracles. the Queen entered upon her ninth. and such subjects. against the frivolous and foolish conjectures of this age.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE the year went on the general feeling of anxiety increased. and the omens were all lowering. "who saith. who had observed or read how God was wont to deal in times and seasons. Her eighth cli- macteric came the fateful year '88 when the was a time of threatened disaster. when the mystic numbers nine and seven were united. that if we mark the great and notable changes of states and kingdoms. Among other opinions which Covell confuted was a dangerous tenet of Bodin. but their departure at such a time was felt to be a dangerous mistake in policy. but the ninth was astrologically far more alarming. Fellow of Queens' College. Moreover. and especially scholarly persons. we shall find the most part to have been in September. It was called Polimanteia. endeavouring to limit the range and reliability of supernatural methods of foreknowledge. This uneasiness was expressed in a book put forth at this time at Cambridge by William Covell. many. to judge of the fall of a Commonwealth. or the means. divinations. lawful and unlawful. Drake and Hawkins voyage at the end of the month. were alarmed because on September 6th. Armada and the prophets were busy that year. or grand climacteric that is her sixty-third year.

Oxford and the Inns of Court. ing. and he presented the King's letters with such stout speeches that the Queen. and Crown of England. beseeching them to remain loyal at this most anxious time. In one place Eng- land lamented that she was torn in pieces by her own inhabitants. became more dissatisfied with the lack of direct help which the Queen would afford him. and to all her inhabitants. with few days later emergency measures were put in hand to deal with the threat of invasion. was under a A Coast counties a force of over sixty thousand men was prepared. "England cannot perish but by Englishmen. A copy of Dole- man's book. Early in November the perpetual bogey of the succession suddenly reappeared. to the A Conference about the next Succession its embarrassing dedication to the Earl of Essex." In the book the essay on divination was followed by exhortations in the person of England to her three daughters. came into the Queen's hands.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK gave the beginning to all the world. In October M." Nor were relations between England and France at all happy as Henri IV. By the end of the year the situation in France [94] . who disliked plain speak- was alarmed and angry. de Lomenie was sent over to lay his needs before the Queen and the Council. She demanded an explanation. Cambridge. Covell commented in the margin. and from London and Southampton and fifteen Home and South for a short while Essex cloud.

if possible. wrote: Is it it not true that true that the Spaniards will come this spring? And is we are ready to receive them? Hath this land at any time had either better provision or more soldiers? braver captains to lead them. said he. published a book called A Watchword for War to confute various fearful alarms that were being circulated that the enemy was great. M. had no fear of the papists.. G." To the like effect we need not care or fear the Thomas Nun. but at his first public audience he was received coldly and scornfully and told that. enemy. for. Christmas time the Chamberlain's own men per- formed four times at Court. and the general opinion was that the alliance was rapidly dissolving. Nor need they fear civil troubles so long as "If we be true the common saying remained true within ourselves. in A Com- fort against the Spaniard. In January one C. and perhaps of some that had greater cause to gratify us than be against us. Meanwhile the general alarm at home increased. Early in January Sir Henry Unton was sent over matters. the King must proto the French King to mend vide for his At safety as best he could. C. that maybe he will have the aid of the Indians. G. or sounder divines to encourage them? [95] . or the Pope. when they should see the Spaniard they would join against them.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE was worse. another Cambridge man. de Lomenie brought back no satisfactory answer from London. as nothing would prevail with the Queen.

and Iras. For. And more than this I am two noblemen : Count Hermes is another of my names. And more than these. the Admiral's men brought in new play at the Rose called The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. a blind beggar. own a Duke. as you shall soon perceive. And I will tell you how I got that name My father was a fortune-teller and from him I learnt And. a usurer. who was then at Namur. and by that means became To take the shape of Leon. It its was the work of Chapman and way quite a novelty of a kind to appeal to Alleyn and his admirers. for it gave the great tragedian a part wherein he had to play Cleanfantastic thes. all in one person. Yet but a shepherd's son at Memphis born . and Count Hermes. by which name I am well known a wealthy usurer. : his art. a swashbuckler. till the time that I may claim the crown. Such money as I got by palmistry I put to use. had received instructions negotiate. The plot of this gallimaufry was a trifle far-fetched. but it was care- fully explained to the audience by the beggar : I am Cleanthes and blind Irus too. from the King of Spain to On out a 12th February. And Duke Cleanthes whom the Queen so loves . and Leon. even for the Rose. the gossip in his camp was that the Cardinal Archduke of Austria. [96] . knowing to grow great was to grow rich. it was believed that Henry was about to desert his allies and make a By separate peace with the enemy.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK the end of January 1596.

Hermes was the best of them. At the end of the play. Count Hermes has been swallowed quick in the earth and Leon has cast himself into the sea. which also was concerned and France. wherewith he would shoot his enemies. Which in the sequel you shall plainly see. was popular and especially the Count's The play thundering oath "by this pistol. I hope. his particular and a patch over his grotesque humour being to wear a large velvet cloak "in eye. the shepherd survives as Cleanthes.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE I mean to spend my time in sports of love. Shakespeare was now at work on another history. and not content with that. And joy. producing a confusion of relationships which grammar is inadequate to express. the story of King John. to shroud his person in rain or snow or in the hottest weather/' and to brandish a large pistol. now King of Egypt. he proceeds to diversify the "sports of love" by cuckolding himself. as 'twere to emphasise his humour. in this my policy. This versatile shepherd so enters into the quadruhis shapes plicity of his personalities that in three of he woos and enjoys the love of a different lady. Alleyn thus gave a display of his talents as a Count quick change artist in very diverse parts." The success of the character by the Chamberlain's men. whilst the blind beggar is forgotten in the final excitements. which is God's was duly noted angel. No sensitive man could with England [97] .

Mr. and such expedition was used by the Lord Mayor that most of them were ready by 8 o'clock at night. the Lord Admiral.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK live through the anxious affected months which followed unby the general mood.000 men should march at once for Dover. where Essex and Lord Charles Howard. enteied A Christian familiar comfort and encouragement unto all English subjects^ urging his readers not to be alarmed at the He warned especially the inferior to beware of sudden and undiscreet magistrates hurly-burlies. and open hubbubs. John availing. On that day the Bishop of St. Norden. On the 5th. but after some ignoble bargaining. Queen and Court. At the beginning of April news came that the Cardinal had suddenly invested Calais. The Queen hesitated to send relief to Calais. as in '88) was being mobilised and fitted out. orders were given on the afternoon of Good Friday (April pth) that 6. draw on tumults by sudden reports. for it was a policy of the enemy to Spanish threats. were waiting to lead over a relief force. David's preaching before the as his text. which could only hold out for a few days. and as he wrote the play his in own apprehensions were clearly reflected of the speeches. the topographer. dangerous bruits. most unhappily chose "O teach us to number our days that we [98] . many Unton's efforts with the French King were un- and in March he died having accomplished Meanwhile at home a great fleet (as great nothing.

even '88. and who by Thy Almighty hand and outstretched arm. Next day it was reported that Calais could hold out no longer and the levies were therefore dismissed. now. But at 10 o'clock on Easter Sunday they were again demanded. the constables were therefore sent round to the parish churches to close the doors till the necessary men had again been pressed. as one who had now reached that age when "the senses begin to fail. I am now entered a good age. and the grand climacteric. devising some suitable prayers for the Queen. The Two days were marched later the sound of the cannon could be heard all levies off to Dover. But Thou Lord. [99] . which by Thy prophet Jeremy didst command the House of Israel not to learn the way of the heathen nor be afraid of the signs of heaven. way into the climacterical year of mine which mine enemies wish and hope to be fatal unto me.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE may incline our hearts unto wisdom. yea. all the powers of the body daily to decay/' The prayer included these words : "O Lord. which hath long had sanctuary in this land. the strength to diminish." The Queen was not grateful and told him bluntly lous that he should have kept his arithmetic to himself." whereto he attached a sermon on mystical numbers. The people at this moment were making their Easter Communion. for Thy Gospel's sake. madest the year of greatest expectation. marvel- by the overthrow of Thine and mine enemies. make likewise '96 as prosperous unto me and my loyal subjects.

one of the Queen's ladies in waiting. Southampton was at last in love. and slights. One was that 400 : old soldiers. had been a matter of gossip since the autumn. Some very ugly stories of French treachery were soon in circulation. the increasing responsibility of a nobleman busied with affairs at Court. real or imagined. Moreover. succeeded in breaking through the Spaniards and reaching the citadel. for "if the never restore it. and went down to Dover. on the other." Southampton was eager to go over to Calais with Essex. the garrison refused to admit them and they were all slain. but if the English repossess it they will lish or their other friends. and his familiarity with Mistress Vernon. the French declaring that they would rather have the Spaniards in Calais than the Eng- But Spaniards win it. It was now three years since Shakespeare had first come into his presence with Venus and Adonis^ and at this time he wrote a sonto a sensitive net celebrating their friendship: [100] . news came that Calais had fallen. Shakespeare's friendship with Southampton had gradually cooled during the last year. when the men had been embarked and were ready to sail. sent by the States. and he with several other young noblemen was ordered back to Court. On the one side there was jealousy of other poets who sought the Earl's favour. but tormenting mind . yet there is good hope by mediation of the Church to regain it.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK day in London on the i6th. but the Queen refused her leave.

He [101] . fair friend. it sailed away on 3rd June. For as you were when first your eye I ey'd. and mine eye may be deceiv'd For fear of which. hear this. Such seems your beauty still.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE me. Three April perfumes in three hot Junes burn'd. The great fleet and army continued to assemble at Plymouth. After the disgrace of Calais. To Ah ! yet doth beauty. Three winters' cold Have from the forests shook three summers* pride. Sir Francis Vere and other distinguished soldiers served with them. He was no longer welcomed into with unpleasant bluntness that common players were not suited to the society of gentlemen. thou age unbred : Ere you were born was beauty's summer dead. which methinks still doth stand. Since first I saw you fresh. : There was little response. which yet are green. This summer of 1596 was a wretched time for Shakespeare. so that he became more Southampton's house but told acutely conscious than ever of the barrier of his was quarrelling with a certain William Gardiner. a well-known and well-hated profession. The old Lord Admiral and Essex were in command. and after one false start. and no pace perceiv'd . So your sweet hue. Steal from his figure. you never can be old. and he made no further advances for the time. like a dial-hand. the original plan was continued. Hath motion. Three beauteous springs to yellow autumn turn'd In process of the seasons have I seen. and Ralegh.

This story of King John in some ways bore closely on the present times and Shakespeare stressed its significances. Even the Bastard had no meat in his belly after the second act. taking this man's features and that man's wit. but though he began well he degenerated into a mere trumpet for heroic sentiments. the characters were little flat. the speeches tedious. the first two acts had some life in them but thereafter he lost all interest and went on mechanically. It was founded directly on an old play called The Troublesome Reign of King John.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Justice of the Peace of Southwark. It was the worst thing he had written. Arthur was hysterical. paraded and mocked. as in Austria's remark : [102] . For the time he had lost his touch. his and a lawsuit private and intimate were dragged out of the darkness where they properly belonged. It sale all that opened smoothly. was threatening. hearty. The plays of '94 and '95 were alive because he had drawn from life. he was writing rebelliously. In this state of mind he finished his version of King John. dishonest captains who were so well known to theatre goers. affairs Besides. yet he intended the Bastard to be a specimen of the bluff. with a feel- ing of disgust with himself that in his brilliant work of the last two years he had been cheapening for was intimate and dear to him. In this play he avoided all portraits. which once belonged to the Queen's men and had been published five years ago.

Rash. a braver choice of dauntless spirits Than now Did never have waft o'er To do offence upon the swelling tide. That water-walled bulwark. this all-changing word. Together Whose foot spurns back the ocean's roaring tides Till Anglers. Nor was out its the Bastard's speech on "commodity" withwho felt special meaning for Englishmen that their ally was deserting them: This same bias. Even till that England. fiery voluntaries. With ladies' faces and fierce dragons' spleens. and scathe in Christendom. Bearing their birthrights proudly on their backs. To make In a hazard of new fortunes here. This bawd. From a resolv'd and honourable war. hedg'd in with the main. To a most base and vile-concluded peace [103] . Clapp'd on the outward eye of fickle France. still secure And confident till Even from foreign purposes. this Commodity. this broker. Have sold their fortunes at their native homes. There was a passing reference to the swarms of young gallants who had just sailed for Cadiz in: And all the unsettled humours of the land. the English bottoms float brief. that utmost corner of the west Salute thee for her king. inconsiderate. Hath drawn him from his own determin'd aid.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE I will no more return the right thou hast in France with that pale. and And coops from other lands her islanders. that white-fac'd shore.

The hubbubs and hurly-burlies which troubled [104] . we will alone uphold. And why Well. be my lord. So under him that great supremacy. and his usurp'd authority.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK rail I on this Commodity ? But for because he hath not woo'd me yet. and from the mouth of England Add thus much more that no Italian priest : Shall tithe or toll in our dominions . Without the assistance of a mortal hand : So tell the pope . of France. as the pope. whiles I am a beggar. . And say there is no sin but to be rich And being rich. Tell him this tale . Gain. Not that I have the power to clutch my hand When his fair angels would salute my palm . and John defied him as a true-blue Protestant should: What Can So earthly name to interrogatories task the free breath of a sacred king ? canst not. I will rail. To charge me to an answer. my virtue then shall be To say there is no vice but beggary. unworthy and ridiculous. Like a poor beggar. The passage which followed was but a slight transposition of the situation of Henri IV. for I will worship thee ! In the play another Cardinal would separate France from England. But for my hand. Where we do reign. Since kings break faith upon Commodity. devise a Thou name slight. cardinal. all reverence set apart To him. raileth on the rich. But as we under heaven are supreme head. as unattempted yet.

Shakespeare sketched from his own immediate observations: Old men and beldams in the streets prophesy upon it dangerously : Young Arthur's death is common in their mouths Do . Who Had with his shears and measure in his hand. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news . And when they talk of him. The author of the Conference about the next Succession declared that the issue it would not be decided without a war. The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. saw a smith stand with his hammer. [105] . which his nimble haste falsely thrust upon contrary feet. with I nods. Uneasily stirring in everyone's mind was the terrible dread of what would surely happen when anarchy was let loose at the Queen's death. was the common opinion. Standing on slippers. Whilst he that hears makes fearful action.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE John's London. Shakespeare indulged grim and likely prophecy: How From easy dost thou take all England up! forth this morsel of dead royalty. they shake their heads And whisper one another in the ear And he that speaks doth gripe the hearer's wrist . for there was no clear in candidate for the throne. thus. so that in the Bastard's words over dead Arthur. with rolling eyes. Another lean unwash'd artificer Cuts off his tale and talks of Arthur's death. With wrinkled brows. That were embattailed and rank'd in Kent. Told of a many thousand warlike French.

Nought shall make us If rue. And we shall shock them. The gallants came back from the expedition full of excitement and enthusiasm. England to fill itself do rest but true. Now for the bare-pick' d bone of majesty Doth dogged war bristle his angry crest. Ham- And then the sky suddenly cleared. level-headed Eng- lishmen : This England never did. life. Shakespeare's only boy net died. Now these her princes are come home again. The imminent decay of wrested pomp. And yet. As doth a raven on a sick-fallen beast. Come the three corners of the world in arms. and on Sunday 8th August [106] . at the be- To up the tale of his own beginning of August. and many of them affecting great beards in imitation of the fashion set tacular by the Earl of Essex. nor never shall. however gloomy speare ended reflected the the future seemed. The the right . But when it first did help to wound itself. It had been most specand triumphant. Shake- his play with a quiet confidence which mood of ordinary. Lie at the proud foot of a conqueror.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK and truth of all this realm and England now is left To tug and scramble and to part by the teeth The unow'd interest of proud swelling state. Is fled to heaven And Now snarleth in the gentle eyes of peace : powers from home and discontents at home Meet in one line . and vast confusion waits. troubles.

On the 2 1st June the fleet forced a way past the Spanish ships and forts and by nightfall the soldiers had disembarked and cleared a way into the city. he rejoiced at the silencing of those who would have kept him away from his friend: [107] . and above all King Philip had shown that he was powerless against Englishmen. infinite damage was inflicted on the enemy.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE a great service of Thanksgiving was celebrated in London. but the Queen into his presence him at Court by perpetually thwarted him. a great ransom was exacted. the prophets of disaster were again confounded and put off for another seven years. He was ambitious of following Essex's lead. A few days later the Queen passed out of her grand climacteric. These too were yielded in the morning. even in his own counof elation the try. keeping had been proving their her side when all the others manhood at Cadiz. Shakespeare celebrated the reunion with a batch of twenty sonnets. except for two great galleons which were now brought home. and treated with kindliness and favour. was Shakespeare's friendship with Southampton He was once more admitted renewed at this time. The Spanish fleet was burnt. Less than three week? after sailing from Plymouth the expedition appeared before Cadiz. and all but the Castle and one fort had surrendered. In the first of them. Southampton too had his troubles. To add to the general feeling alliance with the French was solemnly renewed on 2Qth August.

And Mine worse essays prov'd thee appetite I never my best of love. And peace Now proclaims olives of endless age. in this poor rime. and most most loving breast. with the drops of this most balmy time My love looks fresh. most dear. . While he and speechless tribes: And thou in this shalt find thy monument. insults o'er dull But in the fourth and fifth. by all above These blenches gave my heart another youth. is Gor'd mine own thoughts. Then Even me to thy pure welcome. O ! for my sake do you with Fortune chide The guilty goddess of my harmful [108] deeds. . to whom I am confin'd. and Death to I'll live me subscribes. Since. to give more will grind try an older friend. The mortal moon hath her eclipse endur'd. Most true it is that I have look'd on truth Askance and strangely . A god in love. but. And the sad augurs mock their own presage Incertainties now crown themselves assur'd. save what shall have no end : newer proof. When tyrants' crests and tombs of brass are spent.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK fears. Now all is On done. Not mine own Of Suppos'd as forfeit to a confin'd doom. Can yet the lease of my true love control. myself a motley to the view. next my heaven the best. he unburdened himself : of the bitterness of the past six months Alas ! 'tis And made true I have gone here and there. nor the prophetic soul the wide world dreaming on things to come. spite of him. sold cheap what Made old offences of affections new .

I will drink Potions of eisel 'gainst my strong infection . gentleman. Whilst. supporting a spear gold steeled as aforesaid set upon a helmet with mantels and tassels as hath been accustomed and doth more plainly appear depicted on this margent: Signifying hereby and by the authority of it my office aforesaid ratifying that shall be lawful for the said his children. on a Bend sables. then. One effective answer at least could be made to those who curled the lip at the player. and I assure ye Even that your pity is enough to cure me. for his crest or cognizance a falcon his wings displayed And Argent standing on a wreath of his colours. utensils. edifices. Thence comes it that my name receives a brand. pennons. and wish I were renew'd . guidons. issue and posterity (at all times and bear and make demonstration of the tombs or monuments or [109] . On 2pth October Garter King of Arms with language of due pomp granted a coat of arms to the family of John tility Shakespeare: Gold. to correct correction. like the dyer's hand Pity me. John Shakespeare. Shakespeare's family was not ignoble. a spear of the first steeled argent. like a willing patient. His father could claim gen- on the strength of his own record. Pity me. dear friend. buildings. and for places convenient) to same blazon or achievement upon their shields. escutcheons. seals. liveries. : And almost thence my nature is subdu'd To what it works in. targets. Nor double penance. then. coats of arms. No bitterness that I will bitter think.THE PASSING OF AN ECLIPSE Than That did not better for my life provide public means which public manners breeds. rings.

SHAKESPEARE AT WORK
otherwise for all warlike facts or civil use or exercises, according to the Law of Arms, and customs that to gentlemen

belongeth without let or interruption of any other person or persons for use or bearing the same.

The motto chosen was significant, and self-conscious, Non Sanz droict: Not Without Right.

[110]

V

MATURITY
A
I

AHE favourable

turns of Fortune were reflected

JL in Shakespeare's next play, which was a return to comedy. He tried the theme of a malevolent Jew-

The Merchant of Venice^ and in creating Shylock the Jew he borrowed some features from Marlowe's Jew of Malta. Shylock also had an only daughter and his love was balanced equally between her and his ducats. He had too a very reasonable
ish usurer in

hate for Christians, as Italian Jews might well have, but he was a more human figure than Barabas, with
neither the powers nor the will to achieve such orgies

of vengeance.

Shakespeare had a certain advantage over Marlowe for the theme of the Christian-hating Jew had

gained a new intensity through the case of Dr. Lopez; and he put into Gratiano's mouth a speech which associated his Shylock with Lopez:
O, be thou damn'd, inexecrable dog !

And for thy life let justice be accus'd. Thou almost mak'st me waver in my faith To hold opinion with Pythagoras,
That
souls of animals infuse themselves
:

Into the trunks of

men thy currish spirit a wolf, who, hang'd for human slaughter, Govern'd Even from the gallows did his fell soul fleet,

[in]

SHAKESPEARE AT WORK
And
Are
Infus'd
whilst thou lay'st in thy unhallow'd dam, itself in thee ; for thy desires
wolfish, bloody, starv'd

and ravenous.

There was a maturity about the play which showed that Shakespeare had not only regained his touch but was reaching new heights in his develop-

ment

as a dramatic artist.

The

disappointments, re-

and uncertainties which cramped him in writing King John were gone. He was surer of himself and finding satisfaction in his art, for the profession of playing and the dignity of play writing were visibly waxing. His first efforts in the Henry the
straints

Sixth series were exercises in dramatic themes copied from his masters. Then followed a period when he

drew rather
ship

closely from life. In The Merchant of Venice he achieved that state of dramatic craftsman-

when an

artist

no longer draws from

copies but

blends his own experiences of men, customs and matters into a pattern of his own free choosing. The smallest thread that ever spider twisted came from
her

own womb, and
all

great plays were only to be

written from the heart. Henceforward he

would

pawn

experience to his

art.

There was a great leap forward in the competence and the variety of his dramatic expression. Without any unnecessary preliminaries the play opened with Antonio the Merchant, the sketch of his character, and his wealth, and the suggestion of a mood. Shakespeare saw the play as a musical harmony of contrasting characters and tones. From Antonio's

[112]

MATURITY
melancholy he passed to Portia the heiress and
Nerissa her maid, idly chatting over the strange conditions of marriage which her dead father has

imposed upon

her,

and the odd

suitors

who have

come

to venture for the prize

a passage which

Shakespeare took over from his Gentlemen of Verona.

own

neglected

Two

Thence back

to Venice

and a complete change of

tone. Bassanio enters in talk with Shylock. Shake-

speare was developing this method of beginning a scene in the middle of a conversation; it was a great

economy of dialogue, conveying so much and so naturally in the briefest words:

"Three thousand ducats ; well ?"
"Ay, sir, for three months." "For three months; well?" "For the which, as I told you, Antonio shall be bound." "Antonio shall become bound; well?" "May you stead me ? Will you pleasure me ? Shall I know your answer?" "Three thousand ducats, for three months, and Antonio
bound."

"Your answer
"Antonio
is

to that."
.

a good man.

.

:"

Antonio joins them, treating Shylock with contempt and goading him into a display of temper unusual
in one

who was accustomed

to assume an unctuous

servility in dealing

with Gentiles, which was Shake-

of hate against speare's version of Barabas's outburst
all Christians:

[113]

SHAKESPEARE AT WORK
Signior Antonio,

many

a time and oft

In the Rialto you have rated

me
:

About
Still

my

moneys and
I borne
is
it

my

usances

have

For sufferance

with a patient shrug, the badge of all our tribe.

You call me misbeliever, cut-throat dog, And spet upon my Jewish gaberdine, And all for use of that which is mine own.
now appears you need my help you come to me, and you say, 'Shylock, we would have moneys' you say so ; You, that did void your rheum upon my beard,
then,
it
:

Well

Go

to then

;

:

And

you spurn a stranger cur Over your threshold moneys is your suit. What should I say to you ? Should I not say, 'Hath a dog money? Is it possible
as
:

foot

me

A cur can

lend three thousand ducats V or

Shall I bend low, and in a bondman's key, With bated breath, and whispering humbleness,

Say

this

:

'Fair

You You
I'll

spet on me on Wednesday last ; me such a day another time spurn'd call'd me dog; and for these courtesies lend you thus much moneys?'
sir,

you

;

then again to Belmont, and the stiff formality of Portia's reception of the Prince of Morocco which was succeeded by the sudden inruption
of

And

Launcelot Gobbo

(own younger brother

to

Launce of the mongrel) to debate with himself whether the fiend or his conscience shall have the upper hand, and to cockneyfy into real life the mental

debates of the

stiff

heroes

and heroines of

[114]

MATURITY
Euphues with
their interminable contrasts

but"
Jessica to

of "ay,

At this point Shakespeare held up the story of Bassanio to allow the intrigue between Lorenzo and
watch the ity; and back again to Venice for a report of Shylock's rage at the flight of Jessica and of Antonio's parting with Bassanio, which showed clearly how Shakespeare was combining poetry with drama. Shylock's rage was not shown but reported:

move forward. Thence to Belmont to Prince of Morocco foiled by his own van-

My daughter O my ducats O my daughter Fled with a Christian O my Christian ducats
!

!

!

!

!

Justice

!

the law

!

my

ducats,

and

my

daughter

!

A

sealed bag,

two sealed bags of ducats,
!

Of double ducats, stol'n from me by my daughter And jewels two stones, two rich and precious stones,
!

Stol'n

by my daughter Justice find the girl She hath the stones upon her, and the ducats ;
! !

!

and again Shakespeare brought Barabas' similar outburst

down to the level of common humanity. The successful wooing of Portia had yet to come,

but Shakespeare wished also to show that destruction was blowing up towards Antonio. He therefore
kept Bassanio out of sight, and suggested the passing of time by a second unsuccessful wooing of
Portia,

and another scene between Salanio and

Salarino, wherein they talk of Antonio's misfortunes and encounter Shylock who again loses his self-control at the

torment of Antonio's insolencies:

[115]

The villainy you teach me I will execute. my gains. From this shifted his scene to atmosphere of impending thunder. subject to the same diseases. hurt with the same weapons.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK He hath disgraced me. Hath not a laughed at at mocked Jew eyes ? Hath not a Jew hands. he Belmont. If Christian. Such as I am : though for myself alone I would not be ambitious in my wish. as a Christian is ? If you prick us. warmed and cooled by the same winter and if summer. ceding scene is And having to him: chosen aright Portia surrenders herself see me. a Christian wrong a Jew. Shakespeare wrote this speech in unrestrained prose . my losses. To point the increasing bitterness in Shylock's heart. and what's this reason? I am a Jew. scorned my nathwarted my bargains. heated mine tion. what should his sufferance be by are like you in the rest. shall we not revenge ? If we Jew wrong a we will resemble you in that. and hindered me half a million. where I stand. it revenge. and shall go hard but I will better the instruction. senses. enemies. affections. and she The crackle of temper in the pre- succeeded by a scene of pure lyric as Bassanio makes his choice of the caskets to music. Lord Bassanio. Christian example? Why. in the former outburst there was the restraint of verse speech. dimensions. You [116] . cooled my friends. organs. passions? fed with the same food. If a what is his humility? Revenge. healed by the same means. do we not laugh? if you poison us. do we not bleed? you tickle us. Bassanio has been for Portia's household some time a member of fears to lose him. do we not die ? and if you wrong us.

news comes that Antonio is rained and the Jew demands his forfeit. Shakespeare therefore returned to Belmont [117] . For the scene of the trial of the case of Shylock versus Antonio. More rich That only to stand high in your account. she learrl. Happy She is in this. all is that her gentle spirit Commits itself to yours to be directed. livings. could not end here. play. which. ten thousand times .MATURITY To I wish myself much better . Is an unlesson'd girl. are put out. thousand times more fair. Shakespeare assem- proceeding with dignity and formality towards the tragic conclusion which seemed inevitable. unschool'd. for you would be A I trebled twenty times myself. : but the full sum of me sum of nothing. to term in gross. beauties. The pause tion. for the its love of Bassanio and Portia needed proper fulfil- ment. As from her lord. of four beats in the seventh line was a masterly use of silence to express unutterable emo- The lyric mood was suddenly changed to tragic. when suddenly relief comes and a reversal of situation so entire that Shylock's punish- ment is The dramatically just. not bred so dull but she can learn . friends. One by one the hopes of a happy issue bled his full cast. her king. her governor. yet. is not yet so old But she may Happiest of happier than this. unpractised . might Exceed account Is in virtues. however.

tices [118] . Henceforward he dramatist. an Italian fencing master. was master This same autumn of 1596 there were troubles in the Theatre. man of business As twenty years before he had realised the possibilities of a permanent theatre so now he saw that theatrical conditions were changing rapidly. The Merchant of Venice was the last piece of his apprenticeship.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK and finished his play daringly in moonlight and music. which included the old great hall of the monastery. was let to Rocco Bonetti. After Bonetti's time. who established a famous and expensive school for noblemen and gentlemen. In less than a year the lease would fall in and his landlord was showing great reluctance to renew the contract. part of the building. The future of the playhouse lay not with the pren- and groundlings but the gentlemen spectators. Old James Burbage had originally leased the ground whereon the playhouse stood for a period of twenty-one years. After a lengthy negotiation Burbage realised that he would be obliged to go elsewhere. Burbage acquired this hall and at great expense converted it into an indoor theatre. James Burbage was as shrewd a as ever. In the '8o's Lyly had managed a very successful little private theatre in the Blackfriars where the children of Paul's and the Chapel Royal had played exclusively to gentlemen. When Lyly's efforts were brought to an end by an unsympathetic landlord. the building was turned into apartments.

MATURITY In November the building was almost ready to be opened when the aristocratic residents signed a petition to the Privy Council praying them to forbid the playhouse. however. Now Essex and the Cecils old Lord Burleigh and his son Sir Robert were openly at variance and the Queen was supporting the Cecils. it contained three books of toothless satires. For the last two years and more the ambitions of the Earl of Essex had caused some apprehension and the triumph of Cadiz had bred violent quarrels. Early in April. Burbage's scheme therefore came to nothing for the time. At the beginning of 1597 public life was becoming noticeably bitter. and the Blackfriars to Richard. This book new vogue and those young gallants. but the affair was patched up by the Council. espe- [119] . Early in February the deaf and choleric Earl of Northumberland quarrelled with the Earl of Southampton and sent him a challenge. there appeared a book called Virgidemiarum which pointed the way. Essex wished to keep the ransoms of his prisoners and when the Queen demanded them there had been a regrettable scene at Court. In the following February James Burbage died. but as yet no one had quite devised a suitable medium of expressing this general mood. a very pertinent metre for epicriticism of men and matters. leaving the Theatre to his son Cuthbert. written rhymed grammatic started a in couplets. The spirit of faction spread outwards and thoughtful men began to grow more disgusted with the times.

He had at least realised the true rule of Comedy. Shakespeare followed up the grant of arms by taking further steps to establish himself as a gentle- man of good family and substance. London and Lyly before him had Shakespeare their living counterparts in sketched this kind of society. relish. the old Countess her young husband. It was a complicated play but in the main a study of the humours. but yet in many ways they had society. They had their origins in common stage types. melancholic man. that folly should be made ridiculous. but without malice. a large house in the centre of Stratford-on-Avon. but this new comedy was some- what different. Moren jealous of Lemot the courtier and wit. So the Shake- [120] . There was the jealous doting old Count Labervele and his young Puritan wife Florilla. Chapman had been writing regularly for the Admiral's men at the Rose for some months. Dowsecer the pensive. and in May he completed the purchase of New Place. It was the work of Chapman and was called A humorous day's mirth. Chapman had succeeded in infusing a general air of cynicism in his play. turned to satire and epigram with some later the Admiral's A month play at the men put on a new Rose which showed how public taste was moving.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK cially of the Inns of Court. who felt the urgent need to express their feelings about their neighbours and betters.

so he Ben Jonson was now claimed. This year the Earl was continuously unlucky. The Council had ordered 700 men to be pressed later for Picardy out of the ex-soldiers and vagrants. twenty-five years old eight than Shakespeare and his career had years younger been varied and exciting. Meanwhile there was trouble in the City and unpleasantness between the Lord Mayor and the Council. At this tactless The Council were angry.MATURITY speares of Stratford were now visibly and legally to be regarded as people of worth and standing. was a gentleman of Carlisle. The first two had been written by Nashe. The Lord Mayor disliked the order and let it be known publicly that he was about to make a round up. The men sent up by the press masters were of poor quality and the victuals were bad* They set sail in the middle of July but a few days were driven back to Plymouth by tempests. In the summer of 1597 another expedition was prepared for a secret destination and the Earl of Essex was given the command. It was finished by a new writer called Jonson who was also an actor acts of the play with Pembroke's men. his father lost [121] . being a little apprehensive that there was too much mustard in it. moment the Earl of Pembroke's players chose to produce a satire on the times called The Isle of Dogs at the Swan Theatre. His grandfather. Southampton sailed in his company. with the expected result that the vagrants shifted themselves into the counties. who then abandoned it.

and other lewd and un- godly practices. being so as that they impress the very quality and corruption of manners which they represent. and died a month before his son was born. where so he said in face of both the camps he had killed an enemy and despoiled him. and with them he played Hieronimo in the inevitable Spanish Tragin London. and at last turned minister. Thence he was withdrawn and put to his step-father's trade of bricklaying. contrary to the rules and art prescribed for the making of comedies even among the heathen. which were never known in the London theatres. Bankside and all containing nothing but unchaste matters. His service was brief. Martin's Church. [122] . edy. atre. which he could not endure.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK under Queen Mary. but by the kindness of a friend he was sent to Westminster School where he had Camden for his master. the first being that plays were a special cause of corrupting youth. He alleged four reasons in particular. shifts of cosenage. On other places. The Isle of Dogs was very popular but not with the 28th July the Lord Mayor petitioned the Council for the immediate prohibition and final suppression of stage plays at the The- the authorities. When he returned he became an actor in one of the inferior strolling companies. lascivious devices. His mother was then married again to a bricklayer all his estate and young Ben was brought up poorly in a private school in St. Curtain. So he went off as a soldier to the Low Countries.

and year long as our manner is. Robert Shaa and Ben Jonson were put into the Marshalsea and public cry was made for Nashe. Jonson. but because this play of the Isle of Dogs contained very seditious and slanderous matter. plucking down quite the stages. As for my Lord of Pembroke's men. whereby such as frequent them. The company melted away. The Council took immediate action. From which it was seen that someone in the City had been taking an interest in dramatic criticism. and rooms that are made and so to deface them that they might not again be employed to such use. Gabriel Spencer. just before he was arrested. and to meet his 9 [123] . galleries for people to stand in.MATURITY who used them seldom and not all the at certain set times. They ordered all playing to cease and instructed the Justices of Middlesex and Surrey that they should forthwith demolish the playhouses. went over to the Rose. and there compacted to join the Admiral's. not on ac- count of the Lord Mayor's aesthetic objection to plays. the Knight Marshal's men were sent to arrest the principal offenders. but Nashe disappeared and retired into private life to eat red herrings at Yarmouth. draw the same into imitation and not to the avoiding of the like vices which they represent. being of the base and refuse sort of people or such young gentlemen as have small regard of credit or conscience. and to sing their praises in Nashe s Lenten Stuf.

month later Andrew Wise. however. so playing after all could be resumed before Hal- At lowmas. for the drastic order to demolish them was never carried out. and the twenty-one years' lease had expired. Three days later the playhouse was opened again.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK expenses in the Marshalsea he drew 4 from Henslowe. The playhouses had survived. Shaa and Jonson were released from the Marshalsea. were no longer at the Theatre. took hand to publish Shakespeare's play of Richard the Second. considered wiser to A omit the Deposition Scene. The Admiral's were keen to have him. especially after the business of Parson's Conference. and immediately went over to join Alleyn at the Rose. Fortunately they were able to migrate to the Curtain which James Burbage and Brayne had acquired a decade before. and the Admiral's men. He entered his copy on 2Qth August and contracted with Valentine Sims for the printin ing. Their disputes with Master Giles Alleyn still continued. played the Spanish Tragedy. It was. the beginning of October the Council relented. however. The Chamberlain's men. The first copies were on sale at the Sign of the Angel in Paul's Churchyard in September. The Chamberlain's men had no cause to feel ami- [124] . the stationer. now augmented by the best of Pembroke's. On the 8th October Spencer. for anything which seemed even remotely to touch on the succession problem was treasonable matter.

occurred. A gentleman fleet news that the Spanish was at sea. bags of money were sent down into the west. Parliament met again on the 27th to present the Speaker but was adjourned taken off. which meant that the City would be full. but not before she had been searched and her papers arrived at Court with the by which it appeared that the general rendezvous was Falmouth. Moreover the Admiral's men were the gainers. one of their ships straggling from the main body had been captured and rescued. All along the south coast the whole forces were mustered. and the autumn and winter season promised to be lucrative. for a week. and there was poor consolation for two months* idleness even in the thought that the principal offenders had been in gaol ever since. The Isle of Dogs was a silly adventure at any time but especially in the general uneasiness. for this time there was no hint of plague. No further alarms. Parliament had been summoned for the 24th October. the rest turned [125] . for they had profited by the addition of two experienced actors and one promising dramatist. horse and foot. destroying for home.MATURITY able towards rival companies. fifty ships. however. and it was learned that the Spanish fleet had indeed come within two days' sail of Plymouth but a storm caught them. and gentlemen were dispatched to their charges. Several exciting days followed. Two days after the formal opening of Parliament there was a sudden great alarm in London.

in no sort of order. yet Ralegh. Accounts of the were various. accepted. Southampton had behaved with great gallantry. Essex returned to Court on 5th November. and Essex.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Meanwhile the ships of Essex's fleet were coming in from the Islands one by one. the news of the Islands Voyage began to circulate and the Court was again buzzing with a new Essex incident. egged on by his more reckless subordinates. was not only [126] . The Fayal business especially was criticised. Essex himself landed on the 28th. for the officers were themexpedition selves divided into factions. carracks and valuable plunder had been missed and even his own officers admitted that The Essex had not distinguished himself either for prudence or generalship. My Lord's jealousy to be reputed matchless for magnanimity and honour was doubtless laudable. There had even been talk of beheading Ralegh for insubordination. and Essex had bestowed the honour of knighthood upon him for his courage in action. Whereupon he allowed the Spaniards to escape with their goods while he spent a whole day cashiering Ralegh's officers. chose to regard the action as a direct affront intended to rob him of the renown of the expedition. for all his unpopularity. expedition had not been a success. where he was received without enthusiasm. Ralegh captured Fayal without waiting for Essex. He immediately offered himself for service in the present emergencies and was gladly was kept busy. For some days everyone but as the first alarm wore off.

There was the usual scene at Court. Meanwhile he acquired the manuscript of Richard the Third. Bolingbroke departing for banishment. with no more than a bare mention of Essex's share. Moreover by this elevation the new Earl being also Lord Steward of the Household for the Parliament took precedence over Essex on state occasions. but his personal officers were not such as to inspire confidence in sober-minded observers. which he entered on 29th October.MATURITY an older and more experienced commander but his action at Fayal was notably gallant and entirely correct. for Essex's young men were talking high. The publication of Richard the Second was well timed. and affected to see some significant parallels to present times in the story. This talk of glory was tolerable from Essex who still had many of the qualities of the romantic knight about him. Essex therefore was doubly touched in his honour and retired to his bed. for instance. Copies of Richard the Second were selling briskly and Wise was looking forward to a new edition. During his absence his rival the Lord Admiral was promoted. for Essex had a genuine grievance. on 2$rd October the Queen advanced him to be Earl of Nottingham and the patent of his nobility set forth in very honourable terms his great services in '88 and at Cadiz last year. being men of desperate fortunes. behaved much as the Lord General as he passed through the streets of London at this time of depressed fortunes : [127] .

A Off goes his bonnet to an oyster-wench . Bagot here and Green Observ'd his courtship to the common people. brace of draymen bid God speed him well. Richard the Second was causing such interest that Shakespeare began to work on a sequel. the tribute of his supple knee. How What And As he did seem to dive into their hearts familiar courtesy* With humble and reverence he did throw away on slaves. And he our subjects' next degree in hope. my countrymen. one who had created the legend that he was a man of judgment and trusted no counsel but his own. flamboyantly brave.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Ourself and Bushy. This Hotspur must have been a man very like part of Lord of Essex. the present in Richard the Second^ how much nearer came this story of Henry Bolingbroke and the Percies. It was an interesting Moreover if anyone could see reflections of story. which he resumed where he had left it two years ago. where the old first Henry VI. incredibly romantic (for an Englishman) in his worship of mere honour. He read on past the reign of Henry the Fourth and through to the end of Henry V. my loving As were our England in reversion his.. began. And had With 'Thanks. and yet no one easier led by any hothead who could present a wild project as an enter- my [128] . 'twere to banish their affects with him. friends' . As before he went back to Holinshed for the story. Wooing poor craftsmen with the craft of smiles patient underbearing of his fortune.

One of these professional captains Shakespeare now began to envisage as the companion in mischief to the young Prince. but as Sir John developed he became the gross embodiment of the shadier side of the war. for instance. who spent the time between dinner and dark in gaming. Then there was that old play of the Queen's men. tav- bawdy houses or plays. the pay for the soldiers passed recruits through their hands and by judicious selection of and by manipulation of the muster rolls the captain could line both his purse and his belly. and prise of honour. The worst rascalities were in the Irish service where the rebellion was rapidly becoming dangerous. finding the character in the old play. He called him Sir John Olderns. "afternoon's men" as the phrase went. Captains [129] . Captains had special opportunities. captains without companies. It was a poor thing but it had some situations that might be reworked. at home. the robbery at Gadshill. in Council. One knew well enough the kind of man that hung about a young Prince. younger brothers with no more fortune than a good leg and a couple of handsome suits. there were plenty of them about town at the moment. castle. Shakespeare the other disreputable adventures of young Prince Henry. The famous victories of Henry V. but Hotspur must be shown as a whole man. on the battlefield.MATURITY grew interested in Hotand began to fancy him in various situations. spur For his behaviour at Court there were ample modern examples.

blustering manners. and anyhow what was the good of honour when a man was dead? There was something to be it [130] . They were queer characters with flamboyant clothes. He zest. and even of noble family and excellent education ferred the excitement of the wars to a who life pre- com- pounded of farming. and some of them ran to fat.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK about town spent generously whilst funds lasted upon taverns. wrote the historical scenes of the play with with no illusions about Hotspur and yet allow- ing him the glamour of his honour: By heaven. hasty tempers. harlots and players. Where fathom-line could never touch the ground. occasional lawsuits in London and the local dignity of Justice of the peace. Sir Such a personality Shakespeare magnified into John Oldcastle. and at the return of the expedition many of them were let loose on the City. it lost the plunder of a garrison at Fayal and five rich carracks at St. pluck up drowned honour by the locks . hunting. Many were gentlemen of good. Michael's. Or dive into the bottom of the deep. and vocabularies of unfathomable richness. methinks it were an easy leap To pluck bright honour from the pale-fac'd moon. Yet those who had was worth very little. So he that doth redeem her thence might wear Without corrival all her dignities : But out upon this half-f ac'd fellowship ! And just come back from the Islands were less exalted in these same notions of honour.

. and so ends my catechism. It was a pretty passage even in Holinshed. [131] . In the mouth of Sir John honour became a much cheaper All men. Honour hath no skill in surgery then? No. . in a play. Or an arm? No. but the debt. What need I be so forward with him that calls not on me? Well. What is honour ? a word. I would be loath to pay him before his day. honour pricks me on. Or take away the grief of a wound? No. and then Shakespeare began to parody himself and to mock his own best speeches. was not due yet: affair. A trim reckoning! Who hath it? he that died o' Wednesday. his hacked dagger held sceptrewise. owed God a death. For tears do stop the floodgates of her eyes.assumed the port and majesty of Alleyn. soldiers included. But will it not live with the living? No. For God's sake. 'tis no matter. And so when Sir John crowned himself with a cushion. Doth he hear it? No. sweet Queen. Another scene which would call for some tears in the beholding was that incident of the Prodigal Prince repenting before his father. lords. He would parody that too. he argued. . he. but how if honour pricks me off when I come on ? how then ? Can honour set a leg? No. Yea. to the dead. discoursing heroical matters in some fusty tragedy: Weep not. convey my tristful Queen . This self-parody was a good game. Therea mere scutcheon . What is that word. Why? it : Detraction will not suffer is fore I'll none of honour it.MATURITY said for this mood too. and the thought of a stage player suggested the great Alleyn. for trickling tears are vain. Doth he feel it? No. honour ? Air. It is in- sensible then? Yea.

and as a result found a niche in Fox's Book of Martyrs. no eyes. The the present Lord title Cobham was newly succeeded to and was an unpleasant young man. with just that thick pathos which only Alleyn could infuse into a lamentable discourse of "eyes. The original Oldcastle was styled Lord Cobham. at private who was bethan gentlemen were ever ready to carp and gird at each other. puritanically inclined. Great offence was caused him that one of his name should appear in so fantastic and disreputable a guise on a public stage.." This Christmas the Chamberlain's at Court four times men performed and the Admiral's men twice. The quarrels at Court between Essex and the Adsupported by the Cecils. Meanwhile in the early months of 1598 Shake- speare wrote a second part to Henry the Fourth. The fat knight was therefore transformed into Sir John Falperformances he remained Oldcastle for a time. He had been burnt a martyr to his Lollard principles and seditious practices in the reign of Henry V. Elizamiral. There was some trouble over Henry the Fourth. staff for public occasions. but fountains fraught with tears. The story was less satisfactory than the former be- [132] .SHAKESPEARE AT WORK And he did it over the water at the Rose as like one of these harlotry players as a man could see. were patched up by Christmas but they were much discussed and added to the general bad temper. and there was plenty of matter for the satirist as for the serious-thinking man.

" specimens of the odd creatures to be or along the Bankside. sanguine. and to label tion. Falstaff. and analyse the vagaries of human aberraShakespeare was thus making his own contri- bution to the gallery of contemporary humours [133] . but he could foresee a third play of Henry the Fifth. This conception of "humours" arose from the venerable theory that all matter. body and mind were healthy. Moreover the Falstaff gang were themselves irregular "humourists. represented ical in the human body by black bile. the wild young Prince became the true this and encountered in Paul's Walk body. but deficiency or excess reacted upon the temperament and produced a man melancholic. fire and water. including the phys- play would link up the two." Everyone was suddenly beginning to take an interest in humours. So long as the elements were balanced. showing how King and confounded the prophets. was ultimately compounded of the four principles of earth. a scene or two of the Prince and his sick father. By an easy abuse of scientific terms "humour" who was was used who wished to denote any mental complex. bile and phlegm. choleric or phlegmatic. and especially some more parodies of Alleyn. as the ideal patriot king. and anyone to justify eccentric behaviour pleaded the excuse of his "humour. Certain passages in the first part were particularly successful and would bear repetition.MATURITY cause it gave no very coherent plot. air. blood. naturally.

speak of peace. And no such matter ? Rumour is a pipe Blown by surmises. who but only I. But what need I thus My Among my well-known body to anatomise household? Some new characters were added to the Falstaff gang. conjectures. while covert enmity Under the smile of safety wounds the world : And who but Rumour. Whilst the big year. men with false reports. in every The which I Stuffing the ears of language I pronounce. with her professional friend Doll Tearsheet. from the the orient to the drooping west. wind my post-horse. The still discordant wavering multitude. He opened his play with a personification of Rumour. still unfold Making The acts commenced on this ball of earth : Upon my tongues continual slanders ride. swoln with some other grief. And of so easy and so plain a stop That the blunt monster with uncounted heads. Is thought with child by the stern tyrant war.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK though most satirists were more concerned with types from a higher stratum of society. The hostess of the first part developed into the voluble Mistress Quickly. a lady very familiar to Londoners in these war years: Open your ears . painted full of tongues. and to FalstafFs company Ancient Pistol was recruited. for which of you will stop The vent of hearing when loud Rumour speaks ? I. Make fearful musters and prepar'd defence. as his prologue. jealousies. This ramping swag- [134] . Can play upon it.

MATURITY gerer took his gait. Which cannot go but thirty miles a day. his great pistol and terrible oaths. rather damn them with King Cerberus . ! And Shall we fall foul for toys? On all of which Doll Tearsheet commented: "For ! God's sake. Pistol was such another as the Count Hermes with his stations. and he stalked in the Boar's Head Tavern. Captain Sir John Falstaff and Master Corporate Bardolf were content to free Mouldy and Bullcalf for 3 the pair. On that occasion the captain took 10 each from the unwilling recruits. hollow pamper'd jades of Asia. This kind of scandal was common at the time. indeed Shall pack-horses. and fetched and bent his brows with Alleyn's Cut- lack gait as he ranted out the more sonorous lines from the plays that were being played just now at the Rose: These be good humours. vocabulary and name from the great Alleyn. In this instance the captain was a rogue and the justice faithful. And Trojan Greeks ? Nay. thrust him downstairs such a fustian rascal. as often as not the justices used the Queen's [135] . and with Cannibals. Compare with Caesars." I cannot endure In another scene Falstaff was taken out of his way to pass through Gloucestershire to collect the recruits paraded for his inspection by Justice Shallow. five years before the abuses of the press in Gloucestershire were notorious and had roused the anger of the Council. and let the welkin roar.

Besides. but in October and was soon dead. This war was interminable. whilst paymasters and captains grew rich the unlucky soldiers were embezzled of their pay.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK press as a good undesirables. but now there seemed to be neither glory nor object in the war. Sir John Norris was sent over in '95. On both sides there was nothing but further treachery. He that he was poisoned by his own countrymen who feared his honesty. the Islands left Voyage no one with any sense of glory. the Spanish war was almost forgotten in the new troubles in Ireland. The abuse of the Queen's service was universal and enormous. He died of a festering wound in the late summer of '97- appointed Deputy had won a fine reputation in the spring of '97. a The Lord Burgh had been man who for straight dealing as Governor in the he fell ill began with energy. But more and still [136] . means of ridding the parish of its Shakespeare's cynical frankness in these scenes was a notable contrast to the patriotic outbursts of King John. Rebellion ing for the last had been steadily growthree years and though troops. money and arms were continually being sent over nothing decisive was ever done. but the general mood had changed. some said Brille. The glamour of Cadiz disappeared in ugly scandals about embezzled loot. starved for victuals and clothing. Two years ago Englishmen were fighting for a cause and for very life. and then preyed on the country.

as Essex and his most other Englishmen. and for six weeks he negotiated with her in person.MATURITY more men were demanded from the shires and the City. too. and her vanity and meanness were notorious. and few ever came back. His verdict upon the Queen was that this was the wisest and most accomplished Princess in the world. As for the more serious parts of the play. he had served for a number of years as ambassador in Venice and he came prejudiced against the English Court. He realised. for Shakespeare gusts of bitterness towards Southampton. he needed space for the long scene between Prince Henry and his dying father. and especially since Southampton began still felt to play Patroclus to this Achilles. Shakespeare was not one of those who had fallen before the glamour of Essex. Here the situation came very near to the times. Nevertheless this last autumn there had come over as ambassador extraordinary from the French King a certain Monsieur de Maisse. Shakespeare kept them as short as he could. Monsieur de Maisse was no novice. that lawless resolutes were becoming daily more dangerous. It was easy enough for anyone to say that she was growing old. They sneered at the Queen. the scenes between Prince John and the rebels in the North were necessary to complete the story. [ 137 ] . For some months now the wilder followers of Essex had openly boasted that when the time came they would set him on the throne by force and then some heads would fly. less able than in the past.

That thou no more wilt weigh my eyelids down And steep my senses in f orgetf ulness ? Why rather> sleep. his heart was fracted and corroborate. but he disappeared from the history of Henry the Fifth. there was too much Falstaff. So the old man was rejected summarily and deservedly. and leav'st the kingly couch A watch-case or a common 'larum bell? As he wrote the play Shakespeare realised that it was not coming out quite as he had planned it. sound of sweetest melody? ! O thou dull god why liest thou with the vile In loathsome beds. liest thou in smoky cribs. Under And lull'd with the canopies of costly state. In the epilogue to the play. 138 Shakespeare had finished with Falstaff after his dismissal. His answer to those who criticised the Queen and would expedite the course of nature was partially given in the bitter cry of King Henry at this for sleep : How many Are thousand of my poorest subjects hour asleep! O sleep! O gentle sleep! Nature's soft nurse. [ ] . further instalments were promised. And hush'd with buzzing night-flies to thy slumber. Than in the perfum'd chambers of the great. At such times no one could forget the problems moment become every- and Shakespeare's own sympathies were abundantly shown in this play.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK of state which might at any one's problem. Upon uneasy pallets stretching thee. He found that the historical scenes were for the most part rather dull and Falstaff was getting the upper hand. how have I frighted thee.

and their plays in their own hands unless there were were penalgood reasons for printing them. booksellers began to take a greater interest in Shakespeare's plays. as well as a second were regular and authorised Wise's Richard the Second. and entered it on 25th February. Danter published a pirated edition of Romeo and Juliet in 1597. all publications transactions. Soon after Cuthbert Burby brought out Love's Labours Lost. Wise noted the innovation. and for the first time Shakespeare's name appeared on the title page of a play.VI THE NEW COMEDY WITH the increasing popularity of the Chamberlain's men. but Banter's Romeo and theft of the players' rightful copy. There ties for the printer who without published books [139] . Wise acquired the manuscript of the first part of Henry the Fourth early in 1598. Juliet was a As a matter of unadvisable to allow popprinciple it was generally ular plays to get into print for there was no legal the players usually kept right in such property. his second and third editions of of which appeared in this edition of Lucrece. Thereafter he also added "By William Shakespeare" to the new editions as they came out : his second edition of Richard the Third. year.

several of the gentlemen authors. they caused The Merthe risk.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK permission of the Stationers* Company but the growing value of Shakespeare's name made piracy worth The Chamberlain's men. Shakespeare was now generally recognised as the greatest of English dramatists. Latin and set out Italian poets. preferred that their works should circulate amongst their private friends in the more aristocratic who form of a manuscript copy. were not defenceless. It was. They appealed to their patron and by arrangement with James Roberts. taken from more than a hundred and fifty authors and under two hundred headings. however. This summer a seri- ous-minded young student named Francis Meres completed a vast collection of similitudes. Towards the end of his book he added a short "Comparative discourse of our English with the Greek. praised as amongst the greatest who had en- riched the English tongue. how- occasion that Shakespeare sought to protect the property of his own company. as one [140] . chant of Venice to be entered in Stationers' Hall so that none but Roberts should have the right to print it. had used ever. the first it." Shakespeare was easily his favourite poet. as a lyric poet. who held the monopoly of printing play bills. To the entry was added the proviso "that it be not printed by the said James Roberts or any other whatsoever without licence first had from the Right Honourable the Lord Chamberlain/' This practice of blocking publication through the Stationers' Company was not new.

Tactful friends on the Council. continue to suffer. Sir George Carew. "As Plautus and Seneca are accounted the best for comedy and tragedy among the Latins. At the very beginning of July there was an amazing scene at Court. Essex in a temper turned his back in scorn. and if needs must he would A month been ailing Lord Burleigh died. He was the last of the later old [141] . In Ireland the rebellion went from bad to worse. as a writer of comedy and tragedy. and that policy. whereupon the Queen returned him a box on the ear and bade him get him gone and be hanged. Essex withdrew in a passion. duty and religion enforced He to submit to his sovereign. Essex refused to submit or to apologise. Essex was for hav- ing his own nominee.THE NEW COMEDY most passionate to bewail the perplexities of love. wrote persuading him that he was doing more than harm to himself and playing into the hands of his enemies. sent over to Ireland. answered indignantly that princes could err. so Shakespeare among the English is the most excellent in both kinds for the stage/* The summer of 1598 was full of excitement. the Queen was unwilling to receive him back into favour without submission. particularly the Lord Keeper. and him subjects receive wrong. and everyone waited to see what would happen. the Queen was unwilling and preferred Sir William Knollys. in France the French king made a separate peace with the Spaniards. He added. he had for some time.

and the noble rank of his rivals. It was doubly unfortunate for Essex that he should be ab- from his place in the Council. Shakespeare now returned to comedy. the sworn bachelor. The '96 play opened with such another home-coming from a campaign in which much glory has been won and few lives lost. the main story telling how young Claudio wooed Hero. but as yet he lacked the prestige of his father. having a and Beatrice. and then how Hero's honour was restored and the marriage completed. The second story was dramatically less im- how Benedick. though by this time Sir Robert Cecil was almost as firmly estabsent lished in the Queen's service as his father had been. The plot was twofold. it told other.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK statesmen who had stood by the Queen from the beginning of the reign. rewriting an old play which he called Muck Ado about Nothing. how he repudiated Hero at the altar. sympathetic antipathy to each other were by a trick portant. both brought to think themselves beloved by the The story was nominally set in Messina but the characters for all their Italian names were lish Eng- and the mood very much that of the autumn of when the gallants came back from Cadiz. Shakespeare found himself more interested in the characters of Benedick and Beatrice than in the [H2] . the Prince's bastard brother. how Claudio was deceived by Don John. and the greatest. and Benedick was shown wearing one of these great Cadiz beards. the predestined old maid.

They were not dissimilar to the earlier pair of Berowne and Rosaline of Love's Labour's Lost.THE NEW COMEDY main story. they must be written in prose." "You have no ! reason . I do the freely. but in this play he experimented further with its possibilities. and the and parry of their wit was quicker and more natural. "Yea. but not yours. expressing various passions. Then leaving Benedick and Beatrice alone in a quiet." "May a man do it?" "It is a man's office. for verse however light was unavoidably more stilted than normal conversation. He schemed the plot so that the mutual declaration of love between Beatrice and Benedick should come at a tragic moment. but he handled them more easily." is "Surely I do believe your fair cousin wronged. rhetorical. Shakespeare closed it with a stanza of verse." [143] . noisy. but no such friend. emotional. alternately rhymed." it "I will not desire that. vibrant prose: on the stage he continued "Lady Beatrice. and I will have you wept all this while?" weep a while longer. That scene hitherto was all in verse." "Is there man deserve of me 9 that would any way to show such friendship V "A very even way." "Ah how much might right her. He had learnt the trick of such conversations. after Hero is repudiated and carried off apparently dead. and the repartee of two such characters must come quicker even than ordinary talk. There was a good deal of prose in the Henry the thrust Fourth plays.

first Hero's marriage distress effec- was turned tive and then Claudio's to marriage. thou lovest me. I confess nothing. for to disaster. and I will make him eat it that says I love not you. If so." "Do not swear by it. sweet Beatrice?" "You have stayed me in a happy protest I love thee. everyone must be kept in innocent. God forgive me!" "What offence." hour: I was about to "And do to protest. It were as possible to say I loved nothing so well as you. and yet I lie not . ignorance that Hero was and that she was really alive after her swooning. nor I deny nothing. and eat it. bid me do anything for thee. This kind of story could be made by surprise. but such a method needed vast explanations.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK "I do love nothing in the world so well as you: that strange?" as the thing I know not." experimented also in the technique of a plot which depended for its effect upon reversal of fortune He a double reversal." "I will swear by it that you love me." "Will you not eat your word?" "With no sauce that can be devised to thee." it." "Kill Claudio. but believe me not." it with all "I love you with so thy heart. I am sorry for my cousin/' is not "As strange for me "By my sword. the resolving of the entanglements of the Comedy of Errors took up a long [144] ." much of my heart that none is left "Come. I protest I love "Why then. Beatrice.

the Marshal. and the stolid obstinacy. Sir Henry Bagnal. It was more effective emotionally. honeysuckles. take favourites. Made proud by princes. Shakespeare added some low comedy which would appeal to a London audience.THE NEW COMEDY scene at the end. The other method was to sacrifice the surprises and to keep the audience foreknowing and the characters ignorant. They came suddenly upon the enemy entrenched in a bog. The emotional effect of this kind of irony was far greater than the simpler satisfaction of surprise. ripen'd by the sun. one daring simile touching on the behaviour of Essex: also He added And Where bid her steal into the pleached bower. in attempting to relieve the fort at the Blackwater Essex was still marched out of Armagh with an army of 3. absenting himself from Court at the end of August when news came of a great defeat in Ireland. the vanguard was thrown into [145] . of enough a London watch. As he plotted the story.500 foot and 300 horse. and until the very moment of its happening there was still a chance that Hero would yet be spared. everyone knew that Hero would be shamed in the church. Verges and the rest were sober citizens doing their duty by the City and serving their turn on the watch. that advance their pride Against that power that bred it. unless something intervened. Young gentlemen who walked abroad by night knew well the shortcomings. Forbid the sun to enter . Dogberry.

The second part of Virgidemiarum and Bastard's Chrestoleros were published in April. Ireland. Throughout the year a steady flow of satires exuded from the press as those who were imitating Virgidemiarum sent off their satires and epigrams to be printed. Southampton also was in trouble. It was the greatest disaster that had happened to English troops during the reign. however. a few days later followed Guilpin's Skialetkeia. and returned. units into rout. As yet there was no sign of reconciliation with the Queen. [146] . the Queen and Essex were reconciled. When the news was carried to the Queen she was so angry that she ordered the new Countess to be imprisoned in the Fleet. His intimacies with Mistress Vernon could no longer be concealed. Of the total Essex. whether because of his own troubles or because of his grief wore the most sorrowful counte- nance of all the mourners.000 were casualties up with 15 captains. married her.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK became scattered and the army broke force 2. for certain. The Earl was commanded to return to London forthwith. seemed to be lost. and it was noted that the Earl of disorder. for she was seven months with child by him. A few days after this ill news reached London. the funeral of Lord Burleigh was celebrated with becoming pomp. his Scourge of Villainy in September. He came over secretly from Paris. A week later. John Marston's Satires in June.

Be barricadoed in the people's love. fantastic gallants. And when no broom-man that will pray for him. he began : Let others sing as their good genius moves.THE NEW COMEDY Everard Guilpin was a great admirer of plays. and body's move. critics. Taught him this mumming with courtesy To entrench himself with popularity. by its astounding terms of abuse as he lashed those who most offended his noshypocrites. or else of clipping loves : [147] . Lashing the lewdness of Britannia. Marston's Scourge of Villainy attracted most notice. as it well might. He too had seen a significance in Richard the Second and in his first satire he adapted the passage of Bolingbroke's departure with unmistakable and hostile reference to Essex: when great Felix passing through the street. self-seekers. perverts. And for a writhen face. and Husimpering poets. especially those at the Curtain. trils. Vaileth his cap to each one he doth meet. Of deep designs. Brightly accoustred to be-mist his evil : Like a swartrutter's hose his puff thoughts swell is With yeasty ambition : Signor Machiavel trick. mourists" of all kinds: I bear the scourge of just Rhamnusia. simonists. would not think him perfect courtesy? Who Or the honey The devil he suckle of humility? as soon : he is the devil. Shall have less truage than his bonnet's brim.

a duty to the commonwealth to hold up the mirror to vice and folly. [148] . He noted how every intelligent person fied was daily growing more dissatis- with the shortcomings of his neighbour. Ingenuous Melancholy. that live on putrid slime.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Fair fall them Do clothe But Takes pleasure that with wit's industry. whilst I up do plough sad pac'd course. my vexed thoughtful soul all. unclip thine arms from my sad brow . Quake guzzel dogs. and this disgust how was being translated into Satire. in displeasing sharp control. began to ston's victims. fit was not glancnames to Mar- Ben Jonson was caught up in the new movement. The book did not lose in popularity when its in spite of the author's protest that he ing at private persons. As a classical scholar and an old pupil of Camden he had his theories of dramatic propriety. readers. Daphne. and to show their true deformity. Stay his quick jocund skips. Tearing the veil from damn'd impiety. until my The hidden entrails of rank villainy. and force him run A whips be done. Thou nursing mother of fair Wisdom's lore. Enthrone thee in my blood let me entreat. He agreed with Sidney's Defence of Poesy that true comedy had its purpose. and pondered the question of style and technique deeply. Scud from the lashes of my yerking rhyme. Black cypress crown me. good subjects with true poesy: as for me. . I implore Thy grave assistance : take thy gloomy seat .

and the title was excellent. There was Lorenzo senior a grave. Since his re- from the Marshalsea in October 1597. who is worried because his son Lorenzo junior spends too much time [149] . Cob would fit Kemp's particular talent. and was under contract to write for them. with Shaa and Gabriel Spencer. and with this new vogue for satire the gentlemen from the Inns of Court would like this play. Instead Jonson betook himself to Shoreditch and offered it to the Chamberlain's men at the Curtain. The first effort in Nashe to reform the commonwealth through drama had been most unfortunate. After the success of Falstaff Captain Bobadilla was pretty sure to go down . Then he began afresh to write a new play which he called Every lease Man in His Humour. he had been with the Admiral's at the Rose.THE NEW COMEDY If the dramatists were to do their work. But the new play was not given to the Admiral's. admirable but slightly overanxious father. collaboration with Authority was in no mood for criticism. and Jonson had thereafter endured two months' leisure in the Marshalsea wherein to reflect on the proper function of the dramatist in the State. Jonson kept to his intention of displaying folly as exhibited in a number of foolish persons of all kinds. Moreover Jonson was gaining quite a reputation as a dramatist. they must bring this satire on the stage. The play was suited to their needs admirably. Every Man in His Humour was a very neat comedy.

Matheo enters to find Bobadilla slowly awaking heavy night. who is Lorenzo junior's cousin. no world. but fountains fraught with tears'." says he. no eyes. Stephano." so. for he lodges with Cob. and Matheo a townsman who writes fourth-rate poetry. by God's they are the most shallow pitiful fellows that live upon the face of the earth again. there's a conceit! 'fountains fraught with tears !' 'O life. Bobadilla. To their society two foolish gentlemen attach themselves. to be sure. and keep such a stir of art and devices. Lorenzo junior has a friend named Prospero. a play which has Bobadilla's very hearty approval: "I after a see. troubled with a personal problem of honour and he comes to consult Signior Bobadilla Signior is Matheo passes for a soldier of vast military experience). Matheo agrees. to Matheo's surprise.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK on poetry. Matheo is carrying a book a new copy of the Spanish Tragedy. a well-proportioned young wit. no life. here are a number of fine 'O eyes.. come up from the country to learn gentlemanly deportment. "Indeed. a water carrier. "all the poets of our time such another play as that was. but mass of public wrongs!' O God's me! 'Confus'd and fill'd with murther and misdeeds!' [150] . but lively speeches in this book form of death' is't not excellent? 'O world. for he has not known the captain hitherto in in his private life. would fain when. They'll prate pen and swagger. is not so magnificent (who apartment as when he walks abroad.

sir. is incident to a gentleman. name." replies Bobadilla with dignity. "I must tell you this. I [151] . I sir. your your perfect divers times. sir." sir. I love few words: you have wit: imagine. Stephano is introduced to Matheo and Bobadilla and mightily admires their ior. melan- choly. for. but you shall command me. Stephano. sir. fine wit. Sir. is anxious for his further ac"it's your quaintance. embrace it as a most high favour. how do you like it?" And Bobadilla replies " 'Tis good" emphatically.THE NEW COMEDY Is't not simply the best that ever you heard? Ha. I am somewhat sir. qualities: "My sir. am I and then do melancholy myself no more but take your pen and paper presently. sir. but that I conceive you to be a gentleman of some parts." "Ay. father is I am this gentleman's cousin. true melancholy breeds only best humour." in whatsoever "Signior. his mine uncle. by the host of Egypt. sir. "O Lord." And further he offers Stephano the use of his study. Jonson then brought the two gulls Matheo and Stephano together in the company of Lorenzo jun- Prospero and Bobadilla. and write you your half score or your dozen of sonnets at a sitting. truly choly." he explains. "is Signior sir. I am no general man." he observes. To which Stephano replies. I am mightily given to melan- Whereupon Matheo realising that if his new ac- quaintance is melancholy he must be a gentleman of fashion and intellect. "I thank you.

proceeded to elaborate a plot which arose out of their peculiar humours. Half starv'd for want of her peculiar food. Set high in spirit with the precious taste Of sweet philosophy. a plain downright squire. Bobadilla. inordinately jealous of his wife. As she appears in many. well cudgelled. Old Lorenzo is moved to action by sus- picions of his son. after a sufficiency of complications. That hates to have her dignity profan'd [152] . Sacred invention. Thorello by jealousy of his wife. Attired in the majesty of art. everything is a magistrate in die Lorenzo junior: Indeed if wherein Jonson wrote a fine speech in defence of poetry which he gave to you will look on Poesy. after boasting how he would bastinado Giuliano. then I must confirm Both your conceit and censure of her merit. Crown'd with the rich traditions of a soul. a mischievous servant. and Giuliano his brother. But view her in her glorious ornaments. Patch'd up in remnants and old worn rags. have you a close stool for this piece of furniture was peculiarly there?*' devoted to melancholy contemplations. There were other examples of the humours. and which is most.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK shall be bold I warrant you. is confronted with his victim and himself disentangled by Doctor Clement last act. set out his characters. and. poor and lame. Having Jonson with the aid of Musco. such as Thorello the merchant.

And a true poet . Every Man in his Humour tune with the current mood. The speech was a manifest challenge. then how proud a presence doth she bear. They fought in Hoxton Fields. had not forgiven Jonson for leaving the Admiral's and disposing of his best work 22nd September Spencer waited for Jonson as he came away from the Curtain. who had been Jonson's companion in woe over the Isle of Dogs. On the afternoon of [153] . But that this barren pass. Gabriel Spencer. Nothing can more adorn humanity. than which reverend name. That such lean. Abusive language followed and Spencer challenged him to the field. Jonson's sword was ten inches shorter than his adversary's and he was wounded to the rival house. fit to be seen Of none but grave and consecrated eyes Nor is it any blemish to her fame. and blasted wits.THE NEW COMEDY With any relish of an earthly thought Oh. ignorant. for the young author was not lacking in boldness. and infected age. with encouragement. Then is she like herself. should utter their stol'n wares With such applauses in our vulgar ears: Or that their slubber'd lines have current From the fat judgments of the multitude. was perfectly in The play was lain's in the it first produced by the Chamber- middle of September. and at the outset received an unexpected advertisement. Should set no difference twixt these empty spirits. which indeed. : : Such brainless gulls. would soon develop into arrogance.

but he ran Spencer through the right and left him dead. Therefore I would fain have a little of your counsel if I could. made a further appeal for settlement. Cuthbert was. Cuthbert Burbage had been trying to persuade Giles lost Ever Alleyn. Still nothing was the end of September 1598. let the buildings stand. received a sad letter from his fatherin-law "Now to let you understand news. in a dilemma. The conditions sign. Alleyn pre- At sented him with a lease ready drawn. Cuthbert." Hens- A few days later Edward lowe wrote. Under the original lease of 1576 it was agreed that the Theatre buildings should belong to Burbage at the end of his time provided that he removed them before the actual date of expiry. Thus the Admiral's both poet and player.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK side in the arm. were so distasteful that Cuthbert refused to [154] . "I will tell you some but it is for me hard and heavy. his landlord. A month afterwards at his trial he was able to plead benefit of clergy and was released with loss of his goods." Jonson was arrested. Alleyn. bricklayer. to give him a new lease of the ground whereon the Theatre stood. that Gabriel for he is Hogsden Fields by the hands of Benjamin Jonson. Alleyn was en- couraging but vague. however. Cuthbert agreed. relying on Alleyn's promises to renew the lease. who was away in the country. Since you were with me I have lost one of is my company : which hurteth slain in me greatly. since the death of old James Burbage.

Company. Three days Cuthbert and Richard Burbage. and other later weapons. The problem was discussed clearly. and they signed a lease to commence on 25th December. There was. a master builder. south of the Thames. his workmen armed with swords. Alleyn himself was which were away. liked well of their proceedings. bills. not far from the Rose. Accordingly the the two Burbages. and great danger that the valuable timber and fittings would be lost. Pope and Kemp agreed that they would unite to build and finance a new playhouse in a different neighbourhood. The Curtain was a makeshift and not satisfactory. They found a site on the Bankside. Some of his people made protests. and that the second half amongst the other five.THE NEW COMEDY Alleyu now proposed to demolish the Theatre and use the timber for his own benefit: but the Burbages learnt of his intentions. Heminges. a garden plot in Maiden Lane. To finance the new enterprise it was half the agreed that the two Burbages should share be divided should expense. it quickly tore down. and a dozen of with Peter Street. axes and set about the old Theatre. whilst the widow of James looked on and Burbage. Phillips. by the Chamberlain's no hope of re-occupy- ing the Theatre. chief sharers of the Company Shakespeare. a very doughty old lady. Shakespeare would thus come to own a tenth share in the playhouse in addition to his share as a member of the Chamberlain's company. [155] .

its bones now lay piled on the new site a couple of hundred yards from the Rose playhouse. They foresaw nothing but trou- [156] . snowed hard on the 28th December and the Thames was frozen over. stared at the pile of timber. Next morning Henslowe and the Admiral's men tramped down Maiden Lane. thinking gloomily the phoenix. When Alleyn came back from the Christ- mas holidays the Theatre had vanished.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK unheeded. It They upon bles.

offered no chance of a quick or spectacu- During January and February the army was collected. and he would feel that he was being insufficiently supported from home. for his creditors would swarm over him like flies on a carcass. His enemies were eager for him to go. with ample powers and a large army. Outwardly the Queen had forgiven him for his behaviour in the previous summer. If he did indeed heal the running sore. and he alone. the country would be relieved of the burden of men and taxes. The wiser realised that away from the Queen mutual ill-feeling would grow. For his part he gave out that he. she would be dissatisfied with his achievements however great. Moreover the Irish war was very different from Cadiz or Rouen and lar victory.VII THE GLOBE BY the beginning of the year 1599 it had been as definitely decided as anything in Queen Elizabeth's court could ever be that the Earl of Essex should be sent over to Ireland as Lord Deputy. for they would benefit whatever the issue. could solve the problem. and two thousand men were sent over from [157] . and if he failed. then his career would be ruined. Opinions were very varied amongst his friends.

It altogether. was careful was a difficult time for everyone. siquidem temporis expectation" . a certain Dr. Essex demanded more ample powers than the Queen was willing to allow. P. The book was bought up eagerly for it was very generthe parallel broke and ally asked of all why such a work should come out at this times. he was more of an innocent than most of his readers would allow. when tempers were generally frayed. The Archbishop of Canterbury sent for [158] .SHAKESPEARE AT WORK the troops in the Low Countries. concerning the profitable nature of the faithful records of history. Hayward was ignorant of which had been made between Bolingmy Lord of Essex. the date of his departure was constantly put forward. Moreover it was dedicated to Essex in a Latin epistle which contained some curious and equivocal phrases "magnus . tactlessly published a book called The the first Henry reign IV9 part of the life and reign of King but it ended with the first year of the and was more concerned with the deposition of King Richard the Second. In the middle of February. though Sir Francis Vere. a young Cambridge lawyer. what greater honours could future time hold out except the Crown? This dedication es 9 et prasenti iudicio^ et futuri was followed by an Epistle to the Reader signed A. to the indignation of the Council. John Hay ward. . If Dr. . and he became so distracted by the difficulties that he was constantly proclaiming that he would draw out of the business to select his worst.

It was a bad omen. It company were impatient to enter into possession for the Curtain was small and inconvenient. Taking horse in the City. In these months Shakespeare finished the last play of the series which traced the rise and fall of the House of Lancaster. The story was less attractive than [159] . he rode down Cornhill and Cheapside and open country. Meanwhile the workmen were busy in Maiden Lane and the new playhouse was rising fast. it allowed for a considerable staff. "God save so into the your Lordship! God preserve your honour/* For four miles the Londoners followed him. a few even kept up until the evening. and as he went great crowds pressed round him.000 infantry in 160 bands. and 16.THE GLOBE Wardens of the Stationers Company and demanded that the epistle dedicated to the Earl should the 5 be excised.300 horse in 26 bands. but when they came home was calm and fine as the cavalcade set out. but at Islington a great black cloud came down upon them from the northeast. the Queen at the last showing herself very gracious and willing to content him. 1. and accom- panied with a great number of noblemen and many others. bringing sudden lightning and thunder and a heavy shower of rain and hail. On 24th March the estab- lishment of his army was passed. Three days later Essex set out. and all his demands were met. crying out. Essex's commission for Ireland was signed on 12th March. The their enthusiasm had been dashed.

his hearty his soldiers rassment. so that in anger they stood. The peared. To these two Shake- speare joined Corporal Nym. As a result he wrote it scene it as by scene and no longer saw a whole play. Bardolph therefore reaprest killed him. as enthusiastic an ad- mirer of melodrama as ever. These must be brought in. and the blunt wooing of French Kate. but he was for this new fashion of the Jonsonian humour. slightly [160] . Shakespeare had lost the knack of Falstaff. for the old and the new stagecraft. could survive until Fortune's furious fickle wheel was ready to roll over them. Nym drama. In any drama of King Harry cercustom of passing disguised amongst and enjoying their subsequent embar- tain incidents were essential: the King's reformation. also in far off way had come under the influence of the a newcomer. and he lost interest.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK eighteen months ago when he began the first part of Henry the Fourth. whilst Pistol ranted Alleyn. however. as when it Pistol and Nym spoke were. The rest of the play was to be made up of some scenes of martial matters. or else he must be less than himself. More- over Falstaff would inevitably spoil the play. Either he would make King Henry ridiculous as he had pricked the bubble reputation of Hotspur in the first play. In this they were disappointed. Being unwilling to degrade Falstaff Shakespeare of his gang. and the audience would expect more Falstaff . and Ancient Pistol. the victory at Agincourt.

If you grow foul with me. Pistol. the lack of unity. the breaking of all rules either of classic propriety or stark commonsense. in fair terms: if you would walk off. am not Barbason. Therefore exhale. Since the successful appearance of 'Every Man in his Humour last autumn Jonson had insist- ently sneered at the methods of the chronicle play. the three rusty swords that did duty for an army. I have an humour to knock you indifferently well. There was much truth in his jibes. and that's the huscour mour of it/ 1 Pistol flashed back: O braggart vile and damned furious wight ! is The grave doth gape. who saw everything on the surface and nothing knew that most of his underneath. "you cannot con- jure me. But Jonson was a very cocksure young man with a wonderful eye for little details. If the sole business of the dramatist was to show an exact image of the times then nothing could be more ridiculous than the attempt to represent mighty courts in this wretched makeshift playhouse.THE GLOBE muddied. as I may. and doting death near . "I Nym never opened his mouth but a hu- mour dropped out. In writing the serious scenes Shakespeare was uneasy." he cried. Shakespeare audience [161] . in good terms. I will you with my rapier. as I may. I would prick your guts a little.

Leash'd in like hounds. O ! for a Muse that would ascend The A brightest heaven of invention . sword. Assume the port of Mars . which partly by modest persuasion. as the picture of the horrors of a town sacked Having opened in this strain. he relied on rhetoric for his effects. like himself. gentles all. It could be overcome only by boldness. princes to act to behold the swelling scene. kingdom for a stage. partly by tators to accept his sheer oratory. And monarchs Then should the warlike Harry.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK would rise to yet he was nervous a patriotic drama on a popular hero. and so. and fire Crouch for employment. He therefore made as little of the army as he could. lest some of the intellectuals would titter or mew when the five hired men came on to represent the English army at Agincourt. remembering Bottom's solution for a similar problem. but the difficulty could not be wholly avoided. would force the specplay in a sympathetic mood : of fire. he wrote a prologue. some were long pieces of description. But pardon. flat The unraised spirits that hath dar'd On unworthy scaffold to bring forth So great an object: can this cockpit hold The vasty fields of France ? or may we cram this Within this That did the very casques the air at Agincourt ? affright wooden O mainly was a return to the epic manner. It [162] . So Henry the Fifth was written as a play of fine speeches rather than of action and subtle characterisation. should famine. and at his heels.

This day is called the Feast of Crispian. friends. most moving of all. thou idle ceremony? What kind of god art thou. dear and. but then the Muse was spurred into the swelling strain of Once more unto the breach. What infinite heart's ease Must And kings neglect that private men enjoy! what have kings that privates have not too. And. King Henry's soliloquy on the utter loneliness of Kingship: We must bear all. of Battles. or of France ruined by war and overgrown with weeds.THE GLOBE by angry soldiers. [163] . steel my soldiers* hearts. Creating awe and fear in other men? Wherein thou art less happy. At times inspiration flagged. that suffer'st more Of mortal What griefs than do thy worshippers? are thy rents? what are thy comings-in? O ceremony ! show is me but thy worth : What thy soul of adoration ? Art thou aught else but place. Save ceremony. subject to the breath Of every fool. save general ceremony? And what art thou. O God and. O hard condition! Twin-born with greatness. and form. for no one in his audience could have failed to think of modern instance. whose sense no more can feel But his own wringing. being fear'd. degree. once more . as in the Archbishop's tedious homily on the Salic Law.

problems unheeded. action. was a familiar object. Until young Ben could better that. and it needed no biting satire or comedy of humours to display the essential foolishness of a jealous husband. Instinctively writing a new play he could visualise the differences voice. Men were made thus and thus. sentiment that when [164] . But these methods of chastising and left the real folly were not wholly satisfactory. for Shakespeare was after new experiments with drama.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK they in fearing. instead of homage sweet. The gull who posed as a melancholic. let him keep his theories within more modest bounds. Davies satirised him. or a Paul's man posing as a hero from the wars. But poison'd flattery 9 be sick. but with the rest of his generation he was becoming absorbed in this problem of human character. and that was the humour of it. or the his way to gawky son of a country farmer buying gentility. shrouded by his ample cloak and his large black hat. But this air of prevailing why should there be melancholy? Hitherto Shakespeare had not pondered very deeply upon the problems of character. great greatness. Than What O ! And bid thy ceremony give thee cure. Nevertheless Henry the Fifth was task work. Jonson brought him on the stage. and sitting apart in conspicious privacy. drink'st thou oft. gesture. Now that he was unrivalled master of his craft he was less directly influenced by the work of other and younger men.

On 4th June therefore a ceremonial bonfire was lit in the Hall of the Stationers' Company. and to brood over the greater behind these strange vagaries of outward behaviour. opened the eyes of the Archbishop to the dangers of the new craze for satires.THE GLOBE distinguished one actors in his own interpret them. as well as Hall's Satires A and Willobie his Avisa. The Fifteen Joys of Marriage. The Council were alarmed. and therein were cast the offending books: Marston's Pigmalion and Scourge of Villainy went up in smoke. the volume of Davies* Epigrams and Marlowe's translation of Ovid's Elegies^ the book of marriage and wiving Skialetheia. Guilpin's the Snarling Satires. translated from Hercules and Torquato Tasso. man from another. The controversy between Nashe and Dr. who caused them all to be This affair burnt.500 copies with an epistle apologetical. Harvey [165] . and how the company could be persuaded to problem of what lay He began to desire something fuller. Dr. epigrams and books of all kinds which in pretence of purging the humours of the state actually attacked certain illustrious individuals under feigned names. It was high time to make a conspicuous example. so the wardens of the Stationers' Company seized the whole edition and delivered the books to the Bishop of London. Hayward's book was selling so well that Wolfe printed off a new edition of 1. strange incomprehensible allegory called Caltha Poetarum was called in.

Essex was said to be much discontented. So resentment grew on both sides. satires. Letters brought by the post were made known only to the Council. He was succeeded as company clown by Robert Armin. Will Kemp the clown was no first The Chamberlain's Men art longer in sympathy with his fellows. and a new jig by Kemp certainly attracted a crowd. No certain news. They could well away with jigs and tales of bawdry. Moreover it was forbidden hereafter to print any epigrams. In July the new theatre was finished. for all their books were called in and a ban laid upon their writings. but as the art of playing advanced Shakespeare and the others began to take profession seriously. and indeed was forbidden to speak or write of Irish affairs. or English histories unless approved by some of the Council.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK was brought to an abrupt end. and the extemporal merriments of the old clown became irksome and embarrassing. this summer suffered the in their partnership which had existed break for nearly five years. was old-fashioned and boisterous. their more new playhouse and in and departed. and at Court it was muttered that he and the Queen threat- ened each other's head. His form of The ground- lings loved him. it was the finest playhouse in London. which was taken as a sure sign that the war was going badly. but disquieting it rumours came from Ireland. The company debated Kemp sold his shares in the the [166] .

. the question of a suitable name.THE GLOBE call it the Globe. whom Fortune had graced with many favours. Lodge. . Then he began in the now familiar sing-song manner: There dwelled adjoining to the city of Bordeaux a knight of most honourable parentage. thought to increase its chances by passing it off as one of the brood of Euphues^ and drew up a long title Rosalynd: Euphues* golden legacy. And all the men and women merely players : They have their exits and their entrances . was too good to lose and so he grafted it into the play that he was now writing. They decided to and for its sign Hercules carrying the world upon his shoulders. bequeathed to Philautus* sons9 nursed up with their father in England. which Lodge had written during the ample leisure of a voyage to the Canaries and published in 1590. And one man in his time plays many parts. so beautified quisite [167] . The motto chosen was Totus mundus agit histrionem. . His It acts being seven ages. upon which theme little Shakespeare thereupon composed a verse which began: essay in All the world's a stage. and Nature honoured with sundry exwith the excellence of both. with an eye on his public. as qualities. the most popular of all the pastoral romances. he added a brief testament of Euphues. found after his death in his cell at Silexedra. This new play was a straight dramatisation of a novel called Rosalynd. the fourth edition had appeared in '98.

whilst he forced Rosader to be his page boy. "Riches." Rosader retorted with the garden rake. Saladine began to brood. Fernandine and Rosader. and after and there is no sweeter physic than store. Saladine. the daughter of the banished king Gerismond. "I will give him a cool- ing card for his choler. the king's daughter. Saladine was angry. By and by Rosader began to grow up and to demand his rights. said he. amongst the spectators there sat Alinda. who challenged all comers and slew most. a Then there came to the court of King Torismond Norman wrestler. the time came for Sir and to bequeath his John of Bordeaux to possessions and much good advice to his three sons.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK it were a question whether Fortune or Nature were more prodigal in deciphering the riches of their bounties." a lengthy debate with himself in which conscience was overcome by concupiscence he allowed Fernandine to continue with his studies (for he was a scholar and had no mind but on Aristotle). But die. When the old man was buried. So Rosader went forth to try his fortune. whence he promised restitution. and commanded his men to bind him and then. he spurred Rosader to maintain the honour of the family. and Rosalynd. "is a great royalty. having bribed the wrestler not to let Rosader escape alive. Rosader looked at Rosa- Now [168] ." said he. and the argument was continued by Saladine from the safer eminence of a hayloft. Saladine saw his opportunity.

The Norman had already two brothers. To return her the like he was unfurnished. and so fired Rosader's passionate desires that he overthrew the Norman and crushed the life out of him. . roses. . Ten Two pearled rows that nature's pride incloses Two mounts fair marble white. closed. and yet that he might more than in his looks discover his affections. and yet it it was a good tale. and taking pen and paper writ this fancy: Two suns at once from one fair heaven there shin'd. but Rosader was not daunted. where love increased by pleasure my heart and body fainty. who lent him such an amorous look as might have made the most coward desperate. . Rosalynd was impressed. he stepped into a tent. for if Fortune had sworn to make himself sole monarch of the world. branches from two boughs tipp'd all with Pure locks more golden than is gold refin'd. "And to make Rosader know she him took from her neck a jewel and sent it a page to the young gentleman. The prize that by Venus gave to Paris was not half so pleasing to the affected Trojan as this gem was to Rosader. would [169] .THE GLOBE killed lynd and she at him. and what a joyous comedy properly told. down-soft and dainty. . They The Norman remembering his reward tried his hardest. but Rosader kept his eyes on Rosa- lynd." stuff How tedious this pastoral make if could be. A snow Full woef ull makes dyed orb. he would rather have refused such dignity than have lost the jewel sent him by Rosalynd.

fat sheep. stone ?" asked Conn. forest of He which needed very kept closely to the story of Rosalynd^ little alteration. means. in it. and that a great cause of the night that good pasture makes is lack of sun . but in respect it is solitary." he answered. and added a few of his own. In respect that in respect that it is respect it is it is very well . a good life . the old shepherd. material-minded fool who found no amusement in playing with a sheephook: "And how like you this shepherd's life. look no more plenty goes against my stomach. a motley. but he wrote his own dialogue. "in respect of itself. Master Touchit is it is "Truly. is at ease he is.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Shakespeare wrote quickly and light-heartedly. I like it it is not in the Court. my humour much well . [170] . that the property of rain is to wet. shepherd. Hast any philoso- phy in thee. and without three good friends. in private. shepherd ?" "No more content. but that I know the more one sickens the worse and that he that wants money. He even took over most of the names for his characters. and fire to burn . letting his fancy play in cynical mood over the old theme of romantic love in an Arcadian Arden. it fits it it is tedious. naught. This he provided in a shepherds couple of real yokels. William and Audrey. He added also a whetstone for the wits of the gentry. a contrast to fool called Touchstone. it pleaseth me well . As it is you. for he felt the need of a show up the unreality of these delicate and shepherdesses. but in respect that it is a shepherd's life. in the fields. Now. but a very vile life. but as there is a spare life. giving it just those slight touches that revealed the artificiality of the original.

ate sparingly. It would have been his chance of simple to make this melancholic a mere humour. But many of the melancholy gentlemen suf- fered from none of these complaints. they neither kept nor desired mistresses. acute indigestion. shepherd?" "No. despised and unsatisfied love. in the forest court of the As no banished Duke. and in the portrayal he realised that here was working out some of the ideas on human character which had been quickening in his mind for the last six months. and yet they were melancholy. suicide. slept well. or comes of a very dull kindred. thou art damned like an ill-roasted egg. sedition. Why should the old gentleman be melancholy? Doctors of medicine wrote learn- and at times wisely. lacked all ambition. But this method explained nothing. It was a melancholic of this kind that Shake- [171] . about the causes and symptoms of melancholy. thwarted ambition which led to edly. I art damned." hope" "Truly. Wast ever in court." society gathering nowadays was complete without its melancholic. or gross hallucinaphysical inertia. truly/' "Then thou "Nay. tion.THE GLOBE that he that hath learned no wit by nature nor art may com- plain of good breeding." "Such a one is a natural philosopher. Shakespeare set a melancholy courtier. with a few long speeches on these degenerate days and plenty of business with the large hat and black cloak like Chapman's Dowsecer. all on one side.

yet written after the manner of Rabelais. upon the new me [172] . a man who was an epicure of sensations." Melancholy put Shakespeare in mind of a very scandalous book. Orlando he found tedious. In court he claimed the melancholic's privilege to blow on whom he pleased. the seduction of Audrey shocked him. It was intended to be a scientific discourse. but the pretty youth Ganimed (alias Rosalind) was so interesting that he even enlarged on his own complex melancholy. for that clean-limbed young lover had but one idea. Shakespeare became so fascinated with his must be brought creature that he led up to his entrance with a long and elaborate account of his moralisings over the wounded deer. and yet still curious to probe vertite. wraps my in a travels. by often rumi- most humorous sadness. a man not unlike the famous Count Michel de Montaigne whose essays Florio was translating when Shakespeare and he had lived together in my Lord of Southampton's household. always looking for something he knew not what. called The Metamorphosis of Ajaoc which John Harington had written three years before. extracted from many objects and indeed the sundry contemplation of nation. If such the mystery of every newcomer from a fool to a cona character was to be seen whole.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK speare now determined to create. but only certain that he never found it. and had travelled and questioned. which. he into contact with people of all kinds. who had experimented with sensuality in his youth. "compounded of many simples.

By melancholy of Moorditch and such unsavoury similes. his boots without spurs. The first play merely depicted the fools as they were." The nice-minded gentlewoman. his choly. that it was "Master Privy Wingfield. his hat a perfect malcontent. He told her "Jaques Wingfield. One day a great lady in the Court was informed by her gentlewoman that Master Wingthis was without. Ajax was the pattern of melan- without a band. There had also been a scurrilous Court anecdote on word. this would scourge them out of their follies." so Shakespeare called his melancholy old gentleman Jaques. and the play. returned to report. with a blush. like the head without wit. She inquired which of the Wingfields it was. for lack of a better And name. which was itself a melancholy object. his hose without garters.THE GLOBE invention of a water closet to take the place of the foul-smelling privy. It out of His Humour. The Chamberlain's Men agreed to produce it. As You Like It. his waist without a girdle. for was called Every Man [173] . not knowing that French Jaques was English James. Meanwhile Jonson had been at work for nearly a year on a new comedy which should show the world (or rather the few rare spirits who were capable of understanding) what a comedy should be. a simple change he became metamorphosed from AJAX to A JAX and so to A JAKES. his purse without coin. The gentlewoman went out again and field asked the gentleman his name.

selecting various specimens hope of gain or frosty apprehension of danger could make to be a parasite. either to time. speaks good remnants. and own particular fashion.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Jonson was now taking himself very only as castigat or seriously. he invented Asper : he was an ingenious and free spirit. who wanting that place in the world's account which he thought his merit deserved. grew violently impatient of any opposite happiness in another. One whom no servile as teacher of comedy. a scurrilous and profane jester. place or opinion. without fear controlling the world's abuses. a glutton at others' expense. a feasthound. affecting courtier. not morum but He began therefore by of the humours to be demonstrated and drew up a catalogue of their particularities. a neat. gularity and stick to his who affected sin- indulged in strange performances. and Fastidious Brisk. phrase and gesCarlo Buffone. a man well parted. spruce. There were three specimens of gentle society. one that wears clothes well and in fashion. Asper reappeared in the play as Macilente. swears tersely and with variety and cares not what lady's favour he belies or great man's [174] . cilente Puntarvolo a vain-glorious knight. ture. resolving in spite of public derision to his own praise. a sufficient scholar and traveller. Ma- was in fact what Asper might well have become had he not been Jonson himself. eager and constant in reproof. whose religion was railing and discourse ribaldry . but taking no part. As presenter to the play.

whose glory is to invite players and make suppers. The citizens fit of wealth were represented by Deliro. that he will have name of a gentleman though he buy it. He has a son called Fungoso who is a student of the law. who will lend who dotes upon the courtier and only money for flattery. an inseparable pair of cockscombs. a court lady of light wit. and so rapt with a conceit of her perfections that he lives like a perpetual suitor. Fallace. whilst all the time she is nothing but a proud mincing peat. Then there were the countrymen. the grasping fanner who believes in almanacks and hopes for foul weather and corn at a great price. squiring a cockatrice and search- ing for lenders. He seeks the favours of Saviolina. Jonson proceeded to set them into suitable action. and squeezes his father for clothes of the courtier cut. wants the face to be dishonest. The collection was made up with Shift. Sordido. Sordido's brother is another natural clown who to is so enamoured of the it. who learns the latest news from the wars and passes himself as a soldier but whose only accomplishments are taking the whiff.THE GLOBE familiarity. a man for the Common Council but so besot- ted on his wife. Puntarvolo courts his lady with a strange language culled from . Having assembled his specimens. and by Clove and Orange. and comes up and see town every term to learn to take tobacco new notions.

and arranges to go travelling with his cat and his dog for coach companions. He began therefore with an Induction. Macilente is so incensed that he poisons the dog.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK romances. Jonson however was not content to write a comedy. he in- tended also to give a lecture. and cover us. Deliro dotes on Fallace. see the earth cracked with weight of sin. commit but his servants cut him down and he repents. To And have his lips sealed up ? Not I : Was my soul never ground into such oily colours. who peevishly detakes candle spises his humility. Fungoso imitates suit Brisk's fashions exactly. with illustrations. Who can behold such prodigies as these. Cordatus and Mitis come upon the stage as spectators. and at the end so enrages Puntarvolo that he and wax and seals up the jester's mouth. with the difference that the first play was the mirror. but is always a behind his model. ravenous ruin. Ready to sink us down. Carlo Buffone rails on all. [176] . Hell gaping under us. though Fallace falls in love with his clothes and finally disillusions her husband. the second the magnifying glass of manners. It was all very like Every Man in His Humour. Asper. upon the art of play writing. The others meet suitable retribution. Asper is drunk with s<zva indignatio. and o'er our heads Black. with her sail-stretched wings. Sordido is misled by his almanack to expect foul weather and goes to suicide at the plenteousness of the harvest.

and warns them that he'll not servilely fawn on their applause. At length he notices the spectators. Chionides. He leaves with the parting shot: To Now. . do resume We hope to make my present person. Cratinus. and the part played in its development by Susario. I would know 'em .THE GLOBE To flatter vice. We must impute it to this only chance. . gentlemen. Art hath an enemy called Ignorance. the circles of your eyes : Flow with distilled laughter if we fail. The earnest Cordatus turns to Mitis to deliver some observations upon the history of Comedy. However he must now go in to expedite the play. to purge. ere I Where. but if they'll listen he'll give them music worth their ears. Phormus. . I go turn an actor and a humorist. Epicharmus. and daub iniquity : But. Aristopha- [177] . for in such assemblies They are more infectious than the pestilence: And therefore I would give them pills And make them fit for fair societies. with an armed and resolved hand. Thence he passes to a long discourse on the theory of the four humours. I'll strip the ragged follies of the time Naked as at their birth. But there was still more instruction to follow. and asks his friends to note any of the audience who show disgust at his lines : O. Eupolis.

the 5th August a camp was ordered to be raised outside London whither the forces might concentrate. The usual rumours of a coming Spanish invasion had been prevalent in the spring. and 100 ships manned by 30. On 1st August there was another alarm.000 men. It was confidently reported that the Spaniards had an armada of 30 galleys and 70 ships at least at the Groin on point of sailing The Council immediately ordered the Queen's ships to be made ready. Indeed it aroused the vast indignation of the spectators. On The Lord Admiral was in supreme com- [178] . and 10. Cecilius. or else at some place in the Thames. Plautus. introducing the Queen herself upon the stage to resolve all humours in her own person. were demanded sixteen ships for the defence of the Thames. Two days later the enemy's numbers had grown to 70 galleys diers. and from the City for England. The play was so long that the players cut it.000 soland the fleet would be at Brest in three or four days.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK nes. was ill received. first At the performance Jonson suffered two dis- appointments. Menander. Philemon. and the conclusion. rest. and the the play did at last begin Cordatus and Mitis remained upon the stage to comment upon each episode and to show the admirable excellencies When of this new comedy. of whom 6.000 were to be trained at once. The landing was expected on the coast of Kent.

He first proposed a bridge of boats at Gravesend. When this was suggested should be blocked by that the passage of the channel The sinking hulks in the fairway by Barking Shelf. In the evening of the following day the Spaniards were reported to have landed in the Isle of Wight and Southampton.THE GLOBE mand with Lord Mountjoy and Sir Francis Vcre had come over from the Low Countries to re(who port) to assist him. which would result in the choking of the river and the permanent ruin of the city. Fighting had already occurred and the Lord Scroop with On the North Borders the 200 of his men had been killed. the was sending another 20. As well as 30. and expensive. The gates were And fleet shut and chains laid across the streets. King of Scots was in arms with 40. and rumours gave way to conjee- [179] . There was general panic in London.000. For the next fortnight training continued. it ships. The Earl of Cumberland's schemes for the defence of the City were heroic. complained loudly that this would be a costly business. No enemy appeared. and reminded his Lordballast could ship that sunken ships half-laden with The civilians not be shifted. over 80 engineers pointed out that it would require was discovered to be impracticable. Women cried out in the streets. The King of with grew Archduke Denmark was sending 100 ships. The defence of the City and river was in the charge of the Earl of Cumberland. fresh rumours the strength of the enemy's to 150 ships.000 men.000 men.

Late at night on the 25th the On Spanish fleet was reported on the coast of France and messengers posted out to recall the men. The Henry excitement caused by Hayward's History of the Fourth and the ban thereafter laid upon English histories greatly stimulated the general appetite for the events of the past.000 trained men paraded in armour in the streets of London under their captains and the day following 30. . It sick or that a certain great one. [180] . The story of Julius Caesar had always interested him and he was considering it when writing the Fifth. training ceased and the men returned to their homes. In the quick forge and working-house of thought.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK was a mysterious business and many causes were alleged as that the Queen had been dangerously tures. was being reminded that armies could be and commanded by others. he had in fact coupled Essex in the last prologue Henry it with : But now behold. now out of the realm. Early next morning 3.000 assembled at Mile End where they were exercised all day. How London doth pour out her citizens. The mayor and all his brethren in best sort. A week later the alarm was found to have been groundless. Shakespeare was thus led back to history. and as a prelude to his next play he again read Sir Thomas North's translation of Plutarch's Lives of the Eminent Greeks and Romans. collected the 23rd August the forces were being dispersed and sent home.

as given in Plutarch's Lives. He might have tried a play on the older pattern of the "Life and Death of Julius Caesar. until all who had participated in that tragedy were also dead Cassius. or indeed. that his interest in the story was less in the great Caesar than in the murderers. With Go the plebeians swarming at their heels. did not end with his death. Brutus and Antony was not easy material for a play. One passage especially was important. Cleopatra and young Octavius alone was left to survive. for Plutarch was as interested in personality and motive as in achievement. from Ireland coming. of Caesar. Caesar's story however. from reading the Lives of Antony and Octavius Caesar. as Shakespeare realised. How many would the peaceful To welcome him ! city quit." showing a number of the more exciting episodes in the hero's life. As in good time he may. and a drama as he schemed it their characters. The was exceedingly complex. forth and fetch their conquering Caesar in : As. He found. [181] . It was of character waged over Caesar's body. and culminating according to formula in his murder in Act V. by a lower but loving likelihood. and the history story. there were too many incidents. Brutus. and here Plutarch gave him most valuable hints. Were now the general of our gracious Empress. unlike most.THE GLOBE Like to the senators of the antique Rome. Antony. too. To make a good drama it must be vastly simplified. Bringing rebellion broached on his sword.

For. but the lean and whitely-faced fellows. the story was to be simplified into a clash of personality be. and to have suffered his glory and authority. clapping his hands on his breast. he answered that these fat long-haired men made him not afraid. inbeing brought him one day. wrote Plutarch. if he could have contented surely (in my himself for a time to have been next unto Caesar. At another time also when one accused Brutus unto him. and that Cassius hated the tyrant . he trusted his good nature telligence and fair conditions. Yet on the other side also. authority and friends. Shakespeare Caesar. to consume with time. which he had gotten by his great victories. he incensed Brutus against him. that Antonius and Dolabella did conspire against him. and bade him beware of him: What. It is also reported that Brutus could evil away with the . Here then was the motive of the drama . therefore and later with went through his [182] . and hating Caesar privately more than he did the tyranny openly. And opinion) I am persuaded that Brutus might indeed have come to have been the chiefest man of Rome. But Cassius." tyranny. being a choleric man.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Caesar did not trust Brutus overmuch. tween Brutus and Cassius with Antony.* said he again. 'think ye that Brutus will not tarry till this after body die?' meaning that none but Brutus him was meet to have such power as he had. meaning by that Brutus and Cassius. "nor was without tales brought unto him against him: howbeit he feared his great mind.

the incitements to Brutus to awake. how Brutus was incensed against Caesar . the omens and portents. . Brutus' sparing of An- him tony. the death of Cinna the poet the revenge of Caesar's death and . Brutus' speech after Caesar's death. . done it willingly. As. that of all [183] . shew it then by giving me 5 / These were Brutus manner of letwillingly . Antony's testimony of Brutus "that he thought.THE GLOBE Plutarch to separate those episodes which were rele- vant to the theme. besides that he could also plead very well in Latin. "But for the Greek tongue. he wrote unto the Pergamenians in this sort. which were honoured for their briefness/' Shakespeare found also the characters of Brutus and Cassius. that he counterfeited that brief the Lacedaemonians. From the Life of Brutus he noted that Brutus was properly learned in the Latin tongue. that Flavius and Marullus tore the diadem from Caesar's that image. Cassius' arguments to bring into the conspiracy . and her behaviour before the murder. Antony's funeral oration for Caesar. if against your wills. Portia's speeches with her husband. Artemidorus' warning. 1 understand you have given Dolabella money: if you have you confess you have offended me. Calpurnia's forebodings. the appearance of his ghost before Philippi. ters. and was able to make long discourse in it. the triumvirate. the murder of Caesar. they do note in some of his epistles. In the Life of Caesar he found Antony offered the crown to Caesar. compendious manner of speech of when the war was begun.

" so to his A few pages later he took the account of the quarrel between Brutus and Cassius. there was none but Brutus only that was moved to do it. but that all the other conspirators did conspire his death for some private motive or envy. The Life of Antony yielded further details of the funeral oration. as it is to be seen by his writings. and with such clear indications of character and episode. the second battle of Philippi. who were normally accustomed to lard their discourse with [184] . In one respect. so that he fell back upon the convention of stage tyrants. and the honourable burial given to Brutus' body. however. Plutarch was disappointing. Hereby it appeareth that Brutus did not trust much to the power of his army as he did own virtue. there remained only to assemble the play and out the scenes. Cassius' and Brutus' opinions about the battle of Philippi . proscription. and though he related a number of anecdotes and sayings of Caesar's weaker side there was not much which revealed the greatness of the man in the last months of his life.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK them that had slain Caesar. Lucilius' fidelity. Cassius fatal error and death at the hands 5 of Pindarus. Shakespeare found some difficulty in imagining a character who was so far from his own experience. Brutus' suicide. His Life of Julius Caesar fill to was somewhat cold. Portia's death. Cassius' epicureanism. as thinking the act commendable of itself. that they otherwise did bear unto him. On the whole Plutarch served Shakespeare well.

free nature. This stiff Caesar amused him. We are two lions litter'd in one day. and was indeed Hereafter the Chamberlain's pany with Jonson. Shakespeare altered the passage. but when Csesar turned aside the petition of Metellus Cimber with "Caesar did never wrong but with just cause/' he broke into laughter. They enough of his theories of comedy and parted comhad heard more than his outspoken Men [185] . In Jonson's presence Shakespeare's genius was rebuked . for all the had time to train world like one of our English ships circling a Spanish galleon. And I the elder and more terrible : And Caesar shall go forth. Caesar shall not . Jonson for his part was conscious of another kind of superiority.THE GLOBE "sentences" and to speak pompously of themselves in the third person: No. he recognised Jonson's greater book learning nor was he allowed to forget it but his wit was nimbler and he could sail round Jonson and get in his shot long before the heavier vessel his guns. Jonson came to hear the play with the sneer that a man who knew little Latin and less Greek was illfitted to write upon a Roman theme. These two reacted curiously on each other. Danger knows full well That Caesar is more dangerous than he. He sneered at Shakespeare's assumption of gentility. but with a sense (which he seldom admitted) that the man had an open and generosus.

would gladly have him back. And when the play was over he would stroll to exchange courtesies and compliments with the gallants sitting in the Lords* rooms over the back of the stage. a young woman of Tavistock. On the afternoons when his plays were being performed he would sit conspicuously in the gallery. and one would nudge another and whisper. Then everyone and peer at him. that's he. so that spectators were dis- tracted and the players irritated.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK gibes at their art. but not to write injury. one George Strangwidge. If they did not appreciate the Admiral's about the humours. was in love with her father's manager. He made a nuisance of himself in the theatre. ten years before. but her parents. on leaving Tavistock and going to live in Plymouth. Eulalia Glandfield. "That's Jonson. He was becoming insufferable with conceit at the flattery of the young gentlemen of the Inns of Court. that's he that pens and purges humours and dis- would rise orders/' So Jonson left the Chamberlain's with a sense of him at the Globe. Two minutes' walk and he was at the Rose. It was the familiar tragedy of the miseries of enforced marriage. and wince and writhe when the actors failed to give the exact effect to his lines upon which he insisted at rehearsal. decided that it would be more convenient [186] . where the Admiral's indeed had work for him. They set him to collaborate with Dekker on a stage version of the tragic story of Page of Plymouth which. had horrified all England.

They hired two and in the night Page was strangled. Essex noted that in his eight years of military service during which he had never continued in the field [187] . but general sympathy was. Meanwhile they had drawn Chettle into partnership to dramatise the tragedy of Robert the Second. Strangwidge and the two accomplices were arrested and duly hanged. The partnership with Dekker was brief. was more lavish than ever with his knighthoods. Eulalia pretended that her husband's death was sudden and natural. Eulalia. Jonson did not remain long with the Admiral's and at the end of September he betook himself off where his parts would be better appreciated. At Rouen and Cadiz. on 8th September and Jonson and Dekker shared 8 between them. so that it was much Irish news continued scanty. but inquisitive neighbours found signs of a struggle. with the girl. but both men had abundant time to take stock of the other's little failings. in Ireland by the half hundred.THE GLOBE to themselves if the girl married a wealthy old widower called Page. he had knighted by the dozen and score. Eulalia found married life with the old man so loathsome that she plotted with her assassins make away with him. on the whole. King finished The play was of Scots. The murder was horrible and provided good copy for a pamphlet and three ballads. It was a good dratrue love to matic story.

returned at 1 1 He [188] . came over with letters which he presented to Queen in person. It through the presence and the privy chambers. however. Essex's secretary. and dismissed him to and remained in private talk till afternoon. Then he went away to dinner where he discoursed to an admiring audience of courtiers and their ladies. Without waiting to change his clothes or wash his face of the mud of travel Essex passed up into the Queen's bedchamber. had concluded a truce with Tyrone. He brought the news that Essex. They crossed with their horses by the ferry and spurred on to Nonsuch. She received him graciously. and was 10 o'clock in the morning. He answered her criticisms to some extent satisfied her but the reports of Essex's discontent showed that he was in a dangerous and rash temper. was heard of any decisive actions against Tyrone. A week later with- out warning Essex himself suddenly rode into Westminster with some of his followers.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK for six months together he had made more knights than were in all the realm besides. The Queen was still at her toilet. The captain was sent back with all speed with the Queen's angry repudiation. Nothing. after a long conference in private. change his clothing. and it was generally known that at Court his failures had called down stinging rebukes from the Queen. A few hours later a captain the and arrived at Court with a private letter for the Queen. In the middle of September Cuffe.

in private with the was commanded Next afternoon he was closeted Council. including Jonson's two comedies of humours. great fear fell upon the City at this sudden The Admiral's men their competitors at the lain's fine soon began to suffer from Globe where the Chamberhad the advantage of the new house and a range of successful plays.THE GLOBE After dinner the Queen's mood changed. the two parts of Henry the Fourth. Oldcastle would have a twofold it would attract some who ex- [189] . the the Fifth and As You Like It. After two hours' ques- tioning the Lords of the Council reported to the Queen. At this crisis it occurred to some- and one that there might be further profit in the story of Falstaff. listened to the applause given to those detestable Falstaff plays. The rivalry between the two companies was keen even when they had been separated by the river new Henry and the city. The Queen's command came back that Essex should remove from Court and be committed to the charge of the Lord Keeper. not Falstaff himself but the original Oldcastle who had been so hastily renamed. now the Admiral's people passing them by on their men watched the way to the Globe. and later he came to York House by coach. A turn. play A treating of the real chance of success. and dismissed him to make his explanations to the Council. Late that night he to keep his chamber. When Essex returned to her presence she began to ask questions.

Many rumours came from those who hung about the Court. the Earls of Southampton and Rutland. In so hasty a compilation fine verse was scarcely to be expected. movement. The Queen was known to be highly indignant. the Attorney General had been sum- moned to Court. All through the autumn the affairs of the Earl of story The Essex were the chief topic of conversation in the taverns. even his servants were afraid to meet in public lest offence should be taken. avoided the Court and passed away their time in going to plays every day. They [190] . but castle. the Lord Keeper.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK pected another version of Falstaff and please others who had been disgusted by Shakespeare's gross misrepresentation of the Protestant martyr. and were at work on the second. was parcelled out amongst Munday. Meanwhile his particular friends. On 1st November the Admiral's men announced performance of The first part of the true and honourable history of the life of Sir John Oldthe first good Lord Cobham. By the i6th October they had the first part ready. Rehearsals began at once. bawdry and heroics. Drayton. the otherwise the mixture of elements was well blended. Wilson and Hathaway. It might even harm the Chamberlain's by raising the old ill feeling. The quartet of authors had done their work well. the Lord Treas- urer and Master Secretary were closeted with the Earl for three hours. and no one visited him. but no one knew what passed. full of noise.

whence he escaped by forcing the Bishop to part with his cloak. virtue shone above the rest. To stop which scruple. The villain of the piece was the Bishop of Rochester. Comedy was provided by the disreputable parson Sir John of Wrootham who trailed wench after him. councillor to youthful sin. prefixed Upon May The Argument we have in hand. and Bankside audiences had no love for Bishops. falsely accused. forgiven. he was released his to flee for safety into Wales. The play opened with a good rousing riot scene between the Lord Powis and Lord Herbert. gentlemen. Oldcastle himself was shown in a long series of exciting adventures. diced and quarrelled with the king unawares. let this brief suffice It is no pamper'd glutton we present. introducing a couple of comic Welshmen. Nor aged But one whose [191] . again accused and thrown into the Tower.THE GLOBE borrowed generously from Shakespeare. breed suspense and wrongfully disturb : peaceful quiet of your settled thoughts. The performance began with the usual prologue wherein the company self-righteously congratulated themselves that here was no tampering with history or the reputation of a blessed Protestant martyr : The doubtful the title. Henry the faction of Fifth reappeared in kingly dignity. and was pardoned in the true Harry manner. robbed purses on Shooter's Hill. and at the end. but still able to relax and to go disguised amongst his people.

and their effects were illustrated in a number of little realistic scenes. Fury and the rest came on as characters. One of the first plays to be produced at their revival was an old drama called Histriomastix^ which was brought up to date by Marston. disbursed a free lings to be distributed amongst the authors as a special mark of his delight. In November the Earl of Derby turned theatre manager and at great cost revived the company of choir boys of St. Plenty. Let fair It was a great success. Ambition. which showed in symbolical manner how the plenteous reign of Peace was destroyed by War. since the Marprelate the Children of Paul's. War. The affair. merit. Paul's had not attempted to compete with the professional players for the last nine years. and Henslowe. Honour. In whose true faith and loyalty express'd Unto his sovereign. It was an old-fashioned academical piece with innumerable personifications of the kind popular with young gentlemen of the University. whose history bore a remarkable resemblance to that of Poet Mun- [192] . and his country's weal. and followed by Famine. with Master Posthaste. and a virtupus peer .SHAKESPEARE AT WORK A valiant martyr. their poet. We strive to pay that tribute of our love. Peace. till Peace returned. Amongst the parasites of Peace appeared the players of Sir Oliver Owlet. Envy. who had gift of ten shil- been very anxious. Your favours Truth be grac'd Since f org'd invention former time def ac'd.

Marston's next play for the Children of Paul's followed shortly after. Marston." others. a and an orange tawny pair of worsted gilt silk The most important of them was Feliche. These players waxed insolent. from time to time the philo- sophic Chrysoganus appeared to brood over the follies of mankind. The play centred round Piero's court. T*he argument concerned two Italian Dukes and his son Duke of Genoa. and Antonio had been defeated by Piero. As commentator to this medley. was so firm an admirer of Jonson that Chrysoganus immitated Macilente's manner almost to flattery. great. at this moment. disguised as an Amazon. nor part of the play ended with a happy conclusion. a blue pair of velvet hose. and rejoicing to see himself "nor fair. a happy malcontent. commenting on the folly of fear'd.THE GLOBE day. nor rich. Andrugio boldly enters the court first The [193] . both were fugitives and found themtheir children. Andrugio. nor witty. who stood aside. it was called Antonio and Mellida. which included amongst the courtiers some examples of the courtier-like hu- mours. Antonio and Piero's daughter Mellida love each other. who was the fashionable ass with a yellow taffeta doublet cut upon carnation velour. and presumably died for their country. a green hat. and Antonio seeks her. but when War was in the ascendant they were pressed as soldiers. rapier. observing and stockings. such as Balurdo. selves on the Venetian shore with a price of 20.000 double pistolets on their heads. Duke of Venice.

methinks. [194] . and drizzling sleet Chilleth the wan bleak cheek of the numb'd earth. a sullen tragic scene Would suit the time with pleasing congruence. ! If any spirit breathes within this round. shuts his apprehensions Pierc'd through with anguish pant within this ring If there by any blood whose beat is choked . although the prologue began : The The rawish dank of clumsy winter ramps fluent summer's rein . we proclaim. May we be happy in our weak devoir. But if a breast NaiFd to the earth with grief if any heart sense of : . apparently courage. In the sequel. and From common up what men were and are. Even connoisseurs of the tragic scene can hardly have been prepared for the direful contrast. Who would not know what men must be let such Hurry amain from our bleak visaged shows We shall affright their eyes. nuzzled 'twixt the breasts of happiness) Who winks. Piero. the comedy turned into dismal tragedy.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK of his for the promised overcome by this noble reward. and pills the skin From off the soft and delicate aspects. embraces him as an ally and agrees to the enemy to offer his own head betrothal of Antonio and Mellida. Therefore. it was called Antonio's Revenge. Uncapable of weighty passion. Whilst snarling gusts nibble the juiceless leaves From the nak'd shudd'ring branch. And all part pleased in most wish'd content But sweat of Hercules can ne'er beget So blest an issue. O now. (As from his birth being hugged And in the arms.

Piero's motive is revenge. If ought of these strains fill this consort up Th' arrive most welcome. unbraced. Piero now woos his former love which rouses the ghost of Andrugio to denounce her and reveal the truth to Antonio. demanding vengeance. Mellida is cast into prison to await her trial.THE GLOBE And stifled with true sense of misery . which has been swelling for nearly a generation. Feliche stabbed to death and hanged in the window of Mellida's chamber to bring her chastity into question. letting the blood drip over Andrugio's tomb. and Andrugio won. there cuts the child's throat. In one night's work Andrugio has been poisoned. Mellida is brought to trial and declared innocent but when she is falsely told that [195] . favour will give crutches to our faults. Piero's hot son. Accordingly Antonio leads aside little Julio. The scene opens with his entry. or invention halts. That with unused paize of style and sense. Years ago he and Andrugio had been rivals in love for the Lady Maria. that our power O Could lackey or keep wing with our desires. Yet here's the prop that doth support our hopes : When Your our scenes falter. We might weigh massy in judicious scale. Strotzo his minion follows. Piero immediately shows his fearful nature. his arms bare and bloody. and a torch in the other. Antonio next disfool that he may watch guises himself as his mother's events unhampered. After this dismal preparation. a dripping poniard in one hand.

The tragedy was played in darkan accompaniment of flickering torches. and Marston made full use of its possibililittle theatre ties. They bind him in a chair. On the eve of his marriage Piero commands a masque and a banquet. [196] . Pandulfo (the father of Feliche). was looking on from debt is now paid. Marston's tumid style made him queasy. and Alberto his friend. was not pleased. horror and vengeance were well suited in this tragedy. Jonson. in particular it new came could be darkened. The plot- Vengeance is now ters contrive to get Piero alone. is carried out ready for Piero. nocturnal and dismal. she swoons and to die of a broken heart. it can descend satisfied that the fully Those who liked plays of blood. In the first part of the play Marston again paid Jonson the compliment of imitation.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK her Antonio is dead. now into being. and imitation annoyed him. The intimate had certain advantages over the playhouses. Antonio. so that a form of tragedy. however. plot together. He prefaced Antonio and Mellida with an Induction in which ness to the actors discussed their parts. pluck out his tongue and triumph over him : then they show him the limbs of Julio carved up in a dish. All the ghost of Andrugio while aloft. and at last when the vengers are glutted this with Piero's anguish they slay him. Marston's name also was added to the large catalogue of Jonson's dislikes.

and the false rumour went round that he was dead. The Queen was distressed. Public prayers were offered for him in some of the city churches. to the annoyance of the Council. So the century ended in general gloom and uncertainty. He grew The so much worse in December that his recovery seemed and by her comhopeless. the latter offering Old Formen played tunatus which Dekker had just completed for them. For their performance he wrote a special prologue and epilogue in honour of the Queen. At Court there the Earl sign that the Queen was relenting towards of Essex. This Christmas both Chamberlain's and Admiral's at Court. They reported that the was a quiet mind principal remedy for his illness and a change of air. who was reported to be very ill.THE GLOBE was no year drew to an end. mand eight of the best physicians were sent to hold a consultation upon him. [197] .

Here they prepared to erect a new playhouse. and extended to the middle of the [198] . The house was to be square. and in breadth 12 foot 6 inches. the second eleven. There were three stories.VIII THE LOST LEADER old Rose could HENSLOWE and Alleyn soon realised that the not compete with the new Globe. 1600. unlike the Globe which was octagonal. and the top nine feet in height. and as they meant to rival the Globe as near as might be. measuring in Peter Street to build the house for On 80 feet outside. Giles without Cripplegate. The itself was stage 43 feet wide. the first twelve. with four divisions for the gentlemen's rooms. between Whitecross Street and Golding Lane. The yard within was 55 feet square. but the two stories jutted upper forward ten inches over the lower. and contrived in all respects like those at the Globe. for the Chamberlain's were stealing their audience. they called them. 8th January. built of timber on a brick founda- tion. On the 22nd December Alleyn bought a thirty-three years' lease of a piece of ground about forty yards square in the parish of St. they drew up and signed a detailed contract. The only solution was to cut their losses and move away to a new neighbourhood.

Alleyn had made out a very good case for the new house and his arguments were embodied in the letter: the Rose was very inconvenient for the people in wintertime. and if any had been begun then to have it defaced. Giles without Cripplegate petitioned the Council against the new Theatre. The cost was agreed at 440. with carved proportions called satyrs at the top of each. offiit might con- cern. or roof. and all other whom justices. proceeded without interruption. except that all the principal and main posts of the frame and stage were to be square and wrought pilaster-wise. covered with tiles. requiring them to permit his servant to proceed in the effecting and finishing of the new house without any let or molestation. The Lord Willoughby and other gentlemen of the parish of St. and on the 12th January the Earl of Nottingham signed a general letter to the cers and ministers. Details of the fittings and decorations were also to be as at the Globe. The building. however. Nevertheless there was considerable opposition. Meanwhile Alleyn sought the approval of his patron. and on 9th order was sent to the justices of Middlesex to see that the intended building should be stayed. and the Queen was most favourably disposed towards him. March an Henslowe and Alleyn met the comin the neighbour- plaint by organising a support [199] .THE LOST LEADER yard. which did not include the painting. being protected above by a shadow.

The permission. Kemp provided a sensation. A week before. and lastly they would be contented to accept this means of relief of their poor because the parish could not relieve them. the stationer. John Wolfe to build a play- who was beginning was 40 in house in East Smithfield. Early in the year.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK hood. Lord George Hunsdon and Sir Robert Cecil that the building should be allowed to proceed. was rather a mark of the Queen's personal regard for Alleyn than an official approval of stage plays. and like other adventurers on a distant voyage he laid out money to be paid threefold on [200] . nor had the justices of the shire taken any steps to help them as directed by the late Act of Parliament. for three reasons: the place chosen was convenient and so far from any person They prayed or place of account that none could be annoyed. He bet that he would dance a morris from London to Norwich. including the constable and two overseers of the poor. the erectors had promised a very liberal portion of money weekly for the relief of the poor. that the playhouse might continue. was presented. They promised to contribute handsomely to the relief of the poor. tices and bound over called before the jusnot to proceed without special permission of the Council. insomuch that a counterpetition signed by twenty-seven of the leading inhabitants. however. Council therefore relented. and on 8th April another order was signed by the Earl of Notting- The ham.

his laborer. Here he rested for two days. At the gate a welcome in rhyme in the name of the citizens was given him by one Thomas Gilsive entry In the city the Mayor appointed wifflers to make a way for him through the press. On loth February. A thence to Ilford. The On [201] .THE LOST LEADER his return. John's Churchyard. Stephen's Gate. he went towards the cut he fetched Mayor's house. and to take a short a leap over the wall of St. much hampered by bad roads. he came on the Saturday to Bury. but by Wednesday 4th March he was at the gates of Norwich after nine days on the road. but he broke off his dancing so that he might make a more impres- on the Saturday. struments struck up. followed him to Bow. A vast crowd from the city and the country turned out to watch. Thomas Sly. A great fall of snow delayed his progress for the next five days. and after a further rest to Rom- ford by moonlight. which he entered at the same time as the Lord Chief Justice and proved the greater attraction to the crowd. where he made his first halt. Then he went back to St. William Bee and George Sprat appointed as referee to see fair play. he set out from the house of the Lord Mayor great mob just before 7 o'clock in the morning. In the second week. and with his way through to the great difficulty he pushed market place where the City waits with their inbert. By the end of the week he reached Braintree but went back to rest over the week-end at Chelmsford. accompanied by his servant.

He determined to dance over the Alps but it to Rome. rest with the however. Kemp came estly. yearly for the rest of his life. and a pension of 405. others back to London very well bets. The Mayor presented him with 5. he was admitted a freeman of the Merchant Adventurers. did not improve of the Chamberlain's men. ladies and gentlemen were waiting to give him a great welcome at the end of his journey. to show the measure of his great jump. He also made had first it. a more than nine days' wonder. his relations His success. encouraged him to plan a far more adventurous journey. When the Chamberlain's Men looked into the printed copy they found that Jonson had touched the play since they up had added some played a reference to Kemp's dance up-to-date topicalities to Norwich and some parodies of Marston's fustian in the mouths of Clove and Orange. and his buskins which he wore were nailed up in the Guildhall as a trophy.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Mayor with his worshipful brethren and many knights. Kemp was amply rewarded for his labours. He an unkind hit at Shakespeare's gentility. On 8th April Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour was entered and some weeks later was on sale at Sarjeant's Inn gate in Fleet Street. for in that scene where Sogliardo detailed the quarterings of [202] . but as a whole the dance had been an enormous triumph. satisfied with himself to collect his Some paid up hon- avoided him.

a gentleman could be sure of his company and not choked with the stench of garlic or pasted to the barmy jacket of a brewer. went mad. Katherine was pursued by a usurer who hired Mounsieur John fo de Mamon King to murder Pasquil. thinking him murdered indeed. their comedies were somewhat antiquated. It was a intrigue with a variety of complications. comedy of Sir daughters." The Children of Paul's were by this time well established. a courtier. But the shock of the loss of his mistress sent him until both lovers were cured other. but Mounsieur told Pasquil who pretended to be dead. Pasquil then met Mamon. forcibly took away his bonds and destroyed them. by the Edward had a man sight of each called Jack Drum who was in love with Winifred.THE LOST LEADER the coat of arms newly bought from the heralds the motto was given "Not without mustard. his daughter's maid. In the late spring Marston finished a new comedy for the Children. a rich but Edward Fortune had two boorish yeoman. and attracting the better kind of spectator. Katherine was constant in her love for Pasquil. whereupon Katherine. however. for they had not attempted to keep in advance of the fashion of the moment. to John Ellis. for in the singing school. which sent the usurer mad. Camelia and Katherine. [203] . but her elder sister chameleoned from Brabant junior. As yet. Sir mad too. called Jack Drum's Entertainment or the Comedy of Katherine and Pasqutl.

wherein he differed notably from Jonson. and Marston took the opportunity of slipping in a couple of jibes at Jonson in revenge for Clove and comedy according to the new Orange. When Brabant junior asked: how you like Brother. telling him that she was a courtesan. however. Mounsieur. It was one of Marston's more pleasing traits. But There was some attempt to write in this unlikely farce pattern. introduced the Frenchman to his who was overfond of pracown wife. to affect an excess of modesty and to criticise himself.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Mounsieur John was exceedingly lecherous and made love to Winifred. few moments later was himcensured as one of these bumbast wits: senior a [204] . But Brabant self a cork. was not entirely without his consolations. and truly expecting that she would send him hurriedly about the joke misfired. and the play ended with Brabant being crowned with horns. a husk. for Brabant senior. his business. She told him that if he would carry her away in a sack to his own chamber he should have his own will . tical jokes. you of our modern wits ? How who might of Antonio like the new poet Mellidus ? reasonably be identified with the author and Mellida : Brabant senior answered with the brief criticism A slight bubbling spirit. but when he opened the sack out jumped Jack and beat him soundly.

At length. the Archbishop moved that he might stand. and then that he might lean. however. That they surveyed our spirits with an eye Only create to censure from above . The Queen's treatment of Essex was severely criticised. they When. good do nothing but reprove. It had long been rumoured that he would be brought before the Star Chamber. The Lord Treasurer Buckhurst would omit the fine. When the learned coun- had finished. and from 9 in the morning till 8 at night Essex was obliged to submit to case rhetorical denunciations of his actions. a great fine. There were several excitements in June. imprisonment in the Tower. and the Lord Admiral would omit the Tower. was opened by Coke the Attorney General. and for the first part of the trial he knelt end without offering to stand. the members of the Council pro- posed their verdicts. especially since he was being punished without trial or demonstration of his guilt.THE LOST LEADER That arc puffed up with arrogant . The He behaved with extraordinary discretion and patience. and at at the table's last sel he was allowed to sit. and expounded by the Solicitor General and Francis Bacon. and at last on 8th June he was formally charged with disobeying his direct instructions whilst in Ireland. Sir Robert [205] . and dismissal from his high offices. The Lord Keeper Egerton was for drastic punishment. conceit Of their own worth as if Omnipotence Had hoised them to such unequaFd height. souls.

and dissolute living of great numbers of people. therefore. riotous. and since her Majesty took pleasure in them such persons as were meetest in that kind to yield her Majesty recreation needed playhouses to keep them in exercise. He submitted himself so patiently to the triumphs many of the spectators were to weeping at this piteous spectacle of the humiliation of one who so short a time before was of his adversaries that moved Fortune's minion. that the abuses might be put down and the moderation retained. The order began by reciting the new objections recently made to Alleyn's new house and the old complaints of the disorders caused the On 22nd of the they were the occasion of the idle. Nevertheless their Lordships recognised that plays were not evil in themselves. it was commanded that two houses only should be allowed for the use of comstage plays.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Cecil spoke wisely and gravely. It was further ordered that because plays were too mon frequent and called the people daily from their work [206] . and the Lord Chamberlain's men were permitted to remain in the Globe. Alleyn was to occupy his new house on condition that the Curtain was either ruinated or put to some other use. how respondence between the City and Council. which were now become formulae in cor- by stage plays. In order. month a harsh and drastic order reached the magistrates of Middlesex and Surrey from the Council. The decision rested with the Queen and Essex returned to his keeper.

Next it was the turn Wolfe the printer who could only plead that he had got nothing out of the book except a few copies of [207] . The Council accepted his view and Hayward was lodged in the Tower. nor to offend their patron who was a prominent member of the Council. or allowed to lapse into disregard. Three weeks later the Council returned to the matter of Dr. Hayward's book. and to commit to prison the owners of playhouses and istrates enforced them. for although these harsh orders of the Council were usually mitigated after a few months. censured for misgovernment. causing the nobles to become discontented and the commons to be over- was a taxed. for its theme king. and admitted that the Archbishop's speech supporting deposition was of his framing and not to be found in any chronicle. The Council added a third clause pointing out that their orders would be of little effect unless the mag- end they were straightly charged to see to their execution. so that the King is deposed and subsequently murdered. own The Attorney General then declared that the book was intended to reflect on the present times. This was a severe blow to the Lord Chamber- who Men.THE LOST LEADER to misspend their time these be allowed to play twice a two Companies should week and no oftener. and a Council for corrupt dealings. First Hayward himself was examined. and to this players lain's disobeyed the order. this was no time to risk trouble in the Star Chamber.

the Reverend Samuel Harsnett. continuing to his death. Then the Bishop of London's chaplain. or dedication. In the circumstances the Chamberlain's Men thought it best to let Much Ado go.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK and a fortnight's imprisonment. Burby and Millington also successful. They were only partially copy of Every Man in his Humour to Burby and Burre who entered it on the nth. Henry the Fifth^ Every Man in his Humour and Much Ado about Nothing. was brought up for examination: how came he He to allow such a book to be passed for the press? pleaded. and as before Wise. partners were also given the Second Part of Henry the Fourth. with much regret. The printers' sharks were again on the prowl this summer and at the beginning of August the Chamberlain's Men once more endeavoured to protect their rights through James Roberts. and he had allowed it without reading. On the 4th he entered in the Stationers' Register As You Like I/. [208] . They adorned their edition with a full-mouthed title page "The Second The same part of Henry the Fourth. that a gentleman of the Bishop's household had brought him the manuscript. was allowed to publish it. and passed it off as a mere flourish of wit. in partnership with Aspley. fair Jonson had sold a "conveyed" the wise called it a very bad version of Henry the fifth which they printed acquired without seeking permission of the Stationers' Company. without epistle.

For those that could speak low and Would turn their like own perfection to abuse. O ! never. With the humours of Sir John Falstaff and swaggering Pistol. were Lady Percy's words of lament for the dead Hotspur : He had And no legs that practised not his gait . copy *nd book. for instance. do his ghost the wrong To hold your honour more precise and nice With others than with him: let them alone. And him. unseconded by you. in speech. To In seem him : so that. to abide a field Where nothing but the sound of Hotspur's name Did seem defensible : so you left him. speaking thick. hath sundry times been publicly acted by the Right Honourable the Lord Chamberlain. Such.THE LOST LEADER and coronation of Henry the Fifth. his Servants. ! O miracle of men him ! did you leave. tardily. in gait. To look upon the hideous god of war In disadvantage . Written by William Shakespeare/' After all it As the troubles which fortunate book had befallen Dr. Hayward's unwas thought prudent to prune the text of some speeches which might seem to glance it too obviously at recent events. Second to none. He was the mark and gloss. O wondrous him In military rules. That fashion'd others. which nature made his blemish. The marshal and Had my the archbishop are strong sweet Harry had but half their numbers. Never. : [209] . humours of blood. diet. Became the accents of the valiant. in affections of delight.

But. And have the summary of all our which way the stream of time doth run are enf orc'd from our most quiet sphere griefs. And might by no When we We gain our audience.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Today might I. to show in articles. I take not on me here as a physician. suffer. I as an enemy to peace Troop in the throngs of military men . lines which might cause offence were [210] . died. And we must bleed for it : of which disease Our late king. And. the Archbishop of York's recital of the grievances of his party: Briefly to this end : Or we are all diseas'd . Our very Hear me more plainly : I have in equal balance justly weigh'd What wrongs our arms may do. grave. To diet rank minds sick of happiness Nor do And purge the obstructions which begin to stop veins of life. with our surfeiting and wanton hours Have brought ourselves into a burning fever. We see And By the rough torrent of occasion. my most noble Lord of Westmoreland. When Which time shall serve. But rather show a while like fearful war. being infected. what wrongs we And find our griefs heavier than our offences. are denied access unto his person suit are wrong'd and Even by those men that most have done us wrong. hanging on Have talk'd of Monmouth's Hotspur's neck. Richard. Almost 170 thus excised. would unfold our griefs. long ere this we offer'd to the king.

On Essex left London for a few weeks. but to my greatest wound ap- plieth nothing!" Essex came so suddenly into the Queen's presence. but if not. Essex began to ply her with letters in a strain likely cc Haste paper to that happy to touch her heart presence. If the Queen renewed it. In It was almost a year since Mountjoy was steadily driving the rebels back. Of the many favours which the Queen bestowed upon him.THE LOST LEADER 26th August Essex was summoned to York House. the Lord Treasurer and Sir Robert Cecil informed him that he was now at liberty. In September a new company of boy players ap- [211] . where the Lord Keeper. The grant would it then would be clear that she intended ulti- mately to restore him to favour. The soldiers were now disciplined and forgot to run away when the Irish appeared. but the real crisis of his affairs was at hand. It was the touchstone of his fate. except that it was the Queen's pleasure that he should not enter the Court without leave. The Ireland Lord contrast between Mountjoy's quiet determined com- was indeed petence and Essex's noisy ineptitude very marked. then it would be a sure sign and prelude of his ruin. the farm of the tax on sweet wines was one of the most valuable. and since then the Realm was existing without his active assistance. whence only unhappy I am banished Kiss ! that fair correcting hand which now lays plaster to my lighter wounds. expire at Michaelmas.

and no small embarrassment to Richard who was unable to use it after the Council's inhibition but was still obliged to find the rent.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK pcared. saying plainly. one of Mulcaster's pupils. and to satisfy any doubts that Burbage might bond Evans's son-in-law. came to terms and an agreement was signed on 2nd September whereby Evans took out a lease of the property for twenty-one years. who had been Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal since July 1597. The choir consisted only of twelve . by virtue of this power. an apprentice. Evans consulted Nathaniel Giles. A week before the farm of wines expired he wrote again to the Queen. had power to impress boys. therefore. and Salathiel Pavy. Giles. Alexander Hawkins. The private playhouse which old James Burbage had erected at such cost in '96 was still empty. gave security in a bond of have of the value of his 400. and the two agreed to set up a new company of Children. to take up boys for their company. The success of the Paul's Boys had aroused the envy of Henry Evans who was Lyly's partner in the management of the former Blackfriars play- house in the '8o's. The three. In this way they added to their company such bright chil- dren as Nathan Field. As Michaelmas drew nearer Essex's anxiety increased. at least eighteen or twenty were needed for a company of boys. and the partners proceeded. but [212] . as choir master. Evans and Giles now began to collect a company of boys.

and he had. the great advantage that he could pass as the national hero depressed. was most in the The chief [213] . too. She tactlessly. all who had cause to dislike their the government at a time of depression and heavy taxation made him the symbol of their discontent. Essex had many friends. were violently of his party. Most of the Meanwhile professional soldiers. Essex's friends brought to bear such pressure as they could on those who might influence the Queen. Sir Robert Cecil. hated him personally. especially those without companies. Shortly afterwards Bacon happened to be in her company. in London the citizens always greeted him with applause and demonstrations of affection. that if the observed sarcastically that of late the Earl of Essex had written some very dutiful letters. his would close in upon him. the Puritans re- garded him as champion.THE LOST LEADER creditors grant was not renewed. slighted and kept away from the Queen by the sinister intrigues of more crafty politicians. But if Essex had many noisy friends he had as many enemies. Some. Essex came back to London at the beginning of October to await the issue. members of the Council knew from ample experience that Essex was a difficult colleague and a bar to their own private interests. but what she took to be the abundance of his heart turned out to be but the preparation of a suit for the renewing of his farm of sweet wines. the Secretary. and that she had been moved by them. such as Ralegh.

Fulbeck wrote with a threefold purpose. they found occasion straight- way for tumults. History. could be without men of aspiring huas mours. and the vast hordes of vagabonds and masterless men would be ready to break into disorder and rapine if the social order should once be disturbed. and when sovereigns were murdered. at least. he said. sober men perceived that if his ambitious courses were not checked. Caesar was by Brutus. knowing that anarchy bred con- fusion and that the best fishing was in a troubled [214] . which was nothing but ambition. No commonwealth. These views were common.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Queen's confidence. tumults and civil wars would follow. revealed the great mischiefs of discord and civil dissension. he declared. A certain William Fulbeck compiled tions An Historical Collection of the continual fac- and massacres of the Romans during the period when the history of Livy ceased and Tacitus began. provocations and bitter the people at large there were many the interests of the common- wealth were vaster than the private grievances of my Lord. and declared the remedy. and some expressed them in writing. in spite of And among many who felt that words. he behaved with astonishing generosity and patience towards his rival. Outwardly. else it showed the cause. which was to live humbly in the light of the comone's equals monwealth with and not to plot against superiors in dark conventicles.

but he was secretly ambitious and hoped. Then it was announced that she would henceforth retain the farm of sweet wines in her own hands. Essex retired into the country. Essex was late annoyed and dismissed him. and especially since the season was so poor. as if the Universe were in disintegration. Amongst his own followers who had set so much hope on his good success. and not least to Cuffe. In the autumn [215] . It was a sad descent into bathos for one who eighteen months before had gone forth with such bravery and high hopes. it was refused. He did not remain for long in a mood of humble submission. There was no good reason for withholding them further. through his master. was entered on the loth Oc- Two more of Shakespeare's plays came out in the autumn. Fulbeck's book tober. The Queen kept her counsels until the end of October. Essex submitted to the decision and prayed only that he might come to Court and kiss her hands. Fisher published A Midsummer Night's Dream and Heyes The Merchant of Venice. This CufFe was a scholarly person in habits and dress. which passed for integrity. Cuffe sharply upbraided fortunes.THE LOST LEADER stream. and spoke with a blunt rudeness. and soon began to listen to his followers. and all the old standards overrooted and befouled. it bred a feeling of nausea and disillusion. When him as low-spirited and faint-hearted. to advance his own Essex appeared in the Star Chamber and admitted his guilt.

which was indeed not difficult for he was infuriated by a remark which the Queen let fall that an unruly horse must be abated of his provender that he it may the easier be managed. On the 13th December they were so rash as to kidnap a boy named Clifton as he was on his way to school. The boy's father was a gentleman. Cuffe approached Southampton and by his mediation was restored to Essex's favour. and once he became a poor man. they answered that he could [216] . Evans and his partner Robinson continued to impress boys the Blackfriars Theatre. he went to the playhouse and demanded the release of his son. When he said that he would complain to the Council. and as soon as he heard of it. as they had authority enough to take a nobleman's son if they wished. Then he began again to work on his master and to rouse his passions. to serve in their company. Evans and Robinson treated him contempcomplain where he would. and insulted by his enemies. he would soon be slighted by men.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Southampton came back to London from the Low Countries. and once more attached himself to his friend. forsaken by his friends. and neglected all by the Queen. And to annoy Clifton they thrust an acting part into the boy's tuously. In the middle of December there was trouble at Under cover of Giles' patent as Master of the Children of the Chapel. Cuffe said that clear that the was now Queen and his enemies were resolved to thrust him down into the extremity of poverty.

and when carried to the Queen inflamed her anger. Norden his departure for placed his faith in Essex. [217] . Their doctrine too was much noted for they preached boldly that the superior magistrates had power to restrain even kings themselves. Clifton complained to Sir John Fortescue and two days later the boy was released. One speech especially was unforan old woman givable. Essex came back to London for Christmas. The general alarm was increased when an earthquake shook Lon- don four days before Christmas. called Vicissitude rerum^ in which he set out his theory of the Universe. Essex's own words were un- guarded and wild. and at Ireland had put out in print a prayer for his good success. All comers were welcomed.THE LOST LEADER hand and told him to learn it by heart or he would be whipped. This mood was reflected in a remarkable poem written by John Norden the topographer. Worcester. as well as his old captains and gallants of ill repute. The noblemen of his party Southampton. Rutland. Now he published a poem on the mutability of the Universe. and was at once obvious that strange things were in preparation at Essex House. whose sermons attracted great crowds. and many Puritans and preachers. The incident it was not allowed to pass. he said that now she was her mind was as crooked as her body. Sussex and Bedford spent the days with him. It was clear that some vast upheaval was at hand. and the in- and terdependence of the whole heavenly system.

Stars to band in dismal factions. divine probations. many episodes in the legend and the most popular. Comets and strange impressions in the air: The tides and swelling floods were never such : The Earth doth Where erst tremble. when come. That some effect will follow of admire. In Countries and in Kingdoms. that erst did soar so high. to say it will retire. Manners. couching low. Time's wings begin to fly. chair. the Universe was growing tired. Dame Such changes never have been seen of yore. The Sun and Moon eclipsed ne'er so much . Nature's fearful alterations. worn down by ageing Time: We As And changing state. Too late. at the present see Time's And Strange signs are seen. if Time now did preach the Heaven's debate. Hideous monsters now possess the Nature's true begotten seed Sat truly graced in her proper weed. But the burden of Norden's lament was that order was passing. Nature doth impair. It was originally one of the of the siege of Troy. In such a general confusion of distressful moods Shakespeare set about a play for private performance on the story of Troilus and Cressida. and Lowes. as of late.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK the four elements upon whose balance of mutual antipathy order resisted chaos. and Religion's lore Never were prized at so mean a rate: Such are the changes of this Earth's estate It may Now be said. which [218] .

and Pandarus her uncle had given his name to all gobetweens. he took over the winning and losing of Cressida from an older play. and he added to the story of Achilles' quarrel with Agamemnon. let not the peasant-corn- [219] . the problems. and turning over the title leaf he came upon this dedicaliving instance of the Achilleian virtues eternized by divine Homer. Troy story was intensified by the publication in the summer of 1598 of Chapman's translation of Seven Books of the Iliades of Homer.THE LOST LEADER had been retold again and again. tion "To the most honoured now the Earl of Essex. Orestes Furies. Troy's Revenge." Reading further in the dedicatory epistle he found this apostrophe "Most true Achilles (whom by sacred prophecy Homer did but prefigure in his admirable object) and in whose unmatched virtues shine the dignities of the soul. and the whole excellence of royal humanity. Interest in the Prince of Poets. To this book Shakespeare naturally referred for the story of the wrath of Achilles. chose to make his plot twofold. Earl Marshal. so that Cressida was passed into a synonym for light of love. it There had been a spate of plays on classical stories in the last eighteen months. personal and national. however. Shakespeare. 9 Agamemnon. More- over the zeal for stories of Greece and Rome was not entirely disinterested. the Admiral's men alone had produced Brute. of the past bore on present difficulties. etc. and a version of Troilus and Cressida by Dekker and Chettle.

He read on." renowned and blameand vicious Arrogancy and Detrac- Chapman was and Achilles writing these words in the spring of "98 truer prophet than he knew. story of Troilus The Shakespeare wrote the first acts of his play at [220] . that pamper not burying quick in their their own sen- sualities. Chapman insisted on the parallel as the former Achilles : had Homer to eternise him. whatever he might have intended. in no mood for romance." So Chapman identified Achilles with my Lord Essex. and piety. as reflections of his Shakespeare was thus forced to see the old stories own time. and as he wrote he his mind of the perilous stuff which was the obsession of himself and those. and Shakespeare. becoming like himself. stir your divine temper from per- severance in godlike pursuit of Eternity. so "help then Achilles to prefer and" defend your grave less Prophet of Phoebus from the doting fury of the two Atreides tion. that count all things servile and simple. with his Patroclus his Thersites. were queasy at Time's alterations. There was no marriage of two minds here. unpacked and Cressida could be made Chaucer made it so. filthy sepulchres of virtue the earth.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK mon politics of the world. for this modern was sulking in his tents. the whole bodies and souls of honour. found the present significances of the story of Achilles thrust under his eyes. but Shakespeare was romantic. who.

shall from mine eyes appear. wooing : Things won are done. Office. Then Shakespeare transferred his scene to the Grecian camp with the generals in council. holding out until she might have him at the very summit of his passion : I off. Nestor follows with the old man's complacent sentiment that ill fortune is the test of valour. in all line of order: [221] . course. Yet hold : Therefore this Achievement is maxim out of love I teach command . form.THE LOST LEADER white heat. His Troilus was lust mad. and custom. and place. beseech : : Then though my Nothing of that heart's content firm love doth bear. And then Shakespeare through mouth of Ulysses unbosomed himself of the present bitterness. as chief in command. All these troubles come because the men refuse to conform themselves to the pattern of the Universe: The heavens themselves. hopes are failing. Agamemnon. Insisture. checks and disasters grow in the veins of the highest reared ac- tions. Women are angels. that ever knew Love got so sweet as when desire did sue. ungain'd. and this centre Observe degree. joy's soul lies in the doing: That she belov'd knows nought that knows not this : Men prize the thing ungain'd more than it is That she was never yet. the planets. and Cressida a natural whore. priority. season. regards these things as the protractive trials of Jove to find persistive constancy in man. Everything falls out wrong. proportion.

what mutiny. changes. hark! what discord follows. right and wrong ! ! Between whose endless jar justice resides Should lose their names. Power And an universal wolf. crowns. The prhnogenitive and due of birth. the bounded waters Should lift their bosoms higher than the shores. posts. into will. or rather. rend and deracinate The unity and married calm of states Quite from their fixure O when degree is shak'd. frights. The enterprise is sick. What raging of the sea. Degrees in schools. Must make perforce an universal prey. Peaceful commerce from dividable shores. shaking of earth. like the commandment of a king. And. Which is the ladder to all high designs. [222] . appetite. Then everything includes itself in power. And make a sop of all this solid globe : Strength should be lord of imbecility.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK And therefore is the glorious planet Sol In noble eminence enthroned and spher'd Amidst the other . crack. Sans check to good and bad : but when the planets evil mixture to disorder wander. whose med'cinable eye Corrects the And In ill aspects of planets evil. And the rude son should strike his father dead : Force should be right. But by degree. each thing meets In mere oppugnancy . What plagues. and so should justice too. laurels. and brotherhoods in cities. will into appetite. stand in authentic place? Take but degree away. untune that string. So doubly seconded with will and power. sceptres. Prerogative of age. horrors. Commotion Divert and in the winds. How could communities. and what portents.

he by the next. . is for the romantic solu- what she doth tion. That next by him beneath so every step. and then paralleled by another council in Priam's court where Priam and his sons discuss the seven-year-old question of Helen. whom opinion crowns The sinew and the forehand of our host. Hector is for sending her back. with a purpose It hath to climb. : And all this since The great Achilles. Grows dainty of his worth. Exampled by the first pace that is sick Of his superior. when Paris Brought a Grecian queen. grows to an envious fever Of pale and bloodless emulation And 'tis this fever that keeps Troy on foot. and in his Lies mocking our designs. Great Agamemnon. tent This long debate in the Grecian camp was followed by a patch of quick dialogue between Thersites. This chaos. To end a tale of length. The general's disdain'd By him one step below. his passion still unquenched. And this neglection of degree it is That by a pace goes backward. "she is not worth cost the holding. Follows the choking. when degree is suffocate. and makes stale the morning. Not her own sinews. Having his ear full of his airy fame. [223] . Ajax and Achilles. not in her strength. : Troy in our weakness lives." But Troilus.THE LOST LEADER And last eat up himself. whose youth and freshness Wrinkles Apollo's.

on the subject! and war and lechery confound all! to the dry serpigo The generals come without significance : to visit Achilles their who still treats them with contempt. it were base now to let her go. is After this passage of high sentiment the stage sundry. Now.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK they were for keeping her. and such knavery ! argument is a cuckold and a whore . That 'twixt his mental and his active parts Kingdom'd Achilles in commotion rages I And batters down himself: what should say? it He is so plaguy proud. that the death-tokens of Cry 'No recovery/ [224] . foes Whose present courage may beat down our And fame in time to come canonise us. And speaks not to himself but with a pride That quarrels at self-breath: imagined worth Holds in his blood such swoln and hot discourse. He makes important . such juggling. and upon the heroic argument to snarl : given to Thersites' scurrilous comments on all and Here all the such patchery. and comments were not Things small as nothing. a good quarrel is draw emulous factions and bleed to death upon. for request's sake only. and Hector is won over. possess'd he is with greatness. but Troilus touches his weakness with: She is A spur a theme of honour and renown to valiant and magnanimous deeds. Hector still urges a quiet consideration of right and wrong.

to be interrupted by Pandarus who shoves them into a chamber with a bed in it. the path . and as this was the climax of the story. The chat of the lovers is in light prose. Achilles stays Ulysses for an explanation. to have done. emulation hath a thousand sons.THE LOST LEADER Shakespeare was now ready for the meeting of Troilus and Cressida. shall In the Grecian camp it is agreed that Cressida be exchanged for Antenor and restored to her father. and the curtains are drawn over the consummation. a wallet at his back. dear my lord. pass Then the generals. At last Pandarus places Troilus ready and then he leads in Cressida with greasy chuckles of satisfaction. by him with deliberate coldness. charged with double suggestion. is to hang out of fashion. but it swells into verse as the pair swear true constancy to each other. and again Shakespeare used the character for his own essay on Time's mutabilities: Time hath. For : [225] . Take the instant way. like a rusty mail Quite In monumental mockery. my lord. which are devour'd As fast as they are made. Wherein he puts alms for A great-siz'd monster of ingratitudes : Those scraps are good deeds past . For honour travels in a strait so narrow Keeps honour bright : Where one but goes abreast keep. like some bawdy fanner introducing a stallion to his filly. he led up to it deliberately. then. forgot as soon As done : perseverance. oblivion. seeing Achilles in his tent.

That all with one consent praise new-born gawds. Early next morning. Lie there for pavement to the abject rear. charity. In the Greek camp she greets the warriors with easy [226] . Or hedge aside from the direct forthright. And give to dust that is a little gilt More laud than The present eye gilt o'er-dusted. as he would fly. desert in service. like a fashionable host. but before he has bidden farewell to Cressida. Like to an enter'd tide they all rush by And leave you hindmost . Troilus must away. and goes off with Diomedes. calmly. praises the present object. Though they are made and moulded of things past. ! O For beauty. welcome ever smiles. Grasps in the comer : than yours in past. most o'ertop yours . And with his arms outstretch'd. : Or. but she parts is. wild with grief night has been too brief. friendship.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK That one by one pursue if you give way. a little resentful at Troilus' insistence that she shall be true to him. Love. vigour of bone. And farewell goes out sighing. High birth. wit. like a gallant horse falFn in first rank. Though less For time is That slightly shakes his parting guest by the hand. One touch of nature makes the whole world kin. are subjects all To envious and calumniating time. let not virtue seek Remuneration for the thing it was . JSneas is at hand with the message that Cressida must be sent to her father. O'errun and trampled on : then what they do in present. Cressida for the first for a time.

her foot speaks . her wanton spirits look out At every joint and motive of her body. After the culmination of this bitterness the conclusion of the play was huddled up in confused [227] . Shakespeare went further in this purgation of and in the Cressida story he erupted those disgusts at bodily love. That give a coasting welcome ere it comes. her cheek. And wide To every For unclasp the tables of their thoughts tickling reader. After supper Diomedes company. to square the general sex Cressid's rule. and faithlessness which from time to time would come over him with an overpowering nausea. set them down sluttish spoils of opportunity And daughters of the game. The indecisive combat between Ajax and Hector follows and the Greeks entertain their enemies for the night. kissing them in turn and calling from Ulysses the bitter comment: There's language in her eye. so glib of tongue. apt. Nay. her lip. without a theme For depravation. his pent-up emotions. Ulysses and Troilus follow to watch as sense of physical slips away from the Cressida lightly gives Troilus' love gift to his new bedmate : Let it not be believ'd for womanhood ! Think we had mothers . O! these encounterers. do not give advantage To By stubborn critics.THE LOST LEADER familiarity. and lust.

wearied with while he the fighting. a note of pity and sadness. lays aside his sword and helm. The theme of this play was not the death of a hero but lechery and incontinent varlets. a rueful com- ment on his own trade. Patroclus Achilles is is slain and his body taken to who at last roused. with an eulogy. and is resting Achilles and his myrmidons come : upon and kill him in cold blood and this was your most true Achilles. [228] . dignified and noble for dead Hector. So he left it to Pandarus to have the last word.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK alarums. At any other time Shakespeare would have ended the play on a tragic level. Hector.

and. Three of the children came on. and one of them in spite of opposition *gave a brief outline of the plot. It was a very necessary concession to the spectators who would otherwise have found some difficulty in following such story as there was. [229] . the winter Jonson finished another play which It was called Cynthia's Revels. and the prologue was at last allowed to have his condescending say. and was the most elaborate portrayal of the humours that he had yet attempted. flattery of Queen Elizabeth. and satire of the foolish amusements and habits of the gentlemen and ladies about the Court. In form the play was after Lyly's model. The boys then mimicked some of the antics of fashionable spectators. being intended solely for the delight of a very select audience. Jonson made no plea for patient hearing. the audience. in their own persons. but all ancient rules and common practice in the making of a comedy were neglected. Jonson again opened with the now fashionable device of the Induction. a gallimaufry of mythology. not the poet.IX TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES INthe Children at Blackfriars acted. was on trial. it was full of topical quips.

pride censure or discourse of anything. His fashion is not to take knowlyou edge of him that is beneath him in clothes. and said in so many words. following him in place of a squire. But although the plot was chaotic some of the scenes and character sketches were subtle and elaborate. uttered. Some had already appeared in slightly different guise in Every Man out of His Humour. He will courtier. In their new reincarnations they were more acutely delineated. nearer to identifiable persons. Gelaia. Anaides in the new play was described as one who had two essential parts of a and ignorance: "Marry. stabs any man that speaks more of the scholar than contemptibly [230] . He lightly occupies the jester's room at the table. one that speaks all that comes in his cheeks. the rest come somewhat after the ordinary gallant. a wench in page's attire. by chance. and will blush no more than a sackbut. that his poesy afforded Words above action : matter above words. whom he now and then tickles with some strange ridiculous stuff. Tis Impudence itself. but as absurdly as would wish. as his land came to him. He never drinks below the salt. and keeps laughter. Anaides.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK for he knew. for as Jonson progressed with his portrayal of the humours his method was changing from the construction of a type to the description of real people who were themselves typical. He does naturally admire his wit that wears gold lace or tissue.

without Asper reappeared as emulation of precedency. in the "a creature of a most perfect and divine temper: one in whom the humours and elements are peaceably met. tically He is neither too fantas- melancholy. swaggering. One other genuine quality he has which crowns all these. he will not depart with the weight of a soldered groat. or too volubly choleric. drinking. as it is clear Nature went about some full work. or punquetto. never kneels but to pledge healths. His discourse is like his behaviour. why they are nothing/' It may have been that Jonson was still practising taffeta the austere critical creed of your true satirist who spared the person and chastised the folly. He nor prays but for a pipe of pudding-tobacco. whoring. He strives rather to be that [231] . and such like. too lightly sanguine. half a dozen gowns. uncommon but not unpleasing. when she made him. he is prodigal of neither. in a pair or two of months. too slowly phlegmatic. but Marston thought otherwise character. or report him a gull: marry.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES is a great proficient in all the illiberal scias cheating. and recognised himself Crites. but in all so composed and ordered. to his cockatrice. and rison in to a friend in want. He will blaspheme in his shirt. The oaths which he vomits at one supper would maintain a town of gar- good swearing a twelvemonth. she did more than make a man. he. or satin kirtles. ences. lest the world that is this : might censure him prodigal.

Fortune could never break him or make him less. and if you like't. both freely . but as distant from depraving another man's merit as proclaiming his own. 'tis such. and is so truly learned that he affects not to show it. and our favour last. you may. a straight judgment. He is counts it his pleasure to despise pleasures. he hath too much reason to do either." It was an obvious and intentional Portrait of the Artist by Himself. Ben which was see his a symbolical forecast of the beatification of Saint inevitable once the Queen should comedy. The Epilogue was in the same temper as the Prologue.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK which men call judicious than to be thought so. Our eye doth read thee. the more thyself to see : be. that he dares as little to offer an injury as receive one. and that commends all things to him. Whom learning. virtue. and more delighted with good deeds than goods. he hath a most ingenuous and sweet spirit. He will think. [232] . a sharp and seasoned wit. 'tis good. Exempteth from the gloomy multitude. and speak his thought. and a strong mind. He doth neither covet nor fear. and the play reached its climax when Crites was presented by Arete to Cynthia who accepted his labours with gracious words: With no less pleasure than we have beheld This precious crystal work of rarest wit. With common eye the Supreme should not Henceforth be ours. For his valour. now instil' d our Crites . In sum. and ended with the boast: By God.

that he had [233] . that his good offices with the Queen were frustrated by the Earl's action in allowing his house to be visited by so many captains of by which caused him ill repute and ularity. In the New Year. was. He admitted. The Council therefore once though signed A. and made some surprising admissions.. who came in good will to visit more took up the matter of Hayward's Henry the Fourth. however. and such celebrity as he might win from publication. he declared. Sir Thomas Egerton. he did not intend any particular application to present times. The Attorney General had collated the book with the available authorities and found a number of statements for which he could find no historical warrant.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES Unfortunately Cynthids Revels was labour lost. and he was obliged to content himself with private performance at the Blackfriars. from his father. After Christmas the Council's apprehensions increased. encouragement of all comers to be suspected of aiming at popEssex replied haughtily that he saw no reahis son to reject those him. sent his son to salute Essex and to say. his own writing and though he spoke generally of the lessons of history. Hayward was now pressed for his sources. P. The epistle. Jonson's ambition of making a direct appeal to the Queen for her favours was thwarted. The play was not allowed to appear at Court. and on 22nd January a new examination was held in the Tower. the Lord Keeper.

he acknowledged that the details were of his own invention though he had found in Hall and other writers that Bolingbroke was of a popular behaviour. delivered in person by Master Secretary Herbert. Henry on the ground that it was lawful a historiographer to insert any passage from previous histories even if no other historian had menbut he for justified it tioned it. were importunate and when promised 405. and three more of Essex's particular followers came to the Globe. Essex himself and Cuffe were absent. It was all very suspicious. a passage conII. They asked that Richard the Second should be played on the following afternoon. declaring that it was unsafe. for his life was threatened. however. He refused to come. the players agreed.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK foisted into the reign of cerning Henry IV. Sir Charles Percy. A number of Essex's followers were present: Lord Mounteagle. Events now moved very quickly. to appear before the Council and to his secretary explain his intentions. Sir Christopher Blount. The gentlemen. the 6th February. On Friday. Essex's Steward. The players answered that it was so old a play and so long out of use that they would have small or no company at it. for he had just received a summons. from Fox's Acts and Monuments. [234] . Sir Charles and Sir Joscelin Percy. Sir Gelly Merrick. On the Saturday after- noon therefore Richard the Second was put on. Lord Mounteagle. Captain Thomas Lee and others. As for his descriptions of Rolingbroke's courteous manners.

Essex led them into the house and to his book chamber where he ordered them to be held till sent his return. Lord Sandys. gentlemen and others. and a [235] . but none offered to arm or to join them.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES Next morning about 10 the Earl of Worcester. who had promised to join him with a thousand men of the train bands. The Lord Keeper delivered his message that they were from the Queen to understand the cause of the present assembly and to let them know that if they had any particular cause of grief they should have hearing and justice. intending to make/ for Fenchurch Street for the house of Sheriff Smyth. Lord Mounteagle and a great gathering of knights. A barricade of carts was hastily erected. The Earl of Essex himself was there with the Earls of Rutland and Southampton. William Knollys and the o'clock the Lord Chief Justice appeared before the gate of Essex House. but without their servants. As he en! tered the City he began to cry out: "For the Queen ! For the Queen A plot is laid for my life. Sir Lord Keeper. This arrival of the Councillors was quite unexpected and a great clamour arose in the court. Meanwhile the alarm had been given at Whitehall. With a party of about two hundred men Essex now left his house and moved towards the City. They were admitted. As they entered the court an excited crowd surged round them." The citizens crowded out of their houses to watch his company as they passed.

instead his own company began to diminish as enthusiasm cooled into prudence. which he did resolutely and slew one but was himself taken. Essex and such followers as remained went down to the river and took boat to Essex House. the Sheriff withdrew quietly by the back door and offered his services to the Lord Mayor. When they ar- [236] .SHAKESPEARE AT WORK collected under the command of the Lord Lord Thomas Burleigh with Garter King Admiral. and a band of pikes when th^y came and musketeers waiting to oppose him. his complices to and Essex's hopes were soon disappointed. After considerable wavering. which he proposed to defend to the last. and imploring them to arm. Seeing that further action was helpless. of Arms hurried to the City and proclaimed Essex little army be traitors. The musketeers replied with a volley. crying out that England was being betrayed to the Infanta. Paul's the chains were across the street. Essex drew his sword and commanded Sir Charles Blount to set upon them. Essex appealed to the citizens. and in other parts the proclamation was repeated by the Earl of Cumberland and the Knight Marshal. When he reached Sheriff Smyth's house. No one came over to his side. but to the west gate of St. Essex and his company therefore left Fenchurch Street and passed down again through the City. he determined to go back to his house and bargain for his own freedom with his hostages.

if not. There was for some time desultory sniping from both sides and a few casualties. and between eight and nine o'clock. and he allowed the defenders an hour's respite to fortify the place of their departure. Before the hour was past Essex's mind was again was for wavering. The Admiral again returned that he would not discuss conditions. but knowing that the Countess of Essex. who was elderly. Lord Sandys. they would die fighting. INTERLUJLJjfcs had been re- rived. render. The Lord Admiral being ready to begin the battery sent Sir Robert Sidney to summon the rebels to yield. Cannon were and set ready to force a breach. but the position within was hopeless. The Lord Admiral sent back that conditions would not be discussed with rebels.TUMULTUOUS leased. declaring that if the Admiral would give them hostages for their safety they would appear before the Queen. to think of surfighting to the end . It was now dark night. There was no further resistance. Then with his own troops he seized the garden by the brought up from the Tower The Thames. The Earl of Southampton answered him boldly. and sent out that he [237] . but Essex began would yield upon conditions. the Lady Rich and their gentlewomen were within for indeed they filled all places with their shrieking and lamentations he granted that they might come forth. and the Lord Admiral posted his men so that the house was surrounded on the landward sides. they learnt that the Councillors royal forces closed in.

He mentioned his purpose to Sir Henry Neville. conceived the plan of seizing the Queen's person and forcing her to sign an order for Essex's release. The Council were still ignorant whether the rebel- lion was a sudden act of folly or whether some vast movement was not still to be expected in the counties. That evening Lee was seized in the Palace as he lurked about the door of the privy chamber. examinations were immediately begun and the truth of the matter was soon sifted out. Indeed she could hardly be restrained from going forth to outdare the rebels by her own presence. falling upon their knees. and Sir Robert Cross. the rebellion left her unmoved. delivered up their swords to the Lord Admiral.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK At ten o'clock that night all the noblemen came out and. Both sides had been taken somewhat unawares. after the rising there was a new sensain Essex's inner Captain Thomas Lee. As for the Queen. There were many prisoners in the various pris- ons. Even when a false report was brought that the City had revolted with Essex she took no more notice than if it had been a fray in Fleet Street. Four days tion. but they divulged it. She ate her dinner as on any other day. another military man. who was councils in Ireland and had already shown himself to be a desperate man. On Sunday the 15th a week after the rising -the preachers in every pulpit were told what to [238] . the ambassador to Paris. he was tried and condemned to death three days later.

The day after the trial Essex was visited by his chaplain. coming in arms into London to raise rebellion. being charged with the plot to surprise the Court. sympathies and advantages. their and interpreted their instructions according to own much tion. and on the l8th. Augustine Phillips. They made of the parallel with Richard the Second. and defending his house against the Queen's It was not a dignified occasion. Both Earls were condemned to death. nor indeed was berlain's likely that the Lord Cham- own servants would intentionally take the part of one in disgrace with the Court. who played upon [239] his feelings to .TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES say. the Lord High Steward and twenty-five of their their peers. Essex and Southampton were tried in Westminster Hall next day before the Lord Treasurer. Two of the pris- oners were examined concerning the affair. gave his version on oath. the Reverend Abdy Ashton. in the nearly 7 at night the prisoners wrangled morning with the Queen's learned counsel and their judges whilst their fellow noblemen smoked their pipes and refreshed themselves with beer and biscuits. and from 9 till forces. one of the Chamberlain's ers company. the Council took a very serious view of the playing of Richard the Second. Coming Hayward. The playwere considered to be innocent and no action folit lowed. At the Paul's Cross sermon there was a vast congrega- who expressed loud applause for the Queen's so soon after the latest examination of delivery.

Sir Gelly Merrick and Henry Cuffe.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK such effect that he underwent a complete revulsion. Sir Charles Danvers. The sentence of death on Southampton was held over. Very late that night the Earl of Essex was On warned Queen to prepare for death in the morning. They were all condemned. confessing his guilt and the justice of his sentence. but the Council were greatly annoyed by the ballads and lewd rhymes which were constantly to them. behaved with great piety to the end. There were no further executions. Danvers and Blount were beheaded on Tower Hill on the i8th. The signed the warrant for Essex's execution. and he remained a prisoner in the Tower. He was spared Shrove Tuesday the 24th February the Lord Chamberlain's men were summoned to play at Court. he too to the Council. No one dared show it openly. Cuffe and Merrick were quartered at Ty- burn on the 13th. He met his fate bravely. John Davies. had revealed much. and prompted by the divines who accom- panied him. and did not again change her mind. Eight days brought to later the five principal rebels were trial. insomuch that in April a brought early [240] . Sir They were Sir Christopher Blount. and learning from the facts which came out in the trial that his followers gave up many secrets for a few days. Although Essex's guilt and the justice of his death were amply shown to the world there was a very strong feeling in his favour.

When Jacomo. called What You Will. entered. one of Celia's suitors. clinging wife Celia to a lonely bed. It was discernible in Marston's next play for the Children of Paul's. It was a good lively story and Marston. showing all the conventional [241] . and dis- gusts. a Frenchman. was at heart an idealist. and at the climax of the complications the true and false Albanos confront the widow and all ends happily. realising time that even a comedy of intrigue needed live characters and real emotions. which was another com- edy. went to sea leaving behind his doting. infused it with not by a this little of himself and his own problems. and disillusioned agnostic. merchant of Venice. floundering to find balance between the real and the ideal. The other wooers to thwart the Frenchman disguised a perfumer as Albano. The news moreover was false. like many other outward cynics. 100 These tragical events intensified the general dis- illusion. and began to favour one Laverdure. he added to the party Quadratus the epicure.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES proclamation was made offering a reward of for information that would lead to an arrest. give variety and suitable comment. News came that he was drowned. un- braced and slovenly. for Marston himself. To Lampatho Doria the fresh from seven years spent in futile sophistries at the University. Albano. The plot was in germ not unlike the story of Ulysses. Immediately the widow was pestered with suitors.

is mews is 'hind thy back. accursed. or gorged to loathing. Hate riches wealth's a flattering Jack . Than man . It is the abject outcast of the world. dirt and nothing. reprobate to bliss. Hate beauty every ballad-monger Can cry his idle foppish humour. they are baits That 'tice men's hopes to sadder fates. in silent breath. come Signior Death.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK signs of the rejected lover. . Or pant with want. Suck up thy days When their snuff's out. Hate honour. None more vile. [242] . virtue . Love only hate. all men . Hate knowledge strive not to be overwise It drew destruction into Paradise. and 'mong men a scholar most. He He that firmly sped . affect Than praise of no higher Heaven. accompany Laverdure as he visits the pedant who is to marry him to Celia. Hate all things . Later Quadratus and Lampatho. a fire. wine. thyself. poor never shall be flattered. hate the world. They Latin come on the pedant instructing his pupils in the others have gone Lampatho is grammar. : : : Adores to face. Quadratus rounds on him with a tirade on love : Love ! Hang love. All things are error. moved to confide to Quadratus his disgust with Simplicius When and with himself: In Heaven's handiwork there's naught. with Simplicius an empty-headed gallant.

Shrunk up my veins . I was a scholar: seven useful springs Did I deflower in quotations Of cross'd opinions 'bout the soul of man. whilst I baus'd leaves. O hold. Delight. his barbarism. The more I learnt. and still my spaniel slept. Then whether 'twere corporeal. then he resumes: Honest epicure. fell by the ears amain Pell-mell together. Then. pored on the old print my Of titled words. Scotus. fix'd Extraduce . hold ! antic at that They're at brain-buffets. Aquinas. And every day augments So love me calmness. sot is blest. but whether't had free will Or no. And Of still I held converse with Zabarell. makes usance on't. bated my flesh. The vapid voice of Simplicius moment. for he had hoped by learning to find was mainly some solution for his intellectual problems. faith's foes. and it were mortal. I do envy him for't. turn faith about. ho philosophers Stood banding factions all so strongly propp'd [243] . local. list. Toss'd o'er the dunces. went on went I . and still my spaniel slept. still my spaniel slept.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES The cause of Lampatho's melancholy doubt. Delight. first an sit anima. still my spaniel slept. mark. the more I learnt to doubt: Knowledge and wit. spaniel slept. and the musty saw Still Donate . Whilst I wasted lamp-oil. but he ends worse than he began : The whoreson Is rich in ignorance. interrupts him for a Nay.

Of If the unbounded goodness have infused A sacred ardour. ! The other tissue gown. Makes my coy minx to nuzzle 'twixt the breasts Of her lull'd husband t'other carkanet Deflowers that lady's bed. StufFd noting-books . Marries that loathed blowze . and still my spaniel slept. If that clear flame deduce his heat from heaven 'Tis like his cause. at the second nuptials of his own wife gave Marston an opportunity for a speech on the contrast The appearance of between true and modern love: If love be holy . the real Albano. As is th' instiller of divinest love. A comic poesy The ! soul of man is rotten. . But thought. eternal. 'tis grown a figment. I stagger'd. if a mutual love. of those amorous joys. immortal maugre death! But O. quoted. One hundred more . [244] . or chain of pearl. Into our species. Spring from a cause above our reason's reach . if that mystery co-united hearts be sacrament. Unchanged by time. read. no sound affection. love a jest. one ten pound odds In promised jointure makes the hard palm'd sire Enforce his tender daughter's tender lips to start At the sharp touch of some loath'd stubbed beard . as yet undiscovered. observ'd and pried. always One. Those sweets of life.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK knew not which was firmer part . At length he waked and yawn'd and by yon sky. those comforts even in death. Even to the core Our love is hollow-vaulted stands on props Of circumstance. For ought I know he knew as much as I. or ambitious hopes . profit.

'tis now the age of gold. Heaven knows I lie For it the golden age. . and Jonson's gross arrogance were becoming intolerable. They fall to discussing those spectators who carp at plays. What leprous humour Breaks from rank swelling of these bubbling wits? Now out upon't. He an- swered them in a brief induction which should show that others too Atticus. nay. I cannot. I cannot smooth Heaven's my this strain . hark you. I wonder what tight brain. is't not odious ? Why. 'Slight. nay. Marston Marston kept his annoyance with Jonson out of the play except for an occasional significant speech. had their own Doricus and Philomuse critical sit standards. [245] . but Doricus interrupts him: Nay. and that which pleased most. but the insults of Cynthicts Revels. hope. is fled. crack rude scorn even on the very face Of better audience. concentrated his disgust in a loathing of sex and sensuality. like Shakespeare. and even virtue's sold. hold this firm: Music and poetry were first approv'd By common sense . honest Philomuse (You that endeavour to endear our thoughts To the composer's spirit). nauseated by the disharmony of the Universe. all marreth. also. and Philomuse breaks out with abuse in the Jonsonian manner. chatting on the stage until the candles are lit. to give stiff counter-buffs. Wit's death.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES The first pure time. honest. Wrung 'Gainst in this custom to maintain contempt To common censure .

and soon began to make vigorous [246] . is wit's distrust. I fear swiftly finished. Were shaped Think you to pleasure. too worse written. me worse acted. The best. Lest ought I offer'd were unsquared or warp'd. were I to pass Through public verdict. as I love the light. best seal of wit. for at the end of June the Archduke of Austria began to invest Ostend. plotted. must enforce the world to current them. That you must spit defiance on dislike ^ Now. and indeed What You Wzll" Will. "but even What composed. tragedy. the more we want : What Bayard bolder than the ignorant ? Believe me. Sir Francis Vere took over command of the defence with a force of English soldiers. not pleasure to your rules that if his scenes took stamp in mint Of It three or four deem'd most judicious.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Held most allowed pass know. slight ill You a toy. And to point a moral Marston next made Philomuse describe his play as neither comedy. a new danger threatened. lightly At home the excitement caused by the rebellion gradually subsided. Philomuse. In the Low Countries also. but there was a strong expectation that the Spaniards were about to send help which would be no small embarrassment to the Queen's forces. The more we know. In Ireland the Lord Mountjoy was making good progress and winning great respect from the professional soldiers for his competence and integrity. : rules of art . pastoral. i* faith thou must. moral nocturnal or history. I should fear my form.

Jonson had sneered casually at players in Cyn9 thia s Revels. The envious dogs must be taught to know their master. the report of the coming event was an- nounced to the Chamberlain's men. but. The Chamberlain's men there- Jonson was writing which would attack the players. Jonson did not take kindly to Marston's protest. Would these wretched poetasters never learn to recognise their betters? They taxed him with impudence. fore called in the aid of Dekker: [247] . not men.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES enemy and to beat them off with heavy loss. Hitherto he had been too gentle. now they should feel the He When would bring their humours on the stage. At the Fortune also the prospects were poor. Jonson heard of the new enemy and thrust him in with the others. The trouble over Richard the Second fortunately blew over without disastrous consequences. He was infuriated. for he too was a sufferer in this poor season. self-love and arrogance because they thought his merit as small as their own. lash. but more large drafts of reinforcements were continually demanded from home for counterattacks on the both campaigns. He had chas- tened manners. they took counsel. would he a play answer Jonson? Dekker was ready enough. It had been a bad winter. more important than words. but with no performances in Lent the year had been very lean. this was drawing away the better part of their audience at the Globe to the private houses. and few new plays were being quarrel produced this year.

This time he condescended to write a play after accepted modes. The play opened with Envy appearing from darkness to damn the. Thence. It is even sug- gested that he may be writing plays. The plot was double.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK After fifteen weeks gestation only. to young Ovid composing. a magistrate. and the theme that when wits and arts were at their height in Rome. much of his story was already written for him. Tucca complains. It was a brilliant notion. Horace and the rest of those great master spirits had no want of detractors. falsely accused before the Emperor. Virgil. after a defiant prologue. the prodigy was brought forth. and two upbraids his son for others. He wasting his time. and further. in the second Horace was pursued by various bores and parasites. and these players are an idle generation who do much harm in a state. in the reign of Augustus. author. A certain Captain Tucca (another of the Bobadil family) acted as go-between for the. for it gave Jonson ample oppor- tunities of displaying his vast classical reading. and at last triumphantly vindicated. and Poetaster or his Arraignment was then put on by the Children at Blackfriars. The scene was Rome. needing only translation or adaptation. "an honest decayed [248] . The first part showed the story of Ovid's amour with Julia and his banishment from Rome.two stories. which gave an opening for a translation of some forty lines from the Elegies. Why. Ovid senior enters with Captain Tucca and Lupus.

. revels and satires. They forget they are i' the statute. appear. Nescio quid meditans nugarum." answers the actor. the third act. they need no other heralds. for he would fain bring his cockatrice to see a play if he knew when good bawdy one. Horace is taking the air when Crispi- nus comes upon him. tofiis in illis . The real business of the play began in friends. I assure you. there were a [249] . makes him promise a supper. It was a witty dramatisation of the famous satire : Ibam forte via Sacra. there they are tricked. A player passes by. " Non In the second act the fashionable crowd of Ovid's with the inevitable wealthy citizen and his wife. and Horace slips away. was Jonson. they and their pedi- grees. and introduces him to Crispinus. At this juncture Tucca appears and goes bail. . and Crispinus. Captain. Marston. flat libertines." "No. Rescue comes at last when Crispinus is arrested for debt. you slave. sicut meus est mos. They are grown licentious. Horace. Tucca stops him. and asks what plays are afoot.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES commander cannot skedler. the rogues: libertines. "but they say you ha* nothing but humours. as everyone knew. cheat nor be seen in a bawdy house but he shall straight be in one of their wormwood comedies. where Roman Horace told how a bore fastened upon him and drove him almost to lunacy. they are blazoned there. that gird and fart at the time. I wis sanz droict still stuck in Jonson's throat. the rascals.

a dresser of plays about the town Dekker in fact whom the players have hired to abuse Horace and bring him into a play. All the sinners i' the suburbs We come and applaud our action daily. Virgil is introduced and persuaded to read a portion of the JEneid (translation by Jonson) but the reading is suddenly interrupted by the incursion of Lupus. or JEsop your politician but Frisker the zany may come. and they have need of than so it for this winter has made them poorer many starved snakes. They are on the other side of Tiber. and the act The concludes with a dialogue of passionate farewell between Ovid below and Julia above at her chamber window. [250] . fourth act returns to Ovid. and Mango. have as much ribaldry in our plays as can be. for it will get them a huge deal of money. a very simple honest fellow. Julia and his friends. They parody the gods in a licentious banquet. as you would wish. Captain. Ovid is cast into banishment. such as Poluphagus your eating player. In the fifth act do honour to poets. : but he must not beg rapiers or scarves." Tucca then insists that two of the boys shall give an imitation of stage players.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK "not we. Augustus and his Court meet to and not least to Horace. At this point the presence of Demetrius is noticed. This done. he returns to the matter of the supper and warns the player not to bring any of his objectionable fellows. but are interrupted by the Emperor Augustus himself.

They have discovered a dangerous plot. with humorous foam. and bespawls The conscious time. by A critic. and the soon turns the charge aside. my genius . the actor and various knights. Break his back. The Muse of Demetrius was is more homely : Our Muse I slip in mind for th' untrussing a poet. To have No . name. shall thy lubrical and glibbery Muse Live. O poets all. Horace lictors. that all the world bescurnbers With satirical humours. And throw abroad thy spurious snotteries Upon Or that puft-up lump of barmy froth clumsy chilblain'd judgment. and lyrical numbers : his [251] . for most men do know it. be not retrograde : But boldly nominate a spade a spade. Crispinus and Demetrius. and the evidence is a mysterious emblem found in Horace's study. The evidence is in their own writings. as she were defunct. What. The Emperor is then persuaded to order the trial of Crispinus and Demetrius as Horace's detractors. cothurnal buskins frighted hence. like Alas ! that were punk in stews? no modern consequence. and brawls As if his organons of sense would crack The sinews of my patience.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES Captain Tucca. that with oath Magnificates his merit. and here Jonson quite brilliantly parodied the slavering style of Marston and Dekker's trotting measure : Ramp up. and some for now we list : Of strenuous vengeance to clutch the fist. teach thy Incubus to poetize .

The players especially were indignant." and a host more. With much and more arrogance. Professional soldiers suspected that their reputations were being touched." "defunct. Jonson's pretence that he had avoided particular individuals was too [252] . And The could trace him too but that I understand 'em not full and whole. or detract the person or writings of Quintus Horatius Flaccus. "obstupefact." "glibbery. and." "magnificate. I know the authors from whence he has stole. best note I can give you to know him by him fear. but that I would not be thought a prater." "incubus. Horace administers an emetic pill which in a brief space relieves The Crispinus' congested verbosities. and the play ends ward malign. And. Lawyers too were angry. I would wish in time should Lest after they buy repentance too dear.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK And for the most part himself doth advance self-love." "lubrical. word of encouragement to Horace from and the conclusion that Envy will dwell where there is want of merit Though the deserving man should crack his spirit. Poetaster aroused considerable indignation. I could tell you he were a translator." "reciprocal. Whom Is that he keeps gallants' company ." Crispinus and Demetrius are made to swear that they will not hencefortraduce. and up come the offending words into Horace's basin "retrograde. final with a Caesar Augustus. with a final heave. offenders are found guilty.

The Rufus Adam story should have been tragic. It ten. Sir Rees ap Vaughan. Demetrius. taking over into Satiromastix English Horace. surnamed Rufus with his lascivious wooing of Celestine^ bride of Sir Walter Terrill. as Jonson's condescending superiority to the quality. and Captain Tucca.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES was not however only the actual words which galled them so much. wooing Mistress Miniver. but there was ample mud on the Bankside. He had no store of lines from Horace named barbed with double meanings. he The only plot on hand was drama of The Life and Death of had some scenes of low comedy concerning the of an ancient and not overscrupulous widow. a partly finished King William . They also arranged that the Children of Paul's should put the play on privately. Then he proceeded son. Sir Prickshaft and other gentry. Sir Quintilian Short- hose. rather in the vein of the Shoemaker's Holiday. well into Mistress Miniver's set. Dekker was soon ready with his play. was no Dekker brayed the two stories together and bodged up a to deal with Jon- happy ending. for all his air of learning. and before a bricklayer. Crispinus. Shakespeare and the Chamberlain's men urged Dekker to get on with the work. The coxcomb had forgotthin. or the untrussing of the Humorous poet. that within these four years he was himself a player. who fitted [253] . and second rate at that. with her rather dubious set of also friends. but as there place for Jonson by the side of a dead king. it was Satiromastix.

repetitions of phrase. good Asinius. with considerable effect. his "prithee. carefully prepared but discharged with an air of spon- taneity.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK In such a medley of centuries and countries it was quite unnecessary to observe any rules of decorum. prithee. his magazine of epigrams. the candle burning by him. however. Asinius Bubo. The poet was composing an epithalamium. do not flatter me. for they are sweet gentlemanly faced men who very mildly protest at Horace's arrogant indignation that squeama mixture of Jonson's Tucca. and Falstaff. The curtain in his study. but inspiration flagged." epithets: "thou thin-bearded hermaphro/' "ha' seen "my Saracen's head at Newgate [254] . with a rich vocabulary and considerable indignation with Horace. how V Dekker admitted the identity of Marston and 9 himself with Crispinus and Demetrius and brought them into his own play. and there he sat act. his little faithful satellite enters. Horace was introduced in the first was drawn aside. Simon Eyre. how?". his abuse of his enemies. deal plainly. and reproduced faithfully his mannerisms. particular men should take offence at his general censures. is not so In Dekker's version he is and nasty dite. whom he plentifully bescumbers with reminiscences ish. come. Captain Tucca. Horace's and the verses so far as the Muse has marched must be read to him. books lying confusedly about. how. his trick of fishing for praise with a modest "Nay. Dekker used his experiences of Jonson in '99 to good effect.

as thou dost thy taffety sleeves. but thou lov'st none. and not so lean a hollow-cheeked scrag as thou art. thou borrowedst a gown of Boscius the stager (that honest Nicodemus). No. "Thou hast no part of Horace in thee/' he cries. parboiled face. Horace was a goodly corpulent eyelet-holes. tacked to only with some points of profit. neither wise men nor fools.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES like sly thy shoulders lapped in a player's old cast cloak. and to look scurvily upon the world. like the cover of gentleman. Horace did not screw and wriggle himself into great men's familiarity." [255] . you staring Leviathan. here's the sweet visage of Horace. "but's name and his damnable vices. and when thou ran'st mad for the death of Horatio. No. and sent'st it home lousy. impudently. and a reasonable good face for a poet (as faces go nowadays) . Horace had not his face punched full of a warming pan. But look here. Look. and here Tucca grows very eloquent. nor wear the badge of gentleman's company. as thou dost. but thyself. Thou hast such a terrible mouth that thy beard's afraid to peep out. knave as thou art. by this I will learn to make a number of villainous faces more. look: Horace had a trim long beard. having the copy of thy countenance. Horace loved poets well and gave coxcombs to none but fools. did'st not?" Horace in revenge writes epigrams upon Tucca which so annoy the Captain and his friends that they carry him off to Court to arraign him before King William. as thou dost.

He whose pen Draws both corrupt and clear blood from all men. At last he wrote an apologetical dialogue between Nasutus. . What th' have done 'gainst me. let him not rave When his own sides are struck. Blows blows do crave. they were his own words : Non me verbosas leges ediscere. non Ingrato voces prostituisse foro. for these three years provoked by their petulant styles on every stage. and the episode with the words : is closed by the King Our spirits have been well feasted. Polyposus and the Author. or conscience. which was taken as sure proof that he admitted defeat. all the rest might have sat unquestion'd. Careless what vein he pricks. : me As for the players it is true. As for Ovid's remarks about the Law. Weary and misunderstood. [256] . And yet As but some and those so sparingly. still. To think well of themselves. But impotent they : Thought each man's vice belong'd to their whole tribe And much good do't 'em.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK They crown him with nettles and make him swear to behave himself in future with more discretion and modesty. Jonson was bitterly hurt and for some time kept silent. If it gave 'em meat. I tax'd 'em. he had but thought to try if shame could win upon them. Had they but had the wit. I am not mov'd with. He named no names. which the Children pronounced at the Blackfriars.

'tis well . The Admiral's perhaps would welcome him back. high and aloof. aspect. Safe from the wolf's black jaw. It from Henslowe for his additions to the old play. His quarrel with the players was with the Chamberlain's men. Nor were the proprietors of the Blackfriars anxious to make another appearance in the Star Chamber. Only amongst them. he would try if Tragedy had a more kind to their fate. by the rest so drawn. That must and shall be sung. The long-expected coming of the Spaniards to [257] . work for his tragic Muse. whereat the gusts of inspiration began to blow. and the dull ass's hoof. When he applied at the Fortune they had indeed was high time that the Spanish Tragedy should be redecorated and brought up to date. Jonson therefore parted company with the Children.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES Or got 'em clothes. Authority was in no mood for further public squabbling at this time." Nasutus tiptoed away in reverence. he would leave the monsters and since the Comic Muse had proved so ominous." said he. On 25th September Jonson drew 405. So the whirligig of time brought its perfect revenges to the sportive ghost of melancholy Kyd. and thereafter forbidden. he concluded. To run in that vile line. Here. "there's something come into my thought. I am sorry for Some better natures. This apology was only once spoken. "Leave me. that was their end.

and the proclamation was issued three days later. huge costs of the war which were rapidly mounting. "To be a King. They objected particularly to the growing abuse of the Queen's prerogative of granting monopolies in various commodities as a reward for service. them dren. The assembly was less docile than usual. infected with the general discontent of the time." she said. At Its the end of the month Parliament assembled. as usual. "and wear [258] . When the Queen learnt that the grievance was genuine. was to provide for the main business. for his men would be outnumbered iards. if and his men the Irish joined with the Spanwere in no condition to endure the miseries of trench warfare in the winter. Many of the members were young men. In a few weeks Lord Mountjoy had drawn his trenches round Kinsale and waited the collect his forces issue with considerable anxiety.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Ireland took place in October. On 3oth November the Queen received a large deputation of members who came to return thanks. artillery and stores. she sent for the Speaker and expressed great indignation that her grants had been abused. She spoke to them affectingly of her love for her people. He was told to convey to the House that the matter would be immediately remedied. Three thousand soldiers were landed at Kinsale. and they brought with and many women and chil- Then they set about fortifying Kinsale until Tyrone should and unite to destroy the English.

As the archpriest refused to listen to their entire submission complaints they began to appeal for the general support of the faithful. a tactless. Blackwell the archpriest was the Catholic priests. When Doctor Bancroft. for the seculars complained that most of the troubles which came upon Catholics arose because the Jesuits meddled in politics and engineered plots and attempts from abroad to assassinate the Queen. he began to obtained privileges for them and arranged for their books to be printed. He but late in the autumn there appeared four which gave the Bishop great satisfaction. The first books of the controversy were reasonably support the seculars. not a Jesuit. but he was under the influence of the Jesuits. and for the better regulating of their spiritual life.TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES a crown it is is more glorious to them that see it than a pleasure to them that wear it. dignified. for indeed it spared very particularly hot against the Jesuit doctrine of equivocation which caused intense dislittle. It was [259] . Bishop of London. For many months there had been troubles amongst Wisbech Castle was used as a place of internment for prisoners. particularly one inappropriately called A sparing discourse of our English Jesuits. Before long the bitterest feud broke out between the secular and the Jesuit priests. realised that this feud was likely to cause a split amongst the Catholics. tyrannical man who demanded from the seculars." Another controversy came to a head this autumn. an archpriest was appointed from Rome.

here's our : fellow Shakespeare puts them all down. During the holidays. brought Burbage and Kemp upon the stage to give a lesson in acting. and talk too much of Proserpine and Jupiter. said one of the young men. At Cambridge the Christmas play at St. as confident now in making a book as he was in times past in laying of a brick. himself to his old trade of bricklaying. Why. was the wittiest fellow of a bricklayer in England. and Ben Jonson too. Without love's foolish lazy languishment. John's College was called The Return from Parnassus: it was full of comment and reference to the stage and its affairs. aye. "A mere empiric. one that gets what he hath by observa- and makes only nature privy to what he indites. O that Ben Jonson's a pestilent [260] . This mimic Kemp had little use for the dramatic efforts of University later they A little men few of them pen plays well "They smell too much of that writer Metamorphosis." As for Shakespeare: Who loves not Adon's love or Lucrece rape ? line. Parliament broke up in time for Christmas. the Lord Chamberlain's players acted thrice at Court.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK like in England. to which another retorted. a bold whorson. for by condoning perjury it cut away the foundation of the English system of law. so slow an inventor that he were better betake tion. Jonson. His sweeter verse contains heart-throbbing Could but a graver subject him content.

TUMULTUOUS INTERLUDES fellow. verdict of young men upon the whole con- [261] . but our fellow Shakespeare hath given him a purge that made him bewray his credit. he brought up Horace giving the poets a pill." And this was the troversy.

The company had owned a play on the Hamlet story for the last dozen years and more. exuberance and waste. It was constantly being put on and brought up to date. It had been acted during the temporary amalgamation at Newington Butts in '94. the early months of autumn he took up the old tragedy of Hamlet and rewrote it. That play told the story of little in Shakespeare wrote the year. In Hamlet a son revenged his murdered father.X THE TRAGEDY OF HAMLET THE ert. tragedy of the decline and fall of RobEarl of Essex. and again in '96 at the Theatre. hubris and nemesis. [262] . Here was true tragedy. was stirred even more profoundly than most. The play pleased the wiser sort as well as the groundlings. to whom one of the protagonists had meant so much. Originally it was a rival piece to The Spanish Tragedy. had roused more excite- ment and emotion than any event since the defeat of the Great Armada in '88. for it touched on problems of policy and philosophy which were beyond the comprehension of the multitude. but in the late how the father of a murdered son took vengeance on the murderers. and Shakespeare.

In the plot was divided into was murdered.THE TRAGEDY OF HAMLET there was so completely that little. Hieronimo's ghastly dramatic revenge was a very artistic business. Kyd stressed the infernal aspect of vengeance. A greater effect [263] . pay fuller measure than he gave in world and perish everlastingly in the next. The motivation and construction had also Shakespeare now revised it been immeasurably improved. opening play with the appearance of the ghost of Don Andrea and of Revenge herself. there begin their endless Tragedy. however. It was still. and finally how he took an adequate and artistic revenge. if anything. left of the original dialogue. Such personification was very crude and antiquated. and Shakespeare did away with it. a play of revenge and there was an etiquette to be observed in such themes. for vengeance was not a matter of an eye for an eye. so that his damnation could be satisfactorily ensured. his who at the close withdraws to drag off her victims to Tartarus : For I'll though death hath end their miseries. how Hieronimo discovered the murderers. to be wholly satisfactory the ratio The Spanish Tragedy how Hothree sections. Playgoers expected something rare in such dramas. being cut off at some moment when there would be no opportunity for him to make his peace with victim should this Divine Providence. here. so too was the dreadful end of Piero in Marston's play of Antonio's Revenge.

" "Well. and Horatio refuses to believe them. ho! Who's there?" "Friends to this ground. Stand." of a mysterious thing which appears. a feeling which was compounded of horror and foreboding." "You come most carefully upon your hour. The rivals of my watch. and in Hamlet he evolved an opening which would in the spectators the right create mood. Then it They fall to talk [264] . and unfold yourself. so that when the plot began to move they would understand that the Court of Denmark was pervaded by the faint stench of some unseen putrefaction. "Not a mouse stirring. and jumping at the sound of approaching footsteps : "Who's there?" "Nay. And I am sick at heart. . bid them make haste. The first scene was always a problem." "I think I hear them. good-night. He opened the play with a sentry on guard anxiously waiting his relief. answer me stand." "Give you good-night. "Bernardo?" "He." "Long live the king !" ." "For this relief much thanks 'tis bitter cold." "Have you had quiet guard ?" " . Francisco.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK could be produced more naturally by suggestion." "If you do meet Horatio and Marcellus." "And liegemen to the Dane." Tis now struck twelve get thee to bed.

THE TRAGEDY OF HAMLET does appear. who has hitherto silent but conspicuous in his black. to ask him to reconsider his intention to go back to Wittenberg. the son of Polonius who is the chief Councillor about the Court. The new King Claudius presides over his first Council. and he knows the Court gossip: young Fortinbras's actions are suspicious. and certain explanations were necessary. In Julius Casar the character of Brutus was displayed rather more fully than the others. Hamlet is left alone to utter the first of several soliloquies. and as is very natural on such occasions. and naturally they wonder what it means. and very likely. Then Claudius remained turns to Hamlet. and Brutus's conflicting motives were to some extent revealed before the [265] . There a war afoot. like the King that is dead. in the same figure. After this scene of orchestral overture. The ambassadors are despatched to Nor- way. begins by recapitulating the events immediately leading up to their meeting. Laertes. Horatio declares that tion in the State of it portends some strange erup- are all the signs of Denmark. is given leave to go to Paris. Shakespeare chose a method which he had already used several times. the story had now to move forward. gradually developing his ideas on the analysis of Jaques was an experiment. He had been character. Shakespeare's broodings over human character first reached a fulness in Hamlet. Claudius and the court withdraw.

or. Sir William Cornwallis in his two remarkable little books of Essays sat describing his own moods hour his by hour. or Bene- dick chattered about love and bachelors. Self-revelation in the conditions and conventions of the little Elizabethan theatre could besTbe. accomplished byjoliloquy. but rather for the sake of pretty parallels of image and sentence thus produced than for any deeper psychological cause. or to let them know playingj. In the novels of the euphuists the artificial ladies and gentlemen would meander off into soliloquies on love and duty for pages on end. deceitful part. More recently in English. Such self-analysis was not entirely new first for the in English literature. Thus Prince Hal explained that he was far less in FalstafF s pocket than the fat knight supposed. Richard Crookback came forward to declare bluntly that he was determined to be a villain. Montaigne had analysed own emotions.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK meeting of the conspirators. In Hamlet time Shakespeare elaborated the soliloquy to show a character exploring his own complex mentality. He had used soliloquies often enough butjbitherto they were direct. whatjwas happening or about to s hagpen^or^else--set-^iece^pf_declamation. intended to convey to the audience a piece of information. earlier. but in Hamlet he went much further than ever before in anatomising a mind. _the first Sfsmind broodingctigSste3ly over soliloquy Shakespeare reyeale thei [266] .

with a man who had no physical attraction. ^JHamlet's next soliloquy was delivered after the arrival of the players and the recitation of the liecuba speech. reminding him that he has done nothing. Laertes. In this state Horatio and Marcellus and Bernardo come upon him with the strange tale of the apparition. bestows a catalogue of precepts upon Laertes and hurries him off. and now she was committing incest. Laertes and Ophelia. parting from his sister. Polonius comes upon them. a relief for one night from Claudius's interminable carousing. for the ghost might indeed have been a devil or an illusion. He will cause the players to play something like the murder and then he will know for certain. and those who wrote treatises sions on the subject gave strange examples of hallucina- [267] . But the incident puts an idea into his head. warns her to beware of Hamlet. and can do nothing but curse. She and his father had doted upon each other almost indecently. to those who had read the famous ten precepts which the late Lord Burleigh composed for his son the episode was uncommonly like parody. such illu- were a common symptom in the advanced stages of melancholy. Here at last is something to be done. This scene was followed by a passage between old Polonius and his two children. for princes however they may love must marry by policy. and he is eager to watch with them.THE TRAGEDY OF HAMLET mother's remarriage. The player's passionate enunciation has profoundly stirred him. posthaste.

reckoning made. : and the most bitter I. Cut off even in the blossoms of my sin. That would be scann'd . brother's hand life. unanel'd. I. Shakespeare revealed the movement of Hamlet's mind. of disgugycxplained his delay^ and revealed the next 7tage~in the ~~~~ Again after the play scene. of crown. And now I'll do t. now he is praying. of queen. and for that. now keyed up for vengeance. He unspoken beats of the unfinished blank lowers his sword and continues : [268] . at once dispatch'd . These were the words which throbbed in Hamlet's mind in the verse line. and so he goes to heaven. } A villain kills my father. He draws his sword and approaches stealthily: Now might I do it pat. passes on his way to see his mother. but sent to my account all With my imperfections on my head. his sole son. complaint by a Thus was sleeping. do this same villain send To But heaven. he comes upon Claudius at prayer. As Hamlet. And so am I reveng'd. as he raises his arm for the stroke. disappointed.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK > _ofHamlct s mood hdsjmii^^ drama. Of No Unhousel'd. the other ghost's about to be murder in the garden. there is comes re- back to him the murder which venged.

When he is fit and season'd for his passage 9 in our circumstance There was no take his uncle: hell-fire here. and hereby the filial duty of vengeance is laid upon Polonius' son Laertes. act Then trip And As that his soul him. swearing. Hamlet goes to his mother and. third should follow to show how Hamlet took vengeance. Shakespeare now set his plot in a new Hirection aiid began a second revenge play. as flush as his audit stands May . the sec- and a onjdjigw^ Jinnee liainiet proved his_ uncTe guilty. 4The fiisLpart showed how thejduty of vengeance was laid upon Prince Hamlet. who knows save heaven? and course of thought heavy with him. Hamlet must wait to At gaming. that his heels may kick at heaven. As prelude to this violent scene Polonius injudiciously utters a cry and is despatched. all his crimes broad blown. Up to this point the play followed the pattern of revenge drama. whereto goes. not revenge. and his detailed broodings over her marriage with his uncle.THE TRAGEDY OF HAMLET Why. father grossly. And am I then reveng'd. [269] . this is He took my With And how But 'Tis hire and salary. may be as damn'd and black it hell. full of bread. as before when his emotions were aroused. or about some That has no relish of salvation in't. his mind erupts his disgust at sex. To take him in the purging of his soul. and particularly at his mother's sexuality.

"Did these bones cost no more the but to play at loggats with them?" The breeding see't. The plot was now ripe for the consummation of both revenge themes. and is alone. be given Christian burial touches interest. Whilst they are discussing the details the Queen enters with the news that Ophelia is drowned. "Here's fine revolution and we had the trick to he remarks. The sex- ton and his mate set about digging a grave for The nice point whether or not she should Ophelia.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Hamlet is now packed off to England to be mur- dered quietly and disappears from sight. At the Danish Court Ophelia's mind gives way under her sorrows and she goes mad. but death must professional in their day's work and a man labour in his vocation. Hamlet and Horatio is all come upon him. Claudius letters makes up works upon Laertes* emotion and easily persuades him to undertake Hamlet's murder under the guise of a seeming acciquickly. is when landed in his come from Hamlet Denmark. Laertes having heard confused rumours of his father's death. mind He dent. and as the sexton flings up skulls and bones from the earth Hamlet perceives that this is but another aspect of the futility of existence. returns at the head of a that he mob of Danes to demand revenge. and as he would have the final episode in the play a unity in itself Shakespeare began the last act leisurely and with comedy. Clau- dius pacifies him." lesson is brought home to him when the sexton pro- [2701 .

THE TRAGEDY OF HAMLET duces a skull of a man whom they both had known. I knew him. Yorick the King's jester: poor Yorick. He began the last scene with Hamlet and Ho- ratio in conversation let's return. first the Queen. The end came court quickly as Fate pricked off her victims. Shakespeare was almost reluctant to let the play quarrel between Laertes end. then Claudius stabbed by Hamlet. Then comes the funeral of Ophelia which Shake- speare staged very simply. Laertes. imagination it is ! my gorge rises at it. instead of leading. making his solitary priest to follow. [271] . he hath borne me on his back a thousand times. how abhorred in my Alas ! finite jest. Horatio . a fellow of inof most excellent fancy. the whole was brought upon the stage to watch the combat between Laertes and Hamlet. The challenge which Osric bore accepted. and now. and that in a couple of gestures without the tedious mechanism of Jonson's introductory descriptions. The sudden and Hamlet abruptly changed the emotion of the scene from sorrow to passion. and when the curtain closed over the grave the last episode of the play was ready to begin. and the explanation of HaniThen he prolonged the suspense and again lowered the emotion to comedy by bringing on the overdressed young Osric with his fashionable jargon and affected ways Shakespeare could teach even Jonson a thing or two in sketching a court ape. the coffin.

. But as in all his tragedies Shakespeare diffused the intensity of tragic emotion before dismissing his audience. . roll of drums was the approach of Fortinbras and his heard. was not surprising that the story of twenty years ago should have come to him. daisies and long purples. So Hamlet was carried pompously to his burial to the sound of a dead march. heralding army. nettles. In the old play which he rewrote Shakespeare found that Ophelia was made to throw herself from a cliff. In the winter after he was fifteen a girl of Tiddington. . his hoar leaves in the glassy stream : There with fantastic garlands did she come is There That shows Of crow It flowers. but the title of the play put him in mind of a tragedy of his youth. so that all plots met in one centre. fell into the water and was drowned at a spot where the Avon's banks in summer are overhung by willows and thickly crowned with wild flowers. and when the stage was emptied the play ended with a peal of cannon. for it was not his method to leave a tragic was continued. Hamlet was full of reminiscence and passing comment on men and events.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK and last of all Hamlet himself. about a mile from Stratford. for the girl's name was [272] . He embalmed the memory of the place and the event in an elaborate dirge life theme until he had shown how Before Hamlet was dead the for Ophelia: a willow. grows aslant a brook.

tatters. to split the ears most part are capable of nothing but inexplicable dumb-shows and noise: I would have such a fellow whipped for o'er-doing Termagant. for anything so overdone is from whose end. the mirror up to nature . sentimental memory. that you o'erstep not the modesty of nature. but if you mouth it. as I pronounced it to you. and the very age and body of the time his form and pressure. as many of your players do. and as gently : for in the very torrent. hardly disguised. though it make the unskilful laugh. upon Alleyn and his hyperbolical methods : "Speak the speech. with this special observance. both at the first and was and is. trippingly on the tongue . I pray you. but let your own discretion be your tutor: suit the action to the word. cannot but make the judicious grieve. O! it offends me to the soul to hear a robustious periwig-pated fellow tear a passion to of the groundlings. thus. [273] ." 'TBe not too tame neither. you must acquire and very rags. I had as lief the town-crier spoke my lines. to whirlwind of passion. scorn her own image. Hamlet's advice to the players before they acted his plays was a natural opportunity for observation on the rivalries of the Chamberlain's men with other companies. the the purpose of playing. the word to the action. now.'* "I warrant your honour. to show virtue her own feature. and Shakespeare used it to state the dramatic creed of his own company and for an attack. was an old. tempest. this overdone. or come tardy off. to hold. Nor do but use I not saw the air too all much with your hand.THE TRAGEDY OF HAMLET Katharine Hamlet. This. as 'twere. that may give it smoothness. however. Now. it for the who out-herods Herod pray you avoid : it. may say beget a temperance.

SHAKESPEARE AT WORK
censure of which one must in your allowance o'er-weigh a whole theatre of others. O there be players that I have seen play, and heard others praise, and that highly, not to speak
!

it

profanely, that, neither having the accents of Christians nor the gait of Christian, pagan, nor man, have so strutted and bellowed that I have thought some of nature's journeymen had made men and not made them well, they imitated

humanity so abominably."

Then he
and

set

plan of dancing to

about Kemp. Kemp had fulfilled his Rome but the trip was a failure,

was back in London. The Chamberlain's men had no room for him. He was
in September, 1601, he

now

bringing prosperity to Worcester's were playing at the Rose
:

men who

is set

"And let those that play your clowns speak no more than down for them for there be of them that will them;

on some quantity of barren spectators to too, though in the meantime some necessary question laugh, of the play be then to be considered that's villainous, and
selves laugh, to set
;

shows a most pitiful ambition in the fool that uses it. And then you have some again that keep one suit of jests as a man is known by one suit of apparel ; and gentlemen quote
his jests

down

in their tables before they
till I

come to the play,

as thus: 'Cannot you stay

eat

my porridge?' and 'You

owe me a quarter's wages' ; and, 'My coat wants a cullison' ; and 'Your beer is sour* and blabbering with his lips, and
;

thus keeping in his cinquepace of jests, when, God knows, the warm clown cannot make a jest unless by chance, as the
blind

man

catcheth a hare. Masters

tell

him of

it."

Earlier,

glanced at the stage war tition of the children :

on hearing of the players' arrival Hamlet and the disastrous compe-

[274]

THE TRAGEDY OF HAMLET
players are they?" "Even those you were wont to take delight in, the tragedians of the city."

"What

"How
tation

chances

it

and

profit,

was

they travel ? their residence, both in repubetter both ways."

"I think their inhibition comes by the means of the late
innovation."

"Do

they hold the same estimation they did

when

I

was

in the city?

Are they

so followed?"

"No, indeed they are not." "How comes it? Do they grow rusty?" "Nay, their endeavour keeps in the wonted pace: but there is, sir, an aery of children, little eyases, that cry out on the top of question, and are most tyrannically clapped for't these are now the fashion, and so berattle the common
:

that many wearing rapiers are so they call them, afraid of goose-quills, and dare scarce come thither." "What! are they children? who maintains 'em? how are
stages,

they escoted? Will they pursue the quality no lca{v-? than they can sing ? will they not say afterwards, if they should grow themselves to common players, as it is most like, if

means are no better, make them exclaim against
their

their writers
their

do them wrong,
:

to

own

succession ?"

much to-do on both sides and the no sin to tarre them to controversy: there was, for a while, no money bid for argument, unless the poet and the player went to cuffs in the question."
"Faith, there has been
it

nation holds

"Is

it
!

possible?"

"O

there has been

much throwing about of

brains."

the boys carry it away?" "Ay, that they do, my lord ; Hercules and his load too."

"Do

Again in the play scene, wishing to emphasise the difference between acting and ranting, Shakespeare

made

his players

produce their play in the Alleyn

[275]

SHAKESPEARE AT WORK
manner. Their drama was written in hyperbolical and bombastic language, prefaced by an inexplicable

dumb-show which is quite beyond Ophelia's comprehension, and the murderer before he gets to business must overact his emotions, gesticulating and mowing over the sleeping victim.

Essex and his tragedy there were passing comments:

On

The single and peculiar life is bound With all the strength and armour of the mind To keep itself from noyance but much more That spirit upon whose weal depend and rest The lives of many. The cease of majesty Dies not alone, but like a gulf doth draw
;

What's near it with it ; it is a massy wheel, Fix'd on the summit of the highest mount, To whose huge spokes ten thousand lesser things Are mortis d and adjoin'd; which, when it falls, Each small annexment, petty consequence, Attends the boisterous ruin. Never alone Did the king sigh, but with a general groan.
J

where upon the King; for here the scene was very close to what might have happened on the 8th a few months before had Essex February,
significant,

And

even more

in the incident

Laertes broke in

broken through to the Presence in Whitehall:
Let him go, Gertrude ; do not fear our person There's such divinity doth hedge a King, That treason can but peep to what it would,
Acts
little
:

of his will.

[276]

THE TRAGEDY OF HAMLET
But not only did he comment; Shakespeare put more of himself in Hamlet than ever before. Of late years, as his comprehension deepened he was
infusing even the most trivial story with his own experience and using the drama as a vessel for his

most intimate thoughts. Hamlet was full of them, on sorrow, on drunkenness, on sleep and death and life, on true courage and nobility, on fate, on mor-

and love, on the Universe. In this final version it was written in settled dejection, and though he could still admit that man was the beauty of the world, it was an outward perception of no avail to lift the smothering weight from off his breast. This thought was brought home to him by a passage in a little book that came out in the autumn of 1601, written by a certain William Parry and entitled A new and large discourse of the Travels of Sir Anthony Shirley. It was an astounding narrative, for Shirley had journeyed over Europe to Italy, thence by ship to Antioch, and so to Aleppo down the Euphrates to Babylon, across to the Tigris and into Persia where he stayed for some time in the
tality

and

faith

Court of the Sophy at Kasvin. Thence, being appointed special ambassador of the Sophy, he went

by the Caspian Sea to Moscow and at last, after many adventures, left Archangel and returned to Italy by the Baltic and Germany. Parry had something to say of travel and the
lofty conceptions which it bred. "To see," said he, "those resplendent and crystalline heavens over-

[277]

SHAKESPEARE AT WORK
canopying the earth, invested most sumptuously in height of Nature's pride with her richest livery, the
particularities whereof,

ing to the truth of their nature,

were they described accordit might breed a

scruple in natural man whether Man were, for transgression, ever unimparadised or no/' But to Hamlet
in his dejection, "It goes so heavily with disposition, that this goodly frame the earth, seems

my

to

me

a

sterile

promontory,

this

most excellent can-

air, look you, this brave overhanging firmament, this majestical roof fretted with golden fire, why it appeareth nothing to me but a foul and pes-

opy the

tilent congregation of vapours.

What

a piece of
infinite in

work

is

a man,

how noble

in reason,

how

form and moving, how express and admirable in action, how like an angel in apprehension,
faculties, in

how

like

a god: the beauty of the world; the para-

gon of animals; and yet, to me,
tessence of dust?"

what

is this

quin-

[278]

XI

END OF AN EPOCH
A~"
the beginning of the year 1602 good news to London from both theatres of war.

came

In Ireland Lord Mountjoy defeated Tyrone with great slaughter when he came up to relieve Kinsale;
twelve hundred Irish dead were counted on the
field,

and eight hundred wounded, of whom many died, and the rest were hanged. The English losses were reported as one killed and eight wounded. In Ostend Sir Francis Vere once more rebuffed
the Archduke. Just before Christmas through shortness of men, munitions and supplies, Sir Francis realised that

he could not hope to hold out against the assault which the enemy were obviously about to

Deliver.

He

was thus forced to play

for time,

and

TOgain respite he offered to parley with the enemy. The Archduke sent over officers to negotiate, but by various pretexts Sir Francis put them off till Christmas Eve when he received them at his headquarters, feasting them that night and promising to open dismorning came, the had arrived in harlong expected reinforcements bour, and the Spaniards were sent back with Vere's
regrets that in the circumstances he could not in

cussions next morning.

When

honour proceed with the negotiations*

[279]

Here. but the defenders held fast. When greatly to find quarrel in a straw stand I then. England. So the defence against the sea and the enemy went on.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Three days later a furious bombardment was but opened. How That have a father kill'd. as it were. death and danger dare. honour's at the stake. and an eternal monument our. [280] . and at last the Spaniards retreated leaving two thousand dead before the resist material ramparts. for an egg-shell. and Shakespeare. Scotland for a barren plot of Italy. was an example of true manhood. one common to their valsepulchre. Spain. and booty. and endeavoured to storm the defences at all points. sand. if ever. added yet another passage to Hamlet: Examples gross as earth exhort me Witness this army of such mass and charge Led by a delicate and tender prince. Rightly to be great Is not to stir without great argument. whilst the stoutest and bravest soldiers of the Low and Countries. is Makes mouths Exposing what mortal and unsure To all Even But that fortune. Vere made every preparation possible. : Whose spirit with divine ambition pufFd at the invisible event. and a vast quantity of arms. That night the enemy came on. eagerly contended and found there. France. Assault and defence were desperate. a mother stain'd. he could only muster twelve hundred fit men to an army of ten thousand. much moved by these stirring events.

a Nym Bardolph. and a squired by a Pistol. for a fantasy and trick of fame. Go to their graves like beds. had obtained a version of The Merry Wives of Windsor which he entered on i8th January. The Merry Wives of Windsor had been another command performance. Shakespeare produced the play in a fortnight. ! My thoughts be bloody. Another of Shakespeare's plays appeared early in the year. who printed Henry the Fifth in 1600. That. while. And shame. fight for a plot let all sleep. to my Whereon the numbers cannot try the cause. Which is not tomb enough and continent To hide the slain? ! from this time forth. and as before. he turned over the old playbooks until he came upon a comedy of jealousy which could be converted into some kind of setting for Falstaff. tinue him These command performances were always embarrassing. The text which Johnson produced was quite as bad Henry the Fifth.END OF AN EPOCH Excitements of my reason and my blood. and immediately transferred to Arthur Johnson. I see The imminent death of twenty thousand men. Justice Shallow and Mistress Quickly re- [281] . Some of still Falstaff was the old favourites reappeared. or be nothing worth In the middle of January news came that the Spaniards in Kinsale had surrendered upon honourable terms. John Busby. The Queen was so delighted as with Falstaff that she ordered Shakespeare to confor another play and to show him in love.

Welsh parson and the French doctor which is patched up by the Host. He imagines that is in love with him and thereby provokes the dame and her gossip. however. like Bottom's companions after the dream. For all his haste in this play Shakespeare tried his hand. at a play of contempo- comedy of humours. but without the moral purpose which Jonson claimed for himself. Justice Shallow was provided with a nephew in Master Slender who was cousin-german to Stephano. Mistress Page. they had forgotten their former existence. was entirely Shakerary manners. and the jealous Ford was of Thorello's kindred. and now acted as housekeeper to a French doctor. The plot was full of loose ends. Caius. Sir Hugh Evans. parson and schoolmaster. The real business of Falthen goes forward. Bardolph and Pistol were wofully bated but Corporal Nym was more Sir John and was for bringing stuffed with humours than first ever. affairs are quite forgotten in a quarrel between the scene between Justice Shallow. for the time. The Justice had forgotten the recent friendship with him up before the Council for riotous behaviour. It began with a who has a promisbut Shallow and his ing grievance against Falstaff. his speare's own version of a own.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK turned. but. and he worked in similar situations and characters. Mistress Quickly redivtva of Windsor was more respectable than the quondam Quickly. to staff as lover Mistress Ford [282] . one Dr.

twice thinks that he has reached his goal but each time Ford comes back and Sir John is bustled out of the house. except for occa- Anne Page. was Troilus and Cressida. It was called Twelfth Night or What You Will. On the 2nd February the Chamberlain's men performed Shakespeare's latest comedy in the hall of the Middle Temple. The new play presented a well-known story of how a sister and a [283] . first in a basket of dirty linen and then disguised as a witch. full of rollick- ing scenes which moved have so fast that even if Sir lost his old John Falstaff seemed to knack of getting out of scrapes there was at least the consolation that was all very good fun. His last comedy. and so the final scene of Falstaff's ignominy was set at Herne's Oak where Falstaff was bidden to disguise himself as Herne the Hunter with a buck's head upon him. The rest of the play. sional digressions into the affairs of is sadly baffled. a play which purged by its excess of bitterness. pected to behave like an Arcadian shepherd. nor his discomfiture was he of the build for a romantic lover. is taken up with Falstaff's intrigue. and was there pinched and burnt for desires It his lecherous by the children dressed up was not a great play. could hardly be exlove. if it could be called so. who is far from being at home amongst Windsor citizens. As with A Midsummer Nighfs Dream children were made available for the players. The knight. Falstaff in even by royal command.END OF AN EPOCH vengeance. but it was as fairies.

he had been ironic at the romantical hyperboles of young people who wished to love. Her pathetic death was much talked of. and Ben Jonson wrote a poor epigram upon her: [284] . She lived until the autumn and then on 12th she died of grief. and the Queen herself undertook to break the news. said Rosalind. The lady was buried as a nobleman's daughter in Westminster Abbey. In Troilus he mate. refusing food sometimes for two days together. In the early summer of 1599 one of the Maids of Honour who waited on the Queen was named Margaret Ratthere cliffe. Thereafter Margaret Ratcliffe pined away. and a few months after As You Like It was written women was a notable and pathetic example.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK brother. each supposed the other dead until after various strange chances they were reunited. never a man. separated by shipwreck. but Shakespeare in these weeks recaptured a mood which had deserted him for years and escaped from bitter realities into a land of fancy and true tion so vile that showed love as an emomen pretended it was noble. a gallant and experienced soldier. and it was found well and sound except for certain strings striped all over the heart. The love between brother and sister was well known. in As You Like //. died for love. Nevertheless could die for love sometimes. In June the report came that he was killed in action. November body The Queen caused the to be opened. earlier. Her brother Sir Alexander Ratcliffe. was serving in Ireland under Essex.

onquered hath both life and it. F F To conclude. but he was too greatly occupied with his own martial thoughts to notice her [285] . his daughter.END OF AN EPOCH M A R G A R E arble. Few so have rued ate in a brother." Apolonius was a tale The young Duke of Constantinople. which Shakespeare translated into Twelfth Night was very popular. or wit. weep for thou dost cover bequeath thee: dead beauty underneath thee. His story was called "Apolonius and Silla. nd ill like nectar. fell deeply in love with Duke Apolonius. are as T R A T C L I wonder was her wit . ich as nature could rant then no rude hand remove her. xpresses truth. strong by her bestowing. or truer glory. ever flowing : Time. E arth them bast not such another. it had been told in half a dozen or more collections of tales. the Duke and Governor of that Island. who made an expedition against the Turk. ife whose grief was out of fashion n these times. and there was an English version in Barnabe Riche's Farewell to Military Profession. feature and true passion. On his return his ship was driven to Cyprus where he was worthily entertained by Pontus. ban they might in her bright eyes. 11 the gazers on the skies ead not in fair heaven's story. of great possessions. Silla. Pontus had two children. Silvio and Silla.

SHAKESPEARE AT WORK
When Apolonius had gone Pedro her servant to pass her off persuaded as her sister, and make the voyage to Constantinople. At sea the captain of the galley was so much
encouraging glances.
Silla

attracted

by

his passenger that he

began

first

to

woo
was

and then

to threaten her;

but

Silla's chastity

saved, for a great storm arose, and after a long tossing the ship was cast on shore, Silla riding the waves

on a chest of the captain's clothes. Being thus cast alone on a foreign shore, Silla bethought her of the dangers which might happen to an unprotected woman, and being still as fervent as ever to have a
sight of her Apolonius she dressed herself in the captain's clothes, took the money which she found in

the chest, and assumed her brother's name of Silvio. So she made her way to Constantinople, presented herself to the Duke, and craved his service; and in a
short time the supposed Silvio was well
his favour.

advanced in
a
a

Now

there

was present

in

Constantinople

wealthy widow
suitor,

called Julina, as wealthy as she

was

beautiful; to this lady
his love

Duke Apolonius became

and who must be the constant messenger of but his Silvio. Julina being thus continually

visited

by

this

handsome young
passion.

courtier fell in love

and declared her
this

time the real Silvio, who guessed the reaBy son of Silla's flight, and her destination, was come
to Constantinople,
air,

and there, as he was taking the the Lady Julina met him, and mistaking him

[286]

END OF AN EPOCH
for his disguised sister, she called him by name, and invited him to her house. Silvio was surprised to

hear himself invited by name but realising that it would be a point of great simplicity if he should
forsake that which Fortune so favourably proffered, he accepted her invitation for supper on the follow-

ing evening at her palace. Supper being ended, Julina would not let her guest go home, and, when the servants were in bed and quiet, she came to
Silvio

and spent the
Silvio

rest of the

night with

him

till

morning.

When
it

felt sure that there

began to ponder the adventure, he had been a mistake and thought

more

discreet to continue his journey.
suit.

The Duke
began to

continued to press his
report

Julina told him that she
his servants

was now married; and when

Duke

kindly she used to receive Silvio, the in anger caused his former favourite to be

how

thrust into a dungeon. At length Julina, perceiving by developments that her reputation was in hazard,

went to the Duke.

Silvio

was

called before

them and

protested innocency, to Julina's and the Duke's

growing indignation; but when Julina taunted Silvio with having gotten her with child, the unfortunate girl realised that things were now in such a pretty tangle that she must give up her secret. She
therefore led Julina aside and revealed her sex.

Whereat the Duke was
with great triumph.

so

amazed

at her devotion

that he appointed the marriage day and

wed

Silla

[287]

SHAKESPEARE AT WORK
The fame of this strange and wonderful matter was soon spread abroad through all Greece, and so came to the ears of the real Silvio who hastened
back to Constantinople, where after explanations had passed between the Duke and himself he returned to Julina. "And thus, Silvio having attained a noble wife, and Silla, his sister, her desired husband, they passed the residue of their days with such
delight as those that have accomplished the perfection of their felicities/'

was not more fantastic than the others which Shakespeare had turned into comedy. Its theme, which was common to many plays and instory

The

numerable pleasant discourses, was that a maid in love will endure anything to win her man. Shakespeare,

however,

in

transmuting the
stress,

story

into

drama, changed the

making

less

of the love

story of the Duke and the Countess, and elevating the theme of the love between sister and brother,

so that the climax of the play was the reunion of Viola and Sebastian. Moreover he converted the

widow

into a Countess, also

mourning the

loss

of a

dead brother.

which and he plundered some of any play the types of the comedy of humours a gull, a wagbut a woman not a man, a tippling gish servant

Then he began
in

to plot the auxiliary story

was necessary

:

knight of the kind that often attached himself to a great house, a Puritan. Ranging back over the last
eighteen months Shakespeare remembered

two no-

[288]

END OF AN EPOCH
table incidents in which a Puritan

was involved.

The

was the great case of Darrell the exorcist which was a matter for controversy for four years. It was long one of the practices of the Jesuits in
first

the northern counties to claim the

out evil

spirits

power to drive from those possessed. In 1596, how-

ever, one

John Darrell, a Puritan preacher, began to win a reputation as an exorcist. His first case was
Darling, "the Boy of Burton." Darling was taken with fits and hallucinations, and would see green angels standing in the
the notorious episode of

Thomas

window and similar manifestations. A local witch was suspected and duly condemned. In the later
stages of the case Darrell

was brought in

to see the

clean

boy and declared him to be possessed with an unspirit. Next day Darrell set about an exercise of prayer, and after a lengthy wrestle with the Evil One the boy was suddenly and strangely cured. In March 1597 there was a most sensational case in Lancashire where seven persons in the family of Master Nicholas Starkie of Cleworth were all possessed, Master Starkie's son and daughter, three young girls living in the house, and two women of thirty years and more. A man witch named Hartley was accused and hanged, but as the manifestations continued after his death, Darrell was pressed to come. At first he refused the invitations but at length consented, and with George More, another preacher, he set about the evil spirits. The battle was long

and

fierce;

from seven in the morning

till

three in

[289]

SHAKESPEARE AT WORK
the afternoon they prayed continuously, and then, as if Satan was much disturbed by their fasting and
prayer, all seven victims suddenly began to bell and roar in fearful manner trying to cry down the voices

of the preachers. This contest continued for nearly two hours, and the preachers were almost exhausted;

but Satan gave in

first,

and the possessed were sudstillness.

denly quietened in a deathlike

When

they

came

to, all

declared that the evil spirit

had passed

out of them.

There was a similar case at Nottingham in the November, when a boy called Sommers was also afflicted. Again Darrell was successful, and the people of Nottingham asked him to remain amongst
as their preacher. Unfortunately a great controversy now broke out. The boy Sommers confessed

them

that he was a fraud. Darrell. preached violently against him, but the dispute became so violent that
the Archbishop of York ordered a commission of inquiry to be held. Sommers was
in

March 1598

brought before them, and directly after he had sworn that all his previous manifestations were counterfeit, he was seized with a great fit and wallowed up and

down the chamber where the inquiry was being held. The same thing happened at the next meeting. Darwas thus triumphantly vindicated. The Archbishop of Canterbury grew alarmed, for manifold inconveniences might follow if a Puritan preacher should gain such a hold on the imaginations of the people. Darrell was therefore summoned berell

[290]

END OF AN EPOCH
fore the Ecclesiastical commission

and imprisoned

at

Lambeth. The boy Darling was also brought to London, and lodged by himself in the Bishop of London's house. Here, by sundry suggestions, including a visit to a public execution, he was persuaded to confess that he too had counterfeited. When he was
set at liberty,

he was allowed to

visit Darrell,

and

immediately withdrew

his confession.

Darrell in the eyes of his supporters was thus once more vindicated and was by many looked on as a martyr in the cause of truth. He and More remained in prison for several months. He was again brought
before the commissioners in

May, 1599.

When

he

was confronted with the confessions of the possessed, especially Darling's, he retorted that they had been extorted by fraud and violence and that such strange manifestations could not have been counterfeited. Accordingly the Bishop of London, who was a great believer in the press, set Mr. Harsnett, his chaplain, to work to write up the case against the exorcists, and in the autumn of 1599 his book, A discovery of the fraudulent practises of John Darrell, tail.

appeared. It set out the evidence in great de-

Darrell's friends were indignant, and retorted with pamphlets in his defence, impugning the justice of the proceedings. The most important answer

however came from DarreU's assistant More, who in 1600 published a long and detailed account of the
Lancashire possessions, his main object being to confute the Jesuits who were denouncing the Puritan

[291]

and a French farthingale. and his neighbours used to call him "the little knight that useth to draw up his breeches with a shoeing horn" . for she would talk to it and demand fashionable and worldly clothing. Sir Thomas. whither they went to live. puritanical. and hose of orange colour for these were in the fashion. Shakespeare determined to make some use of this controversy and he submitted his Puritan to a charge of possession and a feigned exorcism. a lady who own was not well suited to the hearty life of a Yorkcounty gentleman. and cork shoes of red Spanish leather. shire Thomas Sidney. In 1596 Sir Thomas Posthumus Hoby married. a smock and a petticoat of silk. When the Starkie children saw the preachers reach out for a Bible they began to mock them. as her third husband." The girl's evil spirit was apparently the spirit of pride. though they had themselves won over one of the possessed women and were exhibiting her in the country. He and both he and his wife were was therefore not popular with other [292] . "Reach them the bibble-babble. crying out. other incident that furnished Shakespeare with ideas was a case in the Star Chamber which The caused a good deal of merriment in the winter of 1601. More's book was full of interesting details. he was litigious.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK exorcisms as fraudulent. He was very small. however. Margaret widow of in her right possessed considerable property at Hackness in Yorkshire. bibble-babble.

Hoby meanwhile had shut himself in the The leader of the party therefore craved ad- mittance to Lady Hoby and took his leave. the revellers began to stamp with called for their feet and to make other rude noises. They then left the mansion with many noisy threats and much abuse. who had been out hunting. partly in inordinate drinking of healths (an abuse never practised Thomas). then and shortly after. who had previously sent word that they would not be welcome. Sir Thomas. [293] . Next morning at breakfast. and came to conduct them thither himself. After supper Sir Thomas had their chambers made ready. study. came to his mansion at Hackness and invited themselves for the night.END OF AN EPOCH gentlemen his neighbours. it. In August 1600 a party of them. Hoby de- by Sir scended to the hall to family prayers. Sir Thomas They sent for the key fell of the cellar to prevent play. one of his servants came out and told them peremptorily that their play was offensive to Lady Hoby and willed them to depart the house. when they again to more wine. even calling its master a scurvy urchin and a spindle-shanked ape. partly in lascivious talk and great oaths. sat grudgingly with his guests at supper. and when the strains of a psalm mounted upwards. when they entertained each other in discourses of horses and dogs (sports unto which Sir Thomas never applied himself). but they answered that they would finish their game of dice first.

leaving the society of her husband. and employed her own brother to act as her bawd and pander. turned prostitute. "To see this age !" said he. and after the usual passing to and fro of complaints and answers. At length she became the mistress of a self-styled Captain Haynes. "Why. very well known about the city. The three worthies then plotted to have the wronged husband put out of the way and caused charges of high treason to be framed against [294] . There was good matter for a play in this story. But indeed. too. especially in the scene where Feste brought Olivia's message to Viola. man?" "Why. words are very rascals since bonds disgraced them. that's certain. "A sentence is but a cheveril side glove to a good wit: turned outward!" how quickly the wrong may be "Nay." my sister a word. There were other casual topicalities in the play. they that dally nicely with words may quickly make them wanton." "I would therefore my sister had had no name." To the audience of lawyers in the Middle Temple these quips were reminiscent of the raging contro- versy over equivocation and. and to dally with that wanton. her name's word might make sir. the case came before the Star Chamber in January 1602. A certain Mistress Fowler. sir. of a very unsavoury case which occupied the Star Chamber in the summer of 1600.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Sir Thomas petitioned the Council for redress.

END OF AN EPOCH him. he plays it as he must . Touchstone (played by Armin) retorted with a few more of his own. to the scandalised amusement of the town. Shakespeare had used this habit in As You Like I/. That wisely for his living so can do : So doth the carpenter with his sharp Cut his own finger oft. light. say I. He plays the wise man then. . too. rhyming with her name. then his speech . for all when Rosalind appeared with Orlando's verses. It was only after Master Fowler had lain six months in the Tower that the sordid business was brought to All three were suitably punished. But not so with his tool to live thereby. and thereupon would produce a poem out of his head. tool. Is better than the pleasure of thy trust : For he shall have what thou that time has spent. He would ask the audience to suggest a subject. Playing the fool thy folly to content. [295] . Armin had published a collection of these trifles in 1600 during the lean weeks caused by the Council's inhibition on playing. and not the fool. yet lives by 't He is a fool to cut his limb. Yet when the play is ended. One of Armin's particular accomplishments was to compose extempore verses. the conclusion of the same scene Shakespeare went out of his way to give a compliment to Armin At the company's clown. and one of the pieces was on the Fool: True it is. he plays the fool indeed But in the play. .

at leisure.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK Armin ended which ran : this extempore effort with 3. But wise men folly-fall'n. should he for a fool go? When he's a more fool that accounts him so ? : Many men When they descant on another's wit. Shakespeare. and he had himself erred by paying too little attention to the niceties of plot making. check at every feather That comes before his eye. like the haggard. produced a revised version: This fellow's wise enough to play the fool And to do that with craves a kind of wit. Not. collected the materials for his com- edy. Shakespeare began to work on the criticised detail of the Amongst those who plays there had been a good deal of talk of art and construction. and pointed the contrast between the new comedian and the old It Clown at the Rose. This is a practice As full of labour as a wise man's art . He set the play in a land of fancy which [296] . have less themselves in doing it. In this play he showed that he too could construct a flawless plot when he wished. Having thus plot. For folly that he wisely shows is fit. and the time. was an encouragement to Armin. quality of persons. Yet mirth in modesty's lov'd of the wise Then say. quite taint their wit. quip A merry man is often thought unwise. He must The observe their mood on whom he jests.

which was in effect a miniature jig. Smiling at grief. wherein Cesario. perhaps. with its promise of mirth to come. in a scene full of musical melancholy. giving the clown a little song. To contrast with this scene of lyrical expectation. fantastical. the bud. . He returned to this mood after this noisy inter- lude of the drunken knights. of the frivolity of man's life: [297] . my lord. as he began. a green and yellow melancholy. in the safety of disguise defended womankind from the Duke's easy generality that the love of woman was but appetite : had a daughter lov'd a man. She sat like Patience on a monument. melan- drawn choly. . falling in with Orsino's broodings. He ended. And with Feed on her damask cheek she pin'd in thought. were I a woman. like a worm i' : her love. As might be. but Shakespeare was unwilling to spoil the effect of his play. It was customary to end a comedy with a jig. Was not this love indeed ?" It was a palinode for Cressida. She never told But let concealment. It began with music.END OF AN EPOCH he called Illyria." "My it father "And what's her history?" "A blank. opening with a scene that would suggest the tone and atmosphere in which the comedy was conceived musical. he then resumed the plot of the Puritan's undoing. . and the curtains were to reveal the Duke Orsino brooding on love. in music. I should your lordship.

the wind and the rain . For some years the claims of James of Scotland were gradually becoming stronger. foolish thing was but a toy. . but how pleasant a change from this snarling business of setting the world to rights. the wind and the rain that's all one. In public life an air of anxious expectancy was developing. . ho. but there was no general support for a Spanish princess. With But great while ago the world begun. a lie which was very decisively rebutted at the trial. would have put the Infanta of Spain on the throne. the question of the succession became simpler. Now that Essex was dead and his followers were without a cause. for the present. However. hey. but not for a Catholic. our play is done. the Queen was in excellent health. And we'll strive to please you every day. . or what you will. I . ho. Twelfth Night was but a toy. hey. though her temper was somewhat The Jesuits uneven. Cecil was quietly playing his own hand.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK When that With A A was and a little tiny boy. Some were for the Lady Arabella. Essex indeed had tried to bring Sir Robert Cecil into odium by proclaiming that the Secretary stood for the Infanta. There were other claimants. [298] . and in this year it was noted that many of the nobility were in communication with some of the great men in the Scottish Court. For the rain it raineth every day.

the Countess of Nottingham. and to give the name of "Richard the Third/' Shakespeare overheard the conversation. who was one of the Queen's oldest friends. it was obvious that the great change was imminent.END OF AN EPOCH This March Shakespeare was the subject of a table jest. died. Roberts was approached. and thereafter the Queen seemed therefore [299] . In July the Chamberlain's men had reason to suspect that a pirated copy existed of The Tragical History of Hamlet. however. and supplanted his partner by arriving first. The Queen's health was failing. Prince of Denmark. bear baiting and much dancing. and in May Shakespeare further strength- ened his position at Stratford by the purchase of 107 acres of land at Stratford for which he gave 320. and as before forestalled printing by entering his copy in the Stationers' Register on the 26th July. and her temper was becoming more difficult. and invited him to come to her that night. As the year wore to its close. Prosperity was returning to the public theatres now that the restrictions of the last two years were relaxed. which ran that when Burbage played wife fell in love Richard the Third. but Christmas at Court was very gay. At the beginning of March 1603. with plays. When the message came that Richard the Third was at the door. a citizen's with him. he sent back word that William the Conqueror came before Richard the Third.

rogues about the City were pressed as soldiers and shipped off to the Low Countries. The Errors. She suffered too from sleeplessness. There would be no more playing before Queen Elizabeth. forming an unique fellowship of players. less than ten since Marlowe died. Richard the Second. The Two Gentlemen. lost interest in affairs of state. The Council were alarmed. Midsummer Nighfs Dream. They had played to- gether now for more than eight years. and Venus and Adonis was printed. watches in the City were strengthened. It was only eleven years since the scenes of brave Talbot first roused the enthusiasm of Londoners. dramatist. in which to create so Ten full years was a short time a company as peopled such plays Richard the Third. Then she grew worse. and an audience trained into harmony. but for a few days the danger seemed to have passed. Romeo and Juliet. The Council began to take precautions.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK almost suddenly to leave go of her hold upon life. On the iQth March the Lord Mayor and justices of Middlesex and Surrey were commanded to restrain stage plays until new direction should be given. The Shrew. She complained much of aches and pains. Commanders of garrisons were warned to be ready for emergency. [300] . it For the Chamberlain's Men and for Shakespeare was the end of a chapter. and grew very melancholy. Love's Labour's Lost.

But more than these. . when he was excited and enthusiastic. Twelfth Night. The Merry Wives. but yet at times he could perceive a dim purdied and lived was pose in the intricate pattern of life. Henry the Fifth. and recognition. has his reward bitterness him in the contagious applause of his audience. the friendship with Southampton it promised so and ended in disappointment and humilialargely tion. Shakespeare was now thirty-eight. He was still moulding his philosophy and discovering his own religion. for the new parson. His belief was mainly agnostic. his passion for the dark woman which brought and disgust but she taught him much. the two parts of Henry the Fourth* Much Ado. As You Like It. Troilus and Cressida. he had neither affection nor respect.END OF AN EPOCH King John. and prosperity in material things. a special [301] . Now he had achieved a great reputation. The Merchant. more than all other artists. There had been compensations. Hamlet. and took The Spanish Tragedy and The Jew of Malta for the finest of dramas. as Shakespeare grew older his vision expanded. His years in London had been full of maturing experiences the early days under Alleyn. for a playwright. Julius C&sar. the craftsmanship of a divinity that shaped men's ends. he could now comprehend the unending diversity of God's creatures. The old Catholic faith in which his father little more to him than a sentimental regret.

the Council and the noblemen came out of the palace. James the Sixth. but she was speechless past hope. and called the high at the gates Sir Robert Cecil proclaimed that since and mighty Princess Elizabeth. About ten o'clock. listened with great expectation.SHAKESPEARE AT WORK providence in the fall of a sparrow. the realisation that England [302] . God had The people silence. King of Scotland. For a while there was a feeling of numbness at the event. realising that the ripeness of life consisted neither in eating and drinking. was now true and lawful King of England. The new King had come in unopposed. those who lived at Very early Richmond were awakened by the rumbling of the now and coaches of the nobility as they passed through the darkness to Whitehall. and sorrow for the old Queen. but as the hours wore on. The proclamation was repeated in Cheapside. nor in the slavery of passion. nor in thinking too precisely upon the event. So the fear which had brooded over England for a generation was dissipated in a morning. though she had outlived the best of her days. the next morning. and there were few who could refrain from weeping when the preacher offered fer- vent prayer for the Queen's recovery. France and Ireland. On Sunday the 23rd of March the chapel at Richmond was crowded. but in There was neither dissent nor disturbance. The Queen was dead and few could remember when last a King ruled in England.

so unexpectedly.END OF AN EPOCH was at last delivered. [303] . from the turret on the Globe playhouse could be seen the line of bonfires flickering along the edge of the Thames. from the vast confusions of civil war bred a sense of wild relief. and when day faded into darkness.

.

Siq C2 V "with : [305] . Tucker Murray's English Dramatic Companies. 2. Quincy Adams' Shakespearian Playhouses. See E. See Dr. The original authorities for the historifessor cal events are recorded in my Elizabethan Journal. 7. line 27. to Professor J. W. The debt vious to the usual books of reference is ob- and considerable. 1930. bending his brows. line 17. Barrett for reading the proofs. to Dr. Page Page i. Greg's Henslowe's Diary and Henslowe Papers from which all modern work on Elizabethan stage conditions originates.COMMENTARY ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1WISH to express gratitude to Dr. and to the Editor of the Times Literary Supplement for permission to embody portions of two articles on Shakespeare's Topical Significances^ originally printed on 13$! and 2oth November. S. W. Helen Waddell for many valuable criticisms of the my manuscript. to Professor J. The Dis covery of the Knights of the Post. W. to Sir Edmund Chambers* The Elizabethan Stage and William Shakespeare: a study of facts and problems. W. P. Greg's Henslowe's Diary i. especially to Dr. to Pro- Edwin Nungezer's Dictionary of Actors. W. charges laid out upon his playhouse.

line 20. and Greene's attack in 1592. . and fetcht his stations vp and down the room with such furious lesture as if he had been playing Tamburlane on a stage." In Bagehot's words: "First of all. Boas in his recent edition of lish Dr. F. VL Page 4. 26th February at The Jew of Malta 5os. It should not therefore be assumed that he did nothing but "dully sluggardize at home. 13) were: igth February line Page 6. must con- . . Harand Nashe's Four Letters Convey's See also Greene's two autobiographies futed." line 18. line 22. Page 6. Dr. Bacon 175.. S. We may assume that Shakespeare had [306] . vol. scorning those scholars who wrote for See the address to the Gentlemen the stage. his dissolute and licentious living.COMMENTARY that S. it may be said that Shakespeare's works could only be produced by a first-class imagination working on a first-rate It is often difficult to make out experience. Faustus seems to estab- convincingly that Marlowe's play was not written before 1592. but for art on a certain scale. a young man from Stratford. 3d. Nothing line 26. 8d. 3rd March at Harry the Sixth 3 i6s. Henslowe's takings (i. 12. 1585. Admiral's new play. whether the author of a poetic creation is drawing from fancy or drawing from experience. Page 3. The Repentance and The Groatsworth of Wit. Readers in Greene's Perimedes.. These choice details are given in Gabriel Four Letters Bodley Head Quartos. Jew of Malta drew a good house. at Friar is known of Shakespeare's life between the baptism of his twins Hamnet and Judith on 2nd February. bent his browcs Page 3. the two cur.

line 21.COMMENTARY a great experience. S. Page 14. Several professions. ShakeThe Man. Page 15. notably lawyers and school- Those who masters. line 1. however. especially in early work. Harry the Sixth. as well not to dogmatise on style. 81. however. is poor evidence. Mr. But style. he was . Peter Alexander certainly destroyed the ex9 ternal evidence for revision in his Shakespeare's "Henry VI" and ''Richard. is too often overlooked. Fripp in showed that John Shakespeare was a recusant (but regarded him as a Protestant) and that his troubles in Stratford were due to non-conformity and not to bankThe spiritual testament. J. 91-103. Smart in Shakespeare Truth and Tradition* pp. a recusant." Bagehot's essay. HI. I. have claimed Shakespeare. remains. The deer stealing legend hotly disputed. a young man's author of first efforts are often imitative and also indistinguishable. was found in his house points to the fact that he was a Catholic. The question whether Shakespeare was mainly responsible for / Henry FI or simply for a few passages is still unsolved. have had some first-hand experience of war will recognise that he knew more of soldiers and sol- diering than he was likely to have picked up listening to the unavoidable Elizabethan sea dog by Page 8. E. ." The uneven- ness of the style. the inevitable tavern fire. produced evidence to show that Lucy had no deer. p. is deer stealing. . that ruptcy. his Shakespeare Studies. It does [307] . line 28. which is the best thing ever speare written on this problem. When one remembers that the to The Epistle from Esopus it is Maria wrote Holy Willie's Prayer.

Lord Strange** men came back. A is . it is unlikely would have met him between the of The Groatsworth and Kindharfs publication Dream. line 5. line 9. Head Page 26. Coventry. Marlow. that Chettle Page 36. F. The Oxford. line 10. on Bunhill. For the survey Christopher Marlowe. see Dr. p. See the Second of Harvey's Four Letters. killing of Spencer (the player) by Jonson has been merged with the killing of Marlowe by Frizer. line 14. In that book "upstart" conveys the suggestion not merely of a man who has sud- Page 23. 58. The word "upstart" Page had been prominent in Greene's mind. Boas' Christopher Marlowe and His [308] . and also fallen foul of it is Had he got into trouble stories quite likely that the into one. S. the poet. however. vol. now in the Huntington Library: it is reprinted in my Shakespeare's Fellows. here the merged .COMMENTARY not. follow that Shakespeare was inno- cent of deer stealing. hurried down to Greene's lodging. The offending passage occurs only in one surviving copy. for deer stealing. Gloucester Company and Leicester (igth December) in this autumn. Had Shakespeare been with them. 22. upstart crow. of the documents connected with Marlowe. Page 21. for A Quip for an Upstart Courtier was finished less than a month before. two Lucy would have good example of this minAubrey's jotting that Ben Jonson "killed gling . Greene slipped in a paragraph. line 25. Mr. Bodley Quartos. denly risen to wealth but who gives himself airs. comeing from the Green-Curtain play-house". visited II.

count of Marlowe's death was discovered by Dr. Stopes for details of his life and times. Printer 158^1624. artificiality Page 47. line 4. view of the Sonnets put Page in A Time Scheme for Sonnets. the heart. line 20. See the article The Library for See his biography by Mrs. Page 37. C. Fort Hotson and printed in of Christopher Marlowe. Shakespeare's There was the usual inquest. line 17. The poem was passed around. reprinted in Elizabeths E dictum* His my edi- tion of Willobie A visa. Their discussions were even noted in print in a Jesuit pamphlet entitled Responsio ad 1592. Dover Wilson for [309] . I follow. Many of the Sonnet sequences have their true story. Sir The New Shakespeare by Arthur Quillerevi- Couch and Professor J. the Shakespeare followed in the movement. Tucker Brooke's edition of Dido in the Arden Marlowe. A. These sonnets were indeed written from Miss Mona Wilson in her Life of Sir Philip Sidney has clearly demonstrated the drama behind Astrophel and Stella. The ac51. in Love's Labour's Lost. Leslie his book The Death See the edition Page 52. line 18. This seems the likeliest explanation of the parallels noted between Hero and Leander and Venus and Adonts. Kirwood entitled Page 42. Page 39. generally. line 16. by June 1931 Richard Field. Page 46. Page 41. Henry Wriothesly^ Earl of Southampton. E. and even beneath the there is of the Euphuistic novels often a stratum of fact. most of them are reprinted in C. 207. A. p. F.COMMENTARY Circle. line 6. in Richard Field. line 8. forward by J. C. line 17. M.

Hunterian Club reprint. line 22. Page 62. also dence of the date of the play and identifications my Elizabethan Journal. This is a likely pseudonym for one of Ralegh's atheistic circle for "Holo- phernes had his head cut off by a woman. Page 56. For a suggested solution of the problems of this poem." The tone of Shakespeare's Sonnets to her suggests that she and there dark. . She was a courtesan . scattered evidence that in the 1590*8 one of the well-known courtesans was notoriously In the Gray's Inn Revels. XV. with burning Lamps. Both South- ampton and Guilpin were members of Gray's Inn. p. Willobie His Avisa. is was not a person of any position. and all for blasphemy" (Lodge's Wits Miserie. 12. 66). see tion in the Bodley Head Quartos. Epigrams 57. to chaunt Placebo to the Gentlemen of the Prince's Privy-Chamber. of the Prince of Purpoole by Night-Service in Can da. line 7. ." (Malone Soc. Holofernes. on the Day of His Excellency's Coronation.COMMENTARY of the persons. line 9. are verses In Byrrham: [310] . in ClerkenThere have been several claimants to the dubious distinction of being the "Dark Lady. and to find a Choir of Nuns. In Guil- pin's Skialetheia. ReThis "Lucy Negro" I would very print. p. vol. Epig. 1599. In Weever's Epigrams. 61 and 62 are to a light lady called Nigrina.) tentatively identify as the Dark Lady. amongst those brought in to pay mock homage to the Prince of Purpool "Lucy Negro. p. 12. with the Lands and Priviledges thereunto belonging. my edi- Page 64. 1598. well. Abbess de Clerkenwell* holdeth the Nunnery of Clerkenwell. Third Week.

Page 72. Page 73. able to acquire a player's share. which is obviously topical. "Pray enquire after and secure my negress. enwell. P. Southampton is said to have given. ClerkSee S. Clerk of the Kitchen. Stopes' Life of the [311] . Domestic. ing to Howe. line 5. Nay. Beautie in her seemes beautie still to lacke. v. of V. she's snow-white. a Dane's beershop. The sudden transfer of Silvia to Proteus shocks most critics. after the strain of Sonnet 42. For deof the murder see Mrs. Cross. she is certainly at the Swan. Which a vaile doth keep her whitenes in." It is not unlikely that the gift was made to enable him to buy a share in the Company. 270: 119. secretary to the Earl of Hertford or Mr. 40) concerning the Moor. hard to know her face from her f aire maske. Turnbull Street.+ III. on the superiority of friendship to text. but it is which is is the rapidity rather than the action itself If Professor Dover Wilson shocking. line 23. love may have disappeared." Shakespeare a gift of 1. tails tragedy of a few weeks past. Valentine forgives him. AccordPage 67.000 "to enable him to go through with a purchase which he heard he had a mind to. idle chat To which should be added the between Lorenzo and Launcelot Gobbo (M.COMMENTARY Is Byrrha browne ? face is Who doth the Ebonie question aske ? Her It's pure as ieat blacke. right in his claim that there are cuts in the then some elevating dialogue. That there were coloured prostitutes is from a letter dated 1602 from one Denis apparent Edwards addressed to Thomas Lankford. line 22. He writes. like but for that russet skin.

A Midsummer Nighfs Dream is obviously a wedding written for this particular play. a certain William Gardiner. See Dr.COMMENTARY Earl of Southampton* pp. A. line 21. line 16. commanded to present a new play. however. but that it was wedding is a guess. Page 79. line 30. line 32. 1928. It Page 100. Page 121. in demonstrated. I set forth passed out of her grand climacteric. to Mr. line Ben Jonson. His argument. Francis Langley and others. This paragraph is 27. The Isle of Dogs. A long account of this elaborate entertainment exists in Gesta Grayorum. that William Gardiner is the original of Shallow creates more difficulties than it solves. reprinted by the Malone Society. Set about some revels. founded on Section 13 of Jonson's Conversations For Jonson's life see The with Drummond. J. Hotson's brilliant discovery of the complaint of William Wayte against William Shakespeare. lie for Shakespeare's Sonnets. Les- Page 101. The signifi- cance of Sonnet 104 convincingly. Page 107. B. was now is three years. R. arguments for supposing that Sonnet 107 referred to the Queen's grand climacteric in the Times Literary Supplement of 28th November. line 27. Fort's my mind A Time Scheme Dr. [312] . 29. Page 82. especially 1597 as the date of the first when he proposes April performance of The Merry Wives. line 2. McKerrow's edition of Nashe's Works 9 v. published in Shake" speare versus Shallow* added one more fact to the definite records of Shakespeare's life. 70-84 and authorities therein noted. Page 121.

339). by C. 1598: "In Ireland and since the great overthrow four hunis hurt dred more throats cut.COMMENTARY Oxford Jonson. i. Page 129. A certain Monsieur de Maisse." The name Henry VI. for instance. an interesting and strikFalstaff Saga produced in the person and uting contemporary parallel Nicholas Dawtrey. See A journal of all that was accomplished by Mon- [313] . them on. line 8. is a memory of a line in / ard. who was terances of Captain it needed eight soldiers to carry him when he was wounded. Mr. It seems not generally to have occurred to editors of / and // Henry IV and Henry V that when England was engaged these plays were written in a considerable war. Whether Shake- this little jest. and the world thinks Honour pricks that honour will quickly prick them off again. the letter stout so bulky that captains William Russell to Sir Robert Cecil (Salisbury Falstaff apparently I. line 22. honour pricks me on. line 23. Herford the gross embodiment of the shadier side of the war. go to it" it appears Toby Matthew written on 2Oth the Lord Ormond September. H. and therefore that the comic scenes had a special conJ. Sir Francis Vere is com- ing towards the Low Countries. There were other of Sir : see. "If Sir John Fastolfe had not played the cow- Page 131. I and II. 132. vols. ix. and Sir Alex- ander Ratcliffe and Sir Robert Drury with him. or whether it is speare invented one of the phrases produced in a war like "If you knows of a in a letter of better 'ole. Papers. and Percy Simpson." Page 137. Dawtrey in The temporary significance.

B. Adams' Shakespearian Playhouses. line 10. Guilpin's Skialetheia. Jones. The New revised thoroughly. line 11. Kemp sold his shares. p. line 10. line 3. Street began the Globe presumably in January 1599. Page 149. which Jon son names. 186. See Page made a nuisance of himself. Campbell's Shakespeare's Tragic Heroes and my essay on Elizabethan Melancholy in the take about the its melancholic. Every Man in His Humour. Muck Ado about Nothing. 2. A. 4-12. 26. the complaints made against "Horace" in ker's Satiromastix. Harrison and R. pp. Page 166. See the Shakespeare Association Facsimiles. Q. line 30. edition of Breton's Melancholic Humours. . . For the importance of the study of Elizabethan melancholy see Miss Lily B. which was built by Street after the pattern of the Globe. Page 142. [314] . 198. In July the new theatre was finished. line 29. 240. Page 166. See J. same time as on the Globe. line 10. . ments for supposing that Much Ado The is argu- an old play re-written are set forth by the editors of Page Shakespeare. In the original play most of the characters bore Italian 1616. He signed the Fortune contract on 8th January. See Greg's Henslowe Papers. The text usually read is that of the folio published in 146. 1600. and agreed to complete the work in July it is likely that he reckoned that work on the Fortune would : Page 171. He Dek- Page a new playhouse.COMMENTARY sieur de translated and edited by Maisse G. line The probable date of the completion of Globe may be deduced from the contract of the the Fortune. No.

is to 9 The account of this memorable feat Nine Days vol. line 7. Wottoniana. sonalities In the earlier plays of the Stage War the perwere confined to occasional speeches or gags.COMMENTARY Page 20O. ignoring the most significant fact that Lampatho was a University man of seven years' standing. Page 215. line 2. slipping in a couple of jibes at Jonson. L. 1930. Vicissitudo rerum. "Not Without mustard" The coinci- dence of "Not without mustard" and non sanz droict is Page 204. It Page 209. line 5. be found in Page 203. Critics have erred in trying to draw overelaborate parallels. The granting of a coat of arms to a player seems to have roused considerable indignation. See. Page 217. line 28. they are blazoned there. Until Poetaster there was no consistent or elaborate caricature. C. Schucking's in the Times Literary Supplement for 25th September. was thought prudent Professor to prune the article See L. Jonson at this time was only 27 and far from employing pages. IV. he wculd dance a morris. but Brabant Senior has a page and a brother. by D. line 28. Kemp's Wonder. No. Page 249. See Sir Wotton's comparison of the Earl of Henry Essex and the Duke of Buckingham in Reliquiae line 24. not likely to have been accidental. text. 4. Bodley Head Quartos. Similarly Small (in The Stage Quarrel) identified Jonson with Lampatho Doria. See the edition in the Shakespeare Association Facsimiles. line 15. Thus Simpson in his School of Shakespeare identified Brabant Senior with Jonson. spoke with a blunt rudeness. for in- [315] . Collins.

" lands. . the illness of King George. // Return from Parnassus (Ed. and that words some play. this is not unlikely. My own conjecture is that the in should be taken literally. 1960-8: that better wits have "With mouthing words framed. line No Shakespeare hath given him a purge. line I. "The tragedy . have been three occasions when the whole English nation was profoundly moved: the Great Strike of 1926. and now Esquiers are Page 261. given of this purge. . The best is that of the editors of The New Shakespeare that in Nym. seeing that Pistol is in some ways a rejection of Allyn. Page 262. contemporaries were far for they lived and were dependent upon [316] . there is little documentary evidence of the enormous emotional effect of the disturbing personality of Essex and of the continual but subconscious panic felt at the prospect of a disIn the last ten years there puted succession. and the formation of the National Government in 1931. though various have been put forward. D. entirely satisfactory explanation has been 2. 11. Macray). W. They purchase named. Shake- speare caricatured Jonson. which has not survived. aroused more excite- ment and emotion" No one can understand this (or any other period) without the aid of imagination. Shakespeare staged a Jonson who was given a purge (as Marston had been given an emetic) with disastrous and Rabelaisian effects. Shakespeare's more emotional and closely in a small city excitable.COMMENTARY stance.

And then you have some again. Page 280. 217) volume Shakespeare and the Theaand E. line 20. line 20. 23-43 an^ 237-256. Studies . The words eagerly contended for a barren plot of are from Camden's Elizabeth. pp. ^ 2nd Quarto of interval. A. The speech from which these lines are taken (IV. See of Page 292. p. One of the curses laid upon modern scholarship is that the scholar must never venture a statement that cannot be supported by a footnote. -I. Fripp's Shakespeare Page 274. iv. 32-66) occurs only hi the 2nd Quarto. Sir 9 Thomas Posthumus Hoby. So the imagination atrophies. and the most learned studies of fact and problem are not only dull in themselves but a cause of dulness in others. Miss Violet s Shakespeare [317] . to say the truth. C. Stopes' Early Records Illustrating the Personal Life of Shakespeare (printed in the Shakespeare Association's tre. See Mrs. Society Women Time. line 19. 1604.COMMENTARY rumour and gossip. it does not appear either in the 1st Quarto or the Folio. Page 280. Page 272. added yet another passage. This of the speech is taken from the 1st (pirated) part e ^ nes do not reappear in the Quarto of 1603. a girl of Tiddington. line 17. for. C. line 14. p. sand. As Kemp had in died in the there was no point repeating the personal attack. Learning and Art keep little company together nowadays. 128. Wilson.

.

See Coke. 208. 135. 284. Christopher. Cutting. Sir Burbage. Walter. Mrs. It. Canterbury. 124 Brian. 67. The. 205. 155. Bishop of London. I3i. 61 Archbishop of. 257 Blind Beggar The. 212 Burbage. 64 ff. Mrs. Mrs. 205. Arthur. 260. Bjron. 213 Bagnal. Earl of. Sir Henry. James. 85. 41 Black Woman. 61. Edward. 67. 165.. 201 Bellendon. Thomas. 48 Richard. 132 Brayne. The. William.240 Bonetti. Alphonsus of Arragon. Sir Edward William Burleigh. Reverend Abdy. 209 Astrophel and Stella. 229. B Bacon. 165. 132. 208. 53 Brute. 234. James. 124-125. 118-119. 118 52. Like 189. 96. Lord. Marshal. 61. 68. 46 Attorney General. James. 25. 234 Admiral. William. 219 Alleyn. John. 26 271. 68-69. Children 248. 198 ff. Rocco. Barnabe. Lord. 156. 133. 279 166. Francis. 96-97. *54. See Howard.. 3. Book of Martyrs. Henry. Armin. 193. 189-190. Cuthbert. Lord Thomas. 219. 301 Alleyn. Lord. 15. 124. 73 Broom. 291 Barnes. 197. 301 Blackfriars. 23 Archduke of Austria. 96. 124. 256-257 Blackwell. Richard. Lord. 259. i. 205. 26. 47 Burbage. 119. Lord Treasurer. Bastard. 98. Fr. 275. Sir of Alexandria. 208 Busby. 54 Bishop. I54-*S5 Antonio's Revenge. 120. Bancroft. As You 295-296 167 ff. 3. 295. 139. 219 Burbage. 174. 217 Bee.. 96 Blount. 208 Burgh. 299 Burby. 290 Canterbury Tales. 206. 212. Robert. 281 4 Caltha Poetarum. 236. Lord Charles Admiral's Men. 246. 211 Burleigh. See Cecil. 267 Burre. 259 of. 186-187. 83 158. Agamemnon.. 5 Antonio and Mellida.. Bedford.INDEX Acts and Monuments. 146 John. 122 Campaspe. 194 ff. 236. George. 119. 47 Barrow. 124. 145 Ball. 49. 301 Ashton. 165 Camden. 136 Buckhurst. Cuthbert." 285 Appleby. 68. 154. 45.. 24. 239 Aspley. 154. 196 Brooke. '49. 53 Whitgift. 154 ff. [319] . Giles. William. 263 "Apolonius and Silla. 160..

ff. Sir John. John. 96. 238. 73 ff. 80. 95. 83. A t 94. of. Second Part of. 80. Elizabeth. Sir Henry. 69. 229 245. 190 Du Mayne. 93 Cross. 54 Cobham. 60. 232-233.. 646% 301 Darling. Sir Francis. 153. . Danvers. 233. Lord. 197. 61. 165. . Sir William. 93 ff. 54 T ' Archduke of Austria Carew. 215-216. John. 164-165 Davies. Countess of. 100-101. George. Sir 206 King of. "9. Henry. 149.. 289 ff. 187 ff. William Stanley. 58-60. 121. 97. Sir George. the Second. 132. 179. 157 ff. 235 Elegies (Ovid). 146. 93 Drayton. Edward ff. 93. 42 Clifton. 205-206. Robert Devereux. 155. 53 Epigrams. 90. I97> 219. 187. 11. 211. Charles. 73 ff. 24. Endymion. 42. 46. Thomas. William. 145-146. 54 Conference about the next Succession. i88ff. 289 ff. 126-127. 98 ff. 107. 302 240 Cutlack... Earl Henry.. Geoffrey. Danter. 73 Dark Lady. 141. 67. of . Chaucer. 165 Epithalamium. 61. 137-138. 140. 47.95 Complaint of Rosamund. Danvers. The. 119. 141 Carey. Derby. Queen. ff. the grand. 94.. n. 157 127. Fr. Lord Hunsdon. 143. 80. 142. 213. John. 54. 119. Samuel. 141-142.. 219 of. 82. Darrell.. The f 47. Sir Edward. c. ff. Sir John. 207. 146 Christian familiar comfort. 139 Banter. Ferdinando Stanley. 200. 258. 173. 69 80. 4. 80. 192 Chrestoleros. 166. The. See Parsons. 83 Chettle. [320] . 107 291 Doleman. 124. 219-220 37. 43. 238 Cuffe. 38. Sir Egerton. 105. 141. 234.. 124 Connyc atching. 240 givers. the.. 205.. 178. 229. See Chamberlain's men Cecil. 10. 298. Diana. 39. 9. 205. 137. The Lord. 21 iff. 119. 216 Climacteric. 98. 179 Chapman. John. 01 ~ Dekker. 141. 43. Henry. 188. 166. Lord Burleigh. Davies. Sir William. A.INDEX Cardinal Archduke. 239-240. Sir Robert. 189. 267 Chamberlain's men. 247. Michael. Thomas. 47 Cornwallis. 106-107. Earl of. 47 Discovery rell. 55. 84 Essex. 240 Defence of Poesy. Mr. 266 Covell. 299-300. 205-206. See Daniel. 199-200. 284. 171. 64. 87 ff. 302 Cecil. 237 Essex. 58 ff. 120. Earl 236 Cynthia's 247 Revels. 6 Constable. 132 Coke. Thomas. Drake. 6 1 Cumberland. 132. Henry. X 66. Keeper. 10. John Dar- 98 Clapham.. 132.. Attorney General. 132. 300 Comfort against the Spaniard. 248 Lord 211. 233 Comedy of Errors. Sir Robert. 145. 180.

132 ff. Edmpnd. King of France. Samuel. part 112 8. 165 Fisher. 189. 93 Haynes. Sir John. 69. 101 Galatea. 165. Richard. ii. 42. 189. 233. 239 Hecaiompathia. 56 Harry of Cornwall. 140 Evans. Thomas. 212. 172 Fortescue. 47 Florio. Ingram.. Nathaniel. 165 Hathaway. 216 Every 149 Man ff. the Sixth. in His Humour. 115 197. Faery Queen.. 44 Fifteen Joys of Marriage. 10. 98. 294 Hayward. 48 Groatsworth of Wit.. 180. H Hall. 289 Harvey. Thomas. n. 158. 54. 20 ff.. Joseph. Prince. Life and Reign of. 41. [321] . 180. John. i. 208. 198-199. 176. 94 ff. 1 01. 104. 292-293 Howard. 280. 212 Hawkins. 180. 112 Henry the Sixth. 209-210. 301 Henry the Sixth. Everard. 132.INDEX 211 ff. 190 Hawkins. 124.. I59ff. 299. 200 178. 128 139. George. 9. 155 Henri IV of Navarre. 207. Mrs. 154. 301 Fourth. John. part Hi. Philip.. William. 214 Henry the Fifth. Sir Thomas Posthumus. 291 Hartley. part i. part 14. 158. 120 Hunsdon. Thomas. 233 #. Robert. 146-147 292 ff. 26 Henry G. Gabriel.. 86 Henry the Fourth. 50 Fulbeck. Earl of Nottingham. 6 Harry the Sixth. 6l. 45 Heminges. 173 202. 294 Fowler. 127. 219. Every Man out ff. 214 Histriomastix. 212. 24. 6. 165 Hamlet. 285 Faustus. 53 Gascoigne. 281.. The. Richard. 208 of 161. 199-200. 39 Famous Victories of Henry V. 216 Gorboduc. 217 Henry of Scotland. ff. 26. Captain. Mr. 25 Guilpin. Humorous Day's Mirth. Hoby.. 189. Tragical History of Doctor. 98. Euphues. 172 Harriot. 44. 236 ff. 9i Henslowe.. John. 45 Gilbert. See Henry the Sixth. 59. 205. Lord High Admiral. 4. 215 Fletcher. 91 Greene. Greenwood. 205-206. 276. 55. Lord Charles. An. 38.. 21 if. Harry.. The. 262. John. 3. 301 Henry the Fourth. 132. 233 ff. 295 Fox. 3. 75. John. 95 112 Gardiner. 26. 215 192. Lady. part i Harsnett. Sir John. 61 Heyes. 212 Field. 257 Hero and Lcander. 273 Harington. part ii. 298. 192 Hoby. C. Alexander. 3 Ferrora.. Hamlet. Henry the Fowler. IIff. Historical Collection. Nathaniel.. Giles. 39 Hester and Ahasuerus. The. Katharine. 26 i. 234 Friar Bacon. 26 Frizer. Thomas.. John. 20. 129 Farewell to Military Profession. 201 Giles. 208. 37. 239-240. 156. 260 301 ff. His Hu230 mour. William. Lord George. 6p Field..

91. Captain Thomas. 26. 196.. 47. 121. 45. 25. 87. 139 Lucy. 240 in ff. 245. Thomas. Lord. 301 Knack to know a Knave. Thomas.. 101 ff. 51. 69. Sir John. 140 Merrick. 180 ff. 139. 271. 300 Massacre at Paris. Long. 281 Jones. 212 Muly Mulocco. Kindhart's Dream. 149* 155. 189. 3. 26 n. 196. John. 247 ff-. 190 N Narcissus. 185 ff. 125. 24 Love's Labour's Lost. 166. 118. Benjamin. Kyd. The. 219 Isle of Dogs. 22. 26. 266 More. The. 165 [322] .. 148.. 19 Knollys. 91.INDEX Iliades. Count Michel de. 203. A. 254 Menachmi. 289 ff. Lord. 50. 212. Arthur. A. Christopher. 234. 291 Lomenie. 301 Meres. Sir Gelly. 54 Lopez. K Keeper. Merry Wives of Windsor. 149 ff-. 200. 68. 58-60. 231. 179. Henry. 142 ff. 98. George. 39 Metamorphosis of Ajax. 235 Kemp. 241 ff. 53. 229 ff. 25 King John. King of Scotland. Thomas. Due de. Lord. 208. Dr. Sir Walter. 260. 256-257.. 167 Richard Bancroft. 172. 82 ff. 6 Marlowe. 74 ff. Francis. 247. Seven Books of. 259 Malta. The Lord. 229 M Jack 203 Drum's Entertainment. 17. in. 80. M. 204. 236. 301 Metamorphoses. 193. 137 Mandeville. 38. Mounteagle. Charles Blount. 149... 24 121 ff... 165. 42 Nashe. 257. Sir Thomas.. 204. M. 26 Jealous Comedy. Bishop of. 202. 50.. 208. in Montaigne. 153 Isam. 6. Roderigo. 21. The. Sir William. 147.. 283. 140. 23. 56. 143. Mrs. 53 ff. 301 John. 94-95 Long. 97. 298 302 Maisse. 274 Midsummer Night's Dream. 208.. Jew of Mayor 20. 161. 15 Lyly. 265. 301 Mulcaster. 3. 330 Millington. 19. 246. The. 53. See King John Johnson. 61. 52. 164. The. 22. 215. 6-8. 38. 24. 281 ff. 208 Montacute of Beaulieu. i". Will. 251. 284 Julius Cesar. 26. of London. 67. 175 ff.. 136. 263 15. The. 146. Longueville. 259. 73 ff. 258. 234-235 Mountjoy. 172 205. 173. 300 Lucrece. 211. 215. Jonson. 192193. 141. de. London.. 25. 121 ff. Antony. Lee. 69. de. 26 Monday. 233. King. The. 201.. 141. 123. 238 Licia.. James the Sixth. 35-40. 300 Marston. 334. Richard. 112. 120. 48. 22. 278 Much Ado about Nothing. The Lord. 121 ff. Richard. 47 Lodge. 69 Merchant of Venice. 260. 211. John. 87 ff. 55. 179. 301 Jesuits.

50 ff. 24 260 _ Return from Parnassus. part 190 ff. 106 Shakespeare. ii and iiit 26 ff. 300 Rosalynd. Parsons. Phillis.. 239 165 Scroop. .. 180 Northumberland. 80. Sir John. The. A. Pembroke's Men. 127-128. 238 New a . 217. 5 Nottingham. 28.. William. 101. 24. Richard the Third. 241 Pavy. 47 Piers Penniless. 217 Norris. slandered by Greene. 14-15. the. The. pt. 126. 234 Percy. Margaret. 25-26. 155 Sir John. Titus Andronicus. Children of. 149 Pigmalion. ii Parry. See How- Lord Charles Nun. 284 Ratcliffe. James. 212. 234 Percy. Earl of. Countess of. 203. Robert. 139. 167 ff. 41. 26.. Henry the Sixth. Sir Alexander. 32 ff. 123-124. Sir Charles. 17-19. Orestes' Furies. Sixth 60 Phillips. 47 Philip II. 95 ard. John.. Thomas. 147. 124 Paul's. King Metamorphosis. Sir Henry. 299 Nottingham. Sir Joscelin. . Fr. Puckering. 208 Robinson. Salathiel. Hamnet. King of Spam. 139. 123 Percy. Sir Thomas. See James the 140. 237 Satires. 127. 89. 136 North. St. 129 Quip for an Upstart Courtier. 197 Oldcastle. Shakespeare. Sir John. 300 Richard the Third. 300 Roberts. Sir Walter. 284 Repentance of Robert Greene. 102. ii. 235 f Old Fortunatus. 5. 248 ff . Stratford. A. 212 192-193. 10. 121. Thomas. 32 ff. Q Queen's men. pts. 237 Riche. Lady Penelope. Duke of. Pope. 38. Keeper. 247. 213 Ratcliffe. 147. 235. Lord. Rutland. 58. David's. discourse . 140.. William. Henry Percy. 25 26. Barnabe. 12-14. 165 Plutarch's Lives. of Sir Anthony Shirley. 190. 94.. Lord. 146. 89 ff. 109 from William. 98. 73 ff. 6. 239. 123 Neville. 285 Richard the Second. 82. 277 Norden. 24 s R Ralegh. 219 Orlando Furioso. 21. i. 179 Shaa.. 28. 165 Satiromastix. Earl of. Bishop of. 139. 124. 37. 180 Poetaster. John. 80 Lord [323] . 93 Poley. 23. 119 Notable Discovery of Cosenage. Scilla's Scots. Henry the Sixth. I55 Scourge of Villainy. ii Pope. 253 ff. 55. Earl of. 37. 38 of. 98 Sandys. Augustine. 216 Romeo and Juliet. 277 Parthenophil and Parthenope. 234. Shakespeare. Robert. 40. 56.INDEX Nashe's Lenten Stuff. Polimanteia. 42 Parma. Rich.

. and coat of arms. 165 Sly. 52. 1 10 in ff. Troilus and Cressida f 219 ff. Lucrece. 301302 Shadow of Night. 257. 9*> 148 Sidney. 47. The. 39. 61 Troilus and Cressida. 237. 51 ff. 62-63. 149. ff. iSoff. George. Much Lady Arabella. 137.. 67. 165 Tasso. 15-17. 60 Titus Andronicus. Farl of. 26. The. and Ben Jonson. 17-19. 82 ff. 100. 301 Two Gentlemen of Verona. Valentine. 261. Spanish Tragedy. Love's Labour's Lost. 188. 41 239-240. 26.. 165 John. 122... 60 Spanish Comedy of Don Hora6 tio^ The. 61. Henry IV. 95. 123-124. Edmund. Tamburlane. The. Nicholas. and Darrell Night. 75. Peter. loo101. 119.. 218 ff. 53 ff. 283 ff. 47 Tears of the Muses. . 165 Tears of Fancy. 124 Skeres. 26. 73. 101 ff. 80 Tarlton. Henry V. 107 ff. iSQffand problems of character. . sor. 58 Stuart. King of. . Thomas. the 6 Shrew. 86. Venus and dedications 51 ff. 67 Tasso. Julius Casar. As You Like It.INDEX Adonis. 149. 113. 262 ff. jest concerning. 185. 109Merchant of Venice. 155 Ado. The. and new playhouse. 298 Vicissitudp rerum.. The. 128 ff. Richard. 164-165. Spain. 98 Vautrollier. 277 Shoemaker's Holiday. Hercules. 202 . 201 Snarling Satires. I32ff.. 215 ff.. 237 Sims. 61.. and Globe motto. 19-20. 1 Henry IV.. 300 280.. 2. 155.. 301 Troilus and Cressida (by Chettle & Dekker).. 54 Tinoco. and the purge. 258. 45. 102 Troy's Revenge. 292. 219 Twelfth Night. 54. Sir Philip. 167 ff. Nicholas. 59. 47. 278 Sommers. 62. The. 69. Taming of 69. buys New Place. 575 and Southampton. 301 Spain. 283 ff. Merry Wives of Wind. Henry Wriothesly. 71 ff. Twelfth The. U Unton. 142 ff. The. 119. Sir Robert. 201 Starkie. // 107 . Thomas. 290 Southampton. .300 Tyrone. 89 ff. 146 [324] . 301 Sparing Discourse of our English Jesuits. 84 J Romeo and Juliet. 3. 253 Shrewsbury. . 80. Hamlet. 167 . development of. 56. 83 joins Chamberlain's men. . 8iff. 48. 43. Earl of. 235. Two Gentlemen. Emanuel. . 84 Sprat. 14. 84. 3.. 259 Spencer. 120. 289 St range's men. 63. . 69 ff. u. Gabriel. 112. . Sir Anthony. 146. case. Midsummer Night's Dream. Infanta of.. 126. 153 Spenser. 262. 54 Shirley. Southampton. 217 Sussex's men. 42 ff.. 100-101. Sir Henry. 219 Troublesome Reign of King Sidney. Richard the Second. Torquato. See also Chamberlain's men Street. 121. 217 Virgidemiarum. 73 ff. to 48. 71 ff. Earl of. Comedy of Errors. 97. 50 Skialetheia. 283.. King John. 299. 39 ff. 298 Sussex. William. 146. The.

Willobie His Avisa. 200. Wise. 127. 274 Wright. 39 # 4& 56. 165 Willoughby.INDEX Venus and Adonis. Archbishop of William. 25 Worcester. William. John. 42. 300 Vere. 47 What You Will. A. Andrew. 45. 217. Lord. 62-63. Sir Roger. 208 Wolfe. Francis. 146 CanterWhitgift. John. Joan. 95 Watson. Lady Elizabeth. 124. Thomas. 246. 101. 82 Vere. Robert. 190 Winneld. Jacques. 58. ioo. [325] . 24. 241 ff. Sir Francis. 9. Elizabeth. ioo. 279-280 Vernon. 199 Wilson. 165. 235 Worcester's men. Earl of. 173 W Walsingham. 207 59 Woodward. 25 Watchword for War. 139. See bury. 04. I5 !79.

Harrison AA17 Literature Six Theosophic Points by Jacob Boehme Ghinard AA18 Thomas More by R. L. 1670-1732 by Verner W. Crane AA5 The Concept Of Nature by Alfred North Whitehead AA6 Richard Crashaw by Austin Warren AA7 Dialogues In Limbo by George Santayana by Helen Waddell AA8 The Desert Fathers AA9 Stonewall Jackson by Allen Tate by Sir Ernest Barker AA10 Church. and Education AA11 and Psychology by F. Chambers THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PRESS / ANN ARBOR . Cowden B. B. i The Writer and His Croft edited by Roy W.ANN ARBOR PAPERBACKS reissues of works of enduring merit rvn. Lucas AA12 This Was a Poet: Emily Dickinson by George Frisbie Whicher AA13 Thomas Jefferson: The Apostle of Americanism by Gilbert AA14 The Expanding Universe by Sir Arthur Eddington AA15 The Nature Of the Physical World by Sir Arthur Eddington AA16 Shakespeare at Work by G. Bredvold AA4 The Southern Frontier. State. AA3 The Intellectual Milieu of John Dryden by Louis I. W. Harrison AA2 Elizabethan Plays and Players by G.

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