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G.

Ramakanth Reddy

CONTENTS
INTRODUTION

HISTORY
WHY CODE OF DENTAL ETHICS ? ETHICAL PRINCIPLES

ETHICAL RULS FOR DENTISTS


SOME UNETHICAL PRACTICES DOCTOR-PATIENTS CONTRACT CONCLUION REFERENCE

INTRODUCTION
The dental profession Is a vocation in which

knowledge and skill is used for the service of others. Characteristic of profession is adherence to code of ethics. The word ethics derived from Greek word ETHOS meaning custom or character. Ethics is philosophy of human conduct, a way of stating and evaluating principles by which problems of behavior can be solved. It is a science of what morally right

Ethics ethics is a branch of philosophy concerned with


the study of those concepts that are used to human activities , in particular the concepts of goodness and obligation.

Dental ethics
would mean moral duties and obligations of the dentist towards his patients ,professionals and colleagues and society. These help support autonomy and self determination , protect the vulnerable and promote the welfare and equality of human beings.

Micro ethical principles


Focus primarily on individual's right and duties and do

not see individual's as a part of a wider social order.

Macro ethics
Set of principles designated to protect human dignity

,integrity , self-determination, confidentiality, rights, and health of population and people comprising them. [ethics and epidemiology-international guidelines, 1998]

Macro ethical principles


Guide the conduct of population-based research and

practice. Establish positive moral responsibilities of persons, authorities who sponser,conduct or oversee research on population

Philosophy of ethics
ethical concept based upon MYSTICISM. Mans interest in destiny & belief in life

found in history of EGYPT then BABYLONIA. 3500 BC Egyptian BOOK OF DEAD. 1000 BC- India produced Vedas. Upanishads describe about ethics, god, death& immortality. 470 BC Greek philosophers ARISTOTLE,PLATO&SOCRATES. European civilization influenced philosophy of ethics.

History of ethics
HIPPOCRATIC OATH: has been regarded as summing

of a standard of professional ethics. Theory of utilitarian ethics Theory of dentologic ethics Virtue ethics Descriptive theory;

PRESCRIPTIVE THEORY;
those that define ethical terms in as carrying

mandatory force enjoined by some kind of authority. e.g. ; ethical rules of dentists initially formed by Dental council of India.

The code of ethics framed by dental council in 1975 and later notified by government of India as dentists (code of ethics )regulations 1976 which is force from 1976.

WHY CODE OF DENTAL ETHICS?


A systemic body of rules is needed IN ORDER

THAT DIGNITY AND HONOUR OF THE DENTAL PROFESSION MAY UPHELD,ITS STANDARDS EXALTED,ITS SPHERE OF USEFULNESS EXTENDED AND THE ADVANCEMENT OF DENTAL SENSE PROMOTED AND THAT THE MEMBERS OF THE DENTAL ASSOCIATION MAY UNDERSTAND CLEARLY THEIR DUTIES OBLIGATIONS TO THE DENTAL PROFESSION,TO THEIR PATIENTS,AND TO THE COMMUNITY AT LARGE[Indian dental association-constitution, by laws and code of ethics 1988]

DENTISTRY AS APROFESSION:

Professional person is expected to have respect for

human beings ,competence in this chosen field, integrity and primary concern with service rather than with prestige or profit. In dentistry the code of ethics Is the American dental associations principles of ethics and code of professional conduct. FIVE MAJOR SECTIONS: 1)service to the public and quality of care 2)education 3)government of a profession 4)research and development 5)professional announcement

DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF A DENTIST


TOWARDS PATIENTS OR POPULATION:
Doctor first duty is to his or her patients

(HIPPOCRATIC OATH)

A)To do no harm; (non-maleficence) doctor induced illness should be avoided

B)To do good (beneficence)


It should be the role of dentist and dental hygienist to

benefit patient as well as not to inflict harm. There is an agreement between doctor and patient that some good will result.

C)RESPECT FOR PERSONS:


1)AUTONOMY: health care professionals respect the

patients right to make decisions concerning the treatment plan 2)INFORMED CONSENT: first stated and ,by for , the largest principle of NUREMBERG code. FOUR ATTIRBUTES OF IT: Consent must be voluntary, legally competent , informed and comprehending

D)JUSTICE:
The primary duty of health professional is service

irrespective of class, creed etc. It demands that each person is treated equally Dentist can provide some free or discounted care in their offices to those who are truly needy, or they can provide financial support or donate some time to clinics for low income patients

E)TRUTHFULLNESS:
Patient doctor relationship based on trust Lying fails to show respect for persons and their

autonomy, violates explicit agreements and treatment relationship based on trust

F)CONFIDENTIALITY:
patients have the right to expect that all communications and records pertaining to their care will be treated as confidential

TOWARDS PROFESSION OR PROFEESSIONAL COLLEGUES:


The dentist has to be sober, courteous, sympathetic ,

helpful, modest and punctable. He has to be morally, mentally and physically clean. It is unethical to PUT DOWN another dentist to the patient

TOWARDS THE SOCIETY


Dentist has to assume leadership in the community

on matters pertaining to dental health.

SOME UNETHICAL PRACTICES


Practice by unregistered persons. Untrue, misleading are improper certificate issued by

dentist under his sign. Use of bogus diplomas Allowing commission Any contravention of the drugs Immorally involving abuse professional relationship Aiding in any kind of illegal practices Employing any agent for the purpose of obtaining patients

Promise of radical cure by employment of secret methods

of treatment Mentioning after the dentist name any other abbreviation except those indicating dental qualifications as 1)RDP 2)MIDA 3)FICD 4)MICD 5)FACD 6)MRSH

Ethical rules for DENTISTS; (prescribed by DCI) Duties and obligations of dentist towards the patient.
Every dentist should be courteous, sympathetic, friendly & helpful. 2. Should observe punctuality in fulfilling his appointments. 3. The welfare of the patient should be conserved to the utmost of the practitioners ability. 4. Dentist should not permit considerations of religion , nationality, race, party politics or social standing to intervene btwn his duties & his patients.
1.

5. Information of personal nature which he come to know about patient directly or indirectly in the course of professional practice should be kept in utmost confidence.

Duties of dentist towards one another


1.

2.

3.
4.

Dentist should cherish proper pride in his or her colleagues & should not disparage them either by act or word. Mutual arrangements should be made regarding remuneration. Dentist called upon emergency to treat the pt of another dentist , retire in favour of regular dentist. Institute correct treatment with the least comment.

Duties of dentist to the public


1.

(police & law courts) A dentist should not bound to disclose professional secrets untill called upon by magistrate or judge to do so.

contract
Doctor-patient relationship when it begins ? At the movement a dentist expresses a professional opinion to an individual when it ends ? 1. Both parties agree to end 2. Death of dentist or patient 3. Patient cured 4. Patient ends by words or by act 5. Dentist unilaterally terminates

EXPRESS TERMS
A written agreement to prevent misunderstanding It define items such as

Fee, treatment and Manner in which payments are to be made

conclusion
Ethics warms the heart and cools the mind

Ethics means that majority of professional accept the right and also condemn the wrong Ethics can be printed , can be sermonized, can be dictated, or even documented ,but if not practiced it is only words. Ethics is not an object , it cant be bought or sold or bartered, but it can be shared.

REFERENCE
Ethics hand book for dentists
-

JOHN.E.GURLEY

Essentials of preventive and community


dentistry SOBEN PETER