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Manitoba Metis Communities

Manitoba Metis Communities

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An overview of historic Metis communities in Manitoba.

An overview of historic Metis communities in Manitoba.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Lawrence J. Barkwell on Dec 06, 2012
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The Manitoba Metis Homeland: Its

Settlements and Communities
Compiled by Lawrence Barkwell,
2
Manitoba Metis Communities
Historical Oeriew
!dited and Compiled by Lawrence Barkwell
"ith contributions #rom $udreen Hourie, Senator !d Head and %osemary
Morrisette&%o'yk
$sh House, ()ort de la )r*niere+, Manitoba: Ash House was established on the Souris River,
called Rivière St. Pierre by La Verendrye, near present day Hartney in 1!", #ust two years a$ter
the openin% o$ the $irst post on the Assiniboine near the Souris &outh. 't was on the north shore
o$ the Souris, used as a canoe $ort, the Souris River surrounded it on three sides. 't see&s certain
that this was a &ove on the part o$ the (orth )est *o&pany to &eet the %rowin% co&petition o$
the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany.
Ash House only operated $or a year or &ore, $or, as -avid .ho&pson says,/... it had to be %iven
up, $ro& it+s bein% too open to the incursions o$ the Siou0 'ndians.1 23. ,. .yrrell, David
Thompson's Narrative of his Explorations in Western America, 1784-181. .oronto4 *ha&plain
Society, 1!154 p.2167 )hen -avid .ho&pson passed throu%h the area in -ece&ber o$ 1!, he
ca&ped a $ew &iles away and reported that the $ort was abandoned.

'n a letter to the !o"ris #laindealer in 1!6" $ro& Sas8atoon, the late A. S. 9orton had this to
say4
/)ith re%ard to Ash House, .ho&pson+s latitude which you %ive, places it within about 1:
&iles o$ the Hartney 2;rant7 site. .he %reat astrono&er+s observations are usually within about
hal$ a &ile o$ our own survey. .he diary o$ his return trip 2$ro& the 9andans7 puts Ash House
16: &iles $ro& the entry $ Plu& *ree8 into the Souris. ,ut .ho&pson+s &iles are usually 1:
&iles so ta8in% it the indication is a%ain the nei%hborhood o$ Hartney./
9orton in the sa&e letter says4 <'n .ho&pson+s narrative edited $or the *ha&plain Society in
1!15, he &ade the distance $ro& 9acdonnell+s House near the Souris &outh to Ash House as =5
and =" &iles respectively. Here a%ain he &ay have wor8ed out the distance with so&e re$erence
to his observations and be very correct.1

See4 ;.A. 9c9orran 2>d.7, !o"ris $iver #osts. !o"ris #laindealer at
http4??&anitobia.ca?resources?boo8s?local@histories?A=6.pd$
6
Baie St, -aul, Saulteau. /illa0e, Manitoba:
,aie St. Paul was a BrenchC9etis parish o$ the Red River Settle&ent located west o$ Bort ;arry
on the Assiniboine River between the BrenchC9etis parish o$ St. BranDois Eavier and the
>n%lishC9etis parish o$ Poplar Point to the west. ,aie St. Paul was located about ei%ht
8ilo&etres east o$ today+s St. >ustache, 9anitoba. .his co&&unity dates bac8 to 1F62 when
Bather ;eor%e Antoine ,elcourt established a &ission on the south side o$ the Assiniboine River.
'n 3uly o$ 1F62 Bather ,elcourt selected a site $or his &ission alon% the Assiniboine River where
a lar%e nu&ber o$ 'ndians and 9etis %athered in the sprin%. .he &ission was to be na&ed under
the protection o$ Saint Paul, Apostle o$ the ;entiles. ,elcourt then returned in the sprin% o$ 1F66
with ,ishop ProvencherGs approval. He erected a chapel durin% the su&&er, but in Septe&ber
the site, si0ty 8ilo&eters west o$ Red River was attac8ed by a %roup o$ ;rosCVentres 'ndians
$ro& the south. ,ishop Provencher, concerned $or the sa$ety o$ the priest and the continued
success o$ his wor8, had the &ission reClocated closer to St. ,oni$ace.
1

.he new &ission, ,aie St. Paul, was established in 1F6= at <Prairie Bournier1 2,a8erGs Prairie7
on the le$t ban8 o$ the Assiniboine River, about thirtyCseven 8ilo&etres $ro& St. ,oni$ace and
about ei%ht 8ilo&etres east o$ today+s St. >ustache, 9anitoba. .he site included a tract o$ land
with ei%ht 8ilo&etres o$ river $ronta%e three 8ilo&etres in depth, a %i$t $ro& ;overnor ;eor%e
Si&pson o$ the HudsonGs ,ay *o&pany 2H,*7. ,aie St. Paul was to be ,elcourt+s o$$icial
residence as lon% as he re&ained under ,ishop Provencher+s #urisdiction.
,aie St. Paul, ,elcourt once a%ain set out to build a chapel and a residence $or hi&sel$ and
%radually be%an to develop the $oundations o$ a co&&unity $or the 'ndians and 9etis who
%athered in the area. He was convinced that once the 'ndians had adapted to /civiliHed/ li$e and
were en#oyin% %reater &aterial co&$ort, they would adhere to *hristian principles &ore readily.
,ishop Provencher had plows and o0en sent to the &ission, while ,elcourt helped the (atives to
build dwellin%s near the chapel and to plant crops such as potatoes, corn and oats. Bather
,elcourt opened a school and en%a%ed 9iss An%eliIue (olin and her sister 9ar%uerite as
teachers. 'n 1F6= they be%an teachin% at ,aie St. Paul 2St. >ustache7. ,ishop Provencher
assi%ned the sisters to assist Bather ,elcourt in learnin% the (ative lan%ua%es to co&&unicate
with the 'ndians. An%JliIue and 9ar%uerite were $luent in Brench, >n%lish, K#ibwa and *ree.
,oth sisters wor8ed $or the ne0t decade with Bather ,elcourt.
-espite their cultural di$$erences, ,elcourt and the 'ndians and 9etis with who& he wor8ed
%radually developed a close association, and his in$luence over the (ative population was
probably %reater than that o$ any other white &an in Red River. 'n Septe&ber o$ 1F6=, when a
%roup o$ an%ry 9etis %athered to protest an attac8 on one o$ their nu&ber by a Hudson+s ,ay
*o&pany cler8, it was ,elcourt that ;overnor ;eor%e Si&pson called upon to cal& the situation.
1
.he e0act location o$ the $irst &ission, 8nown as St. Paul des Saulteau0, is di$$icult to pinpoint. .wo reliable
sources locate it on the le$t ban8 o$ the Assiniboine, so&e ei%hty to ninetyC$ive 8ilo&etres $ro& St. ,oni$ace. '$
&easured in river distance, the site would have been situated so&ewhere near St. >ustache, but i$ &easured asCtheC
crowC$lies, it would have been located in the vicinity o$ Porta%e la Prairie.
=
Stories o$ ,elcourt+s wor8 at ,aie St. Paul spread Iuic8ly a&on% the Abori%inal people o$ the
)est. 'n 1F65 a %roup $ro& the Roc8y 9ountain Saulteau0 tribe #ourneyed all the way to Red
River to &eet the priest who was said to be a &an o$ %reat wisdo& and 8indness. .hey were
$avourably i&pressed by his $acility with their lan%ua%e and the wor8 he had done a&on% the
Saulteau0. .he dele%ates le$t, assurin% ,elcourt those &e&bers o$ their tribe would return to
,aie St. Paul in the sprin%. 'ndians $ro& other re%ions also travelled to and $ro& the &ission,
carryin% with the& stories about the priest whose heart had been &ade by the <;reat Spirit1.
)hile at ,aie St. Paul, Bather ,elcourt also assisted 9r. Poire at the nearby &ission o$ St.
BrancoisCEavier. )hen the 9etis were away on their se&iCannual huntin% e0peditions, ,elcourt
and the (olin sisters wor8ed on the Saulteau0CBrench dictionary he was co&pilin%. His $irst $ew
winters were spent in St. ,oni$ace, where his e0pert s8ills as a turner were put to %ood use in the
construction o$ $urnishin%s $or ,ishop Provencher+s cathedral. ,elcourt spent &ost o$ his
subseIuent winters in the diocese, teachin% the basics o$ the Saulteau0 lan%ua%e to newlyCarrived
&issionaries.
'n Bebruary o$ 1F=, Bather ,elcourt prepared a petition to the Lueen re%ardin% the 9etis
%rievances with re%ard to the H,* $ur trade &onopoly. (ine hundred and seventyCseven 9etis
si%ned it and 3a&es Sinclair too8 it to >n%land. 'n retaliation, ;eor%e Si&pson and the H,*
tru&ped up $ur tradin% char%es a%ainst ,elcourt and had the Archbishop in Luebec re&ove hi&
$ro& Red River. ,elcourt i&&ediately be%an lobbyin% to return and in 3une o$ 1F=F, ,ishop
Lorus o$ -ubuIue assi%ned hi& to Pe&bina. 9any o$ his parishioners $ro& ,aie St. Paul
$ollowed hi& to Pe&bina. He eventually &oved his &ission and school 6A &iles west to St.
3osephs in 1F"6.
'n 1FF2 there was e0tensive $loodin% and part o$ the ce&etery at ,aie St. Paul slid into the river
and &any houses were destroyed. 9any o$ the residents beca&e discoura%ed and $ollowed their
parish priest, *yrille SaintCPierre in relocation to (orth -a8ota. Later ,ishop .ache sent
&issionary .ho&as Luevillion to $ind a new location $or the church. .he new location was St.
>ustache established in 3anuary o$ 1F!F. .his na&e was chosen because St. >ustache is the
Patron saint o$ hunters.
Re$erence4
Reardon, Rev. 3a&es 9. <;eor%e Anthony ,elcourt4 Pioneer 9issionary o$ the (orthwest.1
%%&A $eport, 1F 21!"17 pp. "CF!.
Balsam Bay, Manitoba: See ;rand 9arais.
Bas de la %ii*re, -ine )alls, )ort $le.ander, Manitoba:
.his 9etis co&&unity, ori%inally 8nown as ,as de la Rivière, beca&e 8nown as Bort Ale0ander
and then Pine Balls, 9anitoba. 't was located on both shores o$ the )innipe% River $ro& Pointe
au Boutre 2the porta%e around Pine Balls7 ri%ht down to .raverse ,ay on La8e )innipe%. .he
co&&unity was established in 162 as a winterin% post and depot $or the ()* traders operatin%
on La8e )innipe%. .he area also possessed soil suitable $or a%riculture. 'n 1!2 Si&on Braser
and Lesieur .oussaint established a lar%e post at ,as de la Rivière 2also called Sieurs Bort7. 't
"
was ideally suited $or the $ishers utiliHin% the .raverse ,ay white$ish $ishery. 'n Kctober o$ each
year the white$ish spawn on the %ravel botto& o$ .raverse ,ay. )hen a%riculture $ailed at Red
River, the settlers &ade use o$ the $all $ishery at ,as de la Rivière. Since the bi% %a&e o$ the area
had been hunted out by the late 1AAs, $ish, %rains and %arden ve%etables were the staple $oods
o$ the area. ,y 1F12 the ,as de la Rivière %ardens were sellin% ve%etables to the inco&in% Red
River Settlers. ,y 1F1 the 9etis sta$$ o$ the (orthwest *o&pany was $ar&in% wheat, barley,
peas, oats and potatoes at this location and were supplyin% the Red River Settle&ent with seed
%rain. 'n 1F1" a horseCpowered $lour &ill was built. ,y 1F21 they had a lar%e ranch here $or
ho%s, horses and cattle. .he nearby &eadows provided plenty o$ hay $or the livestoc8 and the
&arshes provided &arsh %rass $or thatchin% the roo$s o$ the 9etis ho&es. A$ter the
a&al%a&ation o$ the H,* and ()* in 1F21, ,as de la Rivière lost its i&portance as a &a#or
provisionin% post and transportation trans$er point.
Berens %ier, Manitoba:
.he &outh o$ the ,erens River on the east shore o$ La8e )innipe% was a stoppin% point $or
9etis boat &en and traders as early as 15". .he $irst post was built there in 1F1= 2na&ed a$ter
H,* %overnor 3oseph ,erens7. 't &oved brie$ly to <Kld Bort Porta%e1 in 1F15, then to Pi%eon
River a $ew &iles south until H,* e&ployee 3ohn Robertson &oved it bac8 to the ori%inal site in
the &id 1F2As. .his was a thrivin% 9etis co&&unity until $ishin% was banned on La8e )innipe%
in 1!A due to &ercury conta&ination. All but "A to 5A $isher&en &oved and those that
re&ained beca&e dependent on partial %overn&ent co&pensation throu%h a wor8 pro%ra&.
'n 15 )illia& .o&ison 2$ounder o$ Bort >d&onton $or the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany7 &ade his
way up the Severn River $ro& Hudson ,ay and crossed over to the headwaters o$ the ,erens,
which he descended to its outlet in La8e )innipe%. 't was not, however, until 1F1= that a post
was established at the &outh o$ the river and called ,erens River a$ter 3oseph ,erens, ;overnor
o$ the *o&pany. .his post was occupied by &en sent $ro& 3ac8 River House, as (orway House
was then called.
.wo years later 21F157 the post was &oved upstrea& to the third la8e, probably to the place now
8nown as Kld Bort Porta%e, where in Septe&ber 1F15 -onald Sutherland erected a house. At the
sa&e place were the re&ains o$ an old house built by the Albany traders, and also an abandoned
(orth )est *o&pany post. .he (or+)esters built a new house on the sa&e la8e in 1F1F but
occupied it $or only one season, leavin% the H , * in possession.
Soon a$ter the union o$ the two co&panies in 1F21 the post was reC&oved to nearby Pi%eon
River, beco&in% an outpost. 't is re$erred to in the -istrict Report o$ (orway House $or 1F26 as4
/,erens River better distin%uished by the na&e o$ Pi%eon River, is the only outpost in this
-istrict/. A year later, however, it was returned to the la8e on ,erens River and in 1F2", when
3ohn Robertson, cler8, was in char%e, was once &ore cited as a post and subseIuently continued
as such. ,erens River post was $irst included in the )innipe% River -istrict, until the
abandon&ent o$ that -istrict in 1F62, when it beca&e part o$ the (orway House or 3ac8 River
-istrict.
Birds Hill, Manitoba:
5
.he .own o$ ,irds Hill and the &odern day ,irds Hill Provincial Par8 were na&ed a$ter the ,ird
$a&ily who owned land in the vicinity. .heir $a&ily history is representative o$ those who settled
alon% the Red River in the early 1!th century.
3a&es *urtis ,ird ca&e to Rupert+s Land in 1FF to wor8 as a writer with the Hudson+s ,ay
*o&pany. -urin% his 65 years in service, he &oved up in ran8 to beco&e *hie$ Bactor o$ the
Red River -istrict and by 1F1! it was said that he had &ore 8nowled%e o$ the country than all
the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany o$$icers put to%ether.
3a&es ,ird &arried several ti&es, $atherin% 1" children. )hen 3a&es retired in 1F2= he received
a land %rant $ro& the co&pany o$ 1,21" hectares 26,AAA acres7 on the east side o$ the Red River.
Re%istered as River Lot !", the property e0tended east $ro& the river $or about 5.= 8& 2= &i.7,
ta8in% in the hill area now 8nown as the town o$ ,irds Hill. Kn the ban8s o$ the Red, 3a&es built
his ho&e which ca&e to be called /the )hite *otta%e./ .he Red River served as the &ain
transportation route at that ti&e.
.he par8 area was re$erred to as <the Pines1 or <Pine Rid%e1 by the ,ird $a&ily, as well as other
settlers alon% the Red River. .he river lots north o$ the ,ird property e0tended into what is now
the western ed%e o$ the par8 and provided settlers with abundant %a&e and a wealth o$ natural
&aterials. Roo$ trusses and $ences were built $ro& the oa8, ash, spruce, cedar and ta&arac8 trees.
't was here, too, that settlers, $ur traders and wildli$e $ound re$u%e $ro& sprin% $loodin% in the
Red River valley. -urin% the %reat $loods o$ 1F25 and 1F"2, which threatened the very survival
o$ the Red River settle&ent, entire $a&ilies ca&ped on hi%h %round with their livestoc8 and
possessions.
Birsay /illa0e or Orkney Town:
)hen Peter Bidler 215!C1F227 &ade a &ap o$ the Red River -istrict, he recordin% the
settle&ent o$ ,irsay Villa%e west o$ Bort -ou%las on the Assiniboine River which was built by a
%roup o$ 9etis $ree&en, so&e o$ who& had previously lived in the ,randon House area. ,irsay
Villa%e is alon% the Assiniboine River &idway between Lyon 'sland and Mettle Plain. .he vast
&a#ority o$ the $ree&an were Kr8neyC*ree 9ichi$ who wor8ed $or the Brench tradin%
co&panies. 9any o$ the $ree&en had lived lon% enou%h in the (orth )est to be $ree o$ their
co&panyGs contracts, and to be re%arded as per&anent inhabitants o$ the re%ion. So&e had been
in the (orth )est trade since 1A. .he Hudson ,ay *o&pany $ree&en were $ar $ewer as the
co&pany policy was to return servants to >urope when their contract e0pired. A $ew $or&er
H.,.*. servants, however, had settled in the vicinity o$ ,randon House, livin% with the *ree
nearly in the sa&e &anner as the $ree *anadians o$ Red River did with the K#ibwa. (ot
surprisin%, &ost o$ the Hudson ,ay $ree&en are natives o$ the Kr8ney 'sles which had supplied
the H,* with " percent o$ the servants by 1FAA.
Peter Bidler su%%ested that these Kr8ney $ree&en were servants who had been dis&issed $or
various &isde&eanors and acts o$ insubordination, rather than servants whose contracts had
e0pired. Bor e0a&ple, 3ohn Lyons was set $ree in Au%ust 1F15 $or re$usin% to acco&pany 3a&es
'n8ster on a trip to 'ndian >lbow on the upper Assiniboine. Hu&phrey Bavel was set $ree on

account o$ his bad behaviour toward 3ohn 9cLeod at Red River in 1F1"N .ho&as Bavel, a 9etis
21FAC1F=F7, was released because o$ his re$usal to %o with Peter Bidler to 3ac8 River at the
northern end o$ La8e )innipe% in 1F1"N 9a%nus Spence, in service since 1F6, beca&e $ree in
1F1" as well. 3ac8 Spence, son o$ 9a%nus Spence, was sent to e0plore Red River $or possible
sites $or an Kr8ney *olony. He was the one who selected the ,irsay site, three &iles above the
)hite Horse Plain, or twentyCtwo &iles above the $or8s.
9a%nus Spence, in the service o$ the *o&pany since 1F6, beca&e $ree in 1F1" and appears to
be the leader and eldest o$ this %roup. ,irsay was the ho&e parish o$ 9a%nus Spence in the
Kr8neys. .his %roup &oved $ro& ,randon house to the Assiniboine, #ust three &iles north o$ the
)hite Horse Plains, durin% the winter o$ 1F1C1F1F to adopt a &ore sedentary way o$ li$e. Peter
Bidler, in the sprin%, had counted ei%ht &ales, two $e&ales and thirteen children4 si0 boys and
seven %irls. Knly 9a%nus Spence and 3a&es 9on8&an had a wi$e and $a&ily listed a%ainst their
na&es. Later in the year, &ore 9etis ca&e in $ro& the bu$$alo hunt, havin% laid up a %ood stoc8,
and so&e o$ the& are &ovin% to the spots where they intend to build.
)hoopin% cou%h and &easles hit Kr8ney .own, and 3a&es Sandison lost two children on Au%ust
=. Kw&an (orIuay bC1" lost one child, and CK&an (orIuay 216C1F2A7 died. .o add to
their &isery, swar&s o$ %rasshoppers destroyed their crops. Kr8ney .own was abandoned by
&idCSepte&ber, 1F1!. .he 1F2 census su%%ests they were absorbed into the &ain Red River
*olony. .he Brench *anadian Bree&an and 9etis o$ Pe&bina Iuic8ly &oved in to the
settle&ent at Kr8ney .own.
Re$erence4
R. -ic8 ;arneau, <9etis *ulture 1F1FC1F2A.1
http4??www.telusplanet.net?d%arneau?&etis6Fa.ht&
Blood %ier -ost 21!= C 1!"7, Bloodein %ier: .he ,lood River Post was, a Hudson+s ,ay
*o. post located at the &outh o$ the ,loodvein River at La8e )innipe%, also 8nown as
,loodvein River Post.
Bo00y Creek and San Clara, Manitoba: San *lara and ,o%%y *ree8 are located north o$
Roblin, 9anitoba and west o$ the -uc8 9ountain Provincial Borest. Prior to the 1FAGs, the
*ree, K#ibway and 9Jtis Birst (ations inhabited the Roblin area. >arly settle&ent patterns were
inti&ately lin8ed to the $ur trade and related transportation networ8s. .he Pelly .rail and the
Shell River $acilitated the &ar8etin% o$ $urs hunted in the -uc8 9ountains. 'n the early
1FFAGs, the 9Jtis concentrated their land clai&s around San *lara and ,o%%y *ree8.
F
!
Brandon House, and )ort $ssiniboine Manitoba:
Bro&4 A.>. ,rown, <.he Bur .rade Posts o$ the SourisC9outh Area1 'anito(a &istorical
!ociet) Transactions, Series 6, 1!51C52.
3ohn 9acdonell+s 3ournal, written as he traveled inland with bour%eois *uthbert ;rant Sr.
records the details o$ the push west in the $all o$ 1!64
/.hursday "
th
Septe&ber C 21!67 C Kvertoo8 -. 9cMay and his Hudson+s ,ay
Party in the Rapid o$ Sault a la ,iche St. Andrew+s Rapids.
Septe&ber 11
th
, )ednesday C .he Strip o$ )ood that lines the River has now %ot
so lar%e that we re&ain in the canoes as it &i%ht be troubleso&e to $ind the&
when reIuired. Passed the site o$ an Ancient Bort de La Re$ine. .he spot on which
it stood can scarcely be 8nown $ro& the place bein% %rown up with wood.
Saturday 21
st
... ' set out on $oot $or Bort 2Pine Bort7 distant ten lea%ues and
arrived at it, two hours be$ore sunset. Starvation worse at the Bort than alon% the
road. .he people who were out in various directions loo8in% $or 'ndians with
provisions returned on the 25
th
with nine lod%es o$ Assinibouans well loaded the
pieces o$ &eat ...
9onday, Septe&ber 6A
th
C Le$t the Pine Bort on $oot havin% a $ew horses to carry
our provisions and beddin%, $or we are not to sleep with the canoes any &ore ...
.uesday, 1
st
Kctober C 9r. *. ;rant placed Au%e in opposition to 9r. Ranald
*a&eron, who& 9r. Peter ;rant settled at a new place two &iles above the
&outh o$ the River La SourieN a s&all river $ro& the S.). that e&pties itsel$ into
the Assinibouan River./
As 9acdonell and ;rant proceeded west to the Lu+Appelle, -onald 9cMay o$ the Hudson+s ,ay
*o&pany was pressin% hard towards a $avourable location $or his $ort. .he Hudson+s ,ay
*o&pany records show that the $oundations o$ the new post were laid on Kctober 15, 1!6, and
at $ive the sa&e a$ternoon it was /baptiHed ,randon House/.
1A
.he e0act location o$ the ,randon House $ounded this day is in so&e doubt, but we 8now that it
was on the northeast ban8 o$ the Assiniboine. .he ,randon House o$ Peter Bidler+s day 21F157
was several &iles upstrea& $ro& the ori%inal (orth )est post $or which we have a precise
distance o$ two &iles $ro& the Souris &outh in 3ohn 9acdonell+s 3ournal Iuoted above, as well
as a latitude readin% $ro& -avid .ho&pson+s 3ournal o$ 1!. 't is plain that so %reat a distance,
as well as di$$iculties o$ terrain alon% the north ban8, si&ply do not #ibe with three separate ite&s
o$ written evidence. 'n 9ay, 1!=, the sprin% $ollowin% the establish&ent o$ these posts, 3ohn
9acdonell was returnin% east with *uthbert ;rant, Sr., the bour%eois in char%e o$ the sprin%
bri%ade. 9acdonell+s #ournal relates4
/9ay 5, 1!=, arrived at Au%e+s River la Souris BortN sun an hour hi%h. Au%e has
sad co&plaints a%ainst his H.,. opponent, 9r. -onald, alias /9ad/ 9cMay ...
,y order o$ 9r. ;rant ' too8 down three or $our or $ive declarations o$ his own
&en a%ainst 9r. -onald 9cMay, in conseIuence o$ which we too8 hi& prisoner
11
$or $irin% at Au%e and layin% in a&bush $or his li$e. ' was his %uard and slept with
hi& at ni%ht.
9r. ;rant allowed 9r. 9cMay, le &alin, to %o ho&e, seal his #ournal and write to
his chie$, 9r. 9c(abb. ' went with hi& and, accordin% to his pro&ise, ca&e bac8
Iuietly with &e. .
Le$t River la Sourie a$ter brea8$ast with 1= canoes and 6 boats. 9r. ;rant thou%ht
proper to release 9r. -onald 9cMay, so we did not e&bar8 hi&, and he was so
pleased with recoverin% his liberty that it was at his house we brea8$asted by his
particular reIuest./
.hese entries clearly i&ply that Au%e+s (orth )est post and 9cMay+s ,randon House were in
close pro0i&ity. .his was a brie$ stop, yet 9acdonell ta8es a declaration $ro& 9cMay+s /own/
&en with little inconvenience. Burther, they brea8$asted at ,randon House on 9cMay+s invitation
be$ore e&bar8in%. .his would have been i&possible i$ the Hudson+s ,ay post had been three or
$our di$$icult &iles upstrea&.
.he $ollowin% winter, Robert ;oodwin, who succeeded -onald 9cMay in the position o$ Post
9aster at ,randon House writes on 3anuary 5, 1!"4 /)e are $our houses here, and very little
&ade at any o$ the& yet./
)illia& Oorstone was the &an in char%e at ,randon House in &idC9ay o$ 1F1A 2when the
#ournal be%ins7, at which ti&e, the post&aster, 3ohn 9cMay, lay dyin%. 9cMay+s death and burial
are duly recorded in the entries $or 3uly ", 5 and . Oorstone continued in char%e o$ the postN and
his daily #ournal, $aith$ully 8ept, continues until 9ay 26, 1F11 when the Sel8ir8 Papers copy
ends. Bro& it we learn that the (orth )est *o&pany did not return to co&pete in the area until
so&eti&e a$ter the sprin% o$ 1F11, but re&ained at their Pine Bort location to which LarocIue
had transported the& in 1FA. .his post is &entioned $reIuently in this 1F1AC11 ,randon House
3ournal, and their %re%arious 9r. 3ohn Pritchard was a visitor at ,randon House on several
occasions. .he rival co&panies see&ed to en#oy an era o$ peace and coCoperation in these years,
$or a Hudson+s ,ay o$$icial $or the district wrote directin% the &en at ,randon House to have
so&e wor8 done by the blac8s&ith at Pine Bort, as the (or+westers owed the& a $avour.
Bor purposes o$ clari$yin% the proper location o$ the site o$ the ,randon House o$ 1F15, this
#ournal is o$ the ut&ost si%ni$icanceN $or in it we have a detailed account o$ a &ove upstrea& and
across the river which too8 place in the sprin% o$ 1F11. .here are &any re$erences to &ovin%
buildin%s, $erryin% supplies, and to &en &a8in% bales at the /old house/ or layin% out new
buildin%s at the new. 't would see& that this #ournal does, in $act, %ive a $ull account o$ the &ove
$ro& the ori%inal location on the north ban8 opposite the &outh o$ Bive 9ile *ree8, to the bi%
site in 9or%an+s $ieldC&ore than three &iles upstrea&, and on the southwest ban8. .his would
&ean that the (orth )est *o&pany+s Bort La Souris o$ 1F15 &ust have occupied the site on the
northeast side o$ the river that was $or so lon% believed to have been the site o$ ,randon House
$ro& 1!6 to 1F1F.
Bidler+s account o$ the postGs location reads4 /,randon House C 5 &iles above the Souris River on
the south side .../ 'n providin% $urther details about the establish&ent, he says that it is in /a
ruinous state occasioned by the war brules in 1F15/, and %oes on to say that /a s&all new house
was built here last su&&er 6A 0 1= $t. .here are a s&ith and coopers shops also a tradin% roo&,
12
provisions stores and 2stables with houses $or &en and 'ndians when they ca&e to the Houses to
trade./
>vidence concernin% the e0act location o$ ,randon House in 1F15 is to be $ound in Peter Bidler+
deposition on its capture by the (or+westers as a prelude to Seven Ka8s4
/.hat on the evenin% o$ the 61
st
day o$ 9ay last 1F15, Ale0ander 9acdonell, a
partner o$ the (orth )est *o&pany acco&panied by Several *anadians and &en
co&&only called hal$breeds 2that is the sons o$ *anadians by 'ndian )o&en and
born in the 'ndian *ountries7 arrived at the .radin% house o$ the (orth )est
*o&pany called Riviere la Sourie, and situated opposite ,randon House at the
distance o$ about two hundred yards. .hat on the $ollowin% &ornin% a body o$
16
about =F &en co&posed o$ *anadians, Hal$breeds and a $ew 'ndians ar&ed with
;uns, Pistols, Swords, Spears, and ,ows and Arrows, appeared on Horsebac8 in
the Plain near to the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany+s tradin% house 2called ,randon
House7 o$ which he the deponent was then 9aster and .rader $or the said
Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany, that this body o$ &en, beatin% an 'ndian dru&, sin%in%
'ndian Son%s and havin% a Bla% $lyin% rode towards the (orth )est *o&pany+s
tradin% house, that on a sudden the said body o$ &en turned their horses and rode
on a %allop into the yard o$ ,randon House, where they all dis&ounted, erected
their $la% over the %ate o$ the house and deliberately tied their horses to the
stoc8ades. .hat then *uthbert ;rant, a hal$breed and cler8 in the service o$ the
(orth )est *o&pany who appeared to be the leader o$ the party co&e to the
-eponent and de&anded the 8eys o$ the House that on the deponent re$usin% to
deliver up the 8eys, a hal$breed called 9cMay 2son o$ the late Ale0ander 9cMay
$or&erly a partner o$ the (orth )est *o&pany7 assisted by several o$ his
co&panions bro8e open the doors o$ the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany+s )arehouse and
plundered the property consistin% o$ tradin% %oods, $urs and other articles to a
considerable a&ount, which to%ether with two boats belon%in% to the H.,.*o.
.hey carried away. .he deponent $urther saith that when the said 9cMay and
party had $inished plunderin% the Houses o$ the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany the
whole body o$ *anadians, hal$breeds and 'ndians, crossed the River and went to
the (orth )est *o&pany+s House ta8in% with the& the plundered property .../
A$ter the a&al%a&ation o$ the co&panies, *hie$ Bactor 3ohn 9c-onald reported that ,randon
House operated on the north side o$ the river $ro& 1F2A to 1F26. 't see&s $ro& this that when the
co&panies united, they &oved into the (orth )est *o&pany+s buildin%s which &ay have been
&ore serviceable and better preserved, or &ore in 8eepin% with the a&ount o$ business that was
then bein% done in the area.
.heir tenure in this northCside location was brie$, $or by 1F2= ,randon House was closed out as
part o$ the retrench&ent which $ollowed a&al%a&ation. .hus ended a tradin% e0istence o$ so&e
thirtyCone years in the SourisC&outh district. Another northCside post bearin% the na&e opened
brie$ly $ive years later, but it was al&ost ten &iles $arther up the Assiniboine on Section 2!C!C1
).1.
At the place where the early %roup clustered only one site is clearly identi$iable on the north side,
althou%h there are two 8nown locations on the south side. .his sin%le northCside site is lar%e,
lon%Cused, well located, undisturbed, and co&paratively littleCdecayed oN over%rown. )hose $ort
was itP Bro& a co&parison o$ the siHe o$ the $oundin% parties as they are reported in 3ohn
9acdonell+s #ournal, we can see that ,randon House was al&ost certainly lar%er $ro& the outset,
and $ro& LarocIue+s co&&ents it was lar%er and better sta$$ed in 1FA5CA when 9acdonell
ordered the (or+westers to pull out and relocate at old Pine Bort.
Burther, this $irst ,randon House was in $ullCti&e operation $or ei%hteen years, while the ori%inal
(orth )est *o&pany establish&ent was active $or only $ourteen years. Also, this bi% site could
very accurately be described as bein% /a %unshot away/ $ro& the site that $its the description o$
3ohn Pritchard+s E O post. .here is also the probability that the ori%inal ,randon House site was
1=
not co&pletely abandoned even by 1F15N $or in that year Peter Bidler re$ers to a bu$$alo robe
bein% brou%ht $ro& the /old house/. Bro& such accounts, which su%%est %reater siHe and indicate
lon%er occupancy, one would e0pect the survivin% traces o$ the $irst ,randon House to be &ore
in evidence than those o$ the $irst (orth )est *o&pany post.
't would see& that the bi% site opposite the &outh o$ Bive 9ile *ree8, that has always been
thou%ht to be the $irst (orth )est *o&pany post 2so&eti&es called Bort Assiniboine7, is actually
the site o$ ,randon House (o. 1.
Cal# Mountain, Little 1ance Hill, Manitoba
*al$ 9ountain, called .ete de ,oue$, ,u$$alo Head, and Pilot 9ound, is #ust south o$
-arlin%$ord, 9anitoba. 't has an elevation o$ 1""A $eet. Pilot 9ound was in the heart o$ 'ndian
country in the days o$ the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany. .he Plains 'ndians called the 9ound <Little
-ance Hill,1 9epawaIuo&oshin. .hey ca&e %reat distances to hold their cere&onial dances on
its su&&it.
-urin% the $irst hal$ o$ the 1!th century the area was well 8nown to the bu$$alo hunters o$ the old
Red River Settle&ent and was a stoppin% point as well as a huntin% location. Various clashes
resulted between the bu$$alo hunters and the Siou0 with a $ierce battle bein% $ou%ht on the
northern slopes o$ the Kld 9ound in the &id 1F"As.
A local le%end, recorded by settlers about 1FF, states that in the 1F"As the Siou0 were de$eated
by Red River bu$$alo hunters in a s8ir&ish near the hill.
.he bu$$alo hunters were ca&ped at ,arbour+s La8e preparin% to hunt a lar%e herd o$ ,u$$alo,
which was located in the area and had driven the& northward to the ed%e o$ the bush. Bindin%
two o$ their &e&bers &issin% and their horses and ri$les %one, it was later learned the Siou0 had
8illed the&. As ni%ht was $allin% the hunters returned to ca&p.
.he ne0t day, the hunters advanced in stren%th toward the 9ound. .he Siou0 were asse&bled a
little over a hal$C&ile north o$ the 9ound. Here the battle too8 place, a runnin% $i%ht, on
horsebac8 in 'ndian style, which resulted in the co&plete de$eat o$ the Siou0.
Le%end has it that $ive hundred and ninetyCseven were 8illed and buried on the western slope o$
the Kld 9ound. .wo survivors were allowed to carry the story o$ the &assacre bac8 to their
people. )hen the $i%ht was over there were 1"AA bu$$alo hunters on the 9ound.
A party o$ Siou0 ca&e up $ro& the south durin% the early days o$ white settle&ent and care$ully
e0a&ined the burial place o$ their people on the slope o$ the hill. 'n recent years, descendents o$
the slain warriors drive $ro& ,elcourt, (orth -a8ota, to hold a &e&orial cere&ony on the
9ound each $all. .hey welco&e local people to co&e with the& as they wal8 over the 9ound,
hold a s&ud%in% cere&ony, scatter tobacco and o$$er $ood $or their ancestors.
1"
'n 1!A!, Henry 9ont%o&ery, an Anthropolo%ist $ro& the Qniversity o$ .oronto du% into the
&ound and to the consternation o$ Abori%inal people re&oved &any arte$acts. His article
published in 1!1A in the American Anthropolo*ist, (.S. 12, 1!1A4 =!C".
Another noteworthy hill in southern 9anitoba is 9ount (ebo located $ive &iles south and one
&ile west o$ the town o$ 9ia&i, 9anitoba on the ed%e o$ the escarp&ent.
Camperille, Manitoba:
*a&perville and -uc8 ,ay, on the northwest shore o$ La8e )innipe%osis, are inseparable in
their history. Swa&py *ree and Saulteau0 inhabited the area. 't was an ideal place to trade, $ish
and hunt. Later, Oor8 boats and bar%es replaced canoes on these inland waterways. .hese were
&anned by 'ndians and 9etis $ro& Red River and 9etis settle&ents in the south, at St. A&broise
and St. Laurent. .he Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany reIuested Ro&an *atholic and Protestant
&issionaries to acco&pany e&ployees on their lon% #ourneys &inisterin% to their spiritual needs.
>arly &issions in the *a&perville and -uc8 ,ay area were Ro&an *atholic, but to the north, at
Shoal River, and the east, at Bair$ord, the An%licans established &issions in 1F"" and 1F=2
respectively.
.he earliest o$ the *a&perville and -uc8 ,ay Settle&ents can be traced bac8 to $a&ilies o$ the
9etis who at one ti&e lived in Red River and the &ore western districts such as St. Brancois
Eavier 2then 8nown as la Prairie du *heval ,lanc or )hite Horse Plains7, St. A&broise and St.
15
Laurent. .hese people, in Iuest o$ wor8 and adventure beca&e e&ployees o$ the Hudson+s ,ay
*o&pany, and %radually $ound per&anent places in s&all settle&ents alon% La8e )innipe%osis.
Salt deposits are located ei%ht &iles north o$ the presentCday town o$ )innipe%osis and also
across the la8e at Salt Point. 't was here that so&e o$ the 9etis re&ained to prepare salt by an
evaporation process $or the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany. .his area was %iven the na&e La Saline,
and so&e present residents re&e&ber evidence o$ the <cribs1 at Blett+s Point in the 1!2As. >arly
per&anent settle&ent resulted $ro& this enterprise, as &any o$ these 9etis &arried *ree and
Saulteau0 wives and re&ained there. Kn Au%ust 2F, 1F1, an 'ndian treaty was si%ned at
9anitoba House, which created Pine *ree8 Reserve.
Kne o$ the early &issionaries, who traveled in this area, usin% St. Laurent as a startin% point, was
the Rev. *. 3. *a&per. ,y that ti&e the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany had established a post at presentC
day *a&perville on what is now Lot 5, under the &ana%e&ent o$ a 9r. 9cMenHie. 'saac *owie,
in his boo8 .he *o&pany o$ Adventurers, states that in 1F5, <there was an outpost o$ Shoal
River at -uc8 ,ay on La8e )innipe%osis.1 )ith the encoura%e&ent o$ Bather *a&per, &ore
9etis $ro& the St. Laurent area be%an to settle there. >ventually this settle&ent beca&e 8nown
locally as *a&perville in honor o$ the &inistrations o$ Bather *a&per. However, it wasn+t until
around 1!1= that this na&e was used on the &ap rather than the previous desi%nation as Pine
*ree8.
Qnder the direction o$ Bather *a&per, a s&all wooden buildin% was erected $or church services
and school. .he $irst resident priest was the Rev. 3. A. -upont K.9.'., and on Septe&ber F, 1FF5
the $irst parish re%ister was be%un, with the baptis& o$ a 9etisCSiou0 na&ed Her&an 9cMay. Kn
3anuary 22, 1F!=, the little settle&ent saw the arrival o$ the Rev. St. ;er&ain, acco&panied by
the Rev. Adelard *hau&ont, who be%an wor8 on a residential school $or the 'ndian and 9etis
children.
Cold Lake, Manitoba:
*old La8e, or Mississin% in *ree, was a 9etis road allowance co&&unity located south o$
Sherridon, 9anitoba 2then a &inin% town7 on Mississin% La8e, FAA 8&. northwest o$ )innipe%.
Senator >d Head o$ 9anitoba 9etis Bederation recalled4 <9y parents were &arried in .he Pas.
.hey went to *ranberry Porta%e and $ro& there wal8ed to *old La8e, 9anitoba 2#ust south o$
Sherridon7.1 <.he place we lived was nic8na&ed +9occasin Blats.+ .hat+s where the 9Jtis lived,
and it was always the way the 9Jtis lived. .hey called us +Road Allowance 'ndians+,1 >d
e0plains. .hey had settled there because >d+s %rand$ather had &oved there. His $ather did odd
#obs $or SherrittC;ordon then was hired as a &iner. >d+s %rand$ather had a %uidin% business and
%uided the Sherridon 9ine 9ana%er into the &ine, overland $ro& *u&berland House.
<*u&berland House was the &ain #uncture %oin% into the (orth in the late 1FAA+s,1 says >d.
<>ldon ,rown, the prospector who discovered the ore body at Sherridon ca&e throu%h
*u&berland House and needed a %uide. 9y %reatC%rand$ather was busy, so &y %rand$ather,
3a&es Sayese, &et up with ,rown and beca&e his %uide. He wor8ed $or ,rown as a personal
%uide $or a lon% ti&e. Later he went to wor8 $or SherrittC;ordon.1 >d recalled that o$ten they
1
would be as8ed to &ove $ro& the road allowance but would #ust &ove $urther down the road and
cut &ore lo%s to rebuild their ho&es
Crescentwood, Manitoba:
)ith no brid%e connectin% the land that lay south o$ the Assiniboine River to )innipe%, the area
that was to beco&e *rescentwood saw very little develop&ent be$ore 1FA. 9ost o$ the lots
contained 9Jtis $ar&s, land belon%in% to the Ro&an *atholic *hurch, and others were used as
wood lots, ta8in% advanta%e o$ the &ature oa8 tress o$ the river botto& $orest. 'n 1FFA, a brid%e
was built across the Assiniboine at 9ain Street, and )innipe%+s $irst real suburb, Bort Rou%e,
be%an to ta8e shape. )est Bort Rou%e, the area that was to beco&e *rescentwood, River Hei%ht
and .u0edo, was still lar%ely inaccessible, and until the construction o$ the ,oundary 29aryland7
,rid%e in 1F!5, there were only a $ew ho&es in the area. *rescentwood be%an to ta8e its present
$or& in 1!A2 throu%h a co&bination o$ need and boosteris&. )innipe%+s wealthy had
traditionally lived in the city in nei%hbourhoods li8e Point -ou%las and Ar&stron%+s Point. ,y
1!AA, however Point -ou%las was beco&in% a downtown industrial area, and Ar&stron%Gs
Point was $ully developed. *rescentwood was the lo%ical choice $or those with wealth who were
see8in% an alternative to downtown. As the area developed the 9etis were displaced &ovin%
south and west toward what was to beco&e 8nown as Rooster .own 2see separate entry7.
1eer %apids, Manitoba: See entry under Sault R la ,iche, now St. Andrews.
1uck Bay, Manitoba:
-uc8 ,ay is located on the northwest shore o$ La8e Pittowinipi8 2)innipe%osis7. Bor
centuries this location was a $all %atherin% place $or Abori%inal people. .he nei%hbourin%
&arshes provided $or sprin% and $all &i%ratory bird hunts and there was also a lar%e $all $ishery.
.he salt sprin%s o$ the area were also a developed econo&ic asset. 'n the 1FAAs -uc8 ,ay
beca&e a winterin% area $or 9etis hunters, $ishers and traders. 'n 1F6!, Bather ,elcourt &ade his
$irst visit to the co&&unity.
Surrender o# 1uck Bay %esere:
.he -uc8 ,ay reserve o$ !,52A acres was created a$ter the -uc8 ,ay ,and entered .reaty Bour.
SubseIuently a lar%e nu&ber o$ 9etis ,and 9e&bers le$t treaty.
(a&ely4
Pierre *hartrand
)illia& *hartrand
3oseph *hartrand
3oseph ;enaille
Louis ;uiboche
1F
Patrice Berland
Brancois *hartrand
Antoine ,one
,aptiste *hartrand Sr.
,aptiste *hartrand 3r.
3oseph ,eaucha&p
>douard ;uiboche
Ale0is Berland
Veuve Rosine Berland
'n 1FF6, Bather *a&per be%an to lobby $or a new reserve to be created $or the re&ainder o$ the
-uc8 ,ay ,and at Pine River. 'n 1FF5 Bather -upont continued to $ollowCup with this reIuest.
.he %overn&ent a%reed to this on the basis that the Hal$C,reeds who had withdrawn $ro& treaty
should retain their land at -uc8 ,ay.
SubseIuently the -uc8 ,ay Reserve was surrendered by Head&an 3ean ,aptiste (apa8isit
2
si%nin% on behal$ o$ the ,and, in 1F!!. 3ean ,aptiste was elected as Head&an $or a three year
ter& on Au%ust th, 1FF5. .hus a new Reserve was created at Pine *ree8.
As it happened, the 9etis who had withdrawn $ro& .reaty re%retted their decision and petitioned
to return to .reaty in 1!!6, however this reIuest was re$used.
.he 'ndian A$$airs docu&entation o$ this surrender is shown below.

2
3ean ,aptiste was &arried to >liHa 9i8ish. .heir dau%hter 'sabelle 2Blat$oot7 (apa8isit was &arried to Louis
Pelletier.
1!
2A
21
22
26
2=
)air#ord Settlement, #ormerly 2-inaymootan03 2+-artrid0e Crop+, Manitoba:
'ndependent $ur trader -uncan *a&eron 215=C1F=F7 wintered in 1!"S!5 west o$ La8e
)innipe% at Partrid%e *rop, on the Partrid%e *rop River, havin% as rivals 3ohn ,est at -auphin
River and two independent traders, 3oseph RhJau&e and ;abriel Atina Laviolette. .rade
relations were tenseN on 61 9arch 1!5 ,est wrote that *a&eron was <constantly at variance
with &e concernin% trade, that it is al&ost '&possible to %et ye $urrs without $i%htin% $or it.1 'n
1F=2 Rev. Abraha& *owley 21F15C1F7 established a &ission at Partrid%e *rop, now Bair$ord,
9anitoba, where a church and school were built on the river about two &iles $ro& La8e
9anitoba. His record with the (atives was &i0ed. He was %ood at teachin% the& $ar&in% but
less success$ul in translatin% *hristianity into ter&s they understood. He le$t Bair$ord in 1F"=
and served as assistant to Rev. )illia& *oc8ran at St. PeterGs. 'n 1F=5 3ohn Richards 9cMay
posted to Partrid%e *rop H,* until 1F=F. .he H,* operated as Bair$ord Post $ro& 1F1C1!16.
)ond du lac, now St, Laurent, Manitoba:
Kri%inally called Bond du Lac, this 9etis co&&unity was established in 1F2= on the shores o$
La8e 9anitoba. 9any 9etis &oved there a$ter it was $ound that Pe&bina was actually in the
Qnited States. ,y 1F"A, twelve $a&ilies were established at St. Laurent, includin% the La&berts,
*hartrands, Lavallees, Pan%&ans and -uchar&es. 9ore 9etis &oved there a$ter the Resistance
o$ 1F5!CA. St. Laurent was ori%inally a $ishin%, trappin% and tradin% co&&unity with s&allC
scale $ar&in%. .he 9etis traded up to the *a&perville area on La8e )innipe%osis and would %o
as $ar the Su&&erberry 9arsh near .he Pas to catch &us8rats in the sprin%. A Ro&an *atholic
&ission was established here in 1F52. .he co&&unity was rena&ed by Bather *a&per a$ter St.
Lawrence, a *hristian &artyr.
St, Laurent History4 ,y Audreen Hourie.
St. Laurent is located on the southCeastern curve o$ La8e 9anitoba, $ortyCseven &iles northwest
o$ )innipe%. .he population o$ St. Laurent is appro0i&ately 1,1AA, about threeCIuarters o$
who& are 9etis. 'n 1F2=, a %roup o$ 9etis, $orced to leave Pe&bina as it had beco&e A&erican
territory, settled at what is now St. Laurent. Kther 9etis $a&ilies driven out 2o$ )innipe%7 by the
Red River $lood o$ 1F25 also chose to settle in this area. ,y 1F"A, twelve 9etis $a&ilies resided
in the vicinityN a&on% the& were *harles La&bert, (orbert Larance $ro& (orth -a8ota, a
*hartrand $ro& -uc8 ,ay, and the LavallJes and the -uchar&es. 9any 9etis settlers were
attracted by the abundance o$ $ish and the wooded land nearby that abounded in %a&e and wild
$ruit.

'n 1F25, a priest $ro& St. ,oni$ace, Bather -estrois&aisons, went to the settle&ent to celebrate
*hrist&as. St. Laurent had no resident priest, but St. BranDois Eavier, thirty &iles south had a
resident priest since 1F26, so it was possible $or the St. Laurent people to %o to that church. 'n
1F51, St. Laurent received a resident priest, Bather Si&onet, who beca&e the $irst pastor. .he
$irst church or chapel was a s&all thatchCcovered structure which served as a church and rectory.
.here was already a s&all ce&etery, but %enerally the dead were ta8en to St. BranDois Eavier $or
burial. 'n 1F!", a new church was built and the $ollowin% year a convent $or the Sisters $ro& the
2"
Krder o$ the Branciscan 9issionaries o$ 9ary who were to arrive in 1F!. .raditionally the
9etis o$ St. Laurent have been very reli%iously oriented. Althou%h the co&&unity is Ro&an
*atholic, a $ew $a&ilies attend the >van%elical 9ennonite church. Kn 9ay 6A, 1!51, a
thunderbolt struc8 the old *atholic church and in si0 hours it was reduced to ashes, all that was
le$t were $our stone walls. ,y 1!5=, a new church was built on the sa&e site.

As early as 1F52, Bather Si&onet had be%un a s&all school, but the $irst real school was opened
in 1FA by ,rother 9ulvihill who ca&e to St. Laurent $ro& 'reland to #oin Bather *a&per who
had arrived $ro& Brance, and Bather Si&onet, the vicar. .he school operated under ,rother
9ulvihillGs direction until the arrival o$ si0 nuns in 1F!, who were to ta8e char%e o$ the school.
.his school served until 1!A2 when another buildin% was erected to serve as a school and
convent $or the nuns. 'n 1!A or 1!AF, a lar%e school was built and attached to the e0istin%
buildin%, which was %iven over entirely to the nuns. .his buildin% served its purpose $or 52
years.
'n 1!A2, Bather Peron beca&e Pastor o$ St. Laurent. Kn a trip to Brance he brou%ht bac8 several
,reton $a&ilies. 'n 1!A, a 9r. BranDois *alveH returned to ,ritanny to brin% out his wi$e and
$ive sons. Ba&ily na&es such as Leost, Ab%rall, Le%o$$, *o&bot, *alveH and Kllivier were added
to the villa%e. Prior to 1!A2, St. Laurent was populated by 9etis and so&e 'ndian $a&ilies. .he
spo8en lan%ua%es were 9ichi$ Brench and Saulteau0. Qpon the arrival o$ the <,retons1, the
Brench lan%ua%e was introduced and %reatly a$$ected the co&&unity. St. Laurent continues to
&aintain its 9etis identity and Brench 9ichi$ survived the pressures $ro& the church, the nuns,
and the <,retons1 who atte&pted to replace 9ichi$ Brench with the new Brench lan%ua%e. .he
Saulteau0 lan%ua%e did not survive as $ew people now spea8 it.
)ort $le.ander, Manitoba: 21!6 C 1FA1, 1F22 C 1F5A7
Bort Ale0ander was built by the Hudson+s ,ay *o. on the )innipe% River to counter the (orth
)est *o.+s Bort ,asCdeClaCRivière that was nearby. 't was ori%inally located upriver at and 8nown
as Pointe au Boutre House 2on the north ban87. 't was palisaded $or de$ense in 1!5 and relocated
downstrea& in 1!F closer to the ()* post.
-urin% the $ur trade era, La VJrendrye built a tradin% post, na&ed Bort 9aurepas, on the north
side o$ the )innipe% RiverN this post was abandoned near the end o$ the Brench period. 'n the
year 1!2, a cler8 $or the (orth )est *o&pany, .oussaint Lesieur, built a post on the south side,
which beca&e an i&portant provisionin% post $or the canoe bri%ades. ,a%s o$ pe&&ican,
brou%ht $ro& the (orth )est *o&pany+s posts on the upper Assiniboine, were stored here and
ta8en as needed by the canoe bri%ades passin% between ;rand Porta%e 2later, Bort )illia&7 and
the $ar northwest. .his post was usually re$erred to as Bort ,as de la Rivière, because o$ its
location at the botto& o$ )innipe% River, and it see&s to have $unctioned as the capital o$ the
() *o&pany+s La8e )innipe% district. .he Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany operated its own post here
$or a $ew years between 1!" and 1FA1. 'n 1FA, the (orth )est *o&pany partner Ale0ander
9ac8ay rebuilt the post on a nearby site. ,e%innin% in 1FAF, the new post was 8nown as Bort
Ale0ander. A$ter the (orthwest and Hudson+s ,ay *o&panies &er%ed in 1F21, Bort Ale0ander
was operated as a tradin% post $or the (atives in the re%ion.
25
)ort 1auphin:
La VJrendryeGs records on 9ay 12, 1=2, the establish&ent o$ Bort -auphin, which was $ounded
in the autu&n o$ 1=1 at the west side o$ the &outh o$ the 9ossey River. .his site is in the
present day town o$ )innipe%osis <Little 9uddy )ater,1 9anitoba. .he $ounder o$ this $ort was
La VJrendryeGs son, *hevalier. .he latter also $ounded about the sa&e ti&e, Bort ,ourbon at the
&outh o$ the PasIuia 2Sas8atchewan River7. Later this Bort ,ourbon was re&oved to the west
side o$ *edar La8e.

.his post was attac8ed by 'ndians in 1=6 and rebuilt on a site $urther upriver. 't was abandoned
by the Brench about 1"F A second Bort -auphin was built in 15 on the north shore o$ La8e
-auphin, so both the $ort and the la8e had the sa&e na&e. Ale0ander Henry #oined the (orth
)est *o&pany 2()*o.7 in 1!1, tradin% at both the )hite&ud River and Bort -auphin. He
then went to Pe&bina in 1FA1.
Peter Bidler, HudsonGs ,ay *o&pany $urCtrader, e0plorer and carto%rapher died at Bort -auphin
on -ece&ber 1, 1F22.
'n 1FF5, the $irst %eneral store and post o$$ice $or the re%ion was established at <-o%town,1 so
na&ed $or the pac8 and sled do%s which were the hall&ar8 o$ Birst (ations and 9Jtis
settle&ents. ,y 1F!6, -o%town had so &any i&&i%rants $ro& eastern *anada that the old 9Jtis
co&&unity had beco&e distinctly ,ritishC*anadian.
)ort de la %ii*re Tremblante (4rant5s House, $spin House+,
Robert ;rant a partner o$ the (orth )est *o&pany built this post in 1!1. 't was located on the
Qpper Assiniboine River on the le$t ban8 near where the Rivière .re&blante enters the
Assiniboine. 'n 1!6, *uthbert ;rant Sr. too8 over the post when he was placed in char%e o$ that
district. 't was his $avourite residence. 't was both a source o$ $urs and a provisionin% post $or the
bri%ades travelin% to Athabasca country. ;rant departed in 1!F because o$ the intense
co&petition $ro& 1= posts in the re%ion. .he ruins o$ the $ort are located at the botto& o$ the
Assiniboine Valley about "AA yards east o$ the Assiniboine #ust above the point where Rivière
.re&blante enters. 't is close to the present day Sas8atchewan villa%e o$ .o%o, and nine &iles
south o$ Ma&sac8.
)ort 1es6arlais:
Bort -es#arlais was built in 1F65 by 3oseph -es#arlais. 3oseph <9itche *ote1 -es#arlais was
born in 1FA5 in Lac la ,iche. 3oseph had &et and &arried LaLouise 3osephte Richard in 1F6= in
,aie St. Paul. She had been the dau%hter o$ 3oseph Richard and her &other had been na&ed
'sabelle 2*hippewa7. 3oseph had started the $urCtradin% store on the Souris River in 1F65,
providin% the &uch sou%ht a$ter Pe&&ican $or &any travelers. He had also stoc8ed his tradin%
post with whis8ey. .he 'ndians had 8nown 3oseph by the na&e o$ <9isi%ade1. 't had been
3oseph 21FA57 that had built Bort -es#arlais, when he had enclosed his tradin% store within an
Ka8 Palisade on the Souris River near present day Lauder. 3oseph had enclosed his $ur tradin%
store because o$ the &any attac8s by the a%%ressive Siou0.
2
Bort -es#arlais was located on the Souris River to the northCwest o$ present day Lauder,
9anitoba 2Section 61, .ownship ", Ran%e 2=7. 't was located about $ive &iles $ro& Bort 9r.
;rant.
3oseph -es#arlais was the son o$ 3ean ,aptiste -es#arlais
6
born 1F at St. Paul des Saulteau0
2Saulteau0 Villa%e7 and LiHette *harlotte *ardinal and was the %randson o$ 3oseph -es#arlais Sr.
$ro& *ontrecoeur, Luebec 2b. 15=7
=
and his *hippewa?9etis wi$e K8i&as8wew. .hey &arried
in 1F" in 9anitoba. .he -es#arlais $a&ily established one post on the Souris River, near
Lauder, and another s&all post on the Souris near presentCday 9inot, (orth -a8ota. .he
northern post was operated by 3oseph and Antoine 2b. 1!67
"
with their brother 9arcel 2b.
6
,aptiste +(ishecabo+ -es#arlais was born ca 1F. ,aptiste +(ishecabo+ died in Little Bor8, Lu+Appelle La8es,
()., in winter 1F1N he was F=. 'n 1F1" when ,aptiste +(ishecabo+ was 2F, he $irst &arried *harlotte /LiHette/
*ardinal, in ,aie St. Paul, Red River Settle&ent.
=
3oseph died in Swan River, 9anitoba, on 22 Kct 1F66N he was !. 3oseph also had a son called 3oseph 2b. 1!17.
Kn = (ov 1F== 3oseph &arried 3osephte *ardinal, the dau%hter o$ 3oseph /9atchiCPaCMoos/ *ardinal and Louise
/9as8e8ost8oes8/ Brobisher, in Lac La ,iche.
2F
1FA67
5
, brother ,aptiste

and sonsCinClaw *harles -e9onti%ny, >usebe Ledou0 and Si&on
,londeau. .he elder 3oseph &ay have been a $ur traderN licences $or 1F6 included one $or a
3oseph <-es#erlais.1
*hippewa na&es have survived $or two o$ the -es#arlais sons. 9arcel was called <LueweHas1
and 3oseph T9itche *ote,1 or <Hairy Le%s.1 Antoine -es#arlais, the &iddle son, entered the
service o$ the HudsonGs ,ay *o&pany. He operated a post in the .urtle 9ountains as an
interpreter $ro& 1F=F to 1F"".
3oseph -es#arlais 3r. chose a site in the Lauder sand hills $or his tradin% post. .he site was about
thirty $eet above the level o$ the Souris, which ran past the south wall. )ithin the stoc8adeU
perhaps as lar%e as one hundred $i$ty $eet sIuareUthere stood one lon% lo% buildin% and several
s&aller ones.
Bort -es#arlais, as it ca&e to be 8nown, was serviced &ore by Red River carts than by canoes.
.he Oellow Luill .rail, runnin% $ro& a point twenty &iles $ro& Bort ;arry up the Assiniboine
and Souris Rivers, served both Borth *uthbert ;rant and Bort -es#arlais be$ore splittin% into
independent branches servin% (orth -a8ota and the .urtle 9ountains. 'n addition to this, there
was the HudsonGs ,ay .rail that ran north throu%h the sand hills $ro& Bort -es#arlais.
Peter ;arrioch, who operated a post on the Souris River south o$ the A&erican border brie$ly in
the 1F=As, passed throu%h Bort *uthbert ;rant in 3anuary 1F=5. He recorded in his #ournal that
<9r. ;rant had seiHed the %oods and $urs o$ several o$ the traders.1 Kne that he called
<LueweHas1Uthe 'ndian na&e $or 9arcel -es#arlais, 3osephGs brotherUwas $ore&ost on the
list. Since ;arrioch did not &ention hi&, it is li8ely that 3oseph was not in the post at the ti&e.
;arrioch also noted that the &a%istrates had <the %ood sense to re$use to have anythin% to do
with this business.1
't is possible that ;rantGs 1F=5 action a%ainst Bort -es#arlais was in response to ;overnor
*hristieGs 1F== crac8down on independent traders. *hristie had $orbidden the i&port o$ %oods in
*o&pany ships by settlers who would not si%n a declaration that they did not deal in $ursN and, in
addition, ordered that the senderGs na&e be printed on each envelope sent so that the &ail o$
anyone suspected o$ illicit tradin% could be seiHed.
AntoineGs sonCinClaw, *harles -e&onti%ny, was also at the $ort. Kne would assu&e $ro&
;arriochGs co&&ent that the third -es#arlais brother, 9arcel, was also there periodically. Bather
Picton, in his papers in the St. ,oni$ace Historical Society, notes that Antoine and 9arcel were in
the .urtle 9ountains in the 1F"As. >ither -e&onti%ny or 9arcel could have controlled the
operation when 3oseph was absent.
"
Antoine died in 9ar 1FA. Antoine $irst &arried SuHanne /*atherine/ Allary born ca 1F. SuHanne /*atherine/
died in Lebret, Sas8atchewan, on 1 3an 1FFN she was !1. 3eanC,aptiste -es#arlais, AntoineGs son, who was with
his Qncle 3oseph at the post, &arried *uthbert ;rantGs dau%hter 3ulie.
5
9arcel /;wiwisens/ &arried ,ri%itte *ardinal.

,aptiste +(ishecabo+ -es#arlais was born ca 1F in Lac La ,iche, ().. ,aptiste +(ishecabo+ died in Little Bor8,
Lu+Appelle La8es, ()., in winter 1F1N he was F=. 'n 1F1" when ,aptiste +(ishecabo+ was 2F, he $irst &arried
*harlotte /LiHette/ *ardinal, in ,aie St. Paul, Red River Settle&ent.
2!
Re$erences4
,ruce )ishart, <Bort -es#arlais1, 2A1A, $irst published in the !o"ris +alle) Echo, 3une 2!, 1!F
and 3uly 5, 1!F.
)ort !llice, Manitoba:
.his $ort was established on the LuGAppelle River upstrea& $ro& the $or8 with the Assiniboine
in 1!=. 'n 1F1 it was rebuilt on the south ban8 o$ the Assiniboine at ,eaver *ree8. 'n 1F52 a
new post was constructed a short distance $ro& the ori%inal $ort and in 1F6 it replaced Bort
Pelly as the headIuarters $or the Swan River -istrict. 't closed in 1F!2. 9any $a&ous 9etis
traders were in char%e o$ this post, na&ely, 3ohn Richard 9cMay, 3a&es 9cMay and )illia&
9cMay Sr.
Babian Leclair and Ar&and 3ero&e beside the Bort >llice *airn.
)ort 4ibralter:
Bort ;ibralter was built the Bor8s o$ the Assiniboine and Red Rivers near the previous location
o$ Bort Rou%e. 't was built by *uthbert ;rantGs brotherCinClaw 3ohn )ills. Bort Rou%e was built
in 16F, at the south point o$ the present site o$ the Bor8s o$ the Assiniboine and Red Rivers, by
Pierre ;aultier de Varennes et de la VJrendryeGs and was used as a tradin% post $or the local
Abori%inals. .he $ort &ay have operated $or only one season, and by 1FA!, Bort ;ibraltar was
built across the river $ro& this site, on the north side, by the (orth )est *o&pany.
6A
.he sites o$ the two $orts ;ibraltar 2'4 1FA1AN ''4 1F157 and the $irst Bort ;arry 21F227 have been
identi$ied ad#acent to the present day Qnion Station, while the site o$ Bort Rou%e is believed to
be on South Point, i&&ediately south across the Assiniboine River. Bro& this location %uns on
the top o$ the walls could control tra$$ic on both the Red and Assiniboine rivers.
3ohn )ills was active in the $ur trade well be$ore 1!F. He was a winterin% partner o$ the E.O.
*o&pany. He beca&e a partner o$ the (orth )est *o&pany in 1FA= when it a&al%a&ated with
the E.O. *o&pany. 'n 1F1A he started the construction o$ Bort ;ibraltar. 3ean ,aptiste Roi was
one o$ the &en e&ployed to construct the $ort. At the ti&e he was livin% across the river. He
noted that the $ort was built about $i$teen paces $ro& the shoreo$ the river. )ills re&ained in
char%e o$ the (orth )est *o&panyGs Red River -epart&ent until he was relieved o$ his duties as
a result o$ ill health, in 1F1=. 9r. )ills &arried *uthbert ;rantGs sister, 3osephte. He died at Bort
;ibraltar on Briday, 3anuary 5, 1F1". Kn Au%ust 6A, 1F12 the $irst o$ several contin%ents o$
Sel8ir8 settlers led by *aptain 9iles 9acdonell arrived to establish a colony. Althou%h )ills was
initially re%arded by the Sel8ir8 settlers as supportive, he resisted 9iles 9acdonellGs Pe&&ican
Procla&ation, re%ardin% it as an <indi%nity1. 9acdonell also ordered all ()* a%ents to leave the
territory. 'n 3une o$ 1F1= 9acdonell sent sheri$$ 3ohn Spencer, trader 3oseph Howse and three
&en up the Assiniboine River and they seiHed the ()* pe&&ican bein% stored at Bort la Souris
26= tons o$ %oods in total7. .hey carried &ost o$ this across the river to H,* $ort ,randon the
rest they shipped to $ort -ou%las, a &ile below Bort ;ibralter. -uncan *a&eron retaliated by
arrestin% 3oseph Howse preparatory to sendin% hi& $or trial at 9ontreal.

'n April o$ 1F1" *a&eron lured a nu&ber o$ settlers with pro&ises o$ transportation to Qpper
*anada and $ree land. .hey le$t the colony and &oved to Bort ;ibralter ta8in% the $ield %uns o$
Bort -ou%las with the&. Qpon return $ro& a visit to Bort -aer, 9acdonell was arrested and sent
to $ort )illia&. Later the rest o$ the settlers were ousted and le$t $or (orway House on 3ac8
River. Later, in Au%ust *olin Robertson returned with these settlers who were then #oined by a
party o$ 1FA new settlers alon% with the new ;overnor, Robert Se&ple.

Kn 9arch 1, 1F15, Bort ;ibraltar was captured and destroyed by H,* e&ployee *olin
Robertson, a $or&er ()* e&ployee who beca&e a leader o$ the colony. .his then cul&inated in
the ,attle o$ Seven Ka8s on 3une 1!, 1F15 when Se&ple attac8ed *uthbert ;rantGs party tryin%
to bypass Bort -ou%las with pe&&ican $or the bri%ades $ro& Bort )illia& who were $urther
down the Red River.

Later, the 1F15 capture o$ Bort -ou%las was ruled ille%al by ,ritish authorities and the (orth
)est *o&pany was %iven per&ission to rebuild the $ort in 1F1.,e$ore eventually a&al%a&atin%
with the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany, (orth )est *o&pany had ! tradin% posts co&pared to the F=
in 9anitoba that $lew the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany standard.
Kn 9arch 25, 1F21, .he (orth )est *o&pany was &er%ed with its rival under the na&e o$ the
Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany. .he site o$ the $ort was desi%nated a (ational historic Site in 1!2=.
• 1F22 Bort ;ibraltarGs na&e is chan%ed to Bort ;arry.
• 1F6" Bort ;arry is abandoned but its warehouses are still used.
• 1F"2 Bort ;arry is destroyed by the Red River $lood.
61
• 1!F Bort ;ibraltar is rebuilt across the Red River at )hittier Par8 by Bestival du
Voya%eur.
)ort la %eine, now -orta0e la -rairie, Manitoba:
La Verendrye and his sons established this $ort in 16F. 't was on the ed%e o$ Lon% Plain, a site
o$ bu$$alo and deer huntin%. .his was also the startin% location $or the porta%e $ro& the
Assiniboine River to Lac des Prairies 2now La8e 9anitoba7. Bur traders would use this porta%e
$or their #ourney up the la8e to the -auphin River and Bort -auphin. .he location on the river
was also the site o$ a %ood stur%eon $ishery. .he 9etis co&&unity o$ Hi%h ,lu$$ was established
nearby. Porta%e was the ho&e o$ 9etis *hie$ Peichito .anner. He and his sons operated 2"A Red
River carts between St. Paul, 9innesota and >d&onton.
)ort de la %ii*re Tremblante (4rant5s House, $spin House+,
Robert ;rant a partner o$ the (orth )est *o&pany built this post in 1!1. 't was located
on the Qpper Assiniboine River on the le$t ban8 near where the Rivière .re&blante enters the
Assiniboine. 'n 1!6, *uthbert ;rant Sr. too8 over the post when he was placed in char%e o$ that
district. 't was his $avourite residence. 't was both a source o$ $urs and a provisionin% post $or the
bri%ades travelin% to Athabasca country. ;rant departed in 1!F because o$ the intense
co&petition $ro& 1= posts in the re%ion. .he ruins o$ the $ort are located at the botto& o$ the
Assiniboine Valley about "AA yards east o$ the Assiniboine #ust above the point where Rivière
.re&blante enters. 't is close to the present day Sas8atchewan villa%e o$ .o%o, and nine &iles
south o$ Ma&sac8.
)ort Monta0ne 7 la Bosse,
.his $ort was built by the (orth )est *o&pany in 1!A. 't was located on the Qpper
Assiniboine River close to the bu$$alo winterin% %rounds. 'n the history boo8s and #ournals o$ the
e0plorers, the $ort has been %iven &any na&es4 9oose Head Bort, Rivière Bort de la ,osse, 9ont
R la ,osse, Rivière au0 ,ois Bort. However, the na&e co&&only 8nown $or &any years has
been Bort La ,osse. -ue to co&petition it was closed a$ter a $ew years, then reopened in 1!= by
3ohn 9ac-onell. .he $ort is located on the ban8 o$ the Assiniboine River three and one hal$
&iles east o$ present day Virden, 9anitoba. .he $ort operated $ro& 1!A to 1FA".
62
-aniel Har&on, in his #ournal entry o$ Kctober 25, 1FA= says4
Kctober 25
th
, Briday C 1FA= C A%reeable to 9r. *haboilleH+s instructions on the 5th 'nst. in
co&pany with 9r. La RoIue V an 'ndian who served as ;uide, le$t this place a Horse
bac8 to %o to 9onta%ne a la ,asse, our course bein% nearly South over a Plain *ountry
and on the !th we reached Riviere Lui Appelle 2Lu+Appelle River7 where the (orth )est
V E.O. *oys. have each a $ort and where we passed one ni%ht with 9onsr. Poitras who
has char%e o$ the Post, and the ne0t &ornin% we continued our &arch, always in beauti$ul
Plains till the eleventh in the a$ternoon when we arrived at 9onta%ne a la ,asse where
we $ound 9essrs. *. *haboilleH V *harles 9cMenHie Vc. Vc. .his is a well built Bort
and beauti$ully situated on a very hi%h ban8 o$ the Red River 2the Assiniboine River is
&eant7, and the *ountry all around a level Plain, but as the Bort stands on a &uch &ore
elevated place than the *ountry on the opposite side o$ the River we can $ro& the Bort
;ate 2as ' a& in$or&ed7 at al&ost all seasons o$ the year see ,u$$aloe ;raHin% or -eer V
*abri boundin% across the Plains. All o$ which cannot $ail to render this a very pleasant
situation. And here ' passed ei%ht -ays in the co&pany o$ the above &entioned
;entle&en, and had not a little satis$action in their conversation. At ti&es all o$ us would
&ount our Horses to ta8e a ride out into the Plain, and $reIuently try the speed o$ our
,easts. However on the 1!
th
' le$t that enchanted abode, acco&panied by 9essrs.
*haboilleH V 9cMenHie Vc. V the -ay $ollowin% arrived at Riviere Iui Appelle, where
we $ound our people waitin% our arrival and as the *anoes %o no $urther up the River,
owin% to the shallow water this Season, the ;oods intended $or Ale0andria will be ta8en
there on Horses bac8s. )e there$ore %ave out such thin%s as we thou%ht necessary and
sent the People o$$ and the -ay $ollowin% 9r. *haboilleH Vc. returned ho&e and '
acco&panied by 9r. 9cMenHie, and a 9r. Allen 9c-onell 2&y E.O. (ei%hbor7 set o$$
$or this place where we arrived this a$ternoon, a$ter &a8in% a pleasant #aunt o$ twenty one
-ays. Here ' have to pass the )inter with &e, 9r. ;oedi8e two 'nterpreters, twenty
labourin% 9en $i$teen )o&en V as &any children.
66
Kn April 1A, 1FA", Har&on reports4
April 1A, )ednesday C 1FA" C Kn the 2=
th
Qlt. ' acco&panied by one 9an a Horse bac8
sat o$$ $or 9onta%ne a la ,asse, and when we were arrived there we were not a little
surprised to $ind the ;ates shut and about ei%hty Lod%es o$ *rees V Assiniboins
enca&ped about the Bort, who threatened to &assacre all the )hite People who were in
it, and those blood thirsty Sava%es had the boldness to throw ,alls over the Palisades V
tell our People to %ather the& up, as they &i%ht probably want the& a $ew -ays hence. '
a$ter havin% past several -ays there sat o$$ to return ho&e but as ' %ot out o$ the Bort
;ate, three rascally 'ndians stepped up towards &e, one o$ who& laid hold o$ &y Horses
,ridle and stopped &y Horse, in sayin% that he belon%ed to hi& and added that he would
ta8e hi& $ro& &e. However ' told hi& that he had sold the ,east to 9r. *haboilleH, and
he had %iven hi& to &e, there$ore he &ust %o and spea8 to that ;entle&an about the
Horse as ' had nothin% to do with hi&, but the rascal would not let %o o$ the ,ridle, and
when ' saw that, ' %ave a pretty %ood blow with the butt end o$ &y whip on his 8nuc8les
and then another to &y Horse, which &ade hi& sprin% $orward V leave the 'ndian
behind, V so ' continued &y route. ,ut the villain with one o$ his co&panions $ollowed
us nearly hal$ o$ the -ay, but a$ter that we saw the& no &ore. Kn &y return ' re&ained
$our -ays at Riviere Iui Appelle where ' passed &y ti&e very a%reeably in the co&pany
o$ 9essrs. 3ohn 9c-onald V .ho&as 9c9urray 2both $or the E. O. *o&pany7 and
Andrew Poitras C but in leavin% that place ' had the River to cross, and at that late Season
the ice was bad, so &uch so that &y Horse with &e upon hi& $ell throu%h twice, and the
last ti&e ' was very ni%h %oin% under the 'ce, but 8ind Providence spared &e once &ore.
)ort Mr, 4rant
Bort 9r. ;rant was built by *uthbert ;rant a$ter the HudsonGs ,ay *o&pany closed ,randon
House in 1F2=. 't was located on the Souris River about two &iles south o$ present day Hartney,
9anitoba 2Section , .ownship 5, Ran%e 267.
'n 1F2F the H,* put ;rant on salary and %ave hi& the title, )arden o$ the Plains. ;rant then
spent the winter o$ 1F2FC2! at Bort ;rant. ;overnor ;eor%e Si&pson then supplied *uthbert
;rant and Louis ;uiboche with an out$it to trade $ro& .urtle 9ountain to LuGAppelle and to
co&pete with the illicit traders on the Souris.
'n reportin% this action to London three years later, Si&pson wrote4 <Was they have a nu&ber o$
'ndian and hal$Cbreed relations and are inti&ately acIuainted and connected with all the di$$erent
tribes in that Iuarter and are not directly in the service o$ the Honourable *o&pany they have it
&ore in their power to harass our opponents than we could with a $or&idable establish&ent.1
At one point, A&erican traders threatened to destroy Bort 9r. ;rant, clai&in% it was on
A&erican soil. .he H,* sent ;eor%e .aylor, a surveyor, to place the =!th parallel, and it was
$ound that ;rantGs $ort was a $ull 66 &iles 2"6 8&s7 north o$ the border. .his %ave ;rant the
authority to seiHe persons and their property not authoriHed to trade outside the Qnited States. 'n
1F2= ;rant also had trouble with so&e Assiniboine who threatened to destroy his $ort. He was
able to de$use the situation, so that tradin% could resu&e.
6=
*uthbert ;rant died in 1F"= a$ter $allin% o$$ a horse. .he ne0t year Bort 9r. ;rant beca&e a
winterin% post only, operatin% under the &ana%e&ent o$ his descendants and other relatives. ,y
this ti&e business was %reatly reduced, consistin% o$ bu$$alo robes, wol$ s8ins and a $ew
&us8rats. A$ter 1F51 there is no $urther &ention o$ the $ort in H,* records.
4rand Marais, (Balsm Bay+ Manitoba: 2,y Audreen Hourie7
.he co&&unity o$ ;rand 9arais lies alon% the east shore o$ La8e )innipe%, about 5A &iles
$ro& what is now the *ity o$ )innipe%. 9any 9etis $a&ilies were already livin% in this area in
the early 1FAAs, and then up until the &idC1!"As, ;rand 9arais would have &aintained an
al&ost e0clusive 9etis identity. 9etis $a&ily na&es such as Mnott, .ho&as, Lin8later, Sayer,
Krvis, Hourie, Sinclair and 'rvineN peoples o$ Kr8ney, Scottish and )elsh descent were
pro&inent and the $ew 9etis $a&ilies who continue to live in ;rand 9arais are descendants o$
those early settlers. ;rand 9arais e0isted in a local econo&y o$ $ar&in%, $ishin% and trappin%. A
traditional li$eCstyle o$ sharin% and carin% ensured continuity and security $or the 9etis $a&ilies
$or &any years. A$ter 1!AA, and the co&in% o$ the railway, the econo&y shi$ted. Horse and
bu%%y trails beca&e hi%hways and the rail line allowed access to people $ro& outside the
co&&unity who were interested in the lon% stretch o$ sandy beach area now 8nown as ;rand
6"
,each. Kver the years, the 9etis co&&unity would be overwhel&ed by tourists and the tourist
industry. >ventually, the area beca&e a Provincial Par8, e0clusive to touris&. .he local 9etis
econo&y barely e0ists and the 9etis $a&ilies have not participated in the tourist industry. ;one,
e0cept $or &e&ories, are the sounds o$ the 9etis $iddle, traditional 9etis #i%s and dances, and
the sound o$ the horses and caboose leavin% $or the days $ishin% on the la8e, the howl o$ the
wolves on a cold winter evenin%. .hus while there are still so&e 9etis $a&ilies in the
co&&unity o$ ;rand 9arais, &uch o$ the 9etis history lies only in the hearts and &inds o$ the
>lders.
4rand %apids, %ed %ier:
.he $irst co&&unity o$ ;rand Rapids in 9anitoba was north o$ )innipe% on the west side o$ the
Red River near the rapids, now sub&er%ed because o$ the da& and loc8s at Loc8port. .his
co&&unity was $or&ed a$ter 1F26 when &any o$ the >n%lishCspea8in% Hal$ ,reeds too8 land
%rants north o$ Point -ou%las, throu%h Bro% Plain and at the rapids. 'n 1F=A, Reverend *oc8ran
reported that o$ the children re%istered in his school 6!X o$ the $athers were 9etis and !X o$
the &others were Abori%inal 26"X 9etis and 52X 'ndian7. .his was basically the population o$
the Parish o$ St. Andrews. .he $a&ilies o$ the Rapids had a &i0ed econo&y $ar&in%, huntin%,
$ishin%, and trappin% as well as $rei%htin% and bu$$alo huntin%. A$ter the Resistance o$ 1F5!CA
&any o$ the Brench spea8in% 9etis le$t and &oved on a per&anent basis to their traditional
winterin% Iuarters at ,atoche, St. Laurent and the LuGAppelle Valley. 9any o$ the >n%lish 9etis
o$ the parish le$t and set up new settle&ents at ;rand Rapids 2on the north end o$ La8e
)innipe%7, Prince Albert and Bort >d&onton.
4rand %apids, Saskatchewan %ier
;rand Rapids is %eo%raphically located at the &outh o$ the Sas8atchewan River
F
where it enters
La8e )innipe% at its north eastern end. ;rand Rapids was a base $or &any 9etis <$ree traders1
or <pedlars1 $ro& *anada durin% the &id 1AAs throu%h &id 1FAAs who intercepted 'ndian $ur
traders on route to Bort Oor8. .he H,* had positioned a $ort to the west at *edar La8e in 1F",
however, to $urther counteract the activities o$ <$ree traders1, the H,* relocated this post to
;rand Rapids in 1F5=. .he rapids were a %atherin% place $or seasonal stur%eon $ishin%.
F
'n the 1As called Riviere de ,ourbon, PasIuayah or Sascatchiwaine River.
65
Bro& the late 15AA+s, <'ndian1 $ur traders passed throu%h ;rand Rapids onCroute to the H,*Gs
Oor8 Bactory depot on HudsonGs ,ay, althou%h &any were intercepted at *u&berland House and
;rand Rapids by (orth )est *o&pany. As early as 1=1, the Brench built Bort ,ourbon near
;rand Rapids in order to intercept *ree and other north and western tribal tradin% partners o$ the
H,* be$ore they be%an their #ourney to Oor8 Bactory.

;rand Rapids was the $ur trade %ateway to
and $ro& the northwest interior and was a hi%hly strate%ic location $or various $ur traders
throu%hout the late 1AAs and early 1FAAs Bro& 1F5= to circa 1!A! the ;rand Rapids post
$unctioned pri&arily as a transportation and provisions depot.

'n 1F52 )hen Pere >&ile Petitot, a representative o$ the K9' 29issionary Kblates o$ 9ary
'&&aculate7, passed throu%h ;rand Rapids in 1F52 en route $or the 9ac8enHie -istrict Ro&an
*atholic &issions, he reportedly saw a lar%e ca&p o$ <Savanais1 2Swa&py *ree7 on the south
shore o$ the Sas8atchewan River. 9c*arthy writes that $ree traders were also be%innin% to
con%re%ate at ;rand Rapids at that ti&e, and su%%ests that their presence &ay have attracted
so&e o$ the *ree. 9c*arthy Iuotes Petitot as sayin% he $ound %roups o$ <Sauteu0 *atholics,
$ro& -uc8 ,ay and Swan River, who had co&e to ;rand Rapids to $ish $or stur%eon.1
!
1F24 A census o$ the *u&berland -istrict in the H,* report on the Sas8atchewan -istrict
9
>&ile Petitot, En ro"te po"r la mer claciale, 2Paris4 LetouHey et ane741FF422! *9S AF6 cited in 9artha
9c*arthy, Papers in 9anitoba History, p 1FN 'bid.N 'bid.
6
indicates that at ;rand Rapids there were ei%ht adult <Hal$breeds1 and thirteen <'ndian1 children
at the post establish&ent. 'n addition, there were 2A adult <Hal$breeds1 livin% around ;rand
Rapids and 5 <'ndians,1 2A o$ which were said to be adults. At the 9oose La8e Post
establish&ent there were 2 adult <white1 persons, F adult <Hal$breeds1 and 2A <'ndians1 $our o$
which were said to be adults. .here were also two <Hal$breeds1 livin% in the surroundin% area as
well as 1F1 <'ndians,1 !2 o$ which were said to be adults.
1A
4rantown, Manitoba:
.his co&&unity was na&ed a$ter 9etis leader *uthbert ;rant. 't was located in St. BranDois
Eavier Parish 1F &iles west o$ )innipe%. ;rant built his house on the %o"tea" des ,estins, the
northeast corner o$ a loup in the Assiniboine River. His $riends and relatives $ollowed hi& here
$ro& Pe&bina and their Saulteau0 relatives established a ca&p #ust to the west. .he 9etis were
e&ployed as bu$$alo hunters, traders, $ishers and $ar&ers. -ue to the %ood wood in the area and
the 9etis carpentry s8ills ;rantown beca&e the industrial centre $or construction o$ the lar%e
dished wheels $or Red River carts. .he hunters would asse&ble on white Horse Plains prior to
&ovin% south to (orth -a8ota and the 9issouri *oteau on their %reat bu$$alo hunts. ;rant and
his &en also &ade annual trips to Oor8 Bactory to obtain trade %oods. Bor &any years he traded
and $rei%hted on his own account. As )arden o$ the Plains, ;rant patrolled all o$ 9anitoba south
west o$ the Red River $ro& the .urtle 9ountains to the LuGAppelle Valley. He and his 9etis
troops also protected the Red River Settle&ent $ro& attac8 by the Siou0. Al&ost 1AA $a&ilies
settled at ;rantown in 1F2=, by 1F=! the census showed !1= people livin% at ;rantown. .his
parish was established in 1F2= by Bather ,oucher. .he co&&unity was later called La Prairie du
*heval and )hite Horse Plain until bein% rena&ed a$ter its patron Saint, St. BranDois Eavier. A
reconstruction o$ ;rantGs ori%inal water &ill $urther east on Stur%eon *ree8 can be seen now in
St. 3a&es 2now part o$ )innipe%7. .his &ill $ailed due to $reIuent da& bursts and ;rant then
established a wind powered %rain &ill at ;rantown.
4rassy 8arrows House, Manitoba: ;rassy (arrows House was one o$ $our outposts
operated on La8e )innipe% by the H,* at Lower Bort ;arry, na&elyN ;rassy (arrows, -o%
Head, 'ndian Settle&ent, and ,ro8en Head River. ;rassy (arrows was located on the west
ban8 o$ the Hecla channel #ust to the north o$ the )hite&ud River now called the 'celandic
River and La8e )innipe%.
3a&es )hiteway wor8ed at this post. 3a&es 2b. 1F257 was the son o$ H,* 'nterpreter 3a&es
)hiteway 2b.c. 1F7 and Ann or (ancy 9on8&an 29etis7. He &arried *hloe Spence, the
9etis dau%hter o$ Andrew Spence 29etis7 and 9ar%aret .ausand 2*ree7. 3a&es was
e&ployed with the H,* $ro& 1F" to 1FF as a cler8 at )hite&ud River, *u&berland, then
,ro8en Head River, then as a cler8, La8e )innipe%, 1F!=C!5.
1A
;lenbow Archives. Richard *. Hardisty $onds, Papers relatin% to the Sas8atchewan -istrict Posts, Series 1A, $ile
*ensus 1F1C242 .
6F
Scrip a$$idavit $or )hiteway, 3osephN born4 1F6AN $ather4 3a&es )hiteway 2Scot7N
&other4 Ann )hiteway 29Jtis7N clai& no4 1A1N scrip no4 1AA1"N date o$ issue4 Au%ust
2A, 1F5N a&ount4 Y15A
Scrip a$$idavit $or )hiteway, *hloeN born4 1F6N husband4 3a&es )hitewayN $ather4
Andrew Spence 29Jtis7N &other4 9ar%aret 2'ndian7N clai& no4 26=6N scrip no4 112A6N date
o$ issue4 Kctober 2, 1F5N a&ount4 Y15A.
Scrip a$$idavit $or 9c-onald, 9aryN born4 3une 2", 1F=FN wi$e o$ *harles 9c-onaldN
$ather4 3a&es )hiteway 29Jtis7N &other4 *hloe )hiteway 29Jtis7N scrip no4 12! to
165N clai& no4 261N date o$ issue4 9ay 1, 1F5N a&ount4 Y15A.
Kther ;rassy (arrows 9etis
6!
,os8ill, 3ohn RobertN address4 Rabbit Point, La8e )innipe%N clai& no. 1FN born4 12
-ec., 1F= at ;rassy (arrows, La8e )innipe%N $ather4 3ohn ,os8ill 2)hite&an7N &other4
3ane >llen Settee 29Jtis7N scrip cert.4 $or& >, no. 6""!
Phillips, SaraN address4 Lac du ,onnetN born4 25 (ove&ber, 1F5 at ;rassy (arrowsN
$ather4 3ohn ,os8el 2)hite&an7N &other4 3ane Settee 29Jtis7N &arried4 Septe&ber, 1F!!
to 3ohn Phillips at Sel8ir8N scrip cert.4 $or& >, no. 6"2=N clai& no. 112.
9cMenney, (ancyN $or her deceased son, Ro0y Lyons 9cMenneyN address4 Sel8ir8N born4
1F1 near 3ac8 HeadN died4 5 &onths old at ;rassy (arrowsN $ather4 Au%ustus 9cMenney
2)hite&an7N &other4 (ancy Setter 29Jtis and deponent7N $ile re$. 6!A6N clai& no.
15!=.
9cMenney, (ancyN $or her deceased dau%hter, Lydia 9cMenneyN address4 Sel8ir8N born4
1FF at ,lac8 'slandN died4 3uly, 1FF at ;rassy (arrowsN $ather4 Au%ustus 9cMenney
2)hite&an7N &other4 (ancy Setter 29Jtis and deponent7N $ile re$. 6!A6N clai& no.
15F!.
)hite, 3aneN $or her deceased dau%hter, *atherine ,os8illN by her $irst husbandN address4
Rabbit PointN born4 26 -ece&ber, 1F! at ;rassy (arrowsN died4 3anuary, 1FFA at
StonewallN $ather4 3ohn ,os8ill 2)hite&an7N &other4 3ane Settee 29Jtis and deponent7N
clai& no. 2A!.
9inosota, Manitoba: See entry under 9anitoba House.
Lane5s -ost:St, )ran;ois <aier:
)illia& Lane 2brother o$ Richard Lane7 too8 char%e o$ Lower Bort ;arry as a cler8 in 1F"AC"=
and later &ana%ed a post on the Assiniboine River near St. BranDois Eavier parish. He was cler8C
inCchar%e at the )hite Horse Plains post $ro& 1F"5 to 1F52 and *hie$ .rader $ro& 1F52C1F2.
.his post was built at Pi%eon La8e in the 1F"As and $irst appears in the H,* records in 1F"5. 't
was established pri&arily $or its $ar&in% operations and was located about $ive &iles past the St.
BranDois Eavier church.
'n 1F5A Lane &arried 9ary ,ird a 9Jtisse and a$ter her death he &arried >liHa Lee Lewis 2b.
1F67, the 9Jtisse dau%hter o$ chie$ trader 3ohn Lee Lewis and 3ane ,allendine on 9arch 12,
1F2 at St. Andrews. Lane died in 1FF2 and his wi$e died in 1F!.
)illia& *lar8 ran the post $ro& 1F=C" and >. ). ;i%ot was the cler8 $ro& 1F"C. Henry
9oncrei$$ was sales&an there $ro& 1FC1FF6.
Lane was apparently involved in the plot to capture the -a8ota re$u%ee leaders in 1F5=. Kn
3anuary 1=C1F, 1F5= a plot to capture the -a8ota is hatched by 3ohn 9cMenHie o$ Rat River west
o$ Porta%e la PrairieN )illia& LaneN and Knisi&e ;i%uere, as translator. 9cMenHie used 9r.
Lane to encoura%e the -a8ota into a trap. Andrew ,annatyne provided dru%%ed wine $or Little
=A
Si0 and 9edicine ,ottle. -.L. Min%sley was hired to assist in tyin% and carryin% the 'ndians to
Bort Pe&bina. Andrew ,annatyne also had so&e o$ his $riends waitin% to assist. 9cMenHie and
Min%sley started out $or Pe&bina with Little Si0. 9edicine ,ottle is over powered by 3a%uish,
;i%uere and others. He is bound and transported to Bort Pe&bina.
Little Britain, Manitoba:
Little ,ritain was the na&e o$ the villa%e o$ Loc8port in the early days, so na&ed by a 9r.
Stevens, $ather o$ the &an $or who& Stevens Ave. was na&ed. However, the $irst post o$$ice
there was called (orth St. Andrews. .he school was also na&ed (orth St. Andrews. .he &eetin%
house built by the late Hon. -onald ;unn $or services o$ the Presbyterian *hurch was called
Little ,ritain, and the na&e continued in Little ,ritain Presbyterian *hurch built between 1F2
and 1F=. -onald ;unn settled in the area in 1F25. He noted that the whole area was settled by
Kr8ney&en retirin% $ro& the H,* and &ovin% there with their Hal$ ,reed $a&ilies. .he
settle&ent e0tended as $ar north as Lower Bort ;arry. 'nitially, the ori%inal con%re%ation was
served by Reverend 3ohn ,lac8. He was the $irst Presbyterian &inister at the Sel8ir8 Settle&ent.
.he church was constructed by 3ohn *louston and -uncan 9cRae. .hey were two o$ the &ost
i&portant stone&asons o$ the era.
Lon0body Creek:
=1
Lon%body *ree8 runs west into ,loodvein ,ay on the east side o$ La8e )innipe%. .he na&e is a
direct translation o$ Minepi8iniwewe Sipisis 2Sna8eli8e7 &eanin% lon%body in Saulteau0. 'n 1!2
the ,loodvein ,and *ouncil ordered the 9etis livin% on reserve to &ove because o$ a shorta%e
o$ housin%. .he 9anitoba 9etis Bederation acted Iuic8ly to establish an o$$Creserve 9etis
co&&unity located at Lon%body *ree8. At one ti&e the &ayor was >ric Mennedy, he was a
(A** president. .he co&&unity lasted about $our years. 9ost o$ the people went *61 under the
'ndian Act and returned to ,loodvein.
Loon Straits, Manitoba: .his is a 9etis co&&unity on the eastern shore o$ La8e )innipe%
about "A 8&. north o$ 9ani%ota%an, 9anitoba. .his places it in the South ,asin o$ La8e
)innipe%N in $act it is only about 2" &iles south o$ the narrowest point. .he %eo%raphy o$ Loon
Straits consists o$ two parallel peninsulas #uttin% out into La8e )innipe% $ro& the southeast to
the northwest, with a lar%e island at the tip o$ the eastern peninsula. Apart $ro& one ho&e on the
western peninsula called 9oose Point, the residents &ostly populated the eastern peninsula, with
a $ew $a&ilies livin% on the island.
.he narrow strait between the Peninsula and the island, $ro& which the co&&unity %ot its na&e,
was the site o$ a $ishin% establish&ent. .here was another one several &iles up the la8e at a place
called .he Luarry. .his was a wellCsheltered bay with hi%h %ranite cli$$s around 't. S&all ships
which traversed La8e )innipe% to collect $ish $ro& these establish&ents would co&e to doc8 at
the& $or that purpose durin% the su&&er ti&e.
.he co&&unity o$ Loon Straits was settled by lar%ely 9etis settlers o$ &i0ed *ree? K#ibway 2or
Saulteau0 as it was 8nown in the past7?'rish?Scottish herita%e. .hey &ade their livin% by $ishin%,
both in su&&er and winter, and also by trappin% $or $urs. So&e o$ the residents 8ept cattle and
chic8ens $or &il8, &eat and e%%s. .he &eat portion o$ the diet was supple&ented by what was
%ained by $ishin% and huntin% $or wild $owl and &oose. So&e o$ the residents provided $resh
produce $or the su&&er which they could can $or the winter $ro& their %ardens. .his was
au%&ented by cannin% what %rew wild such as raspberries and sas8atoon berries. 'n the late
1!"As and early 1!5As the winter lu&berin% business reached a pea8 when at one ti&e there were
= seasonal lu&ber &ills operatin% in the vicinity. So&e o$ these were run by 9ennoniteCrun
establish&ents $ro& the Steinbach area in southeastern 9anitoba, others by residents o$ the
Riverton and )ashow ,ay area. .his provided e&ploy&ent as well as additional inco&e $or the
residents. 't also helped with their winter transportation as the lu&ber &ills would plow roads
across the la8e $or their se&iCtrailers to transport out the lu&ber over the winter ice, which the
locals could then use $or their own transportation. .his &eant that in the winter they could brin%
their vehicles ri%ht up to their ho&es. So&e residents built their own s&all oa8 and cedar boats
and sold others, establishin% a reputation $or the Iuality o$ their wor8 based on their 8nowled%e
o$ La8e )innipe% conditions, which helped the& produce very seaworthy cra$t.
At the base o$ the lar%e bay, na&ed Loon ,ay, to the east o$ the peninsula, which was about two
&iles wide, was a lar%e &arsh throu%h which a cree8 ran throu%h sandbars into La8e )innipe%.
3ust up the >astern shore $ro& this &arsh was the &outh o$ the Loon River. .his was a s&all
river which had several rapids, so&e with %ranite cli$$s ad#acent to the&, in its upper reaches.
.hese were popular spots $or catchin% $ish %oin% upriver to spawn in sprin%.
=2
.he location o$ Loon Straits resulted in an al&ost tideCli8e pheno&ena4 with prevailin% northerly
winds, water would be pushed into the South ,asin and rise by several $eet, or prevailin%
southerly winds, when water would be pushed into the (orth ,asin and water could $ollow by
several $eet. .his always helps the local resident $isher&en and boaters re&e&ber where the
ree$s where, as they would then be e0posed. La8e )innipe% is a very shallow la8e, so&e say A
$eet deep at its &a0i&u&, which &eans that stor&s can whip up waves o$ 1" to 2A $eet in no
ti&e. .his always created a barrier $or co&in% to or leavin% the co&&unity until the latter part o$
the 2Ath century. Kne always had to cross the la8e, which was about F &iles wide at that point, to
the west side, where the hi%hway $ro& Riverton to Pine -oc8 and 9atheson 'sland was located.
So&e residents o$ Loon Straits even built per&anent %ara%es at the spot where they would
e&bar8, or dise&bar8 as the case was. .here was actually a s&all $ishin% establish&ent here with
a doc8 lar%e enou%h $or the s&all la8e )innipe% $ish $rei%hters to stop atN it was called *alder+s
doc8.
La8e )innipe% is an interestin% divide between the li&estone roc8 o$ the west side and the PreC
*a&brian %ranite roc8 o$ the *anadian Shield o$ the east side. )ith Loon Straits bein% then on
the east side, the shoreline was %ranite roc8, so&eti&es hi%h cli$$s, interspersed with sandy bays.
.he terrain ran%ed $ro& swa&p and &arsh to elevated areas populated by poplar, #ac8pine and
other trees. 9ost residents built houses upwards o$ the shoreline $ro& what practically a&ounted
to their own private sandy beach. So&e would build a s&all doc8s out into their bays.
At the base o$ the lar%e bay, na&ed Loon ,ay, to the east o$ the peninsula, which was about 2
&iles wide, was a lar%e &arsh throu%h which a cree8 ran throu%h sandbars into La8e )innipe%.
3ust up the >astern shore $ro& this &arsh was the &outh o$ the Loon River. .his was a s&all
river which had several rapids, so&e with %ranite cli$$s ad#acent to the&, in its upper reaches.
.hese were popular spots $or catchin% $ish %oin% upriver to spawn in sprin%.
Lorette, Manitoba: See entry under Petit Point du *henes.
Manitoba House:
'n the &idC1!As the (orth )est *o&pany was established in this area at the narrows o$ La8e
9anitoba. .he H,* established a post here in 1! under the na&e <-oubt$ul Post.1 'n 1F2F
9anitoba House was &oved $urther south, below >bb and Blow La8e, to what is now Minosota.
't was opened there to oppose the operation o$ the independent 9etis hunters who were seriously
cuttin% into the H,* trade. .he $irst $a&ilies established at Minosota were .anner, -e&arais,
Pruden, 9oar, 9c-onald, and ;arrioch.

.he 9anitoba House (orth )est *o .radin% Post was established in 1! on the west shore o$
La8e 9anitoba, about $i$teen &iles north o$ the (arrows. .his post was located near the outlet
o$ >bb and Blow La8e at /.he (arrows/ o$ La8e 9anitobaN it was ta8en over by the Hudson+s
,ay *o. in 1F21. 'ts ori%inal na&e was Do"(tf"l #ost, li8ely because o$ a lac8 o$ con$idence in
the survival o$ the post at the ti&e o$ its establish&ent. .he 9etis people o$ this co&&unity were
all descendants o$ e&ployees o$ the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany and the (orth )est .radin%
*o&pany o$ Brench, >n%lish, and &ostly Scottish e0traction, who had inter&arried with the
'ndians. .he >bb and Blow 'ndian Reserve was nearby and the -o% *ree8 Reserve was directly
=6
opposite on the east shore o$ the la8e. Bro& these sources the post derived its trade. .reaty .wo
was si%ned on Au%ust 21, 1F1, at 9anitoba House. .he 9etis settle&ent ad#acent to the tradin%
post was re$erred to as si&ply the 9anitoba House Settle&ent until 1FF! when the na&e
Minosota was su%%ested by 3ohn (orIuay $or the local post o$$ice. .he settle&ent consisted o$ a
nu&ber o$ lon% narrow lots strun% out alon% the shore o$ La8e 9anitoba.
Matheson Island, #ormerly Snake Island, Manitoba: 9atheson 'sland is a s&all island, 6." by
1." &iles, located at the (arrows o$ La8e )innipe%, around 1AA &iles north o$ )innipe%.
9atheson 'sland had been a natural stoppin% place $or the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany Oor8 boats
since it beca&e a subsidiary post in 1F5. .he 9atheson 'sland 9etis people descend $ro&
(orwe%ian, >n%lish, and 'celandic settlers who had inter&arried with 'ndians.
Knce called Sna8e 'sland because o$ its abundance o$ %arter sna8es, the island was rena&ed
9atheson 'sland in 1!A6 in honour o$ -aniel 9atheson
11
one o$ the earliest settlers. -aniel ca&e
to the La8e )innipe% (arrows in the 1FFAs $ro& Oor8 Bactory where he was a H,* careta8er.
His brother 3esse 2b. 1F=A7 lived at ,i% ,ull Head where he operated a stoppin% place. -aniel
lived on ,lac8 ,ear 'sland #ust north o$ 9atheson 'sland, where he had erected a li%hthouse and
was its $irst 8eeper. He was also a $isher&an and a $ar&er. ,ecause o$ the li%hthouse the passa%e
between 9atheson 'sland and ,lac8 ,ear 'sland was the pre$erred route $or boat travel.
Kne o$ the leadin% $a&ilies at 9atheson 'sland was the Settee $a&ily, o$ ,ritish and *ree
ancestry. .hey were descendants o$ 3a&es Settee, a *ree $ro& Split La8e who, to%ether with
Henry ,udd and *harles Pratt, was brou%ht to Red River by 3ohn )est o$ the *hurch 9issionary
Society in 1F2=. Settee was educated at Red River and beca&e an ordained An%lican priest who
&inistered in &any places in Sas8atchewan and 9anitoba between 1F=1 and 1F!!. He visited the
,erens River and 9anitoba La8e Post areas but never lived there. His two sons wor8ed at the >ast
-o% Head post near 9atheson 'sland in 1F5. .he 'slanders, &ostly Settee+s descendants, were
predo&inantly An%lican.
11
-aniel was the son o$ Hu%h 9atheson 2b.1F157 and Susanna Lloyd 2b. 1F1F.
==
Metis Island, Manitoba:
9etis 'sland is north o$ Ross 'sland at *ross La8e, 9anitoba. .his was the site o$ 9etis
settle&ent in the area prior to its relocation to the east ban8 o$ the (elson River in the
*o&&unity o$ *ross La8e.
Minnedosa, Manitoba: See entry under .annerGs *rossin%.
Moose Lake, Manitoba:
9oose La8e is a s&all co&&unity located on the northern li&its o$ the Sas8atchewan River delta
on the western shore o$ South 9oose La8e about = 8& Southeast o$ .he Pas in 9anitoba. .here
is both an 'ndian reserve, ho&e to the 9osa8ahi8en *ree (ation, and a nonCtreaty co&&unity on
ad#acent land.
8etley Creek, Manitoba: .he (orth )est *o&pany opened a post at (etley *ree8 in 1FA6, on
the west ban8 o$ the Red River. .he (etley 9arsh area as o$ 1FA" was the &ost northerly li&it
o$ native horticulture. .hey have $ound evidence that a %roup o$ Kttawa 'ndians $irst be%an to
plant corn at this site in 1FA". .he (etley *ree8 villa%e increased in siHe as the Kttawa were
#oined by the Red River Saulteau0 who were also cultivatin% corn and potatoes, so&e o$ which
were sold to the traders. .hey 8ept %ardens on levees within (etley 9arsh. Kne was located
appro0i&ately 1." &iles 22 8&7 upstrea& $ro& the Red River and (etley *ree8 3unction. 'n
1F16 the H,* established a second post #ust north o$ the #unction o$ (etley *ree8 and the Red
River. Si0ty horses were 8ept here to be used $or transport o$ %oods to ,randon House on the
Assiniboine River. However, establish&ent o$ the Saulteau0 $ar&in% settle&ent nearby, by Rev.
="
)illia& *oc8ran o$ the An%lican *hurch, and construction o$ Lower Bort ;arry resulted in this
post bein% closed.
8orthern Manitoba Metis %oad $llowance Communities:
.he (orthern Hal$breed Association was $or&ed in 9anitoba in the early 1!6As to represent the
9etis and (onCStatus 'ndians o$ the 9etis settle&ents near .he Pas, 9oose La8e and *edar
La8e. .he settle&ents were4 .he .ho&as Settle&ent, )ooden .ent 29eti8ewap7, Pine ,lu$$,
9oose La8e, ,i% >ddy, Ooun% Point, RallGs 'sland
12
and Q&phreville.
.al8 o$ a railway to Hudson ,ay be%an in the 1FAs with the earliest charter issued in 1FF1.
Political &anoeuverin% between the $ederal and provincial %overn&ents delayed $urther activity
until the co&&ercial de&ands o$ the Bin%er Lu&ber *o&pany, and its owner, provided the
i&petus $or a branch line $ro& the *anadian (orthern Railway to .he Pas in 1!AF. Her&an
Bin%er, an industrialist $ro& )isconsin, pushed $or the develop&ent o$ a townsite at .he Pas $or
his lu&ber &ill as well as $or the relocation o$ the Pas ,andGs &ill to the north side o$ the river.
.his had the e$$ect o$ puttin% the ,andGs &ill out o$ business. Bin%er and his cronies owned
considerable land in the townsite and bene$ited $ro& the subseIuent survey o$ the land into lots.
.he treaty with .he Pas ,and, an adhesion .reaty (u&ber ", was si%ned in 1F5 re%isterin% "!!
persons. ,y 1!A5, prospects $or an econo&ic boo& beca&e apparent. .he *anadian %overn&ent
purchased land on the south ban8 o$ the river $or the $uture town site $ro& the 'ndians who were
then &oved across the river to the present site. 'n 1!1A a town site plan was laid out and lots
were placed on the &ar8et. .he *rown declined to survey the nearby 9etis co&&unities. .he
white population consisted o$ si0 $a&ilies. ,y the ti&e o$ incorporation in 1!12 there were about
"AA people, and in a ,oard o$ .rade census one year later the total was 1,"A!.
.he $irst *hie$ o$ the (orthern Hal$breed Association was Robert .ho&as. .he Association was
active in protestin% the leases the %overn&ent was %ivin% to the H,* and the La&b $a&ily $or
&us8rat ranchin% at the Su&&erberry 9arsh, on the land they traditionally trapped. .hey also
lobbied to have the *rown land surveyed so they could %ain title to their land and ho&es. )hen
the town o$ .he Pas was incorporated, the nearby 9etis road allowance co&&unities o$ ,i%
>ddy, Ooun% Point, RallGs 'sland and Q&phreville were le$t outside its boundaries, thus denyin%
the 9etis services such as water and sewer.
8orway House and %ossille, Manitoba:
(orway House and Rossville are 9etis co&&unities located where the (elson River enters
Little Play%reen La8e 2north o$ La8e )innipe%7. .his was a H,* $ur trade post as well as a
stora%e and tranship&ent depot durin% the heyday o$ the $ur trade.
Present day (orway House is located 6A 8& 21! &iles7 north o$ La8e )innipe%, on the ban8 o$
the eastern channel o$ (elson River. 'n 1F15 Lord Sel8ir8 sent out a band o$ (orwe%ians to build
a road $ro& Oor8 Bactory to La8e )innipe% and a series o$ supply posts. .hey built (orway
12
Laura Hyrich, a current ,oard 9e&ber o$ 99B $ro& .he Pas Re%ion, in$or&s us that RallGs 'sland was $ounded by her %rand$ather *harles
who ho&esteaded there in 1!1". He was a northern prospector 2$ro& Red River7 who when passin% throu%h the area, $elt it would be a %ood place
to build a ho&e. He later returned with his wi$e >liHabeth 2Mni%ht7 and did #ust that.
=5
House at 9ossy Point 2west side o$ out$low7 in 1F1 replacin% the $or&er 3ac8 River post
16
at
that location.
(orway House is %eo%raphically situated on Little Play%reen La8e?>ast (elson River *hannel,
the $irst la8e chain syste& north o$ La8e )innipe%. .he i&&ediate hinterland area o$ (orway
House %enerally includes the north shore o$ La8e )innipe%, Play%reen La8e, Little Play%reen
La8e, )his8ey 3ac8, and the (elson River >ast *hannel. 't was 8nown as a centre $or the
buildin% o$ Oor8 boats. (orway House was in the -istrict o$ Meewatin and did not beco&e part
o$ 9anitoba until 1!12.
1=
Present day (orway House is located 6A 8& 21! &iles7 north o$ La8e
)innipe%, on the ban8 o$ the eastern channel o$ (elson River. 'n 1F15 Lord Sel8ir8 sent out a
band o$ (orwe%ians to build a road $ro& Oor8 Bactory to La8e )innipe% and a series o$ supply
posts. .hey built (orway House at 9ossy Point 2west side o$ out$low7 in 1F1 replacin% the
$or&er 3ac8 River post
1"
at that location.
.he i&&ediate hinterland area o$ (orway House %enerally includes the north shore o$ La8e
)innipe%, Play%reen La8e, Little Play%reen La8e, )his8ey 3ac8, and the (elson River >ast
*hannel. .he H,* built its $irst inland post in 1!5 at 3ac8 River House, near present day
(orway House. .his post was situated on what was then called 3ac8 River now called the
;unisao River. 't was built to appose the (orth )est *o&pany presence at the site and to
protect the H,*Gs inland transportation route. .he H,* &aintained a post at (orway House
al&ost continuously $ro& 1!5 throu%h the early 1!AA+s and beyond.
'n 1F1=, the 3ac8 River post was closed and a new post, constructed by ei%ht (orwe%ian
labourers, was located at 9ossy Point Zon the north shoreline o$ La8e )innipe% #ust east o$
)arrenGs Landin%[. 3ust a $ew years later, in 1F1, this post was &oved to )arrenGs Landin%.
.his post was closed in 1F2=, and the H,* constructed a new 3ac8 River Post on the >ast
*hannel o$ the (elson River near the outlet o$ ;unisao River, in (orway House. 'n 1F2, the
post was &oved a%ain to a location on Little Play%reen La8e. 'ts last location was on the east
channel o$ (elson River at present day (orway House.
'n 1F2" or 1F25 &uch o$ the post was destroyed by $ire. 'n 1F25 the HudsonGs ,ay *o&pany
abandoned its position on 9ossy Point in $avour o$ its present position on the >ast River, or as it
16
3ac8 River 21FA1 C 1F1=7, a Hudson+s ,ay *o. post replaced by (orway House. 'n 1"5, the H,* sent two &en
23oseph S&ith and 3oseph )a%%oner7 inland $ro& the ,ay. .hey ca&ped at the site ter&ed 3ac8 River, 3ac8$ish
River, and later (orway House. .his was a stoppin% point be$ore &a8in% the crossin% westward over the northern
end o$ La8e )innipe%, to the &outh o$ the Sas8atchewan River at ;rand Rapids, thence on to *u&berland House.
1=
.he 9anitoba boundary e0tension o$ 1FF1 did not &atch the ori%inal de&ands o$ the provincial %overn&ent, it
did e0pand the area o$ the province to 1F!,62 sIuare 8ilo&etres, or to $ive ti&es its ori%inal siHe. .he boundaries
were set in the west at the twentyCninth ran%e o$ townships, which is 9anitoba+s present western border, in the north
at "2\ "A+ latitude or south o$ ;rand Rapids, and in the east at the /western boundary o$ Kntario./ .he latter
de$inition was, o$ course, con$usin% as Kntario+s western border had re&ained in dispute since 1F=. Still at issue
was the area 8nown as Rat Porta%e 2today+s Menora7 which $ell into the disputed area o$ Kntario+s boundary clai&.
-urin% 1FF2CF6, the town was incorporated by both 9anitoba and Kntario. 'n 1!12 the 9anitoba boundary was
e0tended to 5A
A
north latitude.
1"
3ac8 River 21FA1 C 1F1=7, a Hudson+s ,ay *o. post replaced by (orway House. 'n 1"5, the H,* sent two &en
23oseph S&ith and 3oseph )a%%oner7 inland $ro& the ,ay. .hey ca&ped at the site ter&ed 3ac8 River, 3ac8$ish
River, and later (orway House. .his was a stoppin% point be$ore &a8in% the crossin% westward over the northern
end o$ La8e )innipe%, to the &outh o$ the Sas8atchewan River at ;rand Rapids, thence on to *u&berland House.
is now 8nown, the 3ac8 River in order to be nearer to the $ishery, the $ood supply o$ its
population. 'n 1F6A, *u&berland House, $or&erly the &ost i&portant post in the interior, was
supplanted by (orway House.

Bro& the 1F6As, the *ouncils o$ the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany, 2a
%atherin% o$ the *hie$ Bactors7 &et at (orway House rather than Oor8 Bactory.
Ray ShirrittC,eau&ont o$ Brontier School division investi%ated the ori%ins o$ the (orway House
people and concludes that &ost o$ the ori%inal $a&ilies that were residin% at this location circa
1F1" were <&i0ed ancestry1 people, thit is, the o$$sprin% o$ H,* servants and <'ndian1 wo&en
and second %eneration $a&ilies $ro& these unions, who had &i%rated $ro& Oor8 Bactory and
Severn River be%innin% in 1F11C1F12. ,eau&ont sur&ises that the traditional values which had
8ept the *ree society intact were eroded by alcohol abuse, and this in co&bination with resource
depletion in and around Oor8 Bactory, led to &any o$ the Ho&e ;uard *ree &i%ratin% to places
such as *ross La8e, (orway House and Swan River.
15
Bran8 .ou%h states that the (orway House people, the <'ndians1 and <9etis1 essentially lived
to%ether as one cultural %roup. He writesN <Real co&&unities were $or&in% around posts and
&issions, but the 'ndian Act and scrip co&&issions interrupted this process and co&&unities
were $ractured.1
1
He concludes that4 <.he $ur industry had created Hal$breed and 'ndian co&&unities at tradin%
posts. However, the *rown+s le%al reco%nition o$ 'ndian and 9Jtis Abori%inal title was not
si&ultaneous, and, there$ore, 'ndian a%ents later $aced applications $or withdrawals $ro& treaty
in the late 1FFAs. 't is o$ten assu&ed that 9Jtis with 'ndian status were Iuic8 to %ive up the lon%C
ter& bene$its o$ treaty status $or so&e sort o$ wind$all %ain $ro& scrip. .his was not necessarily
the case as scrip co&&issioners R. ;oulet and (.K. *ote reported4 Tat (orway House, Bisher
River and Bort Ale0ander there are lar%e settle&ent o$ hal$Cbreeds residin% on 'ndian Reserves
and in receipt o$ 'ndian annuities but who all pre$erred to re&ain &e&bers o$ the 'ndian ,ands to
which they belon%ed and to continue to en#oy as such as such all treaty privile%es.G .his
observation su%%ests that individual decisions were o$ten based on econo&ic concerns.1
1F
,etween 1FF= and 1F!1, a total o$ 1F persons were dischar%ed $ro& .reaty at (orway House and
then later too8 scrip. Si0 o$ these were 8nown to be Sara *rate, .ho&as ;arson, )illia&,
Andrew and 3ohn Robertson, as well as 3anet S&ith the dau%hter o$ Hector 9orrison. 'n 1F!1,
Horace ,elan%er, (orway House H,* Bactor and 3ustice o$ the Peace, reported on a TcensusG o$
the (orway House -istrict in 1F!1. Bor (orway House, speci$ically, he reported there were F
<>n%lish1, 1 <Brench1 <*anadian1, 5 <>uropeans1, 65 <Hal$ ,reeds1N !12 .reaty <'ndians1 and
"2 <Kther 'ndians1, $or a total population o$ 1,A1". 'nterestin%ly, the annuity paylist $or the
(orway House ,and in 1F!1 only lists "F6 people.
16
Ray&ond 9orris ShirrittC,eau&ont, <.he Rossville Scandal, 1F=54 3a&es >vans, the *ree, and a 9ission on
.rial.1 A .hesis sub&itted to the Baculty o$ ;raduate Studies in partial $ul$il&ent o$ the reIuire&ents $or the de%ree
o$ 9aster o$ Arts in History 3oint 9aster+s Pro%ra&&e Qniversity o$ 9anitoba and Qniversity o$ )innipe% in
3anuary 2AA1.
17
Bran8 .ou%h, As Their Nat"ral $eso"rces ,ail- Native #eople and the Economic &istor) of Northern 'anito(a,
187.-1/0.1 Vancouver4 Qniversity o$ ,ritish *olu&bia Press, 1!!541==.
1F
'bid, p. 1!.
=F
.he 1!A1 census $or (orway House lists 26A *ree, 5 Scots, = 'rish, >n%lish, and one
(orwe%ian. .he enu&erator listed the <*olour1 o$ 6= o$ the *ree as <Red Scotch ,reed. .here
was also one wi$e who was listed as Red Brench ,reed.
.he 1!A6 Annual Report o$ the -epart&ent o$ 'ndian A$$airs notes that &ost o$ the &e&bers o$
(orway House ,and appear to be 9etis, it statesN
<.he &e&bers o$ this band Z(orway House[ are principally Swa&py *rees and spea8 the
sa&e lan%ua%e as the Bisher River band. .here is a %reat deal o$ white blood in this band,
so&e o$ the 'ndians ta8in% treaty bein% al&ost pure white in appearance. A very lar%e
nu&ber o$ these 'ndians wor8 all su&&er $or the $ish co&pany which is operatin% a
$reeHer at )arren+s landin%. .hey &a8e a lar%e a&ount o$ &oney catchin% white$ish, $or
which they were receivin% this year three cents each. .hey also catch a lot o$ stur%eon,
$or which they receive %ood prices accordin% to the siHe. Kn Au%ust 1A ' saw a tu% arrive
$ro& the northwest corner o$ La8e )innipe% with $our hundred stur%eon, and nearly all
cau%ht by these 'ndians. A lar%e nu&ber o$ this sa&e band wor8 at Spider island, a s&all
island about thirty &iles south o$ )arren+s landin%, where the $ir& o$ >win% V Bryer
have a $reeHer, and buy all sorts o$ $ish.1
1!
Oak Lake (Lac des Ch=nes, also )lat Creek+ and )ort Mr, 4rant, Manitoba:
Ka8 La8e, the Lauder Sand Hills and the Souris River plain to the south were traditional 9etis
winterin% places since the bu$$alo were nu&erous on the plains here. Ka8 La8e was a waterin%
stop thirtyCtwo &iles west o$ ,randon. Alon% ti&e 9etis winterin% stop, the 9etis per&anently
settled it by the late 1F5As. 'n 1F2=, ,randon House on the Assiniboine River was abandoned
and Bort 9r. ;rant was established to the south, on the Souris River in 1F25. Here *uthbert
;rant and Louis ;uiboche were to trade with the 9etis and 'ndians between the .urtle 9ountain
and LuGAppelle. .his $ort closed in 1F51. Bort -es#arlais was established by the A&erican Bur
*o&pany to the south o$ Bort 9r. ;rant by 3oe -es#arlais in 1F"5. 't was destroyed by $ire in
1F"5. ,oth o$ these posts were sta$$ed by "A to 1AA 9etis &en.
Oak Lake (Lac des Ch=nes, also )lat Creek+ Metis winterin0 Sites: Ka8 La8e, the Lauder
Sand Hills and the Souris River plain to the south were traditional 9etis winterin% places since
the bu$$alo were nu&erous on the plains here. Ka8 La8e was a waterin% stop thirtyCtwo &iles
west o$ ,randon. Alon% ti&e 9etis winterin% stop, the 9etis per&anently settled it by the late
1F5As. 'n 1F2=, ,randon House on the Assiniboine River was abandoned and Bort 9r. ;rant was
established to the south, on the Souris River in 1F25. Here *uthbert ;rant and Louis ;uiboche
were to trade with the 9etis and 'ndians between the .urtle 9ountain and LuGAppelle. .his $ort
closed in 1F51. Bort -es#arlais was established by the A&erican Bur *o&pany to the south o$
Bort 9r. ;rant by 3oe -es#arlais in 1F"5. 't was destroyed by $ire in 1F"5. ,oth o$ these posts
were sta$$ed by "A to 1AA 9etis &en.
19
Appendi0 =C624 *SP, (o. 2, Report o$ the -eputy SuperintendentC;eneral o$ 'ndian A$$airs, 1!A6412F.
=!
Oak -oint:
Ka8 Point is located on the east shore o$ La8e 9anitoba north o$ St. Laurent and south o$
Lundar, 9anitoba. 'n early days it was a winterin% place $or the H,* cattle. 9any 9etis
e&ployees too8 H,* lots here. 't is located on the northern border o$ the old <posta%e sta&p1
province o$ 9anitoba.
Opaskweyaw now The -as, Manitoba:
Bor &any centuries this location on the Sas8atchewan River was a &eetin% and rendeHvous place
2#ust be$ore sprin% brea8up7 $or the *ree hunters and %atherers operatin% on the Sas8atchewan
River delta. .hey would wait here $or the sprin% water$owl return and the onset o$ the &a#or $ish
spawnin% runs. .heir $ish weirs were &aintained into the su&&er when stur%eon beca&e a &a#or
$ood source. .he $irst per&anent settle&ent in the area was constructed in 1=1. .he sons o$ the
e0plorer La Verendyre established Bort Pas8oyac, an i&portant $ort that was at the con$luence o$
three rivers 2*arrrot, Ks8atas8 Sipiy in *ree, literally <river o$ the wild carrot1, PasIuia and
Sas8atchewan rivers7. .he $ort served the local trappers and $ur traders $or decades. Seedin% a
$ew acres o$ %rain around the $ort in 1"=, *aptain de la *orne beca&e 9anitoba+s $irst $ar&er.
)ith the advent o$ $ur trade posts 9etis settle&ents were established at *arrot River Valley
2PasIuia Settle&ent7, Ooun%+s Point, ,i% >ddy, Q&pherville, and Ralls 'sland. ,i% >ddy and
Q&pherville are s&all settle&ents located north o$ .he Pas. .he Ooun%+s Point settle&ent is
located #ust south o$ the Pas in the PasIuia Settle&ent. Ralls 'sland lies east o$ the .own o$ the
Pas, and was settled in the early 1!AA+s as a $ar&in% area. 'n 1=6 Laverendrye built the $irst Bort
Pas8oyac on behal$ o$ the Brench on the southwest shore o$ *edar La8e. A $ort was also built in
1=! at the location o$ present day .own o$ .he Pas and na&ed Bort Pas8o ya8. Another &a#or
in$luence in the chan%e o$ way o$ li$estyle o$ the ,and+s ancestors ca&e with the co&in% o$ the
9issionaries. 'n 1F=A the *hurch 9issionary Society established -evon 9ission at .he Pas. .he
Reverend Henry ,udd 2a 9etis7 established the &ission and $ro& that date $orward .he Pas area
has had a resident priest. .he Reverend ,udd and his successors drew a %ood nu&ber o$ 'ndian
people $ro& the area to their &ission and by the late 1!5A+s there was a siHeable settle&ent at .he
Pas. .here continued to be seasonal &i%ration to areas where huntin% and $ishin% was %ood. .he
(orthern Hal$breed Association was $or&ed in the early 1!6As to represent the 9etis and (onC
Status 'ndians o$ the 9etis settle&ents near .he Pas, 9oose La8e and *edar La8e. .he
settle&ents were4 .he .ho&as Settle&ent, )ooden .ent 29eti8ewap7, Pine ,lu$$, 9oose La8e,
,i% >ddy, Ooun% Point, RallGs 'sland
2A
and Q&phreville. .he $irst *hie$ o$ the Association was
Robert .ho&as. .hey were active in protestin% the leases the %overn&ent was %ivin% to the H,*
and the La&b $a&ily $or &us8rat ranchin% on the land they traditionally trapped. .hey also
lobbied to have the *rown land surveyed so they could %ain title to their land and ho&es.
O.#ord House:
K0$ord house is on K0$ord La8e at the &outh o$ the Hayes River. K0$ord House was established
in 1!F as an H,* $ur tradin% post on the $ur trade route between Oor8 Bactory on the Hudson
2A
Laura Hyrich in$or&s us that RallGs 'sland was $ounded by her %rand$ather *harles who ho&esteaded there in 1!1". He was a northern
prospector 2$ro& Red River7 who when passin% throu%h the area, $elt it would be a %ood place to build a ho&e. He later returned with his wi$e
>liHabeth 2Mni%ht7 and did #ust that.
"A
,ay and (orway House. .he *arrot River enters on the northwest and allows a porta%e to *ross
La8e on the (elson River.
'n 1!F, )illia& Sinclair was pro&oted to the position o$ a 9aster .rader, and 3oseph *olen, the
H,* chie$ $actor at Oor8 Bactory instructed hi& to build the post that beca&e K0$ord House,
located alon% the Hayes River trade route 2see &ap below7, &idway between (orway House and
Oor8 Bactory. )illia& re&ained at K0$ord House $or the ne0t 1= years durin% which he beca&e
the *hie$ .rader in char%e o$ the Oor8 'nland -istrict. )illia& Sinclair raised 12 9etis children
at K0$ord House. Later his 9etis %randson would wor8 at K0$ord House $ro& 1F5= C1F!A. He
rose to the position o$ *hie$ .rader $or the district.
-etit -oint de %oches, Manitoba:
Petit Point de Roches was a 9etis co&&unity located on the Red River #ust north o$ the present
town o$ Ste. A%athe 2previously called Pointe R ;rouette and Petite Pointe R Saline7. Bro& the
&idC1FAAs the river lots in this area were inhabited by 9etis bu$$alo hunters, $rei%hters and
$ar&ers.
-etit -oint du Chenes now Lorette, Manitoba:
Lorette, 25 8& southCeast o$ )innipe%, was settled in the 1F"As by 9etis $ro& St. ,oni$ace, St.
(orbert and St. Vital. 't was $irst 8nown as Petit Point des *h]nes and was settled by 9etis
$ar&ers, $rei%hters traders and bu$$alo hunters. .he &a#ority o$ the residents were voya%eurs and
hunters whose cattle %raHed alon% the Seine River. .he $irst baptis&s were per$or&ed there in
1FA. .he $irst $a&ilies to settle there were, Brancois ,Jreau, .oussaint Vaudry, Ro&ain and
"1
>lHear La%i&odiere, Andre ;audry, 9a0i&e -u&ais, (orbert Landry, *ollin 9c-ou%all, and
Brancois Bla&and. .he na&e was apparently chan%ed by ,ishop .achJ to honour a priest in
Brance who had &ade a considerable %i$t to the St. ,oni$ace *athedral.
9c-ou%all Ba&ily ho&e in Lorette.
-ine Blu##, Manitoba:
.hrou%hout the 1FAAs the 9etis o$ Bond du Lac used the entire 'nterla8e re%ion o$
9anitoba $or their huntin% trappin% and $ishin% econo&y. .hey utiliHed the -uc8 ,ay area
e0tensively and travelled $ro& there to the &us8rat &arshes #ust east o$ .he Pas, 9anitoba 2part
o$ the .erritory o$ Meewatin at that ti&e7. .his Pine ,lu$$ ca&pin% site appears as a na&ed site
on a &ap in 1FF=. Around 1!1A, so&e o$ these 9etis $a&ilies decided to per&anently settle at
Pine ,lu$$, "A &iles southeast o$ .he Pas alon% the Sas8atchewan River. .his %ave the& easy
access to the resources o$ the Su&&erberry 9arsh and the trappin% areas ri%ht down to ;rand
Rapids on the Sas8atchewan River. 't is reported that the 9etis had a $ine stur%eon $ishery on
*edar La8e. .his hi%h %round was also a stoppin% point when travellin% between the Pas and
*edar La8e. .he $a&ily na&es co&&on to Pine ,lu$$ were, *a&pbell, *haboyer, *hartrand,
-uchar&e, (abess, AHure, La&bert, ,our%oise, La%i&odiere, ,eaucha&p and Lavallee. .he
co&&unity had a s&all school $ro& 1!6F to 1!=2. .he buildin% o$ the ;rand Rapids -a& &eant
the de&ise o$ this co&&unity since the $loodin% destroyed the $ishery and trappin% alon% the
"2
river and *edar La8e. 9any 9etis lost both their $ishin% nets and all o$ their traps when the $ore
bay $loodin% be%an. .he 9etis had never received title to their land because the province re$used
to survey that area.
-ine 1ock, Manitoba:
.he 9etis co&&unity o$ Pine -oc8 is located on the west shore o$ La8e )innipe% in the
(arrows re%ion o$ the la8e. 't is about 15 8ilo&etres south o$ 9atheson 'sland, and historically
8nown as ,ullhead on navi%ation &aps.
-ointe Coup>e now St, $dolphe, Manitoba:
St. Adolphe located on the Red River south o$ the Red River Settle&ent was $ounded by
the 9etis in the early 1FAAs and ori%inally 8nown as Pointe *oupJe. 't was rena&ed a$ter
Adolphe .urner &ade a lar%e donation to the church there. Pointe *oupJe $eatures in the 1F5!
9etis Resistance. 'n 3une o$ 1F5!, 3ohn Snow and his survey party went there to cut wood, di% a
well, and &a8e survey &easure&ents in de$iance o$ a 9etis warnin% that the land belon%ed to
the&. 'n 3uly, the 9etis pulled out all the survey sta8es, burned the wood and $illed in the well.
-ointe 7 4rouette, preiously -etite -ointe 7 Saline now St, $0athe:
Bro& the &idC1FAAs the river lots in this area were inhabited by 9etis $a&ilies who were
bu$$alo hunters, $rei%hters and $ar&ers. .here was also a salt &a8in% enterprise there. Prior to
1F2 the co&&unity was 8nown as Pointe a ;ouette and the 1FA -istrict o$ Assiniboia census
lists only two nonC9etis inhabitants out o$ 1" people. However a$ter 1FA, due to %overn&ent
&is&ana%e&ent o$ the scrip syste& and the trans$er o$ title to those 9etis who held HudsonGs
,ay co&pany river lots &ost o$ the 9etis were disen$ranchised. Sainte A%athe was inau%urated
as a parish in 1F5. ,y 1!AA the co&&unity was 8nown as the villa%e o$ Sainte A%athe and &ost
o$ the 9etis had &oved to the Qnited States or $urther west in *anada. .he presentCday
co&&unity o$ Ste. A%athe is located on the Red River about 2A &iles south o$ )innipe%. .he
9etis property owners prior to 1F5" were4 ,erthelets, Houles, LarocIues, 9orins Vennes,
Vandals, Laber%es, Landrys and La$ertJs.
-ointe des Ch=nes or 4rande -ointe des Ch=nes now Ste, $nne de Ch=nes:
.his area was purchased by 9etis and Brench settlers in 1F"2 $ro& (aCsaC8eeCbyCness
2Blyin% -own ,ird7 also 8nown as 2rands 3reilles the *hie$ o$ the Roseau River ,and. .his
was a pre$erred location $or woodcuttin% because o$ the lar%e oa8 %roves alon% the ban8s o$ the
Seine River. Bather LeBloche, the priest $ro& St. ,oni$ace who &inistered to the 9etis at this
location chan%ed the na&e to Ste. Anne, a patron saint in ,rittany, Brance.
%abbit -oint (-rincess Harbour+
.he 9etis co&&unity o$ Rabbit Point $or&erly called Point du Lièvre and now 8nown as
Princess Harbour is positioned on a s&all peninsula on the east shore o$ La8e )innipe%. .he
"6
co&&unity is near ,loodvein ,ay appro0i&ately 6A= air 8& north o$ )innipe%, 2= 8& northC
west o$ Lon% ,ody *ree8 and 5" 8& by air south o$ ,erens River.
%at %ier, Manitoba:
A$ter the boundary line le$t Pe&bina in the Qnited States &any o$ the 9etis relocated in *anada.
)hen it was clear they could not %et a Q.S. &issionary they had the ,ishop o$ 3uliopolis, on
9arch 2, 1F2" write to Robert Pelly the ;overnor o$ Assiniboia $or land at Rat River near la
Saline.
%ed %ier Settlements 8orth o# ?pper )ort 4arry:
Part o$ Henry HindGs 9ap based on his observations o$ 1F".
(arrow river lots e0tend two &iles east and west o$ the river.
)est is at top o$ &ap, >ast to the botto&, (orth on ri%ht.
%ii*re 4ratchias now Morris, Manitoba:
.his 9etis co&&unity, ori%inally 8nown as Rivière ;ratchias 2in 9ichi$7 or Scratchin% River. 'ts
location, where the ;ratias River enters the Red, was a restin% point $or the cart trains &a8in%
their way south alon% the Red River to St. Paul, 9innesota. 't was na&ed ;ratias or ;ratchias
a$ter the type o$ burdoc8 that %rew in abundance all alon% this river. >very year the people $ro&
this location would #oin the 9etis $ro& St. (orbert to #ourney up the Rivière Sale and on to the
bu$$alo huntin% %roups alon% the 9issouri River.
%ii*re au. Islets de Bois now Carman, Manitoba:
"=
.his river once called Rivière au0 'slets de ,ois now called the ,oyne River was on the route to
the plains $ollowed by the 9etis bu$$alo hunters. .his 9etis settle&ent o$ 'slet de ,ois be%an in
the early 1FAAs and it is certain that the 9etis $ro& St. Brancois Eavier had established a
settle&ent here in 1F2"..he location was %ood $or shelter, $uel and ti&ber and the soil was %ood
$or %rowin% potatoes and barley. 't had lon% been a location where the 9etis $ro& ;rantown had
their su%ar lots. >ven 9etis $ro& as $ar away as St. Andrews Parish had su%ar lots in this area.
.hey had utiliHed these &aple %roves alon% the river near the present day *ar&an since the early
1F6As. 9aple su%arin% ta8es place in the sprin% o$ each year 2&idCApril7 and starts be$ore the
snow has &elted. >ach $a&ily had its own su%ar bush and would leave their pots and 8ettles on
these lots until their return the $ollowin% season. 'n 1F5F, a nu&ber o$ 9etis $ro& 3ohnny
;rantGs 9ontana %roup sta8ed clai&s in the area. ;rant reports4 <As soon as sprin% opened '
went in search o$ a place to locate. ' selected the *ar&an -istrict which was then called Rivière
au0 'slets de ,ois. .hree other $a&ilies who had co&e $ro& 9ontana with &e also settled there.
.he &en were Ale0 Pa&bru&, .ho&as Lavatta, -avid *ontois and ,ill *os%rove. ' too8 up land
that ' thou%ht would suit &ysel$ and $a&ily and located Zland[ also $or two boys who& ' had
adopted.1
21
%ii*re Sale now St, 8orbert, Manitoba:
.his area south o$ the Red River Settle&ent at the point where the Rivière Sale 2-irty River7
enters the Red River was, in the 1AAs, a seasonal %atherin% place $or 9etis because it was the
best $ishin% area in the country. 'n 3uly and Au%ust it was swar&in% with burbot, #ac8$ish, carp
and cat$ish. .he co&&unity beca&e a yearCround establish&ent between 1F22 and 1F2" by
$or&er $ur trade e&ployees who settled there with their 9etis $a&ilies. Bor &any years their
pri&ary occupations were the bu$$alo hunt, subsistence $ar&in% and carta%e via the cart routes
that radiated out in all directions $ro& the Red River Settle&ent. >very year the people $ro& the
surroundin% area would #oin the 9etis $ro& St. (orbert to #ourney up the Rivière Sale and on to
the bu$$alo huntin% %rounds alon% the 9issouri River. .hey would travel as $ar as the $irst ran%e
o$ the Roc8y 9ountains. .hey would then return alon% the *heyenne River in (orth -a8ota and
at the point it #oins with the Red River head north a%ain. 'n the winter this sa&e %roup would
travel to the west to the Lauder Sand Hills on the Souris Plain, a winterin% spot $or bison. 9any
o$ the St. (orbert $a&ilies also had ho&es at Ka8 La8e, #ust north o$ the sand hills. 'n 1F"
9s%r. .ache established the St. (orbert area as a parish, which he na&ed in honour o$ 9s%r.
(orbert Provencher, the $irst bishop o$ St. ,oni$ace. 't was in St. (orbert that Louis Riel
or%aniHed the $irst 9etis resistance &ove&ent o$ 1F5!CA. .he Rivière Sale was also rena&ed as
the La Salle River a$ter RenJ Robert *avalier de la Salle who e0plored in the Louisiana area and
up the 9ississippi River.
%ii*re !stur0eon now St, Charles, Manitoba:
St. *harles was the 9etis co&&unity o$ Rivière >stur%eon until 1F"=. 't was located on the
north and south ban8s o$ the Assiniboine River to the west o$ Stur%eon *ree8. *urrently it is a
21
Lyndel 9ei8le 2>d.7 +er) %lose to Tro"(le- The 4ohnn) 2rant 'emoir. Pull&an,)ashinton4 )ashinton State
Qniversity Press, 1!!54 1F=C1F". )hen ;rant le$t 9ontana there were 52 wa%ons and twelve carts with "AA head o$
horses 22AA belon%in% to ;rant7. .here were 1A5 &en in the party besides the wo&en and children. .he &en were
divided in sIuads o$ten with a captain over each sIuad. 2pp. 11C127
""
co&&unity within )innipe%. ,y the early 1F"As there were 2AA Brench 9etis and a s&aller
nu&ber o$ >n%lish 9etis livin% at St. *harles. A$ter the $lood o$ 1F"2 &ore people &oved to this
location in search o$ hi%her %round. .here was a bu$$alo crossin% and later a $erry at this
location. Bro& the early 1FAAs hunters would %ather at this location on a seasonal basis to %et
bu$$alo as well as $or the stur%eon $ishery. .his parish had a population o$ about 2AA 9etis in the
1F=As, the ori%inal co&&unity was $or&ed by about 5A $a&ilies o$ Plains bu$$alo hunters. ,y
1F"5, the parish o$ St. *harles had a population o$ 6=F, twoCthirds Ro&an *atholic and oneCthird
Protestant. ,ishop .achJ chan%ed the na&e to honour his superior, 9onsei%neur *harles de
9aHenod 2K9'7.
%ooster Town:
.he last 8nown road allowance co&&unity in )innipe% was situated at ;rant Ave. and )averley
St., it was 8nown as Rooster .own. 'n the boo8 $eflections, 5esterda) and Toda) 299B Press
1!!7, 3i& -ay o$ St. Laurent says, <' was born and raised on the outs8irts o$ )innipe% in a
place 8nown as Rooster .own. .his place was situated where ;rant Avenue is today.1 .his
co&&unity e0isted until the late 1!"As.
<'n the early years o$ the depression o$ the 1!6As a nu&ber o$ ho&eless $a&ilies, &any o$ who&
were destitute 9etis built s&all shac8s ille%ally on the *anadian (ational Railway property
ad#oinin% city owned land #ust o$$ ;rant ,oulevard. As well, as suburban develop&ent advanced
in River Hei%hts, other shac8 dwellers reClocated to this area. .he area, now rou%hly between
)heatherdon Avenue and the trac8s $ro& *a&brid%e to Roc8wood Streets beca&e 8nown as
Rooster .own.
Kver the ne0t Iuarter century the nu&ber o$ sIuatters varied with econo&ic conditions.
,y the 1!"As at least 6A to "A people clustered there in &ore than a doHen shac8s. 9any owned
their ho&es, but so&e paid Y1" to Y2A per &onth rent. 9ost o$ the &en wor8ed as seasonal
labourers, cuttin% sod, deliverin% coal, or per$or&in% other casual wor8, and collected relie$ $ro&
the city when une&ployed. .heir wives raised their children in two to three roo& shac8s without
runnin% water, sewer connections or other services.
A$ter 1= children ca&e to school with the s8in disease i&peti%o in late 1!"1 the
)innipe% .ribune reporter wrote4 <)hatever you doW donGt touch the Rooster .own children.
Oou &i%ht %et a s8in disease. So the teacher calls $or a %roup %a&e and tells the children to #oin
hands. (obody would dare #oin hands with the Rooster .own children.1
22
'n response the *ity directed Public Health nurses and social wor8ers to the co&&unity.
Alternate housin% was $ound $or si0 or seven $a&ilies in 1!"2, but &any pre$erred to stay where
they were. 'n the su&&er o$ 1!"!, the city o$$ered the last $a&ilies cash pay&ents o$ Y"A to Y"
to &ove or $ace eviction proceedin%s. )ith the school openin% o$ ;rant Par8 School in
Septe&ber 1!"! and plans $or a surroundin% par8 area Rooster .own and its social proble&s had
no place in )innipe%Gs suburbs.1
26
Sandy Bay, Manitoba: Metis "ithdraw #rom Treaty
22
Winnipe* Tri("ne, -ece&ber 2A, 1!"1. <Heard o$ Rooster .ownP 'ts Kur Last Suburb.1
26
-avid ;. ,urley, %it) and !"("r( &o"sin* in .
th
%ent"r) Winnipe*. )innipe% Real >state ,oard, 1AA
th

Anniversary, 2AA6.
"5
Kn April 25, 1FF5, Brancois -es&erais, on behal$ o$ the Hal$ ,reeds at Sandy ,ay who have le$t
treaty, writes to the Pri&e 9inister, to as8 that the Reserve be opened $or settle&ent. .hey state
that there are no 'ndians le$t livin% on the Reserve. See the actual petition appended below.
.he &en who si%ned the April 25, 1FF5 Petition are4
,eaulieu, Ale0andre
,eaulieu, Antoine
,eaulieu, ,aptiste
,eaulieu, 3ean ,aptiste
,eaulieu, 9ichel
,eaulieu, Pascal
,oulette, Brancois
-es#arlais, Brancois
-es#arlais, 'sidore
-es#arlais, 3oseph
-es#arlais, Patrice
-es#arlais, Pierre
Houle, Brancois
Houle, 3oseph
Lacouette, Au%ustine
Lacouette, ,aptiste
Lacouette, 3ean ,aptiste
Lacouette, 3ohn
Lacouette, Louison
Lacouette, (apoleon
Lepasseur, Ale0andre
Lepasseur, Au%ustin
Lepasseur, 3ohn
Lepasseur, 3oseph
Lepasseur, 9ichel
9ousseau, Antoine 3r.
9ousseau, Antoine Sr.
Richard, Antoine
Richard, Brancis
Richard, 3ohn )illia&
Richard, 3oseph
Richard, )illia& 3r.
Richard, )illia& Sr.
Roulette, A&broise
Roulette, Louison
Roulette, 9ichel 3r.
Roulette, 9ichel Sr.
Roulette, Pierre
Spence, ,aptiste
Spence, ;eor%e
Spence, 3ean ,aptiste
Spence, 3ohn
Spence, Louison
Spence, (icholas
Spence, Sa&uel
Star, Stanislas
)est, )illia&
SubseIuently, on Au%ust 5, 1FF5, Ma8ousance and ,aptiste 9etneaywewind write to 'nspector
>. 9c*oll to reverse the withdrawal $ro& treaty. .hey say that they were deceived by a%ents
29r. 9artineau7 into ta8in% 9etis Scrip. .hey had apparently been told that any ,and &e&bers
who had 9etis ancestors or any white blood would lose everythin%, thus they should ta8e scrip.
.his letter is attached below.
Kn Au%ust 2!, 1FF5, Robert .weddell writes to 'nspector >. 9c*oll indicatin% that Ma8ousance
was well aware o$ what he was doin% when the April 25, 1FF5 petition was si%ned and in $act
,aptiste Spence was not involved in this Au%ust 5, 1FF5 reIuest and told hi& he was <not sorry
but that he was %lad 2to leave7 because, said he, ' a& &y own &aster now and can %o where '
li8e.1 Si&ilarly others he tal8ed to were Iuite satis$ied.

"
"F
"!
5A
51
52
56
5=
5"
55
5
5F
5!
San Clara and Bo00y Creek, Manitoba:
San *lara and ,o%%y *ree8 are located north o$ Roblin, 9anitoba and west o$ the -uc8
9ountain Provincial Borest. Prior to the 1FAGs, the *ree, K#ibway and 9Jtis Birst
(ations inhabited the Roblin area. >arly settle&ent patterns were inti&ately lin8ed to the
$ur trade and related transportation networ8s. .he Pelly .rail and the Shell River
$acilitated the &ar8etin% o$ $urs hunted in the -uc8 9ountains. 'n the early 1FFAGs, the
9Jtis concentrated their land clai&s around San *lara and ,o%%y *ree8.
Sault 7 la Biche, 1eer %apids, now St, $ndrews, Manitoba:
.he li&estone rapids on the Red River south o$ Sel8ir8 was the site o$ early 'ndian and
9etis settle&ents since this is hi%her %round than at the $or8s, and not sub#ect to
$loodin%. .he Sel8ir8 Settlers chan%ed the na&e to honour the patron saint o$ Scotland.
St, $dolphe, Manitoba: See entry under Pointe *oupJe.
St, $ndrews, Manitoba: See entry under Sault R la ,iche.
St, $nne de Ch=nes, Manitoba:
.his co&&unity is alon% the Seine River about "A 8ilo&eters southeast o$ )innipe%. .o
the east o$ Pointe des *h]nes is a lar%e swa&p and $orest, called lGJpinettière by the
A
9etis, which e0tends east to La8e o$ the )oods. .his area provided %ood %a&e huntin%
as well as lu&ber $or the 9etis people who were the early residents. 9any o$ these
$a&ilies were itinerant bu$$alo hunters. A per&anent settle&ent be%an in the 1F"As and
this increased a$ter the 1F"2 $lood when &any 9etis &oved to the hi%her %round at
Pointe des *h]nes. .he early $a&ilies were headed by 3ean ,aptiste Perrault dit 9orin,
BranDois and *harles (olin, 3.,. Sapoint, and Au%ust Harrison. 'n 1F51 .achJ $ounded
the 9ission o$ St. Ale0ander at Pointe des *h]nes. A chapel was opened in 1F55 and a
church was built in 1F5. within si0 &onths the church was rena&ed St. Anne because
Père Le$loch su%%ested that St. Ale0ander would be a &ore appropriate na&e $or the
&ission at Bort Ale0ander. 't should be noted that Père Le$loch was a ,reton and St. Anne
was the patron saint o$ the ,retons. 9etis $ro& this co&&unity were the labourers on the
construction o$ -awson road $ro& La8e o$ the )oods to Red River. 'n 1F5F 3ohn Snow
was hired to construct this road. He enra%ed the residents by i%norin% the property
boundaries laid out by Ro%er ;oulet $or the *ouncil o$ Assiniboia. Burther, he clai&ed to
have bou%ht the land on which they lived $ro& the Saulteau0. .he residents evicted Snow
and he was char%ed with two counts o$ sellin% liIuor 2$or land7 to the Saulteau0 at Pointe
des *h]nes.
St, Boni#ace, Manitoba:
.his co&&unity ta8es its na&e $ro& the parish na&ed by ,ishop Provencher. 't is
na&ed a$ter an >n%lish &issionary who wor8ed a&on% the ;er&ans and was &artyred.
Provencher said o$ his 9etis parishioners, <'t would ta8e the $aith o$ a ,oni$ace to wor8
a&on% these people.1
St, Charles, Manitoba: See entry under Rivière >stur%eon.
St, !ustache #ormerly Baie St, -aul:
'n 3uly o$ 1F62 Bather ,elcourt selected a site $or his &ission alon% the Assiniboine River
where a lar%e nu&ber o$ 'ndians and 9etis %athered in the sprin%. .he &ission was to be
na&ed under the protection o$ Saint Paul, Apostle o$ the ;entiles. ,elcourt then returned
in the sprin% o$ 1F66 with ,ishop ProvencherGs approval. He erected a chapel durin% the
su&&er, but in Septe&ber the site, si0ty 8ilo&eters west o$ Red River was attac8ed by a
%roup o$ ;rosCVentres 'ndians $ro& the south. ,ishop Provencher, concerned $or the
sa$ety o$ the priest and the continued success o$ his wor8, had the &ission reClocated
closer to St. ,oni$ace.
2=

.he new &ission, ,aie St. Paul, was established in 1F6= at <Prairie Bournier1 2,a8erGs
Prairie7 on the le$t ban8 o$ the Assiniboine River, about thirtyCseven 8ilo&etres $ro& St.
,oni$ace and about ei%ht 8ilo&etres east o$ today+s St. >ustache, 9anitoba. .he site
included a tract o$ land with ei%ht 8ilo&etres o$ river $ronta%e three 8ilo&etres in depth, a
2=
.he e0act location o$ the $irst &ission, 8nown as St. Paul des Saulteau0, is di$$icult to pinpoint. .wo
reliable sources locate it on the le$t ban8 o$ the Assiniboine, so&e ei%hty to ninetyC$ive 8ilo&etres $ro& St.
,oni$ace. '$ &easured in river distance, the site would have been situated so&ewhere near St. >ustache, but
i$ &easured asCtheCcrowC$lies, it would have been located in the vicinity o$ Porta%e la Prairie.
1
%i$t $ro& ;overnor ;eor%e Si&pson o$ the HudsonGs ,ay *o&pany 2H,*7. ,aie St. Paul
was to be ,elcourt+s o$$icial residence as lon% as he re&ained under ,ishop Provencher+s
#urisdiction.

'n Bebruary o$ 1F=, Bather ,elcourt prepared a petition to the Lueen re%ardin% the 9etis
%rievances with re%ard to the H,* $ur trade &onopoly. (ine hundred and seventyCseven
9etis si%ned it and 3a&es Sinclair too8 it to >n%land. 'n retaliation, ;eor%e Si&pson and
the H,* tru&ped up $ur tradin% char%es a%ainst ,elcourt and had the Archbishop in
Luebec re&ove hi& $ro& Red River. ,elcourt i&&ediately be%an lobbyin% to return and
in 3une o$ 1F=F, ,ishop Lorus o$ -ubuIue assi%ned hi& to Pe&bina. 9any o$ his
parishioners $ro& ,aie St. Paul $ollowed hi& to Pe&bina. He eventually &oved his
&ission and school 6A &iles west to St. 3osephs in 1F"6.
'n 1FF2 there was e0tensive $loodin% at ,aie St. Paul and part o$ the ce&etery slid into
the river and &any houses were destroyed. 9any o$ the residents beca&e discoura%ed
and $ollowed their parish priest, *yrille SaintCPierre in relocation to (orth -a8ota. Later
,ishop .ache sent &issionary .ho&as Luevillion to $ind a new location $or the church.
.he new location was St. >ustache established in 3anuary o$ 1F!F. .his na&e was chosen
because St. >ustache is the Patron saint o$ hunters.
St, )ran;ois <aier, Manitoba:
St. BranDois Eavier, was one o$ the western parishes o$ the Red River Settle&ent. 't is
located on the Assiniboine River. *uthbert ;rant established this co&&unity in 1F26.
9any o$ his 9etis $riends and relatives $ollowed hi& here $ro& Pe&bina. .he villa%e
was called ;rantown until 1F"=. Bather -estrios&aisons held *hurch services in the
;rant ho&e $ro& 1F26 to 1F2. 'n 1F2F, a lo% chapel was built and in 1F6= the &ission
beca&e a parish. 'n 1F"A, the ;rey (uns o$ St. ,oni$ace arrived to start a school. Kn 3uly
15, 1F"=, *uthbert ;rant died and his ashes were buried under the alter o$ the chapel. .he
HudsonGs ,ay *o&pany had LaneGs Post located nearby. .his post opened in 1F"5 and
closed in 1FF6. St. BranDois Eavier was the $irst industrial site in 9anitoba. ,ecause o$
the abundance o$ oa8 wood, Red River *arts were constructed there.
St, Laurent, Manitoba: 2,y Audreen Hourie7
St. Laurent is located on the southCeastern curve o$ La8e 9anitoba, $ortyCseven &iles
northwest o$ )innipe%. .he population o$ St. Laurent is appro0i&ately 1,1AA, about
threeCIuarters o$ who are 9etis. 'n 1F2=, a %roup o$ 9etis, $orced to leave Pe&bina as it
had beco&e A&erican territory, settled at what is now St. Laurent. Kther 9etis $a&ilies
driven out 2o$ )innipe%7 by the Red River $lood o$ 1F25 also chose to settle in this area.
,y 1F"A, twelve 9etis $a&ilies resided in the vicinityN a&on% the& were *harles
La&bert, (orbert Larance $ro& (orth -a8ota, a *hartrand $ro& -uc8 ,ay, and the
LavallJes and the -uchar&es. 9any 9etis settlers were attracted by the abundance o$
$ish and the wooded land nearby that abounded in %a&e and wild $ruit.
'n 1F25, a priest $ro& St. ,oni$ace, Bather -estrois&aisons, went to the settle&ent to
celebrate *hrist&as. St. Laurent had no resident priest, but St. BranDois Eavier, thirty
2
&iles south had a resident priest since 1F26, so it was possible $or the St. Laurent people
to %o to that church. 'n 1F51, St. Laurent received a resident priest, Bather Si&onet, who
beca&e the $irst pastor. .he $irst church or chapel was a s&all thatchCcovered structure
which served as a church and rectory. .here was already a s&all ce&etery, but %enerally
the dead were ta8en to St. BranDois Eavier $or burial. 'n 1F!", a new church was built and
the $ollowin% year a convent $or the Sisters $ro& the Krder o$ the Branciscan 9issionaries
o$ 9ary who were to arrive in 1F!. .raditionally the 9etis o$ St. Laurent have been
very reli%iously oriented. Althou%h the co&&unity is Ro&an *atholic, a $ew $a&ilies
attend the >van%elical 9ennonite church. Kn 9ay 6A, 1!51, a thunderbolt struc8 the old
*atholic church and in si0 hours it was reduced to ashes, all that was le$t were $our stone
walls. ,y 1!5=, a new church was built on the sa&e site.
As early as 1F52, Bather Si&onet had be%un a s&all school, but the $irst real school was
opened in 1FA by ,rother 9ulvihill who ca&e to St. Laurent $ro& 'reland to #oin Bather
*a&per who had arrived $ro& Brance, and Bather Si&onet, the vicar. .he school operated
under ,rother 9ulvihillGs direction until the arrival o$ si0 nuns in 1F!, who were to ta8e
char%e o$ the school. .his school served until 1!A2 when another buildin% was erected to
serve as a school and convent $or the nuns. 'n 1!A or 1!AF, a lar%e school was built and
attached to the e0istin% buildin%, which was %iven over entirely to the nuns. .his buildin%
served its purpose $or 52 years.
'n 1!A2, Bather Peron beca&e Pastor o$ St. Laurent. Kn a trip to Brance he brou%ht bac8
several ,reton $a&ilies. 'n 1!A, a 9r. BranDois *alveH returned to ,rittany to brin% out
his wi$e and $ive sons. Ba&ily na&es such as Leost, Ab%rall, Le%o$$, *o&bot, *alveH and
Klivier were added to the villa%e. Prior to 1!A2, St. Laurent was populated by 9etis and
so&e 'ndian $a&ilies. .he spo8en lan%ua%es were 9ichi$ Brench and Saulteau0. Qpon
the arrival o$ the <,retons1, the Brench lan%ua%e was introduced and %reatly a$$ected the
co&&unity. St. Laurent continues to &aintain its 9etis identity and Brench 9ichi$
survived the pressures $ro& the church, the nuns, and the <,retons1 who atte&pted to
replace 9ichi$ Brench with the new Brench lan%ua%e. .he Saulteau0 lan%ua%e did not
survive as $ew people now spea8 it.
Ste, Madeleine, Manitoba:
Bor &any decades prior to 1!6F, Ste. 9adeleine was a traditional 9etis co&&unity with
over twenty lar%e $a&ilies. .he 9etis had ho&esteaded the land at Ste. 9adeleine and
the nearby Pu&p8in Plain, north o$ St. LaHare, 9anitoba since the 1FAs. A &ission had
been set up there in 1!A2. However, under the Prairie Bar& Rehabilitation Act, this land
was desi%nated to beco&e co&&unity pasture, thus the co&&unity lost its town.
Historically, the town was $or&ed when 9etis le$t the Red River area due to the actions
o$ )olseleyGs Red River >0peditionary Borce. Kther 9etis &oved to the area $ro&
Sas8atchewan and Alberta a$ter the Resistance o$ 1FF".
'n 1!6", in the &idst o$ the <-irty .hirties,1 the *anadian %overn&ent set up the Prairie
Bar& Rehabilitation Act. .he town o$ Ste. 9adeleine and surroundin% area called
Pu&p8in Plain was desi%nated as pastureland. .he 9etis $a&ilies who had their ta0es
6
paid up to date were to be co&pensated and relocated. However, because o$ the econo&ic
conditions o$ the ti&e, $ew $a&ilies had their ta0es paid. .he 9etis were a%ain $orced to
$ind a new ho&e and they lost everythin% they hadN their ho&es were burned, their do%s
were shot, their church was to be dis&antled and the lo%s sold to build a pi%%ery. .he
priest $ro& St. LaHare also sold the church bell and statues. )hen con$ronted by
co&&unity &e&bers he said the &oney would not be returned and he was usin% it to
build another church at St. LaHare. .he plan to dis&antle the church was $oiled by 3oe
Venne and other co&&unity &e&bers ar&ed the&selves with ri$les and con$ronted the
crew sent to dis&antle the church thus savin% it. .hey then &oved the $a&ily o$ *aroline
and 3ohn Ver&ette into the buildin% to protect it. ,y 1!6F, the once vital co&&unity had
all but vanished. .oday, all that re&ains o$ Ste. 9adeleine are the stone $oundations o$
the ,elliveau School and the ce&etery encirclin% the &ound o$ %rass where the church
once stood. .he wood $ro& the schoolhouse was salva%ed and now constitutes a &a#or
portion o$ the 8itchen o$ what was the ho&e o$ Ovonne and Bred Le*lerc o$ Victor,
9anitoba.
St, Mary5s, -orta0e la -rairie:
'n 1F"6, with everythin% %oin% well at St Peters 9ission on the Red River, Reverend
)illia& *oc8ran 21!FC1F5"7 le$t with his $a&ily to start a &ission at Porta%e la Prairie.
At the sa&e ti&e about 12 other $a&ilies $ro& 9iddlechurch and St Andrews settled in
Porta%e as &e&bers o$ the $irst St. 9aryGs con%re%ation. .hese people included 3ohn and
.ho&as AndersonN ,aptiste and 3ohn -es&arais and Peter and Si&on )hit$ord. Al&ost
all o$ the %ood river lots alon% the Red and Assiniboine rivers had been ta8en up, and
&any sons and dau%hters o$ the early settlers had to &ove westward alon% the
Assiniboine river with their $a&ilies to $ind $ar&land.
St, -ierre, Manitoba:
.his settle&ent located on the Rat River was an early $ur tradin% location. 't was also a
winterin% location $or cattle $ro& St. (orbert and St. Vital. 't was later rena&ed St.
PierreC3olys in honour o$ the $irst resident priest, Bather 3.9. 3olys. See also the entry
under Rat River.
St, /ital, Manitoba:
.his area was the site o$ early 9etis river lots o$ the boat&en and bu$$alo hunters. A$ter
1F2=, the 9etis population spread south o$ St. ,oni$ace alon% both sides o$ the Red
River. About ei%ht 8ilo&eters south o$ the *athedral the parish o$ St. Vital developed
alon% the broad elbow o$ the Red River. .he 9etis as8ed Archbishop .ache na&ed the
school and parish St. Ale0ander a$ter his own patron Saint but he pre$erred to na&e it St.
Vital in honour o$ au0iliary ,ishop, Rev. Vital 3ulian ;randin. .he ;rey (uns opened a
school in St. Vital in 1F5A. .he &ost $a&ous residents o$ St. Vital were the Riel, (ault
and ,ruce $a&ilies. Qp until 1F"5 these residents attended church at St. ,oni$ace but
subseIuently went to St. (orbert. A s&all school and chapel were established on
=
Septe&ber 12, 1F5A, but there was no resident priest until 1!12. Sister LT>sperance
Oouville was the $irst teacher at the school.
Stony Mountain, Manitoba:
Stony 9ountain, 8nown as <Sna8e 'ndian Hills,1 was a si%ni$icant area $or 9etis and
other settlers see8in% re$u%e $ro& the &any $loods that pla%ued the Red River Valley in
the late 1AA+s and early 1FAA+s. .he (ative tribes had established wellCtraveled paths
throu%h the area that eventually beca&e $ur tradin% and cart trails used by settlers. .he
Baith .rail led $ro& )innipe% to Stony 9ountain, and brou%ht settlers into the re%ion by
o0Cdrawn Red River carts. .he $irst recorded ho&estead in the area was that o$ 3a&es
'sbister, who located in Stony 9ountain in 1FA. ,uildin% upon centuryGs old cart trails,
the railway opened up the re%ion to settle&ent by connectin% .eulon, Stonewall, Stony
9ountain, ;unton and ,al&oral to a direct line to )innipe%.
Swan %ier, Manitoba:
'n 1!A, the H,* had *harles 'sha& 2the $a&ily now called Asha&7 open a post a $ew
&iles upstrea& on the Swan River above its outlet into Swan La8e. 'ts &ain purpose was
to trade $or birch bar8 $or canoeC&a8in%. *uthbert ;rant also built a tradin% post here.
.he na&es o$ the &en operatin% this post re$lect present day 9etis $a&ilies livin% in the
La8e 9anitoba areaU3a&es )hit$ord, )illia& Sebastian, .ho&as Halcrow, )illia&
;arrioch, 3a&es Sutherland, *harles ;oulait, Brancois Houle, Antoine -es#arlais and
,aptiste Lavallee.
Swan %ier House:
)illia& ,ruce tradin% out o$ 9ontreal $irst established a post on the Shoal River outlet o$
Swan La8e. 'n 1F, the ()* &oved in and Robert ;rant built Swan River Bort on the
north ban8 o$ the Shoal River, eleven &iles above Swan La8e. 'n 1!A the H,* sent
*harles 'sha&
2"
, the 9etis son o$ 3a&es 'sha& 2who had been *hie$ Bactor at Oor8
Bactory7 to establish Swan River House oneChal$ &ile above the ()* $ort. As
trade&oved toward the prairies, 'sha& outdistanced the co&petition by establishin%
another post across the short porta%e to the Qpper Assiniboine River, and built 9arlboro
House near the elbow o$ the Assiniboine River. *uthbert ;rant Sr. o$ the ()* in
co&petition built ,ird 9ountain House $i$ty &iles upstrea& $ro& 9arlboro House near
the &outh o$ .hunder *ree8 in 1!6. ,y 1!" the ()* had established posts ne0t to
H,* Swan River House and So&erset House. 'n response to this *harles 'sha& and
Peter Bidler went 1" &iles west o$ this to establish *arlton House. .he Swan River valley
25
*harles .ho&as Price 'sha& 2or Asha&7 was born around 1"=, probably at Oor8 Bactory, the son o$
3a&es 'sha& and Ruehe%an 2*ree Ho&e%uard7. 'n 9ay, 1F! 'sha&: *ontracted as <'nland .rader V
Supervisor o$ *anoes in Swan River6 at ^6A annually plus <pre&iu& on all the &ade ,eaver ' can
procure.1 Bro& 1F! to 1! he was 9aster at Swan River House, 9arlborou%h House 2near Bort Pelly7
and, So&erset House 2near Swan River7. Bro& 1! to 1!! he was at 3ac8 River House south o$
Play%reen La8e on the (elson River. 'n 1F12 he beca&e an interpreter $or the Sel8ir8 Settlers under 9iles
9acdonell at Red River.
"
was trapped out by the late 1!As and the H,* closed Swan River House. However, it
was brie$ly reopened under Peter Bidler in the 1FACAF season.
Tanner5s Crossin0, now Minnedosa, Manitoba:
'n 1F5!, 3ohn .anner built a $erry across the Little Sas8atchewan River on the *arlton
.rail. He also operated a store and post o$$ice at this location. .he area was a centuries
old trappin% and huntin% area $or the bison that wintered at Ridin% 9ountain and &oved
down the valley to the plains in the su&&er. 'n 1F, .anner and 3.S. Ar&ita%e
accu&ulated land and laid out a town site in the river valley. Ar&ita%e chan%ed the na&e
to 9innedosa in 1FF6. 21F6!C1!627
3ohn .anner, the son o$ Reverend 3a&es .anner, was a veteran o$ the A&erican *ivil )ar.
3ohn was born on Au%ust 1, 1F6! at .orch La8e 2Lac du Bla&beau7, )isconsin. 3ohn
had #ust started $ar&in% in .earns *ounty near his ho&e at St. 3oseph when the *ivil )ar
started. 'n Au%ust o$ 1F52 he went to St. *loud to enlist as a private in the Qnion Ar&yGs
(inth Re%i&ent o$ the 9innesota Voluntary 'n$antry. He $ou%ht $or three years be$ore
ta8in% an honourary dischar%e at Bort Snellin% near St. Paul, 9innesota.
)hile he ori%inally lived in 9innesota, $ollowin% the war he $ound that his $a&ily had
&oved across the border and were livin% near Porta%e la Prairie. At the ti&e his $atherGs
hal$ brother, Picheito .anner was an i&portant chie$ o$ the Red La8e tribe located in the
Porta%eC-eltaC)hite Horse Plains area. .hus 3ohn ca&e to 9anitoba around the ti&e o$
his $atherGs death, and with his wi$e *atherine, and his &other, Poopie, too8 up residence
alon% the Little Sas8atchewan River, near the Bort >llice .rail. Here he established a
$erry, post o$$ice, and store at .anners *rossin%. .his was the be%innin% o$ what was to
beco&e the 9anitoba town o$ 9innedosa. -urin% the early 1FFAs, white a%riculturists
$ro& Kntario were populatin% the area around .annerGs *rossin%. Li8e other &i0edC
bloods who were not co&$ortable with this, the .anner $a&ily le$t 9anitoba in 1FF1 to
settle $urther west at Prince Albert. .hey lived there until 1!12. )hen this area beca&e
&ore densely populated with a%riculturists $ro& the >ast, 3ohn .anner a%ain &oved, this
ti&e bac8 to 9anitoba, to the 9etis co&&unity o$ Minosota. He lived there until his
death in 1!62, leavin% no direct descendants.
)hile scoutin% near Bort Abercro&bie in 1F56, 3ohn had sustained a serious rupture and
as a result o$ co&plications he could not $ather children. 'n 1F5!, he &arried *atherine
.rottier, dau%hter o$ 3oseph .rottier o$ St. 9aryGs and the widow o$ H,* Bactor 3ohn
Sinclair.
Turtle Mountains:
.he .urtle 9ountains are located in southwestern 9anitoba and northwestern (orth
-a8ota. .hey were ho&e to &any 9etis. .he abundance o$ %a&e and shelter $ro& the
ele&ents &ade the& a $avorite winterin% spot.
The -as, Manitoba: See entry under Kpas8weyaw.
5
?pper )ort 4arry:
.his was a HudsonGs ,ay *o&pany tradin% post at the $or8s o$ the Red River and
Assiniboine River in the heart o$ present day )innipe%. .he $ort was established in 1F22
near the site o$ the (orth )est *o&pany Bort ;ibraltar established by 3ohn )ills
25
in
1F1A, and destroyed by the H,* on 9arch 1, 1F15 durin% the Pe&&ican )ars. Bort
;arry was na&ed a$ter (icholas ;arry, deputy %overnor o$ the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany.
't served as the ad&inistrative and &ilitary centre o$ $ur trade within RupertGs Land.
'n 1F25, a severe $lood destroyed the $ort. 't was rebuilt in 1F6" by the H,* and na&ed
Qpper Bort ;arry to di$$erentiate it $ro& <the Lower Bort ;arry,1 situated 62 8&
downriverN established in 1F61. .hrou%hout the &idCtoClate 1!th century, Qpper Bort
;arry played a &inor role in the actual tradin% o$ $urs, but was central to the
ad&inistration o$ the H,* and the surroundin% settle&ent. .he *ouncil o$ Assiniboia, an
appointed ad&inistrative and #udicial body o$ the Red River *olony run by Hudson+s ,ay
*o&pany o$$icials, &et at Qpper Bort ;arry.
'n 1F5!, the Hudson+s ,ay *o&pany a%reed to surrender its &onopoly in the (orthC)est,
includin% Qpper Bort ;arry. 'n late 1F5! and early 1FA, the $ort was seiHed by Louis
Riel and the 9etis durin% the Red River Resistance. .he $ort was the site o$ the &eetin%s
o$ the Le%islative Asse&bly o$ Assiniboia in 1FA. .his Asse&bly led by Louis Riel
brou%ht 9anitoba into *on$ederation. 9anitoba is the only province in *anada brou%ht
into *on$ederation by Abri%inal people.
2
A$ter the Resistance, the area around the $ort
continued to %rowN &ainly in what is now 8nown as the >0chan%e -istrict north o$ the
25
3ohn )ills was &arried to *uthbert ;rantGs sister 3osephte ;rant. )ills died on 3anuary 5, 1F1".
2
.he Asse&blyGs elected representatives were F2X 9etis and the population o$ 9anitoba at the ti&e was
F"X 9etis.

present day Porta%e and 9ain intersection. .his district, north o$ the $ort, developed on
the ed%e o$ what were H,* reserve lands. 'n 1F6, the city o$ )innipe% was established
and the na&e Bort ;arry was no lon%er used. 'n 1FF1C1FF= the &a#ority o$ the $ort was
de&olished to strai%hten 9ain Street 2it was at 9ain Street and Assiniboine Avenue7.
Knly the &ain %ate 2below7 o$ the $ort re&ains today, the area has now been desi%nated
as a Provincial Par8 and the <Briends o$ Qpper Bort ;arry1 are raisin% $unds to rebuild
aspects o$ this historic site. .he area o$ )innipe% runnin% alon% the Red River south o$
the ori%inal $ort is called Bort ;arry. .he hotel beside the $ort is called the Bort ;arry
Hotel. 't was ori%inally constructed $or the ;rand .run8 and Paci$ic Railway co&pany.
.he two streets on either side o$ the hotel are Bort Street and ;arry Street.
"eak City, Manitoba: Metis %oad $llowance Community
9etis ;enealo%ist Rose&ary 9orrisetteCRoHy8 who wor8s $or 9anitoba 9etis
Bederation is a descendant o$ the ,ranconnier and 9orrisette $a&ilies who lived at )ea8
*ity. 't was Rose&ary who brou%ht the e0istence o$ this road allowance co&&unity to
our attention.
)ea8 *ity was a 9etis road allowance co&&unity in St. *harles, 9anitoba located close
to the present day Peri&eter Hi%hway brid%e on the west side o$ St. *harles, it had
e0isted there since the 1F2As, located ne0t to a bu$$alo crossin% that later was the site $or
the $erry. 't was situated on what was later surveyed as River Lot 6.
9any 9etis $a&ilies lived here but the pri&ary $a&ilies sIuattin% there were those o$
3ean ,aptiste ,ranconnier and Pierre and Adelaide 9orrissette. .he co&&unity history
F
recorded by the La Bleche $a&ily says4 <9any 9etis $a&ilies lived here, and they wor8ed
$or the surroundin% $ar&ers, especially durin% harvest. So&e o$ the& were $erry&en at
St. *harles.1 ,ranconnier had lived as a sIuatter in a lo% cabin near the river on Lot 6.
3ude LaBleche 2livin% on Lot =7 bou%ht the sIuatters ri%hts to the ,ranconnier property
on part o$ lot 6 in 1FF". ,ranconnier then &oved $urther south on Lot 6. At that ti&e
the 9orrissettes were already livin% there.
Louis LaBleche recalled that old 9rs. 9orrissette re&e&bered the $lood o$ 1F25, when
the only dry areas were ,irdGs Hill, Stony 9ountain and St. *harles. .he 9etis $a&ilies
had livestoc8, chic8ens and pi%s. .hey cut cord wood to supple&ent their inco&e. ,y the
1!=As &ost o$ the 9etis $a&ilies had sold their land and &oved to *harleswood.
"hite Mud %ier Settlement, %at Creek, and Toto0an:
.he 1FA census o$ these co&&unities counted 1"A 9etis residents. )estbourne was $irst
na&ed <)hite 9ud River Settle&ent1, later chan%ed to <)ahputunestee Seepee,1 then
na&ed $or the areaGs $irst &issionary, Reverend 3ohn )est. .he )hite&ud River is a
s&all windin% river in southwest 9anitoba. 't be%ins at the #unction o$ Stony *ree8 and
,o%%y *ree8 in and $lows east to Arden, ;ladstone, )estbourne and enters La8e
9anitoba at LynchGs Point. 'ts total draina%e area is about 2,"AA sIuare &iles
25,"AA 8&
2
7. Kther &a#or strea&s $eedin% the river include the ,i% ;rass River, Pine
*ree8, SIuirrel *ree8, )estbourne -rain and Rat *ree8.
Ale0ander Henry 21!!7 re$erred to it as Rivière .erre ,lanche &eanin% )hite >arth or
9ud River. ;eo%raphic ,oard o$ *anada correspondence $ro& a 9r. ;arrioch o$ Porta%e
la Prairie in 1!A" indicates that )hite 9ud River %ot its na&e $ro& the colour o$ the clay
and soil alon% its ban8s.
'n the 1FAs, .oto%an was a co&&unity at the #unction o$ the )hite&ud River and
)illow ,end *ree8 2$or&erly Rat *ree8 and be$ore that 9us8 Rat *ree87, appro0i&ately
2" 8ilo&etres northwest o$ Porta%e la Prairie and so&e si0 8ilo&etres west o$ La8e
9anitoba.
.oto%an &et the need $or the establish&ent o$ a suitable depot on the southern shore o$
the la8e to process the $all $ishery in bul8 by either dryin%, s&o8in% or saltin%. 't also
provided opportunity $or the ship&ent o$ salt $ro& the salt sprin%s on La8e )innipe%osis
to .oto%an and onward to )innipe%, as well as the &ove&ent o$ li&estone buildin%
&aterial $ro& the north shore to the south shore o$ La8e 9anitoba.
.he site was $irst $reIuented by 'ndian and 9etis hunters and their $a&ilies. .he 9etis
once occupied a s&all villa%e with a church and burial %round on the ban8s o$ Rat *ree8
near .oto%an. 't was once touted by developers as the $uture <(ew *hica%o,1 a title that
was later pinned upon )innipe% by eIually enthusiastic civic boosters. An appreciation
o$ one o$ the drawbac8s o$ the co&&unity co&es $ro& the translation o$ its na&e. Birst
(ations people ori%inally called the place near where the )hite&ud enters La8e
9anitoba at the e0tre&e west side o$ -elta 9arsh, Toto*an"n*, which in >n%lish &eans
<low, swa&py land.1 .his was later An%liciHed as .oto%an. 'n 1FF1, 1FF2 and 1FF6,
!
$loodCwaters rose on La8e 9anitoba and northerly winds drove water over the ban8s o$
the )hite&ud at .oto%an. .he $loodin% inundated so&e buildin%s and caused others to
$loat away. 't was at this ti&e that the lu&ber &ill was abandoned and &any settlers
decided to pull up sta8es and leave while they could.
'acDo"*all7s 8ll"strated 2"ide reported in 1FF2 that .oto%anGs population was #ust 6A,
thou%h it still possessed a saw &ill, a church, a store, a hotel and a post o$$ice. Burther
blows to .oto%an ca&e when a brid%e was built over the )hite&ud River at )estbourne
in 1FF, $ollowed by the arrival o$ the )estbourne and (orthwestern Railway, now the
*PR, in )estbourne in the early 1FFAs. 9ore i&portantly an even bi%%er blow to
.oto%an was when the stea&boat builder Peter 9cArthur established a landin% on the
)hite&ud upstrea& $ro& the villa%e near )estbourne $or his vessels. .he new stea&boat
port %ained a $urther advanta%e when the 9anitoba and (orth )estern Railway built a
spur to 9cArthurGs Landin%. Stea&ers such as the 12"C$oot !as9atche:an built by
9cArthur in 1FF6, &ade their ho&e at 9cArthurGs Landin% and by travellin% down the
)hite&ud to La8e 9anitoba bypassed .oto%an.
"hiteway -oint:
.his point is on the west side o$ the north entrance to the narrows on La8e )innipe%. 't is
na&ed a$ter the HudsonGs ,ay o$$icial who established and was in char%e o$ the H,*
post there. 't is shown this way in HindGs &ap o$ 1F"!. 't is now called )est -o%head
Point.
@ork )actory:
Bro& the 1th throu%h late 1!th century, the depot at Oor8 Bactory and its predecessors
were the central base o$ operations $or the HudsonGs ,ay *o&pany+s control o$ the $ur
trade. Oor8 Bactory is situated on a lowClyin% narrow peninsula that separated the &outh
o$ the Hayes River $ro& that o$ the (elson to the northwest, Oor8 Bactory was built in
15F=.
.he $irst three H,* posts were established on 3a&es ,ay. 'n 15F= Bort (elson
was established at the &outh o$ the (elson River. .he co&pany also built a second $ort
on the Hayes River, na&in% it a$ter the -u8e o$ Oor8. ,etween 1FF and 1!" the
co&pany constructed an octa%onal star $ort o$ stone and bric8 on the site. .he choice o$
&aterial was poor, however, as the stone and bric8 could not stand up to heavin%
per&a$rost, and in 1F61 the stone $ort was raHed. .he threeCstory center section o$ the
current co&pound was co&pleted that sa&e year, with the twoCstory win%s $inished
within the two years that $ollowed.
.he establish&ent o$ these $orts provo8ed a response $ro& (ew Brance via the Hudson
,ay e0pedition o$ 15F5. .he Brench &arched overland $ro& Luebec and captured all the
posts on 3a&es ,ay. -urin% Min% )illia&Gs )ar Brance several ti&es sent a naval $orce
to Hudson ,ay to capture or destroy the $ort. 'n 15!= Pierre Le 9oyne d+'berville
captured the $actory and rena&ed it Bort ,ourbon. >n%lish $orces returned the ne0t year
and retoo8 the $ort $ro& its s&all Brench %arrison. 'n 15!, d+'berville won the ,attle o$
FA
HudsonGs ,ay the lar%est northern naval battle in (orth A&erican history. Bort (elson
was held by the Brench until 116, when it was returned to the ,ritish in the .reaty o$
Qtrect. A$ter 116, the headIuarters was relocated to the current site on the &outh o$ the
Hayes River. .he post was $inally closed in 1!".
>dited and *o&piled by Lawrence ,ar8well
*oordinator o$ 9etis Herita%e and History Research
Louis Riel 'nstitute
F1

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