Ontoseno Penangsang

1)
1) Electrical Department, Sepuluh Nopember of Institute Technology
Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia
 Basic ideas
 The symmetrical components of
unsymmetrical phasors
 Power in terms of symmetrical
components
 Phase shift in A - Y transformer
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 Sequence circuits of a transposed
transmission line
 Sequence circuits of a synchronous
machine
 Sequence circuits of a transformer
 Sequence circuits of loads
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To Introduce the basic ideas associated
with the “symmetrical-component”
transformation and to become familiar with
“sequence” voltages, currents and
networks.
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 Positive-sequence components consisting of three phasors
equal in Magnitude, displaced from each other by 120
o
in
phase, and having the same Phase sequence as the original
phasors (abc),
 Negative-sequence components consisting of three phasors
equal in magnitude, displanced from each other by 120°in
phase, and having the phase sequence opposite to that of the
origina phasors (acb), and
 Zero-sequence components consisting of three phasors equal
in magnitude and with zero phase displacement from each
other.
According to fortescue’s theorem, three unbalanced
phasors of a three-phase System can be resolved into
three balanced system of phasors. The balanced sets of
components are:
BASIC IDEAS
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Positive
Sequence
Negative
Sequence
Zero
Sequence
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OPERATOR “a”
a = 1 Z 120° = -0.5 + j0.866
a
2
= 1 Z 240° = -0.5 – j0.866
a
3
= 1 Z 360° = 1 Z 0° = 1
2
a ÷ a
3
, 1 a ÷ ÷
3
, 1 a
2
a
a ÷
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Positive Sequence
(phase sequence abc)
Negative Sequence
(phase sequence acb)
V
a1
V
b1
= a
2
V
a1
V
c1
= aV
a1
V
a2
V
b2
= aV
a2
V
c2
= a
2
V
a2
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c2 c1 co c
b2 b1 bo b
a2 a1 ao a
V V V V
V V V V
V V V V
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
The Symmetrical Components
of Unsymmetrical Phasors
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Using operator a : a = 1Z120° dan a
2
= 1Z240°= 1Z-120°
a2
2
a1 ao c
a2 a1
2
ao b
a2 a1 ao a
V V V V
V V V V
V V V V
a a
a a
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
a
a
ao
c
b
a
V
V
V
a a
a a
V
V
V
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(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
a a
a a A
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
÷
a a
a a A
2
2
3
1
1
1
1
1 1 1
OR
Transformation Matrix A :
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(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
0
2
2
.
1
1
1 1 1
a
a
a
c
b
a
V
V
V
a a
a a
V
V
V
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

c
b
a
a
a
a
V
V
V
a a
a a
V
V
V
.
1
1
1 1 1
3
1
2
2
2
1
0
V
abc
= A V
012
V
012
= A
-1
V
abc
I
abc
= A I
012
I
012
= A
-1
I
abc
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(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
0
2
2
.
1
1
1 1 1
ab
ab
ab
ca
bc
ab
V
V
V
a a
a a
V
V
V
V
ab bc ca
= A V
ab 012
V
ab 012
= A
-1
V
ab bc ca
I
ab bc ca
= A I
ab 012
I
ab 012
= A
-1
I
ab bc ca
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2
2
1
2 1
2
2 1
a a ao c
a a ao b
a a ao a
I a aI I I
aI I a I I
I I I I
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
I
n
= I
a
+ I
b
+ I
c
I
n
= 3 I
ao
Balanced Wye-Connected 3-phase load :
Wye with solidly
grounded Neutral
c
a
b
g
V
ag
V
bg
V
cg
Z
y
Z
y
Z
y
I
c
I
a
I
b
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Example 1:
Obtain the Symmetrical Components of a set of
unbalanced voltages :
o
c
o
b
o
a
V V V 90 80 90 100 , 0 140 Z = ÷ Z = Z =
Solution :
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( )
o
o o o o
o
o o o o
o
j
a a
j
a a
j j
83 , 147 26 , 6 10 9 , 15
120 90 80 120 90 100 140 V V V V
94 , 1 7 , 98 10 9 , 295
120 90 80 120 90 100 140 V V V V
13 , 8 14 , 47
80 100 140 V V V V
3
1
3
1
c b
2
a
3
1
2
3
1
3
1
c
2
b a
3
1
1
3
1
c b a
3
1
o
Z = + ÷ =
+ Z + ÷ ÷ Z + = + + =
Z = + =
÷ Z + + ÷ Z + = + + =
÷ Z =
+ ÷ = + + =
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Obtain the Symmetrical Components of
unbalanced currents flowing into a delta-
connected load :
A I A I A I
c b a
0 180 10 0 10
0 0
= Z = Z =
( )
( )
( )
c b a a
c b a a
c b a ao
aI I a I I
I a aI I I
I I I I
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
2
2
2
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
a
b
c
° Z = 0 10
a
I
° Z = 180 10
b
I
0 =
c
I
Z Z
Z
I
012
= A
-1
I
abc
Example 2:
Solution :
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( )
( )
( ) A I
A I
I
a
a
ao
0 0 0 0
2
0 0 0 0
1
0 0
30 78 , 5 0 240 180 10 0 10
3
1
30 78 , 5 0 120 180 10 0 10
3
1
0 0 180 10 0 10
3
1
Z = + + Z + Z =
÷ Z = + + Z + Z =
= + Z + Z =
0 0
90 78 , 5 150 78 , 5
90 78 , 5 150 78 , 5
0
2
0
2
0
1
0
1
= =
÷ Z = Z =
Z = ÷ Z =
co bo
c b
c b
I I
A I A I
A I A I
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Power In terms of
Symmetrical Components
S = P + jQ = V
a
I
a
* + V
b
I
b
* + V
c
I
c
*
Where :
V
a
, V
b
, V
c
= phase – neutral voltages
I
a
, I
b
, I
c
= phase currents
| |
I
I
I
V
V
V

I
I
I
V V V S
c
b
a
T
c
b
a
c
b
a
c b a
- -
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
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| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
=
=
=
-
2
1
0
012
2
1
0
012
*
012 012
*
012
T
012
*
abc
I and
: where
I . . . V
A.I A.V
. V S
a
a
a
a
a
a
T
T
abc
T
I
I
I
V
V
V
V
A A
I
| |
-
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
2
1
0
2
2
2
2
2 1 0
1
1
1 1 1
1
1
1 1 1
S
a
a
a
a a a
I
I
I
a a
a a
a a
a a V V V
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| |
*
2
1
0
2 1 0
3 S
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
a
a
a
a a a
I
I
I
V V V
V
a
I
a
* + V
b
I
b
* + V
c
I
c
* =
3V
ao
I
ao
* + 3V
a1
I
a1
* + 3V
a2
I
a2
*
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Given a 3-phase unbalanced voltages and
currents :
| | | |
5
5
5
dan
50
50
0
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
= j I V
abc abc
Find :
a. 3 phase power
b. Symmetrical components of voltage and current,
[V
012
] dan [I
012
]
Example 3:
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a. 3 phase power :
| | | |
| | VA j
I
o
abc
T
45 5534 , 353 250 250
5 -
j5 -
5 -
50 50 0
. V S
*
abc
÷ Z = ÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
=
b. Symmetrical components of voltage and currents :
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
Amp
75 3570 , 2
165 3570 , 2
4 , 153 7268 , 3
5
5
5
1
1
1 1 1

Volt
90 8675 , 28
90 8675 , 28
0 0 . 0
50
50
0
1
1
1 1 1

2
2
3
1
1
012
2
2
3
1
1
012
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ Z
Z
Z
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ Z
Z
Z
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
=
÷
÷
o
o
o
abc
o
o
o
abc
j
a a
a a
I A I
a a
a a
V A V
Solution :
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Phase shift in A - Y transformer
A
C
B
A
C
B
a
c
b
a
c
b
V
A1
leads V
b1
by 30
0
V
A1
lags V
a1
by 30
0
30°
a
b
c
a
b
c
Used here
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A
I
B
I
C
I
A
B
C
b
a
c
bc
I
ca
I
ab
I
b
I
a
I
c
I
N
1
H
2
H
3
H
1
B
1
A
1
C
2
A
1 AB
V
1 BC
V
1 CA
V
1
b
1
c
1
a
1 bc
V
1 ab
V
1 ca
V
2
C
2
B
2 ca
V
2 bc
V
2 ab
V
2
a
2
c
2
b
2 ca
V
2 ab
V
2 bc
V
1 A
V
1 B
V
1 c
V
1 c
V
1 a
V
1 b
V
2 A
V
2 C
V
2 B
V
2 a
V
2 c
V
2 b
V
(a) Diagram hubungan
Urutan positif Urutan negatif
(b) Komponen-komponen tegangan
V
A1
leads V
b1 V
A2
lags V
b2
abc acb
(a) Connection diagram
(b) Voltage components
Positive sequence Negative sequence
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AB
I
BC
I
CA
I
A
I
B
I
C
I
A
B
C
1
H
2
H
3
H
b
a
c
1
X
3
X
2
X
N
b
I
a
I
c
I
1
B
1
C
1
A
1 BC
V
1 AB
V
1 CA
V
1 C
V
1 A
V
1 B
V
2
A
2
C
2
B
2 CA
V
2 AB
V
2 BC
V
2 A
V
2 C
V
2 B
V
1
c
1
a
1
b
1 ca
V
1 bc
V
1 ab
V
1 a
V
1 b
V
1 c
V
2
b
2
a
2
c
2 ab
V
2 bc
V
2 ca
V
2 b
V
2 a
V
2 c
V
(a) Diagram hubungan perkawatan
Urutan positif Urutan negatif
(a) Connection diagram
Positive sequence Negative sequence
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V
a1
= +j V
A1
I
a1
= +j I
A1
V
a2
= -j V
A2
I
a2
= -j I
A2
Phase Shift
V
A1
= -j V
a1
I
A1
= -j I
a1
V
A2
= +j V
a2
I
A2
= +j I
a2
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Three identical Y connected resistors (1.0 0
o
pu) , connected to the
low tension side (Y) of a - Y transformer, the line voltages on
the load (resistor s) are :
A
u p V
ab
. 8 , 0 =
u p V
bc
. 2 , 1 =
u p V
ca
. 0 , 1 =
Neutral of the load is not connected to neutral of secondary side of
the transformer (Y). Find line voltages and currents in the side
(high voltage) of the transformer.
AA
A
u p V
u p V
u p V
ca
bc
ab
. 180 0 , 1
. 4 , 41 2 , 1
. 8 , 82 8 , 0
0
0
0
Z =
÷ Z =
Z =
Z
Solution :
Example 4:
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u p
V
I
a
a
. 6 , 43 985 , 0
0 0 , 1
0
0
1
1
Z =
Z
=
u p
V
I
a
a
. 3 , 250 235 , 0
0 0 , 1
0
0
2
2
Z =
Z
=
. 6 , 73 985 , 0 946 , 0 279 , 0
) 866 , 0 5 , 0 177 , 1 237 , 0 946 , 0 1 , 0 (
) 180 240 0 , 1 4 , 41 120 2 , 1 8 , 82 8 , 0 (
0
3
1
0 0 0 0 0
3
1
1
u p j
j j j
V
ab
Z = + =
+ + + + + =
+ Z + ÷ Z + Z =
u p j
j j j
V
ab
. 3 , 220 235 , 0 152 , 0 179 , 0
) 866 , 0 5 , 0 383 , 0 138 , 1 794 , 0 0 , 1 (
) 180 120 0 , 1 4 , 41 240 2 , 1 8 , 82 8 , 0 (
0
3
1
0 0 0 0 0
3
1
2
Z = ÷ ÷ =
÷ + ÷ ÷ + =
+ Z + ÷ Z + Z =
pu V
an
0 0 0
1
6 , 43 985 , 0 30 6 , 73 985 , 0 Z = ÷ Z =
pu V
an
0 0 0
2
3 , 250 235 , 0 30 3 , 220 235 , 0 Z = + Z =
V
ab 012
= A
-1
V
ab bc ca
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079 , 0 221 , 0 7 , 19 235 , 0
713 , 0 680 , 0 4 , 46 985 , 0
0
2 2
0
1 1
j jV V
j jV V
a A
a A
÷ = ÷ Z = =
÷ = ÷ Z = ÷ =
792 , 0 901 , 0
2 1
j V V V
A A A
÷ = + =
u p. 3 , 41 20 , 1
0
÷ Z =
232 , 0 042 , 0 3 , 100 235 , 0
232 , 0 958 , 0 6 , 193 985 , 0
0
2 2
0
1
2
1
j aV V
j V a V
A B
A B
+ ÷ = Z = =
÷ ÷ = Z = =
0 , 1
2 1
÷ = + =
B B B
V V V
u p. 180 0 , 1
0
Z =
944 , 0 278 , 0 6 , 73 985 , 0
0
1 1
j aV V
A C
+ = Z = =
152 , 0 179 , 0 3 , 220 235 , 0
0
2
2
2
j V a V
A C
÷ ÷ = Z = =
792 , 0 099 , 0
2 1
j V V V
C C C
+ = + =
u p. 9 , 82 8 , 0 ° Z =
V
ABC
= A V
012
V
A0
=0
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pu j j V V V
B A AB
0
6 , 22 06 , 2 792 , 0 901 , 1 0 , 1 792 , 0 901 , 0 ÷ Z = ÷ = + ÷ = ÷ =
u p j j V V V
C B BC
. 8 , 215 355 , 1 792 , 0 099 , 1 792 , 0 099 , 0 0 , 1
0
Z = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ =
u p j
j j V V V
A C CA
. 9 , 116 78 , 1 584 , 1 802 , 0
792 , 0 901 , 0 792 , 0 099 , 0
0
Z = + ÷ =
+ ÷ + = ÷ =
u p I
A
. 3 , 41 20 , 1
0
÷ Z =
u p I
B
. 180 0 , 1
0
Z =
u p I
C
. 9 , 82 80 , 0
0
Z =
I
ABC
= A I
012
I
A1
= -j I
a1
I
A2
= +j I
a2
I
A0
= 0
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.SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF
A TRANSPOSED TRANSMISSION LINE
| | | | | |
| |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
=
cc bb ca
bc bb ba
ac ab aa
abc
abc abc abc
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z
I Z V
: dimana
Zaa = Zbb = Zcc = Zs
Zab = Zba = Zca = Zm
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| | | || |
abc abc abc
I Z V =
| |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
s m m
m s m
m m s
abc
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z
| | | | | | | || || |
012
1 1
I A Z A V A
abc abc
÷ ÷
=
| | | || |
012
1
012
I A Z A V
abc
÷
=
| | | | | || | A Z A Z
abc
1
012
÷
=
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| |
( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
+
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
m s
m s
m s
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
0 0
0 0
0 0 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
22
11
00
012
m s
m s
m s
Z Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
Z
÷ = =
=
÷ = =
=
+ = =
=
22
2
11
1
00
0
impedance sequence negative
impedance sequence positive
2
impedance sequence zero
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V
a0
V
a0
’ V
a1
V
a1

N
0
N
1
Z
0
Z
1
I
a0
I
a1
N
2
V
a2
V
a2

I
a2
Z
2
Sequence Circuits
Zero sequence
circuit
Positive sequence
circuit
Negative sequence
circuit
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(
(
¸
(

¸

+
2
" "
q d
X X
j
Positive sequence impedance : Z
1
= j X
1
X
d
” = sub-transient reactance, or
X
d
’ = transient reactance, or
X
d
= synchronous reactance
Negative sequence impedance : Z
2
= j X
2
For non-salient pole synchronous machine, the sub-transient
reactance is equal to the negative sequence reactance
Zero sequence impedance : Z
0
= j X
0
The value varies and is much less than the positive and negative
sequence impedance
SEQUENCE CIRCUITS of a
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
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Tak Seimbang
Circuit Diagram of a
generator grounded
through a reactance
The phase emfs E
a
, E
b
, E
c
are positive sequence
3-phase positive sequence circuit 1-phase positive sequence circuit
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3-phase negative sequence circuit 1-phase negative sequence circuit
1-phase zero sequence circuit
3-phase zero sequence circuit
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Positive and negative sequence impedances of a transformer
are equal.
The zero sequence impedance is not much different with the
positive and negative sequence impedances, and is asumed
equal to the positive and negative sequence impedances.
Z
0
= Z
1
= Z
2
= Z
transformer
The flow of zero sequence current depends on the winding
connection of the transformer.
SEQUENCE CIRCUITS of a
TRANSFORMER
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Zero sequence
circuits of 3-phase
transformers
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SEQUENCE CIRCUITS of LOADS
Zero sequence
circuits of 3-phase
loads
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GEN. G1: X+ = 0.2 p.u
X- = 0,12 p.u
X0 = 0.06 p.u
GEN. G2: X+ = 0.33 p.u
X- = 0.22 p.u
X0 = 0.066 p.u
TRAFO T1: X+= X- = X0 = 0.2 p.u
T2: X+= X- = X0 = 0.225 p.u
T3: X+= X- = X0 = 0.27 p.u
T4: X+= X- = X0 = 0.16 p.u
LINE L1: X+ = X- = 0.14 p.u
X0 = 0.3 p.u
LINE L2: X+ = X- = 0.2 p.u
X0 = 0.4 p.u
LINE L3: X+ = X- = 0.15 p.u
X0 = 0.2 p.u
LOAD: X+ = X- = 0.9 p.u
X0 = 1.2 p.u
Example 5:
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Rangkaian Urutan Positif
positive sequence circuit
positive sequence
Thevenin circuit
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positive sequence
equivalent reactance
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Negative sequence
circuit
negative sequence
equivalent reactance
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Rangkaian Urutan Nol
zero sequence
equivalent reactance
zero sequence circuit
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Example 6:
positive sequence circuit
negative sequence circuit
zero sequence circuit
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positive sequence
circuit
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negative sequence
circuit
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zero sequence circuit
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 Short Circuit Objectives
 Three phase short circuit
 Single phase short circuit
 Phase to phase to ground short
circuit
 Phase to phase short circuit
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Identifying conditions on sequence
voltages and currents at the fault
Identifying connections of sequence
network to apply those conditions
 Analysis to find the sequence voltage
and currents
Transforming results to obtain phase
voltages and currents
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c f c
b f b
a f a
I Z V
I Z V
I Z V
=
=
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

c
b
a
f
f
f
c
b
a
I
I
I
Z
Z
Z
V
V
V
0 0
0 0
0 0
THREE PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT TO GROUND
THROUGH IMPEDANCE
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(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
÷
f
f
f
f
f
f
Z
Z
Z
A
Z
Z
Z
A Z
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1
012
2 2
1 1
0 0
a f a
a f a
a f a
I Z V
I Z V
I Z V
=
=
=
V
012
= Z
012
.I
012

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Rangkaian Urutan Nol
Rangkaian Urutan Positif
Rangkaian Urutan Negatif
Connection of Thevenin’s equivalents of
the Sequence Circuits
positive sequence circuit
negative sequence circuit
zero sequence circuit
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0
2 2
= =
a a
I V
0
0 0
= =
a a
I V
THREE PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT
TO GROUND
Connection of Thevenin’s equivalents of the Sequence Circuits
zero sequence circuit positive sequence circuit negative sequence circuit
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0
0
=
= =
a
c b
V
I I
SINGLE PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT
TO GROUND
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abc
I A I
1
012
÷
=
a a a a
I I I I
3
1
2 1 0
= = =
012
V A V
abc
=
0
2 1 0
= + + =
a a a a
V V V V
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Series Connection of Thevenin’s
equivalents of the Sequence Circuits
positive sequence circuit
negative sequence circuit
zero sequence circuit
Ontoseno Penangsang
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1
3
a a
I I =
1
3
a f a
I Z V =
a f a a a a
a f a
I Z V V V V
I Z V
= + + =
=
2 1 0
SINGLE PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT
TO GROUND THROUGH IMPEDANCE
1
3
a a
I I =
1
3
a f a
I Z V =
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Series Connection of Thevenin’s
equivalents of the Sequence Circuits
positive sequence circuit
negative sequence circuit
zero sequence circuit
Ontoseno Penangsang
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0
0
= =
=
c b
a
V V
I
PHASE TO PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT
TO GROUND
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abc
V A V
1
012
÷
=
a a a a
V V V V
3
1
2 1 0
= = =
012
I A I
abc
=
0
2 1 0
= + + =
a a a a
I I I I
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I
a1
+
-
v
a1
Z
1 2
Z
0
Z
I
a2
I
a0
+
-
v
a2
+
-
v
a0
1.0
Parallel Connection of Thevenin’s
equivalents of the Sequence Circuits
positive sequence
circuit
negative sequence
circuit
zero sequence
circuit
Ontoseno Penangsang
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) (
0
c b f c b
a
I I Z V V
I
+ = =
=
Z
f
V
a
+
Ia Ib
I c
V
b
+
V
c
+
a
b
c
PHASE TO PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT
TO GROUND THROUGH IMPEDANCE
Ontoseno Penangsang
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} ) ( {
3
1
} ) ( {
3
1
) 2 (
3
1
2
2
2
1
0
b a a
b a a
b a a
V a a V V
V a a V V
V V V
+ + =
+ + =
+ =
) (
1 0
2 1
c b f b a a
a a
I I Z V V V
V V
+ = = ÷
=
) )( ( 2
2 1
2
0 a a a c b
I I a a I I I + + + = +
0 2 1 a a a
I I I ÷ = +
0
3
a c b
I I I = +
0 1 0
3
a f a a b
I Z V V V = ÷ =
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I
a1
+
-
v
a1
Z
1 2
Z
0
Z
I
a2
I
a0
+
-
v
a2
+
-
v
a0
3Z
f
1.0
Parallel Connection of Thevenin’s
equivalents of the Sequence Circuits
positive sequence
circuit
negative sequence
circuit
zero sequence
circuit
Ontoseno Penangsang
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c b
c b
a
V V
I I
I
=
÷ =
=0
I
a
I
b
I
c
V
b
V
c
a
b
c
PHASE TO PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT
Ontoseno Penangsang
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( )
( )
( )
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
3 3
1
3 3
1
0
3
1
a c c b a a
c c b a a
c b a ao
I I
a a
aI I a I I
I
a a
I a aI I I
I I I I
÷ =
÷
= + + =
÷
= + + =
= + + =
2
2
1
} ) ( {
3
1
a c a a
V V a a V V = + + =
0
0
= ¬
a
V
Ontoseno Penangsang
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I
a1
+
-
v
a1
Z
1 2
Z
I
a2
+
-
v
a2
1.0
Parallel Connection of Thevenin’s
equivalents of the Sequence Circuits
positive sequence
circuit
negative sequence
circuit
Ontoseno Penangsang
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c f c b
I Z V V ÷ =
Z
f
V
a
+
Ia Ib
I c
V
b
+
V
c
+
a
b
c
PHASE TO PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT
THROUGH IMPEDANCE
Ontoseno Penangsang
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1
2
3
a f c b
I
a a
Z V V
÷
÷ =
0
0
0
0
=
=
a
a
V
I
( )
( )
c b a a
c b a a
aV V a V V
V a aV V V
+ + =
+ + =
2
2
2
1
3
1
3
1
c b a a
V a a V a a V V ) (
3
1
) (
3
1
2 2
2 1
÷ + ÷ = ÷
1
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
) (
3
1
) (
3
1
a f c a f c a a
I Z V a a I Z
a a
a a
V a a V V = ÷ +
÷
÷
÷ ÷ = ÷
1 2 1
1 2
a f a a
a a
I Z V V
I I
+ =
÷ =
Ontoseno Penangsang
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I
a1
+
-
v
a1
Z
1 2
Z
I
a2
+
-
v
a2
1.0
f
Z
Parallel Connection of Thevenin’s
equivalents of the Sequence Circuits
positive sequence
circuit
negative sequence
circuit
Ontoseno Penangsang
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0.03
4
G1
T1
1 2
TL 12
TL 13
TL 23
3
T2
0.03
5
G2
ITEM
MVA
RATING
VOLTAGE
RATING
X
1
(pu) X
2
(pu)
X
0
(pu)
G1
G2
T1
T2
TL12
TL23
TL13
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
25 KV
13.8 KV
25/230 KV
13.8/230 KV
230 KV
230 KV
230 KV
0.2
0.2
0.05
0.05
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.05
0.05
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.3
0.3
0.3
25 kV
13.8 kV
230 kV
Example 7:
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MVA Base 100 MVA
KV Base :
25 KV I
B
= = 2310 A
230 KV I
B
= = 231 A
13.8 KV I
B
= = 4184 A
3 025 . 0
100
3 23 . 0
100
3 0138 . 0
100
Short circuits occur at bus 3.
Calculate currents and voltages at bus 3
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0.09
0.05 0.05
0.3 0.3
0.3 0.05 0.05
0.09
1 2
3
5 4
0.2
0.05
0.1 0.1
0.1 0.05 0.2
1 2
3
5 4
1
0
0
1 0
0
+
-
+
-
+
-
V
1
0.2 0.05
0.1 0.1
0.1 0.05 0.2
1 2
3
5 4
positive sequence
circuit
negative sequence
circuit
zero sequence
circuit
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0.1
0.3 0.3
0.3
0.19 0.05
0.1
0.1
0.19 0.19
0.199
0.175
0.1 0.1
0.1
0.25 0.25
0.25
0.0333
0.0333
0.25
0.2833
0.2833
0.0333
0.0333
Zero sequence
Thevenin’s equivalent reactance
Positive/negative sequence
Thevenin’s equivalent reactance
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1
+
3
0.175
-
V
I
1
0
0
1
+
-
0
+
3
0.199
-
V
I
0
2
+
3
0.175
-
V
I
2
Zero sequence
Thevenin’s equivalent circuit
Positive sequence
Thevenin’s equivalent circuit
Negative sequence
Thevenin’s equivalent circuit
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0
2 2 0 0
= = = = I V I V
71 . 5
175 . 0
0 1
0
1
j
j
I ÷ =
Z
=
0
1
= V
THREE PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT
TO GROUND
Ontoseno Penangsang
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(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1 1 1
2
2
a a
a a
V
V
V
c
b
a
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

Z
Z
÷ Z
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

0
0
0
2
2
30 71 . 5
150 71 . 5
90 71 . 5
0
71 . 5
0
1
1
1 1 1
j
a a
a a
I
I
I
c
b
a
Phase currents at bus 3 :
Phase voltages at bus 3 :
Ontoseno Penangsang
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(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

0
0
46 . 5
82 . 1
82 . 1
82 . 1
1
1
1 1 1
2
2
j
j
j
j
a a
a a
I
I
I
c
b
a
82 . 1
175 . 0 175 . 0 199 . 0
0 1
0
2 0
1
j
j j j
I I I
÷ =
+ +
Z
= = =
0
+
0.199
-
V
I
0
1
+
0.175
-
V
I
1
2
+
0.175
-
V
I
2
1 0
0
+
-
Phase currents from bus 3 to ground :
SINGLE PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT
TO GROUND
Ontoseno Penangsang
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681 . 0 ) 82 . 1 ( 175 . 0 1
1
= ÷ ÷ = j j V
362 . 0 ) 82 . 1 ( 199 . 0
0
÷ = ÷ ÷ = j j V
319 . 0 ) 82 . 1 ( 175 . 0
2
÷ = ÷ ÷ = j j V
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

Z
Z =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

0
0
2
2
122 022 . 1
238 022 . 1
0
319 . 0
681 . 0
362 . 0
1
1
1 1 1
a a
a a
V
V
V
c
b
a
Electric Power Systems L4 - Olof
Samuelsson
Phase voltages at bus 3 :
Ontoseno Penangsang
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82 . 1 j I
f
÷ =
91 . 0
2
1
2
1
j
I I I
f
÷ =
= =
62 . 0 ) 82 . 1 (
15 . 0 29 . 0
15 . 0
0
j j I ÷ = ÷
+
=
0.2
0.05
0.1 0.1
0.1 0.05 0.2
1 2
3
5 4
1 0
0
1 0
0
+
-
0.2 0.05
0.1 0.1
0.1 0.05 0.2
1 2
5
4
3
+
-
0.05 0.05
0.3 0.3
0.3 0.05 0.05
1 2
3
4 5
0.09
I
0
I
1
I
2
0.09
+
-
+
-
+
-
V
0
V
2
V
1
I
1
Currents and voltages at
bus 4 (Generator G1) :
Zero, positive and negative
sequence currents at bus 4 :
Ontoseno Penangsang
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(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ Z
+ Z
÷ Z
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

0
0
0
2
2
90 29 . 0
90 29 . 0
90 44 . 2
91 . 0
91 . 0
62 . 0
1
1
1 1 1
j
j
j
a a
a a
I
I
I
c
b
a
087 . 0 ) 14 . 0 )( 62 . 0 (
0
÷ = ÷ ÷ = j j V
818 . 0 ) 91 . 0 ( 2 . 0 1
1
= ÷ ÷ = j j V
182 . 0 ) 91 . 0 ( 2 . 0
2
÷ = ÷ ÷ = j j V
Phase currents from Generator G1 :
Phase voltages at Generator G1 terminals :
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

Z
Z
Z
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

0
0
0
2
2
115 956 . 0
245 956 . 0
0 549 . 0
182 . 0
818 . 0
087 . 0
1
1
1 1 1
a a
a a
V
V
V
c
b
a
Zero, positive and negative sequence voltages at bus 4 :
Ontoseno Penangsang
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1<0
0
0.199
0.175
0.175
+
-
v
0
+
-
+
-
v
1
v
2
73 . 3
199 . 0 175 . 0
) 199 . 0 ( 175 . 0
175 . 0
0 1
1
j
j j
j j
j
I ÷ =
+
+
Z
=
75 . 1 ) 73 . 3 (
199 . 0 175 . 0
175 . 0
0
j j I + = +
+
=
99 . 1 ) 73 . 3 (
199 . 0 175 . 0
199 . 0
2
j j I + = +
+
=
PHASE TO PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT
TO GROUND
Ontoseno Penangsang
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(
(
(
¸
(

¸

Z
Z =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

0
0
2
2
9 . 27 60 . 5
1 . 152 60 . 5
0
99 . 1
75 . 3
75 . 1
1
1
1 1 1
j
j
j
a a
a a
I
I
I
c
b
a
348 . 0
) 199 . 0 )( 75 . 1 (
2 1 0
=
÷ = = = j j V V V
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

0
0
042 . 1
348 . 0
348 . 0
348 . 0
1
1
1 1 1
2
2
a a
a a
V
V
V
c
b
a
Phase currents from bus 3 to ground :
Phase voltages at bus 3 :
Ontoseno Penangsang
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(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

95 . 4
95 . 4
0 . 0
86 . 2
86 . 2
0
1
1
1 1 1
2
2
j
j
a a
a a
I
I
I
c
b
a
0 1Z
0.199
0.175
0.175
I
0
I
1
I
2
I
0
V
1
V
2
V
+
-
+
+
-
-
68 . 2
175 . 0 175 . 0
0 1
0
2 1
j
j j
I I ÷ =
+
Z
= ÷ =
0
0
= I
Phase currents at bus 3 :
PHASE TO PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT
Ontoseno Penangsang
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(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

5 . 0
5 . 0
0 . 1
5 . 0
5 . 0
0
1
1
1 1 1
2
2
a a
a a
V
V
V
c
b
a
5 . 0 ) 175 . 0 (
1 2 1
= = = j I V V
0
0
= V
Phase voltages at bus 3 :
Ontoseno Penangsang
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