ANGLES FORMED BY TRANSVERSALS

Angles formed by a Transversal with Two lines
Let us know what we mean by a transversal. Look at figure 3-32 (i)

Here, lines l and m lie in the same plane. Line PQ intersects line l at L and line m at M. M and N are different points. In the figure, line PQ is called transversal intersecting the lines l and m . Thus, a line that intersects two or more lines in a plane at distinct point is called a transversal. On observing figure 3-32 (ii), line p intersects line l , m and n at distinct points P, Q and R respectively. Therefore, line p is a transversal to the lines l , m and n . But in figure 3-32 (iii) none of the three lines is a transversal to the other two because they do not intersect at distinct points.

Classification of Angles formed by a Transversal
suu r In figure 3-33, transversal PQ intersects lines l and m in two distinct points A and suu r B respectively. The transversal PQ makes four angles with line l and as many angles with line m . To simplify the process, they have been named as ∠1, ∠2, ∠3, ∠4, ∠5, ∠6, ∠7 and ∠8 in the figure.

These angles have been classified in the following groups: 1. Exterior Angles: The angles whose arms do not include the line segment AB are called exterior angles. In figure 3-33, ∠1, ∠2, ∠7 and ∠8 are exterior angles. 2. Interior Angles: The angles whose arms contain the line segment AB are called interior angles. In figure 3-33, ∠3, ∠4, ∠5 and ∠6 are interior angles. ∠3 and ∠6 are on the same side of the transversal. These angles are called interior angles on the same side of the transversal. These angles are also called consecutive interior angles. Thus ∠4 and ∠5 are the angles on the same side of the transversal and hence, consecutive interior angles.

3. Alternate Angles: In figure 3-33 out of the angles ∠3, ∠4, ∠5 and ∠6 two suu r angles, ∠3 and ∠4 are the opposite sides of the transversal PQ and form a linear suu r pair ∠3 and ∠5 are also on the opposite side of the transversal PQ , but they do not form a linear pair. Here, ∠3 and ∠5 are called alternate interior angles or simply alternate angles. So, we conclude; if a transversal intersects two lines, lying in the same plane, a pair of interior angles which do not form a linear pair and are on the opposite side of the transversal is called a pair of alternate angles. We also have the pairs ∠2 and ∠8 , ∠1 and ∠7 in figure 3-33, these are known as alternate exterior angles. 4. Corresponding Angles: In figure 3-33, we find that ∠2 and ∠6 , are on the same side of the transversal and do not forma linear pair. Such pair of angles is called corresponding angles. Thus, we conclude. If a transversal interests two lines, lying in the same plane, a pair of interior and exterior angles which do not form a linear pair and are on the same side of the transversal is called a pair of corresponding angles. In figure 3-33, there are four pairs of corresponding angles, namely ∠2 and ∠6 , ∠3 and ∠7 , ∠1 and ∠5 ,and ∠4 and ∠8 .

Angles formed by a Transversal to two parallel lines

If a transversal intersects two or more parallel lines in a plane, by measurement of angles using a protractor, we find that: 1. Pairs of alternate interior/exterior angles have equal degree measures. 2. Pairs of corresponding angles have equal degree measures.

3. Interior/Exterior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary, that is, the sum of the measures of interior/exterior angles on the same side of the transversal is 180o . It should be noted that if two lines are intersected by a transversal and any of the properties (1) to (3) mentioned above holds good, then the lines are parallel.

---------------------------------------------------