CARDIAC MUSCLES

This is found only in the heart. IT IS STRIATED AND INVOLUNTARY, the fibers are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasma , more mitochondria, and less well developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. The end of the cells and their branches are in close contact with each other forming “intercalated discs” which are observed as thicker and darker lines.

MUSCLE FATIGUE How long can the muscle be maintained in a prolonged contracted state depends upon the ability of muscle to supply energy to the contractile protein (actin and myosin) in the form ATP. As the energy supply of the muscle is reduced, the force of contraction decreases and eventually falls to zero. This drop in the force of contraction after prolonged stimulation is known as muscle fatigue. A muscle is able to contract for a short time in the absence of oxygen as it can use energy due to breakdown of ATP present in the muscle and from ATP resynthesized from ADP by CP. Therefore, if muscle are deprived of O2 , the metabolic products of glycolysis , mainly lactic acid , accumulate and are not reconverted into glycogen or oxidized due to insufficient oxygen supply . The accumulation of lactic acid leads to the muscle fatigue due to the exhaustion of its energy reserve and pain is experienced in the fatigued muscle. MUSCLE TONE A sustained, partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle in response to activation of stretch receptors.

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