# Card # 10 Gravitational force

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The force of attraction acting between two bodies due to their masses is called the Gravitational Force. Gravitational force always acts towards the center of the planet.

Newton’s law of Universal Gravitation:
In the universe all bodies attract each other due to their masses. Force of attraction between two bodies is always directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. If the masses of the two bodies are m1 and m2

The distance between them is d Then the Gravitational force = F m1m2 F 1/ (d2) F = (G m1m2)/d2 Here G is the universal gravitational constant. G is called universal gravitational constant because it remains the same at all places and at all times. G is also independent of shape, size and the nature of the medium between the two bodies. The nature of Gravitational force: 1) Gravitational force is a mutual interaction force. The force acts along the line joining the center of the masses and both the bodies apply the same force on each other. 2) It is very less of common bodies, but considerable for heavenly bodies. 3) Gravitational force is the weakest force in nature. 4) Gravitational force is central and conservative. Vector form of Gravitational force: If the force on A by B is = [(Gm1m2)/r2 = [(Gm1m2)/r2 The force on B by A is Hence = (Gm1m2)/r2]

Forces are equal in magnitude but acting in opposite directions. Gravitational Potential: Gravitational Potential at any point in the Gravitational field is the amount of work done in bringing a unit mass from infinity to that point. It is always negative as work is done against gravity. It is a scalar quantity. Gravitational potential = V = - (GM)/r Gravitational potential Gravitational Potential energy:

Gravitational Potential energy at any point in the Gravitational field is the amount of work done in bringing a mass (m) from infinity to that point. It is always negative as work is done against gravity. It is a scalar quantity. Gravitational potential energy =V Intensity of gravitational field at a distance r(r>R) Relation between gravitational potential and intensity of gravitational field