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Inter Molecular Forces

Inter Molecular Forces


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Card # 20 Intermolecular forces

A matter is made of molecules which attract each other due to intermolecular forces.

Note: Cohesive force is greater for solids (definite shape) lesser for liquids and negligible for gases. - When adhesive force is greater than cohesive force for a pair of liquid- solid, then the liquid wets the solid. For example: Water wets the glass. - When adhesive force is less than cohesive force for a liquid-solid pair, then the liquid does not wet the solid. For example: Mercury does not wet the glass. Surface Tension “The free surface of a liquid is always in a state of tension and has a tendency to occupy minimum possible area. This property because of which the liquid surface behaves like a stretched membrane is called Surface Tension.” Molecular Theory of Surface Tension

The maximum distance up to which the cohesive force between two molecules is effective is called the molecular range. With the molecule as centre if we draw a sphere of radius equal to the molecular range, then this molecule will attract all other molecules falling in this sphere. The molecules outside this sphere have no influence on the molecule. This sphere is called the sphere of influence. Molecule A is completely inside the liquid. Therefore this molecule will be attracted by other molecules equally in all directions. As a result the net cohesive force acting on this molecule is zero. In case of the molecule B half of its sphere of influence lays outside the liquid the half inside it. The lower hemisphere is filled with the liquid molecules. Therefore a net cohesive force acts on the molecule B perpendicular to the surface towards the interior of the liquid. Thus a maximum downward force acts on each other molecule situated in the liquid surface. As we go inside the liquid the force decreases and ultimately at a depth equal to the

molecular range it becomes zero. The portion of the liquid from the surface to the depth equal to the molecular range is called Surface Film. A liquid arranges them in such a way that they have the minimum potential energy. Thus under the force of surface tension a liquid will have the smallest possible surface area. The amount of potential energy (work done in bringing a liquid molecule from the interior to the surface film, against the downward attraction force) stored in the unit area of the surface of a liquid is called its surface energy.

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