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AC Drives Technical Guide Book

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This is the first AC Drives Technical Guide Book, a complete set of ABB's Technical Guides 1-8. We wish that the accumulated knowledge of world's leading AC Drives manufacturer will work for your benefit. The aim of this book is to provide you a solid tool for every day use in the arena of AC drives. Best regards,

Mika Kulju Product Management We updated existing Guides over time, so the latest versions and new Technical Guides can be found from our web site: http://www.abb.com/motors&drives

AC Drives Technical Guide Book

AC Drives Technical Guide Book

Contents
1. Direct Torque Control explains what DTC is; why and how it has evolved; the basic theory behind its success; and the features and benefits of this new technology. 2. EU Council Directives and Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems is to give a straightforward explanation of how the various EU Council Directives relate to Power Drive Systems. 3. EMC Compliant Installation and Configuration for a Power Drive System assists design and installation personnel when trying to ensure compliance with the requirements of the EMC Directive in the user's systems and installations when using AC Drives. 4. Guide to Variable Speed Drives describes basics of different variable speed drives (VSD) and how they are used in industrial processes. 5. Bearing Currents in Modern AC Drive Systems explains how to avoid damages.

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6. Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives describes harmonic distortion, its sources and effect, and also distortion calculation and evaluation with special attention to the methods for reducing harmonics with AC drives. 7. Dimensioning of a Drives system. Making dimensioning correctly is the fastest way of saving money. Biggest savings can be achieved by avoiding very basic mistakes. These dimensioning basics and beyond can be found in this guide. 8. Electrical Braking describes the practical solutions available in reducing stored energy and transferring stored energy back into electrical energy.

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AC Drives Technical Guide Book

AC Drives Technical Guide Book

the world's most advanced AC drive technology .Technical Guide No. 1 Direct Torque Control .

Direct Torque Control .1.2 Technical Guide No.

............ 11 AC Drives ............................ 5 Evolution of Direct Torque Control .....................................................1.............................. 5 Using this Guide ...................................Introduction .......................... 29 Step 6 Speed Controller ..... 15 Performance ............... 28 Speed Control .............................................................................................................. 27 Step 2 Adaptive Motor Model . 5 This Manual’s Purpose .................................................................. 22 Basic Control Theory ............................... 12 Comparison of Variable Speed Drives ..................................................................................................................................................................... 27 Step 3 Torque Comparator and Flux Comparator 28 Step 4 Optimum Pulse Selector .... 7 Drawbacks ................................................ 13 Questions and Answers ........ 26 Torque Control Loop..... 15 General ......................... 12 Controlling Variables ...................................Contents 1 Introduction ................................. 5 General ............. 7 Advantages .......Flux Vector Control using PWM ............... 8 AC Drives ......................................................................... 16 Operation ........................... 29 Step 5 Torque Reference Controller ......................................................................................................................................................... 10 Features....................... 9 Features.......... 10 AC Drives ..............................Direct Torque Control .......... 30 1 2 3 4 5 Technical Guide No..................................... 8 AC Drives ........................................... 29 Step 7 Flux Reference Controller ............................................... 10 Drawbacks .................. 11 Drawbacks ..... 27 Step 1 Voltage and Current Measurements ................................................................................. 10 Advantages . 6 DC Motor Drives ...................................................................................................................................................Frequency Control using PWM .............. 26 How DTC Works ....................... 7 Features...................................................................................................................... 6 What is a Variable Speed Drive? ...................... 9 Advantages ...Direct Torque Control 3 ................. 6 Summary .......................... 29 Index .....................

4 Technical Guide No.Direct Torque Control .1.

this guide does require a basic understanding of AC motor control principles. air conditioning and other industries.Chapter 1 . chemical. power generation.or DTC . purchasing managers. and the features and benefits of this new technology. pulp and paper. in all markets such as the water. OEMs and end-users. specifiers. operation and application potential. anyone using variable speed drives (VSD) and who would like to benefit from VSD technology will find this Technical Guide essential reading. In fact. turn to page 26. please go straight to Chapter 3 (page 15) Questions & Answers. 1 Using this guide This guide has been designed to give a logical build up as to why and how DTC was developed.1. the basic theory behind its success. Readers wanting to know the evolution of drives from early DC techniques through AC to DTC should start at Chapter 2 (page 6). material handling. For those readers wanting answers about DTC’s performance. The purpose of this Technical Guide is to explain what DTC is. For an understanding of DTC’s Basic Control Theory. Technical Guide No. why and how it has evolved.is the most advanced AC drive technology developed by any manufacturer in the world. While trying to be as practical as possible. It is aimed at decision makers including designers.Direct Torque Control 5 .Introduction General This manual’s purpose Direct Torque Control .

DC motors were used as VSDs because they could easily achieve the required speed and torque without the need for sophisticated electronics. Summary In this section we look at the evolution of DTC. charting the four milestones of variable speed drives. while using rugged. PWM AC Drives. leading to a total picture that identifies the key differences between each. control these quantities. the evolution of AC variable speed drive technology has been driven partly by the desire to emulate the excellent performance of the DC motor. namely: • • • • DC Motor Drives AC Drives.Chapter 2 . the torque is determined by the load. frequency control. either one of them is controlled and we speak of “torque control” or “speed control”. Likewise. Energy is supplied to the process through the motor shaft. such as fast torque response and speed accuracy. Direct Torque Control 7 9 10 12 We examine each in turn. When the VSD operates in torque control mode. inexpensive and maintenance free AC motors. Initially. In practice. 6 Technical Guide No. To control the flow of energy we must therefore. when operated in speed control. Two physical quantities describe the state of the shaft: torque and speed. the speed is determined by the load. PWM AC Drives. flux vector control. ultimately.Evolution of Direct Torque Control What is a variable speed drive? To understand the answer to this question we have to understand that the basic function of a variable speed drive (VSD) is to control the flow of energy from the mains to the process. However.1.Direct Torque Control .

This condition. is needed to generate maximum torque. Technical Guide No.are controlled directly through armature current: that is the torque is the inner control loop and the speed is the outer control loop (see Figure 1).1. DC drives were used for variable speed control because they could easily achieve a good torque and speed response with high accuracy.Evolution of Direct Torque Control DC Motor Drives 1 Figure 1: Control loop of a DC Motor Drive Features • Field orientation via mechanical commutator • Controlling variables are Armature Current and Field Current. The advantage of DC drives is that speed and torque . known as field orientation. The commutator-brush assembly ensures this condition is maintained regardless of the rotor position.Direct Torque Control 7 . measured DIRECTLY from the motor • Torque control is direct In a DC motor. the DC motor’s torque is easily controlled by varying the armature current and by keeping the magnetising current constant. the magnetic field is created by the current through the field winding in the stator. This field is always at right angles to the field created by the armature winding.the two main concerns of the end-user . Once field orientation is achieved. Advantages • Accurate and fast torque control • High dynamic speed response • Simple to control Initially.

the fact that brushes and commutators wear down and need regular servicing. 8 Technical Guide No. the total inductance and resistance in the armature circuit) • Simple . such as fast torque response and speed accuracy. since this is determined only by the rotor’s electrical time constant (i. AC Drives Introduction • • • • • • Small size Robust Simple in design Light and compact Low maintenance Low cost The evolution of AC variable speed drive technology has been partly driven by the desire to emulate the performance of the DC drive.1. that DC motors can be costly to purchase. • Rapid . Drawbacks • • • • Reduced motor reliability Regular maintenance Customer Motor costly to purchase Location Needs encoder for feedback Application Equipment Supplied The main drawback of this technique is the reduced reliability of the DC motor. and that they require encoders for speed and position feedback. Hence. the motor’s mechanics are more complex and require regular maintenance. while utilising the advantages offered by the standard AC motor. which would increase the cost of the motor controller. While a DC drive produces an easily controlled torque from zero to base speed and beyond. the drive system can have a very high dynamic speed response.torque control is fast. Torque can be changed instantaneously if the motor is fed from an ideal current source. there is no need for complex electronic control circuitry. A voltage fed drive still has a fast response.field orientation is achieved using a simple mechanical device called a commutator/brush assembly.Direct Torque Control .e.the motor torque is proportional to the armature current: the torque can thus be controlled directly and accurately.Evolution of Direct Torque Control A DC machine is able to produce a torque that is: • Direct .

Direct Torque Control 9 . Such an arrangement. The inverter controls the motor in the form of a PWM pulse train dictating both the voltage and frequency. without a feedback device. the AC drive frequency control technique uses parameters generated outside of the motor as controlling variables. This technique is called Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and utilises the fact that there is a diode rectifier towards the mains and the intermediate DC voltage is kept constant.Evolution of Direct Torque Control AC Drives frequency control using PWM 1 Figure 2: Control loop of an AC Drive with frequency control using PWM Features • • • • • Controlling variables are Voltage and Frequency Simulation of variable AC sine wave using modulator Flux provided with constant V/f ratio Open-loop drive Load dictates torque level Unlike a DC drive.1. Significantly. this method does not use a feedback device which takes speed or position measurements from the motor’s shaft and feeds these back into the control loop. Technical Guide No. is called an “open-loop drive”. Both voltage and frequency reference are fed into a modulator which simulates an AC sine wave and feeds this to the motor’s stator windings. namely voltage and frequency.

the technique uses a modulator which basically slows down communication between the incoming voltage and frequency signals and the need for the motor to respond to this changing signal.simulates DC drive • Motor electrical characteristics are simulated . The status of the rotor is ignored.“Motor Model” • Closed-loop drive • Torque controlled INDIRECTLY 10 Technical Guide No.Evolution of Direct Torque Control Advantages • Low cost • No feedback device required . such as pumps and fans. Therefore.simple Because there is no feedback device.Direct Torque Control . AC Drives flux vector control using PWM Figure 3: Control loop of an AC Drive with flux vector control using PWM Features • Field-oriented control . torque cannot be controlled with any degree of accuracy. Furthermore. frequency and voltage are the main control variables and are applied to the stator windings. the controlling principle offers a low cost and simple solution to controlling economical AC induction motors. This type of drive is suitable for applications which do not require high levels of accuracy or precision. sometimes known as Scalar Control.1. meaning that no speed or position signal is fed back. Drawbacks • • • • Field orientation not used Motor status ignored Torque is not controlled Delaying modulator used With this technique. field orientation of the motor is not used. Instead.

a modulator is used. Torque. Firstly. which are the controlling variables. the flux-vector drive needs to know the spatial angular position of the rotor flux inside the AC induction motor. a feedback device is required. Drawbacks • Feedback is needed • Costly • Modulator needed To achieve a high level of torque response and speed accuracy. therefore. Also. which slows down communication between the incoming voltage and frequency signals and the need for the motor to respond to this changing signal. information about the rotor status is obtained by feeding back rotor speed and angular position relative to the stator field by means of a pulse encoder. current and frequency. the drive is electrically complex.Direct Torque Control 11 . to perform the field orientation process. giving it a performance very close to that of a DC drive. field orientation is achieved by electronic means rather than the mechanical commutator/ brush assembly of the DC motor. and feeds these through a modulator to the AC induction motor. Although the motor is mechanically simple. 1 Advantages • • • • Good torque response Accurate speed control Full torque at zero speed Performance approaching DC drive Flux vector control achieves full torque at zero speed. This can be costly and also adds complexity to the traditional simple AC induction motor. A drive that uses speed encoders is referred to as a “closed-loop drive”. is controlled INDIRECTLY.Evolution of Direct Torque Control To emulate the magnetic operating conditions of a DC motor.1. Also the motor’s electrical characteristics are mathematically modelled with microprocessors used to process the data. With flux vector PWM drives. i. The electronic controller of a flux-vector drive creates electrical quantities such as voltage.e. Technical Guide No.

1. 12 Technical Guide No. field orientation is achieved without feedback using advanced motor theory to calculate the motor torque directly and without using modulation. DTC uses the fastest digital signal processing hardware available and a more advanced mathematical understanding of how a motor works.Evolution of Direct Torque Control AC Drives Direct Torque Control Figure 4: Control loop of an AC Drive using DTC Controlling Variables With the revolutionary DTC technology developed by ABB.Direct Torque Control . The controlling variables are motor magnetising flux and motor torque. With DTC there is no modulator and no requirement for a tachometer or position encoder to feed back the speed or position of the motor shaft. The dynamic speed accuracy of DTC drives will be 8 times better than any open loop AC drives and comparable to a DC drive that is using feedback. The result is a drive with a torque response that is typically 10 times faster than any AC or DC drive. The remaining sections in this guide highlight the features and advantages of DTC. DTC produces the first “universal” drive with the capability to perform like either an AC or DC drive.

Direct Torque Control 13 . But DTC has added benefits including no feedback device is used. and no external excitation is needed. 1 Figure 1: Control loop of a DC Drive Figure 2: Control loop with frequency control Figure 3: Control loop with flux vector control Figure 4: Control loop of an AC Drive using DTC The first observation is the similarity between the control block of the DC drive (Figure 1) and that of DTC (Figure 4). Table 1: Comparison of control variables Technical Guide No.1.Evolution of Direct Torque Control Comparison of variable speed drives Let us now take a closer look at each of these control blocks and spot a few differences. all the benefits of an AC motor (see page 8). Both are using motor parameters to directly control torque.

with PWM drives control is handled inside the electronic controller and not inside the motor. Also with DTC. With PWM AC drives. the dynamic performance is fast and easy. the controlling variables are frequency and voltage which need to go through several stages before being applied to the motor. both DC Drives and DTC drives use actual motor parameters to control torque and speed. no tachometer or encoder is needed to feed back a speed or position signal.Evolution of Direct Torque Control As can be seen from Table 1. Thus. Comparing DTC (Figure 4) with the two other AC drive control blocks (Figures 2 & 3) shows up several differences. for most applications. the main one being that no modulator is required with DTC.1. Thus.Direct Torque Control . 14 Technical Guide No.

• Less down time which means a drive that will not trip unnecessarily. That is a truly “universal” drive. What is the advantage of this? Because torque and flux are motor parameters that are being directly controlled. there is no need for a modulator. DTC also provides precise torque control without the need for a feedback device.Chapter 3 . Why is there a need for another AC drive technology? DTC is not just another AC drive technology. and a drive which is not greatly affected by interferences like harmonics and RFI.is the very latest AC drive technology developed by ABB and is set to replace traditional PWM drives of the open.or DTC as it is called . For example. DC or servo. Industry is demanding more and existing drive technology cannot meet these demands. but contrary to the way in which traditional PWM drives use input frequency and voltage. industry wants: • Better product quality which can be partly achieved with improved speed accuracy and faster torque control. • Fewer products. DTC is the first technology to control the “real” motor control variables of torque and flux. a drive that is not complicated by expensive feedback devices. Why is it called Direct Torque Control? Direct Torque Control describes the way in which the control of torque and speed are directly based on the electromagnetic state of the motor. to control the frequency and voltage.Questions & Answers General What is Direct Control? Direct Torque Control . • A comfortable working environment with a drive that produces much lower audible noise. cuts out the middle man and dramatically speeds up the response of the drive to changes in required torque. This. 1 Technical Guide No.and closed-loop type in the near future. as used in PWM drives.1. similar to a DC motor. in effect. One drive capable of meeting all application needs whether AC.Direct Torque Control 15 .

Who invented DTC? ABB has been carrying out research into DTC since 1988 foll owing the publication of the theory in 1971 and 1985 by German doctor Blaschke and his colleague Depenbrock. a typical torque response is 1 to 2ms below 40Hz compared to between 10-20ms for both flux vector and DC drives fitted with an encoder.5Hz and still provide 100% torque right the way through to zero speed. With open loop PWM drives (see page 9) the response time is typically well over 100ms. as well as full load torque at zero speed without the need for a feedback device such as an encoder or tachometer. But most significantly.Questions and Answers These are just some of the demands from industry.How well the drive repeats its output torque with the same torque reference command. DTC has achieved the natural limit. DTC can deliver solutions to all these demands as well as bringing new benefits to many standard applications.How quickly the drive output can reachthe specified value when a nominal 100% torque reference step is applied. DTC leans on the theory of field oriented control of induction machines and the theory of direct self control.1. DTC.Direct Torque Control . can provide 1 to 2% torque repeatability of the nominal torque across the speed range. many of which are obtained without the need for an encoder or tachometer to monitor shaft position or speed: • Torque response: . 16 Technical Guide No. • Torque repeatability: . speed can be controlled to frequencies below 0. • Accurate torque control at low frequencies. Even in the newer “sensorless” drives the torque response is hundreds of milliseconds. response time cannot be any shorter. Performance What are the main benefits of DTC technology over traditional AC drive technology? There are many benefits of DTC technology. ABB has spent over 100 man years developing the technology. drives using DTC technology have the following exceptional dynamic performance features. With the voltage and current available. with its torque response. In fact. For DTC. With DTC. without an encoder. This is half that of other open-loop AC drives and equal to that of closed-loop AC and DC drives.

What are the practical benefits of these performance figures? • Fast torque response: . If we furnish the DTC controller with an encoder.1. • Torque linearity: . DTC brings the cost saving benefit that no tachometer is needed. Compared to PWM flux vector drives. where an accurate and consistent level of winding is critical. Also with a winder.3 to 0. This depends on the gain adjustment of the controller.01%. which matches servo drive performance. with frequency controlled PWM drives. where the load needs to be started and stopped regularly without any jerking.Direct Torque Control 17 .Time integral of speed deviation when a nominal (100%) torque speed is applied. DTC open-loop dynamic speed accuracy is between 0. used in the paper industry. the dynamic accuracy is eight times less and in practical terms around 3%sec.Error between speed reference and actual value at constant load. In contrast. speed accuracy is 0.This significantly reduces the speed drop time during a load transient. With other open-loop AC drives. bringing much improved process control and a more consistent product quality. speed accuracy is 10% of the motor slip. the static speed accuracy is typically between 1 to 3%.4%sec.1% without encoder (open-loop). However.3% static speed accuracy.This is particularly beneficial to cranes or elevators. • Torque control at low frequencies: . tension control can be achieved from zero through to maximum speed. equals 0. A DTC drive using an encoder with 1024 pulses/revolution can achieve a speed accuracy of 0. With a 110kW motor. which can be tuned to the process requirements. • Dynamic speed accuracy: . For DTC. for the same accuracy from DC drives an encoder is needed.1%sec. So the potential for customer process improvements is significantly higher with standard drives using DTC technology. the dynamic speed accuracy will be 0.Questions and Answers • Motor static speed accuracy: . which with an 11kW motor. 1 Technical Guide No.This is important in precision applications like winders. This satisfies the accuracy requirement for 95% of industrial drives applications.

Drive for demanding applications. high performance torque drive. No tachometer needed in 95% of all applications. High accuracy control with standard AC motor. DTC drives do not need a tachometer or encoder to monitor motor shaft speed or position in order to achieve the fastest torque response ever from an AC drive. Torque repeatability 1%. Cost effective. Torque response time less than 5ms. there are many benefits. BENEFIT Investment cost savings. Investment cost saving. RESULT Allows speed to be controlled better than 0.5% accuracy. Leads to a true universal drive. Higher product quality. Less downtime. Servo drive performance. For example.Direct Torque Control . FEATURE Good motor speed accuracy without tachometer. Lower investment. Reduced mechanical failures for machinery. Better process control. No mechanical brake needed.1. Control down to zero speed and position with encoder. Standard AC motor means less maintenance and lower cost. Table 2: Dynamic performance features and benefits offered by DTC technology Apart from excellent dynamic performance figures. provides position control and better static accuracy. Smooth transition between drive and brake. 18 Technical Guide No. Allows drive to be used in traditional DC drive applications. Similar performance to DC but without tachometer.After a sudden load change. are there any other benefits of DTC drive technology? Yes. Full torque at zero speed with or without tachometer/encoder. Excellent torque control without tachometer. Allows required torque at all times. Increased reliability. This saves initial cost. Better load control. the motor can recover to a stable state remarkably fast.Questions and Answers • Dynamic speed accuracy: . Can use AC drive and motor instead of DC.

Starting with motor residual inductance present. No delay required as in DC braking. Avoids process interruptions. Synchronises to rotating motor. Flux optimisation. Less commissioning time. No parameter tuning required. Tuning the motor to drive for top performance. Smooth control of machinery. Automatic start (Flying start). therefore acoustic noise reasonable due to “white” noise spectrum. Can transfer motor from line to drive. fans. Better process control. Can be used for decelerating to other than zero speed. Low noise.Questions and Answers FEATURE Rapid control DC link voltage. Easy and accurate setup. Resume control in all situations. Guaranteed starting torque. Table 3: User features and benefits offered by DTC technology Technical Guide No. Motor losses minimised. No predetermined switching pattern of power devices. BENEFIT Drive will not trip. No process interruptions. 1 Automatic start (Direct restart). No restarting delay required. Cost savings in acoustic barriers in noise sensitive applications. pumps.1.Direct Torque Control 19 . No interruptions on process. Lower stresses in gearboxes. Less waste in continuous process. Investment cost savings. Self identification/ Auto-tuning. Can accelerate and decelerate in quickest time possible without mechanical constraints. Flux braking. RESULT Power loss ride through. Controlled braking between two speed points. No harmful mechanical resonances. Can start into a motor that is running without waiting for flux to decay. Controlled motor. No fixed carrier. No restart. Less down time. Easy retrofit for any AC system. Better process control. Reduced need for brake chopper and resistor. No limits on maximum acceleration and deceleration rate. Less motor noise.

DTC has a 25 microseconds control cycle. water and food and drinks. The DC link voltage must not drop below the lowest control level of 80%. regardless of whether they are centrifugal or constant torque type (screw pumps) can now be controlled with one drive configuration.Questions and Answers Also a DTC drive features rapid starting in all motor electromagnetic and mechanical states. DTC provides solutions to problems like harmonics and noise. This means that harmonics can be significantly reduced with a DTC controlled input bridge. if there is a loss of input power for a short time. DTC technology can provide control to the drive input line generating unit. DTC technology allows a drive to adjust itself to varying application needs. 20 Technical Guide No. Also. without any overvoltage or overcurrent trip. For standard applications. In these applications. The low level current distortion with a DTC controlled bridge will be less than a conventional 6-pulse or 12-pulse configuration and power factor can be as high as 0. What benefits does DTC bring to standard drives? Standard applications account for 70% of all variable speed drives installed throughout industry.1. as can aerators and conveyors.99. To ensure this. Because DTC leads to a universal drive. the drive must remain energised.Direct Torque Control . Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HeVAC). The motor can be started immediately without delay. What is the impact of DTC on pump control? DTC has an impact on all types of pumps. where a conventional diode bridge is replaced with a controlled bridge. It appears that DTC drives are most advantageous for high performance or demanding drive applications. all pumps. For example. For example. in screw pumps a drive using DTC technology will be able to adjust itself for sufficient starting torque for a guaranteed start. Two of the most common applications are in fans and pumps in industries like Heating. DTC drives easily withstand huge and sudden load torques caused by rapid changes in the process.

The inherent torque control facility for DTC technology allows the torque to be limited in order to avoid mechanical stress on pumps and pipelines. The Requirement: Exact torque control in the winder so as to produce high quality film rolls. there are hundreds of thousands of installations in use. 1 Technical Guide No.Direct Torque Control 21 . one of the world's largest web machine manufacturers tested DTC technology for a winder in a film finishing process. What is the impact of DTC technology on energy savings? A feature of DTC which contributes to energy efficiency is a development called motor flux optimisation.1. with 25% load there is up to 10% total energy efficiency improvement. This directly impacts on operating costs. The Solution: Open-loop DTC drives have replaced traditional DC drives and latter flux vector controlled AC drives on the centre drives in the rewind station. Has DTC technology been used in many installations? Yes. At 50% load there can be 2% total efficiency improvement. For example.Questions and Answers Improved power loss ride through will improve pumping availability during short power breaks. the efficiency of the total drive (that is controller and motor) is greatly improved in fan and pump applications. This feature also significantly reduces the motor noise compared to that generated by the switching frequency of a traditional PWM drive. With this feature. For example.

there is no need for a separate voltage and frequency controlled PWM modulator. Therefore. both of which are obtained directly from the motor itself. Typically. • DTC control DTC allows the motor’s torque and stator flux to be used as primary control variables. This provides significant investment cost savings. • No modulator is needed (see page 12).1. This modulator stage adds to the signal processing time and therefore limits the level of torque and speed response possible from the PWM drive. with DTC.Questions and Answers The Benefits: Winder station construction simplified and reliability increased. 22 Technical Guide No. • Controlling variables are taken directly from the motor (see page 27). a PWM modulator takes 10 times longer than DTC to respond to actual change. The cost of one tachometer and associated wiring equals that of one 30kW AC motor. • The fast processing speeds of the DSP and Optimum Pulse Selector hardware (see page 28). Another big advantage of a DTC drive is that no feedback device is needed for 95% of all drive applications.Direct Torque Control . Operation What is the difference between DTC and traditional PWM methods? • Frequency Control PWM and Flux Vector PWM Traditional PWM drives use output voltage and output frequency as the primary control variables but these need to be pulse width modulated before being applied to the motor. Why does DTC not need a tachometer or position encoder to tell it precisely where the motor shaft is at all times? There are four main reasons for this: • The accuracy of the Motor Model (see page 27).

not the inverter.Direct Torque Control 23 . But the main difference is that DTC provides accurate control even at low speeds and down to zero speed without encoder feedback.1%s. it is the fastest ever achieved. Once every 25 microseconds. the torque response is the quickest available. What is the difference between DTC and other sensorless drives on the market? There are vast differences between DTC and many of the sensorless drives. A DTC drive can reach this dynamic accuracy with the optional speed feedback from a tachometer How does DTC achieve these major improvements over traditional technology? The most striking difference is the sheer speed by which DTC operates. It is fast enough to control individual switching pulses. This update rate is substantially less than any time constants in the motor.1. This is the best available. To achieve a fast torque loop. 1 Technical Guide No. Thus. see page 26. the above features produce a drive capable of calculating the ideal switching voltages 40. Quite simply. the inverter’s semiconductors are supplied with an optimum switching pattern to produce the required torque. A typical dynamic speed accuracy for a servo drive is 0. ABB has utilised the latest high speed signal processing technology and spent 100 man years developing the highly advanced Motor Model which precisely simulates the actual motor parameters within the controller. At low frequencies the nominal torque step can be increased in less than 1ms.000 times every second. the motor is now the limiting component. As mentioned above.Questions and Answers When combined to form a DTC drive. How does a DTC drive achieve the performance of a servo drive? Quite simply because the motor is now the limit of performance and not the drive itself. For a clearer understanding of DTC control theory.

The speed and accuracy of a drive which relies on computed rather than measured control parameters can never be realistic. Therefore. where up to 30% of all switchings are wasted. will be catered for by adding a feedback device to provide closed loop control.Questions and Answers Does a DTC drive use fuzzy logic within its control loop? No. you are not getting the full picture.Direct Torque Control . There is never any doubt as to the motor’s state. a drive using DTC technology knows precisely where the shaft is and so does not waste any of its switchings. If we compare to a PWM drive. Fuzzy logic is used in some drives to maintain the acceleration current within current limits and therefore prevent the drive from tripping unnecessarily. Unlike traditional AC drives. Unless you are looking at the shaft. mainly applications where extremely precise speed control is needed. The exceptions. can be simpler than the sensors needed for conventional closed loop drives. This is reflected in the exceptionally high torque response and speed accuracy figures quoted on pages 16 and 17. however. DTC can cover 95% of all industrial applications.000 calculations every second. This device. As DTC is controlling the torque directly.1. A drive using DTC technology is said to be tripless. Is this true with DTC? DTC knows the full picture. DTC achieves tripless operation by controlling the actual motor torque. How has this been achieved? Many manufacturers have spent years trying to avoid trips during acceleration and deceleration and have found it extraordinarily difficult. As explained above. how accurate is the autotuning of a DTC drive? Auto-tuning is used in the initial identification run of a DTC drive (see page 27). current can be kept within these limits in all operating conditions. The dead time is measured and is taken into account by the Motor Model when calculating the actual flux. the problem with PWM is in the range 20-30Hz which causes torque ripple. a DTC drive knows precisely what the motor shaft is doing. thanks to the sophistication of the Motor Model and the ability to carry out 40. 24 Technical Guide No. Even with the fastest semiconductors some dead time is introduced.

What are the limitations of DTC? If several motors are connected in parallel in a DTC-controlled inverter. the torque accuracy is 2%.2%. If the number of motors varies or the motor power remains below 1/8 of the rated power. We have defined the accuracies as follows: Torque accuracy: Within a speed range of 2-100% and a load range of 10-100%. any type of asynchronous. Can DTC work with any type of induction motor? Yes. the arrangement operates as one large motor. 1 Technical Guide No. the speed accuracy is 10% of the motor slip. Speed accuracy: Within a speed range of 2-100% and a load range of 10-100%.Direct Torque Control 25 . it would be best to select the scalar control macro.1. It has no information about the status of any single motor.Questions and Answers What kind of stability will a DTC drive have at light loads and low speeds? The stability down to zero speed is good and both torque and speed accuracy can be maintained at very low speeds and light loads. squirrel cage motor. Motor slip of a 37kW motor is about 2% which means a speed accuracy of 0.

Basic Control Theory How DTC works Figure 5.Chapter 4 . Let’s start with DTC’s Torque Control Loop.1. below. Walk around the block Figure 5: DTC comprises two key blocks: Speed Control and Torque Control The block diagram shows that DTC has two fundamental sections: the Torque Control Loop and the Speed Control Loop.Direct Torque Control . 26 Technical Guide No. Now we will walk around the blocks exploring each stage and showing how they integrate together. shows the complete block diagram for Direct Torque Control (DTC).

Technical Guide No. mutual inductance and saturation coefficients are determined along with the motor’s inertia.Basic Control Theory Torque Control Loop 1 Step 1 Voltage and current measurements Step 2 Adaptive Motor Model In normal operation. The extremely fine tuning of motor model is achieved when the identification run also includes running the motor shaft for some seconds. together with the inverter’s switch positions. The sophistication of this Motor Model allows precise data about the motor to be calculated. Before operating the DTC drive. two motor phase currents and the DC bus voltage are simply measured. as it is for most industrial applications. There is no need to feed back any shaft speed or position with tachometers or encoders if the static speed accuracy requirement is over 0. The identification of motor model parameters can be done without rotating motor shaft. the Motor Model is fed information about the motor.1. This makes it easy to apply DTC technology also in retrofits. This is called auto-tuning and data such as stator resistance.5%. which is collected during a motor identification run. The measured information from the motor is fed to the Adaptive Motor Model.Direct Torque Control 27 .

in fact. or maintaining. Step 3 Torque Comparator and Flux Comparator The information to control power switches is produced in the Torque and Flux Comparator. to a torque and flux reference value. unlike traditional PWM drives where up to 30% of all switch changes are unnecessary. without encoder. with DTC each and every switching is needed and used. The Motor Model is. This high speed of switching is fundamental to the success of DTC. 28 Technical Guide No. of ±0.Basic Control Theory This is a significant advance over all other AC drive technology. every 25 microseconds. It is this processing speed that brings the high performance figures including a static speed control accuracy.1. The main motor control parameters are updated 40. key to DTC’s unrivalled low speed performance. Torque and flux status signals are calculated using a two level hysteresis control method.000 times a second. because. an accurate motor torque.5% and the torque response of less than 2ms. This configuration brings immense processing speed such that every 25 microseconds the inverter’s semiconductor switching devices are supplied with an optimum pulse for reaching. There is no predetermined switching pattern. This allows extremely rapid response on the shaft and is necessary so that the Motor Model (see Step 2) can update this information. Both actual torque and actual flux are fed to the comparators where they are compared. DTC has been referred to as “just-in-time” switching. Also shaft speed is calculated within the Motor Model.Direct Torque Control . Furthermore. all control signals are transmitted via optical links for high speed data transmission. The correct switch combination is determined every control cycle. Step 4 Optimum Pulse Selector Within the Optimum Pulse Selector is the latest 40MHz digital signal processor (DSP) together with ASIC hardware to determine the switching logic of the inverter. The Motor Model outputs control signals which directly represent actual motor torque and actual stator flux. These signals are then fed to the Optimum Pulse Selector.

The output is the sum of outputs from both of them.Basic Control Theory Speed Control 1 Step 5 Torque Reference Controller Within the Torque Reference Controller. The Speed Controller block consists both of a PID controller and an acceleration compensator. It also includes speed control for cases when an external torque signal is used.1. The error signal is then fed to both the PID controller and the acceleration compensator. The ability to control and modify this absolute value provides an easy way to realise many inverter functions such as Flux Optimisation and Flux Braking (see page 19). the speed control output is limited by the torque limits and DC bus voltage. The external speed reference signal is compared to the actual speed produced in the Motor Model. The internal torque reference from this block is fed to the Torque Comparator. An absolute value of stator flux can be given from the Flux Reference Controller to the Flux Comparator block.Direct Torque Control 29 . Step 6 Speed Controller Step 7 Flux Reference Controller Technical Guide No.

10. 13. 18. 21. 24. 6. 11 commissioning 19 commutator-brush assembly 7 control cycle 28 control loop 7.1. 23. 14. 8. 26 drive input line generating unit 20 DSP 22. 29 Flux Reference Controller 29 flux vector 6. 20 loss of input power 20 low frequencies 16. 22. 25. 11 AC motor 5. 9. 22 flux vector control 6.Direct Torque Control . 8 acceleration compensator 29 accuracy control 18 aerators 20 air condition 5. 24. 23 M magnetising current 7 maintenance 6. 13 AC drive with flux vector control 10 AC drive with frequency control 9 AC induction motor 10. 18 DC link voltage 19. 15. 6. 9. 17. 11. 8. 22 conveyors 20 costs 8. 19. 11. 26. 28 dynamic speed accuracy 12. 24 field current 7 field orientation 7. 10. 17. 20 angular position 11 armature current 7 armature windings 7 ASIC 28 auto-tuning 19. 28 DTC 5. 17. 8. 13. 16. 12 field oriented control 16 film finishing 21 flux braking 19. 27. 10. 23 dynamic speed response 8 E electrical time constant 8 electronic controller 11. 11. 22. 18. 29 DC drive 7. 27. 21 Motor static speed 17 30 Technical Guide No. 14. 10. 15. 20 DC motor 6. 12. 17. 7. 7. 22 motor controller 8 motor flux optimisation 21 motor magnetising flux 12 Motor Model 10. 23. 14. 13. 21 feedback device 9. 16. 15. 18. 14. 15. 8. 27 B Blaschke 16 braking 19. 13. 13. 11. 15 DC Motor Drive 6 Depenbrock 16 digital signal processing 12 diode bridge 20 diode rectifier 9 Direct Torque Control 5. 20. 28 energy savings 21 external speed reference 29 external torque signal 29 F fan 10. 16. 13. 9. 11. 12. 20 heating 20 HeVAC 20 hysteresis control 28 I inertia 27 initial cost 18 input frequency 15 L load torque 16. 14 elevators 17 encoders 8. 13. 21 D DC bus voltage 27. 12. 11. 29 flux comparator 28. 16. 14. 11. 29 motor noise 19. 11. 13 flux vector PWM drives 11 food 20 frequency control 6. 15. 24.Index A AC drive 5. 10. 11. 12. 27. 21. 28 AC drive using DTC 12. 29 C closed-loop 10. 10. 16 closed-loop drives 10. 24. 12. 28. 11. 9. 8. 6. 11. 10. 11. 10. 18. 18 mechanical brake 18 modulator 9. 22 controlled input bridge 20 controlling variables 9. 19. 12. 13. 10. 29 control variables 10. 22. 20. 13. 19. 9. 22 fuzzy logic 24 G gearbox 19 H harmonics 15. 21. 29 flux optimisation 19. 8. 10. 22. 23. 12. 13. 14. 24. 21. 27. 18 AC variable speed drive 6. 18. 15. 12.Chapter 5 . 8. 26. 14. 6.

28. 22. 8. 13. 12. 19. 18. 27 time constant 8.loop 23 . 25 Technical Guide No. 27 speed control 6. 28 . 22. 21 nominal torque step 23 O OEMs 5 open-loop drive 9 open loop AC drives 12 operating cost 21 optical link 28 Optimum Pulse Selector 28 output frequency 22 output voltage 22 P paper industry 17 PID controller 29 pipelines 21 position control 18 position encoder 12. 20. 20. 21 switching pattern 19. 20 ventilating 20 voltage 8. 24. 11. 14. 23. 26 . 14. 29 Torque Control Loop 26 Torque Reference Controller 29 trip 15. 22 position feedback 8 power factor 20 power loss ride through 19. 27. 25. 21. 29 voltage fed drive 8 VSD 5. 20. 17. 16. 21. 13. 17. 7. 23. 11. 18.response 6. 24. 9. 9. 29 speed accuracy 6. 11. 8. 14.ripple 24 Torque and Flux Comparator 28 Torque Comparator 28. 28 PWM AC drive 11. 19. 27. 24. 24. 27 stator 7. 12. 28 mutual inductance 27 N noise 15. 15.control 5.full load at zero speed 16 . 24 U universal 12. 9. 24. 15. 18. 20 static accuracy 18 static speed accuracy 17. 16. 22. 19. 19. 29 stator field 11 stator flux 22. 23 signal processing 12. 22 Z zero speed 11. 29 . 20. 9. 6.Direct Torque Control 31 . 16. 28 R reliability 8. 6. 12. 21.repeatability 18 . 19. 19. 6. 26 starting 19. 18. 20 web machine 21 winder 17. 20. 10. 11. 20. 6 W water 5. 21 PWM 6. 23. 10 stress 19. 12. 22. 7. 10. 28. 26. 28. 28 Pulse Width Modulation 9 pump 10. 10. 11 rotor flux 11 rotor position 7 rotor speed 11 S saturation coefficient 27 scalar control 10. 21 predetermined switching pattern 19. 18 restart 19 retrofit 19 RFI 15 rotor 7. 9. 16. 6. 25. 15. 11. 28. 18. 26. 23. 23. 14. 20 V variable speed drives 5. 10. 16. 24. 12. 17.1. 21. 15. 28. 11. 14. 27. 18. 22 stability 25 start 5. 7. 21. 7.1 motor torque 8. 20. 8. 22. 19.linearity 17 . 22. 29 Speed Control Loop 26 speed control output 29 Speed Controller 29 speed response 7. 23 torque 5. 19. 22. 16. 10. 12.control at low frequencies 16 . 8. 8. 25 sensorless 23 servicing 8 servo drive 18. 23. 22. 8. 13. 29 stator resistance 27 stator winding 9. 11. 17. 23. 14. 15. 10. 24. 10. 18. 28 switching pulses 23 T tachometer 12. 17. 25. 26. 8. 23 signal processing time 22 speed 5. 15. 23. 18.

abb. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.com/motors&drives 3AFE 58056685 REV B EN 26.O.2002 Specifications subject to change without notice. .4.ABB Oy Drives P.

2 EU Council Directives and Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems .Technical Guide No.

2.EU Council Directives .2 Technical Guide No.

........ 15 In Summary ............ 17 Apparatus ........... 9 How does EMC affect me? ....................... 8 General questions and answers ........ 11 If a drive is CE Marked......2... 16 Components with direct function ........................... I put together a system ...Contents 1 Introduction ............................ 7 This guide’s purpose .................... 11 Drive manufacturers must comply with EMC standards then? ................ 14 What is the legal position regarding CE Marking? ......................................................... 8 Responsibilities and actions........................ 9 What are these EU Council Directives? ................................................................................. is this true? .............. 13 What is CE Marking and how relevant is it for drives? 13 What is CE Marking for? ......... 8 Tickboxes ............ 18 If you are a Machine Builder buying a PDS ..... as an End User................................................................................... they cannot be EMC certified or carry a CE Mark............ 17 Installation ................ 17 Systems ............................. 10 How does electromagnetic interference show up? 10 What emissions can drives cause? ....do I have to put CE Marking on? ...... 9 What is all the fuss about? ................................ 14 What is the importance of CE Marking for purchasers of drives? .............................................................. 7 How to use this guide ..................................................... 8 Cross-referencing ................................................ 14 If I buy a CE marked drive......................... 9 What is EMC? ................... 11 How is this emission seen? ................................... 11 CE Marking ........................................................ I need not worry................................................................................. 16 Components without direct function ... 16 Component ...... 11 How do I avoid electromagnetic interference? ................ 17 Purchasing decisions for PDSs ...................................................................................... 22 2 2 3 4 Technical Guide No. 8 Key Points ......................................................................................................................................................... 15 What about spare parts that I buy for a drive? Do I negate the CE Mark if I replace a component? ..... 10 What is an electromagnetic environment? .............. 18 What you need to know and do ...........EU Council Directives 3 ................ 15 If drives are classed as components...................... 14 What happens if.......................... 14 Is CE Marking a quality mark? ................ will I meet the technical requirements of the Directives? ................. True? ..................................

....... 34 Why is a TCF deemed to be important? ......2........ Procedures used to ensure product conformity ............................................... 39 Technical File (for electrical safety aspects) ......................................... Actions you must take ...................................... 37 3................................................................... 34 Technical Construction File (TCF) .... 40 Drawings and diagrams .........................EU Council Directives ........................... If you are an End-User buying a CDM/BDM or PDS ........................................ 38 What is a Technical File? ....................................................................... Actions by the Competent Body ..... If you are a Distributor buying a CDM/BDM ...Actions you must take ......... If you are a Panelbuilder buying a CDM/BDM .......................................................... 36 1......................... 39 Machine design ....................... 40 What is a Technical File? ... 41 What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? 41 How to obtain the Technical Report or Certificate . You have the following responsibilities . 34 When do I use a TCF? ........................ 40 How to make up a Technical File ......................................................... Actions you must take .................... If you are a System Designer buying a PDS ........................ Path 3 ......... 41 4 Technical Guide No..................... Path 1 .................... 35 Is there any way I can avoid the TCF? ...................... Description of the product ............................................................................................. Path 2 .. 5 23 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 30 32 32 32 Terminology ............... 40 Certificate of Adequacy ...................................... Additional actions ............................... 36 2................. If you are an Installer buying a CDM/BDM or PDS ................................................................. 34 Will customers always receive a TCF copy? ................... 38 How to make up a Technical File ............................... 40 Electrical Safety Aspect ........... 39 Health and safety ............................................................................................................................................. 39 Other certificates required ............................ 40 Standards ............................ 41 Technical Report or Certificate ............................................................................................................................... 37 4........................... A report or certificate from a Competent Body .................. 34 What is a Technical Construction File? . 35 How to make up a TCF ....................... 38 Technical File (for mechanical safety aspects) ... 40 Other requirements ............................ 35 What is the shelf life of a TCF? .......... Actions you must take ........... 41 What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? 41 How to obtain a Certificate of Adequacy ................... 39 Drawings and diagrams ............ 35 How do I ensure that tests are always carried out? 35 Can drive manufacturers help more? ................ Actions you must take .........................

......................................................... 53 Why is the Declaration of Conformity important? ........................................ Type Certification ..........................................EU Council Directives 5 ................................................... 54 EMC Directive .. 58 7 8 Technical Guide No.. 51 Mode 4 ......... 54 Who has the responsibility to ensure CE Marking? 55 Summary of responsibilities ................................................................................ 54 How does the EMC Directive affect my drive? ................. 47 Directive or Standard? .................................................... 49 Can I be fined for not conforming? ........... Declaration of Conformity (for EMC and electrical safety aspects) ............... 50 Mode 2 ............................. 46 Competent Body .................... 47 Harmonised Standards for PDSs ............................... 50 Mode 3 ......................................... How to obtain a Declaration of Conformity .................................................. 58 General installation concerns .................................................................................................................................................................... 56 Achieving conformity with EC Safety Directives .................................... 53 Low Voltage Directive .................... 50 Mode 1 ............ 48 What are the issues of EN 61800-3 and drives? . 48 Your questions answered ..................... Declaration of Incorporation ......................... 46 Competent Authority ..................................... 52 How does the Machinery Directive affect my drive?52 Where can I obtain a Machinery Directive copy? ............................................................................................. What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? How to obtain a Report ............ Is there no way out of this type of Declaration? ..... 50 The Product Specific Standard EN 61800-3 ............. 48 Which standards directly relate to drives? .................................... 6 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 2 Authorities and Bodies ............................................. 46 Notified Body ................ 51 Machinery Directive 98/37/EC ....Report ........................... 46 Standards and Directives .......................................................2............................ How to obtain a Declaration of Conformity ................. 51 Applications of different Modes ............... 47 How to recognise a European Standard ................................ How to obtain Type Certification .............................. What a Declaration of Incorporation contains ............................................. 49 What are the solutions to radiated emissions? ............ What is a Declaration of Incorporation? ...................................... Declaration of Conformity (for mechanical safety aspects) ....... 53 How does the LVD affect my drive? ............................................ 57 Installation ....... 49 Do I have to conform to the standards? ......................................................

.........................................................EU Council Directives ......................2....... 9 58 59 60 60 60 61 62 63 64 65 65 65 65 Index ............ How can EMC be improved? ............. Large installations with many drives can take up to 3 months and be costly............Technical requirements of the legislation ..................................................................... What is the affect of varying impedance? ............ Testing and installation ................................................................................. Shielding . Filtering ........................................................................................................................................................ Earthing ............. What can we do? ........................................................... Relay Outputs . What are the effects of multiple drives? . Your technical concerns answered ................................. 66 6 Technical Guide No............ General installation practice . Cabling ...............................

Introduction This guide's purpose The aim of this Technical Guide No. we reserve the right to develop and evolve these interpretations as more details become available from Competent Bodies (see Chapter 6).2. Drives interpretation of events as of November 1999. Competent Authorities (see Chapter 6).7 Dimensioning of a Drive system (3AFE 64292714) Technical Guide No. 2 Other Technical Guides available in this series include: Technical Guide No.Chapter 1 . it must be realised that the EMC Directive is only part of the overall EU initiative on common safety standards. *Notes 1 The content of this Technical Guide is ABB Oy's.8 Electrical Braking (3BFE 64362534) Technical Guide No.3 EMC Compliant Installation and Configuration for a Power Drive System (3AFE 61348280).4 Guide to Variable Speed Drives (3AFE 61389211). While Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the subject of most concern within the industry. organisations and from our own tests. However. Technical Guide No. Distributors.1 Direct Torque Control (3AFE 58056685). It is the intention of this Guide to offer users of AC or DC power drive systems . Technical Guide No.whether Machine Builders.EU Council Directives 7 2 . OEMs.6 Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives (3AFE 64292714) Technical Guide No. For an explanation of the terminology of PDSs.5 Bearing Currents in Modern AC Drive Systems (3BFE 64230247) Technical Guide No.2* is to give a straightforward explanation of how the various EU Council Directives relate to Power Drive Systems (PDSs). Technical Guide No. System Designers. see pages 18 and 19. End-Users or Installers some clear practical guidelines and courses of action.

Because of the complexity of conforming to each Directive. These can be referred to if the item is unclear but is not essential for achieving compliance. In the margin you will come across: Defined on page XX You are advised to turn to the page number reference. Purchasers can photocopy the relevant pages and use them as a checklist with each item being ticked off as it is achieved. No action is needed.How to Use this Guide The Guide is divided into 9 Sections. then conforming to the relevant Directives will be straightforward.2. this Guide inevitably carries a lot of cross-references to other sections. If the purchaser follows these Actions. Following the Responsibilities is a set of Actions. Responsibilities and actions Tickboxes Alongside the Actions are tickboxes. This is for awareness. Please note the following about the structure of this section: Each type of purchaser is offered an explanation of their Responsibilities. You will also notice other references within the text.EU Council Directives . Crossreferencing KEY POINTS: Within the text you will see: Key Point These are key observations that must be observed. Section 4 looks at Purchasing Decisions for PDSs. 8 Technical Guide No. step-by-step.

These are: Applicable Mandatory 1995-01-01 1997-01-01 1996-01-01 Page pg 52 pg 53 pg 54 What are these EU Council Directives? Directive Machinery Directive 1993-01-01 Low Voltage Directive 1995-01-01 EMC Directive 1992-01-01 But more on each of these Directives later. It applies to all electrical and electronic equipment sold within the EU and affects virtually all manufacturers and importers of electrical and electronic goods.General questions and answers What is all the fuss about? I have had no problems with drives in the past so why do I need to be concerned with EMC now? Beware! Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is only one of a number of EU Council Directives relating to common safety standards for electrically powered equipment like Power Drive Systems. So before answering this question. That is the purpose of this Guide. Quite simply there are three Directives that mainly affect a drive’s safety against risks and hazards. 1996 the EU Council’s Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (89/336/EEC) has been compulsory. How does EMC affect me? From January 1. Technical Guide No.2.EU Council Directives 9 . Let us first explain EMC and look at some concerns of the industry.Chapter 2 . 2 KEY POINT: It is very important that users of PDSs fully understand all the various rules and regulations and how they apply to PDSs. It is important to realise that EMC cannot be divorced from other European legislation. we need to look at the other legislation and how it affects the purchase and installation of drives.

each with its own emission characteristics. electrical contacts and semiconductors. an electric drill causing patterning on the TV screen.KEY POINT: Electrical equipment that does not conform to the regulations may not be sold anywhere in the EEA (European Economic Area). is often used so near to other electrical equipment that the field strengths they create may cause interferences. switch rapidly and therefore. Man-made disturbances are those generated by. or crackling from an AM radio. Natural sources consist of electrical discharge between clouds. How does electromagnetic interference show up? 10 Technical Guide No. What is EMC? What is an electromagnetic environment? KEY POINT: It is important that all PDSs are immune to these natural and man-made disturbances. the Directive lays down minimum standards for immunity. Typical examples of interference include a poorly suppressed automobile engine or dynamo. lightning or other atmospheric disturbances. digital systems like microprocessors. The electromagnetic environment is everywhere but it varies from place to place. walkie-talkies. Such a variety of equipment. The reason is that there are many different sources of disturbance which can be natural or man-made. the equipment must not disturb or interfere with any other products or systems within its locality. can cause interference at high frequencies. While drives manufacturers strive to make their products immune. thereby ensuring all manufacturers achieve the same basic level.2. portable car telephones and Power Drive Systems (see page 18). It is the ability of electrical/electronic equipment to operate problem-free within an electromagnetic environment. EMC stands for Electromagnetic Compatibility. page 58). for example.EU Council Directives . unless proper precautions are taken. Electromagnetic interference shows up in a variety of ways. The microprocessor and power electronic component. mobile radio transmitters. Likewise. While we cannot influence these sources we can protect our products and systems from their effects (see Installation.

What emissions can drives cause? The normal operation of any drive involves rapid switching of high voltages and this can produce radio frequency emission. Technical Guide No. In the forthcoming pages we take a look at various types of purchasers and examine the steps each should take to meet all three Directives mentioned on page 9. See Installation.EU Council Directives 11 .2. • that the equipment is immune to outside effects. 2 How is this emission seen? How do I avoid electromagnetic interference? KEY POINT: The main emission is via conduction to the mains. Just because a drive has CE Marking does not necessarily mean it meets the EMC Directive. Everyone from manufacturer to installer to user has a responsibility in complying with EMC rules. Electromagnetic interference needs to be conducted to earth (ground potential) and no system can work unless it is properly connected. I need not worry. In the case of Power Drive Systems. If a drive is CE Marked. Drives manufacturers must comply with EMC standards then? Unfortunately. True? Again this is a big misconception. page 58. Modern equipment contains considerable communications and other digital electronics. It is this radiation and emission that have been seen to have the potential to disturb other circuits at frequencies below 200 MHz. Virtually everyone in the supply chain has a responsibility to ensure a product. a system and an installation complies with the essential requirements of the EMC Directive. a lot hinges on the quality of the installation. the process is not that simple. Radiation from the converter and conducting cables is another type of emission and it is especially demanding to achieve the radiated emission limits. This can cause considerable emissions at frequencies above 200MHz. You need to ensure two things: • that the equipment generates minimum emission. for more details. The key is to clearly understand who has responsibility for what.

2. CE Marking according to the EMC-Directive cannot normally be applied to a module that is no more than a chassis with exposed terminals.EU Council Directives . 12 Technical Guide No. page 18.KEY POINT: This will all become clear by referring to the section Purchasing Decisions for PDSs.

For more on Technical Construction Files and Technical Files. That marking shall indicate that the drive also conforms to the EMC Directive (page 54). Technical Guide No. is the official signature of the Declaration of Conformity (see pages 42 and 43) as governed by the European Commission.EU Council Directives 13 .Chapter 3 .CE Marking What is CE Marking and how relevant is it for drives? CE Marking. then there must be a Technical File supporting the Declaration of Conformity. if standards cannot be complied with then a Technical Construction File (TCF) needs to be compiled. from 1997. then. shown below.2. please refer to pages 34 and 40. It is a very specific graphic symbol and must be separated from other marks. If a drive is the subject of several directives and. 2 CE Marking is a system of self-certification to identify equipment that complies with the relevant applicable Directives. CE marking shall indicate conformity only to the directive(s) applied by the manufacturer. conforms with the Low Voltage Directive (see page 53). However. for example. it is compulsory that it shows CE Marking. KEY POINT: NOTE: If the standards route is used.

may carry the CE marking. which can be safely cabled and powered up on its own. CE Marking shows that the product complies with the essential requirements of all relevant Directives. a motor which in turn is connected to a load. What is the importance of CE Marking for purchasers of drives? If I buy a CE marked drive. say.What is CE Marking for? CE Marking is mainly for the benefit of Authorities throughout the EU and EEA countries who control the movement of goods. you can be assured that certification has been carried out. In practice. Is CE Marking a quality mark? What is the legal Anyone applying CE Marking is legally liable and must be position regarding able to prove the validity of his actions to the authorities. That is. Most definitely not. As CE Marking is self certification. as far as the Machinery Directive is concerned a drive cannot have CE Marking unless it is part of a “process” comprising the drive. As for the EMC Directive. if a drive conforms to the Low Voltage Directive it can carry CE Marking. a built drive does have functionality. But it is important to understand just why the product was given CE Marking in the first place. However. Refer to pages 52. Basically a drive has no functional value. through the drive's Parameters you can program the drive and obtain an input and output signal. 53 and 54 for explanations of the three Directives. 14 Technical Guide No. but CE Marking may be attached to indicate compliance with one (see the previous page). motor and load. Thus.EU Council Directives . will I meet the technical requirements of the Directives? As far as a purchaser of a drive is concerned.2. CE Marking can only be affixed if all items forming such a “process” conform to the requirements of the Directive. Therefore. a complete drive product. CE Marking confirms compliance with the Directives listed CE Marking? in the Declaration of Conformity (see pages 42 and 43). Thus. It is only of practical use when connected to. you will see drive products with CE Marking. anything that carries the CE Mark must have a functional value to him. There are three Directives that are relevant to drives. drives and motor. mainly in the area of technical safety and conformity assessment. the equipment that make up a “process” include cabling. in the eyes of the Low Voltage Directive.

Is this true? Technical Guide No. Thus. the use of the manufacturer's spare parts should not negate the CE Marking. machine builders).EU Council Directives 15 . 2 If drives are classed as components.What happens if. it is responsible for the appropriate CE Marking. it is not considered as an apparatus. it shall not be CE-marked. However. However. as some actions could affect the CE Marking criteria. it shall not be CE-marked according to the EMC-directives. For equipment supplied after the application of the Directives. Yes.2. I put together a system . See below and page 18 for this. The CDM shall be CE-marked if it is to be installed with simple connections and adjustments that do not require any EMC-knowledge. it cannot be enhanced or reinstalled without meeting the Directives. Equipment supplied before the application of the Directives. they cannot be EMC certified or carry a CE Mark.do I have to put CE Marking on? KEY POINT: What about spare parts that I buy for a drive? Do I negate the CE Mark if I replace a component? Turn to page 29 for more details about the End-User's responsibilities. the manufacturer or supplier should be consulted about upgrading. A Complete Drive Module (CDM) is normally a component in a system and as such has no functional value unless it is connected to the motor when it becomes a PDS. can be repaired and supplied with spare parts to bring it back to the original specification. You need to first understand the terminology now being applied to drives. If awareness of the EMC implication is needed in order to install a CDM. If a CDM or BDM is intended for incorporation in PDS by professional manufacturers only (panel builders. nor is declaration of conformity given by the CDM/BDM manufacturer. Anyone putting together a system and commissioning as an End-User. Instead installation instructions shall be supplied in order to help the professional manufacturers.

In this context the interpretation of component can be divided into two main categories. basic drive module (BDM). Such a component is an ‘apparatus’ and it is subjected to all provisions of the EMC Directive.2. e.g. 2) The direct function is not available without further adjustment or connections other than simple ones. Apparatus and Systems have to be CE marked. the component is considered equivalent to apparatus. If a component performs a direct function without further adjustment other than simple ones. which can be performed by any person not fully aware of the EMC implications.g. while required to satisfy various elements of the Directives. Direct function: Any function of the component itself. it is considered as a component. All provisions of the EMC Directive apply. a drive installed into a cabinet or drive with enclosure and sold as a complete unit (CDM). Such a component is not an ‘apparatus’. e. These instructions should help him to solve any EMC problems with his final apparatus. Component Components with direct function Components with a direct function can be divided into two sub-groups: 1) The direct function is available without further adjustment or connections other than simple ones. The only requirement for such a component is to provide it with instructions for use for the professional assembler or manufacturer of the final apparatus into which the component will be incorporated. Components with direct function not available without simple adjustments and Components without direct function and Installations. which fulfils the intended use. which can be performed by any person not fully aware of the EMC implications. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category. The component can either deliver a ‘direct function’ or not. These are meant to be assembled by a professional assembler 16 Technical Guide No. shall not be CE marked. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category.In Summary Under the Directives.EU Council Directives . specified by the manufacturer in the instruction for use for an end user. If a component performs a direct function that is not available without further adjustment other than simple ones. Components with direct function available without further adjustment other than simple ones.

According to the EMC Directive the system manufacturer or panel builder is resonsible for CE-mark. Systems Installation Technical Guide No. terminal blocks. A combination of items of apparatus. etc. Several items of apparatus combined to fulfil a specific objective and intended to be placed on the market as a single functional unit. 2 Components without direct function Apparatus Components with no direct function are not considered as apparatus within the meaning of the EMC Directive. These components include resistors. the requirement for the BDM supplier is instructions for installation and use.EU Council Directives 17 .g. panel builder or system manufacturer) into a cabinet not in the scope of delivery of the manufacturer of the BDM.2. The EMC Directive does not apply to these. equipment and/or components put together at a given place to fulfil a specific objective but not intended to be placed on the market as a single functional unit.(e. A finished product containing electrical and/or electronic components and intended to be placed on the market and/ or taken into service as a single commercial unit. cables. Declaration of Conformity and Technical Construction File. According to the EMC Directive.

Devices such as an incoming phase-shift transformer for a 12pulse drive are considered part of the CDM. 2. Power Drive System. 18 Technical Guide No. or PDS. panels and any other components needed to make the PDS work effectively. Complete Drive Module (CDM) consists of the drive system without the motor and the sensors mechanically coupled to the motor shaft.2. you need to know the following IEC terms for PDSs and their component parts. motors. is a term used throughout this Technical Guide. which may be unfamiliar to many users. The CDM also includes the Basic Drive Module (BDM) and a feeder section. Basic Drive Module (BDM) consists of the converter section and the control circuits needed for torque or speed. Note: The load is not considered part of the PDS. filters.Chapter 4 .EU Council Directives . we offer a step-by-step guide relating to your purchasing requirements for Power Drive Systems. A PDS includes the frequency converter and feeding section (the CDM and BDM). A BDM is the essential part of the Power Drive System taking electrical power from a 50 Hz constant frequency supply and converting it into a variable form for an electric motor. TERMS THAT YOU MUST KNOW 1. 3. sensors. Before turning to page 20.Purchasing decisions for PDSs What you need to know and do KEY POINT: Starting on page 20. all cabling. but the CDM can incorporate the supply sections and ventilation.

Technical Guide No.EU Council Directives 19 .HOW THE TERMS FIT TOGETHER 2 Installation or part of installation Power Drive System (PDS) CDM (Complete Drive Module) control System control and sequencing BDM (Basic Drive Module) Control section Converter section Feeder section Field supply Auxiliaries Others Motor & sensors Driven equipment or load Now we strongly advise you turn to page 20.2. to discover the type of person you are.

It includes the appropriate actuators. in particular for processing. However. CDM or BDM and other mechanical or electrical component parts. at least one of which moves.. Note: A machine is defined as an assembly of linked parts or components. Machine Builder is a person who buys either a PDS. 26 End-User is the final customer who will actually use the machine.. moving or packaging of a material. we have also identified certain types of people who will be involved in the purchasing of drives. such as a pump.. 30 20 Technical Guide No. including a CDM/BDM and sometimes the motor. WHO ARE YOU? IF THIS IS YOU.EU Council Directives . PDS or CDM/BDM. and assembles these into a machine.To make this Technical Guide easy to use.2. 22 System Designer carries out all the electrical design of the Power Drive System. control and power circuits joined together for a specific application. specifying all component parts which comprise a PDS.. TURN NOW TO PAGE. treatment. 28 Panelbuilder constructs enclosures into which a panelbuilder will install a variety of components. the built enclosure does not constitute a machine. Please identify the type nearest to your job function and turn to the relevant section.

30 Installer .EU Council Directives 21 ..22 System Designer .page 28 Technical Guide No. 22 26 30 Drive Manufacturer Machine Builder or OEM p. OEM. TURN NOW TO PAGE..32 Distributor p.32 Panelbuilder p..p.30 Installer .2.p. Panelbuilder or System Designer. refer to the relevant pages for each of these job functions.p. System Designer or Panelbuilder. if you identify yourself as an OEM. Therefore. Distributor acts as the sales distribution channel between the CDM/ BDM manufacturer and the End-User. an OEM will normally fall into the category of a Machine Builder.32 End-User ... 2 32 Installer carries out the entire electrical installation of the PDS. 32 Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) For the purposes of purchasing drives..26 Panelbuilder p..WHO ARE YOU? IF THIS IS YOU. Machine Builder.

You are also responsible for the electrical safety of all parts of the PDS as specified in the Low Voltage Directive. It may be necessary to issue a Technical File and a Technical Construction File to demonstrate compliance. You may choose electrical parts not in accordance with the EMC directive. Because you are building a complete machine. Only then can CE Marking be applied to the whole machine. The manufacturer of these parts is responsible for EMC for that particular part. You must keep in mind that you and only you have responsibility for compliance with directives.2. Note: Be aware that combining CE-marked subassemblies may not automatically produce an apparatus that meets the requirements.EU Council Directives . 2. 4.You have the following responsibilities: 1.. which includes coupling up the motors to the PDS and providing the mechanical guarding and so on.NOTE: Before reading this section we strongly urge you to familiarise yourself with the terms explained on pages 16-19. Therefore. You must ensure that the PDS or its component parts carry Declarations of Conformity in accordance with the electrical safety requirements of the Low Voltage Directive. . 3. You need to ensure that the entire PDS meets the Machinery Directive. 22 Technical Guide No. 6. the PDS is ultimately your responsibility. the Low Voltage Directive and the EMC Directive. 5... You must be able to assure a Competent Authority and customers that the machine has been built according to the Machinery Directive. If you are a Machine Builder buying a PDS. A Declaration of Conformity according the directives above must be issued by the Machine Builder and CE Marking must then be affixed to the machine or system. you are liable for the total mechanical and electrical safety of the machine as specified in the Machinery Directive.. but then you have the responsibility for compliance of parts. Nevertheless you are responsible for EMC for the machine. You must ensure electrical parts are manufactured in accordance with the EMC Directive.

The aim is to eliminate any risk of accident throughout the machinery’s life. taking the necessary protective measures if some risks cannot be eliminated. the discomfort. which is not necessarily complete. the detailed list is contained within the Machinery Directive: Eliminate risk as far as possible. Comply with the following electrical safety checklist: To ensure the electrical safety of all parts of the PDS as specified in the Low Voltage Directive (refer to page 53) you need to comply with the following safety checklist. Detailed instructions relating to materials. construction and instructions must consider any abnormal use. Inform users of the residual risks. Actions you must take 1. Note: the detailed list is given in EN 60204-1. b. fatigue and stress of the operator must be reduced. controls. 2 Technical Guide No.2. Machinery design. Any machine that does not comply must be withdrawn from the market. Under the intended conditions of use. This can be obtained from CENELEC or the National Standardisation Association. The manufacturer must take account of the operator’s constraints resulting from the use of personal protective equipment. protection devices are given in Annex 1 of the Machinery Directive. lighting. Machinery must be supplied with all essential equipment to enable it to be used without risk.7. Comply with the following mechanical safety checklist. This is not a complete list. To meet the Machinery Directive (see page 52) you need to: a. indicate whether any training is required and stress the need for personal protective equipment.EU Council Directives 23 .

EU Council Directives . overspeed of machines/machine elements. • conductive structural parts of the electrical equipment and the machine. prevention of automatic re-start. etc. the supply voltage. loss of. The control circuits and control functions ensure safe operation including the necessary inter-lockings. abnormal temperatures. Defined on page 38 c. Compile a Technical File for the machine. • protective conductors in the equipment or the machine. emergency stop. including the PDS. or reduction in. 24 Technical Guide No. overload current. The electrical equipment is equipped with an equipotential bonding circuit consisting of the: • PE terminal. The equipment is protected against the effects of: overcurrent arising from a short circuit. The equipment shall provide protection of persons against electric shock from direct or indirect contact.2.The electricity supply should be equipped with a hand-operated disconnecting device and with emergency devices for switching off the supply in the event of an unexpected start-up.

3. he should be able to provide all Declarations. Refer now to page 38. a Type Certification (see page 45) is required from a Notified Body (see page 46). Based on the Technical File. The Machine Builder SHOULD NOT pass the File on to an End-User. 5. obtain a Certificate of Adequacy or Technical Report from a Competent Body. Such machinery is included in Annex IV of the Machinery Directive. Defined on pages 42 and 43 4. The Type Certificate issued should be included in the Technical File for the Machine or Safety Component. 2. Congratulations! You have successfully complied with the main requirements for safe and efficient operation of a machine. 6.2. must carry CE Marking and have a Declaration of Conformity. Refer to pages 30-32 in this case. If system designer or component supplier cannot provide Declaration of Conformity.EU Council Directives 25 . 2 Technical Guide No. the responsibility of demonstrating compliance according to EMC Directive or Low Voltage Directive lies on Machine Builder. If buying a PDS from a System Designer (see below). Declarations of Conformity from each of the component suppliers whose products make up the PDS and incorporate them into the Technical File. Issue a Declaration of Conformity for the entire machine.KEY POINT: Generally. Pass the Declaration of Conformity related to all three directives on to the End-User of the machine (refer to page 28). Only then can you apply CE Marking (see page 13). For machines that pose a high risk of accident. 7. referring to all three Directives. Apply CE Marking to the machine. Pass this Technical File to a Competent Body (refer to page 46).

Responsibility lies with the Component Suppliers for CE Marking of individual complex components 3.2. • if the answer is NO. 2.. The system designer assumes responsibility for compliance with the Directive. the system designer has to choose one of two paths to follow: Path 1 All components have EMC compliance 1.17). PDS is an System according to the EMC Directive (as placed on the market as a single funtional unit). The responsibility for Declaration of Conformity and applying CE Marking rests with both the System Designer and the supplier of the component parts which make up the Power Drive System. 2. A.17). Note 1: The system designer is responsible for producing the instructions for use for the particular system as whole.You have the following responsibilities: 1. the only Directives which need to be complied with are the Low Voltage Directive and the EMC Directive. 4. The System Designer has to decide if he is going to place his delivery on the market as a single functional unit or not • if the answer is YES. If you are a System Designer buying a PDS.EU Council Directives . the Machinery Directive has to be complied with by issuing a Declaration of Incorporation. 26 Technical Guide No. EMC behaviour is based on a component's performance.NOTE: Before reading the next section. If the delivery is classified as a system. 3.19. we strongly urge you to familiarise yourself with the terms explained on pages 16 . the delivery shall be classified as a system (refer to page 16 . the delivery shall be classified as an installation (refer to page 16 .. .. Therefore.. Because a PDS is not a machine. The PDS is a complex component of the machine. The Declaration of Conformity as well as the instructions for use must refer to the system as whole.

Actions you must take 1. 2. EMC behaviour is designed at the system level (no accumulated cost by device specific filters etc). Optimise the construction of the installation to ensure the design meets the required EMC behaviour. 5. Technical Guide No. Defined on pages 34 . DO NOT issue a CE Mark.2. 5. Declaration of Conformity and CE Marking are required for the System. Path 2 Components without EMC compliance 1. the location of filters. Issue a Technical Construction File for the System. 3. 2.40 3. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the system. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the system. No CE Marking is required for a system as whole. 4. i. 5.EU Council Directives 27 . 3. as long as each part bears the CE-mark. Issue a Declaration of Conformity and CE Mark.e. Responsibility lies with the System Designer who decides the configuration (place or a specific filter etc). 2. Issue a Technical Construction File for the System. PDS is a System according to the EMC Directive (as placed on the market as a single functional unit). Follow the Installation Guidelines issued by each of the component suppliers.Note 2: Be aware that combining two or more CEmarked sub-assemblies may not automatically produce a system that meets the requirements. 2 Actions you must take 1. 4. Follow all Installation Guidelines issued by each of the component suppliers. Issue a Declaration of Conformity. 4.

2. (such as an outside broadcast radio station) DOC and CE marking are needed.19. EMC behaviour is based on a component's performance. DO NOT issue a Declaration of Conformity or CE Marking as this is not allowed for fixed installations. 2.B. However. NOTE: Before reading the next section. If you are an End-User buying a CDM/ BDM or PDS KEY POINT: An End-User can make an agreement with the drive's supplier so that the supplier acts as the Machine Builder.EU Council Directives . If the delivery is an installation. we strongly urge you to familiarise yourself with the terms explained on pages 16 . PDS is an Installation according to the EMC Directive. the End-User is still responsible for the machine's safety. 4. 3. Transfer all Installation Guidelines and Declaration of Conformity (see page 42) for each of the components. Actions you must take 1. as issued by suppliers. 2. No Declaration of Conformity or CE Marking is required for a fixed Installation. Follow all Installation Guidelines issued by each of the component suppliers. the system designer has one path to follow: Path 3 All components have EMC compliance 1. Once an intermediary Panelbuilder incorporates a CDM/ BDM into a panel. 3. The supplier who acts as the Machine Builder will issue a Declaration of Conformity when the work is complete. 28 Technical Guide No. Responsibility lies with the Component Suppliers for CE Marking of individual complex components. to the Machine Builder. he creates a part of a PDS.

Ensure that equipment (CDM/BDM/PDS) is operated according to manufacturer's instruction in order to guarentee right way of operation. 1.You have the following responsibilities 1. The resulting EMC behaviour is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product. by following the manufacturer’s recommendations and guidelines.. Follow installation instruction issued by manufacturers in order to fulfill the requirements of the EMC Directive and the Low Voltage Directive. For the electrical safety of the drive as specified in the Low Voltage Directive (see page 53). To ensure the drive carries a Declaration of Conformity in accordance with the electrical safety requirements of the Low Voltage Directive.EU Council Directives 29 . 5. 4.. Technical Guide No. . 2. For the total mechanical and electrical safety of the machine of which the drive is part of. 2 Actions you must take The following needs to be completed by either the EndUser directly or the third party engaged to build the machine.The Panelbuilder then has the same responsibilities as the drive’s manufacturer. The manufacturer of the drive is responsible for determining the EMC behaviour of the drive. To be able to demonstrate to the Authorities that the machine to which the drive is being fitted has been built to both the Machinery Directive and Low Voltage Directive. To meet the Machinery Directive (refer to page 52) you need to follow the Actions listed for a Machine Builder on pages 22-25. 6. 2.2. 3. 3. as specified in the Machinery Directive (see page 52).

EU Council Directives . If you are a Panelbuilder buying a CDM/ BDM .NOTE: Before reading the next section. i.19. However.You have the following responsibilities: 1.e.Issue a Technical Construction File for the System.Actions to meet these responsibilities 1. 30 Technical Guide No. 93/68/EEC. If the Panelbuilder buys non-CE marked components. 91/263/EEC.If you choose to test yourself you must make reference to EMC Directives: 89/336/EEC. the responsibility for EMC is then the Panelbuilder's and this will incur considerable costs as the entire panel needs to be tested... the drive may be made to conform without further testing if the components themselves have been tested.Optimise the construction of the installation to ensure the design meets the required EMC behaviour. tested components do not carry the CE mark but must carry suitable instructions for installation. we strongly urge you to familiarise yourself with the terms explained on pages 16 . the location of filters. 2. It is these instructions which must be demonstrably met. Harmonised standard: EN 61800-3. 3.2. Defined on pages 47 to 54 4.To buy non-CE marked components This could save the Panelbuilder money because he buys components which are not tested for EMC. However. Option A . The Panelbuilder has two options: Option A . 92/31/EEC.Follow the Installation Guidelines issued by each of the component suppliers.

In the case of a system DO NOT apply CE Marking. Note: Be aware that combining two or more CEmarked components may not automatically produce a system. 7. 6. Once testing is completed. 2 Technical Guide No.2.Defined on pages 34-40 5. 7. the results need to be included in the Technical Construction File (TCF) for the panel. 6. Although the Panelbuilder does not have to carry out tests. he must ensure he conforms to the installation guidelines given by each of the component manufacturers. 3. 2. Buying CE marked components creates a system or an apparatus (refer to page 16-17) depending on the nature of the panel. Issue a Technical Construction File. which meets the requirements. Issue a Declaration of Conformity. a TCF must be created and results included for approval by a Competent Body. Beware! These guidelines could differ greatly from those given for normal installation purposes because the components will be in close proximity to each other. Option B .To buy CE marked components Option B . Issue instructions for use in order to operate the system or apparatus. If testing is incomplete or full compliance cannot be demonstrated. 4.Actions to meet these responsibilities 1. Apply CE Marking to your panel in the case of an apparatus. 5.EU Council Directives 31 . You must then issue the Declaration of Conformity and CE Marking for the panel (refer to page 13).

For each option there is a different requirement: 1. . You must ensure that the Installation Guidelines of the Machine Builder and/or System Designer are adhered to.. 2. KEY POINT: The Declaration of Incorporation CANNOT be used to apply CE Marking. the Declaration of Conformity must be passed to the Machine Builder or System Designer... If you know that the panel is to be used as part of a machine then you must request from the CDM / BDM manufacturer a Declaration of Incorporation. 3. 32 Technical Guide No.EU Council Directives .. If a Distributor is selling boxed products.Additional actions The Panel can be either sold on the open market or use as part of a machine. . In addition. If you are an Installer buying a CDM/BDM or PDS. The Machine Builder will need this Declaration of Incorporation because he has to construct a Technical Construction File (TCF) for the machine and in that file all the declarations need to be included. like CDM BDMs (drives).You have the following responsibilities: 1.2. Pass all Installation Guidelines and Declaration of Conformities to either the End-User. This is because CE Marking always needs a Declaration of Conformity... but CE Marking MUST NOT be affixed. 2. Actions you must take to meet these responsibilities 1. The Declaration of Incorporation must be supplied with the panel to the Machine Builder. If you are a Distributor buying a CDM/ BDM.. his only responsibility is to pass on the Installation Guidelines to the End-user. Machine Builder or System Designer. Machine Builder or System Designer. direct from the manufacturer.. Both the Installation Guidelines and the Declaration of Conformity are available from the manufacturer.You have the following responsibilities: 1.

2. 2 Technical Guide No. 2. Follow Machinery Builder and/or System Designer Installation Guidelines. Chapter 8 for recommended installation guidelines. Turn to page 58.Actions you must take to meet these responsibilities 1.EU Council Directives 33 .

A report or certificate from a Competent Body. The TCF consists of three parts: 1. A TCF allows the appropriate Declaration of Conformity to be drawn up. Alternatively the Technical Construction File (TCF) route is necessary. Procedures used to ensure conformity of the product to the requirements. A description of the product. A TCF is needed if you are: a.EU Council Directives . or where the Equipment can have several variants. or where suitable standards do not exist. Why is a TCF deemed to be important? Anyone placing a product onto the market within the EU must be able to show that the product meets the requirements of the appropriate EU Council Directive and must be able to demonstrate this to a Competent Authority without further testing.2. 34 Technical Guide No. or where the system may be complex and involve the inclusion of more than one equipment. b. 3. 2. c. KEY POINT: When do I use a TCF? The full contents of the TCF are given on pages 36-38.Chapter 5 . This may be by a Technical File to show that the standards route has been complied with (see page 38). d.Terminology Technical Construction File (TCF) What is a Technical Construction File? APPLIED TO: Electrical equipment RESPONSIBILITY: Electrical Equipment Manufacturer REQUIRED BY: EMC Directive A Technical Construction File (TCF) must be provided for the entire equipment or system and if required is to show a Competent Authority that you have met the essential requirements of the EMC Directive (see page 54). claiming compliance without necessarily meeting the standards.

In various parts of Europe the methods of ensuring compliance will vary. 2 What is the shelf Any TCF must be accessible to the appropriate Authorities for 10 years from the last relevant product being delivered. TCF copy? However. PLCs. if the manufacturer opts for that route. Competent Authorities can use the safeguard clause of the EMC-directive (withdraw the product from the market. The whole system is based on self certification and good faith. Even soft starters. I can avoid the Although TCFs may appear onerous and time consuming TCF? there is often no way of avoiding their use. but the end-user may ask for this from the manufacturer. it may well be possible to demonstrate compliance by the standards route and evidence of type tests using specified types and lengths of cable with fixing methods and segregation. intelligent motor protection relays and a host of other microprocessor based devices are subject to TCFs. he will obtain this assurance from the documentation delivered with the product. For a straightforward single drive application. How do I ensure that tests are always carried out? Can drive manufacturers help more? Technical Guide No. Use the standards route to compliance. Manufacturers accept that there is a need to work more closely with OEMs and Machine Builders where the converter can be mounted on the machine. However. Will customers The content of the TCF file is meant for the Authorities.EU Council Directives 35 . It is not required to supply a declaration of conformity with the product. A standard assembly or design should be achieved so that the TCF does not have to be repeated. take legal action). Supervision of these regulations is achieved through market control by a Competent Authority. life of a TCF? Is there any way Yes.2. as the customer needs to know whether the product is in conformance. the TCF is the preferred route. always receive a and thus the electrical equipment manufacturer does not have to give the TCF or any part of it to the customer. the idea of mounting drives in motor control centres (MCCs) must be much more carefully thought out by system specifiers.If there is any doubt in the manner of compliance. If the equipment fails to meet the requirements of the EMCdirective.

c. 36 Technical Guide No.2. as the summing of high frequency emissions to determine the effects at the MCC terminals is a complex issue and the possibilities of cross coupling are multiplied. a technical description a. identification of product a. the concept of mounting several drives in a motor control centre must be more carefully thought out. However. a description of the intended function of the apparatus. e. model number. including circuit diagrams. description of intended interconnections with other products.EU Council Directives . d. devices. assembly diagrams.This would only need a Technical File (see page 38). a block diagram showing the relationship between the different functional areas of the product. c. Description of the product (Note: You can photocopy these pages and use as a tickbox checklist) i. description of product variants. etc. b. ii. parts lists. otherwise the Technical Construction File route is still needed. d. relevant technical drawings. How to make up a TCF 1. installation diagrams. name and address of manufacturer or agent. any limitation on the intended operating environment. b. brand name.

e. the description of the solution adopted in order to comply with the directive. c. iii. and test reports relating to them. an overview of the logical processes used to decide whether the tests performed on the apparatus were adequate to ensure compliance with the directive. a list of standards applied in whole or part. b.EU Council Directives 37 . b. including details of test methods. A report or certificate from a Competent Body This will include: i. f. a list of the tests performed on critical subassemblies. ii. an explanation of the procedures used to control variants in the design together with an explanation of the procedures used to assess whether a particular change in the design will require the apparatus to be re-tested. test evidence where appropriate a. Procedures used to ensure product conformity i. d. etc. cross-referencing with Part I of the basic requirements of a TCF. details and results of any theoretical modelling of performance aspects of the apparatus. details of significant design elements a. c. cross referenced with part 2 (ii) of the basic requirements of a TCF. Technical Guide No. reference to the exact build state of the apparatus assessed. the use of cabling products known to minimise EMC problems). comment on the technical rationale. and test reports or certificates relating to them. relevant component specifications (e. 2 3. design features adopted specifically to address EMC problems. statement of work done to verify the contents and authenticity of the design information in the TCF.g.2. a list of the EMC tests performed on the product. ii.2.

This analysis will determine whether the tests show that the apparatus should comply with the essential requirements of the directive. TECHNICAL FILE (for mechanical safety aspects) What is a Technical File? APPLIED TO: Machines and Safety Components RESPONSIBILITY: Machine Builder/ System Designer REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive A Technical File is the internal design file which should show how and where the standards are met and is all that is needed if self certifying the equipment by the standards compliance route. Actions by the Competent Body The Competent Body (see page 46) will study the TCF and issue the Technical Report or the Certificate and this should be included in the TCF. where appropriate. an analysis of the tests performed either by the manufacturer.iv. 4. an authorised third party.EU Council Directives . it is possible to use this as a part of a Technical File. i. 38 Technical Guide No. on the procedures used to control variants. or the Competent Body itself. Declaration of Conformity and Declaration of Incorporation depending on the parts. v. and on environmental. installation and maintenance factors that may be relevant.2. to ensure they carry CE Marking. If a Declaration of Incorporation (see page 43) is included in a set of papers and this claims to meet the appropriate parts of the standards and simply instructs the user to meet the standards with other parts of his machine.e. Note: When compiling the TCF you may need all Declarations from suppliers. comment. and the results obtained.

1. All drawings. For series produced machines. Lists of the essential health and safety requirements. calculations and test results used to check the machine’s conformity with essential health and safety requirements. 1. Overall drawings of the machine. If required by a Harmonised Standard (see page 47) to which conformity is declared. a technical report is issued by a Competent Body (see page 46). 2 Other certificates required 1. Harmonised Standards. A copy of the instructions for the machine. 2.2. 2. A technical report or certificate issued by a Notified Body (see page 46) . Technical Guide No. This technical report shall include test results. other standards and technical specifications used when designing the machine.EU Council Directives 39 . Description of methods used to eliminate hazards presented by the machine. Control circuit diagrams. the control measures that are used to ensure that subsequent manufacture remains in conformity with the Directive. 2.How to make up a Technical File Drawings and diagrams Health and safety Machine design 1. 3.if required. 4.

2. it is possible to use this as a part of a Technical File. 1. examinations carried out. sub-assemblies. etc 3.if used. How to make up a Technical File Drawings and diagrams 1. Description of methods used to eliminate hazards 2.TECHNICAL FILE (for electrical safety aspects) What is a Technical File? APPLIED TO: Electrical equipment RESPONSIBILITY: Drive Manufacturer/System Designer/Panelbuilder/OEM/ Installer REQUIRED BY: Low Voltage Directive A Technical File is the internal design file which should show how and where the standards are met and is all that is needed if self certifying the equipment by the standards compliance route. A general description of the electrical equipment. etc. 40 Technical Guide No. Descriptions and explanations necessary for the understanding of said drawings and schemes and the operation of the electrical equipment.EU Council Directives . the control measures that are used to ensure that subsequent manufacture remains in conformity with the Directive. For series produced equipment. Results of design calculations made. Electrical Safety Aspect Other requirements 1. A list of the standards applied in full or in part. 2.. Standards 1. Conceptual design and manufacturing drawings and schemes of components. A technical report issued by a Notified Body or Competent Body (see page 46) . Test reports 4. circuits. If a Declaration of Conformity (see page 42) is included in a set of papers and this claims to meet the appropriate parts of the standards and simply instructs the user to meet the standards with other parts of his equipment. 3. or electrical equipment of machines. and descriptions of the solutions adopted to satisfy the safety aspects of this Directive where standards have not been applied.

implemented? How to obtain a Certificate of Adequacy KEY POINT: The Certificate of Adequacy is a document drawn up by a Competent Body (see page 46). Once the Body has established that the Technical File contains all the necessary information. the Technical Report or Certificate will be issued.2. The Technical Report or Certificate is a document drawn up by a Competent Body (see page 46).EU Council Directives 41 . Once the Body has established that the Technical Construction File contains all the necessary information. implemented? Technical Guide No.APPLIED TO: CERTIFICATE OF ADEQUACY Machines/Safety Components RESPONSIBILITY: Notified Body/Machine Builder REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive What if standards In this case the adequacy of the Technical File (see page cannot be wholly 38) is proved by a Certificate of Adequacy issued by a Competent Body. 2 TECHNICAL REPORT OR CERTIFICATE APPLIED TO: Electrical equipment RESPONSIBILITY: Competent Body REQUIRED BY: EMC Directive What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? How to obtain the Technical Report or Certificate KEY POINT: In this case the adequacy of the Technical Construction File (see page 34) is proved by a Technical Report or Certificate issued by a Competent Body. This report is based on the Technical File (see page 38). REPORT APPLIED TO: Electrical equipment RESPONSIBILITY: Notified Body/Competent Body REQUIRED BY: Low Voltage Directive What if standards In the event of a challenge the manufacturer or importer cannot be wholly may submit a Report issued by a Notified Body. the Certificate of Adequacy will be issued. The Technical Report or Certificate provided should be included in the Technical Construction File. The Certificate of Adequacy provided should be included in the Technical File.

The Report provided should be included in the Technical File. type and serial number. 2. if not obvious from the description. other standards and specifications used.How to obtain a Report The Report is a document drawn up by a Notified Body (see page 46). 6.EU Council Directives .2. 4. KEY POINT: APPLIED TO: DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY (for EMC and RESPONSIBILITY: electrical safety REQUIRED BY: aspects) Electrical equipment and electrical equipment of machines Equipment manufacturer Machinery Directive.if required. A list of Harmonised Standards. Safety function offered by the component. Details of the Notified Body which carried out the verification . the Report will be issued. 5. Once the Body has established that the Technical File contains all the necessary information and the equipment fulfils the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive. you must ensure you obtain all the Declarations of Conformity from each equipment supplier. 7. The Declaration of Conformity must contain: 1. 42 Technical Guide No.if required. Details of the Competent Body to which the Technical File was sent . Details of the Competent Body and number of Type Certification . 3. Details of the person authorised to sign on behalf of the responsible person. Equipment description including name. 8. Manufacturer's details and/or his authorised EU representative.if required. Low Voltage Directive and EMC Directive How to obtain a Declaration of Conformity As a Machine Builder.

Details of any Competent Body used and number of Type certification. Technical Guide No. 8. All regulations complied with including. if appropriate. Machinery description including the name.if required. This Declaration will show the standards that have been applied to the parts of the system within the manufacturer’s scope.EU Council Directives 43 . a statement of conformity with the relevant health and safety requirements or with the example that underwent Type Certification. 7. A list of Harmonised Standards used or the other standards and technical specifications used. 3.DECLARATION APPLIED TO: OF CONFORMITY (for mechanical RESPONSIBILITY: safety aspects) REQUIRED BY: How to obtain a Declaration of Conformity Machines Machine Builder Machinery Directive You need to provide the following: 1. 4.if required. Name and address of the responsible person. Details of the Competent Body which has drawn up a Certificate of Adequacy .2. 6. 5. Identification of the Authorised signatory. 2. Details of the Competent Body holding the Technical File . type and serial number. 2 APPLIED TO: Machines or equipment intended for DECLARATION incorporation into other machinery OF INCORPORATION RESPONSIBILITY: Drives Manufacturer/Machine Builder/Panelbuilder REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive What is a Declaration of Incorporation? Drives manufacturers must meet the appropriate parts of the Machinery Directive and provide a Declaration of Incorporation which states that the drive does not comply on its own and must be incorporated in other equipment.

Is there no way out of this type of Declaration? No. 1. 3.EU Council Directives . 4. It concludes that the entire equipment must meet the provisions of the Directive. as a whole including the equipment referred to in this Declaration. the manufacturer is legally obliged to ensure that whoever puts the system together must check that it is safe.if required. or of which it is to be a component.e. 6. to be in conformity with the provisions of the Machinery Directive and the national implementing legislation.if required. You must understand that because the manufacturer may be supplying only one part in a machinery.This Declaration includes a statement restricting the user from putting the equipment into service until the machinery into which it is to be incorporated. 5. A list of the Harmonised Standards (see page 47) used . Machine description. 2. Quite simply. Name and address of the responsible person. the manufacturer passes on the responsibility to the machine or system builder. and declared.if required. such as the inverter. Details of the Notified Body to which the Technical File has been sent . has been found.if required.2. Details of the Notified Body and the number of the Type Certification . What a Declaration of Incorporation contains 44 Technical Guide No. i. Details of the Notified Body which has drawn up a Certificate of Adequacy . Only then can the Machine or System Builder use the Declaration of Incorporation in his Technical File of the machine. The Declaration then lists the standards relating to the Machinery and Low Voltage Directives which the manufacturer has met. KEY POINT: Most manufacturers will include a Declaration of Incorporation covering the Machinery Directive for all built PDS products.

EU Council Directives 45 .2. a Type Examination Certificate will be issued. along with a Technical File. A warning that the machinery must not be put into use unless the machine into which it is to be incorporated is the subject of a Declaration of Conformity. Details of the person authorised to sign on behalf of the responsible person. APPLIED TO: TYPE CERTIFICATION 2 Machines and Safety Components RESPONSIBILITY: Machine Builder/Approved Body REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive How to obtain Type Certification Type Certification is carried out by an Notified Body (see page 46) who will establish that the unit supplied. may be used safely and that any Standards have been correctly applied. Once the Type Certification has established this. 8. Technical Guide No.7.

2. To find a suitable Competent Body contact your local Competent Authority or: EU Commission. which have their own Directives and/or require type testing. 46 Technical Guide No. When assessing product conformity.b. a manufacturer can use a third party to examine the conformity. If there is any doubt about conformity. They also issue the Technical Report or the Certificate for the product’s Technical Construction File (see page 34). Rue de la Loi 200. They can also withdraw such products from markets. To find a suitable Competent Authority or Notified Body you can contact: EU Commission. 1049 Brussels Ph: +32 2 296 45 51 Competent Body A Competent Body is a third party which can be used to assess a product’s conformity.Chapter 6 . 1049 Brussels Ph: +32 2 296 45 51 Notified Body A Notified Body issues Type Certificates for products. Rue de la Loi 200.b.Authorities and Bodies The responsibility for product conformity is given to the manufacturer. then the Authorities can demand technical documentation to show that a product complies with the directives concerning the product. The following types of Authorities and Bodies exist: Competent Authority A Competent Authority in any EU or EEA country supervises markets to prevent hazardous products being sold and marketed.EU Council Directives .

Chapter 7 . Standards give exact figures and limits for products. but compliance with Directives without the use of Harmonised Standards is extremely difficult.EU Council Directives 47 . or if all parts of a Harmonised Standard cannot be applied. • By way of a Technical Construction File when no Harmonised Standards exist. CENELEC.2. all Member States are involved in developing the Committee's proposals for their own national standard. if required by Authorities. The legislation of the European Union is defined by different Directives. In the harmonisation procedure. for telecommunications. What they do include is essential requirements mainly for Health and Safety which make the application of the relevant Harmonised Standards mandatory. 2 KEY POINT: It is recommended to use a TCF even when standards are harmonised as it makes it easier to show conformity afterwards. Technical Guide No. A standard becomes harmonised when published in the Official Journal of the EU. There are two ways to show that a Power Drive System or part of it conform: • Use of Harmonised Standards (EN). for electrical equipment and ETSI. The requirements of Directives are firmly established in Standards. The Directives concerning Power Drive Systems are known as New Approach Directives. which means that they do not include exact figures or limits for products. for areas of common safety. Directive or Standard? Harmonised Standards for PDSs To remove technical barriers to trade in EU or EEA countries. The responsibility for defining standards in Europe rests with three committees: CEN. the standards are Harmonised in Member States.Standards and Directives The use of standards is voluntary.

EU Council Directives . there is a Product Specific Standard (see page 50) covering EMC from Power Drive Systems. which. is also an electrical safety standard under the Machinery Directive. The important standard for PDSs is EN 60204-1.2. it is legally manufactured and when placed onto the market in one country. Your questions answered Which standards directly relate to drives? At the moment. which gives rating specifications for Power Drive Systems. it must be freely marketed in other member countries. How to recognise a European Standard Harmonised Standards come in the following format: XX EN 60204-1 where XX = the national prefix (eg BS = UK. in addition to being a Low Voltage Directive standard for all electrical equipment. 48 Technical Guide No. Electrical Equipment of Machines. Other important standards are EN 50178 according to Low Voltage Directive and EN 61800-2.The idea is that if a product conforms to the Harmonised Standard. SFS = Finland) EN = the abbreviation of Euronorm 60204-1 = an example of a standard number The first number in each standard index tells the origin of the standard: 2 40 50 60 = standards based on ISO = standards from CENELEC = standards from CISPR (a committee dealing with radio interference) = IEC based standards There is also some clue as to a standard's status: prEN 50082-2 = proposal for standard sent to Member States ENV 50 = pre-standard which is in force for 3 years to obtain practical experience from Member States.

tight enclosure. however. Important attenuation methods are shielded cables and 360o earthing.1. There are two ways to show that a Power Drive System conforms: • use of Harmonised Standards . providing this is for a single drive. (See page 58 for tips and advice). The use of standards is voluntary. over 1kW => No limits. While it is possible to make the drive enclosure into a Faraday cage and thereby have all radiation attenuated to earth. Conducted emissions at low frequencies are known as harmonics which have been a familiar problem to many users of a PDS.EU Council Directives 49 . Where harmonics are concerned EN 618003 refers to EN 61000-3-2 which does apply for equipment under 16 A per phase and after 1.EN 61800-3.What are the issues of EN 61800-3 and drives? For emissions there are two main aspects to consider: Conducted emissions: these are seen on the power supply cables and will also be measured on the control connections. At the moment two groups can be separated • Professional. while radiated emissions are air borne. involve third party (Competent Body) scrutiny of the file and a Certificate or a Technical Report from this body. but compliance with a Directive without the use of Harmonised Standards is difficult in the majority of cases. This does.2. Technical Guide No. in most situations. 2 What are the solutions to radiated emissions? Do I have to conform to the standards? The most important solutions are good installation practice. shielded cables and 360o earthing. it is necessary to use a TCF. using filters. • Other > The limits specified. Radiated emissions: These are more problematic. • if the Harmonised Standards cannot be applied.2001. which will incur additional costs (See pages 34-38 for a full explanation of how to use TCFs). in practice it is the outgoing connections where inadequate cabling radiates emissions and cross couples with other cables in the vicinity. Conformity with conducted emissions can be helped by good product design and is readily achieved.

the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product. Mode 1: A PDS with unrestricted distribution Complex component (PDS/CDM) sold “as built” to the End-User Description Placed on the market. system or installation. Mode 2: Restricted distribution A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold to be incorporated into an apparatus. 50 Technical Guide No. Description: Intended only for professional assemblers who have the level of technical competence of EMC necessary to install a PDS (or CDM/BDM) correctly.It is recommended to use the TCF where the Harmonised Standards are applied as it makes it easier to show conformity afterwards if required by the authorities. Failure to comply with any of the Directives will be a not conforming? criminal offence. the standard takes precedence over all generic EMC standards previously applicable. Can I be fined for Yes. Additional EMC measures are described in an easy-to-understand way and can be implemented by a layman.EU Council Directives . The PDS manufacturer is responsible for EMC behaviour of the PDS under specified conditions. The manufacturer of the PDS (or CDM/BDM) is responsible for providing Installation Guidelines. It puts PDSs and their component parts into four modes depending on the functional characteristics. EC Declaration of Conformity required. The Product Specific Standard EN 61800-3 This standard defines the required emission and immunity levels of PDSs and the test methods to measure the levels. by following the manufacturer's recommendations and guidelines. CE Marking required. The standard defines two modes of sales distribution and applies them to the PDS. Free movement based on compliance with the EMC Directive. When PDS/CDM is going to be incorporated with another product.2. The EC Declaration of Conformity and CE Marking are required. In Europe.

EC Declaration of Conformity and CE Marking required (for the apparatus or system). Mode 4: Apparatus or system Includes one or more PDS(s) (or CDM/BDM). 2 Mode 3: Installation One or more PDSs. system or other components. No Declaration of Conformity or CE Marking of the installation. Each apparatus or system included is subject to the provisions of the EMC Directive. The manufacturer of the PDS (or CDM/BDM) is responsible for the provision of Installation Guidelines. Essential protection requirements of the EMC Directive apply regarding the neighbourhood of the installation. sold without any control of the application. Resulting EMC behaviour is the responsibility of the manufacturer of the apparatus or system. components must have a sufficient degree of EMC. either Restricted or Unrestricted. Therefore. BDM used in domestic or industrial premises. The manufacturer is responsible that sufficient EMC will be achieved even by a layman.When a PDS/CDM is to be incorporated with another product. Technical Guide No. Applications of different Modes 1. brought together at a given place. it states that when sold without any control over the application (Unrestricted components). the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product. by following an appropriate EMC plan). they will not have to worry about compliance when they fit it to their machine. Although components are excluded from the Directive. the responsibility for CE Marking such components under EMC lies with the manufacturer. if members of the public (End-Users) buy a component off the shelf. Description: Not intended to be placed on the market as a single functional unit. manufacturers or users who separately or jointly have technical competence of the EMC requirements for the application of drives. Resulting EMC behaviour is the responsibility of the Installer (e. Description: Has an intrinsic function for the final user and placed on the market as a single commercial unit. Standard assembly: The manufacturer restricts the supply of equipment to suppliers.2.g.EU Council Directives 51 . in or with an apparatus. Thus.

PDS for use in installations. On their own they do not have an intrinsic function for the End-User. PDS or CDM/BDM for domestic or industrial purposes.EU Council Directives .2. but are sold to professional Installers who incorporate them into a machine.e. ready to use apparatus. The conditions of use are specified at the time of the order. pump or such like. Harmonic compensation is an evident example of this. which have a specific Directive. Inverters come under the second category of components .2. This is sold as a sub-assembly to a professional assembler who incorporates it into a machine. 93/44/EEC and 93/68/EEC has been replaced by a new numbering scheme which simply refers to 98/37/EC This Directive concerns all combinations of mechanically joined components. They are not on sale directly to the End-User. 3. apparatus or system. PDS combined with application device (machine) such as a vacuum cleaner. both for technical and economical reasons. i. Conditions of use are specified in the manufacturer’s documentation.Restricted distribution. Exchange of technical data allows optimisation of the EMC solutions. The Directive concerns all machines but not those like lifts. apparatus or system. Machinery Directive 98/37/EC How does the Machinery Directive affect my drive? 89/392/EEC modified by 91/368/EEC. process control etc). fan. consequently an exchange of technical data between supplier and client is possible. 52 Technical Guide No. mechanics. It can consist of different commercial units (PDS. The combination of systems in the installation should be considered in order to define the mitigation methods to be used to limit emissions. 4. where at least one part is moving and which have the necessary control equipment and control and power input circuits.

then it must carry the CE Marking (for more on CE Marking.EU Council Directives 53 . It tries to ensure only inherently safe products are placed on the market.KEY POINT: As far as drives are concerned. All parts of a PDS from converters and motors to control gear must conform with the Low Voltage Directive. mechanical. modified by 93/68/EEC This Directive concerns all electrical equipment with nominal voltages from 50V to 1kV AC and 75V to 1. On its own. This is a Declaration that the product conforms to the requirements laid down within this Directive. the Complete Drive Module (CDM) does not have a functional value to the user. 2000. see page 13). Thus. It always needs its motor coupled to the driven load before it can function effectively. the Declaration of Conformity for the Complete Drive Module (CDM) (see pages 18 and 19) and for the Motor have to be given separately by the manufacturer of each product. fire and radiation hazards. the new version of EN 60204-1 will be in force after 1st October. the manufacturer must provide a Declaration of Conformity. obtain a Rue de la Loi 200. Technical Guide No. Machinery Directive copy? Low Voltage Directive How does the LVD affect my drive? 73/23/EEC. 2 To obtain a copy of the Machinery Directive you can Where can I contact a local Competent Authority or EU Commission. The aim of the Directive is to protect against electrical. If a product conforms to the Directive and has a Declaration of Conformity.5kV DC. the Declaration of Conformity is needed for each of its component parts. Thus. b-1049 Brussels.2. To guarantee that a product complies. In the case of a Power Drive System. it cannot carry the CE Marking based on the Machinery Directive.

in fact EMC cannot be designed . EMC Directive How does the EMC Directive affect my drive? 89/336/EEC modified by 91/263/EEC. therefore. has the final responsibility to ensure that the machine including any VSD and other electrical devices. These are drives built into an enclosure. which is a component and needs an enclosure. Although the Directive expects that EMC should be taken into account when designing a product. At each stage of the manufacturing process. as its name implies. There are two aspects to consider with the EMC Directive: • the immunity of the product. The Machine Builder. to achieve EMC compatibility with other products and systems. • the emissions from that product.KEY POINT: Most manufacturers will include a Declaration of Conformity covering the Low Voltage Directive for all built PDS/CDMs. The Directive aims to ensure emissions from one product are low enough so as not to impinge on the immunity levels of another product. meets the EMC requirements. This is in contrast to an open chassis (BDM). This is because the drive is not a final functional product to the customer. which can be wired up to the supply and switched on without any further work being undertaken. 92/31/EEC and 93/68/EEC The intention of the EMC Directive is. Why is the Declaration of Conformity important? KEY POINT: Without the Declaration of Conformity the CDM could not carry the CE Marking and therefore it could not be used legally in any system. KEY POINT: CE Marking CANNOT be given automatically on the basis of this Directive.2. but is always part of a machine or process.EU Council Directives .it can only be measured quantitively. from component to system. each manufacturer is responsible for applying the 54 Technical Guide No.

This may be in the form of instructions on how to install or fit the equipment without causing problems.2. Either the Machine Builder or System Supplier has the final responsibility that the machine or system including the drive and other electrical and electronic devices will meet the EMC requirements. 2 KEY POINT: It is the responsibility of the person who finally implements the system to ensure EMC compliance. So. Yet it is the entire system or machinery that must meet the requirements of the EMC Directive.appropriate parts of the Directive. Who has the responsibility to ensure CE Marking? A frequency converter is likely to be only a part of a Power Drive System.EU Council Directives 55 . drives manufacturers are in a position to choose whether to put CE Marking on to a frequency converter to indicate compliance with the EMC Directive or to deliver it as a component without CE marking. Technical Guide No. It does not imply that there is a string of Declarations of Conformity to be compiled into a manual.

Summary of responsibilities

Summary of Manufacturer's responsibilities in the application of EC Directives to systems containing a PDS:

Warnings & Guide

Power Drive System
Machinery Directive Any safety relevant standard such as EN 60204-1 etc

Low Voltage Directive
EN 60529, EN 60204-1 EN 50178

EMC Directive
EN 61800-3

TECHNICAL FILE

TECHNICAL FILE

TECHNICAL FILE or TECHNICAL CONSTRUCTION FILE

Apply Harmonised Standards as far as possible

Apply Harmonised Standards

Competent Body to review TCF or apply Harmonised Standards EU Declaration of Conformity CE Mark applied

Declaration of Incorporation No CE Marking as the PDS is a component of the machine

EU Declaration of Conformity CE Mark applied

If some of the Directives result in CE Marking, the PDS (or CDM or BDM) can be CE marked with the corresponding Declaration of Conformity.

An analogue of this procedure occurs for each end product which is to be combined with a PDS. However, check all Directives applicable to the end product.

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Achieving conformity with EC Safety Directives

2
Machine Technical File PDS Compliance by Application of Standards Declaration of Conformity

*

TCF for EMC

Competent Body

Report of Certificate

*

*
Competent Authority

* Only if required during market surveillance.

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Chapter 8 - Installation
General installation concerns
The aim of this section is to provide general installation guidelines to ensure the Power Drive System functions in accordance with the legislation detailed previously. It is worth highlighting some of the problems which industry now faces as a result of the EMC legislation. For example, • To avoid EMC problems it is now important that motor cables should be terminated in the inverter - not at a terminal board in a motor control centre. They certainly must not be run in parallel with unshielded conductors where some pick up is inevitable. • Implementing features like by-passes becomes difficult to prevent cross-coupling. • Where a panel builder puts a converter into a secondary enclosure, the ventilation louvres can quite easily become waveguides, if poorly designed or finished. • In theory, every small installation needs a Technical Construction File (TCF) (see pages 34-38) to confirm compliance with the EMC Directive and a Technical File for the LVD. This means that the idea of mounting drives into motor control centres must be much more carefully thought out by system specifiers. • Testing on site is likely to be needed on large installations. • In theory, the manufacturer can deliver, in conjunction with a Machine Builder, a perfectly good CE marked system which can be installed, and due to site problems we can still get problems of radiation blotting out someone’s radio.

Technical requirements of the legislation

There are several technical requirements of the proposed legislation: There must be an on-load disconnecting device in each supply, unless an auxiliary contact switches off the load (except for units up to 3kW/16A where a plug and socket connection is used). The isolator must be between 600 and 1900 mm from the floor.

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Means of preventing unexpected start, for example during maintenance, is required, i.e. padlocking the isolator in the off position. Electrical equipment has to be protected against direct and indirect contact. Doors must be locked by a tool or IP2X protection fitted internally with warning labels. The voltage inside must be below 60V after 5 seconds from switching off, otherwise special labels stating the time must be fitted (i.e. for DC-link capacitors). Every machine must be equipped to allow stopping by removing voltage from a circuit unless it is dangerous to do this. Programmable electronic equipment shall not be used for this function. The Stop and Emergency Stop function has to be selected by a risk assessment of the machine. Drawings must use standard IEC formats and symbols. Motors must comply with IEC 34-1/EN 60034-1 standards. Warning flash symbols shall be fitted to covers to show they contain electrical equipment.

2

How can EMC be improved? KEY POINT:
The best way is to follow good installation practice and to thoroughly read the Product Specific Manuals. This way you can be assured that the motor drive installation is within the limits of EN 61800-3. There are four main approaches to improving the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of drives and thereby reduce the emissions of susceptible equipment. These are: • good general installation practices. • good earthing. • good shielding. • good filtering.

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General installation practice Cabling
Motor cabling is a source of interference. Other cables also become sources if they run parallel with motor cables. Therefore, separate motor cables from other cables by 500 mm. Otherwise, the use of the RFI filter is almost useless. Power and signal cables should cross each other at right angles.

Relay Outputs

Relays, contactors and magnetic valves must be equipped with spark suppressors. This is also necessary when these parts are mounted outside the frequency converter cubicle.

Varistor

Device e.g. converter RC-filter

230 VAC

230 VAC Diode

+ 24 VDC -

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Earthing

You need to note that, just because there is a good safety earth at DC or at power frequencies, this does not imply a good earth at radio frequencies. There are several steps to ensuring good earthing improves EMC: Follow all local safety regulations on earthing. The largest possible area should be used as the earth conductor, e.g. the cabinet wall construction. The parts of the earth system should be connected together using low impedance connections. Flat braided wires have a much lower high frequency impedance than round wires. Earth connections should be kept as short as possible. Choose one central earthing point to which the wires can be star-connected. Paint or other insulating coatings must be removed from the area of the bond to achieve a low impedance connection. Low impedance earthing bonds should be checked as part of standard maintenance and service procedures.

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Ensure that the shield is intact along the full length of the cable and that each end is bonded to earth through 360o terminations. This means that: There should be no breaks in the cable shields. shielded supply. it will act as an excellent transmitting aerial. all these elements must be connected together to form one shield. b. To achieve low impedance bonding it may be necessary to use additional screws. Circuit diagram of a typical High frequency filter L Line Input Terminals R R C C Earth Earth C C L L Load Output Terminals 62 Technical Guide No.2. this shield consists of three elements: a. c. To make the Faraday Cage effective. This cable carries more conducted noise than the input cabling of the drive and although it is a closed loop. The cable between the drive and the motor must be shielded. the motor housing. remove paint from the surface of cabinets or use EMC gaskets.EU Council Directives .Shielding The principle of Faraday Cage is an attempt to provide a shield around a system to prevent radiated signals from entering or leaving. motor and signal cables with 360o earthing. The separate panels of the cabinet should be bonded together and have low impedance at high frequencies. the tight drive cabinet. For a drive. The shield connections should have low impedance in the MHz range.

Other drives have filters as standard options and these should avoid any problems of installation. In installations incorporating multiple drives in one enclosure. Always segregate the input and output cabling of the filter and drive. Also.Filtering Filters are installed on the drive's power supply lines to prevent interference currents reaching the mains and affecting other equipment. Many drives incorporate filter components as part of their basic design. 2 Technical Guide No. remove any paint or other protective coating from the area of the panel that will be in direct contact with the filter.EU Council Directives 63 . Here are a few tips to improve your filtering: A good quality filter must be mounted as close as possible to the drive input (Refer to the RFI filter manufacturer's instructions). a general purpose filter should be fitted at the housing cable to attenuate any additional coupled signals. Before mounting the filter. You cannot achieve first environment (domestic) levels without using a filter on the line terminals. Also note that a static shield between the windings of a transformer provides a very effective RF shielding and will help provide de-coupling between the conducted RF in interconnected circuits. filters should be fixed to each drive.2. Bond the filter to the same conductive panel as the drive.

these tests must be carried out in accordance with the product specific EMC-standard of the machine or in accordance with generic EMC-standards. It may not be necessary to do the tests in 1(c) and 1(d) above if the machine is tested in sections. 1s). 64 Technical Guide No.EU Council Directives . Note: EMC for large complex machines cannot always be tested with the complete system working. Functional tests. b) c) d) e) 2.2. according to IEC 60364-6-61. Electrical safety aspects a) Continuity of the protective bonding circuit for example. Protection against residual voltages. The levels of interference used shall be selected in accordance with the environment in which the machine is intended to be used. In this case it is possible to test sub-assemblies of the system before they are mounted together. Electromagnetic Compatibility .Testing and installation There are basically two items that need to be tested when the electrical equipment is fully connected to the machine: 1. Insulation resistance test. Voltage test (2 x Unom.

Your technical concerns answered What is the affect of varying impedance? What are the effects of multiple drives?
You can reduce the conducted emissions by reducing the source impedance. The impedance of the connection cables has some “filter effect” (1,5uH) but this is usually not enough to reduce the conducted emission. Therefore, extra reactors and filters are required. The higher the number of drives in parallel, the higher the emissions. Filtering of the conducted emissions is recommended at the point of common supply input. The common panel of the multiple drives must be bonded together as one Faraday Cage and the shields of all cables in and out of the panel must be bonded to the panel. The practical approach should be agreed with a Competent Body. This should be such that the worst case of larger panels are tested. The results shall be evaluated by the manufacturer. The basis of evaluation shall be assessed by a Competent Body. The same procedure and methods can then be used for the easier and smaller units.

2

Large installations with many drives can take up to 3 months and be costly. What can we do?

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Chapter 9 - Index
12-pulse drive 19 A ABB Automation Group 7 abnormal temperatures 24 apparatus 16, 17, 36, 37, 38, 50, 51, 52 authorised EU representative 42 B Basic Drive Module (BDM) 16, 17, 19, 20, 28, 30, 32, 50, 51, 52, 54, 57 C cables 17 CE Mark 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 38, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58 CE Marking 28, 31, 32 CEN 47 CENELEC 23, 47, 48 Certificate of Adequacy 25, 41, 43, 44, 46, 49 Competent Authority 7, 22, 34, 35, 46, 53, 57 Competent Body 7, 25, 31, 34, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 46, 49, 56, 57, 65 Complete Drive Module (CDM) 15, 16, 19, 20, 28, 30, 32, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 57 component 17, 28, 31 component supplier 25, 26, 27, 30 Components with direct function 16 Components without direct function 16 conducted emissions 49, 65 conducted noise 62 contactors 60 Control circuit diagrams 39 cross-coupling 58 D DC- link capacitors 59 Declaration of Conformity 13, 14, 15, 17, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 34, 35, 38, 42, 43, 44, 45, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57 Declaration of Incorporation 26, 32, 38, 43, 44, 45, 57 direct function 16, 17 Direct Torque Control 7 Distributor 7, 20 Drive 1, 7, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 26, 29, 30, 35, 43, 47, 49, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 62, 63 Drives manufacturer 10, 11, 43, 55 E earthing 49, 59, 61, 62 EEA 10, 14, 46, 47 electrical safety 22, 23, 29, 48, 64 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 22, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 34, 35, 37, 42, 48, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64 EMC Directive 16, 17, 28 Emergency Stop function 59 EN 61800-2 48 EN 61800-3 30, 49, 50, 59 EN 50178 48 EN 60204-1.2 23 EN 61000-3-2 49 End-User 7, 15, 16, 20, 25, 28, 29, 32, 35, 50, 51, 52 equipotential bonding circuit 24 ETSI 47 European Union (EU) 1, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 34, 35, 46, 47, 48, 50, 53, 57 EU Council Directives 1, 7, 9 F Faraday cage 49, 65 filter 19, 27, 30, 49, 59, 60, 63, 65 frequency converter 19, 55, 60 H harmonics 49 Harmonised Standard 30, 39, 42, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50, 57 I IEC 18, 48, 59, 64 indirect contact 24, 59 input cabling 62 Installation 7, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 19, 20, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 38, 49, 50, 51, 52, 58, 59, 63, 64 Installation Guidelines 27, 30, 32, 33, 58 installation instructions 15 Installer 7, 11, 20, 32, 51, 52 Insulation resistance test 64 isolator 58, 59

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L Low Voltage Directive 9, 13, 14, 22, 23, 26, 29, 44, 48, 53, 54, 57 M Machine Builder 7, 15, 20, 22, 25, 28, 29, 32, 33, 35, 38, 41, 42, 43, 45, 54, 55, 58 Machinery Directive 9, 14, 22, 23, 25, 26, 29, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 52, 53, 57 magnetic valves 60 Member State 47, 48 microprocessor 10, 35 mobile radio transmitters 10 motor 14, 15, 19, 20, 22, 36, 53, 58, 59, 60, 62 motor control centre 35, 36, 58 motor protection relays 35 N National Standardisation Association 23 New Approach Directive 47 Notified Body 25, 39, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46 O OEM 7, 20, 35 overcurrent 24 overload current 24 P Panelbuilder 15, 16, 17, 20, 28, 29, 30, 31, 43, 58 Parameters 14 PE terminal 24 phase-shift transformer 19 PLCs 35 portable car telephones 10 Power Drive System (PDS) 1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 32, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58 R Relays 60 resistors 17 Restricted distribution 50, 52 RFI 60

S Safety Component 25, 38, 41, 45 shield 62, 63 shielding 59 self-certification 13, 35 sensor 19 shielded cable 49 short circuit 24 single commercial unit 17 single functional unit 17 soft starters 35 spark suppressors 60 Standards 7, 9, 10, 13, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 57, 59 star-connected 61 System Builder 44 System Designer 7, 20, 25, 26, 27, 28, 32, 33, 38 Systems 16 T Technical Construction File (TCF) 13, 17, 22, 27, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 46, 47, 49, 50, 57, 58 Technical File 13, 22, 24, 25, 34, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 57, 58 terminal blocks 17 Type Certificate 25, 46 Type Certification 25, 42, 43, 44, 45 Type Examination Certificate 45 U unrestricted distribution 50 unshielded conductors 58 User Manual 59 V Variable Speed Drive 7 W walkie-talkies 10 warning labels 59

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Technical Guide No.2- EU Council Directives

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ABB Oy Drives P.O. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.abb.com/motors&drives

3AFE 61253980 REV C EN 27.6.2003 Specifications subject to change without notice.

Technical Guide No. 3

EMC Compliant Installation and Configuration for a Power Drive System

2

Technical Guide No.3 - EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS

........................................................ 17 RFI filtering ................................................. 11 Installation ............................. 15 Radiated emission ...................................................... 6 Definitions ......................................................................... 11 CE marking for EMC ...................................... 11 First Environment ...... 6 Earthing principles ....... 5 The Directives concerning drives .................... 8 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of PDS .......... 5 OEM customer as a manufacturer ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 General .. 17 3 2 3 Technical Guide No. 12 Second Environment ..... 12 Propagation ........... 6 Practical installations and systems ..... 5 This guide’s purpose ............................................. 5 Who is the manufacturer? ............ 13 Restricted distribution ............ 10 Components with direct function .......................................................................................................... 16 Clean and dirty side ....................... 8 Immunity ..................................................................................................................................... 5 Panel builder or system integrator as a manufacturer ...... 11 Installation environments................................................................................Contents 1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 12 The drive’s route to market .......................................... 7 Definitions ................................... 8 Emission ............... 15 Emissions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 3 ........... 10 Components without direct function ...... 13 EMC solutions ................................... 6 Product-specific manuals.. 5 General .................................................... 9 Component ................................................. 13 EMC emission limits ..................................... 15 Conducted emission .................................................................................................................. 5 The responsibility of the manufacturer ............................................3 ......... 11 Apparatus & systems ........................... 8 Power Drive System ....... 8 Types of equipment ................................... 12 Unrestricted distribution ......... 13 EMC plan ......................... 15 Solutions for EMC compatibility .............

.................. 360O HF earthing ..... Control cables and cabling ...............EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS .............................................................................................................................................. Conductive gaskets with control cables ................................................................................................ 34 Example of common DC bus fed sectional drive ........................ 4 18 18 19 19 19 21 22 22 23 24 24 25 26 27 28 30 30 Practical Examples .. Arc suppressors ................. 33 Typical example of a 12-pulse drive .... Internal wiring....... Power cables ... Installation of the RFI filter ......................................... Transfer impedance ......... HF earthing with conductive sleeve ................................................ 32 Simple installation . 32 Example of By-pass system <100kVA .. Drives in IT-networks ............................. 38 5 6 4 Technical Guide No.....................................3 .......................................................................................... 360O earthing at motor end ....................................................... Selection of a secondary enclosure ................................................. Installation of accessories ............................................................... Holes in enclosures ...... 36 Bibliography ......................... HF earthing with cable glands ...Selecting the RFI filter ........ Use of Ferrite rings ......................................................... 37 Index ...................................

Introduction General This guide assists design and installation personnel when trying to ensure compliance with the requirements of the EMC Directive in the user’s systems and installations when using AC drives.Chapter 1 . The auxiliaries include contactors. There are three directives which concern variable speed drives. brand label or the type marking is an example of modification resulting in “as new” equipment. The purpose of this guide is to guide Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM). 2 “EU Council Directives and Variable Speed Drives”. This document deals only with the EMC Directive. if the TCF route is used. They are the Machinery Directive. It is well known that OEM customers sell equipment using own trade marks or brand labels.” According to EMC Directive (89/336/EEC) article 10 part 1. Low Voltage Directive and EMC Directive. This guide’s purpose 3 The Directives concerning drives Who is the manufacturer? The responsibility of the manufacturer OEM customer as a manufacturer Technical Guide No. fuses. By following these instructions it is possible to fulfil EMC requirements and give CE marking when necessary. switches. etc. system integrators and panelbuilders in designing or installing AC drive products and their auxiliary components into their own installation and systems. also becomes the manufacturer. According to part 2 the manufacturer is responsible for writing and updating the Technical Construction File (TCF).EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 5 . These guidelines give the following definition of a manufacturer: “This is the person responsible for the design and construction of an apparatus covered by the Directive with a view to placing it on the EEA market on his own behalf. The European Commission has published guidelines on the application of the EMC Directive. with a view to placing it on the EEA market.3 . The requirements and principles of the Directives and use of CE marking is described in Technical Guide No. Whoever modifies substantially an apparatus resulting in an “as-new” apparatus. the manufacturer is responsible for attaching the CEmark to each unit. Changing the trademark.

In order to help panel builder/system integrator. The solutions can be directly used or applied by the OEM or panelbuilder.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . Apparatus is an entity and includes any documentation (manuals) intended for the final customer. The terms and definitions defined in the standard are also used in this guide. Thus. He cannot pass this responsibility to a supplier. Panel builder or system integrator as a manufacturer According to the EMC Directive. The earthing and cabling principles of variable speed drives are described in the manual “Grounding and cabling of the drive system”. finished products. the panel builder or system integrator has sole and ultimate responsibility concerning EMC of the system.Introduction Frequency converters sold as OEM products shall be considered components (Complete Drive Module CDM or Basic Drive Module BDM). ABB Oy offers installation guidelines related to each product as well as general EMC guidelines (this document). the OEM-customer has sole and ultimate responsibility concerning EMC of equipment. a system is defined as a combination of several types of equipment. and/or components combined. A panel builder or system integrator typically undertakes this kind of work.3 . It also includes a short description of interference phenomena. Definitions The EMC Product Standard for Power Drive Systems. code 3AFY 61201998. Practical installations and systems Earthing principles 6 Technical Guide No. and he shall issue a Declaration of Conformity and Technical Construction File for the equipment. designed and/ or put together by the same person (system manufacturer) intended to be placed on the market for distribution as a single functional unit for an end-user and intended to be installed and operated together to perform a specific task. This guide gives practical EMC examples and solutions which are not described in product specific manuals. ABB Oy offers services to help OEM customers to issue a TCF and a DoC in order to CE mark the product according to the EMC Directive. Thus. EN 61800-3 (or IEC 61800-3) is used as the main standard for variable speed drives.

This guide is intended to be used together with product specific manuals.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 7 . can be found in the product manuals specific manuals. 3 Technical Guide No.Introduction Product-specific Detailed information on the installation and use of products. cable sizes etc.3 .

Figure 2-1 Immunity and emission compatibility. Typical low-frequency phenomena are mains voltage harmonics. As variable speed drives are described as a source of interference. The concept that a system is as weak as its weakest point is valid here. A drive can be considered as a Basic Drive Module (BDM) or Complete Drive Module (CDM) according to the standard. High-frequency phenomena include electrostatic discharge (ESD).EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . conducting radio frequency disturbance and electrical surge. the equipment must not disturb or interfere with any other product or system within its locality. radiating electromagnetic field.Chapter 2 . The source of high-frequency emission from frequency converters is the fast switching of power components such as IGBTs and control electronics. This high-frequency emission can propagate by conduction and radiation. Immunity Electrical equipment should be immune to high-frequency and low-frequency phenomena. This is a legal requirement for all equipment taken into service within the EEA.3 . it is natural that all parts which are in electrical or airborne connection within the PDS are part of the EMC compliance. notches and imbalance.Definitions Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of PDS EMC stands for Electromagnetic Compatibility. The parts of a variable speed drive controlling driven equipment as a part of an installation are described in EMC Product Standard EN 61800-3. Likewise. The terms used to define compatibility are shown in figure 2-1. It is the ability of electrical/electronic equipment to operate without problems within an electromagnetic environment. fast transient burst. Emission Power Drive System 8 Technical Guide No.

be extended to all installations. Systems made by an OEM or panelbuilder can consist more or less of the PDS parts alone. or there can be many PDSs in a configuration. rue de Stassart. 1050 Bruxelles. or in some cases. 35. but the same solutions can. All standards are available from the national bodies on standardisation and from CENELEC. This guide gives principles and practical EMC examples which can be applied to a user’s system. Converter and Protection Feeding section Auxiliaries and others Motor and Sensors Driven Equipment Figure 2-2 Abbreviations used in Drives. Types of equipment The EMC Directive applies to “all electrical and electronic appliances together with installations containing electrical and/ or electronic components liable to cause electromagnetic disturbance or the performance of which is liable to be affected by such disturbance”. The solutions described in this guide are used within the definition of Power Drive System. 3 System control and sequencing Basic Drive Module BDM Control. should.3 . The interpretation of the EMC Directive for different configuration in the area of drives can be divided into several levels: Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 9 .Definitions It is recommended that design and installation responsible personnel have this standard available and be familiar with this standard.

it is considered as a component (Case 2).Definitions Component In this context the interpretation of component can be divided into two main categories. specified by the manufacturer in the instruction for use for an end user. e.g. These instructions should help him to solve any EMC problems with his final apparatus. the requirement for the BDM supplier is to deliver instructions for installation and use. Such a component is not an ‘apparatus’. which fulfils the intended use. According to the EMC Directive. which can be performed by any person not fully aware of the EMC implications.3 .EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . which can be performed by any person not fully aware of the EMC implications. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category. 2) The direct function is not available without further adjustment or connections other than simple ones. These are meant to be assembled by a professional assembler (e. If a component performs a direct function without further adjustment other than simple ones. According to the EMC Directive the system manufacturer or panel builder is resonsible for CE-mark. The only requirement for such a component is to provide it with instructions for use for the professional assembler or manufacturer of the final apparatus into which the component will be incorporated. panel builder or system manufacturer) into a cabinet not in the scope of delivery of the manufacturer of the BDM. a drive installed into a cabinet or drive with enclosure and sold as a complete unit (CDM). e. Declaration of Conformity and Technical Construction File. The component can either deliver a ‘direct function’ or not.g. Components with direct function Components with a direct function can be divided into two sub-groups: 1) The direct function is available without further adjustment or connections other than simple ones. All provisions of the EMC Directive apply (CE-mark. the component is considered equivalent to apparatus (Case 1). 10 Technical Guide No.g. Direct function: Any function of the component itself. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category. Such a component is an ‘apparatus’ and it is subjected to all provisions of the EMC Directive. basic drive module (BDM). If a component performs a direct function that is not available without further adjustment other than simple ones. Declaration of Conformity).

3 Installation A combination of items of apparatus. but are not required to be CE marked. The environment class depends on the way the PDS is connected to power supply. Several items of apparatus combined to fulfil a specific objective and intended to be placed on the market as a single functional unit. Technical Guide No.Definitions Components without direct function Apparatus and systems Components with no direct function are not considered as apparatus within the meaning of the EMC Directive. These components include resistors. A finished product containing electrical and/or electronic components and intended to be placed on the market and/ or taken into service as a single commercial unit. Installations are required to satisfy various parts of the Directives. Apparatus and systems must be CE marked. cables. CE marking for EMC Figure 2-3 The CE mark. etc. The environment classes are First and Second Environment. The EMC Directive does not apply to these. equipment and/or components put together at a given place to fulfil a specific objective but not intended to be placed on the market as a single functional unit.3 . Installation environments The PDSs can be connected to either industrial or public power distribution networks. A component with a direct function without further adjustment than simple ones needs to carry CE marking for EMC (Case 1). Note: The products may carry CE marking for other directives than EMC. terminal blocks.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 11 . A component with a direct function that is not available without further adjustment than simple ones does not need to carry CE marking for EMC (Case 2).

see figure 2-5 Equipment (victim) PDS (emitter) Figure 2-4 Illustration of Environment Classes and propagation of disturbances. It also includes establishments directly connected without intermediate transformer to a low-voltage power supply network which supplies buildings used for domestic purposes. 12 Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . even if propagation is through a medium voltage network. The measurements are carried out only in case of dispute (see figure 2-5). The drive’s route to market The EMC Product Standard for PDS divides the drive’s routes to the market into Unrestricted and Restricted sales distribution classes. The situation is the same if a victim is in a Second Environment in another installation.Definitions First Environment “The First Environment includes domestic premises. Propagation “For PDSs in the second environment.3 . the user shall ensure that excessive disturbances are not induced into lowvoltage network.” Note: Figure 2-4 shows the case when a victim is in a First Environment.” “Second Environment includes all establishments other than those directly connected to a low-voltage power supply network which supplies buildings used for domestic purposes" Medium voltage network Second Environment Propagation of conducted emissions Public low-voltage network Point of measurement for conducted emission 1st Environment Industrial low-voltage network Point of measurement 2nd Environment Boundary of installation 10 m Point of measurement for radiated emission.

EMC Plan Technical Guide No. The appropriate limits of the PDSs of the restricted distribution class in the second environment may not be met due to technical reasons. Goods can be placed in service by a person skilled in the operation of goods. Limits for certain conditions can be selected by using the following flow chart (see Figure 2-5).EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 13 .3 . Restricted distribution “Restricted distribution is a mode of sales distribution in which the manufacturer restricts the supply of equipment to suppliers.” This means that the goods require EMC competence to be put into service. customers or users who separately or jointly have technical competence in the EMC requirements of the application of drives. type of power supply network and power of the drive. but without any specific EMC experience. 3 EMC emission limits The EMC emission limits for PDS depend on the installation environment. “These applications are: • IT networks in complex systems • Current above 400 A • Voltage above 1000 V • Where the required dynamic performances are limited because of filtering … the user and the manufacturer shall agree on an EMC plan to meet the EMC requirements of the intended application.” This means that the manufacturer and the user make the EMC Plan in cooperation.Definitions Unrestricted distribution “Unrestricted distribution is a mode of sales distribution in which the supply of equipment is not dependent on the EMC competence of the customer or user for the application of drives".

14 Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS .3 .Definitions EN 61800-3 EMC Product Standard for PDS 1st Environment (public low-voltage network) 2nd Environment (industrial network) Either Unrestricted or Restricted Distr .5 1 Frequency (MHz) 5 10 30 0. quasi-peak 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) DISPUTE The polluter solves Figure 2-5 Emission limits for PDS.15 0.5 1 Frequency (MHz) 5 10 30 quasi-peak quasi-peak See also EMC Plan R A D I A T E D 70 10 m. Unrestricted Distribution Restricted Distribution I < 100A Disturbance in power port dBuV 100 79 80 73 66 60 56 40 20 0 0. quasi-peak 45 40 37 35 30 30 25 0 30 200 230 400 600 800 1000 20 10 0 30 Frequency (MHz) 200 230 400 600 See also EMC Plan Unrestricted (10 m). quasi-peak 60 50 40 quasi-peak quasi-peak I > 100A C O N D U C T E D 150 130 125 115 110 100 90 86 70 50 0.15 Disturbance dBuV/m 50 47 Restricted (10 m).

This all is referred to as fully integrated EMC. There are some basic principles which have to be followed when designing and using drive systems incorporating AC drive products. So in this context only emissions need to be handled. Solutions for EMC compatibility 3 Emissions Drive products are normally immune to a majority of disturbances. to attenuate switching sparks • Using ferrite rings in power connection points Technical Guide No. cable entries and other special points were all considered in great detail. Conducted emission Conducted disturbances can propagate to other equipment via all conductive parts including cabling.Chapter 3 . valves. the conducted emission and the radiated emission. mechanical design.EMC Solutions General The solutions used to fulfil immunity and both radiated and conducted emission requirements are described in this chapter.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 15 . etc. contactors. The emissions can be divided into two parts.3 . The disturbances can be emitted in various ways as the following figure shows: Figure 3-1 Emissions. These same principles were used when these products were initially designed and constructed. otherwise they would be affected by their own disturbances. where such issues as printed circuit board layout. Conductive emissions can be reduced in the following way: • By RFI filtering for HF disturbances • Using sparking suppressors in relays. earthing and the metal frame of an enclosure. wire routing.

e.g. all parts of the Power Drive System should form a Faraday Cage against radiated emissions. • Use materials with good attenuation e. • Special attention must be given to earthing. if a metal enclosure cannot be used. Installation: • Auxiliaries used with CDMs should be CE marked products to both EMC & Low Voltage Directives. being with a component without a direct function. See product specific manuals. • Use unpainted installation plates. plastic with conductive coating. • Selection and installation of accessories in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions. See product specific manuals. unless they are not concerned. Cabling & Wiring: • Use special HF cable entries for high frequency earthing of power cable shields. “dirty” side from the “clean side” by metal covers and design. if necessary.e. • Use conductive gaskets for HF earthing of control cable shield. • Correct internal wiring methods. motors. auxiliary boxes. make contact. doors. 16 Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS .g. where appropriate. • Unpainted metal to metal contacts shall be used throughout. • Use twisted pairs to avoid disturbances. • Use shielded power and control cables. with conductive gaskets. ensuring all separate metal items are firmly bonded to achieve a single path to earth.3 . etc. • Separate radiative i. • Route power and control cables separately. The PDS includes cabinets. • Select and route internal wires correctly. NOT ONLY to LVdirective. etc. Covers should be secured at not more than 100 mm intervals where radiation could escape. • Use ferrite rings for disturbances. • 360° earthing at motor end. Some methods for ensuring the continuity of the Faraday Cage are listed as follows: Enclosure: • The enclosure must have an unpainted non-corroding surface finish at every point that other plates.EMC Solutions Radiated emission To be able to avoid disturbance through air. cabling. • Use conductive gaskets in doors and covers. bonded to common earth point. • Holes in enclosure should be minimised.

is referred to as the clean side.g. Practical Examples. To be able to keep the clean side “clean” the dirty parts are separated into a Faraday Cage. e. isolators. E. This can be done either with separation plates or with cabling. Enclosed wall mounted drives are designed so that the circuit followed by output connection is the only dirty part.3 . Output filters attenuate disturbances at the output of a PDS.EMC Solutions Note: When selecting equipment for a configuration it is essential to check that both radiated and conducted emissions have been taken into account. fuses. Clean and dirty side The circuit before the point where supply power is connected to the CDM and where the filtering starts. etc. Technical Guide No. by-pass). That is the case if the installation instructions of the drive are followed.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 17 . du/dt and common mode filters help somewhat. The use of additional components. contactors. When the Faraday cage is formed by cabling. even if they have not been designed for RFI.g. The parts of the BDM which can cause disturbances are described as the dirty side. 3 RFI filtering RFI filters are used to attenuate conducted disturbances in a line connecting point where the filter leads the disturbances to earth. When using separation plates the rules for enclosure holes are applicable (see section Holes in enclosures later in this chapter). in some cases makes it difficult to keep the clean and the dirty side separate. Some examples of solutions are described in chapter 4.g. the rules for cabling must be applied (see sections on cabling and wiring in this chapter and follow the product specific instructions for the drive). This can happen when contactors or switches are used in circuits to change over from clean to dirty side (e.

EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . Some drive products need a separate filter (see product specific instructions). distributed filtering. Paint shall be removed from all connection points. Installation of the RFI filter Reliable HF/low impedance connections are essential to ensure proper functioning of the filter. • Filter shall be assembled on a metal plate with unpainted connection points all in accordance with filter manufacturer’s instructions. It is always necessary to test a filter in conjunction with the source of disturbance to ensure adequate attenuation and to meet applicable emission limits. It is not possible to compare the disturbances measured from a source.EMC Solutions Note: Filters cannot be used in floating network (IT-network) where there is high impedance or no physical connection between the phases and the earth. Selecting the RFI filter An RFI filter is selected to attenuate the conducted disturbances. and the insertion loss for a filter. and must be separated from each other. • The frames of the filter cubicle (if separate) and the drive cubicle shall be bolted together at several points.3 . therefore the following instructions shall be followed. Figure 3-2 Example of filtering integrated in drive module. • The input and output cables of the filter shall not run in parallel. as the measurement base for the two items of information will not correspond. 18 Technical Guide No. Figure 3-2 shows an example of integral.

3 Figure 3-3 Examples of suppression. or if additional components are to be connected to the dirty side of an otherwise compliant unit.EMC Solutions • The maximum length of the cable between the filter and the drive must be according to the RFI-filter manufacturer's instructions. an IP 00 open chassis converter).EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 19 .3 . For enclosed chassis modules where the motor connections are made directly to the converter output terminals. there are no requirements for special enclosures. Technical Guide No. (e. • The filter must be earthed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Note that the cable type and size are critical.g. Arc suppressors Relays. This is also necessary when these parts are mounted outside the frequency converter cubicle. Drives in ITnetworks Check with a meter that there are no filtering capacitors connected to earth. Selection of a secondary enclosure Where the BDM is to be installed. it is always necessary to provide an EMC enclosure. contactors and magnetic valves must be equipped with spark suppressors. and all the internal shielding parts are fitted.

Thickness 60µ. 20 Technical Guide No. plastic boxes can also be used if they are painted inside with conductive paint. EMC is only one part of enclosure selection. In this document only the EMC aspect is handled. The enclosure must adhere to the following parameters as a minimum: • Thickness: 0. The surfaces that make metal to metal contact shall not be painted. as the integral Faraday Cage will no longer apply. otherwise metal boxes should be used. • Louvres: holes in steelwork < 21 mm in width or proprietary RFI proof type. • Outside surface: Electrostatic powder coating e. Enough locks for high frequency earthing. for example.75 mm stainless (galvanised) steel (Normally recommended < 1.5 mm for stiffness). then an EMC enclosure will be needed.3 . and adequately earthed. In small systems.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . As a reminder. From the EMC point of view it means that the enclosure is firm and proof enough to be a part of the Faraday Cage.g. Electrical Safety Standard EN 50178 or Product Standard EN 61800-2 and are not described here. • Doors: Sealed with conductive gasket. polyester powder paint (TGIC).EMC Solutions If drives are fitted with output switching devices. • Inside surface: Hot galvanised and chromated steel. The enclosure is sized according to several criteria: • • • • • • • • Safety Degree of Protection (IP Rating) Heat Rejection Capability Space for accessory equipment Cosmetic aspects Cable access EMC compliance General requirements for EMC compatibility The safety of people and animals together with degree of protection (IP-rating) requirements are mainly described in Machinery Safety standard EN 60204-1. or other cosmetic finish. Not painted. The paint must have metal to metal contact at each seam to other parts of the metal enclosure. External safety switches can also be in plastic boxes if the boxes form a good Faraday Cage and are conductive inside.

A number of proprietary enclosure types are available. which equates to 1/10TH of the wavelength of a 300 MHz frequency. This dimension has been found acceptable in EMC tests. locks. for door devices. all earthed. etc. the maximum diagonal or diameter for any hole is 100 mm. Glazing must be connected to non painted metal surrounds with conductive double sided tape or conductive gasket. Holes bigger than 100 mm must be covered with a metal frame surrounding the aperture and earthed to the enclosure. 3 Figure 3-4 Enclosure detail. When an EMC enclosure is to be used. if there is any possible doubt about problems with HF disturbances. also recommended to use metal framed devices if their assembly holes are between 30 mm to 100 mm. however.g. Larger viewing holes can be covered by proprietary glazing with conductive coating. which use a variety of materials and methods of shielding against radiated emissions.3 . Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 21 . Holes in enclosures In most cases. cables.EMC Solutions • Cover plates: Metal against metal (not painted). some holes must be made in the enclosure e. It is. The manufacturer’s guidelines for construction and earthing must be followed. louvres.

To get the best possible result from HF earthing. HF earthing with cable glands 22 Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS .3 . There are different ways to implement the HF earthing. the cable shielding should be covered with a conductive tape. auxiliary connection box or motor. otherwise twisted pair is acceptable o Figure 3-5 Typical enclosure aperture detail. the cable shielding must continue as near to the control connections as possible. 360° HF earthing 360° HF earthing should be done everywhere where cables enter the drive enclosure. Only the outer insulation of cable should be removed to expose the cable screen for the length of the cable gland. The tape must cover the whole surface of the shielding. including pigtail. Cable glands are not normally used for control cables due to the fact that the distance from the control connections to the cable glands is often too long for reliable HF earthing. The glue must be conductive. The solutions used in ABB’s CDM/BDM products are described here. make 360 earthing for cable. If the glands are used with control cables. and should be tightly pressed with fingers after every single turn. The cable glands which are specially designed for 360° HF earthing are suitable for power cables with a diameter less than 50 mm.EMC Solutions Maximum size 72 x 72 mm instrument Note: If front plate of door device is plastic.

EMC Solutions wires as possible covered with conductive tape 3 Figure 3-6 Essential points of power connections.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 23 . The sleeve is connected to the Faraday Cage by tightening it to the specially designed collar in the gland plate. Figure 3-7 360° earthing with conductive sleeve. The advantage of this solution is that the same sleeve can be used for cables with different diameters.3 . HF earthing with conductive sleeve 360° HF earthing in power cable entries can be done by using a conductive sleeve around the cable shielding. Technical Guide No.

Figure 3-8 Essential points in motor cabling. For motors which are not totally enclosed. namely: • Cable gland must be used for clamping the cable. 24 Technical Guide No. When gaskets are mounted at a gland plate. In this method the shielded control cable is led through two gaskets and pressed tightly together. and a specific cable gland is not required. • Conductive gaskets should be used for sealing both the cable gland plate and the terminal box cover for the Faraday Cage and IP 55 degree of protection. Figure 3-8 shows a Faraday Cage solution at the motor end.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . IC06. the continuity of the Faraday Cage must be ensured in the same manner as for the converter enclosure.EMC Solutions The cable can be mechanically supported by clamps. etc. • Earthing pigtail conductors should be as short as possible. such as in cooling form IC01. as the figure 3-9 shows. • Cable shielding should be sealed with conductive tape. Conductive gaskets with control cables The 360° HF earthing for control cables can be done with conductive gaskets. In this case the outer insulation of the cable should be removed to allow connection to the shield for the length of the gasket transit. 360° earthing at motor end The continuity of the Faraday Cage at the motor end must be ensured by the same methods as in cabinet entry. The shielding should be covered with conductive tape. the cable shielding must continue as near to the control connections as possible.3 . Note that the sleeve does not act as a strain relief clamp.

The cable shield should be earthed to the connection end by a short pigtail. Technical Guide No. and twisted in pairs where appropriate. Twist the pairs up to terminals Control connections 3 Short pigtail PE Cable Cable shielding covered with conductive tape Pull the outer insulation required by gasket (about 3 cm) Press the gaskets together Unpainted gland plate Conductive gasket Continuity of Faraday Cage Clamp Control cables Figure 3-9 Essential points for control cabling transit. be divided into two categories depending on how immune/sensitive they are. Installation of accessories The variety of accessories which can be installed is so large that only basic principles for selection and installation can be given for them. however.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 25 . All connection tails should be as short as possible. The gaskets must be installed to connect with the earthed unpainted surfaces of the gland plate to which they are mounted. The hole size in a gland plate required by these gaskets is typically 200 x 50 mm.EMC Solutions The best HF earthing is achieved if gaskets are mounted as near to the control connections as possible.3 . Accessories can.

• Use galvanically isolated (potential free) signals. • Avoid mixing pairs with different signal types e. contactors etc. • Use shielded twisted pairs for signal level outward and return wires exiting from the overall enclosure. • Run wires along the metal surface and avoid wires hanging in free air. 230 VAC. • Keep wires twisted as near the terminal as possible. digital. In general. • Internal clean power connections with integrally filtered drive units. It is therefore recommended to use metal enclosed/shielded devices wherever such devices are available. multistranded or braided flexible conductors for low RFI impedance. • Use twisted pair wires wherever possible.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . 24 VDC. • If plastic trunking is used. analogue.g.. e. secure it directly to installation plates or framework. Some examples of protected and open devices are given in the chapter Practical Examples. • Earthing connections should be as short as possible in flat strip. switch fuses. It is therefore important to remember the following basic rule: Safety is always the first priority and overrules the EMC requirements.EMC Solutions The protected device in this context means its ability to keep the Faraday Cage closed. The rules for holes in the enclosure must be applied if there are devices forming a bridge between the clean side and the dirty side which can be disturbed.g. which do not have a metal covering around them.3 . In some cases there might be some confusion between safety and EMC requirements. 110 VAC. • Keep power and control wiring separate. such devices cannot be installed into the clean side without protective metallic shielding plates. The rules for holes in the enclosure must then be applied. Typical open devices are fuses. from contactor to converter input. 26 Technical Guide No. Internal wiring There are some basic rules for internal wiring: • Always keep clean and dirty side cables separate and shielded from one another. Do not allow spans over free air which could form an antenna. do not require shielded cables but may require de-coupling ferrite rings where they enter the converter input. which can become an antenna. • Keep pigtails as short as possible.

Control cables and cabling The control cabling is a part of the Faraday Cage as described in the section Conductive gaskets with control cables. In addition to correct HF earthing there are some basic rules for control cabling: • Always use shielded twisted pair cables: .double shielded cable for analogue signals . Technical Guide No. • Earth directly at frequency converter side.3 .single shielded for other signals is acceptable but double shielded cable recommended. • Keep twisted pairs individual for each signal.free) RC filter or varistor for AC relay Avoid parallel running with control wires Cross in 90˚ angle Avoid parallel running with control wires Cross in 90˚ angle Figure 3-10 Principles of wiring inside CDM.EMC Solutions DIGITAL INPUTS 3 RELAY OUTPUTS (pot. • Don’t run 110/230 V signals in the same cable with the lower signal level cables.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 27 .

EMC Solutions If instructions for the device at the other end of the cable specify earthing at that end. power cables with good shielding effectiveness must be used. Motor cable Mains cable Figure 3-11 Routing principles of control cables. There is more about control cabling in the documents “Grounding and cabling of the drive system” and in product specific manuals. In order to be efficient. the shield must have good conductivity and cover most of the cable surface. • Route signal cables according to figure 3-11 whenever possible and follow instructions given by the product specific manuals. Power cables As the cables are part of the PDS they are also part of the Faraday Cage. the shield cross area (or equivalent conductivity) must be at least 50 % of the cross sectional area of the phase conductor. If the cable shield is used as protective earthing. 28 Technical Guide No.3 .EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . The purpose of the shield is to reduce radiated emission. To be able to meet the EMC requirements. earth the inner shields at the end of the more sensitive device and the outer shield at the other end.

the types can be evaluated by the transfer impedance of the cable. and the shield material should preferably be either copper or aluminium. and because cable manufacturers have several different shield constructions. The suitability for certain drive types is mentioned in the product specific manuals. 3 Figure 3-12 Galvanised steel or tinned copper wire with braided shield. Technical Guide No. Figure 3-13 Layer of copper tape with concentric layer of copper wires. It is commonly used with communication cables. The transfer impedance describes the shielding effectiveness of the cable.3 .EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 29 .EMC Solutions The product specific manuals describe some cable types which can be used in mains supply and motor output. The cable can consist of either braided or spiral shield. If such types are not available locally. Figure 3-14 Concentric layer of copper wires with an open helix of copper tape.

The ferrite core increases inductance of conductors and mutual inductance. 30 Technical Guide No.3 . Figure 3-16 Ferrite ring in signal wire. The longer the cable run. Common mode disturbances can be suppressed by wiring conductors through the common mode inductor ferrite core (figure 3-16). Use of Ferrite rings In particular cases due to high emission levels. so common mode disturbance signals above a certain frequency are suppressed. Figure 3-15 shows typical transfer impedance values of different cable constructions. To meet the requirements for radiated emission the transfer impedance must be less than 100 mΩ/m in the frequency range up to 100 MHz.EMC Solutions Transfer impedance Limit Figure 3-15 Transfer impedance for power cables. An ideal common mode inductor does not suppress a differential mode signal.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . common mode inductors can be used in signal cables to avoid interfacing problems between different systems. The highest shielding effectiveness is achieved with a metal conduit or corrugated aluminium shield. the lower the transfer impedance required.

all phase conductors should be led through the ring. The inductance can be increased by using several successive rings.e. When using a ferrite ring with power cable.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 31 . With power cables it is not normally possible to make multiple turns through the ring.EMC Solutions The inductance (i. the ability to suppress HF disturbances) can be increased by multiple turns of the signal wire. 3 Technical Guide No. it is recommended that measurements be made to show conformance. If for any reasons the installation instructions cannot be followed and therefore additional ferrites or filters are added afterwards. The shielding and possible earth wire must be wired outside the ring to keep the common mode inductor effect.3 .

the cabinet is not required to be EMC proof. ensuring attenuation of radiated emissions. The supply is made through the RFI filter. because connections are made directly in an EMC compliant frequency converter. Figure 4-1 Basic PDS Configuration. 32 Technical Guide No.Chapter 4 .Practical Examples Simple installation Shielded cables are shown interconnecting the primary parts. The Faraday Cage is earthed and all the emissions are drained to earth.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . In the case shown in figure 4-1.3 .

3 . which makes it difficult to design. Contactors are not RFI barriers.Example of By-pass system <100kVA In this case it is difficult to ensure that no cross coupling occurs between the dirty side of the converter and the clean side above the Direct On Line (DOL) contactor. A suitable RFI filter at the supply input connections would require to be able to pass the DOL starting current. 3 Cabinet 1 Supply connection For more details. Ferrite cores used in the feeds to the contactor will help attenuate the coupled noise as shown in figure 4-2. and would be greatly oversized for normal running. which can be six to seven times the normal Full Load Current. and the coil circuits are also vulnerable. see 360˚ MOTOR EARTHING Figure 4-2 Basic scheme with By-pass. Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 33 .

For definitions. see section Installation Environments in chapter 2.Practical Examples Typical example In this case a 12-pulse rectifier is an IT system. in this case. An isolating transformer allows the PDS to be earthed and to use a suitable filter. therefore any filter in the line must be at the primary of the phase shift transformer.3 . Experience has shown that. Therefore an RFI filter may be needed at the primary side of the transformer for EMC compliance. for use in the First Environment. RFI filter is not normally needed for second environment. For equipment fed from an IT system.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . the earth shield between the transformer windings is not quite adequate for conducted emissions attenuation for use in the first environment. 34 Technical Guide No. a similar procedure can be used. The Point of Coupling is at a medium voltage and emissions may be considered at the next low voltage point of coupling in the system. with short connections to the busbars. Low voltage supply Note: All equipment inside must be enclosed Figure 4-3 12-pulse converter system fed at LV. unearthed of 12-pulse drive due to the delta winding. The level of emissions should correspond to those for the appropriate environment.

Figure 4-5 12-pulse converter system fed at medium or high voltage.Practical Examples 3 Figure 4-4 12-pulse converter system fed at LV (CDM.3 . transformer and switch fuse have separate housing). Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 35 .

Practical Examples Example of common DC fed sectional drive This example features a common DC bus sectional drive which is supplied from an earthed network through an RFI filter.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . Common Earth Figure 4-6 Common DC bus fed sectional drive fed at LV 36 Technical Guide No. The enclosure must be EMC proof as the components inside are not. Cable entries must be 360° HF earthed. The enclosure is earthed to drain away all emissions.3 .

Interference Free Electronics by Dr. 2 .EU Council Directives and Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems. Helsinki.3 .EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 37 .Industry.Bibliography Various texts are referred to in this guide. Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems . Sten Benda (published by ABB Industry Ab. Finland) 3 Technical Guide No. published by European Commission DGIII . code 3BFE 61253980 (published by ABB Industry Oy. Finland) Grounding and cabling of the drive system. EMC product standard including specific test (published by CENELEC. Västerås. Helsinki. Belgium and National Standards organisations in EU member countries). They are recommended further reading to assist in achieving compliant installations: EN 61800-3.part 3. Sweden) Technical Guide No. Brussels. EN 61800-3:1996/A 11:2000 Guidelines by the Commission on the application of Council Directive 89/336/EEC.Chapter 5 . code 3AFY 61201998 (published by ABB Industry Oy.

9. 12. 8. 34 34 L Low Voltage Directive 5 low-frequency phenomena 8 low-voltage network 12. 24. 16. 16. 32. 21. 16. 8. 18. 33 Control Cable 16. 18. 25. 27. 26. 25. 17. 26 Environment Class 11. 19. 19. 22. 26. 35 cross coupling 33 customer 13 D delta winding 34 direct function 16 DOL 33 double shielded cable 27 drive 1. 24. 11. 5. 30. 21. 29. 13. 24. 11. 12. 27 gland plate 23. 20. 27. 26 plastic trunking 26 Point of Coupling 34 power components 8 power distribution networks 11 power supply network 12.Index 12-pulse rectifier A antenna 26 apparatus 11 B Basic Drive Module (BDM) 34 ferrite core 33 Ferrite ring 15. 3. 20. 33. 32 fuse 5. 26 G gasket 16. 13. 9. 16. 16. 13. 19. 37 phase shift transformer 34 pigtail 24. 28. 27 Contactor 5. 15. 9. 17. 8. 20. 3. 22.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . 34 frequency converter 8. 28. 6. 27. 26. 26. 25 H harmonics 8 high-frequency emission 8 High-frequency phenomena 8 I IGBT 8 imbalance 8 Installation Environment isolating transformer IT system 34 8. 17. 8. 17 M Machinery Directive 5 medium voltage network metallic screening 26 motor 24 N notches 12 8 O Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) 5. 27. 13 38 Technical Guide No. 32 cable gland 22. 6. 21. 19 C cabinet 16.24. 37 electromagnetic disturbance 9 electromagnetic environment 8 electrostatic discharge 8 enclosure 15. 14. 29. 19. 6. 19. 24. 24 CE mark 3. 37 E EEA 8 electrical surge 8 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) 1. 22. 25 control electronics 8 converter 8. 31 First Environment 3. 30. 24. 9 Power Drive System (PDS) 1. 12. 15. 6. 24. 10. 32 fast transient burst 8 3. 26. 27. 5. 21. 12. 5. 20. 17. 34. 6. 31. 24. 19.Chapter 6 . 22. 19. 34. 5. 3. 24. 23. 32. 11. 34. 15. 20. 37 Complete Drive Module (CDM) 8. 23. 16 CENELEC 9. 9 P Panelbuilder 5. 17. 17. 13. 28 control connection 22.3 . 28. 17. 9. 11. 28.17. 12 F Faraday Cage 16. 19 conducting radio frequency disturbance 8 conduction 8 Conductive gasket 16. 27 Component 3. 26. 24. 16. 17.

17. 8. 11. 13 3. 12. 22. 16.3 . 13 RF impedance 26 RFI filter 15. 18. 12. 26. 33 S Sales distribution 12. 13 V Variable Speed Drives (VSD) 6. 9. 16 Restricted Distribution 3. Technical Guide No. 13 Second Environment 3. 32. 12. 12 Shielded cable 26. 22.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 39 . 32 single commercial unit 11 single functional unit 11 strain relief clamp 24 suppliers 13 System Integrator 5 T transformer twisted pair 3 12. 37 5. 34 16. 27 U Unrestricted 3.R radiating electromagnetic field 8 radiation 8. 17. 13 Unrestricted Distribution user 5.

com/motors&drives 3AFE 61348280 REV C EN 11.abb. . Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.O.ABB Oy Drives P.2003 Specifications subject to change without notice.6.

4 Guide to Variable Speed Drives .Technical Guide No.

2 Technical Guide No.Guide to Variable Speed Drives .4..

......14 Reversed rotation or torque is sometimes required .............. 7 Variables in processing systems .......................... 24 2 4 3 4 Technical Guide No........... 20 The best control method is VSD ............................................................................................................ 9 and to transport materials ................ 23 Higher quality . 22 DC drive ..........Contents 1 Introduction ......................................................... 10 Gaseous materials .... 9 Well defined shape ........................................4............................... 10 Liquid materials .... 5 General ..................................... 23 Maintenance costs ...................................11 Electric motors drive most machines .15 The load................................................. 17 The drive torque and load torque are equal at nominal speed ............................ 6 Why variable speed control? ................................................. hydraulic and electrical VSDs .....................................................................12 Frequency converters control electromagnetic induction .10 The workhorse of industry: The electric motor ................................................................................... 22 Hydraulic coupling ... 5 Processes and their requirements ..... 18 Variable volumes require some form of control 19 Variable material flow and input/output requirements 19 Simpler control methods ........................................ 21 Mechanical.................................... friction and inertia resist rotation .................. 22 Electrical VSDs dominate the market ..............................................13 The efficiency of the drive system .................................... 6 Industrial segments with VSD processes ..................................................... 11 Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy .............. 9 Indefinite shape ............................................... 23 Energy saving .................................. 8 Machines are used to alter materials' properties ................................................. 10 Solid materials ......................................................................................... 23 The AC drives market is growing fast ...................... 23 Productivity ....... 22 AC drive ...........16 The motor has to overcome the loading torque ................................................................................Guide to Variable Speed Drives 3 ......

......................... Total cost comparison ....................................... No mechanical control parts needed .................................. The motor .................................. Environmental features ..... Operational costs: Maintenance and drive energy ............................................................. EMC ................. Eliminating mechanical vibrations ....... Investment costs: Mechanical and electrical components ............... AC drive features for better process control .................. 40 4 Technical Guide No............ Cost benefits of AC drives ................................................................4........... Power loss ride-through ........................................................................... The basic functions of an AC drive ...............................................................................................5 AC drive: The leading control method ................... Slip compensation ..................... Technical differences between other systems and AC drives ........ Flying start ................................................................................Guide to Variable Speed Drives . A motor's load capacity curves with an AC drive . Reversing . The AC drive ............ Stall function ..................................................... Installation costs: Throttling compared to AC drive ........... Torque control ........................................................... Factors affecting cost ........................................................................... 25 25 26 27 28 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 33 34 35 36 36 36 37 38 39 6 7 Index .....

Special attention has been given to electrical VSDs and especially to AC Drives. The guide tries to be as practical as possible.Introduction General This guide continues ABB’s technical guide series. describing different variable speed drives (VSD) and how they are used in industrial processes. No special knowledge of VSDs is required. although basic technical know-how is required to fully understand the terms and descriptions used.4.Chapter 1 . 4 Technical Guide No.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 5 .

we first need to understand the requirements of different processes. although there are many different sub-categories that come under these two basic headings. material treatment and material transport.4. These processes can be divided into two main categories. 6 Technical Guide No. This is accomplished with VSDs. This chapter describes the main industrial and nonindustrial processes using VSDs.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . Common to both main categories. however. is the need to be able to adjust the process.Chapter 2 .Processes and their requirements Why variable speed control? To understand why variable speed control is necessary.

These can be met by adjusting the supply and return air fans. These adjustments are carried out with VSDs. day or week. For example. the fans need to be adjusted according to the main process. In both cases.4.Processes and their requirements 4 Industrial segments with VSD processes Industrial processes are numerous. and the list above mentions just some of the industrial segments with VSD processes. air flow requirements change according to the humidity and temperature in the room. the need for VSDs differs according to the process. the main process changes due to varying demands for power at different times of the year. in air conditioning applications (part of HVAC).Guide to Variable Speed Drives 7 . Fans are also used in power plants and the chemical industry. Likewise. What they have in common is that they all require some kind of control using VSD. Technical Guide No. In power plants.

Material treatment can also be controlled by VSDs. material or energy is processed by means of mechanical power. in which the hot air temperature must be constant. but in every process. In the processing system itself.Processes and their requirements Variables in processing systems This diagram shows what kinds of variables affect the processing system. chemical and biological reactions or even nuclear power. Each process needs the material and energy supplied to accomplish the required process. The process is controlled by controlling the speed of the hot air fans using VSDs.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . 8 Technical Guide No. VSDs are used to control the mechanical power of the different machines involved in the process. thermal influence. in the form of energy and/or material. These variables can be divided into energy and material variables. electromagnetic influence. A good example is a drying kiln. is also produced.4. The product or final material state is the output of the process. In processing systems. waste.

The shape can be either well defined or indefinite. Indefinite shape Technical Guide No. Materials with an indefinite shape. Examples are paper machines. are processed with machinery. metal and wood.. and different kinds of centrifuges and extruders. are processed with plant equipment. Examples of this kind of equipment are margarine stirrers.. such as various food products.. Materials with a well-defined shape.4.Processes and their requirements 4 Machines are used to alter materials' properties. such as paper. rolling mills and saw mill lines. Well defined shape As mentioned earlier in this guide. working machine processes can be divided into two categories. which is accomplished using various types of processing apparatus to alter a material’s properties into another form.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 9 . The first category is material treatment. Processing apparatus can be divided into two groups according to the resulting shape of the material being treated. plastics etc.

4. for example. Gaseous materials such as air are transported using fans.. are transported by pumps. such as shipping containers. Solid materials. liquid or gas. are transported by conveying apparatus. dosing and pressure changing apparatus. conveyors and elevators.and to transport materials The second category consists of machines which transport material to a desired location.Processes and their requirements . They either shape or transport different types of material. wood. This group consists of conveying. oil or liquid chemicals. Such apparatus includes cranes. minerals and of course people. Solid materials Liquid materials Gaseous materials 10 Technical Guide No.. A special application of these machines is air conditioning. compressors or blowers. In the diagram above.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . metal. These machines can be divided into three different subgroups according to whether the type of material being treated is a solid. water. five different types of machines are presented. but all of them can be potentially used with Variable Speed Drives. Liquid materials.

In each of the three drive system components. a two speed motor as the motor component and gears as the transmission component. As mentioned earlier. Together. These components are energy control. usually electrical. Electric motors can be divided into AC and DC motors. In this chapter.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 11 .Chapter 3 . Variable speed control can be accomplished. are the most commonly used motors in industrial processes.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor All of the machines mentioned earlier in this guide are commonly driven by electric motors. particularly squirrel cage motors.4. the first three components comprise the so called “drive system”. into mechanical energy. which is the most common motor used in industrial processes. shown in the diagram. It can be said that the electric motor is the workhorse of industrial processes. Technical Guide No. for example.especially the squirrel cage AC motor. we will take a closer look at electrical motors . most machines are driven by an electric motor. Energy is supplied to the drive system from the power supply. AC motors. the motor. variable speed control is possible. which is then used by the working machine. using a frequency converter as the energy control component. transmission and the working machine. This drive system can transform a given type of energy. 4 Electric motors drive most machines Every machine consists of four different components.

Guide to Variable Speed Drives . By changing the direction of the voltage in stator windings. The voltage in stator windings forms the current and magnetic flux. If switch V5 is not opened. The inverter unit then connects each motor phase either to the negative or the positive DC bus according to a certain order. 12 Technical Guide No. the magnetic flux of the motor starts to rotate. A frequency converter consists of three parts. The direction of this flux can be determined using the right hand rule from the stator current. As the name suggests. which filters the pulsating voltage. The motor’s rotor will then follow this flux with a certain slip. a frequency converter changes the frequency of the alternating current and voltage. The flux has turned 60° counterclockwise. By changing the voltage direction in the three phase motor windings in the correct order. To make the flux rotate counterclockwise. This control can be achieved using a frequency converter.4.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy An AC motor’s ability to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy is based on electromagnetic induction. This is the basic principle used to control AC motors. switch V6 has to be closed but V5 has to be open. switches V1. Regular 50Hz 3-phase current is fed in to the rectifier part. which converts it to direct current. V4 and V5 should be closed. the direction of the flux can also be changed. To receive the flux direction shown in the diagram. the circuit will short circuit. The DC voltage is fed into the DC bus circuit.

Technical Guide No. The diagram shows these six switching positions and the flux directions. the directions of which are marked with arrows in each phase. Nevertheless. These rotor currents complicate the situation. the voltage is zero. i.e. External interference. In practice. Electrical VSDs also provide many additional benefits. Furthermore. when all the phases are connected to the same DC bus. Magnetic flux generates currents in the rotor.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 13 .The workhorse of industry: The electric motor 4 Frequency converters control electromagnetic induction There are eight different switching positions in the inverter.4. can also cause some control difficulties. and this voltage creates magnetic flux. such as temperature or load changes. In two positions. such as energy savings. it is possible to effectively deal with interference. control is better than with conventional methods. with today’s technology and knowhow. which the voltage in the windings generates in each case. Voltage also generates current in the windings. So in the remaining six switching positions there is voltage in the motor windings. either negative or positive. because the motor does not use more electrical energy than required. control is not quite as simple as presented here. because electrical VSDs also provide the possibility for stepless control.

Input power to the drive system is electrical in form. To produce the required mechanical power. while output power is mechanical. current (I) and the power factor (cosϕ). so the efficiency of the frequency converter is very high. Both drive and motor losses are thermal. so they appear as heat.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor The efficiency of the drive system The total efficiency of the drive system depends on the losses in the motor and its control. Mechanical output power Pout depends on the required torque (T) and rotating speed (n). So it can be said that the total efficiency of the drive system is always above 0. from 0. 14 Technical Guide No.8 when controlled by a frequency converter. As mentioned earlier.97 to 0. The greater the speed or torque required. and in this way directly controls the power used in the motor as well as in the process being controlled.99. That is why calculating the coefficient of efficiency (η) requires knowledge of both electrical and mechanical engineering.82 and 0. This has a direct effect on how much power the drive system draws from the electrical supply. active power is required. which is fed to the motor. Reactive power is needed to produce magnetisation in the motor. Motor efficiency is typically between 0.97 depending on the motor size and its rated speed. Electrical input power Pin depends on voltage (U). the greater the power required. the frequency converter regulates the voltage.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . The power factor tells us what proportion of the total electric power is active power and how much is so called reactive power. Electrical switching with transistors is very efficient.4.

With a frequency converter. but the torque is in the opposite direction. III & IV quadrants: In the third and fourth quadrant. the motor is still rotating clockwise. the motor is rotating clockwise. some kind of braking arrangement is required.4. Because the torque is in the same direction as the speed.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor 4 Reversed rotation or torque is sometimes required In some cases. II quadrant: In the second quadrant. so the drive is decelerating. but the torque direction remains the same. where the rotation direction might change. To produce an efficient four quadrant drive. torque direction changes can be implemented independent of the direction of rotation. reversed rotation of the motor is required. torque direction requirements might change. depending on the torque direction. the motor is rotating counterclockwise and the drive is again accelerating or decelerating. In addition. These factors combined form the so called “four quadrant drive”. I quadrant: In the first quadrant.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 15 . the drive is accelerating. Technical Guide No. The name comes from the four different quadrants (I to IV) shown in the diagram. This kind of torque control is especially required in crane applications.

The workhorse of industry: The electric motor The load. but also on the hardness of the crushed material. friction and inertia resist rotation The motor must produce the required torque to overcome the load torque. in a crusher. 16 Technical Guide No. For example. which is dependent on the mass of the box.4. if the box is to rise. inertia of the moving parts and the load itself. Load factors change according to the application. In fans and blowers. Load torque consists of friction. In the example in the diagram. the load torque is dependent not only on friction and inertia. and so on.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . the motor torque has to be greater than the load torque. air pressure changes affect the load torque. which depends on the application.

This could be disastrous for people working at the harbour or site where this crane would be used. For example. Only then can a suitable motor be selected for the application. If the motor is too small.4. the loading torque has to be known before selecting the motor for the application. in crane applications. the requirements cannot be met and this might lead to serious problems. as shown in the diagram.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor The motor has to overcome the loading torque In any case. It might even drop the load completely. The required speed also has to be known.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 17 . To calculate the rated torque of the motor the following formula can be used: P [kW] n[1/min] 4 T[Nm]=9550 x Technical Guide No. a motor that is too small may not be able to lift the required load quickly enough to the desired height.

The motor will automatically accelerate until the load torque and motor torque are equal. With a frequency converter. Load torque Tl usually increases with speed.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . This point is shown on the graph as the intersection of Tm and Tl. Depending on the application it can be linear or quadratic. This will be introduced later in this guide. optimal control performance can be obtained from the motor and the whole drive system. Actual torque (Tact) is shown on the y-axis and actual speed (nact) on the x-axis.4. As can be seen. 18 Technical Guide No. A typical torque/speed curve is shown in the graph as Tm. the maximum load torque is reached just below nominal speed. These are the principles that govern how an ordinary squirrel cage motor works.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor The drive torque and load torque are equal at nominal speed A motor’s torque/speed curve is unique and has to be calculated for every motor type separately.

In some processes there is no interference and the input is constant. the input is variable or there is interference present. This kind of process works without any variable speed control. This variable causes the need for process adjustment. The above table lists some processes in which variable speed control is required.Chapter 4 . if the output parameters need to be changed. 4 Variable material flow and input/ output requirements There may be many different parameters involved in a process. As discussed in the first chapter. interference or output. input. in almost every case. We will also examine different control methods. output and interference. These parameters may need to be constant or they may need to be changed according to a preset pattern. there are always inputs and outputs present in a process and. However. In this chapter we will look at processes and their variables. the most common being input.4. Technical Guide No. then variable speed control might be the solution to fulfilling the process requirements. It also shows the reasons for the control. Therefore variable processes and material volumes need some form of control. interference as well.Variable volumes require some form of control In most processes there is at least one variable.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 19 .

the total life-cycle cost of investment in simple control methods is much higher than with VSDs. Therefore. However. is very difficult to achieve with simple control. which gives the best quality of the process. also increase.Variable volumes require some form of control Simpler control methods There are many simpler control methods in existence such as throttling or bypass control. such as CO 2 emissions from power plants. the environmental effects. The construction of such equipment is usually very simple and the investment may look cost effective at first.4. For example the optimal process capacity. there are many drawbacks.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . An increase in production capacity usually requires reconstruction of the whole process and with each direct on-line start-up there is a risk of electrical and/or mechanical damage. The simple control methods are also energy consuming. so in addition to the total operating cost being higher than with VSDs. 20 Technical Guide No.

The best possible way to do this is of course to reduce motor rotation speed by taking your foot off the gas pedal and. Imagine you are driving a car for example.4. changing to a lower gear. but also use a lot of fuel and reduce your overall control of the vehicle. you need to reduce speed so that you don’t risk your own and other peoples’ lives. keep your foot on the gas and reduce speed simply by braking. if necessary. This would not only cause wear on the engine and brakes. Another possibility would be to use the same gear. the original goal of reducing speed without risking your own and other peoples' lives would not have been achieved. Technical Guide No. If you are driving on a highway and entering a populated area.Variable volumes require some form of control 4 The best control method is VSD The best control method for most systems is VSD.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 21 . Furthermore.

the speed difference between the driving and driven shafts changes. which makes maintenance very difficult. changes direct current to alternating current.Variable volumes require some form of control Mechanical.4. The speed of the motor is regulated by a frequency converter that changes the frequency of the motor voltage. In electrical VSDs. Mechanical variable speed control usually uses belt drives. In hydraulic coupling. all control systems are situated in an electrical equipment room and only the driving motor is in the process area. The frequency converter itself is controlled with electrical signals. as presented earlier in this guide. This is just one benefit of electrical VSDs. By changing the volume of oil in the coupling. Other benefits are presented on the following page.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . In the DC drive. In the frequency converter or AC drive. and is controlled by moving conical pulleys manually or with positioning motors. The diagram shows the location of the control equipment for each type of VSD. the control equipment is located between the motor and the working machine. a DC converter changes the motor supply voltage fed to the DC motor. hydraulic and electrical VSDs Hydraulic coupling Above are the four most common VSDs in the industrial sector. a commutator. so no mechanical inverters are required. the turbine principle is used. In mechanical and hydraulic VSDs. DC drive AC drive 22 Technical Guide No. a mechanical inverter. In the motor. a standard squirrel cage motor is used. The oil amount is controlled with pumps and valves.

Guide to Variable Speed Drives 23 .4. The accurate speed control obtainable with electrical VSDs results in process optimisation. 4 Productivity Energy saving Higher quality Technical Guide No. which means the best profit for the customer. Process equipment is usually designed to cater for future productivity increases. AC and DC drives together account for over 75%. speed increases of 5 to 20 percent are not a problem. With electrical VSDs. Changing constant-speed equipment to provide higher production volumes requires money and time. With electrical VSDs. This saves a lot of energy particularly in pump and fan applications. smooth starting is possible and this has a direct effect on maintenance costs. of the total VSD market in Europe in 2000. because the shaft power is proportional to the flow rate to the power of three. With the AC drive. In many processes. Due to these benefits. and AC drives for more than 50%. Changing production volumes by mechanical means is usually very inefficient. production volumes change.Variable volumes require some form of control Year 2000: Europe (estimate) Electrical VSDs dominate the market Maintenance costs Here are the four most important arguments for using electrical VSDs. presented along with estimated VSD market shares in Europe in 2000. electrical VSDs are dominating the market. and the production increase can be achieved without any extra investment. Direct on-line starting stresses the motor and also the electrical equipment. The four main benefits of using electrical VSDs are highlighted at the turning points of the speed curve. changing the production volume can be achieved by changing the motor speed. as can be seen from the table above. The optimal process control leads to the best quality end product.

utilising carbon brushes.4. These are the main reasons why the AC drives market share is growing in comparison to DC drives.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . The difference between the AC and the DC motor is that the DC motor has a mechanical commutator. 24 Technical Guide No. the AC drive has many benefits over other process control methods. and the total DC market size remains approximately constant. the AC drives market is growing at almost 10% per year. The market share of DC drives is diminishing. which accounts for the entire growth of the electrical and VSD market. As presented earlier in this guide. As can be seen. These brushes need regular maintenance and the commutator itself complicates the motor structure and consumes energy.Variable volumes require some form of control The AC drives market is growing fast This diagram shows the projected development of the electrical VSDs market to the year 2000. This progress is due to the development of AC drives technology.

An electrical supply feeds the required electricity to the drive. one selection criteria for the drive is the supply voltage and its frequency. This conversion process is controlled by signals from the process or user via the process and user interfaces. There are four different components in AC drive motor control.AC drive: The leading control method Taking into account everything presented so far. and the levels of performance the drive can offer. the electrical supply and the process interface. In the following chapter we will take a closer look at the different features of the AC drive. 4 The basic functions of an AC drive In this diagram.Chapter 5 . the basic functions of an AC drive are presented. This makes the drive easy to integrate with other process control equipment and overriding process control systems. Technical Guide No. the motor. These components are the user interface. The user interface provides the ability to observe the AC drive and obtain different process information via the drive. we can confidently say that the AC drive is the leading control method.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 25 . The AC drive converts the frequency and voltage and feeds the motor.4.

meaning that a motor can be dimensioned according to its normal use. These higher load capacity levels might be needed. This reduces the investment cost. With a frequency converter drive. there are different loading options. The standard curve. because the motor’s cooling system is not designed for this kind of heavy use. the AC drive and the motor are compatible. during start-up. Other curves can only be used for certain periods of time. its load capacity curves cannot be modified. To be able to use these features it is very important that the load. 26 Technical Guide No. With a frequency converter this is possible. for example. can be used continuously.AC drive: The leading control method A motor's load capacity curves with an AC drive If the motor is driven without a frequency converter. It will produce a specified torque at certain speed and maximum torque cannot be exceeded.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . In certain applications. as much as twice the amount of torque is required when starting. Otherwise the motor or the converter will overheat and be damaged. Curve 1 in the diagram.4.

Guide to Variable Speed Drives 27 .4. With inputs and outputs for example.AC drive: The leading control method Important features: • inputs and outputs • reversing function • ramp times acceleration/deceleration • variable torque V/Hz settings • torque boosting • eliminating mechanical vibrations • load limits to prevent nuisance faults • power loss ride-through • stall function • slip compensation • flying start 4 AC drive features for better process control AC drives also have other internal features and functions which are sometimes required for better process control. Alternatively. different kinds of process information can be fed to the drive and it will control the motor accordingly. the load can be limited to prevent nuisance faults and to protect the working machine and the whole drive system. Examples of these features are listed in the diagram. In the following sections the listed features are presented in more detail. Technical Guide No.

left) an S-ramp has been presented. Torque control Eliminating mechanical vibrations 28 Technical Guide No. it is possible to set different acceleration and deceleration ramp times. Mechanical vibrations can be eliminated by by-passing critical speeds.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . Furthermore. Torque boosting. When the critical point has been passed. Another possibility could be a linear ramp. the drive will not allow the actual speed of the motor to follow the reference speed. Variable torque U/f settings mean that maximum torque can be achieved at a lower speed of rotation than normal. the motor will return to the regular curve very quickly and pass the critical speed. is necessary if a very high starting torque is required. Torque control is relatively simple with an AC drive. The ramp form can also be modified according to the user’s wishes.4. which was presented earlier. With ABB’s frequency converters it can be achieved simply by pressing one button. In the diagram (above.AC drive: The leading control method Reversing Reversing the motor rotation is simple to accomplish with an AC drive. This means that when a motor is accelerated close to its critical speed.

AC drive: The leading control method Power loss ride-through mains Stall function Torque dc Tstall Intermediate circuit voltage (U dc ) Output frequency (f) Motor torque (Tm ) Stall Frequency 4 Power loss ride-through The power loss ride-through function is used if the incoming supply voltage is cut off.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 29 . The final condition is that the motor has been in the stall limit for longer than the time period set by the user. It is possible to adjust supervision limits and choose how the drive reacts to the motor stall condition. the motor can be protected in a stall situation with the stall function. 1. In such a situation. With an AC drive. calculated by the drive software. Protection is activated if three conditions are met at the same time. 2.4. The motor torque has to rise to a certain limit. The drive frequency has to be below the preset stall frequency. the AC drive will continue to operate using the kinetic energy of the rotating motor. Stall function Technical Guide No. The drive will be fully operational as long as the motor rotates and generates energy for the drive. 3.

4. the inverter is first started with a reduced voltage and then synchronised to the rotating rotor. the speed of the motor will decrease as shown in the diagram (above. the torque/speed curve can be modified with the frequency converter so that torque increase can be accomplished with the same speed as previously. The flying start works even without a speed feedback. To compensate for this slip. In case of rotating motor.AC drive: The leading control method Slip compensation If the motor load torque is increased. left). Flying start 30 Technical Guide No. After synchronised the voltage and the speed are increased to the corresponding levels.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . The flying start feature is used when a motor is connected to a flywheel or a high inertia load.

by installing the drive inside a cabinet with the required degree of protection. EMC Compliant Installation and Configuration for a Power Drive System. it can be obtained. In such cases. 3. This means that the drive system can bear conductive and radiative disturbances. It is very important that a drive system fulfills the EMC directives of the European Union.4. The IP 54 degree of protection guarantees that it can work in a dusty environment and that it can bear sprinkling water from any direction. and that it does not send any conductive or radiative disturbances itself either to the electrical supply or the surrounding environment. The squirrel cage motor is very compact and can be used in very hostile conditions. it is essential to ensure that the temperature inside the cabinet will not exceed the allowed limits. please refer to ABB's Technical Guide No. for example.AC drive: The leading control method 4 Environmental features Any drive system has to handle different environmental stresses such as moisture or electrical disturbances. If a higher degree of protection is required. If you require more information about the EMC directives and their effects on drives. Technical Guide No.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 31 . EMC Another important environmental feature is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). The frequency converter usually has an IP 21 degree of protection. This means that it is not possible to touch the live parts and that vertically dripping water will not cause any harm.

This is astonishing considering what we have seen so far in this guide. Even more so after closer study of the costs of an AC drive compared to conventional control methods. and how many without. In this chapter.Cost benefits of AC drives In addition to their technical advantages. Only 3% of motors in this power range are sold each year with a frequency converter.4.Chapter 6 . But first let’s review AC drive technology compared to other control methods. At the moment there are still plenty of motors sold without variable speed AC drives.2 kW are sold with frequency converters. This pie chart shows how many motors below 2.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . installation and operational costs. these benefits are reviewed. 97% are sold without an AC drive. AC drives also provide many cost benefits. 32 Technical Guide No. with the costs divided into investment.

simpler control methods. for example. AC drive technology is based on a totally different technology to earlier control methods. Although it is a simpler information storage method. The benefits of both these innovations are generally well known. Similarly. a floppy disk can only handle a small fraction of the information that a CD-ROM can. In this guide. It can be compared. We could also compare AC drive technology to the development from a floppy disk to a CD-ROM. to the difference between a zeppelin and a modern airplane. we have presented the benefits of the AC drive compared to simpler control methods.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 33 . Technical Guide No.Cost benefits of AC drives 4 Technical differences between other systems and AC drives AC drive technology is completely different from other.4.

2 kW. Another benefit.4. In traditional methods. there is always a mechanical part and an electrical part.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . The AC drive provides a new solution. contactors and reactors on the electrical side and valves on the mechanical side. Here we have used pumping as an example. No mechanics are needed. because all control is already on the electrical side. which is much cheaper than the single phase motors used in other control methods. as well as a pressure tank on the mechanical side. is that with an AC drive we can use a regular 3-phase motor. we need to study the configurations of different control methods. the same electrical components are needed. In On/Off control. when speaking of power below 2. 34 Technical Guide No.Cost benefits of AC drives No mechanical control parts needed To make a proper cost comparison. when thinking about cost. We can still use 220 V single phase supply. In throttling you need fuses.

The costs are usually higher than if everything could be purchased at once. mechanical parts wear out quickly. no wear and tear . Furthermore.saves energy Factors affecting cost This list compares the features of conventional control methods with those of the AC drive. The installation cost is at least doubled when there are several different types of components rather than only one.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 35 .both electrical and mechanical parts .only one electrical component .mechanical parts need regular maintenance . while AC drives practically save energy. This directly affects maintenance costs and in the long run. In conventional methods there are also many electrical components. mechanical control is very energy consuming. 4 Technical Guide No. This not only helps reduce costs. maintenance is a very important cost item. but also helps minimise environmental impact by reducing emissions from power plants. which usually have to be purchased separately. And last but not least. In conventional methods there are both electrical and mechanical components.many electrical parts .mechanical control is energy consuming AC drive: .4. as well as their effect on costs.no mechanical parts.Cost benefits of AC drives Conventional methods: .all in one .

After taking all costs into account. As can be seen.Cost benefits of AC drives Investment costs: Mechanical and electrical components In this graph. which reduces costs dramatically. but electrical parts also need to be added to the total investment cost. however. there are two possibilities depending on whether the pump is used in industrial or domestic use. the motor is much more expensive for traditional control methods than for the AC drive. Mechanical parts themselves are almost always less costly than a frequency converter. The motor The AC drive 36 Technical Guide No. The AC drive does not need any mechanical parts. an AC drive is almost always the most economical investment. the investment structure as well as the total price of each pump control method is presented. Together with investment costs we need to look at installation and operational costs. Only throttling in domestic use is as low cost as the AC drive.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . In an industrial environment there are stricter requirements for valves and this increases costs. In throttling. These are not the total costs.4. when compared to different control methods. Only the pump itself is not added to the costs because its price is the same regardless of whether it’s used with an AC drive or valves. This is due to the 3-phase motor used with the AC drive and the single phase motor used in other control methods.

the AC drive would pay for itself before it has even worked a second. The commissioning of a throttling-based system does not usually require more time than commissioning an AC drive based system. we will compare its installation and operating costs to the cost of the AC drive. in throttling there are both electrical and mechanical components. So even if the throttling investment costs were lower than the price of a single phase motor (approximately USD 200).Guide to Variable Speed Drives 37 .4. As mentioned earlier. To have a mechanical valve ready for use usually requires five hours compared to one hour for the AC drive.Cost benefits of AC drives Throttling Installation material Installation work Commissioning work Total 20 USD 5h x 65 USD = 325 USD 1h x 65 USD = 65 USD 410 USD AC drive 10 USD 1h x 65 USD = 65 USD 1h x 65 USD = 65 USD 140 USD Savings in installation: 270 USD! 4 Installation costs: Throttling compared to AC drive Because throttling is the second lowest investment after the AC drive. As you can see. Multiply this by the hourly rate charged by a skilled installer to get the total installation cost. This means twice the amount of installation material is needed. Installation work is also at least doubled in throttling compared to the AC drive. So now we can summarise the total installation costs. the AC drive saves up to USD 270 per installation. To install a mechanical valve into a pipe is not that simple and this increases installation time. Technical Guide No. One hour is usually the time required in both cases.

with the AC drive it would be 0.75 kW 3000 kWh 300 USD 40 USD 340 USD 5 USD 155 USD Operational costs: Maintenance and drive energy In many surveys and experiments it has been proved that a 50% energy saving is easily achieved with an AC drive. This means that the payback time of the frequency converter is two years. which varies depending on the country.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . Here USD 0.37 kW 1500 kWh 150 USD Power required Annual energy 4000 hours/year Annual energy cost with 0. maintenance costs for an AC drive would be USD 5. If a pump is used 4000 hours per year. the total savings in operating costs would be USD 185. mechanical parts wear a lot and this is why they need regular maintenance. So it is worth considering that instead of yearly service for an old valve it might be more profitable to change the whole system to an AC drive based control. As mentioned earlier. we need to multiply the energy consumption by the energy price. To retrofit an existing throttling system the pay-back time is two years. It has been estimated that whereas throttling requires USD 40 per year for service. throttling would need 3000 kWh and the AC drive 1500 kWh of energy per year.1 per kWh has been used. This means that where power requirements with throttling would be 0. In many cases however.75 kW.Cost benefits of AC drives Throttling AC drive saving 50% 0. To calculate the savings.4. which is approximately half of the frequency converter’s price for this power range. Therefore.1 USD/kWh Maintenance/year Total cost/year Savings in one year: 185 USD! 0.37 kW. there is no maintenance required for a frequency converter. 38 Technical Guide No.

4. Here the operational costs are rated to the present value with a 10% interest rate. In this guide we have tried to present the benefits of the AC drive and why we at ABB think that it is absolutely the best possible way to control your process. In the long run.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 39 . It is in the installation that the highest individual savings can be achieved. Technical Guide No. and especially from the energy savings. it is very difficult to understand why only 3% of motors sold have a frequency converter. The usual time for an operational cost calculation for this kind of investment is 10 years. Most of the savings with the AC drive come from the operational costs. the conventional method will be more than twice as expensive as a frequency converter. all the costs have been summarised. and these savings are realised as soon as the drive is installed. Taking the total cost figure into account.Cost benefits of AC drives 4 Total cost comparison In the above figure.

14 mechanical vibrations 4. 27. 27. 13. 10 B belt drives 22 blowers 10. 37. 20. 11 inertia 16. 14. 34. 30 input power 14 interference 13. 22 IP 21 31 IP 54 31 L linear ramp 28 load capacity curves 26 M machine 8. 10. 13. 17 critical speed 28 crusher 16 current 12. 9. 12. 19 inverter 12. 25. 14. 12. 13. 30 flywheel 30 four quadrant drive 15 frequency converter 11. 31 electromagnetic compatibility 31 electromagnetic induction 12. 24. 38. 11. 26. 26. 35. 22 D DC bus 12. 18. 22. 31. 15. 29. 33. 13 maintenance 22. 9 mechanical power 8. 22. 32. 13 DC converter 22 DC drive 22. 24. 44 AC drive 5. 21 bypass control 20 C CD-ROM 33 centrifuges 9 chemical industry 7 coefficient of efficiency 14 commissioning 37 commutator 22. 36. 12 active power 14 air conditioning 7. 35.Chapter 7 . 28. 23. 24 DC motor 11. 24 AC motor 11. 13 40 Technical Guide No. 31. 36. 13 electromagnetic influence 8 elevators 10 EMC 31 EMC directives 31 energy 8. 28. 22. 38 margarine stirrers 9 material transport 6 material treatment 6. 24 Direct on-line starting 23 dosing 10 drive frequency 29 drive software 29 drive system 11. 23. 8. 8. 13 flying start 27. 6. 32. 29. 27. 38. 31. 7.4. 16 braking 15. 23. 18. 35. 39 extruders 9 F fans 7. 30. 15. 14. 16 floppy disk 33 flux 12.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . 23. 27 magnetic flux 12. 11. 39 AC drives market 3. 31 drying kiln 8 E electrical disturbances 31 electrical equipment room 22 electrical supply 14. 24. 38. 10. 24 compressors 10 contactors 34 conveying 10 conveyors 10 crane 10. 39 friction 16 fuses 34 G gears 11 H harbour 17 humidity 7 HVAC 7 hydraulic coupling 22 I industrial processes 5. 30. 25.Index A ABB 5. 39. 22. 28 motor efficiency 14 motor load 30 motor losses 14 motor phase 12 motor size 14 motor stall condition 29 motor windings 12.

30 transistors 14 V valves 22. 37. 18. 6. 22. 23. 34. 10. 24 Z zeppelin 4 33 Technical Guide No. 29. 38 variable speed control 11. 20. 13. 34. 19. 29. 24. 38 R rated speed 14 reactive power 14 reactors 34 rectifier 12 reference speed 28 reversing function 27 right hand rule 12 rolling mills 9 S S-ramp 28 saw mill lines 9 shipping containers 10 slip 12. 27. 30 squirrel cage motor 11.13. 37. 31 thermal influence 8 throttling 20. 38 torque 14. 36 Variable Speed Drives 5. 22. 29 stator 12 stepless control 13 T temperature 7. 13. 22. 36. 22. 36. 39 voltage 12. 7. 26. 8. 29 power plants 7.4. 17.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 41 . 18. 27. 15. 8. 34. 23. 25.N nuclear power 8 nuisance faults 27 O output power 14 P paper machines 9 power factor 14 power loss ride-through 27. 22. 35 power supply 11 process control 23. 28. 25. 21. 16. 36. 29. 31 stall frequency 29 stall function 27. 14. 30 VSD 5. 27 processing system 8 pump 10.

com/motors&drives 3AFE 61389211 REV B EN 8.O. 2002 Specifications subject to change without notice.abb.2. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www. .ABB Oy Drives P.

Technical Guide No. 5 Bearing Currents in Modern AC Drive Systems .

5 .Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems .2 Technical Guide No.

. 6 Faster switching ................................................................ 21 2 5 3 4 5 Technical Guide No............................................... 18 Leave the measurements to the specialists ................................................................................................................................................ 7 Common mode circuit ......... 10 Voltage drops ................................. 7 Circulating current ..... 17 Measuring high frequency bearing currents ........................................ 9 How does the current flow through the system? ......................................................................................................... 13 Preventing high frequency bearing current damage ......................Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 3 ............................................................................................... 11 Capacitive voltage divider ....... 15 Multicore motor cables .............................................................. 15 Three approaches ............ 19 References ....................... 7 Stray capacitances ...... 6 How are HF bearing currents generated? .......... 5 General ......................... 6 High frequency current pulses ...................5 .................................. 5 Generating Bearing Currents ......................... 15 Short impedance path ............. 17 Follow product specific instructions ............ 5 Avoiding bearing currents ................................................................................ 7 Capacitive discharge current .......................................Contents 1 Introduction ............ 16 High frequency bonding connections ...... 10 Common mode transformer ............... 17 Additional solutions ....... 7 Shaft grounding current ........................................................ 20 Index ...........................

4 Technical Guide No.5 .Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems .

5 . Avoiding bearing currents To avoid damage occurring. which flow through the motor bearings. The magnitude of the currents can be reduced by using symmetrical motor cables or inverter output filtering.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 5 . it is essential to provide proper earthing paths and allow stray currents to return to the inverter frame without passing through the bearings.Chapter 1 . the incidence of damage they cause has increased during the last few years. Proper insulation of the motor bearing construction breaks the bearing current paths. 5 Technical Guide No. While bearing currents have been around since the advent of electric motors.Introduction General Some new drive installations can have their bearings fail only a few months after start-up. This is because modern variable speed drives with their fast rising voltage pulses and high switching frequencies can cause current pulses through the bearings whose repeated discharging can gradually erode the bearing races. Failure can be caused by high frequency currents.

creates switching events 20 times faster than those considered typical ten years ago.Generating Bearing Currents High frequency current pulses Bearing currents come in several different guises. The extent to which this occurs depends on the AC drive system architecture and the installation techniques used. If the energy of these pulses is sufficiently high. High frequency bearing currents have been investigated by ABB since 1987. Faster switching Current AC drive technology. within one to six months. the bearing may need replacing after only a short time in service. As a result. However. but a tiny EDM pit is an incontinuity that will collect more pulses and expand into a typical EDM crater. Each individual item involved. It is when these components are combined and the installed system is looked upon as a whole. the rapid switching in modern AC drive systems may generate high frequency current pulses through the bearings. This is known as electrical discharge machining or EDM. The importance of system design has been highlighted in the last few years. 6 Technical Guide No. the gearbox or the drive controller.Chapter 2 .Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . Recent years have seen a rising number of EDM-type bearing failures in AC drive systems relatively soon after start up. a rhythmic pattern on the bearing’s races. that it becomes clear that certain installation practices are required. metal transfers from the ball and the races to the lubricant. Figure 1: Bearing currents can cause “bearing fluting”. The switching frequency of modern AC drives is very high and the vast number of pulses causes the erosion to quickly accumulate. incorporating Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT).5 . The effect of a single pulse is insignificant. while modern motor design and manufacturing practices have nearly eliminated the low frequency bearing currents induced by the asymmetry of the motor. such as the motor. is the product of sophisticated manufacturing techniques and normally carries a favourable Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) rate.

This current is a shaft grounding type of high frequency bearing current. In large motors. In the case of high frequency bearing currents. and therefore the voltage of the motor frame increases in comparison to the source ground level. the vector sum of the three phases always equals zero. If the motor shaft is earthed via the driven machinery. Circulating current 5 Shaft grounding current Capacitive discharge current Common mode High frequency bearing currents are a consequence of the current flow in the common mode circuit of the AC drive system. the increase of the motor frame voltage is seen over the bearings. high frequency voltage is induced between the ends of the motor shaft by the high frequency flux circulating around the stator. the shaft and the driven machine back to the inverter. If it is high enough to overcome the impedance of the bearings’ oil film. If the voltage rises high enough to overcome the impedance of the drive-end bearing oil film. meaning a suitable cable type and proper bonding of the protective conductors and the electrical shield. plays an important role. a current that tries to compensate the net flux in the stator starts to flow in the loop formed by the shaft. Du/dt of the AC drive power stage components and the DC-link voltage level affect the level of bearing currents. This flux is caused by a net asymmetry of capacitive current leaking from the winding into the stator frame along the stator circumference. In small motors. are the size of the motor and how the motor frame and shaft are grounded.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 7 . circuit A typical three-phase sinusoidal power supply is balanced and symmetrical under normal conditions. The electrical installation. which is the source of this current. the internal voltage division of the common mode voltage over the internal stray capacitances of the motor may cause shaft voltages high enough to create high frequency bearing current pulses. The voltage between the shaft ends affects the bearings. Thus.Generating Bearing Currents How are HF bearing currents generated? The source of bearing currents is the voltage that is induced over the bearing. This current is a circulating type of high frequency bearing current. the bearings and the stator frame. this voltage can be generated in three different ways. The current leaking into the stator frame needs to flow back to the inverter. it is normal Technical Guide No. part of the current may flow via the drive-end bearing. Any route back contains impedance. That is.5 . This can happen if the shaft is not earthed via the driven machinery while the motor frame is earthed in the standard way for protection. The most important factors that define which mechanism is prominent.

This type of current. 8 Technical Guide No. the star point of the motor winding. which flows through the system in a loop that is closed externally to the system. However. is called common mode current. The current flows back to the source via the earth conductor and stray capacitances of the inverter. this is not the case with a PWM switched three-phase power supply. It is measurable at the zero point of any load. The voltage is proportional to the DC bus voltage. eg. where a dc voltage is converted into three phase voltages. or neutral point voltage.Generating Bearing Currents that the neutral is at zero volts. it is impossible to make the sum of three output voltages instantaneously equal to zero with two possible output levels available. The resulting neutral point voltage is not zero. This voltage may be defined as a common mode voltage source. Any time one of the three inverter outputs is changed from one of the possible potentials to another. The neutral voltage is clearly not zero and its presence can be defined as a common mode voltage source. which are external to the three phase system. in a modern AC drive system.5 . Even though the fundamental frequency components of the output voltages are symmetrical and balanced. Figure 2: This schematic shows the phase voltages of a typical three phase PWM power supply and the average of the three. and has a frequency equal to the inverter switching frequency. a current proportional to this voltage change is forced to flow to earth via the earth capacitances of all the components of the output circuit.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems .

The pulse is a superposition of several frequencies due to the different natural frequencies of the parallel routes of common mode current. For instance. Stray capacitances A capacitance is created any time two conductive components are separated by an insulator. The capacitances within a cable and especially inside the motor are very small. and the motor winding turn is insulated from the frame by enamel coating and slot insulation. the cable phase wire has capacitance to the PE-wire separated by PVC insulation.5 .Generating Bearing Currents Figure 3: An example of the common mode current at the inverter output. Common mode current (CMC) flows through Technical Guide No. for example. and so has a value of capacitance to the motor frame. The inverter power supply acts as a common mode voltage source (Vcm). 5 Figure 4: Simplified loop of the common mode current of a PWM inverter and induction motor. However. fast rising pulses produced by modern power supplies contain frequencies so high that even small capacitances inside the motor provide a low impedance path for current to flow. A small capacitance means high impedance for low frequencies. thus blocking the low frequency stray currents.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 9 .

This motor frame voltage is a portion of the inverter’s common mode voltage.Generating Bearing Currents the common mode cable and motor inductances. From the motor frame. in such a case. In practical installations a number of parallel paths exist. the motor shaft is connected through a metallic coupling to a gearbox or other driven machinery that is solidly earthed and near the same earth potential as the inverter frame. The common mode current will seek the path of least impedance. the current proceeds through the factory earth circuit which has the inductance Lg. the reactance at the upper range of typical common mode current frequencies. The inverter frame is connected to the factory earth and couples the common mode current/ earth currents through stray inverter to frame capacitances. the shaft and the driven machinery back Voltage drops 10 Technical Guide No.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . Lc Lm and through the stray capacitances between the motor windings and motor frame. cable shielding or PE-conductors and possibly steel or aluminium parts of the factory building structure. All these elements contain inductance. If the value of this inductance is high enough. combined as Cin. combined to be Cm. 50 kHz to 1 MHz. back to the common mode voltage source. How does the current flow through the system? The return path of the leakage current from the motor frame back to the inverter frame consists of the motor frame. but may be significant in coping with EMC-requirements. like the PE-connection of the motor frame. that part of the inverter common mode current flows via the motor bearings. The flow of common mode current through such inductance will cause a voltage drop that raises the motor frame potential above the source ground potential at the inverter frame. If a high amount of impedance is present in the intended paths. Lg is also fed common mode current from the stray cable capacitance Cc. Most have a minor effect on the value of common mode current or bearing currents. through the building. can support voltage drops of over 100 volts between the motor frame and the inverter frame. If. the motor frame voltage will cause some of the common mode current to be diverted into an unintended path. then it is possible.5 .

current may flow via the gearbox or machine bearings. The largest share of the motor’s stray capacitance.5 . the high frequency content of the current entering the stator coil is greater than the current leaving. D i-∆ i ∆i N ∆i Common mode transformer Figure 6: Source of circulating high frequency bearing current.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 11 .Generating Bearing Currents 5 to the inverter. Figure 5: A schematic presentation showing the circulating current and shaft grounding current. is formed between the stator windings and the motor frame. These bearings may be damaged before the motor i+∆ i bearings. the latter resulting from high motor frame voltage with superior machine earthing. If the shaft of the machinery has no direct contact to the ground level. Technical Guide No. As the current leaks into the stator along the coil. This leads to a net magnetising effect and flux around the motor shaft. This capacitance is distributed around the circumference and length of the stator. Current leakage through distributed stator capacitances gives a non-zero current sum over the stator circumference.

Another version of circulating bearing current occurs when. flows via the shaft and the bearings of the gearbox or driven machinery and in a structural element that is both external and common to the motor and the driven machine. 12 Technical Guide No.Generating Bearing Currents This net current produces a high frequency magnetic flux that will circulate in the stator laminations. If the voltage becomes large enough. internal to the motor.5 . inducing an axial voltage in the shaft ends. The motor can. du/dt of the AC drive power stage components and DClink voltage level.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . An example of this “vagabond” circulating bearing current is shown in figure 8. where the common mode current flowing in the stator frame acts as a primary and induces the circulating current into the rotor circuit or secondary. instead of circulating completely inside the motor. a high frequency circulating current can flow. This bearing current is considered to be the most damaging with typical peak values of 3 to 20 amps depending on the rated power of the motor. and induces the circulating current into the rotor circuit or secondary. Figure 7: The high frequency axial shaft voltage can be thought of as the resultant of a transformer effect. the current. in this case. The origin of the current is the same as in the current circulating inside the motor. be thought of as a transformer. in which the common mode current flowing in the stator frame acts as a primary. through the shaft and both bearings.

such as the capacitance between the stator windings and the rotor. but also between the stator windings and the rotor into the bearings. rotor and bearing stray capacitances. Technical Guide No.Generating Bearing Currents Figure 8: “Vagabond” circulating bearing current. The existence of capacitance between the stator windings and the rotor effectively couples the stator windings to the rotor iron. showing stator. which is also connected to the shaft and the bearing’s inner races. The bearings themselves may even have stray capacitance.5 . Capacitive voltage divider Other stray capacitances are also present in the motor. where the current loop is external to the motor.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 13 . Fast changes in the common mode current from the inverter can not only result in currents in the capacitance around the circumference and length of the motor. 5 Figure 9: Common mode loop of variable speed drive. or that existing in the motor’s airgap between the stator iron and the rotor.

where the induced shaft voltage builds up. This impedance is a non-linear function of bearing load. For instance. and the impedance varies from case to case. At very low speed.5 . This capacitance. Generally. the bearings have metallic contact since the balls have not risen on an oil film. the presence of stray capacitance in the bearings is only sustained for as long as the balls of the bearings are covered in oil or grease and are nonconducting. as this depends on the physical state of the bearing at any one time. 14 Technical Guide No. the bearing impedance governs the voltage level at which the bearings start to conduct. can be short-circuited if the bearing voltage exceeds the threshold of its breakover value or if a “high spot” on a ball breaks through the oil film and makes contact with both bearing races. speed of rotation and lubricant used. temperature.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems .Generating Bearing Currents The current flow into the bearings can change rapidly.

Chapter 3 - Preventing high frequency bearing current damage
Three approaches
There are three approaches used to affect high frequency bearing currents: a proper cabling and earthing system; breaking the bearing current loops; and damping the high frequency common mode current. All these aim to decrease the bearing voltage to values that do not induce high frequency bearing current pulses at all, or damp the value of the pulses to a level that has no effect on bearing life. For different types of high frequency bearing currents, different measures need to be taken. The basis of all high frequency current mastering is the proper earthing system. Standard equipment earthing practices are mainly designed to provide a sufficiently low impedance connection to protect people and equipment against system frequency faults. A variable speed drive can be effectively earthed at the high common mode current frequencies, if the installation follows three practices:

5

Multicore motor cables

Use only symmetrical multicore motor cables. The earth (protective earth, PE) connector arrangement in the motor cable must be symmetrical to avoid bearing currents at fundamental frequency. The symmetricity of the PE- conductor is achieved by a conductor surrounding all the phase leads or a cable that contains a symmetrical arrangement of three phase leads and three earth conductors.

Figure 10: Recommended motor cable with symmetrical core configuration.

Technical Guide No.5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

15

Preventing high frequency bearing current damage

Short impedance Define a short, low impedance path for common mode current to return to the inverter. The best and easiest way path
to do this is to use shielded motor cables. The shield must be continuous and of good conducting material, i.e. copper or aluminium and the connections at both ends need to be made with 360° termination. Figures 11a and 11b show 360° terminations for European and American cabling practices.

Figure 11 a: Proper 360° termination with European cabling practice. The shield is connected with as short a pigtail as possible to the PE terminal. To make a 360° high frequency connection between the EMC sleeve and the cable shield, the outer insulation of the cable is stripped away.

Figure 11 b: Proper 360° termination with American cabling practice. An earthing bushing should be used on both ends of the motor cable to effectively connect the earth wires to the armour or conduit.

16

Technical Guide No.5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

Preventing high frequency bearing current damage

High frequency bonding connections

Add high frequency bonding connections between the installation and known earth reference points to equalise the potential of affected items, using braided straps of copper 50 100mm wide; flat conductors will provide a lower inductance path than round wires. This must be made at the points where discontinuity between the earth level of the inverter and that of the motor is suspected. Additionally it may be necessary to equalise the potential between the frames of the motor and the driven machinery to short the current path through the motor and the driven machine bearings.

5

Figure 12: HF Bonding Strap.

Follow product specific instructions Additional solutions

Although the basic principles of installations are the same, for different products suitable installation practices may differ. Therefore, it is essential to carefully follow the installation instructions given in product specific manuals. Breaking the bearing current loops is achieved by insulating the bearing construction. The high frequency common mode current can be damped by using dedicated filters. As a manufacturer of both inverters and motors, ABB can offer the most appropriate solution in each case as well as detailed instructions on proper earthing and cabling practices.

Technical Guide No.5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

17

Preventing high frequency bearing current damage

Measuring high frequency bearing currents

Monitoring the bearing condition must be conducted with established vibration measurements. It is impossible to measure bearing currents directly from a standard motor. But if high frequency bearing currents are suspected, field measurements can be taken to verify the existence of suspected current loops. Measuring equipment needs to have wide bandwidth (minimum 10kHz to 2 MHz) capable of detecting peak values of at least 150 to 200A and RMS values at least down to 10mA. The crest factor of measured signals is seldom less than 20. The current may flow in unusual places, such as rotating shafts. Thus, special equipment and experienced personnel are needed. ABB uses a specially designed, flexible, air-cored, Rogowski-type current sensor with dedicated accessories and has vast experience of over one thousand measured drives in different applications worldwide. The most important measurement points are within the motor. During measurements, the motor speed needs to be at least 10% of the nominal for the bearings to rise on the oil film. As an example, basic measurements are shown in figure 13. Figure 14 shows examples of measured current waveforms. GTO inverters were used mainly in the 1980s and IGBT inverters are used today. Note the different scale in the various graphs.

Figure 13: Basic measurements: A) circulating current measured with a jumper, B) shaft grounding current.

18

Technical Guide No.5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

Preventing high frequency bearing current damage

A) Circulating current

GTO-inverter, 5µs/div, 2A/div

IGBT-inverter, 5µs/div, 2A/div

B) Shaft grounding current

GTO-inverter, 2µs/div, 10A/div

IGBT-inverter, 5µs/div, 500mA/div

Figure 14: Examples of current waveforms at the measuring points shown in Figure 13.

5

Leave the measurements to the specialists

Since suitable commercial measurement equipment is not available on the market and specialised experience is needed to make the measurements and interpret the results, it is advisable that bearing current measurements are made by dedicated personnel only.

Technical Guide No.5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

19

Chapter 4 - References
1. Grounding and Cabling of the Drive System, ABB Industry Oy, 3AFY 61201998 R0125 2. A New Reason for Bearing Current Damage in Variable Speed AC Drives by J. Ollila, T. Hammar, J. Iisakkala, H. Tuusa. EPE 97, 7th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, 8-10 September 1997. Trondheim, Norway. 3. On the Bearing Currents in Medium Power Variable Speed AC Drives by J. Ollila, T. Hammar, J. Iisakkala, H. Tuusa. proceedings of the IEEE IEDMC in Milwaukee, May 1997. 4. Minimizing Electrical Bearing Currents in Adjustable Speed Drive Systems by Patrick Link. IEEE IAS Pulp & Paper Conference Portland, ME, USA. June 1998. 5. Instruction on Measuring Bearing Currents with a Rogowski Coil, ABB Industry Oy, 3BFA 61363602.EN. 6. Laakerivirta ja sen minimoiminen säädettyjen vaihtovirtakäyttöjen moottoreissa, I. Erkkilä, Automaatio 1999, 16.9.1999, Helsinki, Finland. (In Finnish). 7. High Frequency Bearing Currents in Low Voltage Asyncronous Motors, ABB Motors Oy and ABB Industry Oy, 00018323.doc. 8. Bearing Currents in AC Drives by ABB Industry Oy and ABB Motors Oy. Set of overheads in LN database “Document Directory Intranet” on ABB_FI01_SPK08/FI01/ABB 9. The Motor Guide GB 98-12.

See also product specific installation manuals.

20

Technical Guide No.5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 21 . 18.Chapter 5 . 17 driven machinery 7. 9.5 . 18 motor bearings 5 motor cable 15. 10. 7 High frequency bearing voltage 7 high frequency circulating current 12 high frequency current mastering 15 high frequency flux 7 high switching frequencies 5 I IGBT inverters 18 induced shaft voltage 14 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) 6 internal voltage division 7 inverter 7. 8 armour 16 axial shaft voltage 12. 6. 12. 12. 12 E earthing paths 5 EDM crater 6 electric motors 5 electrical discharge machining (EDM) 6 electrical shield 7 F field measurements 18 flat conductors 17 frame 17 G gearbox 6. 16. 10. 7. 12 GTO inverters 18 H high frequency bearing currents 6. 8. 13 axial voltage 12 B ball 14 bearing current loops 15. 7. 19 bearing fluting 6 bearing races 5 bearing voltage 14 bearings 5. 17. 10 inverter output filtering 5 inverter power supply 9 inverter switching frequency 8 L low frequency bearing currents 6 M magnetic flux 12 Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) 6 metallic coupling 10 motor 6. 15. 13 common mode voltage 7. 16. 16 motor frame 7. 14 bonding connections 17 braided straps 17 C cable 15 cable capacitance 10 cable shield 16 circulating current 12 common mode cable 10 common mode circuit 7 common mode current 8. 10 motor windings 10 N neutral point voltage 8 O oil film 7. 9. 12. 10. 8. 7. 13. 10 conduit 16 crest factor 18 current pulses 5 D DC bus voltage 8 dedicated filters 17 drive controller 6 driven machine 7. 12. 18 AC drive 6. 11 motor shaft 5. 17 Common Mode Loop 9. 13. 15. 11. 17 inverter frame 5. 13. 11.Index 360° termination 16 A ABB 17. 7. 15. 7. 10. 17 bearing current paths 5 bearing currents 5. 9. 10. 6. 18 5 Technical Guide No. 10. 9. 13.

15 voltage drop 10 voltage pulses 5 W winding 7. 15 T three phase power supply 7. 8. 13. 13 22 Technical Guide No. 14 stray currents 5 symmetrical motor cables 5. 11. 13 shaft ends 12 shaft voltages 7 shield 16 stator 7. 13. 11. 12. 9 R races 6.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . 11. 14 Rogowski-type current sensor 18 rotor 12. 13 stray capacitance 7. 11. 13 stator frame 7. 10. 9. 13 rotor circuit 12 S secondary 12 shaft 7. 12 stator laminations 12 stator windings 11. 10. 8 transformer 12 V variable speed drive 5.5 .P primary 12 PWM 7. 8.

Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 23 .5 Technical Guide No.5 .

12.abb. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www. 1999 3BFE 64230247 Specifications subject to change without notice. EN 1.com/motors&drives © Copyright ABB Automation Group Ltd.ABB Oy Drives P.O. 1999 .

Technical Guide No. 6 Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .

Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .2 Technical Guide No.6 .

......................... 17 Factors in the AC drive having an effect on harmonics ..... Using 6-pulse diode rectifier .................................................... 7.... 6 Harmonic distortion sources and effects ........ IEEE519....... 10 Calculated harmonic current and voltage ............ 8 Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software .. IEEE Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems ......................1 5... 10 Inverter selection . 9 Motor selection .......... 9 Circuit diagram for the calculation example .........................2 5............. 10 Network and Transformer data input .6 ... Using 12-pulse or 24-pulse diode rectifier ......................6 4................. Introduction . 5 Basics of the harmonics phenomena ....................... 4............. 4. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ............... 3.1 4............. 11 Part of the printed report .... 12 EN61800-3 (IEC1800-3) Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems ............ Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) .3 7....................................................6 6 12 13 13 13 13 14 6...5 5........ 11 Standards for harmonic limits ................................1 7.... 16 How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system ....2 4.....3 5......2 7......4 4.... Table: List of the different factors and their effects ... 2.....3 4................. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) . IEC1000-2-4. 7................ 11 Calculated harmonic currents in graphical form ... 9 Input data for motor load ...............................4 5.................................. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ..............7 4..... 10 Inverter supply unit data .....Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 3 ..............4 17 18 18 19 Technical Guide No........... IEC1000-2-2.... IEC1000-3-2.......................Contents 1...5 4.............. 5..............8 4...................... Evaluating harmonics .....9 5............................ IEC1000-3-4..............

.... 20 Using larger DC or AC inductor ................. 26 6-pulse rectifier without inductor ....................2 9...............Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .................. Using phase controlled thyristor rectifier ......5 9............3 9. 8.. 24 Tuned multiple arm passive filter ......4 9.........1 8...1 9..................................... Active IGBT rectifier ........ 28 Index .......................... 9...... 21 Other methods for harmonics reduction ...................5 7...................... 11.................2 8............... 19 Using IGBT bridge ................... 24-pulse rectifier ......................6 .. 25 Summary of harmonics attenuation ....... 24 Tuned single arm passive filter ................ 30 4 Technical Guide No.....7 8.7.................6 7. 24 External active filter .................... 12-pulse with double wound transformer ........................... 6-pulse rectifier with inductor .......................... 26 26 26 26 26 27 Definitions .......3 9.............6 10.................... 12-pulse rectifier with polycon transformer .........

Special attention has been given to the methods for reducing harmonics with AC drives. 6 Technical Guide No.6 .Chapter 1 .Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 5 . its sources and effects. and also distortion calculation and evaluation.Introduction General This guide continues ABB's technical guide series. describing harmonic distortion.

1 shows how the current harmonics (ih) in the input current (is) of a power electronic converter affect the supply voltage (ut).Chapter 2 . Harmonic distortion is a form of pollution in the electric plant that can cause problems if the sum of the harmonic currents increases above certain limits.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .Basics of the harmonics phenomena Harmonic currents and voltages are created by non-linear loads connected on the power distribution system.1 Plant with converter load. where the total RMS current and direct current output from the rectifier. Figure 2. is(t) = i1(t) + Σ ih(t) Converter load Rs Ls u(t) Point of Common Coupling (PCC) Other loads Mains Transformer Figure 2. The line current of a 3-phase. 6-pulse rectifier can be calculated from the direct output current by using the following formula. . All power electronic converters used in different types of electronic systems can increase harmonic disturbances by injecting harmonic currents directly into the grid. (valid for ideal filtered DC current) The fundamental current is then 6 Technical Guide No. mains transformer and other loads.6 .

The information given below is valid in the case when the line inductance is insignificant compared to the DC reactor inductance. Technical Guide No. The principle of how the harmonic components are added to the fundamental current is shown in Figure 2.2 The harmonic content in a theoretical rectangular current of a 6-pulse rectifier.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 7 .3. The line current is then rectangular with 120° blocks. Figure 2.3 The total current as the sum of the fundamental and 5th harmonic. HarmonicCurrent (%) 6 Order of Harmonic Component Figure 2. where only the 5th harmonic is shown.6 .2. the harmonic current frequencies of a 6-pulse three phase rectifier are n times the fundamental frequency (50 or 60 Hz). The order numbers n are calculated from the formula below: where The rms values of the harmonic components are: and the harmonic components are as shown in Figure 2.Basics of the harmonics phenomena In a theoretical case where output current can be estimated as clean DC current.

welding supplies and uninterrupted power supplies. circuit breakers can trip. computers may fail and metering can give false readings. electronic lighting. variable speed drives.Harmonic distortion sources and effects Common non-linear loads include motor starters. This Technical Guide has been published to help customers to understand the possible harmonic problems and make sure the harmonic distortion levels are not excessive. The effects are likely to show up in the customer's plant before they show on the utility system. The effects of harmonics can be overheating of transformers. computers and other electronic devices. If the cause of the above mentioned symptoms is not known.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .Chapter 3 . Electronic displays and lighting may flicker. motors. 8 Technical Guide No. generators and capacitors connected to the same power supply with the devices generating the harmonics.6 . then there is cause to investigate the harmonic distortion of the electricity distribution at the plant. cables.

Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software The harmonic currents cause a distortion of the line voltage. Network supplying a frequency converter in the middle and its equivalent diagram on the right. 4. ABB DriveSize software is used for the calculation example. The most important motor load data for harmonics calculation is the base power in kW. The data for this example is on the left. 4.5 % Cable: Length = 60 m R = 0.1.1 Circuit diagram for the calculation example Supply Sk = 150 MVA U = 22 kV Transformer: S = 400 kVA U1 = 22 kV U2 = 415 V z = 4. torque/power One overload min Speed [rpm] Power [kW] Overload [%] 0 0 base 1450 100 100 max 1500 100 100 Overload time [s] 60 every [s] 600 Figure 4.2.1.Chapter 4 . Technical Guide No. show the network supplying the converter and the other essential parts of the installation.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 9 . The circuit diagrams in Figure 4. In principle the voltage harmonics can be calculated at any point of the network if the harmonic currents and the corresponding source impedance are known.2 Input data for motor load Motor load Load type Overload type Const.6 .007 mΩ/m Motor: P = 100 kW IN = 200 A Xk S'k Xt X'k 6 I Figure 4.

4. The software makes the motor selection for the defined load. 3. The inverter selection is based on the previous motor selection and here also the user has an option to select the inverter manually.5.6 .8 Supply cable type Cable quantity Cable lenght [m] Cable 3 60 Busbar Impedance [µΩ] 70 Figure 4. 4.2 Power factor 0.6 Network and Transformer data input Network and Transformer data Primary voltage [V] Frequency [Hz] Network Sk [MVA] 22000 50 150 unknow Secondary voltage [V] 415 Transformer Sn [kVA] 400 Transformer Pk [kW] 3.0 Transformer Zk [%] 3. 10 Technical Guide No.6. For standard ABB transformers the data is shown automatically.speed [rpm] 2300 Current [A] 197 Torque [Nm] 1060 T max/Tn 3.Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software 4.5 Inverter supply unit data Supply unit data Pulse # Lv [µH] Cdc [mF] Udc [V] Idc [A] 6 110 4. The supply unit data is defined by DriveSize according to the inverter type selected.3 Motor selection Selected motor data M2BA 315 SMC 6 Selection Voltage [V] Connection Frequency [Hz] Power [kW] Poles Speed [rpm] DriveSize 415 D 50 110 6 992 Max mech.4.6 Insulation class F Figure 4.4 Inverter selection Selected inverter data ACS607-0140-3 Selection Selection method Voltage [V] Drive power [kVA] Pn [kW] Normal Icont [A] Normal Imax [A] User Current (normal) 400 140 110 216 238 Phd [kW] 90 Heavyduty Icont [A] 178 Heavyduty Imax [A] 267 6 Pulse R8 Frame type P&F 12Nsq [A] 260 Figure 4.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .82 Efficiency [%] 95. 4.95 560 191 Figure 4. The network and transformer data input is given here. If required there is an option to select a different motor than that selected by the DriveSize.

0 % Figure 4.9. Different kinds of circuit models are used.999 0.0 3. 0.90 98 % THD Current THD Voltage IEEE 519 limits 47.1 % THD Current 0.3 % 1. power factor Unmax mot.Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software 4.2%/ 0.9 Part of the printed report Network check ACS607-0140-3 Network and Transformer data Normal voltage [V] Frequency [Hz] Network Sk [MVA] Transformer Sn [kVA] Transformer Pk [kW] Transformer Zk [%] Supply cable type Cable quantity Cable lenght 22000 (primary side) 50 150 400 3.9 21.1 11.6 % 5.2% IEEE Calc 0. There are also models for 6.2%/ IEEE Limit 15.2 5.5 % 0. Technical Guide No.1 0.5 5.2 %/15.0 % 0.8 Calculated harmonic currents in graphical form [%] 50 40 30 20 10 0 6 1150 1250 250 350 550 650 850 950 1450 1550 6 110 4.7.8 Cable 3 60 Supply unit data Pulse # Lv [µH] Cdc [mF] Udc [V] Idc [A] Result Cosfii Tot.8.4 % 1. 4.3 Figure 4.0 % 41.1 0. one for SingleDrive with AC inductors and one for diode and thyristor supply with DC inductors.2 % 0. The harmonics are calculated by making discrete Fourier transformation to the simulated phase current of the incoming unit.7 11.2 % 2. The results of calculations can be shown in table form as above or as a graph.6 % 4.6 0.0 0.0 0.6 . The input data and calculated results can be printed out as a report.1 0.7 15.2 %/5.3 8.0 0.8 % 0. 12 and 24 pulse connections. 4.2 % THD Voltage 1750 1850 calc/limit 0.6 % Voltage [V] 21996.3 3.0% 0.6 32. which is partly shown here.0 In/I1 100.95 560 191 Frequency [Hz] Figure 4.2 0.2 0.2 % 19.0 0.5 % 8.7 3.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 11 .1 8.0 3.2 0.5% Data Primary side Secodary side Show Mode Table Graph n 1 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31 35 37 f [Hz] 50 250 350 550 650 850 950 1150 1250 1450 1550 1750 1850 Current [A] 2.7 Calculated harmonic current and voltage THD Current Voltage Result 47.7 % 2.1% 0.8 1.

12 Technical Guide No. that the manufacturer shall provide in the documentation of the PDS. The referenced values shall be calculated for each order at least up to the 25th. The use of the future IEC1000-3-4 is recommended for equipment with rated current > 16 A. the current harmonic level. which considers the total installation. In a low voltage public supply network.Standards for harmonic limits The most common international and national standards setting limits on harmonics are described below. which the supply can deliver at any time. This approach is based on the agreed power. The current THD (orders up to and including 40).6 . the limits and requirements of IEC1000-3-2 apply for equipment with rated current ≤ 16 A. or on request. a reasonable economical approach. the PDS shall be assumed to be connected to a PC with Rsc = 250 and with initial voltage distortion less than 1%. EN61800-3 states. EN61800-3 is the EMC product standard of adjustable speed electrical power drive systems (PDS). The method for calculating the harmonics of the total installation is agreed and the limits for either the voltage distortion or the total harmonic current emission are agreed on.Chapter 5 . is the minimum condition for free trade of power electronics converters inside the EEA. 5. under rated conditions. The CE marking indicates that the product works in conformity with the directives that are valid for the product.1 EN61800-3 (IEC1800-3) Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems Part 3: EMC product standard including specific test methods The countries of the European Economic Area (EEA) have agreed on common minimum regulatory requirements in order to ensure the free movement of products within the EEA. The internal impedance of the network shall be assumed to be a pure reactance. Meeting the requirements of this standard. For these standard calculations. The directives state the principles that must be followed. Standards specify the requirements that must be met. Figure 5. The compatibility limits given in IEC1000-2-4 may be used as the limits of voltage distortion.1 is shown as an example for harmonic distortion limits. If PDS is used in an industrial installation. and its high-frequency component PHD (orders from 14 to 40 inclusive) shall be evaluated.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . shall be used. as a percentage of the rated fundamental current on the power port.

2 IEC1000-2-2. offshore platforms and railways. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 2: Environment .5 IEC1000-3-4. Basically this standard sets the design criteria for the equipment manufacturer. voltage fluctuations. Work is going on to convert it into a standard. inter-harmonics. voltage dips and short interruptions voltage inbalance and so on. It covers low-voltage networks as well as medium voltage supplies excluding the networks for ships. The two main reasons for the revision are the need for the standard to cover also the voltage below 230 V and the difficulties and contradictions in applying the categorisation of the equipment given in the standard.Section 4: Compatibility levels in industrial plants for low frequency conducted disturbances IEC1000-2-4 is similar to IEC1000-2-2. It gives the harmonic current emission limits for individual equipment having a rated current of more than 16 A up to 75 A. aircraft. The date of implementation of this standard is January 1st 2001.3 IEC1000-2-4.4 IEC1000-3-2. 5. but there is extensive work going on at the moment to revise the standard before this date. Part 3: Limits .Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 13 . IEC1000-2-2 is in line with the limits set in EN50160 for the quality of the voltage the utility owner must provide at the customer's supply-terminals. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Technical Guide No. but it gives compatibility levels for industrial and non-public networks. It applies to public networks having nominal voltages from 230 V single phase to 600 V three phase.Section 2: Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment current <16 A per phase) This standard deals with the harmonic current emission limits of individual equipment connected to public networks. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) 5. Part 2: Environment . and amounts to the minimum immunity requirements of the equipment.6 . This standard has been published as a Type II Technical report.Standards for harmonic limits 5. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) 6 5. The disturbance phenomena include harmonics.Section 2: Compatibility levels for low frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-voltage power supply systems This standard sets the compatibility limits for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public lowvoltage power supply systems.

Stage 3 applies in any case. will contain different limits for single and threephase equipment. especially in the municipal public works market.50 MW (5. but it may justly be questioned whether single and threephase equipment should have different limits in Stage 2.0 MW) # MAXIMUM LOAD 12p 6p STAGE 2 LIMITS % I1 Min’m Rsce 66 120 175 I5 I7 I11 I13 6 12 10 9 2.6 IEEE519.25 1.11 MW # 415 kW (830 kW) (830 kW) 250 350 450 400 kV Net (26 MVA Assumed) # 760 kW (215 kW) # 108 kW (215 kW) >600 <=0. 14 Technical Guide No. The structure of this standard is generally seen to be good.3 MW) 15 12 12 8 20 14 12 8 30 18 13 8 40 25 15 10 50 35 20 15 60 40 25 18 11 kV Net (100 MVA Assumed) # 1. If the rated current is above 75 A. 132 kV Net (600 MVA Assumed) # 6.1 Limits on Harmonics in the proposed EN61000-3-4.40 MW # 1.02 VOLTAGE %THD ** 33 kV Net (400 MVA Assumed) Typical Values # 4. Meeting the individual harmonic limits of Stage 1 allows the connection of the equipment at any point in the supply system. The limits are classified and tabulated by the short circuit ratio. 5. based on the agreed active power of the consumer's installation.Standards for harmonic limits The standard gives three different stages for connection procedures of the equipment.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .3 MW) (3.0 MW) (5.69 1.66 MW # 2.97 1. This standard is also recognised as American National Standard and it is widely used in the USA.91 PCC **Contribution to existing THD level at selected PCC Figure 5.06 0. The third stage of connection is based on an agreement between the user and the supply authority. but the version having the status of actual standard.6 . IEEE Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems The philosophy of developing harmonic limits in this recommended practice is to limit the harmonic injection from individual customers so that they will not cause unacceptable voltage distortion levels for normal system characteristics and to limit overall harmonic distortion of the system voltage supplied by the utility.36 1.65 MW (3. It is very probable that the structure of the standard will remain as it is. Stage 2 gives individual harmonic current limits as well as THD and its weighted high frequency counterpart PWHD.

Within an industrial plant. Total harmonic distortion is called total demand distortion and also it should be calculated up to infinity. The allowed individual harmonic currents and total harmonic distortion are tabulated by the ratio of available short circuit current to the total demand load current (Isc/ IL) at the point of common coupling.6 . since the ratio of the short circuit current to the total demand load current of an installation should always be used. The total demand load current is the sum of both linear and non-linear loads. The limits of the table should not be used this way. Many authors limit the calculation of both the individual components and TDD to 50. the PCC is clearly defined as the point between the non-linear load and other loads. The customers are categorised by the ratio of available short circuit current (Isc) to their maximum demand load current (IL) at the point of common coupling.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 15 . but for individual customers.Standards for harmonic limits The standard does not give limits for individual equipment.3 of the standard is sometimes misinterpreted to give limits for the harmonic emissions of a single apparatus by using Rsc of the equipment instead of Isc/IL of the whole installation. The limits are as a percentage of IL for all odd and even harmonics from 2 to infinity. 6 Technical Guide No. The table 10.

The procedure is shown in the flowchart in Figure 6.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . Analysis) Stage 2: Does Facility meet Harmonic Limits? No Design Power Factor correction and/or Harmonic Control Equipment (include resonance concerns) Verification Measurements and Calculations (if necessary) Yes Stage 1: Is detailed Evaluation necessary? Estimate Weighted Disturbing Power (SDW) or % Non-linear Load No Yes Figure 6.1 Evaluation of harmonic distortion. UTILITY Choose PCC CUSTOMER Calculate Short Circuit Capacity (SSC. ISC) Yes Is Power Factor Correction existing or planned? No Calculate Average Maximum Demand Load Current (I L) Calculate Short Circuit Ratio (SCR=(I SC /IL) Characterise Harmonic Levels (Measurements. 16 Technical Guide No.Evaluating harmonics The "Guide for Applying Harmonic Limits on Power Systems" P519A/D6 Jan 1999 introduces some general rules for evaluating harmonic limits at an industrial facility.Chapter 6 .1.6 .

12-p.1 shows the factors in the AC drive system which have some influence on harmonics. LINE Short circuit power MVA 6 TRANSFORMER Rated Power and Impedance Alternative Type of Rectifier MVA % 6-p. THYRISTOR. 7.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system Harmonics reduction can be done either by structural modifications in the drive system or by using external filtering. 24-p DIODE.CSI Motor Rated Power and Load kW % LOAD Figure 7.1 Drive system features affecting harmonics.6 . Technical Guide No.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 17 .1 Factors in the AC drive having an effect on harmonics Figure 7. The current harmonics depend on the drive construction and the voltage harmonics are the current harmonics multiplied by the supply impedances. INVERTER: AC DRIVE Reactor Inductance mH Inverter Type of Inverter PWM. The structural modifications can be to strengthen the supply.Chapter 7 . to use 12 or more pulse drive. to use a controlled rectifier or to improve the internal filtering in the drive.

2 Table: List of the different factors and their effects The cause The larger the motor… The higher the motor load… The larger the DC or AC inductance… The higher the number of pulses in the rectifier… The larger the transformer… The lower the transformer impedance… The higher the short circuit capacity of supply… The effect the higher the current harmonics the higher the current harmonics the lower the current harmonics the lower the current harmonics the lower the voltage harmonics the lower the voltage harmonics the lower the voltage harmonics 7.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system 7.2. 18 Technical Guide No. which together with a DC-capacitor forms a low-pass filter for smoothing the DC-current. The most common rectifier circuit in 3-phase AC drives is a 6-pulse diode bridge.2. The current form is shown in Figure 7. The 6-pulse rectifier is simple and cheap but it generates a high amount of low order harmonics 5th.6 .2 Harmonics in line current with different rectifier constructions. the supply transformer needs to be oversized and meeting the requirements in standards may be difficult. 11th especially with small smoothing inductance. Often some harmonics filtering is needed. It consists of six uncontrollable rectifiers or diodes and an inductor.3 Using 6-pulse diode rectifier The connections for different rectifier solutions are shown in Figure 7. The inductor can be on the DCor AC-side or it can be left totally out.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . 6-pulse rectifier 12-pulse rectifier 24-pulse rectifier Current Waveform Current Waveform Current Waveform Figure 7. If the major part of the load consists of converters with a 6-pulse rectifier. 7th.

In the case of a high power single drive or large multidrive installation a 24-pulse system may be the most economical solution with lowest harmonic distortion. Technical Guide No.6 . 7. This allows regenerative flow of power from the DC-bus back to the power supply. The input to the rectifiers is provided with one three-winding transformer. It has two 12-pulse rectifiers in parallel with two threewinding transformers having 15o phase shift. By delaying the firing angle over 90o. The principle of the 24-pulse rectifier is also shown in Figure 7. The major drawbacks are special transformers and a higher cost than with the 6-pulse rectifier.3 Harmonic components with different rectifiers.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 19 .How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system 7. The transformer secondaries are in 30o phase shift. The benefit is that practically all low frequency harmonics are eliminated but the drawback is the high cost. In theory the harmonic component with the lowest frequency seen at the primary of the transformer is the 11th. In I1 6 6-pulse rectifier 12-pulse rectifier 24-pulse rectifier Harmonic order Figure 7. the DC-bus voltage goes negative.5 Using phase controlled thyristor rectifier A phase controlled rectifier is accomplished by replacing the diodes in a 6-pulse rectifier with thyristors. Since a thyristor needs a triggering pulse for transition from nonconducting to conducting state.2.4 Using 12-pulse or 24pulse diode rectifier The 12-pulse rectifier is formed by connecting two 6-pulse rectifiers in parallel to feed a common DC-bus. The benefit with this arrangement is that in the supply side some of the harmonics are in opposite phase and thus eliminated. the phase angle at which the thyristor starts to conduct can be delayed.

6 . . but since they draw power with an alternating displacement power factor.8 Distortion is in % of RMS values Figure 7.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system Standard DC-bus and inverter configurations do not allow polarity change of the DC-voltage and it is more common to connect another thyristor bridge anti-parallel with the first one to allow the current polarity reversal. The poor power factor causes high apparent current and the absolute harmonic currents are higher than those with a diode rectifier. The main benefits are: . Supply type Current TDH (%) Voltage TDH (%) RSC=20 10 Voltage TDH (%) RSC=100 2 Current Waveform 6-pulse rectifier 30 12-pulse rectifier 10 6 1. the total power factor with partial load is quite poor.6 Using IGBT bridge Introducing a rectifier bridge. Values may vary case by case. brings several benefits and opportunities compared to phase commutated ones. Like a phase commutated rectifier. made of self commutated components. phase-controlled converters cause commutation notches in the utility voltage waveform.High dynamics of the drive control even in the field weakening range. this hardware allows both rectification and regeneration. In this configuration the first bridge conducts in rectifying mode and the other in regenerating mode.Safe function in case of mains supply disappearance. In addition to these problems. but it makes it possible to control the DC-voltage level and displacement power factor separately regardless of the power flow direction.4 Distortion of different supply unit types. The current waveforms of phase controlled rectifiers are similar to those of the 6-pulse diode rectifier.2 IGBT Supply Unit 4 8 1. 20 Technical Guide No. The angular position of the notches varies along with the firing angle. 7.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .

When comparing with Figure 7. or in several cases it has been omitted totally.Possibility to generate reactive power.Voltage boost capability.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system .6 . Measured results for one drive is shown in Figure 7.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 21 . The effect of this can be seen from the curve forms in Figure 7. .6 The effect of the inductor on the line current.6. 7. Current without Inductor Current with Inductor Figure 7.5 Harmonics in line current IGBT line generating unit.Nearly sinusoidal supply current with low harmonic content.7 Using a larger DC or AC inductor The harmonics of a voltage source AC drive can be significantly reduced by connecting a large enough inductor in its AC input or DC bus. The trend has been to reduce the size of converter while the inductor size has been also reduced. Line Generating Unit 3~ In I1 Line Generating Unit 6 Harmonic order Figure 7.3 we can see a clear difference.5. but somewhat higher at higher frequencies. Technical Guide No. IGBT has very low harmonics at lower frequencies. In case of low supply voltage the DC voltage can be boosted to keep motor voltage higher than supply voltage. The main drawback is the high cost coming from the IGBT bridge and extra filtering needed. .

22 Technical Guide No. which gives a THD of about 45%. This is 0. the lower the voltage distortion.8. Load 60 A. 50 Hz).7 shows the effect of the size of the DC inductor on the harmonics. The higher the ratio. 12-pulse Short Circuit Ratio Figure 7. 6-pulse THD of Voltage (%) Small inductor.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . Harmonic Current (pu) 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 23rd 25th THD 415 V.6 . Practically sensible is about 25 mH divided by motor kW. That value is practically reached when the inductance is 100 mH divided by the motor kW or 1 mH for a 100 kW motor (415 V. Transformer power 50-315 kVA. The voltage distortion with certain current distortion depends on the Short Circuit Ratio Rsc of the supply.7 Harmonic current as function of DC inductance. For the first 25 harmonic components the theoretical THD minimum is 29%. 6-pulse Large inductor. This can be seen in Figure 7. 50 Hz DC Inductance/mH = This Figure/Motor kW Figure 7. line fault level 150 MVA No inductor.8 THD Voltage vs Type of AC drive and transformer size.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system The chart in Figure 7.25 mH for a 100 kW motor. 6-pulse Large inductor.

”THD = ca. 3% with a “Large Inductor Drive” and ca.10. Then turn left to the y-axis and read the total harmonic voltage distortion.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 23 .9 introduces a simple nomogram for estimation of harmonic voltages.6 . On the graph below right select first the motor kilowatt. 6-pulse Large DCInductor. E = Large DC-Inductance Small DC-Inductance Without DC-Inductance Figure 7.9 Total harmonic distortion nomogram. A= B. Drive A with large DC inductor has the lowest harmonic current distortion. 11% with a “No Inductor Drive” Figure 7. 12pulse Input Data to Calculations: Rated Motor for the Drive Constant Torque Load Voltage 415 V Drive Efficiency = 97% Supply Impedance = 10% of Transformer Impedance Supply Transformer (kVA) TURN LEFT TURN UP START Motor kW 6 Example: 45 kW Motor is connected to ”a 200 kVA Transformer. Total Harminic Voltage Distortion STOP No DC-Inductor. Harmonic current with different DC-Inductances. Results from laboratory tests with drive units from different manufacturers are shown in Figure 7.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system Figure 7. C = D. Technical Guide No. then the transformer kVA and then move horizontally to the diagonal line where you move upwards and stop at the curve valid for your application. 6-pulse Small DCInductor. 6-pulse TURN LEFT Large DCInductor.10. drives with no inductor installed have the highest distortion.

There are two basic methods: passive and active filters.1 Tuned single arm passive filter. 8. This kind of filter consists of an inductor in series with a capacitor bank and the best location for the passive filter is close to the harmonic generating loads.6 . The multiple filter has better harmonic absorption than the one arm system. Capacitive below tuned frequency/Inductive above Better harmonic absorption Design consideration to amplification harmonics by filter Limited by KVAr and network Figure 8. A tuned arm passive filter should be applied at the single lowest harmonic component where there is significant harmonic generation in the system. Detuned . This filter has several arms tuned to two or more of the harmonic components which should be the lowest significant harmonic frequencies in the system.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter.2. 24 Technical Guide No.1.Chapter 8 . For systems that mostly supply an industrial load this would probably be the fifth harmonic.Single tuning frequency Above tuned frequency harmonics absorbed Below tuned frequency harmonics may be amplified Harmonic reduction limited by possible over compensation at the supply frequency and network itself Figure 8.1 Tuned single arm passive filter The principle of a tuned arm passive filter is shown in Figure 8. 8.Other methods for harmonics reduction Filtering is a method to reduce harmonics in an industrial plant when the harmonic distortion has been gradually increased or as a total solution in a new plant.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter The principle of this filter is shown in Figure 8. Above the tuned frequency the harmonics are absorbed but below that frequency they may be amplified. This solution is not normally used for new installations.

provide compensation for harmonic components on the utility system based on existing harmonic generation at any given moment in time. see Figure 8. External active filters are most suited to multiple small drives.3 External active filter principle diagram.4 External active filter waveforms and harmonics. Technical Guide No.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 25 . They are relatively expensive compared to other methods.Other methods for harmonics reduction The multiple arm passive filters are often used for large DC drive installations where a dedicated transformer is supplying the whole installation.3 External active filter A passive tuned filter introduces new resonances that can cause additional harmonic problems.4.6 .3. New power electronics technologies are resulting in products that can control harmonic distortion with active control. 8. Waveforms Clean feeder current Harmonics Load current Active filter current Figure 8. Fundamental only Supply idistortion Load icompensation Active Filter 6 Current waveforms Figure 8. These active filters. The active filter compensates the harmonics generated by nonlinear loads by generating the same harmonic components in opposite phase as shown in Figure 8.

Chapter 9 .2% 4.4% Manufacturing cost 210% Typical harmonic current components.7% 4.1% 9. The costs are valid for small drives.4% 1.6 .1 6-pulse rectifier without inductor 9.4% 26 Technical Guide No. Fundamental 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 100% 63% 54% 10% 6. In the following tables different internal actions are compared to the basic system without inductor.3 12-pulse rectifier with polycon transformer 9.Summary of harmonics attenuation There are many options to attenuate harmonics either inside the drive system or externally.5 24-pulse rectifier with 2 3-winding transformers Manufacturing cost 200% Typical harmonic current components.6% 2.7% 1.3% Manufacturing cost 250% Typical harmonic current components.6% 7. Fundamental 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 100% 3.9% 5.2% 1.4 12-pulse with double wound transformer 9.0% 0. They all have advantages and disadvantages and all of them show cost implications. the supply to the site and the standing distortion.1% 6. The harmonic content is given with 100% load. Fundamental 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 100% 11% 5.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .7% 1.6% 4.7% 1.4% 4. AC or DC choke added Typical harmonic current components.8% Manufacturing cost 120%. The best solution will depend on the total loading. 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th Fundamental 5th 100% 30% 12% 8. 9.2% 1.0% 2.2 6-pulse rectifier with inductor Manufacturing cost 100% Typical harmonic current components.8% 6.7% 1. For multidrive the 12-pulse solution is quite a lot cheaper. Fundamental 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 100% 4.5% 5.

0% 0.6% 3.6 .2% 6 Technical Guide No. Not significant if electrical braking is anyway needed.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 27 . Typical harmonic current components.1% 2. Fundamental 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 100% 2.1% 2.4% 3.Summary of harmonics attenuation 9.6 Active IGBT rectifier Manufacturing cost 250%.

Integer n = 2.. Total Harmonic Distortion in the input current is defined as: ω1: n: In: Zn: %Un: THD: where I1 is the rms value of the fundamental frequency current. RMS-value of n:th harmonic component of line current..Definitions S: P: Q: Rsc: Apparent power Active power Reactive power Short circuit ratio is defined as the short circuit power of the supply at PCC to the nominal apparent power of the equipment under consideration.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . 50Hz or 60Hz). . 3. Harmonic frequencies are defined as wn = n*ω1. Angular frequency of fundamental component ω1 = 2*π*f1. The THD in voltage may be calculated in a similar way. Rsc = Ss / Sn. Harmonic voltage component as a percentage of fundamental (line) voltage. ∞.Chapter 10 . Here is an example for the 25 lowest harmonic components with the theoretical values: PWHD: Partial weighted harmonic distortion is defined as: 28 Technical Guide No. where f1 is fundamental frequency (eg. Impedance at frequency n*ω1.6 .

Definitions PCC: Point of Common Coupling is defined in this text as such a point of utility supply which may be common to the equipment in question and other equipment. Power Factor defined as PF = P/S (power / voltampere) = I1 / Is * DPF (With sinusoidal current PF equals to DPF).Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 29 .6 . There are several definitions of PCC in different standards and even more interpretations of these definitions in literature. where φ1 is the phase angle between the fundamental frequency current drawn by the equipment and the supply voltage fundamental frequency component. The definition chosen here is seen as technically most sound. PF: DPF: 6 Technical Guide No. Displacement Power Factor defined as cosφ1.

13. 18. 18. 21 inductance 17. 19. 7. 26 industrial installation 12 installation 9. 8. 23 inductor 5. 28. 27 harmonic distortion 6. 25 30 Technical Guide No. 25 inverter selection 10 inverter supply unit data 10 L laboratory test 23 line current 6. 24. 11. 29 fundamental frequency 7. 21. 22. 25 active power 14. 23.6 . 16 harmonics reduction 17. 23 CE marking 12 circuit breaker 8 common DC-bus 19 commutation notch 20 compatibility limit 12. 24. 22. 13. 28. 24. 20 24-pulse rectifier 18. 14. 25. 18. 28 harmonic limit 12. 12. 7 I IGBT bridge 20. 15. 24. 21 converter load 6 D DC-capacitor 18 DC-current 18 displacement power factor 20. 24. 23. 15. 20 6-pulse three phase rectifier 7 12-pulse rectifier 18. 18. 18. 15. 6. 21. 12. 18. 17. 19. 29 distortion calculation 5. 25 harmonic voltage 23. 14. 21 low-pass filter 18 M mains transformer 6 manufacturing cost 26. 21. 16. 11 E effect 5. 14. 11. 15.Chapter 11 .Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . 10 AC inductor 21 active filter 5. 22. 22 electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) 22 electronic device 8 electronic display 8 electronic lighting 8 EMC product standard 12 European Economic Area 12 evaluating of harmonic 16 external filtering 17 F filtering 17. 19 A ABB 6. 6 distortion nomogram 23 DriveSize 9. 9. 28 American National Standard 14 anti-parallel 20 apparent power 28 attenuation 5. 9. 26 C calculation 5. 10. 12. 19. 19. 22. 12. 14. 27 metering 8 motor load 9 motor selection 10 motor starter 8 multiple arm passive filter 5. 15. 26. 20. 24. 19. 28 harmonics phenomena 6. 12. 8. 29 H harmonic component 7. 9. 28 harmonic currents 6. 9. 20. 19. 16. 21. 23. 18. 13. 13 computer 8 consumer's installation 14 converter 6. 25. 12. 24 frequency 9.Index 3-winding 26 5th harmonic 7 6-pulse rectifier 7. 24.

15. 8. 18. 19. 17. 18. 25 phase commutated rectifier 20 PHD 12 point of common coupling 15. 21. 29 structural modification 17. 14. 13. 21. 17. 14. 17. 14. 20 total demand distortion 15 total harmonic distortion 10. 26. 18. 7. 22. 6. 29 power port 12 public supply 12 PWHD 14.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 31 . 9 standard 12. 19. 23. 21 source impedance 4. 21. 27 rectifying mode 20 rectangular current 7 regenerating mode 20 report 11 S short circuit power 14. 15. 19. 23 voltage boost 21 W welding supply 8 6 Technical Guide No. 22. 20.Index N network 10 non-linear load 6. 10 tuned arm passive filter 24 two-winding transformer 19 U uninterrupted power supply 8 V variable speed drives 8 voltage 6. 9. 23. 9. 16. 22. 20. 16 O overheating 8 P passive filter 24. 15. 18. 28 source 6. 11. 20. 29 T TDD 15 THD 12. 19. 28 three-winding transformer 19 thyristor 17. 28 R reactive power 21. 28 short circuit ratio 22.6 . 29 power distribution 6 power drive system 12 power factor 16. 8. 12. 23 supply authority 14 supply cable 18 supply transformer 18 supply voltage 6. 28 transformer 9. 28 rectifier 5. 20. 13. 20.

abb. 2002 Specifications subject to change without notice.5.com/motors&drives 3AFE 64292714 REV B EN 17. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.ABB Oy Drives P.O. .

7 Dimensioning of a Drive system .Technical Guide No.

2 Technical Guide No.7 .Dimensioning of a Drive system .

.................Dimensioning of a Drive system 3 ...................1 9.......................................... Introduction .................... 11 4. 33 Rectifier .....2.............................................................1 8..... 5.Contents 1.................................. 13 Motor power .. 18 Load types ..............................................3 5............. 6 General description of a dimensioning procedure .......... 12 4.... 24 Constant torque application (Example) ........ 5 Drive system ....... 7.........................2 6.... 9 Fundamentals ....... 33 Transformer ....... 23 Selecting the frequency converter and motor ........7 ........... 20 Motor loadability .................................................2 10.... 9........................................... 27 Constant power application (Example) ...............1 4......................... 29 Input transformer and rectifier .2 8........... Technical Guide No..............2................. 2.............................................. 8................ 14 Basic mechanical laws ........ 4............3 9.........1 Constant flux range ........................................2 Field weakening range...................... 36 4..... 15 Gears and moment of inertia .....................1 5.............................. 24 Pump and fan application (Example) ........ 3....................... 15 Rotational motion ...............................................2 4......................... 34 Index ....................... 7 An induction (AC) motor .................................................... 7 8................................. 9 Motor current ........

Dimensioning of a Drive system .7 .4 Technical Guide No.

7 Technical Guide No.7 . Dimensioning requires knowledge of the whole system including electric supply. driven machine. environmental conditions. Time spent at the dimensioning phase can mean considerable cost savings. motors and drives etc.Introduction General Dimensioning of a drive system is a task where all factors have to be considered carefully.Dimensioning of a Drive system 5 .Chapter 1 .

Inside the single frequency converter there is a rectifier. Figure 2. Inverter units are connected directly to a common DC-link. 3) inverter unit and 4) electric supply.2 A drive system which has 1) a separate supply section.Dimensioning of a Drive system . In multi-drive systems a separate rectifier unit is commonly used. DC-link and inverter unit. an AC motor and load.7 . 6 Technical Guide No. 3) drive sections and 4) electric supply. 2) DC-link. 2) common DC-link.Drive system A single AC drive system consists typically of an input transformer or an electric supply.1 A single frequency converter consists of 1) rectifier. frequency converter.Chapter 2 . Figure 2.

7 . The mains supply network's frequency doesn't limit the speed range of the application. In order to select the correct frequency converter and motor. The motor must withstand process overloads and be able to produce a specified amount of torque. Is there a need for starting torque? What is the speed range used? What type of load will there be? Some of the typical load types are described later. 4) Select the frequency converter The frequency converter is selected according to the initial conditions and the selected motor. The motor's thermal overloadability should not be exceeded. check the mains supply voltage level (380 V …690 V) and frequency (50 Hz … 60 Hz).Chapter 3 .Dimensioning of a Drive system 7 . It is also necessary to leave a margin of around 30% for the motor's maximum torque when considering the maximum available torque in the dimensioning phase. 1) First check the initial conditions. 2) Check the process requirements. 3) Select the motor.General description of a dimensioning procedure This chapter gives the general steps for dimensioning the motor and the frequency converter. Advantage should be taken of the frequency converter's potential overloadability in case of a short term cyclical load. An electrical motor should be seen as a source of torque. 7 Technical Guide No. The frequency converter's capability of producing the required current and power should be checked.

.690V TS Tload n min n max 2) Choose a motor according to: • Thermal loadability • Speed range • Maximum needed torque 3) Choose a frequency converter according to: • Load type • Continous and maximum current • Network conditions Imax IN T TS Tload n min n max n min n max Figure 3.Dimensioning of a Drive system . 60Hz UN=380.7 .1 General description of the dimensioning procedure.General description of a dimensioning procedure Dimensioning phase Network Converter Motor Load 1) Chek the initial conditions of the network and load T fN=50Hz.. 8 Technical Guide No.

c) is the maximum motor torque.1) where ns is the synchronous speed: (4. At the nominal point the slip is nominal: (4.2) 7 When a motor is connected to a supply with constant voltage and frequency it has a torque curve as follows: Figure 4. The slip is often defined at the motor's nominal point (frequency ( fn ). Tmax and d) is the nominal point of the motor. current ( In ) and power ( Pn )). In this chapter some of the basic features are described. Converting the energy is based on electromagnetic induction.L.1 Fundamentals An induction motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. speed ( nn ).O. 4.1 Typical torque/speed curve of an induction motor when connected to the network supply (D. In the picture a) is the locked rotor torque.An induction (AC) motor Induction motors are widely used in industry. Direct-On-Line).Dimensioning of a Drive system 9 . voltage ( Un )..Chapter 4 . torque ( Tn ).7 . Technical Guide No. Because of the induction phenomenon the induction motor has a slip. b) is the pull-up torque.

In the field weakening range the motor can operate on constant power which is why the field weakening range is sometimes also called the constant power range. s max. Frequency converters. The maximum torque is available with slip smax which is greater than the nominal slip. In order to use an induction motor efficiently the motor slip should be in the range .. also called pull-out torque and breakdown torque) is typically 2-3 times the nominal torque. however.. typically limit the maximum available torque to 70% of Tmax.An induction (AC) motor A standard induction motor's maximum torque ( Tmax.Dimensioning of a Drive system . Above the field weakening point the maximum torque decrease is inversely proportional to the square of the frequency ( Tmax ~ ).smax . The maximum torque of an induction motor is proportional to the square of the magnetic flux ( Tmax ~ ψ 2 ). This can be achieved by controlling voltage and frequency. Above the nominal frequency/speed the motor operates in the field weakening range. The frequency range below the nominal frequency is called a constant flux range. TORQUE SPEED Figure 4. 10 Technical Guide No.2 Torque/speed curves of an induction motor fed by a frequency converter.7 . Controlling can be done with a frequency converter. This means that the maximum torque is approximately a constant at the constant flux range. T max is available for short term overloads below the field weakening point.

An induction (AC) motor

Tmax

Flux

Voltage

Constant flux range

SPEED

Field weekening range

Figure 4.3 Maximum torque, voltage and flux as a function of the relative speed.

4.2 Motor current

An induction motor current has two components: reactive current ( isd ) and active current ( isq ). The reactive current component includes the magnetizing current ( imagn ) whereas the active current is the torque producing current component. The reactive and active current components are perpendicular to each other. The magnetizing current ( imagn ) remains approximately constant in the constant flux range (below the field weakening point). In the field weakening range the magnetizing current decrease is proportional to speed. A quite good estimate for the magnetizing current in the constant flux range is the reactive ( isd ) current at the motor nominal point.

7

Figure 4.4 Stator current ( is ) consists of reactive current ( isd ) and active current ( isq ) components which are perpendicular to each other. Stator flux is denoted as ψs.

Technical Guide No.7 - Dimensioning of a Drive system

11

An induction (AC) motor

4.2.1 Constant flux range

Below the field weakening point the current components can be approximated as follows:

(4.3) (4.4) The total motor current is: (4.5) It can be seen that with zero motor torque the active current component is zero. With higher torque values motor current becomes quite proportional to the torque. A good approximation for total motor current is: , when 0.8 * Tn ≤ Tload ≤ 0.7 * Tmax

(4.6)

Example 4.1: A 15 kW motor's nominal current is 32 A and power factor is 0.83. What is the motor's approximate magnetizing current at the nominal point? What is the total approximate current with 120 % torque below the field weakening point. Solution 4.1: At the nominal point the estimate for the magnetizing current is:

The approximate formula for total motor current with 120 % torque gives:

The approximate formula was used because torque fulfilled the condition 0.8 * Tn ≤ Tload ≤ 0.7 * Tmax

12

Technical Guide No.7 - Dimensioning of a Drive system

An induction (AC) motor

4.2.2 Field weakening range

Above the field weakening point the current components also depend on speed.

(4.7) (4.8)

Total motor current is: (4.9) The motor current can be approximated quite accurately within a certain operating region. The motor current becomes proportional to relative power. An approximation formula for current is: (4.10)

7
Approximation can be used when: (4.11) and (4.12) In the field weakening range the additional current needed in order to maintain a certain torque level is proportional to relative speed. Example 4.2: The motor's nominal current is 71 A. How much current is needed to maintain the 100 % torque level at 1.2 times nominal speed (Tmax = 3 * Tn). Solution 4.2: The current can be calculated by using the approximation formula:

Technical Guide No.7 - Dimensioning of a Drive system

13

An induction (AC) motor

4.3 Motor power

The motor's mechanical (output) power can be calculated from speed and torque using the formula: (4.13) Because motor power is most often given in kilowatts (1 kW = 1000 W) and speed in rpm revolutions per minute, 1 rpm = rad/s), the following formula can be used:

(4.14) The motor's input power can be calculated from the voltage, current and power factor: (4.15) The motor's efficiency is the output power divided by the input power:

(4.16) Example 4.3: The motor nominal power is 15 kW and the nominal speed is 1480 rpm. What is the nominal torque of the motor? Solution 4.3: The motor's nominal torque is calculated as follows:

Example 4.4: What is the nominal efficiency of a 37 kW (Pn = 37 kW, Un =380 V, In =71 A and cos(ϕn) = 0.85) motor? Solution 4.4: The nominal efficiency is:

14

Technical Guide No.7 - Dimensioning of a Drive system

Chapter 5 - Basic mechanical laws
5.1 Rotational motion
One of the basic equations of an induction motor describes the relation between moment of inertia ( J [kgm2]), angular velocity ( ω [rad/s]) and torque ( T [Nm]). The equation is as follows: (5.1)

In the above equation it is assumed that both the frequency and the moment of inertia change. The formula is however often given so that the moment of inertia is assumed to be constant:

(5.2)

Torque Tload represents the load of the motor. The load consists of friction, inertia and the load itself. When the motor speed changes, motor torque is different from Tload . Motor torque can be considered as consisting of a dynamic and a load component: (5.3) If the speed and moment of inertia are constants the dynamic component ( Tdyn ) is zero. The dynamic torque component caused by acceleration/ deceleration of a constant moment of inertia (motor's speed is changed by ∆n [rpm] in time ∆t [s], J is constant) is:

7

(5.4)

The dynamic torque component caused by a variable moment of inertia at constant speed n[rpm] is:

(5.5)

Technical Guide No.7 - Dimensioning of a Drive system

15

Basic mechanical laws

If the moment of inertia varies and at the same time the motor is accelerating the dynamic torque component can be calculated using a certain discrete sampling interval. From the thermal dimensioning point of view it is however often enough to take into account the average moment of inertia during acceleration. Example 5.1: The total moment of inertia, 3 kgm2, is accelerated from a speed of 500 rpm to 1000 rpm in 10 seconds. What is the total torque needed when the constant load torque is 50 Nm? How fast will the motor decelerate to 0 rpm speed if the motor's electric supply is switched off? Solution 5.1: The total moment of inertia is constant. The dynamic torque component needed for acceleration is:

Total torque during acceleration is:

If the motor's electric supply is switched off at 1000 rpm the motor decelerates because of the constant load torque (50 Nm). Following equation holds:

Time to decelerate from 1000 rpm to 0 rpm:

Example 5.2: Accelerating of a fan to nominal speed is done with nominal torque. At nominal speed torque is 87 %. The fan's moment of inertia is 1200 kgm2 and the motor's moment of inertia is 11 kgm2. The load characteristics of the fan Tload is shown in figure 5.1. Motor nominal power is 200 kW and nominal speed is 991 rpm.

16

Technical Guide No.7 - Dimensioning of a Drive system

2 rpm) torque is assumed to be constant. The time to accelerate the motor (fan) with nominal torque can be calculated with formula: Technical Guide No. In each sector (198. Solution 5.Dimensioning of a Drive system 17 .Basic mechanical laws TORQUE SPEED Figure 5.1 Torque characteristics of a fan.7 . Speed and torque are shown using relative values. Torque for each sector is taken from the middle point of the sector.2: Motor nominal torque is: 7 The starting time is calculated by dividing the speed range into five sectors. This is quite acceptable because the quadratic behaviour is approximated to be linear in the sector. Calculate approximate starting time from zero speed to nominal speed.

8 rpm 792. Gears are reduced from load side to motor side with following equations (see also figure 5. 18 Technical Guide No.7 .4-594.2 rpm 198.8-991 rpm The total starting time 0-991 rpm is approximately 112 seconds.6 rpm 594.2 A gear with efficiency η.Basic mechanical laws Acceleration times for different speed sections are: 0-198.4 rpm 396. Gear ratio is n1:n2.6-792. When calculating the motor torque and speed range gears have to be taken into account.6) (5.2 ): (5. 5.7) (5.2-396.2 Gears and moment of inertia Gears are typical in drive systems.8) Direction of energy Figure 5.Dimensioning of a Drive system .

etc. Solution 5.Dimensioning of a Drive system 19 . The following example shows how to reduce gears and hoists. The mass m of the hoist is reduced by multiplying it with square of the radius r and because it is behind the gearbox it has to be multiplied with the square of the inverse of the gear ratio. r=0. too.2 m and m=100 kg. 7 Figure 5.3 A Hoist drive system used in example 5. drums. radius=0.4.4: The total moment of inertia consists of J1=10 kgm2. Example 5. In basic engineering books other formulas are also given. couplings.7 m)? Solution 5.3: A cylinder is quite a common shape for a load (rollers. J2=30 kgm2. If they are not known they can be calculated which is rather difficult to do accurately. Typically machine builders can give the necessary data.4: Reduce the moment of inertia to the motor shaft of the following hoist drive system. Thus the total moment of inertia of the system is: Technical Guide No. What is the inertia of a rotating cylinder (mass=1600 kg. The moment of inertia J2 is reduced by multiplying with the square of the inverse of the gear ratio.Basic mechanical laws Also all the moments of inertia ( J [kgm2]) within the system have to be known. the moment of inertia to the motor shaft has to be reduced. The moment of inertia J2 and mass m are behind a gearbox with gear ratio n1:n2=2:1.3: The inertia of a rotating cylinder (with mass m [kg] and radius r [m]) is calculated as follows: In the case of a gear.7 . Example 5.).

For example screw compressors. feeders and conveyors are typical constant torque applications. 1. Quadratic torque Quadratic torque is the most common load type. 2. Figure 6.Dimensioning of a Drive system . Constant torque A constant torque load type is typical when fixed volumes are being handled. Torque is constant and the power is linearly proportional to the speed.Chapter 6 . Figure 6.Load types Certain load types are characteristic in the industrial world. 20 Technical Guide No. Some common load types are shown. Knowing the load profile (speed range. The torque is quadratically.2 Typical torque and power curves in a quadratic torque application.1 Typical torque and power curves in a constant torque application. There may also be combinations of these types.7 . Typical applications are centrifugal pumps and fans. torque and power) is essential when selecting a suitable motor and frequency converter for the application. and the power is cubically proportional to the speed.

Constant power A constant power load is normal when material is being rolled and the diameter changes during rolling. Typical applications for this load type are for example extruders and screw pumps.Dimensioning of a Drive system 21 . It is a combination of constant power and constant torque load types. This load type is often a consequence of dimensioning the system according to the need for certain power at high speed. Technical Guide No. Figure 6. 5. Starting/ breakaway torque demand In some applications high torque at low frequencies is needed. Constant power/torque This load type is common in the paper industry. 4.Load types 3. This has to be considered in dimensioning.4 Typical torque and power curves in a constant power/torque application. 7 Figure 6.3 Typical torque and power curves in a constant power application. The power is constant and the torque is inversely proportional to the speed.7 .

These kinds of load types must be dimensioned carefully taking into account the overloadability margins of the motor and the frequency converter.) and unsymmetrical loads. They are however hard to describe in a general presentation. Symmetry/non-symmetry in torque can be for example as a function of angle or time. etc.5 Typical torque curve in an application where starting torque is needed. there are different symmetrical (rollers. There are also several other load types.Load types Figure 6. as well as the average torque of the motor.7 . cranes. Just to mention a few. 22 Technical Guide No.Dimensioning of a Drive system .

a frequency converter's short term loadability is often more critical than the motor's.1 A standard cage induction motor's typical loadability in a frequency controlled drive 1) without separate cooling and 2) with separate cooling.Chapter 7 .Dimensioning of a Drive system 23 . Because of the self ventilation the motor thermal loadability decreases as the motor speed decreases. This kind of behaviour limits the continuous available torque at low speeds. An AC-motor can be overloaded for short periods of time without overheating it. With both self and separate cooling methods torque is thermally limited in the field weakening range. The thermal loadability defines the maximum long term loadability of the motor. The frequency converter's thermal rise times (typically few minutes) are given in the product manuals.7 . A standard induction motor is self ventilated. A motor with a separate cooling can also be loaded at low speeds. Technical Guide No. The motor thermal rise times are typically from 15 minutes (small motors) to several hours (big motors) depending on the motor size. T / Tn 7 Relative speed Figure 7. Generally speaking.Motor loadability Motor thermal loadability has to be considered when dimensioning a drive system. Short term overloads are mainly limited by Tmax (check the safety margin). Cooling is often dimensioned so that the cooling effect is the same as at the nominal point.

Supply voltage variations affect the available motor shaft power.Chapter 8 .Selecting the frequency converter and motor The motor is selected according to the basic information about the process.7 . The available supply voltage must be checked before selecting the frequency converter. hazardous area. It isn't however always the best possible dimensioning criteria because motors might for example be derated (ambient temperature. The system's power losses need to be compensated also by the frequency converter rating. etc. in the system because they cause a voltage drop and thus the maximum available torque may drop. Frequency converter manufacturers normally have certain selection tables where typical motor powers for each converter size are given. Speed range. . The maximum available torque is often limited by the frequency converter. etc. 8.). If the supply voltage is lower than nominal the field weakening point shifts to a lower frequency and the available maximum torque of the motor is reduced in the field weakening range. The corresponding current values can be calculated from the torque profile and compared to converter current limits. ventilation method and motor loadability give guidelines for motor selection.Check the starting torque need. reactors. When selecting a suitable frequency converter there are several things to be considered. The dimensioning current can also be calculated when the torque characteristics is known. The motor's nominal current gives some kind of indication. The maximum available torque is also affected by transformers.Dimensioning of a Drive system . Often it is worth comparing different motors because the selected motor affects the size of the frequency converter. cables. The frequency converter may limit the motor torque earlier than stated in the motor manufacturer's data sheet. This has to be considered already in the motor selection phase. torque curves.Choose the pole number of the motor.1 Pump and fan application (Example) Some stages in pump and fan application dimensioning: .Check the speed range and calculate power with highest speed. The most economic operating frequency is often in the field 24 Technical Guide No. .

If the pump and fan rating is not available choose the frequency converter according to the motor current profile.1 Motor loadability curves in a pump and fan application.Selecting the frequency converter and motor weakening range.1: The necessary torque at 2000 rpm is: It seems that 2-pole or 4-pole motors are alternative choices for this application.7 . Comparison of 1) 2-pole and 2) 4-pole motors. There is no need for starting torque. Use pump and fan rating.Choose motor power so that power is available at maximum speed. 1) motor p=2 For a 2-pole motor the loadability at 2000 rpm according to the loadability curve is about 95 %. . Example 8.Dimensioning of a Drive system 25 . Solution 8. The motor nominal torque must be at least: Technical Guide No.1: A pump has a 150 kW load at a speed of 2000 rpm. 7 Figure 8. Remember the thermal loadability. .Choose the frequency converter.

26 Technical Guide No. 50 Hz.Selecting the frequency converter and motor The corresponding nominal power must then be at least: A 250 kW (400 V. 2975 rpm and 0. 2) motor p=4 For a 4-pole motor the loadability at 2000 rpm is 75 %.81) fulfills the conditions. A 4-pole motor requires less current at the pump operation point.7 . 1480 rpm and 0. Thus it is probably a more economical choice than a 2-pole motor. 50 Hz.87) motor is selected.Dimensioning of a Drive system .7 Hz) is: The exact current should be calculated if the selected frequency converter's nominal current is close to the approximated motor current. The approximated current at a speed of 2000 rpm (66. 431 A. 305 A. The nominal torque of the motor is: The motor current at 2000 rpm speed (constant flux range) is approximately: The minimum continuous current for the frequency converter is then 384 A. The minimum nominal torque of the motor is: The minimum power for a 4-pole motor is: A 160 kW motor (400 V.

.2 Motor loadability curves in a constant torque application. Technical Guide No. .7 . Acceleration time from zero speed to 1200 rpm is 10 seconds.Check the possible starting torque required.2: The constant torque requirement is: 7 A suitable motor is a 4-pole or a 6-pole motor. . The starting torque requirement is 200 Nm.Check the constant torque needed. . comparison of 1) 4-pole and 2) 6-pole motors. Solution 8.Check the possible accelerations. The motor is self-ventilated and the nominal voltage is 400 V.2: An extruder has a speed range of 300-1200 rpm. . Example 8. If accelerations are needed check the moments of inertia. Typically the nominal speed of the motor is in the middle of the speed range used.Check the speed range.Choose the motor so that torque is below the thermal loadability curve (separate/self ventilation?).2 Constant torque application (Example) Some stages in dimensioning of a constant torque application: .Choose a suitable frequency converter according to the dimensioning current.Selecting the frequency converter and motor 8. The load at 1200 rpm is 48 KW. Figure 8.Dimensioning of a Drive system 27 .

The starting torque requirement (200 Nm) is not a problem for this motor. The estimated minimum nominal torque is: The minimum motor nominal power is: A suitable motor is for example a 75 kW (400 V. 2) Motor p=6 At speeds of 300 rpm and 1200 rpm the motor loadability is 84 %.72 kgm2 the dynamic torque in acceleration is: Thus the total torque during acceleration is 391 Nm which is less than the nominal torque of the motor. 50 Hz.Selecting the frequency converter and motor 1) Motor p=4 At 300 rpm speed the thermal loadability is 80 %. If the motor's moment of inertia is 0.82) motor.8): According to the calculated motor current a suitable frequency converter can be selected for constant torque use.7 . 1473 rpm and 0. 146 A. Thus the minimum nominal torque of the 6-pole motor is: The minimum value of the motor nominal power is: 28 Technical Guide No. The motor nominal torque is: Motor current is approximately (T/Tn ≈ 0.Dimensioning of a Drive system .

7 8.3 Constant power application (Example) Some stages in dimensioning of a constant power application: . A 6-pole motor current is 19 A smaller than with a 4-pole motor.12 and the efficiency of the gear is 0. There is a gear with gear ratio n2 :n1 =1:7. The starting torque requirement is less than motor's nominal torque. If the inertia of the motor is 1. 50 Hz.7 . The motor nominal torque is: The dimensioning current can be approximated at a speed of 1200 rpm: The nominal (continuous) current of the frequency converter must be over 96 A. Example 8.3: A wire drawing machine is controlled by a frequency converter. Technical Guide No. The diameters of the reel are 630 mm (empty reel) and 1250 (full reel). . Select a suitable motor and converter for this application.Dimension the motor so that the field weakening range is utilized. 984 rpm and 0. The surface speed of the reel is 12 m/s and the tension is 5700 N. .2 kgm2 the dynamic torque in acceleration is: The total torque needed during acceleration is 397 Nm which is less than the nominal torque of the motor.82) motor.98.Selecting the frequency converter and motor A suitable motor could be for example a 55 kW (400 V. 110 A.Calculate the power needed. The final frequency converter/motor selection depends on the motor and frequency converter frame sizes and prices.Dimensioning of a Drive system 29 .Check the speed range. Winders are typical constant power applications.

3 Basic diagram of a winder.Selecting the frequency converter and motor Solution 8. Figure 8. In rectilinear motion the power is: In rotational motion the power is: P = Fv P = Tω The relation between surface speed and angular velocity is: Torque is a product of force and radius: T = Fr By using the above formulas the motor can be selected: 30 Technical Guide No.3: The basic idea of a winder is to keep the surface speed and the tension constant as the diameter changes.Dimensioning of a Drive system .7 .

The minimum nominal power of the motor is: Technical Guide No.86) motor is selected. The motor nominal torque is: The dimensioning current is calculated according to a torque of 511 Nm: 2) Motor p=4 If a 4-pole motor is selected it can be seen from the loadability curve that loadability at a speed of 1305 rpm is about 98 % and about 60 % at 2590 rpm.7 . 353 A. Speeds.Dimensioning of a Drive system 31 . 50 Hz. 2975 rpm and 0.Selecting the frequency converter and motor The gear must be taken into account before choosing the motor. The minimum nominal power of the motor is: 7 A 200 kW (400 V. torques and power have to be reduced: 1) Motor p=2 If a 2-pole motor is selected loadability at a speed of 1305 rpm is about 88 % and 97 % at 2590 rpm.

A 4-pole motor is a better choice for this application. 50 Hz. 32 Technical Guide No.Dimensioning of a Drive system . The motor current is: With a 2-pole motor the field weakening (constant power) range was not utilized which led to unnecessary overdimensioning. The motor nominal torque is: Dimensioning in this case is done according to the motor current at 1305 rpm. 1473 rpm and 0. 172 A.83) is selected.Selecting the frequency converter and motor A 90 kW (400 V.7 .

If however the load is generating all the time. Both the input transformer and the rectifier are dimensioned according to the motor shaft power and system losses.Input transformer and rectifier There are several types of input rectifiers. TORQUE 7 LINE CURRENT Figure 9.7 . A single drive's input rectifier can be selected using the approximation formula: (9.1 Line current in a constant torque application. the energy needs to be absorbed. For example if high torque at low speed is delivered the mechanical power is nevertheless quite low. there can be motoring and generating power at the same time. For short generating loads the traditional solution has been a braking resistor where the power generated has been transformed into heat losses. Diode rectifiers only support motoring loads where the power flow is one way only.1 Rectifier Rectifiers are dimensioned according to motor shaft power. 9. In certain processes where the load can also be generating.Chapter 9 . The rectifier type might limit the operation. Line current is small at low speed.1) In drive systems where there is a common DC-link. Rectifier power is then calculated approximately as follows: (9. Thus high overloads do not necessarily mean high power from the rectifier point of view. A conventional rectifier is a 6 or 12 pulse diode rectifier.2) Technical Guide No. a true 4-quadrant rectifier is needed.Dimensioning of a Drive system 33 .

35.3) In the above formulas: Ptotal is the total motor shaft power k is the transformer loadability (k-factor) 1.Input transformer and rectifier 9. Specify the rectifier and input transformer. A 6-pulse diode supply is used (efficiency 0.2 .97 and motor efficiency is 0.95.0 for diode rectifier) ηc is the AC choke (if there is one) efficiency ηi is the inverter efficiency ηm is the motor efficiency Typically total shaft power is multiplied by a coefficient 1.7 . there is a DC-choke in the DC-link.1: For the rectifier the estimated power is: 34 Technical Guide No.Dimensioning of a Drive system .05 stands for transformer voltage drop (impedance) ηr is the rectifier efficiency cos(α) is the rectifier control angle (=1.1. Example 9.2 Transformer An input transformer's power can be calculated as follows: (9.985).1: In a constant torque application the maximum shaft power needed is 48 kW at a speed of 1200 rpm. A 55 kW motor and 70 kVA inverter unit was selected. inverter efficiency is 0. Solution 9.

Input transformer and rectifier The choke efficiency is included in the inverter efficiency.95) is: 7 Technical Guide No.Dimensioning of a Drive system 35 . Because of diode supply unit cos(α) =1. The power of the input transformer (k=0.7 .

14 power factor 12 pull-out torque 10 pull-up torque 9 Q quadratically 20 quadratic torque 20 R reactive current 11 rectifier 33 rectifier unit 6 roller 19 S scalf ventilated 23 separate cooling 23 shaft power 24 slip 9 speed 9 speed range 7 starting/breakway torque 21 starting torque 7 supply 6. 12 O overloadability 7 P power 9. 21 constant torque 20 coupling 19 cubically 20 cyclical load 7 D DC-link 6 decelerate 16 diode rectifier 33 drum 19 E efficiency 14 electric supply 6 F fan 16.35 K kilowatt 14 L load 6 load profile 20 load type 20 locked rotor torque 9 M motor 9 maximum torque 10 mechanical 14 moment inertia 15 motoring 33 N nominal point 9. 9 frequency converter 6 G gear 18 gear box 19 generating 33 I induction 9 induction motor 9 input transformer 6 inverter 34. 20 friction 14 field weakening range 10 flux range 10 frequency 7.Index 4-quadrant 33 A AC motor 6 acceleration 18 active current 11 angular velocity 14 B break down torque 10 C centrifugal pumps 20 constant flux range 10 constant power 10.Dimensioning of a Drive system . 24 36 Technical Guide No. 7 supply voltage 7.7 .Chapter 10 .

7 . 10 V voltage 9 7 Technical Guide No.Index T thermal loadability 23 transformer 6 torque 9.Dimensioning of a Drive system 37 .

5. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.O.ABB Oy Drives P. .abb.com/motors&drives 3AFE 64362569 REV A EN 17. 2002 Specifications subject to change without notice.

8 Electrical Braking .Technical Guide No.

8 .2 Technical Guide No.Electrical Braking .

............1 The energy storage nature of the frequency converter ... 5 5 5 7 2...........4............................................................1 General principles of IGBT based regeneration units .....................4 Dimensioning an IGBT regeneration unit ..... 2............................................................ 3.. Braking chopper and braking resistor ....................................................................... Technical Guide No.....Contents 1..........................................2............. Symbols and definitions ............... Evaluating braking power ................ 2............. 3.............8 .............. Electrical braking solutions in drives ........ Common DC ................................ Calculating the life cycle cost ...2 Evaluating brake torque and power .............................. 3.......................3 3.............2......2 IGBT based regeneration-control targets ................ Drive applications map according to speed and torque ......... Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking ...... 3.4......................2.4. 1....................4... Evaluating the investment cost ...................1 4.............2 4.......1 2.....3 Direct torque control in the form of direct power control .. Index ..............3 5........... Basics of load descriptions ......................Electrical Braking 3 ................... General dimension principles for electrical braking ........................ Motor Flux braking ...........2................... 3..1 1. Anti-parallel thyristor bridge configuration ........... 2.............. Calculating the direct cost of energy ..........3 Summary and Conclusions .....5 4....................1 3............2 3.......2 Principle of the braking chopper ................2......................... 24 24 24 25 29 30 4.... 3.2 7 8 8 8 12 13 13 14 14 15 17 19 19 19 20 22 22 3.....1 Constant torque and quadratic torque ... General ...................... 6..... 2................................... 3...2 Introduction ........4 8 3...... IGBT bridge configuration .............

Electrical Braking .4 Technical Guide No.8 .

1 General This guide continues ABB's technical guide series. 1.Electrical Braking 5 .2 Drive applications map according to speed and torque Drive applications can be divided into three main categories according to speed and torque. It is commonly understood that from the energy saving point of view the AC motor combined with inverter is superior to mechanical control methods such as throttling.Introduction 1. less attention is paid to the fact that many processes may inherently include power flow from process to drive. winches and cranes. weaving. the power flow may be from drive to motor or vice versa. These applications are typically pump and fan applications having quadratic behaviour of load torque and thus often called variable torque applications. i. The single quadrant drive may turn out to be two quadrants for example if a fan is decelerated faster than mechanical losses could naturally achieve. i. The purpose of this guide is to give practical guidelines for different braking solutions. The most common AC drive application is a single quadrant application where speed and torque always have the same direction.8 .e.e. the load torque does not inherently change when speed changes. 8 Technical Guide No. The third category is fully four-quadrant applications where the direction of speed and torque can freely change. the power flow (which is speed multiplied by torque) is from inverter to process. and engine test benches may require repetitive speed and torque change. In many industries also the requirement for emergency stopping of machinery may require two-quadrant operation although the process itself is single quadrant type.e. However. bending. The second category is two-quadrant applications where the direction of rotation remains unchanged but the direction of torque can change. i. One can also mention single quadrant processes where the power flow is mainly from machinery to inverter such as in a winder or an uphill to downhill conveyor. but many machinery processes such as cutting. describing the practical solutions available in reducing stored energy and transferring stored energy back into electrical energy. Some single quadrant applications such as extruders or conveyors are constant torque applications. but how this braking energy could be utilised in the most economical way has not been considered. These applications are typically elevators.Chapter 1 .

1 Drive applications map according to speed and torque.Electrical Braking .Introduction Decelerating Accelerating Accelerating Decelerating Figure 1.8 . 6 Technical Guide No.

The higher the voltage the less current is needed for the same power. the current to the inverter is lower than the current fed to the motor.0.1 General dimension principles for electrical braking The evaluation of braking need starts from the mechanics. or there are subcycles in the process where the motor operates on the generator side at constant or slightly varying speed. i. The mechanical braking power depends on braking torque and speed. The current is the primary component defining the cost in low voltage AC drives.2) Technical Guide No. formula (2. Typically. the requirement is to brake the mechanical system within a specified time.Chapter 2 .Evaluating braking power 2. This power is then transferred at a certain specified voltage and current. In formula (2. It is important to note that devices used in electrical braking are dimensioned according to braking power.2) we see the term cosφ. This fact means that on the supplying side the cosφ is typically near 1.1).2). this motor magnetising current is not taken from the AC supply feeding the converter. There are some losses in this conversion. The magnetising current does not create any torque and is therefore ignored.e.1) (2.2) it has been assumed that no loss occurs when DC power is converted to AC power. The higher the speed the higher the power. 8 (2.8 .Electrical Braking 7 . On the other hand. This term defines how much motor current is used for magnetising the motor. Note that in formula (2. but in this context the losses can be ignored. formula (2.

The braking torque and power need in respect to time varies greatly in these two different load types.8 . Constant torque: C: constant (2. (2.2. By assuming friction to be zero the time calculated is on the safe side.1 Constant torque and quadratic torque 2.5) (2.3) (2. the drive itself is single quadrant type. it is difficult to define the effect of friction exactly.Evaluating braking power 2. It also means that the power is speed to the power of three.e. Quadratic load torque means that the load torque is proportional to the square of the speed. In constant torque applications. friction and load torque is in the opposite direction to the motor torque.7) Let us first consider the case where the load is constant torque type and the drive system is not able to generate braking torque.2 Evaluating brake torque and power In the case of steady state operation (the angular acceleration α is zero) the motor torque has to make friction torque correspond proportionally to the angular speed and load torque at that specific angular speed.2 Basics of load descriptions Typically loads are categorised as constant torque or quadratic torque type.Electrical Braking . In order to calculate the braking time needed one can apply the following equation. 8 Technical Guide No.4) Quadratic torque: (2. Please note that formula (2.8) In practice. (2.7) underlines that the torque needed for inertia accelerating (or decelerating). the power is directly proportional to speed. i.2.6) 2.

11) This applies for those applications where the load torque remains constant when the braking starts. the load goes to zero speed in the time: 8 (2. from 200 rpm to 100 rpm. Technical Guide No. if the load is running at 1000 rpm and the motor torque is put to zero. but where the load torque changes in a quadratic manner. Torque [100 * Nm] Natural braking curve with constant load Cumulative time Natural braking power [kW] * 10 Natural braking torque [Nm] * 100 Speed [rpm] Figure 2. In that case if the motor is not braking the speed will only decrease as a result of mechanical friction. If the motor torque is forced to zero the load torque decreases in quadratic proportion to speed.1 Cumulative braking time. Time [s].g. In the case where load torque disappears (e.Electrical Braking 9 . increases dramatically in comparison to the speed change from 1000 rpm to 900 rpm.8 .Evaluating braking power Power [10 * kW].g. one sees that the natural braking time at the lower speed. e.10) Assuming that the load inertia is 60 kgm2 and the load torque is 800 Nm over the whole speed range.9) By solving t one ends up with the formula: (2. (2. braking load power and torque as a function of speed. Now consider the case with the same inertia and load torque at 1000 rpm. If the cumulative braking time is presented as a function of speed. the conveyor belt is broken) the kinetic energy of the mechanics remains unchanged but the load torque that would decelerate the mechanics is now not in effect.

3 Cumulative braking time for. on the very safe side due to the fact that the fan load characteristics are not taken into account. Time [s]. of course.g. Torque [100 * Nm] Natural braking curve with quadratic load Braking power [kW] * 10 Braking torque [Nm] * 100 Speed [rpm] Figure 2. A natural braking curve can easily be drawn based on the power and speed at the nominal point applying the formulas (2.6).Evaluating braking power Power [10 * kW]. Natural braking curve with quadratic load Time [s] Braking time Speed [rpm] Figure 2. The 90 kW fan has an inertia of 60 kgm2. This value is. Let us now consider the case where the requirement specifies the mechanical system to be braked in a specified time from a specified speed.8 . e. 10 Technical Guide No.2 Natural braking curve for a 90 kW fan braking load power and torque as a function of speed. a 90 kW fan.5) and (2.Electrical Braking . The maximum energy of inertia can be calculated from formula (2. The average braking power can be calculated by dividing this braking energy by time.. The natural braking effect caused by the load characteristics is at its maximum at the beginning of the braking. The nominal operating point for the fan is 1000 rpm. The fan is required to be stopped within 20 seconds.12).

Setting the drive regenerative power limit to 8. To summarise. At that point of time the load torque is only 25 % of nominal and the kinetic energy conserved in the fan is also only 25 % of the energy at 1000 rpm. the drive has to include a supervision function for maximum regeneration power.3) the speed comes down from 1000 rpm to 500 rpm without any additional braking within less than 10 seconds.3). the target for a 20 second deceleration time from 1000 rpm down to 0 rpm is well achieved with a braking chopper and resistor dimensioned for 8.Electrical Braking 11 .12) (2.13) When the braking chopper is dimensioned for this 16.2 kW sets the level of braking power to an appropriate level. it can be seen that the braking power in order to achieve deceleration from 500 rpm to 0 rpm is appr. 8 (2. If one wants to optimise the dimensioning of the brake chopper for a specific braking time one can start by looking at figure (2.15) Technical Guide No.8 . As can be seen from figure (2.4 kW. The natural braking effect is at its maximum at the beginning of the braking. 8 kW. The speed reduces quickly from 1000 to 500 rpm without any additional braking.14) (2. This clearly indicates that it is not necessary to start braking the motor with the aforementioned 16 kW power in the first instance.4 kW value and the motor braking capability at a higher speed is far more than 16.Evaluating braking power (2. If the calculation done at 1000 rpm is repeated at 500 rpm. This function is available in some drives.2 kW. As stated in previous calculations this is also on the safe side because the natural braking curve caused by the load characteristics is not taken into account.

3 Summary There are two basic load types: constant and quadratic and conclusions load torque. The power increases linearly as the speed increases and vice versa. When the speed increases. This affects the dimensioning of the braking chopper.Evaluating braking power 2. Braking power evaluation: The quadratic load characteristics mean fast natural deceleration between 50-100 % of nominal speeds. The braking power is a function of torque and speed at that specified operating point. Constant torque application: The load torque characteristic does not depend on the speed. The constant load torque characteristic is constant natural deceleration. The quadratic load torque means that at low speeds the natural deceleration is mainly due to friction.2.8 . If the load torque disappears when braking starts the natural braking effect is small. Typical quadratic torque applications: fans and pumps. 12 Technical Guide No. That should be utilised when dimensioning the braking power needed. The load torque remains approximately the same over the whole speed area. Dimensioning the braking chopper according to peak braking power typically leads to overdimensioning. Quadratic torque application: The load torque increases to speed to the power of two. The braking power is not a function of motor nominal current (torque) or power as such.Electrical Braking . the power increases to speed to the power of three. Typical constant torque applications: cranes and conveyors.

In other words. 1). When braking in the drive system is needed. The higher the resistance value the higher the braking energy dissipation inside the motor.1 Motor flux braking Flux braking is a method based on motor losses. in low power motors (below 5 kW) the resistance value of the motor is relatively large in respect to the nominal current of the motor.8 . flux braking is most effective in a low power motor. The inverter converts the DC voltage back to AC voltage feeding the AC motor at the desired frequency.Chapter 3 . Typically. i. the motor flux and thus also the magnetising current component used in the motor are increased. During flux braking the motor is under DTC control which guarantees that braking can be made according to the specified speed ramp. DC bus and inverter to the motor. 8 Technical Guide No. the rectifier has to constantly deliver the power needed by the motor plus the losses in drive system. The higher the power or the voltage of the motor the less the resistance value of the motor in respect to motor current. In the DC injection method DC current is injected to the motor so that control of the motor flux is lost during braking. The amount of energy stored in DC capacitors is very small compared with the power needed.e. The control of flux can be easily achieved through the direct torque control principle (for more information about DTC see Technical Guide No. The process power needed flows through the rectifier. In flux braking the increased current means increased losses inside the motor. With DTC the inverter is directly controlled to achieve the desired torque and flux for the motor. The braking power is therefore also increased although the braking power delivered to the frequency converter is not increased. The increased current generates increased losses in motor resistances. This is very different to the DC injection braking typically used in drives. The flux braking method based on DTC enables the motor to shift quickly from braking to motoring power when requested. 3.Electrical braking solutions in drives The modern AC drive consists of an input rectifier converting AC voltage to DC voltage stored in DC capacitors.Electrical Braking 13 .

If the power flow changes as in two or four quadrant applications.2 Braking chopper and braking resistor 3. The main benefits of flux braking are: No extra components are needed and no extra cost. The motor is controlled during braking unlike in the DC injection current braking typically used in drives. 3. and the components of a frequency converter may only withstand voltage up to a certain specified level. the power fed by the process charges the DC capacitors according to formula (3. The capacitance C is a relatively low value in an AC drive resulting in fast voltage rise. Braking power is limited by the motor characteristics e.g.1 The energy storage nature of the frequency converter In standard drives the rectifier is typically a 6-pulse or 12pulse diode rectifier only able to deliver power from the AC network to the DC bus but not vice versa. The main drawbacks of flux braking are: Increased thermal stress on the motor if braking is repeated over short periods. Flux braking is useful mainly in low power motors.2.1) and the DC bus voltage starts to rise.Electrical braking solutions in drives Braking torque (%) No flux braking Rated motor power Flux braking Figure 3. resistance value. 14 Technical Guide No.1 Percentage of motor braking torque of rated torque as a function of output frequency.Electrical Braking .8 . using DTC control method.

2. This operation is called overvoltage control and it is a standard feature of most modern drives. for a 90 kW drive the capacitance value is typically 5 mF. this means that the braking profile of the machinery is not done according to the speed ramp specified by the user. two possibilities are available: the inverter itself prevents the power flow from process to frequency converter. In practice this means that the overvoltage controller and its 'work horse' torque controller of the AC motor has to be a very fast one. If the drive is supplied by 400 V AC the DC bus has the value of 1. The energy storage capacity of the inverter is typically very small. This is done by limiting the braking torque to keep a constant DC bus voltage level.1) (3.35 * 400 = 565 V DC. 8 3.2) In order to prevent the DC bus voltage rising excessively.3) This range of values applies generally for all modern low voltage AC drives regardless of their nominal power.2 Principle of the braking chopper The other possibility to limit DC bus voltage is to lead the braking energy to a resistor through a braking chopper. Technical Guide No. The braking chopper is an electrical switch that connects DC bus voltage to a resistor where the braking energy is converted to heat. For example.8 .Electrical braking solutions in drives (3. Assuming that the capacitors can withstand a maximum of 735 V DC. However. The braking choppers are automatically activated when the actual DC bus voltage exceeds a specified level depending on the nominal voltage of the inverter. the time which 90 kW nominal power can be fed to the DC capacitor can be calculated from: (3.Electrical Braking 15 . Also the activation of the regeneration or braking chopper has to be very fast when used in drive configuration.

The main drawbacks of the braking chopper and resistor are: The braking energy is wasted if the heated air can not be utilised. long braking times require more accurate dimensioning of the braking chopper.8 .g. 16 Technical Guide No. May require extra investments in the cooling and heat recovery system. Low fundamental investment for chopper and resistor. Increased risk of fire due to hot resistor and possible dust and chemical components in the ambient air space.Electrical Braking . in elevator or other safety related applications. When to apply a braking chopper: The braking cycle is needed occasionally. The chopper works even if AC supply is lost. Braking during main power loss may be required. UDC represents DC bus terminals and R the resistor terminals. Braking choppers are typically dimensioned for a certain cycle. Braking operation is needed during main power loss.g. The increased DC bus voltage level during braking causes additional voltage stress on motor insulation. 100 % power 1/10 minutes.2 Circuit diagram example of braking chopper. The main benefits of the braking chopper and resistor solution are: Simple electrical construction and well-known technology. e. e. The braking chopper and resistors require additional space. The amount of braking energy with respect to motoring energy is extremely small.Electrical braking solutions in drives UDC+ V1 R+ Control Circuit C1 R- UDCFigure 3.

The forward/reverse bridge selection and intermediate circuit voltage control are based on the measurement of the supply current. The thyristor-firing angle is constantly regulated to keep the intermediate circuit voltage at the desired level. The main components of the thyristor supply unit are two 6-pulse thyristor bridges. The ambient air includes substantial amounts of dust or other potentially combustible or explosive or metallic components. The forward bridge converts 3phase AC supply into DC.8 . several hundred kW for several minutes.3 Anti-parallel thyristor bridge configuration In a frequency converter the diode rectifier bridges can be replaced by the two thyristor controlled rectifiers in antiphase.Electrical braking solutions in drives When to consider other solutions than braking chopper and resistor: The braking is continuous or regularly repeated.Electrical Braking 17 . The instantaneous braking power is high. The reverse bridge converts DC back to AC whenever there is a need to pass the surplus motor braking power back to the supply network. This configuration allows changing the rectifier bridge according to the power flow needed in the process.g. Forward Reverse 8 3 Udc L Figure 3. supply voltage and the intermediate circuit voltage.3 Line diagram of anti-parallel thyristor supply unit. Only one bridge operates at a time. The total amount of braking energy is high in respect to the motoring energy needed. e. the other one is blocked. 3. Technical Guide No. It feeds power to the drives (inverters) via the intermediate circuit. The DC reactor filters the current peaks of the intermediate circuit.

However.4. Example of anti-parallel bridge current and voltage waveforms during braking. If the supplying AC disappears a risk of fuse blowing exists. In certain special applications this can be an advantage. The DC voltage can be controlled to a lower value than the network.8 . The current distortion flows through other network impedance and can cause undesired voltage distortion for other devices supplied from the point where voltage distortion exists.Electrical braking solutions in drives The main benefits of the anti-parallel thyristor bridge are: Well known solution. 18 Technical Guide No. The main drawbacks of the anti-parallel thyristor bridge are: The DC bus voltage is always lower than AC supply voltage in order to maintain a commutation margin. Less investment needed than for an IGBT solution. The braking capability is not available during main power loss. Voltage / V. The cosφ varies with loading. this can be overcome by using a step-up autotransformer in the supply. due to the failure in thyristor commutation.Electrical Braking . Thus the voltage fed to the motor remains lower than the incoming AC. Current / A Sinusoidal phase voltage Distorted phase voltage Line current Time / ms Figure 3. Total harmonic distortion higher than in IGBT regenerative units.

8 . The input IGBT bridge of the drive (later line converter) can be considered as another AC voltage system connected through a choke to the generator. In a configuration 3.4) The formula indicates that in order to transfer power between these two systems there has to be a phase difference in the angle between the voltages of the two AC systems.2 IGBT based regeneration control targets There are three general control targets in IGBT based regeneration units. This ensures that inverters feeding AC motors can work in an optimum way regardless of the operation point thanks to a stable DC bus voltage.1 General principles of IGBT based regeneration units power network several generators and load points are connected together. Line generating unit Line generating unit 8 Harmonic order Figure 3.4.4 IGBT bridge The IGBT based regeneration is based on the same principles as power transmission within a power network. One can assume that at the point of connection the power network is a large synchronous generator having a fixed frequency. 3. (3.5.Electrical Braking .Electrical braking solutions in drives 3.4. In order to control the power flow between the two systems the angle has to be controlled. This control of appropriate power flow is achieved by controlling the power angle between the two AC systems. Typical line current waveform and harmonics of an IGBT line generating unit.4). The DC bus voltage is stable when the power flow into the DC bus equals the power flow out of the DC bus. The principle of power transfer between two AC systems having voltage U and connected to each other can be calculated from figure (3. 19 Technical Guide No. The first one is to keep the DC bus voltage stable regardless of the absolute value of power flow and the direction of power flow.

The power is torque multiplied by angular frequency.e. The very same principle can be applied in a line converter controlling the power flow from power network to drive and vice versa. i. 1). controlling torque means also control of power flow.Electrical Braking .Electrical braking solutions in drives Load step Power / kW. The main design criteria here are the impedance value of the choke and an appropriate control method. 20 Technical Guide No.4.3 Direct torque control in the form of direct power control Direct torque control (DTC) is a way to control an AC motor fed by an inverter. The control principal turns IGBT switches on and off directly based on the difference between the actual AC motor torque and the user’s reference torque (Technical Guide No.e. which in the network is constant. S2. In some applications it is desired that the IGBT line converter also works as an inductive or as a capacitive load. This is achieved by controlling the output voltage of the line converter. (3. S2. Voltage / 10 * V DC Measurement Power Times / ms Figure 3.8 . The third control target is to minimise the harmonic content of the supply current.5) Torque_REF Flux_REF Hysteresis Direct torque and flux Hysteresis control ASICS Torque_BITS Flux_BITS Control_BITS Optimal S1. S3 Current L Model of power transmission Calculate actual values DC voltage control Figure 3. i.0. 3. Fundamental control diagram for DTC based IGBT regeneration unit. Note how stable the DC bus voltage is during this transition. The second control target is to minimise the supply current needed. S3 Switching Logic Flux_ACT Torque_ACT DC-Voltage S1. Fast change from regenerating to motoring operation.6. to operate at cosϕ = 1.7.

8 Voltage / V Actual DC voltage Reference DC voltage Times / ms Figure 3. Possibility to control the power factor. DC bus voltage has approximately the same value during motoring or braking. Power loss ride through operation with automatic synchronisation to grid.8 . Technical Guide No.Electrical braking solutions in drives The DTC control method combined with IGBT technology contributes to a low amount of current harmonics. An IGBT supply unit is therefore also a solution for those cases where current harmonics rather than the handling of braking energy is the issue.Electrical Braking 21 . For that reason the IGBT supply unit can be used to replace single quadrant 12-pulse or 18-pulse supply configurations. No extra voltage stress on insulation of motor winding during braking. Boosting capability of supplying voltage. High dynamics during fast power flow changes on the load side. This can be used to compensate for a weak network or increase the motor’s maximum torque capacity in the field weakening area. Possibility to boost the DC voltage higher than the respective incoming AC supply.8. The main benefits of an IGBT regeneration unit are: Low amount of supply current harmonics in both motoring and regeneration. Full compensation of system voltage drops thanks to voltage boost capability. which are typically used for reducing current harmonics on the supply side.

the DC Technical Guide No. i.8 . Assuming that there are 5 % system losses in the motor and drive. The minimum value for the supplying network is 370 V.5 kW. When to use an IGBT regeneration unit: The braking is continuous or repeating regularly. A common DC bus solution drive system consists of a separate supply rectifier converting AC to DC. the common DC bus solution is a very effective way to reuse the mechanical energy. Let us assume that the motoring shaft power needed is 130 kW and braking power 100 kW.Electrical braking solutions in drives The main drawbacks of an IGBT regeneration unit are: Higher investment cost. and inverters feeding AC motors connected to the common DC bus. These several kilohertz voltage components can excite small capacitors used in other electrical devices.4.Electrical Braking 22 . the required supply current is calculated based on the 370 level. When network harmonics limits are critical.5 Common DC When a process consists of several drives where one motor may need braking capability when others are operating in motoring mode. However. In this case the voltage boost capability can be utilised.e. the total power needed from the grid is 136. The motor voltage is 400 V. To dimension the IGBT supply unit the maximum value of motoring or braking power is selected. The braking capability is not available during main power loss. 3. 3. High frequency voltage harmonics due to high switching frequency.6) The IGBT regeneration unit is selected based solely on the calculated current value. The supplying current can be calculated from the formula: (3. With appropriate design and arrangement of feeding transformers for different devices these phenomena are eliminated.4 Dimensioning an IGBT regeneration unit The supply current dimensioning of the IGBT unit is based on power needed. The braking power is very high. When space savings can be achieved compared to the braking resistor solution. in this case 130 kW. the DC bus voltage is raised to correspond to an AC voltage of 400 V.

The basic configuration of the common DC bus arrangement can be seen from figure (3. Even if the instantaneous braking power is higher than motoring power the braking chopper and resistor do not need to be dimensioned for full braking power.Electrical braking solutions in drives bus is the channel to move braking energy from one motor to benefit the other motors. When to use common DC bus solution with single quadrant rectifier: The number of drives is high. The braking chopper and resistor are needed if instantaneous braking power exceeds motoring power.Electrical Braking 23 .9. 8 Technical Guide No. If braking power is likely to be needed for long periods a combination of rectifiers can be used. Supply section Braking sections Drive sections Auxilliary Incoming Filter unit DSU/TSU/ Braking unit (optional) control unit with IGBT IGBT unit supply only Supply unit Common DC bus ACU ICU FIU Chopper 24 V Supply unit Resistor Inverter Inverter AC Figure 3. The basic configuration of the common DC bus solution. Low system losses in conversion of braking energy thanks to common DC bus. The main drawbacks of the common DC bus solution with single quadrant rectifier are: The instantaneous motoring power has to be higher than or equal to braking power.9).8 . The motoring power is always higher than braking power or only low braking power is needed by the braking chopper. The main benefits of the common DC bus solution are: Easy way to balance power flow between drives. If the number of motors is small the additional cost of a dedicated inverter disconnecting the device from the DC bus raises the investment cost.

The price of energy varies from country to country. on the price of energy and the estimated braking time and power per day. However. a 100 kW drive is running 8000 hours per year and braking with 50 kW average power for 5 minutes every hour. This basic function of AC drives means savings in energy consumption in comparison to other control methods used.2 Evaluating the investment cost The required investment objects needed for different braking methods vary. The AC drive is used for controlling speed and torque. i. 1 Euro ~ 1 USD.Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking It has become increasingly important to evaluate the total life cycle cost when investing in energy saving products. Braking chopper: The additional investment cost of braking chopper and resistor plus the cost of additional space needed for those components. 24 Technical Guide No.05 Euros per kilowatt-hour can be used.e. Several technical criteria are mentioned above. The following examines the economic factors for different electrical braking approaches. modern AC drives are increasingly being used in applications where a need for braking exists. but a typical estimated price level of 0. The investment cost of additional ventilation needed for the braking chopper.1 Calculating the direct cost of energy The direct cost of energy can be calculated based.Electrical Braking . The annual cost of energy can be calculated from the formula: (4. The annual direct cost of braking energy is 1668 Euros. In pump and fan type applications braking is seldom needed.Chapter 4 . 4. 667 hours per year. 4.1) For example. The following investment cost components should be evaluated.8 . for example.

4. The inertia J of the drive system is 122 kgm2.2) The typical torque value for a 200 kW. Calculating the braking torque needed for the motor: 8 (4.8 . The price level of energy as well as the price of drives varies depending on the country.3 Calculating the life cycle cost The life time cost calculation supports the purely economic decision in making an investment. the time the investment is used and the overall macroeconomic situation. Based on the experience of the process an emergency stop happens once every month.Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking Thyristor or IGBT based electrical braking: The additional investment cost of thyristor or IGBT regenerative braking in respect to the same power drive without electrical braking capability. The absolute values of prices given in the following examples are solely used to illustrate the calculation principles. To achieve higher torque values a proportionally higher motor current is also needed.Occasional braking Consider the following application case: The continuous motoring power is 200 kW at a shaft speed of 1500 rpm. Technical Guide No. In the event of an emergency stop command the application is required to ramp down within 10 seconds. When the emergency stop is activated the load torque can be neglected. The investment cost difference between common DC bus solution and the respective single drive solution. interest ratio.Electrical Braking 25 . Case 1 . 1500 rpm motor is about 1200 Nm. Common DC bus: The additional investment cost of braking chopper and resistor including the space needed for those components if needed in a common DC bus solution. utility. size of company. A normal AC motor instantaneously controlled by an inverter can be run with torque at 200 % of nominal value.

4 m2 * 500 Euros/m2.3 kW. The braking resistor requires 0.4) (4.5) Cost of resistor braking: The braking chopper needed is for a maximum braking power of 300 kW. The average braking power is calculated below.4 m2 additional floor space.Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking The braking power is at its maximum at the beginning of the braking cycle. the energy savings cannot be used as an argument to cover the additional investment required.3) The braking chopper and resistor have to withstand instantenously the current for a power of 300 kW. 4000 Euros. the cost of additional cooling is considered negligible. The total additional investment cost consists of: Braking chopper and resistor in cabinet. As expected.8 . Floor space 0. The cost of floor space is 500 Euros/m2.Electrical Braking . (4. The additional cost of the braking chopper and resistor is 4000 Euros. 200 Euros. Due to the small total heating energy and emergency use of braking. If the drive has a power limitation function the braking resistor can be dimensioned according to the 150. Cost of 4Q drive: The additional cost of a respective investment for electrical braking with anti-parallel thyristor bridge in comparison with a drive with braking chopper is 7000 Euros. (4. 26 Technical Guide No. The total cost of wasted energy during one braking is: (4.6) In this case the cost of braking energy is negligible.

Electrical Braking 27 . centrifuge then spins liquor off the charge for 30 seconds at high speed. The direct payback calculation indicates that an additional 4000 Euros investment brings the same amount of energy savings during the first year of use. an average 2. The motor needs full torque for a period of 30 seconds to accelerate the charged basket to maximum speed of 1100 r/min. No extra cost due to floor space. 8 Case 3 . The average on duty time over one year for the hoist is 20 %. The longest hoist operation time can be 3 minutes.Centrifuge application Consider the following application case: Sugar Centrifuge with 6 pole motor 160 kW rating. The total cost of wasted energy is: (4. Braking chopper and resistor in cabinet 7800 Euros. Once the charge is dry motor decelerates the centrifuge as fast as possible to allow discharge and recharging. Technical Guide No.e. i. It is assumed that for 50 % of the duty time the crane operates on the generator side. The crane needs full power on both the motoring and generating side.Crane application Consider following application case: Crane with hoisting power of 100 kW. The additional investment cost for electrical braking with IGBT input bridge in comparison to drive with braking chopper is 4000 Euros.8 .4 h/day.Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking Case 2 . Typically the maximum braking chopper dimensioning is made for a braking time of 1 minute in 10 minutes. The mechanical construction of the crane allows having cabinets with braking chopper.7) Cost of 4Q drive: The IGBT 4Q drive is recommended for crane applications. Cost of resistor braking: The braking chopper and resistor have to be dimensioned for continuous 100 kW braking due to the 3 minutes maximum braking time.

8 . This is achieved by using an IGBT 4Q drive as the DC link voltage can be boosted for operation in the field weakening range (1000 to 1100 r/min). This can save around 3 seconds per cycle. spin and discharge times are fixed. 28 Technical Guide No. This allows an increase in throughput meaning that the productivity of the process is improved.Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking In a batch cycle the charge. The cost premium for IGBT is 10 %. so the only opportunity to increase production is to increase the rates of acceleration and deceleration.Electrical Braking . therefore reducing cycle time from 110 seconds to 107 seconds.

Torque (Newton meter. U: W: ω: Voltage [V] Energy [Joule. W] Power Factor defined as PF = P/S (power/voltampere) = I1 / Is * DPF (With sinusoidal current PF is equal to DPF). Nm) Time 8 T: t: THD: Total harmonic distortion in the current is defined as (5. A] Inertia [kgm2] Rotation speed [revolutions per minute.8 . J] Angular speed [radian/second. The THD in voltage may be calculated in a similar way.Electrical Braking . I: J: n: P: PF: Current [Ampere.Chapter 5 .rpm] Power [Watt. where φ1 is the phase angle between the fundamental frequency current drawn by the equipment and the supply voltage fundamental frequency component.1) where I1 is the rms value of the fundamental frequency current.Symbols and Definitions AC: B: C: Alternating current or voltage Friction coefficient Constant or coefficient cosφ: Cosine of electrical angle between the fundamental voltage and current DC: Direct current or voltage DPF: Displacement Power Factor defined as cosφ1. 1/s] 29 Technical Guide No.

13. 23. 20 inertia 9. 15. 26 two-quadrant 5 L line converter 19. 21. 29 inverter 13. 24. 28 impedance 18. 16. 25.Electrical Braking . 23. 20 N natural braking 10.Chapter 6 . 25. 26. 14. 26 C centrifuge 27 common DC 22. 27 D DC injection braking 13 DC power 7 direct torque control 13.8 . 20. 19. 18.Index A AC power 7 B braking chopper 11. 12 30 Technical Guide No. 14 four-quadrant 5 friction 8. 18. 23. 20. 23 T thyristor bridge 17. 27 braking power 7. 12 conveyors 12 cosφ 7. 15 F fans 12 flux braking 13. 25 constant torque 8. 20 E energy storage 14. 12 R rectifier 13. 24. 29 crane 12. 12 H harmonic distortion 18. 25 O over dimensioning 12 overvoltage control 15 P pumps 12 Q quadratic torque 8. 15. 17. 11. 21. 8. 12. 22. 22. 9. 12. 17. 10. 29 I IGBT 18. 11. 23. 17. 16. 19. 22. 23 S single quadrant 5. 27. 15.

Electrical Braking 31 .8 .8 Technical Guide No.

8.abb.2002 Specifications subject to change without notice.O. .com/motors&drives 3AFE 64362534 REV A EN 16. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.ABB Oy Drives P.

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O. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.11.ABB Oy Drives P.com/motors&drives Price: 50 EUR 3AFE 64514482 R0125 REV C EN 21. Ad agency Piirtek#11246 .abb. 2003 Specifications subject to change without notice.

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