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A Complete Course in Dressmaking - I Conover (1922)

A Complete Course in Dressmaking - I Conover (1922)

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This compilation © Phoenix E-Books UK

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Complete Counce in

Drej^mohna
in
Lejiron JCII

Menlr Clolhes
and

IndeAr
How
to
shirts,

tailor men's nightshirts,

pajamas, bath
neckbands,
collars

robes

and drawers. Making
cuffs, soft

and neckties
to

explained in detail.

Learn

make men's

clothes a man's way.

IsabelVeJVyses Chnover

CLODE .p^vey A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING BY ISABEL DeNYSE CONOVER LESSON HOW TO MAKE XII MEN'S CLOTHES CLEANING MATERIALS INDEX NEW YORK EDWARD J.

a trade quite apart But how about shirts and underwear ? HE would appreciate the gift you made [1] . They require careful tailoring every inch of the way. (/) Hell like the gift you make him Making is men's coats and suits from dressmaking. it would be poor economy to tempt a at- suit or overcoat. besides a particular cut and a more particular fitting.LESSON XII HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS I AND UNDERWEAR PART Why clothes ? not try your hand at making men's Of course. Fig.

"There is only one right way to stitch and finish them. A When you have made your first shirt or pa- jamas or bathrobe or smoking jacket. (2) A shirt will cost only four yards of madras the price of easily the work slips along. About the most forbidding state- ment that can be made about men's clothing is. you can cut down on the cost of underwear. nightshirts and pajamas.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING HIM." It's not like a blouse where you can choose between three or four different ways of turning your seams. you'll be surprised how Fig. You'll stretch your clothes' dollar a long way. yards of twenty-seven inch madras. too. too. if you spend it over the piece goods counter instead of in the haberdasher shirt will cost only the price of four shop. It won't take as long as it would tO have turned out some fr jj|y garment for yourself. Men's shirts [2] . If you get the making habit.

from any commercial pattern company. if you expect HIM to like them. whether it's a plain seam or a lapped-felled one. In this lesson I am going to give you a few examples of different types of men's clothing that are practical for a woman to attempt The making of these garments will to make. etc. You will find that making men's clothes is largely applying the finishes you have learned in making women's and children's clothes.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR and underwear are not so very difficult to stitch but they must be stitched thus and so. [3] . you are planning My — HE to make. Get a good mental picture of how the finished garment.. whether the garment has reinforcements and linings. You can secure patterns for shirts. ought to look. Examine the seams jot down in your memory whether there are two stitchings or one. etc. underwear. Making men's patterns is also a trade by itself. first little piece of advice to you is to look over the clothes already has. serve as a review of many items you have already studied. I shall tell you about the finishing of the various garments but not the pattern making.

choose silk. folded lengthwise through the center. 3 is a good example of this kind of Be sure your material dislikes A man striped habituas. too. 4 shows the pieces of the shirt pattern placed on the goods. which will be an 14] . There are A Fig. get a fairly heavy quality. is really a shirting. having a shirt made out of If you fabric which might be termed queer. You can buy such a pattern. A heavy quality of crepe de chine makes a good looking and good wearing shirt. that come especially Medium and fine madras is excellent for a cotton shirt but clumsy heavy madras is not intended for shirts. Finecambricor muslin are the materials used for plain white shirts. shirt. A sleazy shirt goods is never satisfactory. that is with an opening all the way down the front. endless striped effects. flannels come in Cutting the coat shirt: Fig. for shirtings.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING MEN'S SHIRTS Coat Shirt with Collarband: Practically all shirts are made in coat style now. Almost every man likes a fine silk and wool Suitable flannel shirt for the cold weather.

HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR exact duplicate of a ready-made shirt. You may find it necessary to rearrange the F*Z.(j) A regulation style coat shirt [5] . from any commercial pattern company.

Shirt: About the best the general statement that I have made before. Follow the plan of placing the largest pieces on the goods first and then fitting in the smaller pieces according to the pieces. advise I can give is Making a Coat ^Ci^n£ Cuff "De-ck tain^ .A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING width of your material. Do as much of the finishing as you can while the pieces are flat.

W Fig.HOW TO MAKE back of the MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR from there run the stitching down one-eighth of an inch and then stitch facing. (7) The front closing completed back to the front edge. This holds the facing in place. (5) Facing the front closing Facing the front with butcher's Fig. (6) linen Fig. Below the facing turn a narrow [7] .

as shown in Fig. Cut the facing of butchers' linen. This will give a finish on the outside which is identical to the one just described. A man's shirt has fullness either side of the back to Run gather give freedom of movement. Turn under the lower edge of the butchers' linen facing a seam's width and place it along the edge of the shirt. A somewhat quicker way of finishing the front closing is to use a facing of butchers' linen. making the back edge the selvedge edge of the goods. continuing it around the bottom and up the vent at the sides. just roll the ^ Fig. 7. threads at the top of the back as shown in [8] . 6. as shown in Fig. Then turn back the edge of the shirt again and Continue the stitch. that is. Turn under the front edge of the shirt onesixteenth of an inch. (8) m Most shirts have fullness either side of the back edge enough to turn off the raw edge.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING hem on the front edge. narrow hem around the bottom.

Making Collarband to Stitch around neck prevent The make stiff. interline Fig. for the neckband together. inserting the [9] . stretching. 9.) Slash the seams around the top and ends.) Stitch the neckband to the shirt. Turn Stitch the neckband right side out and press.HOW TO MAKE Fig. around the outer edges again. (?) with one or Interlining the neckband two thicknesses of linen or some other firm material. (See Fig. 10. MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR to fronts Stitch yokes and backs. (id) the stitching. Cut these interlinings the shape of the outside. Trim off the raw edges to within one-quarter inch of Stitching the neckband Fig. but without seams. collarband must be it so three or four ply that it of goods: is. running the stitching across the ends and top. making lap-felled seams. Baste the interlinings to one Stitch the two pieces piece of the neckband. (See Fig. 8.

Facing the back Fig. (//) The sleeve vent Cut the material for the extension one and three-quarter inches wide and about Fold one-half inch longer than the vent. fold the extension through the center and 12. Finishing the Sleeves: Slash vent.) stitch again. under a seam at the top and stitch one edge of the extension to the slash as shown in Fig. Note that edges of 11. (See Fig. Fig. extension and sleeve are even at bottom. the back of the sleeve for a The back edge of the vent is finished with an extension and the front edge with a pointed facing. {12) edge of the sleeve vent [10] . but that extension projects nearly a seam's width beyond the slashed edge at top of vent.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING edge of the shirt between the edges of the band. Turn under the free side of the extension a seam's width.

{14) Finishing tie front of the sleeve vent £ over the extension and # stitch as shown in Fig. In cutting out the pattern add the regulation seam allowance. and one GH while line is parallel to the first two lines and one-half inch is cenfrom CD.) along the line CD and Fig. Fold the facing 14. V) x H Diagram/or mak_ ing pointed facing for sleeve In joining the facing to the front edge of the slash. at all points.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR The Fig. parallel to AB it. (See Fig. turn under the top and side AB a seam's width and join the tdgtGH to the edge of the slash. 15 * a P the facing [HI . threeeighths of an inch. Point terway between points is one and C and point inch from E F A ** Pigm (/j) and one-quarter inches above it. 13 shows a pattern for a pointed facing which would finish one Line CD is inch wide.

is best finished lap-felled. This seam. also that the Fig. Gather the lower edge of the as shown in Fig. (See Fig. 17. 16. Cut off the 18." A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING stitch across the top of the extension as shown in Fig. lay the two pieces for the cuff with the wrong sides of the material together and stitch around the outside. too. To French Make a cuff. Next stitch the sleeve to the armhole with lap-felled seam and join the sleeve and underarm seams in one continuous seam.) seams diagonally Fig. Note that the fullness is thrown either side of the vent and not at the underarm seam. (15) The pointed jacing stitched in place sleeve extension is at the back of the vent turned back. ( 7<5) The vent completed [12[ .

(See Fig. lay it onto sleeve with the raw edges even with the bot- tom of the thickness sleeve Fig. {18) The two pieces for a French cuff [13] . {if) and stitch one of the Placing the fullness in the bottom of the sleeve Fold under cuff to the sleeve.) the free edge of the cuff and stitch it over the raw edges on the wrong side of the sleeve.) Work a buttonhole in the facing and sew a matching button to the Fig. (See Fig. 19. 20.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR at the corner. turn cuff right side out.

Also work four buttonholes in the cuff as shown in Fig. Sew small pearl buttons to right front. as in Fig. chambray or good service. denim. 21. is The proposition as the usual shirt of this type collar made with a detached shown If it's and band cuff. However. Work a buttonhole at the center-back of the neckband and buttonholes in the front of the neckband and left front of the shirt. An Outing or Work Shirt: With the exception of the collar and cuffs. an outFig. r 14 i . 23. 22. a work for khaki will give excellent shirt. (/p) The first stitching in joining the cuff to the skeve m S ° r W0I"k is shirt about the same regulation shirt. Khaki is also an outing shirt.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING extension on the vent. hem on the back of the shirt at the lower edge. Fold the cuff double and fasten with cuff Turn a narrow links as shown in Fig.

. Then. the back and***** ' s The cuff stitched to the sleeve the second time stitch across the lower edge of the yoke twice. To make the collar.HOW TO MAKE outing shirts silk MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR made of for less strenuous wear are such as pongee or the regular cotton shirtings.. with the the To do turn under the lower edge of the yoke a seam's width and press it. place the two pieces for the outside collar with the right sides together [15] . If the back of the shirt extends all the way to first Here. this. lay the yoke on top of. just face back yoke. finish as described in the the shoulder. too. Making an Outing Shirt: the front closings regulation shirt. running one stitching near the edge and the other about one-quarter of an inch from the edge. Make lap-felled seams at the shoulder.

and baste it to one thickness of the outside collar before stitching. Baste the interlining to one of the Place one outside piece on one outside pieces. interline the col- and stitch around # lar. cut collar butchers' of linen without seams. diagonally to Cut off the corners Fig. If the material you are using lacks sufficient body. 24. is After the collar turned right side out. press it and stitch around the outer edge again.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING (See the outer edges. you are ready for the The cuff completed Fig. the two outside pieces with seams and the interlining without seams. To do a this. (21) Cut collarband.) within an eighth of an inch of the stitching and turn the collar right side out. side of the collar and one on the other with Now what will be the top of the collarband [161 when .

HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR finished. 25. 25. add an interlining as the Sew extensions to the (22) Mthejkeve looks collar was interlined. If the material is sleazy. thickness of the cuff to the sleeve. Finishing the Sleeve: vent. as shown in Fig. as described in making the regulation shirt. Then turn the cuff right side out and press it. Turn wrong side out and place the sleeve.) raw edge of the collar. Stitch around the ends and across the bottom. Join it to the neck edge of the shirt. Turn the [17] . Turn the collarband its into finished position and press. along the (See Fig. inserting the raw edge of the shirt between the two thicknesses of the band. Fig. with the raw edge of the cuff over the cuff even with Stitch one the lower edge of the sleeve. Lay the two thicknesses for the band cuff with the right sides together and stitch across the ends and bottom.

(23) An outing or work skirt with attached collar [18 .A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Fig.

HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR Fig. You can use your plain shirt pattern in / ) ^J copying [19] it 6) Draw the outline of the bosom A w cuff . (24) Stitching the two collar pieces together sleeve right side out and stitch the free edge of the cuff to the sleeve. Fig. A Tucked Bosom A Shirt: dressier type of shirt is shown Such a shirt would in Fig. Then stitch it to the left side front. 26.) (See Hem the top of the pocket. Fig. (25) Sewing the neckband to the collar Finish with buttons and buttonholes. Stitch around the outer edge of the cuff again. turn under raw edges and press it. 27. be made of a fine cotton shirting or silk.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Fig. {27) CoaJ shirt with tucked bosom 20 .

armhole. the Add seams beyond AB and BC. See pattern on another on the plain front as shown lines Place the and trace AB and BC. also across the shoulder. trace along the lines and BC. MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR in Fig. shirt. (28) ^ Making the pattern for the bosom front Tuck two straight pieces of material solid with one-quarter-inch tucks. This gives you the pattern for the front AB of the -dC • Qfi.HOW TO MAKE ABC. line. This will give you the piece of paper along the lines outline lines for the bosom. 28. under- A* arm seam. neck and front edge down to point A. Add seams lines beyond the AB and Fig. lower edge and front up to the /bosom From there. place the pattern on' another piece of paper and trace around the outer edges of the shoulder. AB. Again. leaving the front edges plain for a space [21] .

It s [22] fX^l/JZi links . 30. Making a Bosom-front seams.) sleeve. described Then interline the cuff and join it to the lower edge. as the band cuff was joined to the sleeve of the outing shirt. Shirt: First of all join the bosom sections to the front. A Nightshirt: Fig 31 shows you a regulation nightshirt. double stitching the to finish the the seams as front described in making the regulation Then proceed close and shirt. finish the sleeve vent with extensions as in making the regulation shirt.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Place of one and one-half inches. Mark around the outer edge of the pattern and cut out the bosom front. In this case. F Jng U a? bos om ^ y° u want a stm ° attached cuff to close with cuff links. these pieces one on top of the other with the wrong sides of the goods together and place the pattern on top. 29. the edge of the vent finished with the narrow extension is turned back before the cuff is joined to the (See Fig. however. as shown in Fig.

HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR &£• (J 1 ) d regulation stile ntghtshir the style that is used both for cotton nightWhether you are shirts and those of flannel. [23] .

gram ! I 32 shows a diafor the pointed facing pattern. ° [ L '~\ £. Fig. A.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING using cambric or muslin? flannel or outing flannel. fold it [241 .- _-E Making a Nightshirt: You will notice that the front of the nightshirt has a slashed closing which is finished practically the same as the vent in the sleeve of the shirts. the way of making is the same. After the pattern has the seams added._^_j L \ f" I / / r remembering that the width from to C is half the width from C to E. (j^) Diagram/or facing pattern making afterward. Make your diagram without seams and add them beyond the outer edges A F/£. You can make it any desired width. described in the first part of this lesson.

This shapes the top of the extension so it will exactly fit the neck of the garment when shirt pattern it is sewn on. Finish the right front of the slash in the shirt with a plain extension. This will give you a new curved upper line as the dotted line Fig. Add a seam beyond the dotted line and cut off the portion which extends above this new seam allowance. Then stitch the Fig EF i pointed extension tO the edge Of the slash. with the front edge centerway between lines CD and EF and the neck edge a seam's width from the top of the extension pattern at the side. Place the front of the on top of this pattern. 33. Mark along the neck edge of the shirt pattern. Turn under the seam allowance across the bottom and along the side of the pointed extension. Turn the shirt pattern over onto the other half of the extension pattern and mark the neck edge again.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR along the line CD. letting the extension [25 (?j) Thepat_ tern folded and new upper edge marked .

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING project nearly a seam's width beyond the edge of the slash at the bottom. To apply the facings.) and stitch as in Fig. (See Fig. turn under the upper edges and press them. first stitch the outside collarpiece to the neck edge. Then place the facing pieces on the wrong side of the sleeves with the lower edges of the sleeves and facings even and stitch [26] . In joining it to the neck of the shirt. Fold the extension along the line DC 34. Then you are ready for the collar. Fig' (34) f Stitching facing ront slash to Interline the collar as the neckband of the regulation shirt was interlined. then turn under the free edge of the collar and stitch it over the raw edges of the right side of the shirt. 35. Join the yoke to the back and close the shoulder seams next. making lap-felled seams. Face the lower edges of the sleeves with the cuff piece before the sleeves are joined to the armholes.

Flan. making a lap-felled seam. is There too. or even a pair of cotton poplin ones can be made to look very attractive. Turn narrow hems side vents. Cutting the Pajamas: Fig.Fi^ &) nel ones are sometimes made in this style or the neck cut high and finished with a narrow You can secure either style in a commercial pattern. 37 shows the pattern for the pajamas placed on material [27] . The style that is shown in Fig. arm seams in a continuous stitching. nicer for a gift nothing than a pair of silk pajamas.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR Turn the facing pieces onto across the sleeves. the right side of the sleeves. at the lower edges and PAJAMAS Pajamas: Of course you want to know how to make men's pajamas. press and stitch Close the sleeve and underacross the top. is band collar. 36 is suitable for ™e closing finished either silk or cotton.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING F& (j^) Pajamas are another easr-to-make man's garment 28] .

This gives patWhere any curved. Fig. The front and neck edges are best finished with a facing. Lay the pattern on another piece of paper and run the tracing wheel along the front edges across the shoulder seams. ought to be closed felled seams. across the bottom and along the lines just marked. terns for the facing pieces.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR folded double lengthwise. This ought to be cut the same shape as the pattern at these points and about four inches deep. [29] . The exact placing of the pieces may vary according to the width of the material. (j7) Diagram showing pajama pattern placed on the goods Mark a line on the pattern four inches back from the front and neck edges. Making Pajamas: The shoulder seams Make these lapfirst. but do not fail to make a layout. pointed or jagged edge is to be faced the facing ought to be cut to fit it in this manner.

(jp) facing the front of the pajamas The frontJoeing completed [30] .A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING F*S: G<£) The first stitching in Fig.

(41) Finishing the left side of the trousers Cut along the edge as shown in Fig. Place the facing on the right side of the coat and stitch Fig. making open seams. Turn under [31] . (40) Finishing the right side of the trousers Fig.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR Join the front and back facings at the shoulder. stitching and turn off the seam close to the the facing onto the wrong side. 38.

42. closing with left buttons and button- The side of a man's pajamas always laps over the right side. 43 The underrating Face [321 .A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING the raw edge a seam's width. 39. stitch around outer edges as shown in Fig. too.) extension on left front and stitch to position (See Fig. and stitch as shown in Fig. 40. Fold this through center. Hem lower edge of sleeve and coat. right front extension for a button-stand. Turn a hem at the top of the pocket and stitch it Finish holes. In making the ers trous- finish fly first. press.) Cut a buttonhole-stand as shown in Fig. 41. Turn in (See Fig. Usually there is an extension beyond the center-front. Join sleeve to armhole with a lap-felled seam. making these lap-felled seams. to left front. and close underarm and sleeve seams.

Work buttonholes and stitch buttonhole-stand to left front as shown in Fig. 45.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR and turn right side out. [S3] . Join a casing to the top. {44) The underlap place stitched in Join inner leg seams. Fig. ing Stitch(43) the underlap Fig. Hem the lower edge of the trousers as shown in then. seams here. 44. too. Fig. lap-felling them and Make lap-felled close crotch seam.

47. It wears well cool. (See Figs. The is soft is best material to buy for such a garment cross-barred muslin.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING UNDERWEAR Coat and Trousers Set: mer underwear is shown in style A suit of Fig. The fac49. Neck edge needs a shaped facing. Measure in from the neck [34] . the . . 48 and Line BE is the center-front. 46. sum- The vary a little according to the make of commercial pattern you use but the general finishing is may the same. (See Fig. . (45) Hemming the pajamas bottom AT of the JN ext close the shoulder . seams. .) ing need only extend a seam's width beyond the center-front. and Making the Coat Part: Turn a regulation hem at the front edges but stitch it four times for a tailored finish. These ought to be double stitched. F*S* It helps to keep stitching even. ) the Remember to press hem before stitching. Use the front and back patterns as a guide in making the facing patterns.

HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR Fig* (4&) Summer underwear consisting of coat and knee length drawers 35 .

the patterns on another piece of paper and This gives you trace along the dotted lines. patterns for front and back facings that will finish about one and a half inches wide. lines. 50.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING edges two and one-quarter inches and mark Place the dotted lines BC and FG. as If you use these patterns the seam in the facings will come on the shoulder the same as in the garment.an mcn at tne shoulder takes up just the regulation seam allowance on the front and back of three-eighths of an inch. making it a continuous piece from front to back. and the center-back of the pattern ought to be placed on the fold of the goods in cutting. Trace the new facing pattern onto another piece of paper. better to lap the facing pieces at the shoulder three-quarters of an inch to take up the seam allowance and add a seam at the centerback (See Fig. lap-felled finish Make the [36] . However.) Lapping hem tailored the lacing pieces three-quarters ot *>M four stitch. it is ( seams at the underarm and armholes and lower edges with narrow hems.

Add a seam beyond the curved front In addition to the crotch reinforcements. [371 .) and the of paper and trace along the line crotch edge. 52 shows the front edge of the trouser marked for the facing. This gives you a pattern for the ABC Fig. 51. the must be faced. edge. (See Place these pieces on another piece Fig. (48) Making the front pattern for the neck facing Fig. so lap your pattern at the inner leg seam and mark for the reinforcement.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR Making the Trousers: The crotch ought to be reinforced. Fig. {49) Marking the back pattern for the neck facing reinforcement.

(See Fig.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Line line. Trace "^ along the dotted line B ting out the facing pattern.j ^ *Vli the Tight Side Of the trOUS- E • i Fig. Place point E three inches from B. marking around the outer edge of the pattern from to A. Fig. 54.) Then stitch the facing pieces to the front edges of the trousers placing them on the wrong side of the trousers. (si) Marking for the crotch reinforcement _ . the crotch seam is closed from the inner leg seam up to points. allow a s e a m beyond the line (5°) CD. AB is the front edge and CD is the facing and trace the Place a piece of paper under the patfacing. 55. from tern D A to B and from CD. Incut- to C. N [381 . From EtoA the seam is left open. In making the trousers. (See Fig. 53 shows the fronts joined at the crotch seam from point B to E.) Turn the facing pieces onto a ^ . F*& Tfe neck facing patterns Join your two front facing pieces from point to B.

(52) Marking the drawers pattern for the front facing way. 61 shows the front ends [39] . rs A*~ < Fig. There is usually a seam at the center-back of Stitch the the band. as Shown in Fig. press them and shown in Fig.HOW TO MAKE ers. MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR Turn under the sides.) The upper part of the trousers ought to be finished with a yoke band. 60 shows the band and lining stitched at the back and Fig. 58. (See Fig. Close the Seam in the lining band the same 59. the trousers wrong side stitch as out and apply the crotch reinforcement. Then stitching the outside band to the lining band at the top. as shown in Fig. On the right side of the trousers work a tailors' bar tack at the bottom of the front closing. making lap-felled seams. 57. Fig. Next close the center-back seam and the Turn leg seams. 56. back and front ends. two pieces for the outside band at the centerback.

first stitching one edge to the trousers.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING stitched. by [40] . Stitch around the outer edge and twice Fig- (S3) Stitching the front F& (54) Thefrontfacings seam across the Figs. 65. Then turn back the end and work two eyelets in the end. and stitch it to the top of the trousers. 62 It's bottom and 63. 64. Trim the seams close to the stitchPress it ing and turn the band right side out. then turning under the free edge and stitching it in place. as shown in Fig. 66. (See a good plan to make the back adjustable Fold the edges of straps at the waistline. Stitch the straps to the back. Lace the eyelets with tape. as shown in Fig. the strap. as in Fig.) for a tailored finish.

by closing the shoulder underarm [41] seams. (56) stitched to the drawers stitched The facings a second time terns. A typical union suit is shown in Fig. Also . ought to be made of a soft cross-barred muslin. finish the front closing until the Here you cannot upper and Start trousers have been joined. too. Hem the bottom of the Some men prefer the union underwear instead of the coat and trousers just described. It. (55) The front facings Fig.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR trousers. 67. You can obtain a style similar to this in most commercial pat-! Union Suit: suit style of Fig. Making a Union and Suit.

) [42] The leg . (See Fig. Then lay aside the upper until you have the trousers ready to join to it.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING turn a narrow hem at the armholes. Trace the back portion of the trouser pattern on another piece of paper. Union suits are made with the center-back seam open and a wide lap added. The lap must be the same shape as the trousers in Fig> {57) The crotch reinforced order to fit over the trousers comfortably. 68. Then place the front portion with the leg seam lapping over the outline of the leg seam of the back pattern and trace around it.

seams at the leg joinings. piece a single thickness and finish the outer edge with a shaped facing. if the seam allowance is three-eighths of an inch on each edge. In Fig. the edges must be lapped three-quarters of an inch. Point is three inches from the leg seam.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR seam must be lapped enough to take up the seam allowance on both edges. {58) Stay- Fig. lap-felled Make The left back is Cut the extension [43] . Draw a line on the pattern where you want the outer edge ABB D Fig. EFGH. DE. That is. 68. finished with the extension. CBD. CB is the back and the front. This will also serve as a facing line. (jg) Back seam of ing the bottom of the closing with a tailors' tack yoke band of the lap to come as line HGFED. Add seams beyond the dotted lines and cut out the pattern for the facing and extension along lines HC.

To join the extension to the front edge. faced with a piece cut the (See Figs. Turn under the free edge a seam's width. Join The right back is same shape and 72. 70 gives a front view of (See Fig. 71 Hem the lower edges of the leg portions. place it on the wrong side of the goods and stitch as shown in Fig. Fig. Now you are ready to join the trousers to Fig. (61) The front edge of yoke band the the waist.) as the extension. 73. 69.) this portion of the trousers. waistline. Make a lap-felled joining at the front edges finish all the way down to extension and facing on the.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING it to the left back with a lap-felled seam. trouser part the with straight extensions. (66) the The two pieces for yoke band stitched together Fig. fold it through the center and stitch as shown The [441 .

Lap the left front over the right front. 75. lap the lower edge of the upper extension over the trouser extension and stitch as shown in Fig.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR in Fig. as described in making the coat of the other underwear set. (See Fig. Stitch the extension four times for a tailored finish.) On the left front. (62) to The yoke band the Fig. 74. Fig. 77.{63) The drawers completed stitched top of the drawers tion and stitch from upper extension. bringing the upper extensions on top of each other and the left trouser extension over the right trouser por- . [45] . 76.) Finish the neck edge with a shaped facing. (See A to B and across the Fig.

t Any heavy 'or if it is Turkish flannel makes a nice bathrobe for summer you can substitute towelling material. (6$) The strap for the back The eyelets worked in the strap Cutting the Bathrobe: Diagram. 79. shows the pattern for the bathrobe laid on the material folded double. the Bathrobe: If the front edges on the selvedge or finished edges of the blanket they need no other finish. 78 will give you some idea of how the finished garment will look. (^^> \Fig. using the [46] .A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING BATH ROBES A Blanket Bathrobe: Do you know that a practical bathrobe can be made out of a 'flannel blanket? If the blanket has a border fso'much the better. Fig. Fig. Making. It will serve as a trim|ming. (64) LB> Fig. Note that the lower edge and sleeves are laid along the outer edge of the blanket. face them with the same are ^material to a depth of four inches. If the •front edges are raw.

is If the material is very The straps firm enough Fig. [47] . 81. is heavy and Usually a bathrobe sleeve has fullness in the* upper portion at the back above and below the elbow.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR (See pattern as a guide to cut the facings.) the facing and press the edge. (66) stitched to the drawers not to fray. (See Fig. Diagram 80. The pattern is always notched at the points between which the It is a good plan fullness is to be taken up. side of the front and stitch as shown in Fig. make it a lap-felled seam. the seam can be double stitched with the edges raw as shown in Fig. 84. Stitch along the edge again. This gives a thin edge.) Bind the back edges of the Lay the facing on the right facing pieces.) Usually a blanket robe made without a seam at the underarm. 83. 82. Double stitch the shoulder joining in the same manner also the sleeve seams. Turn facing onto wrong side of robe and roll edge so that seam comes on the wrong side. Baste (See Fig. but should there be a seam for any reason.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING F*g* (fy) A summer union suit [48 .

it will fit the under portion of the [49] .HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR to run a gather thread between these two points and draw up the material just enough Fig. {68) Drawers pattern lapped and marked for facing so that sleeve.

allowing the steam to rise. it by turning the and then hand felling it in seams 50 in stitching the If there is a dart Make lap-felled sleeve to the armhole. then remove. The neatest finish at the lower edge of the Fig.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Before the seam is closed shrink out as of the fullness in the upper sleeve as possible. It is surprising full- how much ness can be taken out of woolen material in this way. cover the material with a wet cloth. and steam with a hot iron. (69) The extension sewn to the left back sleeve is given hem. Bring the much iron wet it down squarely on the cloth. . duck or canvas preferred. To do this. pressing place. Let stand a second.

In stitching ease the outside to the lining at all (70) points. 86. garment stitch a second time as in Fig. In stitching lining to collar stitch across ends and around bottom. Fig.) (See Sateen is a good material to use for the coland pocket lining. Cut the lining just a trifle smaller than the lar outside. 87. (See Fig. Lay this material in- to pleats. 85. there is usually fullness is at the back of the neck.) Cut off the seam [to within a quarter of an inch of the stitching and cut Fig. stitch it On the right side of the as shown in Fig. In a blanket robe. where the lower edge straight. Front view of extension off the corners diagonally so that they will not [51] . 88.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR at the neck either side of the front.

turn in raw edges and side 89. (7/) The right back faced slip-stitch. After pocket is turned right side out. pocket to robe as shown in Fig.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING be bulky. In joining lining to pocket leave space free so pocket can be turned right (See Fig. On the other hand. Fig. If the outside has been eased or held into the size of the lining. Turn the collar right side out. it will roll beyond the seam and hide the lining. it is apt to sag below the outside collar and show is fin- when the ished.) out. collar Stitch around the collar a half inch from the edge for trim- ming. 91. if the lining is cut the same size as the outside collar. Make straps [521 . Join Bind the lower edge of the robe and turn the hem as shown in Fig. Join the collar to the neck with a facing. 90.

SMOKING JACKETS A Smoking Jacket? When I talked about coats and not ^^ /^— / / making / in the first part of this lesson. In the way of example. a isn't smoking really is a There the way V'ery Fig.) and sew buttons to right side of closing.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR for the cord to pass through as shown in Fig. Then jacket COat. Stitch these at waistline at the sides. 92. 93. I have selected a regulation style that can be obtained in almost any commercial pattern. jacket is the acceptable gift to nine out of every ten men. It is the luxury that per- A haps unless HE won't have it you make for HIM. I did not them intend to exclude smoksmoking ing jackets. little in too. (72) Front view of right side of tailoring in making one. [53] . (See Fig. Slip-stitch frogs to left-side (See Fig.

a heavy corded brocade makes a nice jacket. face the front and the (See Lesson on collar with tailors' canvas. n d J^ J{™' t with four stitchings If the material you are using hasn't much body.) facing to the outer edge of the collar and the [54] . making an open seam. 1 hen close %t ^nZ s sion the shoulder seam. 95 shows the pattern for a smoking jacket placed on the goods. First of all in making the jacket. The next step is to join the £..) Velvet. Of course. (75) e the edges of the seam across the lapel and turn the raw edges down into the coat across the back.. tape the front edge to prevent Fig. Stitch the front and collar coat making. you "" may have to rearrange your pattern to suit the width of goods that you are using. silk or a wool Making a Smoking Jacket : Fig. (74) stretching. ) sewn to front under collar to the neck dosing e dg e> Here press open Fig.«.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 94.

the front and lower edges with silk military braid. Stay the bottom of the coat with strips of tailors' canvas and turn up the hem catching it to the canvas. (77) The drawers stitched together below the front closing make the sleeves the coat would be finished. bind the collar. The frogs can be made of soutache or [55] rat- . and then turn it into Make an open seam at the underarm. (7*5) As the lower front of the drawers looks before the two sides are joined Fig.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR front edge of the coat its finished position. Then line the coat and Fig. same as a woman's When the jacket is finished.

(78) Blanket Bathrobe diagram on a 56] . mark your Fig. together at B. draw a diagram as shown making line AC about three inches long and line EBD about two inches long. From there pass it around point D and back to B and tack it again. To make in Fig. If you have any difficulty. it here. pass C around point and back to B> it tacking again. 96. A tacking From it Start the braid at point B. a frog. pass it to point and back to B. slipping the end under. Then pass it around point E and back to B and tack it.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING tail braid.

catching just the braid together securely where it crosses. Sew a braid-covered button to the end of Fig. (80) Cutting the front facing [57] . When the frog is finished.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR Gotta* &&• (79) The pattern placed on the blanket piece of material and baste the braid to the material. it can be ripped from the material.

(83) Stitching for a tailored finish [58] .A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Fig. (<?/) The front faced the frog on the right side of the coat and loop the frog on the left side of the coat over the button. (82) The lower front corner Fig. I =DD "1 Fig.

denim or [59] . (84) Double stitching the seams OVERALLS Overalls: If you can make a pair of boy's trousers.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR Fig. a pair of blue jean. The process is about the same. (£5) Stitching the shoulder dart Fig. there is no reason why you cannot run up a pair of overalls in an hour or so. For instance.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING khaki overalls. same as in making boy's The dart (86) stitched a second time Fig. leaving for a vent at the top. is mostly Making the Overalls: front the Finish a fly in the trousers. as shown in Fig. Fig. a matter of double stitched seams. 98. room [60] . 99. and back seams stitch the side leg seams. as shown in Fig. (87) The back pleats Then double Double stitch the front either side of the fly. Finish the vent with a continuous facing.

Sew a button to the facing on J^ the back and work a buttonhole in the front. the facing forms an extension and on the front edge it is turned back and caught in place. Hem the straps stitch them to the back. as shown in Fig. (89) The pocket lined On the back edge of the vent. Turn one-inch hems at the bottom of the overalls and narrow hems at the top. .HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR Stitching the two pieces Fig. in the Work buttonholes ends and button them to the bib. (88) of the collar together Fig. and 100.

regulation eight section cap that is good looking in tweed. serge or linen. you can find a cap / / i i i i mini tii nmij'jjij^jjf i i Fig (p/) Hemming the lower edge It's the similar to the one shown in Fig. (See [62] to join Fig. 101. I am using this particular cap as an example but all caps are made in the same way.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING the top of the sockets and turn and press the outer edges. is The first step in the sections making the cap with open seams. CAPS Making a Sectional Cap: In any of the commercial patterns.) . Stitch them on as Hem shown in the lai fo e illustration. 102.

The top facing for the peak ought to be a [63] . {93) Stitching the strap to the bathrobe (See Fig.) Cut a circular top interlining of coarse lightweight canvas and baste it to the top of the lining as in Fig. 103. 105.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR Stitch either side of the seams as shown in Then stay the lower edge with Fig. 104. Close the lining seams and stay each seam with a piece of tape. {92) strap belt Fig. The belt Fig. 105. (See Fig.) tape.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING

FiZ* (94)

d smoking jacket makes a nice gift
[64]

HOW TO MAKE

MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR

'FRONT AND COLLAR FAC/W

'UPPER

'siitVE

A \CUFf

FRONT

°

V

—"^V

wyOfr^ SLEJEVE

I

ofnMP,?

[iB/lCft
F/£. (pj)
!Tfo pattern for the

smoking jacket placed on

the goods

than the under facing. (See In joining hold it to the size of the under facing. (See Fig. 107.) Cut the foundation peak of stiff buckram or cardboard. Fig. 108 shows the facing slipped over the foundation peak.
little

larger

Fig. 106.)

109.

Join the peak to the outside cap as in Fig. Then, stitch lining to outside across

i


i

i

Fig.

(p<5)

Diagram for making braidedfrog

[65]

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING
back. (See Fig. 110.) Turn it inside the cap. Turn under the raw edges of lining across peak and slip stitch them in place.

NECKTIES
Necktie:
I

wonder

if

you haven't odd

lengths of silk tucked away that would make the nicest kind of ties. Nearly every woman has.

Brocades and
poplin silks left over from coat

linings make good ties. You know you can
piece the tie in the center and it doesn't take very Fig. (97) finished Tkefrof much goods. A four-in-hand such as is shown in Fig. Ill can be cut either on the straight or the bias.

Making a Pattern for a Necktie: Figs. 112 and 113 show the first diagram in making a necktie pattern. AB in each diagram is the center back. These two edges will be put
together to

make the complete
[66]

pattern.

When

you make your diagram make one continuous

(98) Overalls are as easy to make as a pair of boys* wash trousers 67] .HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR Fig.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING
diagram of Figs. 112 and 113. The pages in this book are too short to show them in one
diagram.
Considering Fig. 112 first which is the short end of the tie, draw
other and one inch apart. Mark points six and one-half inches from the back as G and H. Make points C and seventeen inches and B. Continue the line CD to from points L and M> making the space from L to C and from to three-quarters of an inch. Also continue the line one and three-quarter inches beyond .O D. See point N, Fig. 112. Draw lines from point to points and L. Draw lines from L and to G and H. This gives you the finished lines for the short end of the tie.
Facing the side vent lines intheoweraik to each

AC and BD parallel

A

D

M

D

BHD

N

M

M

In making the diagram, Fig. 113 place the lines and one inch apart. Mark points six and f^t back i c i r one-half inches from the center-

BF

EA

( T °°)

The

i

i

of the overails

68

HOW TO MAKE

MEN'S SHIRTS ~AND UNDERWEAR

Fig.

Staying the lower {104) edge of the cap

Fig. (101)

cap suitable jor tweed or linen

A

Fig-

U05)

Thi top

is

interlined

Fig. {102)

The sections of the

cap stitched together

Fig. (103)

Each seam
should
stitched
either

be

on
side

Fig. {106)

The peak facings

69

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING

Fig. (107) The facings joined

fig. (108) The facing slipped over thefoundation peak

Fig.

(iQ$

The peak joined
outside cap

to

the

Fig. (//a)

The lining sewn

to the

cap

[to]

See lines 1-2 and 3-4 Fig. Draw lines parallel to lines AC and BD placing the lines three-quarters of an inch beyond the original lines.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR A to E twenty-six inches. 114. Make the distance from EF and mark points O and P one inch beyond the original lines. Continue the line BF to point i£. placing j£ two inches below line EF. 112 with the turn-unders added diagram and Fig.{in) It takes only a little material to make a necktie to the sides of the tie that you want the silk to turn under. 115 is a tracing of diagram 113 with the turnunders added. 114 is a tracing of the Fig. This gives lines you the outline of the finished tvt tie. 114 and 115. IN jj OW add a the amount *.) (See The Fig. Figs. Fig. Continue the line back as points JK. Continue the 71 . Draw from ^ to D and and from D and to J and K.

1. placing point 5 two and three-quarter inches beyond point and point 6 one and one-half inches beyond point L. Bring the two diagrams together at the center-back. (See Fig.) v £* r j Mark the center 01 ^i „_• and the tie on this center line. points AB. 116. A^M Add the turn-unders to the long end of the tie in the same way. On the . Now draw lines which continue the diagonal lower M h J edge lines until they touch the side lines. two inches from point D. The lower line will be from points 7 and new 8 to the point. (f/2) Half of the diagram for the necktie pattern * Measure at right angle to this line [72] and mark a point on the upper line as point 2. i L. This gives you the finished pattern for the short end of the tie. Fig.— A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING original line Ax. making point 5. mark point one inch from line AB."E CD at the bottom to points 5 and 6. * 'si/ N . 115 two and one-half inches from point O and point 6. Fig. .

(//j) 7^* oMdr 0/ M^ diagram for the necktie pattern ^ Fig. unders on the pattern [73] . (1/4) Allowing for the turn-.HOW TO MAKE B-.-A MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR K J 'a Fig.-.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING B \ A / F*g* ( I7S) other The turn-unders added end of the pattern to the [74] v .

as point [75] . 117. In tracing the new a bias seam at the patterns for each end. a line at seam center line and mark a lower line as point 4. necktie sets better if it has interlining of cotton flannel. allow seams at the right angle to the bias joining. back.) On the short end of the tie mark a point thirteen inches beyond the center-back. A 2 ^^ Fig. (//<5) lA Marking for z\_ 4B the hack from draw this point. Figs. Draw a point on the This gives you line from point 2 to point 4. {iif) Making the pattern for the interlining interlining. placing it one inch from Also line AB. bringing them together at the (See center-back into a continuous pattern. Use your original diagrams. Fig.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR other side of line AB y mark point 3 on the center line. 112 and 113 to make a pattern for the # A Fig.

draw a line at right angle Fig. BKD [76] . Lap the canvas back-stay over the cotton as shown in Fig. point 5. S Fig. to line GH Trace these portions without adding seams. The flannel interlinings should extend only from line 2-3 and from line 5-6 to line JK. From G to J can be stayed with canvas. draw line at right angle to the center lines of the tie. AGL. BHM.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 1. mark a point twenty inches from the center-back. point 2. On the long end of the tie. as line 2-3. the lines. {119) An outside stay for the back of the necktie Crease the silk for the outside collar along and AJO. From point 4. Where this line touches the upper line. Fig. as point 4. 118. as line 5-6. flannel interlinings. Where this line touches the upper line. (//<?) The flannel interlinings joined to the back-stay to the center line. From here. draw a diagonal line to the lower line. draw a diagonal line to the lower line.

) [77] . 119. Press the silk and stitch a narrow hem at the bottom. (See Fig. Slip the silk over the interlining and turn under one of the raw edges. slip-stitch it in place. Reinforce the center-back of the tie on the wrong side with a piece of silk cut on the straight or a piece of ribbon.HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 112 and 113.

or part wool and part cotton ? Do you know good wool when you see it ? Do you know that shoddy may be all wool ? Can you distinguish silk from artificial silk? Can you tell whether or not a material will give good service ? Nature of the Fibers: In order to and test fabrics intelligently one must something of the nature of the various from which these fabrics are made. cotton.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING PART II MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM Can you tell whether a piece of goods is wool or cotton. fibers most used in dress fabrics are silk. Each of these fibers has certain characteristics which the hairy covering of the sheep elastic not smooth and straight like the hair of most other animals. and linen. judge know fibers The wool. distinguish it. It is covered with many overlapping scales is Wool is and kinky and — [78] . artificial silk.

[791 . the fiber scales become entangled causing the wool to felt. scales. twisted tubelike vegetable little less than one inch It is not as strong to two inches in length. when spun into so-called "spun silk" yarn. The short waste ends. This worm spins about itself. The spinning qualities of cotton depend upon the length. varying from a chosen for our warm weather garments. This is the reason wool requires careful laundering. less elastic than silk or wool but more so than Being a good conductor of heat it is linen.MATERIALS AND like HOW TO TEST THEM the shingles of a roof. When wet wool becomes soft and plastic and if pressed. and fineness of the fiber. and elasticity it can be spun into very fine yarn. Since it is a poor conductor of heat. Because of its kinkiness. The long strong even filaments are many yards in length and. Silk is by the silk a solid rod-like filament secreted worm. it is suitable for winter fabrics. twist. make the better grades of silk. Wool fibers may be from one to eight inches long. forming an envelope or cocoon. make fiber the the poorer grades. a kind of caterpillar. when reeled from the cocoons. It is as silk or linen but is stronger than wool. is Cotton a flat fiber.

If cotton is well mercerized the fibers very closely resemble silk in appearance. It is very smooth. It is stronger than wool or cotton but not as strong as silk. and glossy. smooth. then stretched and washed. A single filament may vary from a few inches to several feet in length and has a complex structure. therefore. makes the coolest garments. This causes the fibers to lose most of their twist and to become round. a vegetable fiber obtained from the flax plant. is chemically treated Cotton cloth or yarn is immersed in a strong caustic soda or caustic potash solution. is Linen stems of the Artificial silk is filament.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Mercerized Cotton cotton. lustrous and silky looking. fiber swells somewhat and loses strength so that it must be handled with great care. Linen is more readily injured and disintegrated than cotton by strong washing powders or chemicals. luster even greater than silk. similar to silk in appearance made by a chemical process from wood pulp. It is a smooth solid of vegetable origin. It is even a better conductor of heat than cotton and. Herein lies its chief value for in wearing quality and durability When wet the it does not begin to equal silk. being cotton or and with a [801 .

Some of the chemical tests are very simple and can be readily performed in the home. Different kinds of fibers are now so cleverly mixed and woven that the microscope and chemical tests are the only means by which one can accurately determine the fiber content of a piece of cloth. cotton or silk in a fabric. Cloth: To Determine the Kinds of Fibers in Perhaps most of us think we can recognize an all wool. or to tell silk from artificial silk. Fibers: The preceding paragraphs fall naturally. or to detect the presence of a very small amount of wool. according to their origin. and artificial fibers described in the Animal and Vegetable [81] . into two groups. is a more difficult problem than the eyes and fingers alone can solve. silk from mercerized cotton. But to recognize a material in which the cotton and linen fibers have been carded in the same yarn. all cotton. linen. Sometimes we can.MATERIALS AND but HOW TO TEST THEM in drying again it recovers its original Normally it is about one-half as strength. animal fibers (wool and silk) and vegetable fibers (cotton. all silk. new wool from shoddy. or all linen fabric by its appearance and feel. strong as silk and has almost no elasticity.

linen. woolens and silks solution. and artificial silk yarns all burn in this way.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING All animal fibers are similar in chemiand therefore are similarly affected by heat. For example. strong acids weaken and destroy vegetable fibers but do not readily destroy animal fibers. must be washed in a neutral soap or one which contains no free alkali. alkalies.) cal composition. For example. it is cellulose or vegetable fiber. laundering fabrics. ravel When testing a woven out a single warp yarn* and a single filling yarn* and burn each of these separately. All vegetable fibers are similar in composition. This explains many of the precautions necessary in silk. If the yarn flames and burns quickly. Burning Test: cloth. Animal fibers will readily dissolve in hot alkali solutions while vegetable fibers are little affected by them. This is necessary because the threads running lengthwise may be of one kind of fiber while those running crosswise are of another. emitting the odor of burning wood. are proteins. >and react similarly toward reagents but very differently from the animal fibers. acids. [82 1 . If it is a cotton yarn the fiber ends of the unburned portion remaining in your fingers will be *Warp yams are those running lengthwise in a cloth while filling yarns are those running crosswise. Cotton. and other chemical reagents. are cellulose.

silk. [831 . — emitting a burning hair or feathers. forming a little ball at the end. is heavily weighted with metallic salts. cloth in a little of this solution for fifteen minutes. it not only does not roll up but there remains after the burning a white or gray ash. it is protein. The wool will dissolve but cotton. difficulty. unless it is weighted with metallic salts to make it appear of heavy If the silk yarn quality. or animal fiber. does the same thing. Dissolve one ounce of caustic potash or caustic soda or a tablespoonful of lye in a Boil a small sample of the pint of water. A very simple chemical test will reveal its presence. If it is a linen yarn the fiber ends remain closely in contact. will remain. Strain the solution if present. When cotton is carded with wool in the same yarn it is often impossible to tell by the appearance or by burning that the cotton is there. Wool and silk both burn in this way. A woolen yarn as it burns rolls up.MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM brushlike its fibers tending to separate. If a yarn burns with very disagreeable odor like Boiling-Out Test: The presence of cotton or other vegetable fibers in a woolen cloth or yarn is determined by a boiling-out test.

burn quickly. Cotton or Wool: To Artificial Silk: may be applied: Tell the Difference Between Silk and The three following tests (1) Pull out single yarns from the cloth and Silk.not. will flame. a vegetable fiber. As we learned previously. an animal fiber will burn slowly burn. (2) Moisten a yarn and try to pull it apart. artificial silk. (3) The boiling-out test distinguish between silk to Silk. will readily dissolve in [841 . and give almost no odor or the odor of burning wood. artificial silk fibers are very weak when wet and can be easily torn. may and artificial silk. and give a disagreeable odor. an animal fiber. while the strength of silk is not affected also be used by moisture. One can readily identify silk in a wool mixture by the appearance of the fibers.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING and the residue will give an idea of the of cotton present. amount To Identify Silk when The Associated with boiling-out test as given above for wool and cotton may be applied to silk and cotton since silk is soluble in lye and cotton is.

rinse thoroughly. Linen is stronger than (2) By Tearing: cotton and tears with greater difficulty. To Distinguish Linen from Cotton: Cotton fabrics are now so cleverly finished to look like linen that even experts are often deceived. Since linen and cotton are both cellulose there is no satisfactory chemical test for distinguishing one from the other. dull-looking fibers. This [85] . (3) By Burning: The burning test may be applied for the purpose of observing burned ends of the yarn as previously explained. The ends of torn linen yarns show very uneven but parallel. will not. This will remove any starch or dressing. lustrous appearance Now while the cotton will be less smooth and dull. the linen threads will still present a smooth. glossy fibers.: MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM a vegetable product alkali while artificial silk. curly. while the* ends of torn cotton yarns show rather even. it is possible to detect the difference between the cotton and linen in the following ways Boil a sample of the (1) By Appearance: cloth for fifteen minutes in a soap solution. and dry. is If a fabric is all linen or all cotton or woven with a cotton warp and a linen filling as many of them are.

piece of wool or silk will spring back into shape. due to their natural elasticity. to be A cloth appearing cotton may contain a very small percentage of linen or a cloth appearing to be all linen may contain a small percentage of (Because of this fact the microscope cotton. is really the only means of determining correctly the true nature of linen and cotton all fabrics. the same elasticity and remain in their original The cloth should retain its original positions. Its firmness may be determined by the following simple tests: Pull the sample in all (1) Pulling Test: The yarns should have about directions. If a [861 A . Firmness of Weave: its and to hold form.) Judging the Quality of Fabrics: An examination of fabrics reveals some very important facts as to their general character and quality.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING means that if a fabric is woven of yarn in which linen and cotton are carded together none of the above tests or any chemical test will reveal its exact nature. A cloth to be durable shape should be firmly woven. (2) Creasing Test: Crease a sample of good cloth between the thumb and fingers.

If a silk fabric remains creased it is probably heavily weighted to make it appear of good quality. cloth as Hold the sample to the (5) Light Test: light and observe the closeness of the threads. linen readily than cotton. [87] . much more Rub the edge of (3) Thumb Nail Test: the thumbnail diagonally across the cloth. not return to their separate much and do original position. (4) Sewing Test: if Run a pin or needle back and forth through two thicknesses of the sewing them together. straight. In a firm well woven cloth the threads should be even. it is probably due to the use of shoddy or reworked wool which has lost most of its elasticity in chemical treatments or remanufacture. Cotton and linen crease rather easily. lie parallel. the material would not stand much strain and would pull out at the seams.MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM wool fabric remains creased. and be close together. or to a poor grade of virgin wool. Then with the needle still holding the cloth. If the threads are loose they will move out of position following the direction of the moving nail. pull the two If the threads pieces in opposite directions.

elasticity. and strength of the fibers. will wear better than those made of woolen yarn. Wool yarns are of two kinds worsted and woolen. has very — little strength. A yarn of carded spun silk or short filaments may be woven to give good service but is not as strong. The strongest silk yarns are made of groups of long continuous filaments which lie parallel and are well twisted. however. They are. causing the fibers to lie Cloths made of worsted yarns crisscross. and the twist and ply of the yarn. It is also combed. A poor shoddy because of its short torn fibers has a dead feel. covered from old garments and reworked or made over into new material. diameter. while woolen yarns are carded. the shoddy may still make a better material and give better service than a poor grade of virgin wool. which causes the fibers to lie parallel in the yarn. If the original wool was a very good grade. likely to wear Shoddy is wool which has been reshiny.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Quality of Yarns: Yarns vary in quality according to the length. A worsted yarn is usually made of longer fibers than woolen yarn and is therefore stronger. [88] . In the process it loses a good deal of its original elasticity and many of the fibers are crushed and broken. and will tear easily.

woolen fabric is sometimes weighted and finished with a mass of very short wool fibers from clippings called flocks. Then gently pull the fibers apart. Most silk materials are weighted more or less with tin salts or other metallic salts.MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM Likewise the best grades of cotton yarns are the well twisted plied yarns. made of long-stapled combed fibers. miserable looking fabric. Pull out single warp and filling yarns from your sample of cloth and examine carefully the evenness. These are sprinkled thickly over the surface and pressed well into the cloth. If a sample of cloth is rubbed and brushed thoroughly any surface finish of this kind is quickly revealed. elasticity. ply. Finish and Weighting: A material is often weighted and finished with foreign substances to give it more body and the appearance of a very good grade of goods when in reality it is very poor. and strength. being careful not to tear them. and observe their length. Then the cloth is filled A and finished. heavier but the little [89] . Untwist a yarn and examine the arrangement of the fibers. twist. This makes fibers it thicker and soon rub and brush off with wear and leave a threadbare.

clay. Cotton fabrics are frequently padded or with starch. dextrin. If such a material is rubbed thoroughly between the fingers some of the filling will be removed. [90] . There are wool dyed. or some gluelike substance. yarn dyed. Such silks easily spot with water. filled Fabrics: Detecting Yarn Dyed and Piece Dyed The way in which materials are dyed makes a difference in their value. Have you ever noticed that a piece of woolen material may look like a solid color at a distance and when you examine it or put it under a magnifying glass that there are several colors in the yarn ? This is a piece of wool dyed goods.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Burn a sample of silk cloth. and piece dyed fabrics. Blue and red wool twisted into one piece of yarn will give a very pretty purple. or other chemicals. If it is heavily weighted. Many soft silks are finished with gelatin. A pure silk leaves almost no ash when burned. an ash retaining the original weave and form of the silk will remain. The wool was dyed before it was spun into the yarn. Some of the very best worsted and coatings are wool dyed. You can tell wool dyed goods by raveling out and untwisting a piece of the yarn.

The dyed. Cheaper grades of woolens are piece dyed. such as a checked or striped gingham. If you untwist the yarn of a piece dyed fabric you are apt to find fibers here and there in the center of the yarn that are not dyed. each'fiber of the yarn hasn't the life nor the elasticity that a wool dyed fiber has. You can tell the difference by raveling the threads. Where the pattern is woven in the goods. piece Cotton materials ^are either yarn dyed. while percales are piece dyed. Piece dyed fabrics are dyed after the cloth is woven. the material is yarn dyed. Color Tests: Have you Is the material fast color? ever had a coat that faded in 1911 . The same is true of linens. As a general rule the yarn dyed goods will hold its color better than a piece dyed goods. Chambrays are also yarn dyed. If you ravel a piece of yarn dyed goods and untwist a piece of the yarn.MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM great mass of woolen goods are yarn That means that after the yarn is spun it is dyed before it is woven into the This makes a very good material but cloth. the fibers will all be one color and they will cling together and will not spring apart as in a wool dyed goods. dyed or printed.

Woolen fabrics used in coats and dresses should be fast to light and water but not necessarily to washing. To test wool and silk fabrics for fastness to water. The color should not rub off. washing and crocking. If the color bleeds into the white. wash a sample of material in hot soapsuds. the dirt adhering to garments is held by oil or grease. twist a piece of material with a piece of white muslin. cover the eraser of a lead pencil with a white cloth. or a dress that faded so badly in the first washing that it looked like an old one ? Few dyes are fast to light. To test for fastness to crocking. rinse. Place it in warm water and allow it to stand for one-half hour.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING streaks from exposure to sunlight. If this is dissolved the dirt is loosened 1921 . Compare the color with that of the original goods. A gingham should be fast to washing. it is not fast. RENOVATING NOTES Dry Cleaning: Dry cleaning implies Much of cleaning without the use of water. water. and dry. Blow on it and rub the colored sample. To test for fastness to washing.

If you use them in a room. They should be used out-of-doors. The best solvents for and grease that are cheap enough to use in large quantities are gasoline. can buy them at any drug store. All dry cleaning establishments use a gasoline soap or powder which You is especially prepared for this purpose. Just dipping a garment up and down in gasoline or a cleaning fluid does not clean the garment thoroughly.RENOVATING NOTES and readily removed. You will obtain the best result by having three containers filled with gasoline or the cleaning fluid. Rinse the garment thoroughly in the other two containers. This process will remove grease spots and ordinary Hang the garment in dirt but not stains. [93] . Caution: All of these solvents are very inflammable and form explosive mixtures with air. The containers should be large enough Put to give room for rubbing the garment. soap would in water. benzine. have all the windows open and do not have afire or flame in the room. factory for cleaning providing it shows no oil oily deposit or foreign matter. the gasoline soap or dry cleaning powder into the first container and wash the garment The soap or powder acts merely as in this. and Any one of these liquids is satisbenzole.

the steam should not be allowed to condense on the velvet. Brushing velvet with a soft brush against the pile while in the cleaning fluid will help to remove the dirt and grease spots. brush gently with a soft Work quickly for brush against the pile. then gently brushed while being moved slowly over the smooth surface of a hot flat iron placed on end.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING the open air and allow it. Or. hang the garment over a radiator or register so that hot air can penetrate the fabric and carry away the odor. to remain there until the gasoline or solvent has evaporated. then holding the velvet taut over the escaping steam. Carbon tetrachloride which can be obtained any drug store is a very excellent solvent for removing oil and grease spots. To Clean Lace and Chiffon Veils: Veils may be dry cleaned but dry cleaning will not [94] . If a strong odor remains. It is in but absolutely safe since it cannot burn or explode is too expensive to use in large quantities. the velvet may be evenly moistened on the wrong side. To Clean and Freshen Velvet: Dry clean velvet according to the general directions given for dry cleaning. Remove the lid from a steaming tea kettle. Water spots or creases which are due to flattened pile may be removed by steaming.

it may tend to set another kind. Squeeze out the water. All inks are not made of exactly the same chemi[95] . The following method will make them look like new. Wash the veil in this by dipping it up and down and gently squeezing Rinse thoroughly in the suds through it. REMOVAL OF STAINS Since the substances causing spots and stains are various and differ in composition. If the cause is not known examine the spot carefully and judge whether it is grease. one kind of stain perfectly. For this reason it is helpful to know the cause of the stain. Make a suds from a good grade of neutral soap and warm water. shape and pin along the edges so that the veil will be slightly stretched and have its original shape and size.RENOVATING NOTES remove creases and wrinkles. then smooth it out on a clean cloth over a carpet Carefully pull into or on the top of a bed. Even the same kind of stain cannot always be removed by the same agent. fruit stain. warm water. the reagents used in removing them must While an agent may remove also be various. paint. dye. then allow to dry. grass stain. or of some other nature.

I can say. Wool and silk are destroyed by alkalies while most acids will not injure them unless allowed to dry in the fiber. weave. [%1 . Hot water always felts or shrinks wool and may turn silk yellow. however. but neither wool nor silk will stand wringing or if A twisting. firmly woven fabric may stand hard rubbing or laundering while a light weight. loosely woven one will not. the slightest rubbing of such a cloth may displace the threads permanently and cause an ugly spot more unsightly than the stain. A wool or silk fabric may stand laundering the water is neither hot nor cold.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING and therefore cannot always be removed by the same agent. while strong acids will Weak acids may be readily destroy them. alkalies will not injure Cotton and linen may be boiled — them used on them if used quickly and then neutralized. delicate. — fiber and color. that all stains are removed more easily when cals fresh. strong unless allowed to dry in the fibers. Before attempting to remove a stain study the nature of the fabric its weight.

the only thing to do is to try out the reagents to be used in removing the stain on an unexposed portion of the garment. on the underside of the hem. attention must be given to that. though the color is fast to water. Merely soaking it in water may cause it to bleed. Dyes are of endless variety and variously affected by the same chemical.RENOVATING NOTES If a garment has color. bottle of ink is spilled. Often a spot could be easily removed but for the color. for example. the nature of the dye. Blood may be absorbed with starch. Reagents Used for Removing Spots and Stains: Absorbents Biotting Paper These absorbents are often used for preliminary treatment to remove large quantities of staining subFor example. grease or wax with blotting paper [97] s^h Commeai Bran . the dye may be such that it will be affected by the chemical which would take out the spot. if a stance. cr aga A . most of the ink can be absorbed quickly with cornmeal or bran. and since it is not possible to know from its color.

or ether) should be used. Solvents Water is the universal Water Organic Solvents Gasoline Benzine Benzole Turpentine Alcohol Chloroform Ether Carbon-Tetrachloride solvent. After such treatment. the remaining stain may have to be removed by other methods. Therefore. it often affects the. It is especially suit- able for silk and wool. alcohol. in which case organic solvents (such as gasoline.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING and a hot iron. Ac ids and Alkalies Acids Oxalic solution Acetic 10% solution Lemon Juice —Saturated — Vinegar Alkalies Ammonia —Dilute Sodium bicarbonate Ammonium ate (Baking soda) carbon- Any acid will neutralize or destroy the action of any alkaline substance and vice versa. if a garment has been spotted with an acid substance. touch the spots with dilute oxalic or acetic acid. Borax Use only on cotton or linen. If spotted with alkali.finish of the cloth and will not readily dissolve substances such as grease or oils. touch the spots with ammonia. 98 . However. This may be used on all Bleaching Agents Hydrogen Peroxide fibers.

dark Javelle water to a stain place. or it may be made as follows 1 lb. sponging and spotting. Then pour off the clear Keep in a liquid for use. if cotton or linen. The meth- be determined by the nature of the spot or stain. then treat it Let stand for a few seconds and rinse acid. To obtain the most satisfactory results appjy to remain with oxalic for about a minute. Laundering: Soak the stain for several hours in cold water. 2 qts. cold water Allow this mixture to stand for several hours. sodium carbonate chloride of lime (Sal Soda) % lb. or lukewarm water. and allow it thoroughly.: — RENOVATING NOTES Use only on cotton or linen. and the fabric. Rub with od chosen will [99] . javeiie Javelle water may Water be purchased -at the drug store. if wool or silk. Methods of Applying Reagents: There are three methods for removing stains laundering.

If necessary repeat the process but be sure always to Instead of using the pad. One should work quickly. garment Sponging: Place the stained material wrong side up on a pad made of several thicknesses of clean white soft cloth or blotter. This is the best method for applying solvents. Spotting: This method is best when chemimust be used. rinse thoroughly. for most of them will injure fabrics more or less if allowed to remain in contact any length of time. such as gasoline. Change the pad as soon as it be- comes soiled. cal reagents with clear water. Place the stained fabric over a pad of soft white cloth or blotter and apply a few drops of the chemical with a After a few moments medicine dropper. then launder the in the usual way. This method can be used only if the color is fast. and benzole. with a piece of material like the garment if it is colored. carbon tetrachloride. or better.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING a neutral soap if necessary. The cloth or blotter will absorb any superfluous liquid as well as any grease or substance to be removed and also prevent spreading. Sponge the spot gently with a soft white cloth. rinse thoroughly [100] . for it may prevent the removal of color from the garment.

but the color will disappear when the spot becomes — acid. Alkalies may also change or destroy the color of the fabric or will destroy silk and wool. [101] . (1) and Rinse vthe spot with water. may be gently Specific Spots Stains: Acid Substances sometimes change or destroy the color of dyed materials in which case the color can often be restored byneutralizing the acid with an alkali. Acids rarely stain white fabrics but can injure the fibers. (2) Vinegar. Rinse again thoroughly. (3) Ammonium carbonate may be used in the same way. to stand. Rinse the spots thoroughly and apply one of the following agents: as long as the spot is (1) Lemon juice alkaline lemon juice will remain yellow in color. then neutralize the acid with ammonia.RENOVATING NOTES the stained portion of the fabric stretched over a small bowl. (2) Sprinkle the stain on both sides with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and moisten with water and allow Rinse with water.

hot blood stains is removed. is Blood of a protein nature. therefore. Rinse thoroughly after using reagent. Soak the stains in this and then (3) Hydrogen peroxide This will often remove the last trace of a stain. if Heat coaguwater will set lates proteins. — (4) Javelle water —May be used as a last resort. applied before the protein Use one of the following: soak the stain in cold (1) Cold water or lukewarm water until it turns — light brown soap in color. Candle Wax consists of paraffin and a dye.— A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING (3) Dilute acetic acid. (2) Ammonia (for washable materials) Add two tablespoonfuls of household ammonia launder. Cover the spot with a blotting paper and press with a warm iron. and can be used on wool and silk providing it does not change the color of the fabric. This will remove [1021 . Then wash in in hot suds Stains as ordinary on wool and silk should be sponged with lukewarm laundering. to one gallon of water. water.

Chocolate or Cocoa can be removed as (3) follows (1) (2) Ordinary laundering. Rinse — in boiling water. Any be re- may moved by sponging with an organic Fruit Stains at least. If a grease spot from cream remains. Coffee can be removed by the use of one of the following agents (1) Boiling water poured from a height. Then sponge with alcohol or some other organic solvent to remove the coloring matter. Sprinkle the stain with borax and soak in cold water.: : — RENOVATING NOTES most of the paraffin. is effective in removing fresh stains from cotton or linen. Borax and cold water This method can be applied only to washable material. nearly all of them fresh can be removed by boil[ — when 103 ] . This (2) Sponge silk or wool with lukewarm water. (3) Sponge with lukewarm water. Ordinary laundering will remove most coffee stains. sponge with an organic solvent. grease spots remaining solvent.

Javelle water —Use only on cotton and linen. acid or oxalic acid.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING ing water. in the plants. Apply the acid (5) Hydrogen peroxide made very slightammonia. wise to avoid the use of soap. the chlorophyl. They are difficult to is remove when dry. This can be used on silk and wool after spongly alkaline with ing with (6) warm water. Stretch the stained material over a bowl and pour boiling water upon it from a height. the stain. Apply by sponging. This is soluble in alcohol and other organic solvents but is insoluble in water. Warm water for silk or wool. Sponge (3) (4) Lemon juice and Dilute acetic sunlight. Grass or foliage stains are due to the green coloring matter. (1) Boiling water for white or fast colored fabrics. are set Most of them therefore it by alkalies. A little rubbing between treatments may (2) help. (1) Alcohol — [1041 . solution and then treat with boiling water.

therefore. (1) Absorbents — If a large quantity of [105] .is also very good. fol- Grease can be removed by one of the lowing: (1) Warm water and soap as in ordinary laundering will remove grease spots (2) from washable materials. Spread a layer of the absorbent material over the stain and work it about gently. no one agent will remove all — ink stains. French chalk or white talcum powder will remove much of the grease from a delicate fabric.RENOVATING NOTES (2) Hot water and soap as in ordinary laundering will often mechanically remove the stain. cornmeal or salt are good for rugs or coarse materials. Inks for writing vary widely in composition. Absorbents Blotting paper. Sponge the stain gently with the solvent over a pad until dry to prevent leaving a ring. then shake or brush it — off and repeat until the stain is removed. Carbon tetrachlo(3) Organic solvents ride and chloroform are excellent grease solvents. Benzole.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING ink is spilled. (5) Javelle water —Apply Javelle to act for about a minute. it and allow Iodine (1) (2) stains can be removed with: Ammonia. — (4) Hydrogen peroxide — Occasionally water this is helpful. ammonia and rinse again thoroughly. — day or when it (3) Oxalic Acid Apply oxalic acid and allow to stand for a minute. becomes (2) Milk Soak the stain for a so in milk. bran. Rinse thoroughly. spreading. [106] . French chalk. Alcohol. Repeat this treatment as many times as is necessary. or talcum powder thickly over the spot. spread cornmeal. Repeat if necessary. salt. changing the milk becomes discolored. Then apply oxalic acid. This will absorb the ink and prevent it from the absorbent as When the dryabsorbent ceases to take up the ink make it into a paste with water and apply. then Add a few drops of rinse with water. it Renew soiled.

moisten with lemon juice. and place in the sun. Neutralize any remaining acid with am- — monia and (2) rinse again. Grease spots sometimes remain after the meat stains are removed. Sour — — [107] . milk Soak the stains over (2) night and then place in the sun. stains are treated thus : (if on Iron rust (1) Oxalic acid Apply oxalic acid. Lemon juice and salt —Sprinkle the stain with salt. Repeat the treatment several times. Meat juices and gravies are similar to blood stains. Lemon juice Moisten the stain with (3) lemon iuice and hang in the sun. then bleach in the sun. then rinse thoroughly with hot water.RENOVATING NOTES C3) Boiling for five or ten minutes a wash material). Remove these with organic solvents. Wash thoroughly. Add more lemon juice and salt from time to time. (1) is removed as follows: Soap and water as in ordinary laun- Mildew dering. therefore use the same precautions and methods for removing them. a few drops at a time until the stain appears a bright yellow.

Rinse thoroughly. (2) Cold or lukewarm water followed by chloroform. Then apply oxalic acid. Mud spots should be brushed carefully before treating and then one of the following agents applied: (1) (2) Soap and water as in laundering. gasoline or benzine. gasoline. They con- Cold or lukqwarm water should be used to remove the protein. Apply the Javelle water and allow it to remain on the stain for one minute. - — Milk and Cream tain protein. or other grease solvent. will often wash out [108] . Paint and Varnish should be treated by scraping off as much of the paint or varnish as possible and then apply one of the following agents (1) Soap and water fresh stains. Repeat the treatment if necessary. carbon tetrachloride. Follow this treatment with hot water and soap.: A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING (4) Javelle water This is most effective for old stains. (1) from blood and meat spots are similar to those juices. Alcohol.

then Javelle water. Rub the lard into the stain. or (2) — benzole.. Tea should be (1) treated as follows: Borax and boiling water. . Etc. Road Oil. Therefore. (5) Lard. that from the armpits weak alkaline. chloroform.[109] Soak in a . (2) Turpentine. (4) Carbon-tetrachloride. (4) A mixture of benzole and alcohol. (3) Benzole. Tar. (3) Carbon-tetrachloride. most of the body is acid. can be removed by the following: (1) Turpentine. then wash in hot soapsuds. hang in the sun. which color can sometimes be While the perspiration from restored. Perspiration often changes the color of a fabric. use a is acid or weak alkali to neutralize it according to the source. followed by washing in soap and hot water. To remove goods (1 perspiration stains from white (2) Soap and water.) : RENOVATING NOTES Turpentine Sponge the stains with turpentine and rinse with turpentine.

distributing it unevenly and. Some dyes are made just for woolen and some just for cotton or linen. DYEING MATERIALS How about the streaked and faded dresses and dresses of an unbecoming color ? Do you know how to dye them ? There is something so satisfactory in turning the dingy fabrics into smart new shades or subduing the glaring color of a dress that you simply can't wear. rings remain. or steam it thoroughly. The water probably dissolves some of the dressing. The only satisfactory method for removing such spots is to dampen the entire garment and press while damp. Other dyes are good for either an [110] .COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING borax solution. on evaporating.A . Here are some helps that will save you time and help you to always have good results. Be Sure the Dye Suits the Goods: Not all dyes are alike. (2) Strong soap solution. (4) Javelle water. then rinse in boiling water. Boil the stain (3) Lemon juice and sunlight. in this solution. Water spots some materials.

silk linen. Don't skimp your dye if you want a dark shade. Wash the Garment Before Dyeing: The garment or material must be washed well Weigh your goods. Make sure you the texture of your material is. Read the label on the package of dye and see if the dye is suited to your goods. Wring out the garment and put it into the dye pot while it is wet. be room also to stir the goods around and lift it up and spread it around. water. See Testing Materials page 78. It is a good plan to put water into the container and the material in.RENOVATING NOTES animal or cotton texture. cotton. rinse in clear water. may before it is dyed. Any pot. The Container: Use a large container. not be enough. the dye is apt to settle into them and they will show after the garment Wash the garment with soap and is dyed. pan or wash boiler will do that is not galvanized. or whether it is a mixture. [1111 You need two . If there are spots of dirt on the material. and see if it is sufficiently large so that the material There must is well covered with the water. One package of dye Read the directions on the package and make sure. know what 01 Determine whether it is all wool.

After you have tested the size of the container. wring out the garment or sticks to material. Dissolve the Dye Before Putting in the Material: Put water enough in the [112] .A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING lift and stir the goods while it is being dyed.

Wash the goods thoroughly after taking it out of the dye pot. the dye. the better. [113] . Stir the it pulling Goods Looks Lighter After it is Dried: Remember that the goods will dry very much lighter than it looks in the pot. Keep rinsing until the water runs clear. and there are no particles in it. and spreading it out. and will settle in spots before you can submerge the whole garment. which probably will be when the water starts to steam. Woolens. If the fluid appears a clear color. the dye is dissolved. lifting it up and Do apart. If the dye is boiling. There is danger of the goods spotting if the dye is not dissolved when the material is put in. You can tell if all of the dye is dissolved by taking a spoonful of it up and letting the fluid run off the spoon gradually. goods continually. The cooler the dye is. and heat the water until it is lukewarm.RENOVATING NOTES container to well cover the goods. it attaches itself quickly to the material. cottons and linens ought to be washed with soap and water. Wash silk in clear water. Then stir in Keep stirring until it is all dissolved. Put the goods in wet. not cram the goods down into the bottom of the dye pot.

Always press woolens from the wrong side or. A hot iron rots it. factory for light shades. If you try to dye it a the streaks will different probably show. if you are pressing from the right side. There are many good cold water dyes and [114] . boil the material in soapy water. and is satis- especially good for tinting silks. Press silk with a lukewarm iron. Cold Water Dyeing: This means colorIt is ing without the boiling process. If the goods turns darker than you anticipated you can out lighten it by washing it in a strong suds made of yellow laundry soap. using yellow soap.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Pressing Before the Goods is Dry: Don't let the wrinkles dry in the garment. of its Streaked: The best results if you dye it a darker shade color. If this does not give the desired result. To Lighten the Shade: Matching Shades: possible to It is practically im- dye goods to exactly match a shade of another piece of goods. cover the material with a damp cloth. If will Goods is be obtained original color. Press them off while they are quite damp. materials that Dye all you want to match at one time.

Choosing the Color: The original color of the goods influences the new color. For instance. you can use it as you would bluing in the rinse water. The result would be purple. You can't dye a piece of goods a lighter shade of any color. it is impossible to dye navy blue a medium or light shade of red. or you can use the regular dye.RENOVATING NOTES soaps on the market. Here is a little chart of colors that will [115] tell . as blue and red combined make a purple. If you dissolve a quantity of the regular dye in a small quantity of water and bottle it.

Red dye on taupe goods gives a darker red.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING you just what to expect when you are dyeing over an old shade: Red dye on yellow material gives scarlet. Red dye on brown henna. Blue dye on green goods gives bottle green. Red dye on gray gives a dull red. Red dye on an orange bright red. Light blue dye on light yellow gives Nile green. Blue dye on yellow goods gives green. purple material gives a reddish Red dye on green goods gives brown. Pink dye on light yellow material gives shell pink. material gives a light Pink dye on an orange material gives a ccral pink. blue material gives lavender. material gives a red Red dye on dark Pink dye on light blue material gives purple. Red dye on purple. [116] . Blue dye on orange goods gives greenish blue. Blue dye on purple goods gives a bluish purple. Blue dye on brown goods gives dull blue.

Green dye on purple material gives dull dark green. Yellow dye on purple goods gives greenish brown. If you mix red and yellow dye. gives olive green. using yellow dye on red goods produces scarlet. I mean dye- [1171 . Natural silks such as pongee will not take a jet black. dye white goods scarlet. They take an unattractive blue it will black. Overdyeing: By overdyeing. gives tobacco Brown dye on purple goods brown. Brown dye on orange goods brown. that is.RENOVATING NOTES Yellow dye on brown goods gives golden brown. gives chocolate Brown dye on green goods reddish brown. light Orange dye on purple goods gives Orange dye on green material gives myrtle green. too. It is wise not to attempt to dye them black. Yellow dye on green goods gives bright green. and so on down the table. The same result holds true if you reverse the colors above. It will give you the key to mixing colors. etc.

You know when you mix complementary colors in equal proportions and in their brightest shades. light green. In order to counteract this. it produces black. Dark brown black. These are a few of the Black will cover safe choices you may make any color. For instance. the original color of the goods will influence the kind of black that you produce. Light blue. Orange will cover only very pale shades or white. If Bleaching: you want to remove the [118] . will cover any medium or light Garnet will cover any medium shade except navy blue.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING ing over an old shade. if you dye red material black. add the complementary color to the black dye. will cover any color except Dark green shade. : Navy blue will cover almost any shade except black. Gray will cover only white. In this case. it would mean adding green to the red dye. you are apt to get a rusty black. Purple will cover only light shades. However. pink or yellow will only cover white or a very delicate shade.

Do not go into the closet until it is well aired. Rinse thoroughly and spread in the sun to dry. Woolen materials or silk can be bleached by sulphur fumes. that the sulphur fumes are poisonous. [119] . It must be remembered that this process will weaken the fiber of the material somewhat. Rinse thoroughly. Then add a teaspoonful of baking soda and teaspoonful of chloride of lime to a quart of boiling water. Remember in doing this. Then boil the material to remove any of the lime. try this plan: boil the goods for one hour in a solution of strong washing powder or sal soda. The sulphur candles sold for disinfecting will do. This can be done by hanging the material or garments in a closet and burning a sulphur candle under them.RENOVATING NOTES color in cotton or linen goods before dyeing them. Soak the material in this solution until the color is sufficiently removed.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING PART III EASY MAKE-OVERS Fig. (/2o) Contrasting bands make an old waist into an overblouse [1201 .

You really are not getting one hundred per Fig. wear out of your clothes! That doesn't mean fall to wear them till they apart whether they are in style or out. (121) Gingham collars and cuffs will freshen batiste blouse up a [121] .EASY MAKE-OVERS Get one hundred per cent.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING cent. no one really enjoys parading around in clothes that speak right up and Fig. unless you enjoy wearing them and they make you look your best. (122) The too-tight waist can be made larger with insets 11221 . Of course. out of your clothes.

See your clothes not as they are but as they ought to be. Making-over need not be a tedious process of ripping and pressing and turning and com- Fig. you don't have to wear that variety of clothes any more not if you are handy with the needle and use a little imagina- — tion. (/2j) front panel is an easy way of increasing the size of a lingerie waist A [123 1 .EASY MAKE-OVERS say "We made our appearance season before last!" But then.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING
pletely recutting. Touching-up successful way of making-over.
collar,
is

the most Just a new
will

a skirt panel or a

little

embroidery

Fig. (124)

A

V-neck can be made high

if

you add a bosom

[124]

EASY MAKE-OVERS
often change a nondescript garment into a smart one.

Here are a few suggestions that you may be able to apply to the clothes that have taken the back hooks in your closet.

Giving the
Tuck-in Blouse

an Over-theSkirt
Style:
If
left

you happen to have
a chiffon blouse

from the

time
chiffon

when

all

blouses sedately

tucked
inside

thetopof the skirt, add a band and

have an overblouse.
Fig. 120 gives the idea of how to do it. Cut off the lower edge of your

blouse until it hangs an equal
distance from the

nOOr

n

i|

i

all

tile

Way

Ftg. {725)

r

Pm tucked panels add a pretty
skirt larger

trimming as well as making a

[125

1

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING

Then add straight bands, front and back and fasten them with buttons at the sides. Or, just use snaps and sew on the butaround.
tons for trimming.

If you can't match the color of
your blouse in chiffon use a contrasting

shade.
navy blue
this case,

Perhaps
suit.

your blouse is tan and you have a
In

overbands

navy blue chiffon would be prettier than a matching
of
shade.

A

neck and
terial will

binding at the cuffs of

the contrasting maadd to the appearance of the

waist.

Gin^Uam for
Collar and Cuffs: The odds and ends
Fig. (126)
is

A

another

way

center-front tnset panel 0/ enlarging a skirt

,from

one

of

VOUr Summer ging-

[1261

Fig.EASY MAKE-OVERS ham frocks will give an old batiste blouse just the right high-collared touch. Checked gingham. flat Eton collar. {127) it Even if you have to add a yoke to the skirt wont show tj you wear it with an overblouse [127] . is especially nice for the Even pongee and round.

waists have the gingham The Blouse that is Tight: pleated inset of the blouse material at the side front is A Fig. {128) Inset bands are an easy lengthening a skirt way of [128] .A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING crepe de chine trimming.

{129) Lace side panels will make a nondescript silk frock smart [129] . Fig.EASY MAKE-OVERS a smart way of remending the too-tight blouse. A Fig. 122 shows a white crepe de chine that has pleated insets of striped crepe de bias of the striped crepe chine added.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING de chine cuffs. (/jo) Fabric flowers are one of the smart waist' line finishes (See Fig. is also used to bind the collar and fuller Another way of making a tight blouse across the front is to add a panel.) This method is especially good for remodelling a lingerie blouse of voile or batiste. Fig. Making a V-neck Round : You may have several V-neck wash blouses that you wish were high necks with [130] flat round collars . 123.

The joinings . It can easily be done. 124.) at the sides Pin-tucked panels way of making a small skirt larger. If your can is a white batiste. Besides giving style. (/Ji) A high waistline made'long that is. (See Fig. the answer add a bosom front and the collar of your heart's desire. the girls are wearing. you trimmings and bosom front of colored organdie. Well. all you know. gingham or dotted blouse make your swiss.EASY MAKE-OVERS Fig. the tucks make it possible to piece the is The Too-Tight Skirt: a practical panels as much as you [131] please.

[132] . white. Of course. Another way of enlarging a skirt is to (See Fig. tan or gray and use blue crepe de chine covered buttons at the center-front. (See Fig. you might make the Fig.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING will never 125. Such a style is good looking in 126.) cottons or silk. add a center-front inset panel. the waist of the dress ought to have a matching panel.in a blue crepe de chine.) show under the tucks. For instance. (132) waistline dress can be made straight hanging by adding an inset section A inset panel .

gathering it to the skirt Such a skirt can be worn with an overbelt. there is material enough in the hem If the skirt is too short to to lengthen it.) [133] . (See Fig.EASY MAKE-OVERS If a Skirt is Tight at the Waistline. raise and cut a little off the top provided of course. it — %• USS) Even the deep V-neck is collarless raise. 127. blouse. cut off the top and add a straight piece of lining at the top.

) This illustration shows an organdie dress lengthened with dotted swiss bands but the same idea can be used for other To Lengthen a [134] . {134) Oval and round necks are bound Skirt: add inset bands. 128. Fig.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING To Make a Skirt Narrower: Try on the skirt and pin out the surplice goods in the seams. Stitch along the pinned lines and cut off the extra goods. (See Fig.

Even fine serge or velour would look attractive with pleated chiffon insets. dress it up with over Binding or cording is Fig.) Waistlines are Important: waistline finish will take [135] all The wrong the style out of a . You can make a plain little frock into an elaborate afternoon or evening costume with just a yard and a half of lace divided and made into panels for the sides of the dress. (See Fig. {135) the best finish for a square neck panels of thread lace. Overpanels Offer Possibilities: If you have a plain silk slip. tucked organdie bands.EASY MAKE-OVERS Gingham might be lengthened with material. Crepe de chine could be lengthened with pleated chiffon bands. 129.

when the dress is unadorned then waistlines go in for all sorts of frivolities. However. One of the favorite fancy waistlines h made dress. is fancy then the waistline demands nothing more elaborate than a narrow material sash or a narrow ribbon girdle.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Waistlines must be loose and long. {136) silk sleeve Cut off the tight and add a thread lace jr ill [1361 . If the dress Fig.

{137) A chiffon puff is stylish for a silk or velvet frock [137] . (See Fig.) Fagot a piece to the lower edge of a blouse to give the new long-waisted look. It is a finish that may be safely copied in cotton or silk. These are of goods the same as the dress. (See Fig. 130.) Fig.EASY MAKE-OVERS of a series of material flowers. 131.

Fashion is designing on straighter. 132 it a straight hanging appearance. add a straight section at the waistline. Fig. lines.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Making a Waistline Dress Straight Avoid the pinched in waisty look. bulkier If you have a normal waistline dress. {138) add style to Slashed sleeves will a cloth frock 138] . shows a cloth dress that has been treated in Hanging: this way. to give Fig.

EASY MAKE-OVERS &&• The dress that is worn under the ( J39) arms can be converted into a sleeveless dress [139] - .

(140) Try adding a crepe silk top to the cloth dress that is tight through the upper part [140] .A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Fig.

EASY MAKE-OVERS Fig. {141) New sides of contrasting material will also help out the too-tight dress [141] .

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Fig. {142) A suit can easily be changed into a coat dress [142] .

{143) skirt and coat suit can be made into a coat and dress suit by attaching the skirt to a silk overblousc A [143] .EASY MAKE-OVERS Fig.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Fig. (144) The three-piece suit with the jacket on [144] .

To accomplish such a it your waist an even distance from the floor around. {145} A little girVs dress can be lengthened with a scalloped band [145] .EASY MAKE-OVERS The inset section is pleated chiffon in a result. rip matching shade. Try on the waist way Fig. Lap the lower edge of all the the waist over the pleated section and stitch off and and cut skirt at the waist line.

it will add to the of the dress. lapping it over the pleated section. If Fig. {146) Fagotting is another way of letting down a frock [146] .A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING along the edge of the cloth. make a narrow style you have material enough to material sash. Cut off the top [of the skirt and join it to the bottom of the pleated section. If you are short of goods.

(147) Try lattice work for letting down a silk or cloth frock [147] . There really aren't any you know. There is the question of collars. adds style these days. round F*&. Dresses are Collarless: Just eliminating trimming from an old dress.EASY MAKE-OVERS wear the dress with a fancy metal or composition girdle. V-necks.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Fig. (148) The tight dress will often arid work over into a trimming for an overblouse skirt [1481 .

bateau necks and square necks have taken to bindings.) Just a bias fold of goods will add more style than an elaborate and expensive collar. 134. 135. {149) maris worn shirt makes a nice frock for Miss Three-Year-Old A [149] .EASY MAKE-OVERS neck. 133. Fig. (See Figs.

cloth frock. your Almost any suit can [150] . 140 shows a twill dress that is remodelled with canton crepe body part. bands of the twill being used to trim the waist. convert suit into a dress. and add a frill of lace or a puff of chiffon.) to add side sections. make a sleeveless dress of it. is a suit too Making a Suit into a Dress: If you have many and are a dress short. as well as making it large enough for comfort. cut it off cap length. 136 and 137). slashed at the back and gathered into a narrow band cuff. 141. too. will be the smarter having a long sleeve. Here paisley silk in straight side sections gives an old crepe silk an up-to-date style. (See Figs. 138.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Sleeves are Fancy: If you have a silk frock with a long tight sleeve. Fig.) Your for If Your Dress Is Worn Under the Arms. 139. Fig.) (See For the Dress with Tight Waist. add a long-waisted upper portion and use the old waist for trimming. Another way of making a tight waist larger (See Fig. (See Fig. This gives an opportunity to cut the armhole low.

Making Your Old Suit Three-piece: Any coat and skirt suit can be made into the so-called three-piece coat and dress suit by adding a silk top to the skirt. 144 shows the three-piece suit. Fig. worn with the jacket. 142. (See Fig.) It is considered quite smart to have the blouse part of the dress and the lining of the coat match. Cut away the front of the coat to give a panel front effect and fit the sleeves. either. The skirt will probably do just as it is. [151] . royal blue or henna. Canton crepe is a very good silk to use for the upper part of the dress. Wear the dress with a lingerie blouse or vest. 143.EASY MAKE-OVERS be made It isn't into a dress similar to Fig. Often. necessary to rip the suit completely apart. too. they are contrasting color to the suit material. It is just a matter of attaching the top of the skirt to the bottom of an overblouse. A black or dark blue twill or velour suit might have a waist and coat lining of gray beige. The material that is cut off the top of the skirt can be used for band trimming on the upper.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING

Lengthening a Little Girl's Dress: Organdie and other light cotton stuffs can be lengthened with a double scalloped fold of
fine

net.

(See
it

Fig.

145.)

And

silk

frocks

can be lengthened by splitting the material

and fagotting
letting

together.

(See Fig. 146.)

Lattice-work trimming is another down Mary's frock whether it cotton or silk. (Fig. 147.)

way
is

of

cloth,

If the dress is tight as well as short, use the waist for trimming and join the skirt to an underbody. It can be worn with a blouse, trimmed with the skirt material. (See Fig.
148.)

A

Child's Frock

from a Man's
little

Those

shirts that are frayed at the

Shirt: neck and

cuffs will
shirt for

make

perfectly good

frocks for

Miss Three-year-old.

Use the back of the the front of the dress and the fronts
(See

of the shirt for the backs of the dress.
Fig. 149).

These make-over problems are a good review for some of the things you studied in the other eleven lessons. Even if you haven't clothes to make over, see if you can copy all the make-over styles shown.

Study the lessons

in their consecutive order.

[152]

.

INDEX
Lesson

Afternoon Clothes Applied Shirrings Appliqued Flowers

Aprons
Aprons, Bungalow (see Bungalow) Aprons, Child's Aprons, Cutting of Aprons, Pocket Aprons, Slip-on Aprons, Strings Aprons, Waistband Aprons, Waistline

Arm Measure
Arrowhead Tack
Artificial Silk,

Testing of

B
Babies' Clothes

Back Measure
Back, One-Piece Back, Width of

Back and Yoke Banded Collar Bar Tack Basque Dress

in

One

Bath Robes Bertha Collar Bias Edge Bias Folds Binding Edges Blanket Bath Robe Blanket Stitch Bleaching Block Pattern

Bloomer Playsuit Bloomers

[153]

.

A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING
Lesson
Blouse Dress, Russian Bloused Dress Blouses
Blouses, Closings (see Closings) Blouses, Collars (see Collars) Blouses, Costume Blouses, Cuffs (see Cuffs) Blouses, Edges (see Edges) Blouses, Fitting of Blouses, Lingerie Blouses, Overblouse Blouses, Patterns Blouses, Revers Blouses, Sleeves (see Sleeves) Blouses, Sports' Blouses, Tailored Blouses, Trimmings (see Trimmings) Blouses, Types of Blouse, Boy's Buster Brown Blouse, Middy Blouse, Outing Shirt Blouse, Russian Blouse, Sailor Blouse, Smock Blouse, Tuck-in Blouse, Child's, with Buttoned-on Skirt Boat-Shaped Collar Boat-Shaped Neck Outline

Page
63

VI VI

70
23 25

IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV
VIII
VIII,

29 77
55 18 89 82
53
10,

IV IV IV IV IV IV IV XI XI XI XI

23

40
34> 65

79

24
8
1

5

17
11

28
23 14

XI XI XI
X.

26 77 25
18

Bosom Front Bosom Front, Men's
Box-Coat

VIII VIII VIII

Front, tucked

XII VII
IV, VIII

51 19

59

Box-Pleat Closing Boys' Clothing Boys' Blouse3 (see Blouses, Boys')... Boys' Coats Boys' Hats Boys' Middy Blouse Boys' Overalls Boys' Shirts
Boys' Smock Boys' Trousers (see Trousers) Boys' Underwear Braid and Tassel Trim

38,28
5 5 51,

XI XI
XI, VII

75

XI XI XI XI XI XI XI
VI, VII

57 17

73
11

14
33

Braiding
Brassieres Brassieres, Garter Supports Brassieres, Pattern

VI
Ill Ill

67 19,7 10
23

29
16, 24, 31

[154]

Fancy Children's Rompers Children's Shirred Overblouse Children's Trimmings (see Trimmings. Lapped Closings. Front (with revers) Closings. Infants' XI IX XI XII VII 54 57 60 64 62 71 X IX IX Ill Ill Ill Ill 125 47 14 Cat Stitch Chain Stitch Chemise. Child's) Children's Pleated Skirt. Sailor Cap. Measure Chest. 106 5 XI VI 16 XI 49 c Camisole. Crow Foot Button-on Trousers. Children's Capes. 28 31 Cleaning Closings. One-Sided VIII VIII IV VIII * 1 IV VIII 43 27 25 35 [155] . Block Pattern Bungalow Apron. Width of Children's Clothes Children's Aprons Children's Capes Children's Coats. 7 92 38. Making of Business Clothes Bust Measure Buster Brown Blouse Button. Lapped Center-Front Closings. Step in Chest. Envelope Chemise. Infants' Cap. Duchess Closings. Flounced Chemise. I 14 100. Fitting of Chest. Ribbon Cap. Sectional Capes Capes. Box Pleat Closings. Top Children's Dresses (see Dresses.INDEX Lesson Page 45 58 Bungalow Apron. Child's) Children's Underwear Circular Appliques Circular Drawers Circular Skirts n 33 IV I 50 46 90 107 100 1 VIII X X X VII 39 125 78 33 112 18 113 X X X X X X X Ill 4 125 15 58 V XII ITf. Boys' (see Hats. Boys') Ill Cap. Boys' II II I VIII.

Tab Coat. with Back Closing Collar. Cape of Infants' Coat. Bertha Collar. Capes Coat. Flaring Coat. Trimmings (see Trimmings. Lined Coat. of Long Waisted Dress Collar. Pattern for Coat. Fancy Collar. U-shaped Neck Collar. Boat-Shaped Collar. Box Coat. Lesson VIII VIII VII Page 31 XI VII ' 32 59 51.19 20 IV IV IV IV VI VI VIII 40 31 44 53 Color Tests VI XII XII 28 36 21 52 9 01 [156] . ^1 . Collar Coat. Shirt. Slot Seam Closings. Sleeve Coat. Semi-Fitting Coat. Wraps Collar. VII VII 47 54 26 48 80 41 13 69 27 4 88 91. Pockets (see Pockets) Coat. Lapel Coat. Pointed Neck Collar.75 71 83 VII VIII VIII VII VII VII 89 cc 79 60 41 41. of Waistline Dress » Collarband. Revers Collar. Infants' Coat. Unlined Coat. Sailor Collar. Finishing of Coat. Norfolk Coat. Top Coat. Banded Collar. 62 Coat) Coat. Round Flat Collar. 78. Men's Coat. of Straight-Hanging Dress Collar. Peplum Coat. Raglan Top Coat. Rolling Collar. Convertible Collar. Coat Collar. r. Boys' Coat. IX IX VIJ VII VII VIII VII VII VII VII XII VIII VIII.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Closings. Draping of Coat. Eton Coat. and Trousers Set Coat. VIII 42 52 VIII 29. Pattern for Collar. Men's Coat Shirt 3 XII VII VII IV VIII VIII VIII 34 26 66 48 23 25 83 IV IV VI IV. o.

Combination of Colors for Florid Complexions Colors for Gray-Haired Women Colors for Sallow Complexions Colors for Stout Women Commercial Patterns. French. Russian Bloused Choosing of Dance [157] . Finishing of Cuff. Insertion Basque Blouse. Turn Back for D Daisies . Men's Cuff. Turn Back Cuff. Boy's Drawn Work Dresses Dresses.. Deep Cuff. Waist. Dresses. Cording Costume Blouse Cotton. Dresses. Step-in Drawers. Dresses. Circular Drawers. Dresses. Envelope Drawers. Dance Frock Dart-Fitted Sleeves Deep Cuff Diaper Double Point Patch Pocket Draped Skirt Draping of Coat Draping of Fitted Lining Draping Skirts Drawers.INDEX Lesson Colors for Auburn-Haired Women Colors for Blondes Colors for Blondettes Colors. Use of Convertible Collar . Straight Plain Cuff. Testing of Couching Country Clothes Cozywrap Cross Stitching Cross-Stitching Edge Cuff.

Bias Edges. VI VI VI VI VI 58. Dresses. Dresses. Cross-Stitching Edges. Long Waisted Dresses. Russian Blouse Dresses. Dresses.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Lesson Dresses. Dresses. Running Embroidery. Dresses. Dresses. Embroidered Edges.22 34 85 Dress) Waistline Children's Bloomer Play-Suit 4 SO Blouse with Buttoned-on Skirt Guimpe Gymnasium Suit Middy with Pleated Party Raised Waistline Smock and Bloomers Straight-Hanging Skirt X X X X X X X X X X X IX XII VIII 74 77 66 103 94 105 117 54 Overblouse with Box-Pleated Skirt Dresses. Frilled Edges. Braid. Surplice Dresses. Button Embroidery. Binding Edges. Woven Edges. Straight Hanging with Back Closing Dresses. Dresses. Dresses. Bandings. Tape Edges. Dresses. Patterns Dresses. Pointed Edges. Whipping IV Ill 7 6 II II II 16 7 13 13 5 II II 10 II 15 IV IV IX Ill 20 8 8 Embroidered Edging Embroidery. Piping Edges. 22 9 Stitch VI IV VII [158] . Stitches 7 *4 18. Rickrack Edges. Trimmings (see Trimmings. Facing Edges. Page 42 22 63 VI VI VI VIII. Hem Edges. Finishing of Edges. Dresses. Dresses. Dresses. Straight-Hanging Dresses. 46 33 Yoke Infants' 43 18 Dry Cleaning Duchess Closing Dyeing 92 3i XII no 18 E Edges. Dresses.

Sewing Eton Jacket Etiquette.INDEX Lesson Page 14 33 68 Embroidery. Use of Feather Stitching Fibers Fitted Lining. Rolling Brim Hats. Appliqued French Cuff.13 52 18 15 Fashion Magazine.. Sailor Cap . Clothes IV Ill Ill I 109 55 5 VII I I Evening Clothes xo F Fabric Fruit Facing Edges Facing. IX IV I 75 8. Four Section Crown Hats. Hand) Hand Worked Loops Hang of Skirt Hats.4 Fur Trimming G Garter Supports Gathered Scallops Gertrude Petticoat Girdles Golf Clothes Ill IV IX VI I 29 10 3i 19 Gored Skirt V 7 15 Guimpe Dress Gymnasium Suit X X 66 103 H Hand Sewing (see Sewing. 89 7 Flaring Coat Flounced Chemise Flowers.. Neck Fagotting Fancy Collar X II 13 13 VI VI. One-Piece Cap Hats. I 93 IV 22 58 63 57 61 V XI XI XI XI 64 [1. Boys'. Fitting Fitting Lining IX XII VIII 81 3 Draping of IV VIII VII ^ .59] . VIII VI.43 17. Wool Envelope Chemise Envelope Drawers Equipment.. VII 20 43 83. Men's 60 50 12 12 IX Ill Ill XII French Knots Frilled Edge Front Closing (Revers) Fullness IX IV IV IV.

Tucked VI 4 J Jacket. Drawn Work Insets. IX IV VII XII Hand Worked IV VI VI IV 21 10 72 26 80 82 53 42 22 [160] . Boy's 36 54 33 XI VII Knotted Braid 12 L Lace Tabs Lace Trimming Lapel. II VIII 108. VII 3 60 47 41 53 17 49 36 31 18 16 7 6. Shirred I. of Infants' Cape I Infants' Clothes Infants' Cap Infants' Cape Infants' Coats Infants' Cozywrap Infants' Diaper Infants' Hood Infant's Kimono Infants' Petticoat Infants' Dress Insertion.9 A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Lesson Page 5 Hem Hip Measure Hip Yoke Skirt Honeycomb Smocking Hood. Infants' IX II Kimono Sleeve Knickerbockers. Peak Lapped Center-Front Closing Ill Ill 15 3 VII 54 25 IV VIII Lapped Closing Lattice Work Stitch VI 27 7 3 Layette Layout. Testing of Lingerie Blouse Lining of Waistline Dress Long-Waisted Dress Loops. Definition of IX II Lazy Daisy Lengthening Sleeve Lined Coats Linen. Insets. 101 V IV IX 28 11 49 IX IX IX IX IX IX IX IX IX IX IV VI VI. Pleated Insets. Eton VII 55 K Kimono.

U-Shaped Neck. Wide Machine Quilter Machine Ruffler Machine Tucker Machine. Use of Making Over Materials. Pointed Neck. VNeckties • Nightgowns Nightgowns. Testing of Middy Blouse Middy with Pleated Skirt Mourning Clothes N Narrowing Sleeve Neck Facing Neck Measure Neck Outlines. Child's [ 161] . Boat-Shaped Neck Outlines. Sewing Magazines.INDEX M Lesson Machine Attachments (Sewing) Machine Binder Machine Cording Foot Machine Edge Stitcher Machine Hemmer Machine. Testing of Measurements. Size of Neck. Pointed Neck Outlines. Hemmer. Bath Robes Men's Caps Men's Neckties Men's Nightshirts Men's Overalls Men's Pajamas Men's Shirts Men's Smoking Jacket Men's Underwear Men's Union Suit Mercerized Cotton. Square Neck Outlines. Taking of Medallions Men's Clothing. Round Neck Outlines. Dyeing Materials.

Drawers (see Drawers) X Ill 44 21. Chemise. Brassieres Patterns. Men's Overblouse. Cape. Child's with Skirt VIII 9 XI VIII 57 35 11 9 XI IX V XI XII 49 73 59 23 XI Box-Pleated Overblouse. Patch Pockets. Patch Pockets. Back. Patch Pockets. Closings (see Closings) Patterns.19 60 53 55 58 IX IV Ill [162] . Yoke Nightshirt. Patch Pockets. Collars (see Collars) Patterns. Bloomers Patterns. Changing Size of Patterns. Coats. Cuffs (see Cuffs) Patterns. Ill XII VII o One-Piece Back One-Piece Cap. IV IX VIII IV. IV Ill Ill 69 10. Boy's One-Sided Closing Outing Shirt. Shirred Overblouse. Camisole Patterns. Ladies' X X VIII 105 "3 53 P Pajamas Party Dress Patch Pockets Patch Pockets. VIII II 27. Infants' Patterns.23 16 IX VIII Ill 54 47 78 33 VIII. Infants' Patterns. XII X VII Double Point Pointed Pointed Outline Scalloped Top Square 27 117 13 V V V V V V II. Boy's Overalls. Commercial Use of Patterns. Coats (see Coats) Patterns.A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Lesson Page 76 22 48 Nightgowns. . 43 42 50 4i Tab Patterns. Boy's Overblouse. Boy's Outline Stitch Oval Patch Pockets Overalls. Aprons (see Aprons) Patterns.39 9 VIII VIII. Coat . Cozywrap Patterns.25 80 4i 29. Patch Pockets. Blouses Patterns. Envelope Patterns. Men's Norfolk. One-Piece Patterns.

Child's Fancy Pockets Pockets.58 18 Vi. Pockets. VIII VIII. Size. Pockets. Pockets. Sleeves (see Sleeves) Patterns. Linings Patterns. Waistband Patterns. Nightgowns gowns ) (see NightIll Ill. Gertrude VIII VII X VII Ill X IX VII II 7. Testing of Patterns. Pockets (see Pockets and Patch Pockets) Patterns^ Revers Patterns. V VI VI 85. Pockets.3i 4i V IV VIII V. Pockets. Pockets. IV II 40 98 VIII II Peak Lapel Peg Top Rompers Peplum Coat Petticoats Petticoats. Infant's Cape Patterns. Addition of Pleated Insets Pleats. Edges (see Edges) Patterns. Kimono. Pockets.96 62. VII 50 42 Square Patch Tab Patch Tabs and Pockets in One V V V 53. Neck Outlines (see Neck Outlines) Page 22. Infant's Patterns. Dresses (see Dresses) Patterns. Pockets.INDEX Lesson Patterns. Strings Patterns.14 4i 44 52 [163] . Tucks Patterns. Skirts (see Skirts) Patterns. Yokes IX 77. X VII II 63 112 13 Apron Double Point Patch Oval Patch Patch Pointed Outline Patch Pointed Patch Scalloped Slashed 26 43 49 13 V V VII Top V V V V.74 7 11 V Pleated Skirt. Neck Patterns. 73 Patterns. Organ Pleated Skirt V IV. Petticoats Patterns. Pockets. Hood. Pockets. VIII IV IX IX VIII 49 36 IV VIII 7 25 13 Patterns.65 24 45 24 4i 54 29 4i 77 131 3i 12 10 19 Pin Tucks Piping Placket Pleat. Child's Petticoats.

Lesson .

Skirts. Types of Wrapped Armhole Bloused Dress Coat Dart-Fitted Infants' Dress . Basting Sewing. Sleeves. Skirts. Testing of Skirts. Draped Draping of Gored Hip Yoke V V 96. Skirts. Sleeves. Skirts.15 28 63 Skirts. Shirts. Tucked Bosom Shirtwaists (see Blouses) Shortening Sleeve Shoulder Silk. Men's Semi-Fitting Coat I Page 10 104 62 I XII VII I I Sewing Equipment Sewing. Back Stitch Sewing. Pleated Pockets (see Pockets) Skirts. VII X VI VI 6. Sleeves. Blind Stitching Sewing. Outing Shirts. Child's Shirring Shirring Applied Shirts. Hand-Felling Sewing. Circular Skirts. Shirts.9 113 11 15 11 XI XII XII XII XII XII Men's Collarband French Cuff Outing 4 9 12 14 19 Shirts. VII VIII 53. Two Piece VIII. Overcasting Sewing. Skirts. Sleeves. Slot Sectional Caps. VIII. Sleeves. 72 99.14 73 75 88 7i VIII VIII IX II Kimono Lengthening IV 24 54 72 [165] .89 79 7 96 92 Skirts. Shirts. V V V V V V VI 4i 58 20 1 32 Slashed Pockets Sleeves. Boy's.1 INDEX Lesson Seams. Lap Felled Seams. Running Stitch Sewing Machine Attachments (see Machine Attachments Sheer Materials Shirred Insets Shirred Overblouse. IV IV XII V VIII VIII VIII. Regulating Hang of Skirts. Sleeves. V. 27 109 93 I I I I I i 89 90 94 92 88 77 88 IV VI.

46 64 7 14 12 15 Blanket Cat Cross Feather Lazy Daisy Machine Outline IX IX IX IX IX ^ 10 11 9 VI IX VI VI. Page 73 68 69. Raglan Sleeves. 65. Armholes Sleeves. Stroked X XI IV IV XII IV I 46 14 11 13 Smoking Jacket Blouse Clothes Square Neck Outline Square Patch Pockets Sports' Sports' Stains. Waistline Dress Sleeves. I I I 46 35 23 I I I I 24 32 40 43 Thin Women [166] . Honeycomb Smocking. Patterns for Sleeves. 72 62. Stitching. Shortening Sleeves. Stitching. Apron 34 22.A COMPLETE COURSE Sleeves. Widening IN DRESSMAKING Lesson VIII VIII VIII. 34 IV IV IV IV IV VI VI IV II 73 VIII Slot Slip-On Apron Seam Closing 67 72 29 76 54 72 32 31 VIII Smock and Bloomer Dress Smock. Sewing In Sleeves. Straight-Hanging Dress Sleeves. 53 79 5 VIII 15 V XII Ill Ill Removal of 41 95 Step-in Chemise Step-in Drawers Stitching. VIII Straight-Hanging Dress with Back Closing Straight-Hanging Dress Straight Trousers. Boys' Street Clothes Strings. Stitching. Boys' Smocking. Stitching. 58 XI I 42 11 II 24 13 1 Stroked Smocking Style Styles Styles Styles Styles Styles Styles Styles IV I for for for for for for for Older Short Slim Girls Stout Girls Stout Women Tall Women Women Women . Stitching. Narrowing Sleeves. Making of Sleeves. Two-Piece Sleeves. Stitching.

Bar Tacks. Shirred Insets Trimmings.86 91. Coat Trimmings. Bar Tack Trimmings.. Circular Appliques Trimmings. Tailors' Tacks Trimmings. Scallops Trimmings. (see Embroidery) ~ Trimmings. Knitted Braid Trimmings. VI VI. Embroidery Trimmings. Insertions Trimmings.i6 l6 3 > Tacks Tailored Blouse Tassels Tassel and Braid Tennis Clothes Testing Materials IV VII 24 6 19 6 Vt I XII VIII. VII 4 3 3. Blouse Trimmings. Arrowhead Tacks Trimmings. Lace Tacks. Surplice Dress VI T Closing Tabs. Arrowhead Tacks. Daisy Trimmings. Button Trimmings. Loops Trimmings. Braiding Trimmings. Rosette Trimmings. Bias Folds Trimmings. Pin Tucks Trimmings. Ribbon Trimmings. Tailors' Tailors' Tab VIII Ill 32 *5 VII VII VII. Children's Trimmings. I . INDEX Lesson Styles for Page 28 85 Young Women t. Dress Trimmings.62 12 IV IV IV IV IV IV 1 + 16 22 IO II X X X X X X VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII 4 15 11 13 4-10 12 3 4 3 13 9 4 12 12 6 9 3 6 VI VI VI VI 4 10 16 15 [167] . Fur Trimmings. Smocking (see Smocking) Trimmings. Edges (see Edges) Trimmings. Rose Trimmings. Fabric Fruit Trimmings. Cording 78. . Tassels Trimmings. VII I Top Coat Traveling Clothes Trimmings..

Tailors' Tacks Trimmings. . Lattice Work Trimmings. Fagotting Trimmings. Infants' Trimmings. Embroidered Edging Trimmings. Boys' Underwear: Children's Underwear. Machine Stitching Trimmings. Allowing for Tucks. Fur Trimmings. Boys' Button-on Trousers. Insets Trimmings. Stitching (see Stitching) Trimmings.. Lace Trousers. Quilling Trimmings. Pin XI VIII VII 26 45 12 55 Tunic Turn-Back Cuff Two-Piece Skirts VI IV VIII. Chain Stitch Trimmings. Girdles Trimmings. Underwear Trimmings. Lace Trimmings. Children's Nightgown . Straight VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI IX . Underwear. Tabs. Couching Trimmings. Children's Underwaist . Knickerbockers Trousers. Tassel and Braid Trimmings. Shirring Trimmings. . A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING Lesson Page 10 14 8 Trimmings... Tucked Insets Trimmings. 17 19 4-7 7 11 14 11 16 19 4 5 IX Ill Ill Ill Ill Ill Ill Ill Ill Ill 7 3 12 11 7 3 5 9 14 15 XI XI XI XII 49 33 42 19 Tucked Bosom Shirt Tuck-in Sailor Blouse. [168] . Rose Trimmings. Medallion Trimmings.. Appliqued Flowers Trimmings. Scalloped Trimmings. Children's Gertrude coat VIII Petti- Underwear. V 60 20 u U-Shaped Neck Collar U-Shaped Neck Outline Underwear. Embroidery (see Embroidery) Trimmings. Boys' Tucks.

Testing of Shirt. Sloping of Welt Pockets Whipping Edges Widening Sleeve Wool Embroidery Work Wrap Wool. • Yokes .INDEX Lesson Underwear. Long Waistline Waistline Apron Waistline Dress Waistline Tunic Waistline. Testing Yoke Dress of. Men's Skirt Wrapped Y Yarns. Boys' Unlined Coats V V-Neck Vest Front W Waist. Boys' Drawers Waist Measure Waistband Waisted Dress. Men's Underwaist Union Suit Union Suit.

* I*? 86 * .

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